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Effects of calcium and magnesium on strontium distribution coefficients  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The effects of calcium and magnesium on the distribution of strontium between a surficial sediment and simulated wastewater solutions were measured as part of an investigation to determine strontium transport properties of surficial sediment at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Idaho. The investigation was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey and Idaho State University, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy. Batch experimental techniques were used to determine strontium linear sorption isotherms and distribution coefficients (K(d)'s) using simulated wastewater solutions prepared at pH 8.0??0.1 with variable concentrations of calcium and magnesium. Strontium linear sorption isotherm K(d)'s ranged from 12??1 to 85??3 ml/g, increasing as the concentration of calcium and magnesium decreased. The concentration of sorbed strontium and the percentage of strontium retained by the sediment were correlated to aqueous concentrations of strontium, calcium, and magnesium. The effect of these cation concentrations on strontium sorption was quantified using multivariate least-squares regression techniques. Analysis of data from these experiments indicates that increased concentrations of calcium and magnesium in wastewater discharged to waste disposal ponds at the INEL increases the availability of strontium for transport beneath the ponds by decreasing strontium sorption to the surficial sediment.

Bunde, R.L.; Rosentreter, J.J.; Liszewski, M.J.; Hemming, C.H.; Welhan, J.



Automatic photometric titrations of calcium and magnesium in carbonate rocks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Rapid nonsubjective methods have been developed for the determination of calcium and magnesium in carbonate rocks. From a single solution of the sample, calcium is titrated directly, and magnesium is titrated after a rapid removal of R2O3 and precipitation of calcium as the tungstate. A concentrated and a dilute solution of disodium ethylenediamine tetraacetate are used as titrants. The concentrated solution is added almost to the end point, then the weak solution is added in an automatic titrator to determine the end point precisely.

Shapiro, L.; Brannock, W.W.



Preparation of calcium- and magnesium-fortified potato starches with altered pasting properties.  


Calcium- and magnesium-fortified potato starches were prepared by immersion in various concentrations of CaCl2 and MgCl2 aqueous solutions, respectively. The pasting properties, i.e., peak viscosity and breakdown, of all the starches obtained above were analyzed using a Rapid Visco Analyzer. Furthermore, the gelatinization properties and in vitro digestibility of the representative calcium- and magnesium-fortified starches were tested. The maximum calcium content of the fortified potato starches was as high as 686 ppm with the addition of a high-concentration CaCl2 solution, while the calcium content of the control potato starch was 99 ppm. The magnesium content increased from 89 to 421 ppm by treatment of the potato starch with an MgCl2 solution. Markedly lower values of peak viscosity and breakdown were observed in calcium- and magnesium-fortified potato starches than in the control potato starch. However, the gelatinization temperature and enthalpy as well as resistant starch content of calcium- and magnesium-fortified potato starches were similar to those of the control potato starch. It is concluded that potato starches with altered pasting properties can be easily manufactured by the use of solutions containing high levels of calcium and magnesium. PMID:25225719

Noda, Takahiro; Takigawa, Shigenobu; Matsuura-Endo, Chie; Ishiguro, Koji; Nagasawa, Koichi; Jinno, Masahiro



The activation of sodium-plus-potassium ion-dependent adenosine triphosphatase from marine teleost gills by univalent cations.  

PubMed Central

The apparent affinity constants for the binding of Cs+, Rb+, K+, Li+, Tl+ and NH4+ to (Na+ + K+)-dependent adenosine triphosphatase from teleost gills were measured and the values discussed in terms of the ion-selectivity isotherm described by Eisenman & Krasne (1975) [in MTP International Review of Science: Biochemistry Series One (Fox, C.F., ed.), vol. 2, pp. 27--59, Butterworths University Park Press, Baltimore]. The ion selectivity of the present enzyme is remarkably similar to that from nerve and brain. PMID:141277

Bell, M V; Tondeur, F; Sargent, J R



Calcium and magnesium enhance the production of Pseudomonas aeruginosa protease IV, a corneal virulence factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of calcium and magnesium on protease IV production during the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was investigated. Strain PA103 was grown to stationary phase in medium containing various concentrations of either calcium or magnesium. Culture supernatants were concentrated, standardized relative to cell density, and the pyoverdine concentrations were measured. Overall extracellular protease activity and specific protease IV (lysine endoproteinase)

Mary E. Marquart; Joseph J. Dajcs; Armando R. Caballero; Brett A. Thibodeaux; Richard J. O’Callaghan



In vivo degradation of low temperature calcium and magnesium phosphate ceramics in a heterotopic model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bone replacement using synthetic and degradable materials is desirable in various clinical conditions. Most applied commercial materials are based on hydroxyapatite, which is not chemically degradable under physiological conditions. Here we report the effect of a long-term intramuscular implantation regime on the dissolution of various low temperature calcium and magnesium phosphate ceramics in vivo. The specimens were analysed by consecutive

Uwe Klammert; Anita Ignatius; Uwe Wolfram; Tobias Reuther; Uwe Gbureck



A field method for the determination of calcium and magnesium in limestone and dolomite  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The method is an adaptation of a procedure described by Betz and Noll1 in 1950. Calcium and magnesium are determined by visual titration using Versene (disodium ethylenediamine tetraacetate) with Murexide (ammonium purpurate) as the indicator for calcium and Eriochrome Black T as the indicator for magnesium.

Shapiro, Leonard; Brannock, Walter Wallace



Original article Effect of calcium and magnesium ions on the intestinal  

E-print Network

Original article Effect of calcium and magnesium ions on the intestinal absorption of oleic acid; The effect of Ca++ and Mg++ upon intestinal absorption of oleic acid was investigated using two in vitro synthesis in rat isolated intestinal loops or by the increase in triacylglycerols recovered from

Paris-Sud XI, Université de


Extraction of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, and magnesium from soils by an ion?exchange resin procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure for the simultaneous extraction of phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium from soils, by an ion?exchange resin procedure applicable to large?scale advisory soil testing, is described. The important steps are the disaggregation of soil by shaking in water during 15 minutes with a glass marble, the transference of the elements from the soil to a sodium bicarbonate treated mixture

B. van Raij; J. A. Quaggio; N. M. da Silva



Absorption of calcium and magnesium in patients with intestinal resections treated with medium chain fatty acids  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Steatorrhoea is associated with increased faecal loss of calcium and magnesium. Medium chain C8-C10 triglycerides (MCTs) improve fat absorption in patients with small bowel resections but the effects on intestinal absorption of divalent cations are not clear.?AIM—To assess the effect of dietary replacement of long chain triglycerides (LCTs) with MCTs on calcium and magnesium absorption in patients with small bowel resections.?PATIENTS—Nineteen adult patients with a remaining small intestine averaging 171 cm (range 50-300).?METHODS—In a crossover design, patients were randomised to two high fat diets (10 MJ/day, 50% as fat) for four days each separated by one day of washout. Diets were prepared in duplicate and were based on either LCT (LCT period) or equal quantities of LCT and MCT (L/MCT period). Metabolic balances were calculated during the last three days of each period.?RESULTS—Mean stool volume increased significantly with the L/MCT diet and was 336 ml more than that with the LCT diet (95% confidence interval of mean difference, 26-649 ml). There was no significant change in the net absorption of calcium and magnesium between the two diets. On average, percentage calcium absorption was 8.6% with the LCT diet and 12.5% with the L/MCT diet. Mean percentage magnesium absorption was 5.4% with the LCT diet and 2.9% with the L/MCT diet.?CONCLUSIONS—Dietary replacement of 50% long chain triglycerides with medium chain triglycerides in small bowel resected patients increased faecal volume significantly. No changes in the intestinal net absorption of calcium and magnesium were demonstrated.???Keywords: medium chain triglycerides; calcium absorption; magnesium absorption; intestinal resections; fat absorption PMID:10807894

Haderslev, K; Jeppesen, P; Mortensen, P; Staun, M



[Systemic cytomegalovirus infection: Changes in serum calcium and magnesium levels with foscarnet treatment].  


Cytomegalovirus infection is common in cardiac transplant patients. Foscarnet is used, with limited evidence, as second-line treatment after ganciclovir failure in these patients. We describe the case of a paediatric cardiac transplant patient who developed electrolyte disturbances during foscarnet treatment for cytomegalovirus infection. The infection resolved after 6 weeks of treatment. Low ionized calcium and magnesium levels were observed during the drug infusion, which were treated with supplements. The serum levels reverted to normal after drug withdrawal. PMID:24785445

Marzal-Alfaro, M B; Manrique-Rodríguez, S; Alcaraz Romero, A; García San Prudencio, M; Fernández-Llamazares, C M



Factors modulating the pH at which calcium and magnesium phosphates precipitate from human urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The factors controlling the rate at which crystalline bacterial biofilms develop on indwelling bladder catheters are poorly understood. It is known that normally the pH of voided urine (pHv) is lower than the pH at which calcium and magnesium phosphates come out of urine solution (pHn). In patients who develop infections with urease producing bacteria, however, the pHv rises above

M. T. E. Suller; V. J. Anthony; S. Mathur; R. C. L. Feneley; J. Greenman; D. J. Stickler



Improved methods for reducing calcium and magnesium concentrations in tissue culture medium: Application to studies of lymphoblast proliferation in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  We have compared several methods for reducing calcium and magnesium concentrations in tissue culture medium, with the objective\\u000a of producing selective deficiency effects on the growth of mouse (L5178Y) and human (P1R) lymphoblasts. In experiments in\\u000a which calcium- and magnesium-“free” McCoy’s medium was supplemented with 15% horse or fetal calf serum, enough calcium and\\u000a magnesium was provided by serum to

James K. Brennan; James Mansky; Geraldine Roberts; Marshall A. Lichtman



Limited efficacy of calcium and magnesium in a porcine model of hydrofluoric acid ingestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  This investigation evaluated the effectiveness of calcium and magnesium in treating oral hydrofluoric acid (HF) poisoning.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The controlled laboratory investigation used anesthetized pigs. Subjects received HF via NG tube, titrated to abolish electrocardiographic\\u000a abnormalities. The untreated group received saline infusion. The treatment group received serial injections of calcium chloride\\u000a (CaCl2) and magnesium chloride (MgCl2). A third group received oral infusions

Jason A. Coffey; Kori L. Brewer; Robert Carroll; John Bradfield; William J. Meggs



Effects of dietary vitamin D on calcium and magnesium levels in mice with abnormal calcium metabolism  

SciTech Connect

In previous studies vitamin D has been used to induce cardiac calcium overload in laboratory animals. Interrelationships between calcium and magnesium metabolism are also documented. The authors have investigated the effect of varying vitamin D in the diet on calcium and magnesium levels in plasma, kidney and heart of DBA mice which exhibit genetic abnormalities in cardiac calcium metabolism. Weanling DBA mice were maintained for 28 days on an AIN-76 diet containing either 1,000 I.U. of vitamin D{sub 3} per kg of diet (control); 4,000 I.U. of vitamin D{sub 3} per kg of diet; or no vitamin D. When compared to controls, supplemented animals showed significantly higher plasma magnesium, kidney calcium and kidney magnesium levels; animals receiving the vitamin D-deficient diet exhibited increases in cardiac calcium levels. The authors results support previous findings that vitamin D deficiency increases cardiac calcium uptake and suggest a possible role of vitamin D in magnesium metabolism.

Spurlock, B.G.; West, W.L.; Knight, E.M. (Howard Univ., Washington, DC (United States))



Quality of 4-hourly ejaculates--levels of calcium and magnesium.  


A four-hourly ejaculation study was conducted in which eleven normal healthy subjects participated. Five of them discontinued after submitting three samples. One alone was present for submission at the end of 16 h (fifth ejaculate), which was his last submission. Physical exhaustion was the sole reason for all participants for their discontinuation from the study. The result showed a decrease in semen volume and sperm count from first to last ejaculate. The increase in motility was probably due to reduction in exposure time to sperm motility inhibitory factors. In general, total motile spermatozoa as well as actively motile spermatozoa progressively increased from first to last ejaculate at the cost of sluggish spermatozoa. A significant increase in seminal plasma calcium and magnesium was seen as well as a significant increase in magnesium inside the cell from the first to the fourth ejaculate. Considering the quality of semen, which was good in sperm count and excellent in motility, calcium and magnesium may be helpful in cleaning motility inhibitory factors of spermatozoa. PMID:22540387

Valsa, J; Skandhan, K P; Gusani, P H; Sahab Khan, P; Amith, S



Indirect Determination of Potassium Calcium and Magnesium in Blood Plasma by High Perf ormance Capillary Electrophoresis with UV2Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potassium sodium calcium and magnesium in blood plasma were separated by high performance capillary elect rop ho resis ( HPCE) in a buffer medium of p H 5. 5 , using tartaric acid as complexing agent . Imidazole was used as backgro und reagent in t he UV2detectio n. Various conditio ns fo r t he CE separation and UV2detection



Revised model of calcium and magnesium binding to the bacterial cell wall.  


Metals bind to the bacterial cell wall, yet the binding mechanisms and affinity constants are not fully understood. The cell wall of gram positive bacteria is characterized by a thick layer of peptidoglycan and anionic teichoic acids anchored in the cytoplasmic membrane as lipoteichoic acid or covalently bound to the cell wall as wall teichoic acid. The polyphosphate groups of teichoic acid provide one-half of the metal binding sites for calcium and magnesium, which contradicts previous reports that calcium binding is 100 % dependent on teichoic acid. The remaining binding sites are formed with the carboxyl units of peptidoglycan. In this work we report equilibrium association constants and total metal binding capacities for the interaction of calcium and magnesium ions with the bacterial cell wall. Metal binding is much stronger than previously reported. Curvature of Scatchard plots from the binding data and the resulting two regions of binding affinity suggest the presence of negative cooperative binding, which means that the binding affinity decreases as more ions become bound to the sample. For Ca(2+), Region I has a KA = (1.0 ± 0.2) × 10(6) M(-1) and Region II has a KA = (0.075 ± 0.058) × 10(6) M(-1). For Mg(2+), KA1 = (1.5 ± 0.1) × 10(6) and KA2 = (0.17 ± 0.10) × 10(6). A binding capacity (?) is reported for both regions. However, since binding is still occurring in Region II, the total binding capacity is denoted by ?2, which are 0.70 ± 0.04 and 0.67 ± 0.03 µmol/mg for Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) respectively. These data contradict the current paradigm of only a single metal affinity value that is constant over a range of concentrations. We also find that measurement of equilibrium binding constants is highly sample dependent. This suggests a role for diffusion of metals through heterogeneous cell wall fragments. As a result, we are able to reconcile many contradictory theories that describe binding affinity and the binding mode of divalent metal cations. PMID:25315444

Thomas, Kieth J; Rice, Charles V



In vivo degradation of low temperature calcium and magnesium phosphate ceramics in a heterotopic model.  


Bone replacement using synthetic and degradable materials is desirable in various clinical conditions. Most applied commercial materials are based on hydroxyapatite, which is not chemically degradable under physiological conditions. Here we report the effect of a long-term intramuscular implantation regime on the dissolution of various low temperature calcium and magnesium phosphate ceramics in vivo. The specimens were analysed by consecutive radiographs, micro-computed tomography scans, compressive strength testing, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry. After 15months in vivo, the investigated materials brushite (CaHPO(4)·2H(2)O), newberyite (MgHPO(4)·3H(2)O), struvite (MgNH(4)PO(4)·6H(2)O) and hydroxyapatite (Ca(9)(PO(4))(5)HPO(4)OH) showed significant differences regarding changes of their characteristics. Struvite presented the highest loss of mechanical performance (95%), followed by newberyite (67%) and brushite (41%). This was accompanied by both a distinct extent of cement dissolution as well as changes of the phase composition of the retrieved cement implants. While the secondary phosphate phases (brushite, newberyite, struvite) completely dissolved, re-precipitates of whitlockite and octacalcium phosphate were formed in either particulate or whisker-like morphology. Furthermore, for the first time the possibility of a macropore-free volume degradation mechanism of bioceramics was demonstrated. PMID:21658480

Klammert, Uwe; Ignatius, Anita; Wolfram, Uwe; Reuther, Tobias; Gbureck, Uwe



Effect of cold-setting calcium- and magnesium phosphate matrices on protein expression in osteoblastic cells.  


Bone loss due to accidents or tissue diseases requires replacement of the structure by either autografts, allografts, or artificial materials. Reactive cements, which are based on calcium phosphate chemistry, are commonly used in nonload bearing areas such as the craniofacial region. Some of these materials are resorbed by the host under physiological conditions and replaced by bone. The aim of this study was to test different calcium and magnesium cement composites in vitro for their use as bone substitution material. Phase composition of calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (Ca(9) (PO(4) )(5) HPO(4) OH), brushite (CaHPO(4) ·2H(2) O), and struvite (MgNH(4) PO(4) ·6H(2) O) specimens has been determined by means of X-ray diffraction, and compressive strength was measured. Cell growth and activity of osteoblastic cells (MG 63) on the different surfaces was determined, and the expression of bone marker proteins was analyzed by western blotting. Cell activity normalized to cell number revealed higher activity of the osteoblasts on brushite and struvite when compared to hydroxyapatite and also the expression of osteoblastic marker proteins was highest on brushite scaffolds. While brushite sets under acidic conditions, formation of struvite occurs under physiological pH, similar to hydroxyapatite cements, providing the possibility of additional modifications with proteins or other active components. PMID:21210513

Ewald, Andrea; Helmschrott, Kerstin; Knebl, Georg; Mehrban, Nazia; Grover, Liam M; Gbureck, Uwe



Fully automated spectrophotometric procedure for simultaneous determination of calcium and magnesium in biodiesel.  


An easily performed stepwise injection (SWIA) procedure based on on-line dilution of biodiesel samples and the formation of color-forming calcium (II) and magnesium (II) complexes with Eriochrome Black T (EBT) in an organic medium followed by spectrophotometric determination is presented. A sample of biodiesel was placed at the bottom of a mixing chamber connected to an automatic SWIA manifold. Isopropyl alcohol was used as the diluent under bubbling. The solution was submitted for on-line spectrophotometric simultaneous determination of calcium and magnesium based on the classic least-square method. The linear ranges were from 2 to 20?gg(-1) and from 1.2 to 12?gg(-1), and the detection limits, calculated as 3s for a blank test (n=5), were found to be 0.6?gg(-1) for calcium and 0.4?gg(-1) for magnesium. The sample throughput was 30h(-1). The method was successfully applied to the analysis of biodiesel samples. PMID:25640136

Shishov, Andrey Y; Nikolaeva, Larisa S; Moskvin, Leonid N; Bulatov, Andrey V



Calcium and magnesium interference studies for the binding of heavy metal ions in solution by Medicago sativa (alfalfa)  

SciTech Connect

Previous batch laboratory experiments performed to determine the potential ability of seven different varieties of Medicago sativa (alfalfa) revealed that the African shoots population was able to efficiently bind copper(II) and nickel(II) from aqueous solutions. Batch laboratory interference studies were performed with various calcium and magnesium concentrations (0.1 mM to 1 M) in order to ascertain the effects of these ions on the heavy metal binding ability of African alfalfa shoots. Results from these studies have shown that calcium and magnesium did not seriously reduce the binding of copper(II) and lead(II) to African alfalfa shoots. However, high concentrations of calcium and magnesium significantly reduced chromium(III), cadmium(II), nickel(II), and zinc(II) binding to African shoots. In addition, all these experiments were repeated maintaining the ionic strength constant, and similar results were obtained. Interference studies were also conducted in order to determine the effects of hard cations under flow conditions with silica-immobilized African alfalfa shoots. The information obtained from these studies will be useful for an innovative method of heavy metal ion removal and recovery from contaminated waters.

Gardea-Torresdey, J.L.; Tiemann, K.J.; Gonzalez, J.H. [Univ. of Texas, El Paso, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Henning, J.A.; Townsend, M.S. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Dept. of Agronomy and Horticulture



Calcium and magnesium in exocrine secretion--an X-ray microanalytical study  

SciTech Connect

Calcium and magnesium distribution in mammalian exocrine glands under resting, stimulated and pathological conditions was investigated by X-ray microanalysis of thick and ultrathin cryosections. Ultrathin sections were cut from tissue frozen in the presence of a polymer cryoprotectant, dextran. The effect of this treatment on isolated rabbit pancreas. Dextran caused a disturbance in water and ion transport, partly due to an osmotic effect and the impermeability of the pancreatic epithelium to dextran; this does, however, not necessarily invalidate intracellular measurements on frozen-dried sections. Cholinergic stimulation of the rat pancreas caused a change of Ca distribution from the basal to the apical part of the cell; this may be a component of the secretory Ca flux. Kinetic considerations make a significant Ca movement via the ER-Golgi endomembrane space less likely. The mitochondrial Ca concentration is low, and not significantly changed by cholinergic stimulation. X-ray microanalysis was carried out on submandibular glands of rats after chronic treatment with reserpin and/or isoproterenol (an animal model for cystic fibrosis, CF). The acinar cells had elevated Mg and Ca and lowered K concentrations. Analysis of ultrathin cryosections showed high levels of Ca and Mg in secretory granules, mucus globules and the ER. Ca and Mg in the ER may be transported intracellularly with secretory proteins to secretion granules or mucus globules. The decrease in cell K may be due to efflux of K caused by elevated cytoplasmic Ca levels. A similar decrease in cell K was caused by incubation of rat salivary glands with diluted serum from CF patients, a treatment which has been reported to mimic the effect of a rise in cytoplasmic Ca.

Roomans, G.M.; Barnard, T.



Total calcium and magnesium determined in serum with an automated stopped-flow analyzer.  


We describe the measurement of total calcium and magnesium in serum with an automated microcomputer-controlled stopped-flow analyzer. The calcium method is based on the cresolphthalein complexone procedure, with 2-amino-3-methyl-1-propanol as the alkalinizing agent. The assay, performed on 60-fold prediluted samples, requires 50 microL of serum. Absorbance is measured at 580 nm for 1 s, after a 5-s delay. Response is linearly related to concentration up to 5 mmol/L; analytical recovery averaged 97.8%. Within-day CVs were 0.7 to 1.5%, day-to-day CVs 1.8 to 2.5%. Results compared well with those by continuous-flow Technicon SMA II method. A sample throughput of as many as 260 samples per hour is possible. The magnesium determination, a complexometric procedure, involves magnesium/calmagite complex in an alkaline reagent mixture and ethylene glycol bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid to eliminate calcium interference. Prediluted serum samples are used (100 microL of serum diluted 25-fold), and absorbance at 520 nm is linear with concentration to 50 mg/L. Within-run CVs were 0.5 to 1.1%, and day-to-day 1.3 to 3.8%; analytical recovery was 99.3%. Results compared well with those by atomic absorption spectrometry (r = 0.994). A delay time of 10 and a measurement time of 2.5 s allows for a throughput of as many as 180 samples per hour. PMID:7127745

Koupparis, M A; Diamandis, E P; Malmstadt, H V



Determination of potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium in total parenteral nutrition formulations by capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection.  


A simple method based on capillary electrophoresis with a capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector (CE-C(4)D) was developed for the determination of potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium in parenteral nutrition formulations. A hydro-organic mixture, consisting of 100 mM Tris-acetate buffer at pH 4.5 and acetonitrile (80:20, v/v), was selected as the background electrolyte. The applied voltage was 30 kV, and sample injection was performed in hydrodynamic mode. All analyses were carried out in a fused silica capillary with an internal diameter of 50 microm and a total length of 64.5 cm. Under these conditions, complete separation between all cations was achieved in less than 4 min. The CE-C(4)D method was validated, and trueness values between 98.6% and 101.8% were obtained with repeatability and intermediate precision values of 0.4-1.3% and 0.8-1.8%, respectively. Therefore, this method was found to be appropriate for controlling potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium in parenteral nutrition formulations and successfully applied in daily quality control at the Geneva University Hospitals. PMID:20172679

Nussbaumer, Susanne; Fleury-Souverain, Sandrine; Bouchoud, Lucie; Rudaz, Serge; Bonnabry, Pascal; Veuthey, Jean-Luc



Surface properties of calcium and magnesium oxide nanopowders grafted with unsaturated carboxylic acids studied with inverse gas chromatography.  


Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) was applied at infinite dilution to evaluate the surface properties of calcium and magnesium oxide nanoparticles and the effect of surface grafted unsaturated carboxylic acid on the nanopowder donor-acceptor characteristics. The dispersive components (?(s)(D)) of the free energy of the nanopowders were determined by Gray's method, whereas their tendency to undergo specific interactions was estimated based on the electron donor-acceptor approach presented by Papirer. The calcium and magnesium oxide nanoparticles exhibited high surface energies (79 mJ/m² and 74 mJ/m², respectively). Modification of nanopowders with unsaturated carboxylic acids decreased their specific adsorption energy. The lowest value of ?(s)(D) was determined for nanopowders grafted with undecylenic acid, approximately 55 mJ/m². The specific interactions were characterised by the molar free energy (?G(A)(SP)) and molar enthalpy (?H(A)(SP)) of adsorption as well as the donor and acceptor interaction parameters (K(A), K(D)). PMID:22907042

Maciejewska, Magdalena; Krzywania-Kaliszewska, Alicja; Zaborski, Marian



Chelatometric determination of calcium and magnesium in iron ores, slags, anorthosite, limestone, copper-nickel-lead-zinc ores and divers materials.  


Chelatometric methods for the determination of calcium and magnesium in iron ores, slags, anorthosite, copper-nickel-lead-zinc ores and various other materials are described. Potential interfering elements are masked with triethanolamine and potassium cyanide. In one aliquot calcium is titrated at pH > 12, with calcein and thymolphthalein mixed indicator and in another aliquot calcium and magnesium are titrated in ammonia buffer, with o-cresolphthalein complexone screened with Naphthol Green B as indicator. The results compare favourably with certified values for reference materials of diverse nature. PMID:18962661

Hitchen, A; Zechanowitsch, G




Microsoft Academic Search

The study assessed the effect of various forms of sulphur (Na 2 S 2 O 3 , elemental S and Na 2 SO 4 ) and nitrogen (UAN-30, NH 4 NO 3 ) on calcium and magnesium content and uptake in spring wheat and cocksfoot. A two-year pot experiment was conducted on soil material of clayey silt granulometric composition. Before

Marzena S. Brodowska; Adam Kaczor



Effects of lanthanum on calcium and magnesium contents and cytoplasmic streaming of internodal cells of Chara corallina.  


Biological and environmental effects of lanthanide series of elements have received much attention recently due to their wide applications. In this study, effects of La(3+) treatments on calcium and magnesium concentrations as well as cytoplasmic streaming of internodal cells of Chara corallina were investigated. At all treatment concentrations (10, 100, and 1,000 ?M), La(3+) significantly decreased calcium concentrations in the cell-wall fractions after 5-h treatments. Calcium concentrations in the cell contents and magnesium concentrations in the cell-wall fractions were reduced by 100 and 1,000 ?M La(3+) treatments. However, cytoplasmic streaming as an indicator of [Ca(2+)](cyt) was only inhibited at the highest La(3+) concentration (1,000 ?M). The results suggest that La(3+) may affect cellular calcium homeostasis by actions other than as a simple Ca(2+) antagonist. La(3+) could partially compensate for calcium deficiency at certain concentrations. PMID:20862562

Li, Zijie; Zhang, Zhiyong; Yu, Ming; Zhou, Yunlong; Zhao, Yuliang



TRPM7 is involved in angiotensin II induced cardiac fibrosis development by mediating calcium and magnesium influx.  


Cardiac fibrosis is involved in a lot of cardiovascular pathological processes. Cardiac fibrosis can block conduction, cause hypoxia, strengthen myocardial stiffness, create electrical heterogeneity, and hamper systolic ejection, which is associated with the development of arrhythmia, heart failure and sudden cardiac death. Besides the initial stimulating factors, the cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) are the principal responsible cells in the fibrogenesis cascade of events. TRPM7, a member of the TRPM (Melastatin) subfamily, is a non-selective cation channel, which permeates both Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). Here we demonstrated TRPM7 expression in CFs, and 2-APB (TRPM7 inhibitor), inhibited Ang II-induced CTGF, ?-SMA expression and CFs proliferation. Besides, knocking down TRPM7 by shRNA, we proved that TRPM7 mediated both calcium and magnesium changes in cardiac fibroblasts which contribute to fibrosis progress. This study suggested that TRPM7 should play a pivotal role in cardiac fibroblast functions associated to cardiac fibrosis development. PMID:24680379

Yu, Yang; Chen, Shaorui; Xiao, Chuyao; Jia, Yanyan; Guo, Jinlei; Jiang, Jianmin; Liu, Peiqing



Studying the effects of calcium and magnesium on size-distributed nitrate and ammonium with EQUISOLV II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A chemical equilibrium code was improved and used to show that calcium and magnesium have a large yet different effect on the aerosol size distribution in different regions of Los Angeles. In the code, a new technique of solving individual equilibrium equations was developed. The technique, the analytical equilibrium iteration (AEI) method, gives the same solutions (to at least 7 decimal places) as the previous technique used, the mass-flux iteration (MFI) method, but consumes 13-48 times less computer time. The model was also updated to include treatment of potassium, calcium, magnesium, and carbonate. Previously, it treated only nitrate, ammonium, chloride, sulfate, and sodium. Predictions from the updated code, EQUISOLV II, were compared with data from an eight-stage Berner impactor at Long Beach, Claremont, and Riverside during the Southern California Air Quality Study. When any equilibrium solver is applied between the gas phase and multiple aerosol size bins, unique solutions are possible only when solids (e.g., NH 4NO 3) that form from two gas-phase species are absent. For this study, unique solutions were possible only when the relative humidity exceeded 62%, and only cases in this regime are discussed. Base-case predictions of nitrate and ammonium matched observations well in most size bins of every case. When Ca and Mg were removed from calculations, coarse-mode nitrate decreased at Long Beach, as expected, to maintain charge balance. At Riverside, removing Ca and Mg had the opposite effect, increasing coarse-mode nitrate, shifting it from the accumulation mode. The reason is explained in terms of mean mixed activity coefficients. At Claremont, the charge-balance and activity-coefficient effects nearly canceled each other.

Jacobson, Mark Z.


Serum calcium and magnesium levels in women presenting with pre-eclampsia and pregnancy-induced hypertension: a case¿control study in the Cape Coast metropolis, Ghana.  


BackgroundHypertensive disorders of pregnancy are important causes of morbidity and mortality. The levels of calcium (Ca2+) and magnesium (Mg2+) in pregnancy may implicate their possible role in pregnancy-induced hypertension. This study assessed serum Ca2+ and Mg2+ levels in women with PIH (pregnancy-induced hypertension) and PE (pre-eclampsia), compared to that in normal pregnancy.MethodsThis case¿control study was conducted on 380 pregnant women (¿20 weeks gestation) receiving antenatal care at three hospitals in the Cape Coast metropolis, Ghana. This comprised 120 women with PIH, 100 women with PE and 160 healthy, age-matched pregnant women (controls). Demographic, anthropometric, clinical and obstetric data were gathered using an interview-based questionnaire. Venous blood samples were drawn for the estimation of calcium and magnesium.ResultsSystolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were significantly raised in women with PIH (p¿=¿0.001) and PE (p¿=¿0.001). Women with hypertensive disorders (PE and PIH) had significantly lower serum calcium and magnesium levels than those in the control group (p¿<¿0.0001 each). Of those with PIH, SBP correlated positively with BMI (r¿=¿0.575, p¿<¿0.01) and Ca2+ correlated positively with Mg2+ (r¿=¿0.494, p¿<¿0.01). This was similar amongst the PE group for SBP and BMI as well as for Ca2+and Mg2+ but was not significant. Multivariate analysis showed that women aged ¿40 years were at a significant risk of developing PIH (OR¿=¿2.14, p¿=¿0.000).ConclusionIn this study population, serum calcium and magnesium levels are lower in PIH and PE than in normal pregnancy. Mineral supplementation during the antenatal period may influence significantly, the occurrence of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. PMID:25410280

Ephraim, Richard; Osakunor, Derick; Denkyira, Seth; Eshun, Henrietta; Amoah, Samuel; Anto, Enoch



Short term spatio-temporal variability of soil water-extractable calcium and magnesium after a low severity grassland fire in Lithuania.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fire has important impacts on soil nutrient spatio-temporal distribution (Outeiro et al., 2008). This impact depends on fire severity, topography of the burned area, type of soil and vegetation affected, and the meteorological conditions post-fire. Fire produces a complex mosaic of impacts in soil that can be extremely variable at small plot scale in the space and time. In order to assess and map such a heterogeneous distribution, the test of interpolation methods is fundamental to identify the best estimator and to have a better understanding of soil nutrients spatial distribution. The objective of this work is to identify the short-term spatial variability of water-extractable calcium and magnesium after a low severity grassland fire. The studied area is located near Vilnius (Lithuania) at 54° 42' N, 25° 08 E, 158 masl. Four days after the fire, it was designed in a burned area a plot with 400 m2 (20 x 20 m with 5 m space between sampling points). Twenty five samples from top soil (0-5 cm) were collected immediately after the fire (IAF), 2, 5, 7 and 9 months after the fire (a total of 125 in all sampling dates). The original data of water-extractable calcium and magnesium did not respected the Gaussian distribution, thus a neperian logarithm (ln) was applied in order to normalize data. Significant differences of water-extractable calcium and magnesium among sampling dates were carried out with the Anova One-way test using the ln data. In order to assess the spatial variability of water-extractable calcium and magnesium, we tested several interpolation methods as Ordinary Kriging (OK), Inverse Distance to a Weight (IDW) with the power of 1, 2, 3 and 4, Radial Basis Functions (RBF) - Inverse Multiquadratic (IMT), Multilog (MTG), Multiquadratic (MTQ) Natural Cubic Spline (NCS) and Thin Plate Spline (TPS) - and Local Polynomial (LP) with the power of 1 and 2. Interpolation tests were carried out with Ln data. The best interpolation method was assessed using the cross validation method. Cross-validation was obtained by taking each observation in turn out of the sample pool and estimating from the remaining ones. The errors produced (observed-predicted) are used to evaluate the performance of each method. With these data, the mean error (ME) and root mean square error (RMSE) were calculated. The best method was the one which had the lower RMSE (Pereira et al. in press). The results shown significant differences among sampling dates in the water-extractable calcium (F= 138.78, p< 0.001) and extractable magnesium (F= 160.66; p< 0.001). Water-extractable calcium and magnesium was high IAF decreasing until 7 months after the fire, rising in the last sampling date. Among the tested methods, the most accurate to interpolate the water-extractable calcium were: IAF-IDW1; 2 Months-IDW1; 5 months-OK; 7 Months-IDW4 and 9 Months-IDW3. In relation to water-extractable magnesium the best interpolation techniques were: IAF-IDW2; 2 Months-IDW1; 5 months- IDW3; 7 Months-TPS and 9 Months-IDW1. These results suggested that the spatial variability of these water-extractable is variable with the time. The causes of this variability will be discussed during the presentation. References Outeiro, L., Aspero, F., Ubeda, X. (2008) Geostatistical methods to study spatial variability of soil cation after a prescribed fire and rainfall. Catena, 74: 310-320. Pereira, P., Cerdà, A., Úbeda, X., Mataix-Solera, J. Arcenegui, V., Zavala, L. Modelling the impacts of wildfire on ash thickness in a short-term period, Land Degradation and Development, (In Press), DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2195

Pereira, Paulo; Martin, David



The effect of cations on the amidase activity of human tissue kallikrein: 1-linear competitive inhibition by sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium. 2-linear mixed inhibition by aluminium.  


Hydrolysis of D-valyl-L-leucyl-L-arginine p-nitroanilide by human tissue kallikrein (hK1) was studied in the absence and in the presence of increasing concentrations of the following chloride salts: sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and aluminium. The data indicate that the inhibition of hK1 by sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium is linear competitive and that divalent cations are more potent inhibitors of hK1 than univalent cations. However the inhibition of hK1 by aluminium cation is linear mixed, with the cation being able to bind to both the free enzyme and the ES complex. This cation was the best hK1 inhibitor. Aluminium is not a physiological cation, but is a known neurotoxicant for animals and humans. The neurotoxic actions of aluminium may relate to neuro-degenerative diseases. PMID:15558947

De Sousa, Marinez Oliveira; Santoro, Marcelo Matos; De Souza Figueiredo, Amintas Fabiano



Multiparametric Flow System for the Automated Determination of Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, and Magnesium in Large-Volume Parenteral Solutions and Concentrated Hemodialysis Solutions  

PubMed Central

A multiparametric flow system based on multicommutation and binary sampling has been designed for the automated determination of sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium in large-volume parenteral solutions and hemodialysis concentrated solutions. The goal was to obtain a computer-controlled system capable of determining the four metals without extensive modifications. The system involved the use of five solenoid valves under software control, allowing the establishment of the appropriate flow conditions for each analyte, that is, sample size, dilution, reagent addition, and so forth. Detection was carried out by either flame atomic emission spectrometry (sodium, potassium) or flame atomic absorption spectrometry (calcium, magnesium). The influence of several operating parameters was studied. Validation was carried out by analyzing artificial samples. Figures of merit obtained include linearity, accuracy, precision, and sampling frequency. Linearity was satisfactory: sodium, r 2 >0.999 ( 0.5 – 3.5 g/L), potassium, r 2 >0.996 (50–150 mg/L), calcium, r 2 >0.999 (30–120 mg/L), and magnesium, r 2 >0.999 (20–40 mg/L). Precision ( s r , %, n=5 ) was better than 2.1 %, and accuracy (evaluated through recovery assays) was in the range of 99.8 %– 101.0 % (sodium), 100.8 – 102.5 % (potassium), 97.3 %– 101.3 % (calcium), and 97.1 %– 99.8 % (magnesium). Sampling frequencies ( h ?1 ) were 70 (sodium), 75 (potassium), 70 (calcium), and 58 (magnesium). According to the results obtained, the use of an automated multiparametric system based on multicommutation offers several advantages for the quality control of large-volume parenteral solutions and hemodialysis concentrated solutions. PMID:17671619

Pistón, Mariela; Dol, Isabel



Phase I drug-interaction study of effects of calcium and magnesium infusions on oxaliplatin pharmacokinetics and acute neurotoxicity in colorectal cancer patients  

PubMed Central

Background Calcium and magnesium (Ca/Mg) infusions have been suggested as an effective intervention for preventing oxaliplatin-induced neurotoxicity, but the effects of Ca/Mg infusions on oxaliplatin pharmacokinetics, motor nerve hyperexcitability and acute neurotoxicity symptoms are unclear. Methods In this double blind crossover study, colorectal cancer patients undergoing oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy were randomised to receive Ca/Mg (1g Ca Gluconate plus 1g MgSO4) on cycle 1 and placebo (vehicle alone) on cycle 2, or to receive the same treatments in the opposite sequence. Study endpoints included plasma pharmacokinetics of intact oxaliplatin and free platinum; electromyography (EMG) detection of abnormal spontaneous high-frequency motor unit action potential discharges; and patient-reported acute neurotoxicity symptoms and their preferred study treatment for reducing these symptoms. Results Nineteen of 20 enrolled patients completed the study. Plasma pharmacokinetics of intact oxaliplatin and free platinum were similar when oxaliplatin was given with Ca/Mg or placebo (ratio of geometric means of AUC0-t with Ca/Mg or placebo: intact oxaliplatin, 0.95 (90% CI, 0.90 – 1.01); free platinum, 0.99 (90% CI, 0.94 – 1.05)). EMG motor nerve hyperexcitability scores were similar with Ca/Mg and placebo (mean difference in EMG score between Ca/Mg and placebo: -0.3 (95% CI, -2.2 – 1.6)). Patient-reported acute neurotoxicity symptoms were similar in frequency with Ca/Mg and placebo. For reducing neurotoxic symptoms, fewer patients preferred Ca/Mg than placebo or neither treatment (26% versus 74%; P<0.01). Conclusions Ca/Mg infusions do not alter the clinical pharmacokinetics of oxaliplatin and do not seem to reduce its acute neurotoxicity. Trial registration Trial registration identifier ACTRN12611000738921 PMID:24156389



Adenosine dysfunction and adenosine kinase in epileptogenesis  

PubMed Central

Traditionally, epilepsy has been considered to be a disorder of neuronal dysfunction. Based on this dogma, drug development efforts have largely focused on neurocentric model systems to screen for compounds that affect the function of neurons. Unfortunately, about 30% of all patients with epilepsy – or more than 20 million worldwide – are refractory to classical neurocentric pharmacotherapy. The failure of neurocentric pharmacotherapy in epilepsy requires radical rethinking and the search for novel therapeutic targets. Research from recent years suggests that epilepsy is a disorder of astrocyte dysfunction. Astrocytes are key regulators of the brain’s own anticonvulsant adenosine. Thus, any dysfunction in astrocyte metabolism will drastically affect the brain’s ability to control excitability via adenosinergic neuromodulation. This review will focus on the astrocyte-based enzyme adenosine kinase (ADK) as the key regulator of synaptic adenosine. Astrogliosis – a pathological hallmark of the epileptic brain – leads to overexpression of the adenosine-removing enzyme ADK and therefore to adenosine deficiency. Evidence from transgenic animals demonstrates that overexpression of ADK per se is sufficient to trigger seizures. Consequently, pharmacological inhibition of ADK is very effective in suppressing seizures that are refractory to classical antiepileptic drugs. The recent definition of ADK as rational target to predict and to prevent seizures in epilepsy has prompted the development of focal adenosine augmentation therapies (AATs) that have been designed to selectively reconstitute adenosinergic signalling within an area of astrogliosis-based adenosine-dysfunction. This therapeutic challenge has experimentally been met with polymeric or stem cell based brain implants to afford the focal delivery of adenosine. PMID:20730044

Boison, Detlev



Molecular Structure of Adenosine  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Adenosine is an endogenous nucleoside occurring in all of the cells of the body. It is chemically 6-amino-9-B-D-ribofuanosyl-9-H-purine and has the chemical formula of C10H13N5O4. Adenosine naturally hydrogen bonds to thymidine by two hydrogen bonds to construct a stable structure. Adenosine is a purine, meaning that it is a single ring structure. A carbon sugar ring attaches to nitrogen in the base to form an N-glycosylic bond. The nitrogenous bases, which are primarily nonpolar, pack tightly enough to exclude water and form a stable, primarily nonpolar environment in the helix interior.



Adenosine receptors and asthma  

PubMed Central

The accumulation of evidence implicating a role for adenosine in the pathogenesis of asthma has led to investigations into all adenosine receptor subtypes as potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of asthma. Selective A1 receptor antagonists are currently in preclinical development since adenosine has been shown experimentally to mediate various features of asthma through this receptor such as bronchoconstriction, mucus secretion and inflammation. The A2A receptor is expressed on most inflammatory cells implicated in asthma, and as A2A stimulation activates adenylate cyclase and consequently elevates cAMP, selective A2A receptor agonists have now reached clinical development. However, initial reports concerning their efficacy are inconclusive. A2B receptor antagonists are also under investigation based on the rationale that inhibiting the effects of adenosine on mast cells would be beneficial, in addition to other reported pro-inflammatory effects mediated by the A2B receptor on cells such as airway smooth muscle, epithelial cells and fibroblasts. Whilst the effects in pre-clinical models are promising, their efficacy in the clinical setting has also yet to be reported. Finally, adenosine A3 receptor stimulation has been demonstrated to mediate inhibitory effects on eosinophils since it also elevates cAMP. However, some experimental reports suggest that A3 antagonists mediate anti-inflammatory effects, thus the rationale for A3 receptor ligands as therapeutic agents remains to be determined. In conclusion, establishing the precise role of adenosine in the pathogenesis of asthma and developing appropriate subtype selective agonists/antagonists represents an exciting opportunity for the development of novel therapeutics for the treatment of asthma. PMID:18311158

Brown, R A; Spina, D; Page, C P



Inhibition of hepatocytic autophagy by adenosine, adenosine analogs and AMP.  


Autophagy, measured in isolated rat hepatocytes as the sequestration of electroinjected [3H]raffinose, was moderately (17%) inhibited by adenosine (0.4 mM) alone, but more strongly (85%) in the presence of the adenosine deaminase inhibitor, 2'-deoxycoformycin (50 microM), suggesting that metabolic deamination of adenosine limited its inhibitory effectiveness. The adenosine analogs, 6-methylmercaptopurine riboside and N6,N6-dimethyladenosine, inhibited autophagy by 89% and 99%, respectively, at 0.5 mM, probably reflecting the adenosine deaminase-resistance of their 6-substitutions. 5-Iodotubercidin (10 microM), an adenosine kinase inhibitor, blocked the conversion of adenosine to AMP and largely abolished the inhibitory effects of both adenosine and its analogs, indicating that AMP/nucleotide formation was required for inhibition of autophagy. Inhibition by adenosine of autophagic protein degradation, measured as the release of [14C]valine from prelabelled protein, was similarly potentiated by deoxycoformycin and prevented by iodotubercidin. Inhibition of autophagy by added AMP, ADP or ATP (0.3-1 mM) was, likewise, potentiated by deoxycoformycin and prevented by iodotubercidin, suggesting dephosphorylation to adenosine and intracellular re-phosphorylation to AMP. Suppression of autophagy by AMP may be regarded as a feedback inhibition of autophagic RNA degradation, or as an aspect of the general down-regulation of energy-requiring processes that occurs under conditions of ATP depletion, when AMP levels are high. PMID:9865607

Kovács, A L; Gordon, P B; Grotterød, E M; Seglen, P O



Effects of Adenosine on Lymphangiogenesis  

PubMed Central

Background The lymphatic system controls tissue homeostasis by draining protein-rich lymph to the vascular system. Lymphangiogenesis, the formation of lymphatic vessels, is a normal event in childhood but promotes tumor spread and metastasis during adulthood. Blocking lymphangiogenesis may therefore be of therapeutic interest. Production of adenosine is enhanced in the tumor environment and contributes to tumor progression through stimulation of angiogenesis. In this study, we determined whether adenosine affects lymphangiogenesis. Methods Lymphatic endothelial cells (HMVEC-dLy) were cultured in presence of adenosine and their proliferation, migration and tube formation was assessed. Gelatin sponges embedded with the stable analogue of adenosine 2-chloro adenosine were implanted in mice ear and lymphangiogenesis was quantified. Mice were intravenously injected with adenoviruses containing expression vector for 5?-endonucleotidase, which plays a major role in the formation of adenosine. Results In vitro, we observed that adenosine decreased the proliferation of lymphatic endothelial cells, their migration and tube formation. However, in vivo, gelatin sponges containing 2-chloro adenosine and implanted in mice ear displayed an elevated level of lymphangiogenesis (2.5-fold, p<0.001). Adenovirus-mediated over-expression of cytosolic 5?-nucleotidase IA stimulated lymphangiogenesis and the recruitment of macrophages in mouse liver. Proliferation of lymphatic endothelial cells was enhanced (2-fold, p<0.001) when incubated in the presence of conditioned medium from murine macrophages. Conclusion We have shown that adenosine stimulates lymphangiogenesis in vivo, presumably through a macrophage-mediated mechanism. This observation suggests that blockade of adenosine receptors may help in anti-cancer therapies. PMID:24651845

Lenoir, Bénédicte; Wagner, Daniel R.; Blacher, Silvia; Sala-Newby, Graciela B.; Newby, Andrew C.; Noel, Agnès; Devaux, Yvan




Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Anhydrous ammonia is a widely used nitrogen fertilizer and its interactions with soils and soil clays play an important role in its environmental fate. This study was conducted to determine the quantity and forms of ammonia adsorbed by clay-sized fractions of soils as a function of water content, e...


Calcium and magnesium in the helium white dwarf GD 401  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A calcium abundance (Ca/He = 6 x 10 to the -9th to 9 x 10 to the -9th) was derived for the DB degenerate object GD 401 using spectrum synthesis techniques and observational data obtained with the SIT spectrograph. The data were also used to derive upper limits for the Mg/He and Fe/He ratios of 1 x 10 to the -8th and 6 x 10 to the -9th respectively. Two conclusions are made from the analysis: (1) calcium is deficient relative to the sun, contrary to the estimates of Liebert et al. (1979); and (2) the Mg/Ca ratio limit is much smaller than the solar value, contrary to the results of the two other well-studied metal-line white dwarfs (Ross 640 and van Maanen 2).

Cottrell, P. L.; Greenstein, J. L.



Spectrophotometric Titration of a Mixture of Calcium and Magnesium.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a spectrophotometric titration experiment which uses a manual titration spectrophotometer and manually operated buret, rather than special instrumentation. Identifies the equipment, materials, and procedures needed for the completion of the experiment. Recommends the use of this experiment in introductory quantitative analysis…

Fulton, Robert; And Others



Clustering of serum calcium and magnesium concentrations in siblings.  


Concentrations of both serum calcium, adjusted for albumin, and serum magnesium of siblings from 23 families were found to cluster around different concentrations within the normal reference interval. Variation between families accounted for 37% of the total variation in calcium and 28% of that in magnesium. A disturbance of serum calcium or magnesium homeostasis in an individual resulting in an altered serum concentration that remains within the reference interval might be recognized by examining values in siblings. PMID:3943197

Payne, R B; Jones, D P; Walker, A P; Evans, R T



Urinary excretion of calcium and magnesium in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urine calcium excretion in healthy children was 2·38±0·66 (SD; no. = 52) mg\\/kg per 24 hr and urinary magnesium excretion was 2·82±0·79 (SD; no. = 23). The 24-hour urine calcium excretion could be predicted with reasonable confidence from the calcium\\/creatinine concentration ratio of the second urine specimen passed in the morning. In this specimen the urine calcium\\/creatinine concentration ratio was

S. Ghazali; T. M. Barratt



Amitriptyline enhances extracellular tissue levels of adenosine in the rat hindpaw and inhibits adenosine uptake.  


Local administration of amitriptyline into the rat hindpaw produces peripheral antinociception; this is reduced by adenosine receptor antagonists and appears to involve endogenous adenosine. The present study used peripheral microdialysis: (a) to determine whether amitriptyline could enhance extracellular tissue levels of endogenous adenosine in the rat hindpaw and (b) to examine mechanisms by which such an increase could occur. Local injection of amitriptyline into the plantar hindpaw, at doses that produce peripheral antinociception (100-300 nmol), produced an increase in local extracellular levels of adenosine. When injected in combination with formalin, which also enhances such levels of adenosine, an additive increase was observed. This adenosine originated partly as nucleotide, as inhibition of ecto-5'-nucleotidase reduced the amount of adenosine detected in the probe following administration of amitriptyline. When administered in combination with exogenous adenosine, amitriptyline augmented recovery of adenosine in the probe. Pretreatment of rats with capsaicin augmented the ability of amitriptyline to increase adenosine levels detected in the dialysis probe; it also enhanced tissue recovery of exogenously administered adenosine. In uptake studies using cultured rat C6 glioma cells, amitriptyline inhibited adenosine uptake by an adenosine transporter (IC50 0.37 +/- 0.12 mM). In enzyme assays, amitriptyline had no effect on adenosine kinase or adenosine deaminase activity. These results demonstrate that amitriptyline: (a) enhances extracellular tissue levels of adenosine in the rat hindpaw following local administration in vivo and (b) inhibits adenosine uptake but has no effect on metabolism in vitro. Therefore, increased extracellular adenosine levels in vivo appear to result partially from extracellular conversion of nucleotide and partially from inhibition of uptake. PMID:16156010

Sawynok, Jana; Reid, Allison R; Liu, Xue Jun; Parkinson, Fiona E



Guanosine regulates adenosine levels in the kidney  

PubMed Central

Abstract In cell culture, extracellular guanosine increases extracellular adenosine by attenuating the disposition of extracellular adenosine (American Journal of Physiology – Cell Physiology 304: C406–C421, 2013). The goal of this investigation was to determine whether this “guanosine–adenosine mechanism” is operative in an intact organ. Twenty?seven isolated, perfused mouse kidneys were subjected to metabolic poisons (iodoacetate plus 2,4?dinitrophenol) to cause energy depletion and thereby stimulate renal adenosine production. Adenosine levels in the renal venous perfusate increased from a baseline of 36 ± 8 to 499 ± 96, 258 ± 50, and 71 ± 13 nmol/L at 15, 30, and 60 min, respectively, after administering metabolic poisons (% of basal; 1366 ± 229, 715 ± 128, and 206 ± 33, respectively). Changes in renal venous levels of guanosine closely mirrored the time course of changes in adenosine: baseline of 15 ± 2 to 157 ± 13, 121 ± 8, and 50 ± 5 nmol/L at 15, 30, and 60 min, respectively (% of basal; 1132 ± 104, 871 ± 59, and 400 ± 51, respectively). Freeze?clamp experiments in 12 kidneys confirmed that metabolic poisons increased kidney tissue levels of adenosine and guanosine. In eight additional kidneys, we examined the ability of guanosine to reduce the renal clearance of exogenous adenosine; and these experiments revealed that guanosine significantly decreased the renal extraction of adenosine. Because guanosine is metabolized by purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNPase), in another set of 16 kidneys we examined the effects of 8?aminoguanine (PNPase inhibitor) on renal venous levels of adenosine and inosine (adenosine metabolite). Kidneys treated with 8?aminoguanine showed a more robust increase in both adenosine and inosine in response to metabolic poisons. We conclude that in the intact kidney, guanosine regulates adenosine levels. PMID:24872359

Jackson, Edwin K.; Cheng, Dongmei; Mi, Zaichuan; Gillespie, Delbert G.



Fluorescent Ligands for Adenosine Receptors  

PubMed Central

Interest is increasing in developing fluorescent ligands for characterization of adenosine receptors (ARs), which hold a promise of usefulness in the drug discovery process. The size of a strategically labeled AR ligand can be greatly increased after the attachment of a fluorophore. The choice of dye moiety (e.g. Alexa Fluor 488), attachment point and linker length can alter the selectivity and potency of the parent molecule. Fluorescent derivatives of adenosine agonists and antagonists (e.g. XAC and other heterocyclic antagonist scaffolds) have been synthesized and characterized pharmacologically. Some are useful AR probes for flow cytometry, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, fluorescence microscopy, fluorescence polarization, fluorescence resonance energy transfer, and scanning confocal microscopy. Thus, the approach of fluorescent labeled GPCR ligands, including those for ARs, is a growing dynamic research field. PMID:23200243

Kozma, Eszter; Jayasekara, P Suresh; Squarcialupi, Lucia; Paoletta, Silvia; Moro, Stefano; Federico, Stephanie; Spalluto, Giampiero; Jacobson, Kenneth A.



Functions of neuronal adenosine receptors.  


Endogenous adenosine in nervous tissue, a central link between energy metabolism and neuronal activity, varies according to behavioral state and (patho)physiological conditions, it may be the major sleep propensity substance. The functional consequences of activation of the four known adenosine receptors, A1, A2A, A2B and A3, are considered here. The mechanisms and electrophysiological actions, mainly those of the A1-receptor, have been extensively studied using in vitro brain-slice preparations. A1-receptor activation inhibits many neurons postsynaptically by inducing or modulating ionic currents and presynaptically by reducing transmitter release. A1-receptors are almost ubiquitous in the brain and affect various K+ (Ileak, IAHP), mixed cationic (Ih), or Ca2+ currents, through activation of Gi/o-proteins (coupled to ion channels, adenylyl cyclase or phospholipases). A2A-receptors are much more localized, their functional role in the striatum is only just emerging. A2B- and A3-receptors may be affected in pathophysiological events, their function is not yet clear. The cAMP-PKA signal cascade plays a central role in the regulation of both neural activity and energy metabolism. Under conditions of increased demand and decreased availability of energy (such as hypoxia, hypoglycemia and/or excessive neuronal activity), adenosine provides a powerful protective feedback mechanism. Interaction with adenosine metabolism is a promising target for therapeutic intervention in neurological and psychiatric diseases such as epilepsy, sleep, movement (parkinsonism or Huntington's disease) or psychiatric disorders (Alzheimer's disease, depression, schizophrenia or addiction). PMID:11111831

Haas, H L; Selbach, O



[Roles of adenosine receptors in Alzheimer's disease].  


As an important neurotransmitter, adenosine displays its functions by acting on the adenosine receptors. Recent studies have shown that the distribution, expression and balance among subtypes of adenosine receptors are closely related with cognitive activities, and changes of adenosine receptors play key roles in neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease. It has been pointed out that prolonged activation of adenosine receptors by high level adenosine may lead to the disturbance of balance among adenosine receptor subtypes. This imbalance mainly performed as increased expression of A2a receptor and decreased expression of A1 receptor, and enhancement of the excitatory signals mediated by A2a receptor and weakened inhibitory signals mediated by A1 receptor. Changes of these two subtypes of adenosine receptors may lead to a lot of disorders of neurological activities which developed into dysfunction of cognition to the end. These findings imply that the potential of maintaining the balance among adenosine receptors on the treatment of AD would facilitate both the revealing of the mechanism and the cure of AD. PMID:25212017

Yan, Rong; Hu, Zeng-Yao; Zhou, Wen-Xia; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Yong-Xiang



Clinical application of adenosine and ATP for pain control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review summarizes clinical application of adenosine and adenosine 5?-triphosphate (ATP) in pain conditions. Investigations have been performed in patients with acute perioperative pain or chronic neuropathic pain treated with intravenous adenosine or ATP, or intrathecal adenosine. Characteristic central adenosine A1 receptor-mediated pain-relieving effects have been observed after intravenous adenosine infusion in human inflammation\\/sensitization pain models and in patients with

Masakazu Hayashida; Ken-ichi Fukuda; Atsuo Fukunaga



Adenosine receptor blockade enhances isoproterenol-induced increases in cardiac interstitial adenosine.  


The failure of adenosine receptor antagonists to consistently attenuate metabolic coronary vasodilation suggests that adenosine is not a primary regulator of functional hyperemia. An alternative hypothesis, however, is that metabolic stimulation of the heart in the presence of an adenosine receptor antagonist results in enhanced interstitial levels of adenosine which then might overcome the blockade. To test this hypothesis, interstitial levels of adenosine and inosine were estimated by HPLC analysis of fluid which exudes from the epicardial surface of isolated rat hearts perfused with crystalloid solution at constant flow. Isoproterenol infusion (10 nM) produced increases in heart rate, left ventricular systolic pressure, rate of pressure development, myocardial oxygen consumption and adenosine and inosine concentrations of venous effluent and surface exudate and produced decreases in coronary vascular resistance. The presence of the adenosine receptor antagonist, 8-(4-sulfophenyl) theophylline (spT) (100 microM), in the perfusate had little or no effect upon most of the responses to isoproterenol except that it significantly enhanced the isoproterenol-induced increases in adenosine release and adenosine concentrations in the venous effluent and surface exudate. The isoproterenol-induced change in adenosine concentration per unit change in oxygen consumption was approximately 3-fold greater in the presence of spT than in its absence. This extra adenosine production may tend to overcome the competitive blocking effect of spT and help explain why agents such as spT are not always effective in blocking metabolic vasodilation. PMID:1942090

Heller, L J; Dole, W P; Mohrman, D E



Regulation of Atherosclerosis and Associated Risk Factors by Adenosine and Adenosine Receptors  

PubMed Central

Adenosine is an endogenous metabolite that has an anti-inflammatory effect across the vasculature. Extracellular adenosine activates four G-protein coupled receptors (A1, A3, A2A, and A2B) whose expression varies in different cells and tissues, including the vasculature and blood cells. Higher levels of adenosine are generated during stress, inflammation, and upon tissue damage. Some of the adenosine receptors (AR), such as the A2BAR, are further upregulated following such stresses. This review will discuss the role of adenosine and adenosine receptors in the development of atherosclerosis and some of the risk factors associated with this pathology. These include adenosine receptor-regulated changes in atherosclerosis, blood pressure, thrombosis, and myocardial infarction. PMID:22850979

Koupenova, Milka; Johnston-Cox, Hillary; Ravid, Katya



Enzymatic regeneration of adenosine triphosphate cofactor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Regenerating adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) by enzymatic process which utilizes carbamyl phosphate as phosphoryl donor is technique used to regenerate expensive cofactors. Process allows complex enzymatic reactions to be considered as candidates for large-scale continuous processes.

Marshall, D. L.



Ion-Dependent Dynamics of DNA Ejections for Bacteriophage l David Van Valen,6  

E-print Network

Ion-Dependent Dynamics of DNA Ejections for Bacteriophage l David Wu,6 David Van Valen,6 Qicong Hu studied the control parameters that govern the dynamics of in vitro DNA ejection in bacteriophage l. Previous work demonstrated that bacteriophage DNA is highly pressurized, and this pressure has been

Phillips, Rob


Magnesium Ion-dependent Activation of the RecA Protein Involves the C Terminus*  

E-print Network

Magnesium Ion-dependent Activation of the RecA Protein Involves the C Terminus* Received with ATP. We provide evi- dence that the free magnesium ion is required to medi- ate a conformational at low magnesium ion concentrations. The RecA protein of Escherichia coli plays a central role

Cox, Michael M.


Adenosine-Induced Transient Asystole  

PubMed Central

Cerebral aneurysms are an important health issue in the United States, and the mortality rate following aneurysm rupture, or SAH, remains high. The treatment of these aneurysms uses endovascular options which include coil placement, stent assistant coiling and, recently, flow diversion. However, microsurgical clipping remains an option in those aneurysms not suited for endovascular therapy. These are often the more complicated aneurysms such as in large, giant aneurysms or deep-seated aneurysms. Circumferential visualization of the aneurysm, parent vessels, branches, perforators, and other neurovascular structures is important to prevent residual aneurysms or strokes from vessel or perforator occlusion. Decompression of the aneurysm sac is often required and we believe that adenosine-induced transient asystole should be an important option for clipping of complex cerebral aneurysms.

Britz, Gavin W.



Role of adenosine receptors in caffeine tolerance  

SciTech Connect

Caffeine is a competitive antagonist at adenosine receptors. Receptor up-regulation during chronic drug treatment has been proposed to be the mechanism of tolerance to the behavioral stimulant effects of caffeine. This study reassessed the role of adenosine receptors in caffeine tolerance. Separate groups of rats were given scheduled access to drinking bottles containing plain tap water or a 0.1% solution of caffeine. Daily drug intake averaged 60-75 mg/kg and resulted in complete tolerance to caffeine-induced stimulation of locomotor activity, which could not be surmounted by increasing the dose of caffeine. 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (0.001-1.0 mg/kg) dose dependently decreased the locomotor activity of caffeine-tolerant rats and their water-treated controls but was 8-fold more potent in the latter group. Caffeine (1.0-10 mg/kg) injected concurrently with 5-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine antagonized the decreases in locomotor activity comparably in both groups. Apparent pA2 values for tolerant and control rats also were comparable: 5.05 and 5.11. Thus, the adenosine-antagonist activity of caffeine was undiminished in tolerant rats. The effects of chronic caffeine administration on parameters of adenosine receptor binding and function were measured in cerebral cortex. There were no differences between brain tissue from control and caffeine-treated rats in number and affinity of adenosine binding sites or in receptor-mediated increases (A2 adenosine receptor) and decreases (A1 adenosine receptor) in cAMP accumulation. These results are consistent with theoretical arguments that changes in receptor density should not affect the potency of a competitive antagonist. Experimental evidence and theoretical considerations indicate that up-regulation of adenosine receptors is not the mechanism of tolerance to caffeine-induced stimulation of locomotor activity.

Holtzman, S.G.; Mante, S.; Minneman, K.P. (Emory Univ. School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA (USA))



Adenosine Kinase of Trypanosoma brucei and Its Role in Susceptibility to Adenosine Antimetabolites? †  

PubMed Central

Trypanosoma brucei cannot synthesize purines de novo and relies on purine salvage from its hosts to build nucleic acids. With adenosine being a preferred purine source of bloodstream-form trypanosomes, adenosine kinase (AK; EC is likely to be a key player in purine salvage. Adenosine kinase is also of high pharmacological interest, since for many adenosine antimetabolites, phosphorylation is a prerequisite for activity. Here, we cloned and functionally characterized adenosine kinase from T. brucei (TbAK). TbAK is a tandem gene, expressed in both procyclic- and bloodstream-form trypanosomes, whose product localized to the cytosol of the parasites. The RNA interference-mediated silencing of TbAK suggested that the gene is nonessential under standard growth conditions. Inhibition or downregulation of TbAK rendered the trypanosomes resistant to cordycepin (3?-deoxyadenosine), demonstrating a role for TbAK in the activation of adenosine antimetabolites. The expression of TbAK in Saccharomyces cerevisiae complemented a null mutation in the adenosine kinase gene ado1. The concomitant expression of TbAK with the T. brucei adenosine transporter gene TbAT1 allowed S. cerevisiae ado1 ade2 double mutants to grow on adenosine as the sole purine source and, at the same time, sensitized them to adenosine antimetabolites. The coexpression of TbAK and TbAT1 in S. cerevisiae ado1 ade2 double mutants proved to be a convenient tool for testing nucleoside analogues for uptake and activation by T. brucei adenosine salvage enzymes. PMID:17698621

Lüscher, Alexandra; Önal, Pinar; Schweingruber, Anne-Marie; Mäser, Pascal



Role of Adenosine Signaling in Penile Erection and Erectile Disorders  

PubMed Central

Introduction Penile erection is a hemodynamic process, which results from increased flow and retention of blood in the penile organ due to the relaxation of smooth muscle cells. Adenosine, a physiological vasorelaxant, has been shown to be a modulator of penile erection. Aim To summarize the research on the role of adenosine signaling in normal penile erection and erectile disorders. Main Outcome Measures Evidence in the literature on the association between adenosine signaling and normal and abnormal penile erection, i.e., erectile dysfunction (ED) and priapism. Methods The article reviews the literature on the role of endogenous and exogenous adenosine in normal penile erection, as well as in erectile disorders namely, ED and priapism. Results Adenosine has been shown to relax corpus cavernosum from various species including human in both in vivo and in vitro studies. Neuromodulatory role of adenosine in corpus cavernosum has also been demonstrated. Impaired adenosine signaling through A2B receptor causes partial resistance of corpus cavernosum, from men with organic ED, to adenosine-mediated relaxation. Increased level of adenosine has been shown to be a causative factor for priapism. Conclusion Overall, the research reviewed here suggests a general role of exogenous and endogenous adenosine signaling in normal penile erection. From this perspective, it is not surprising that impaired adenosine signaling is associated with ED, and excessive adenosine signaling is associated with priapism. Adenosine signaling represents a potentially important diagnostic and therapeutic target for the treatment of ED and priapism. PMID:19889148

Phatarpekar, Prasad V.; Wen, Jiaming; Xia, Yang



Adenosine Signalling and Function in Glial Cells  

PubMed Central

Despite major advances in a variety of neuroscientific research fields, the majority of neurodegenerative and neurological diseases are poorly controlled by currently available drugs, which are largely based on a neurocentric drug design. Research from the past five years has established a central role of glia to determine how neurons function and – consequently – glial dysfunction is implicated in almost every neurodegenerative and neurological disease. Glial cells are key regulators of the brain’s endogenous neuroprotectant and anticonvulsant adenosine. This review will summarize how glial cells contribute to adenosine homeostasis and how glial adenosine receptors affect glial function. We will then move on to discuss how glial cells interact with neurons and the vasculature and outline new methods to study glial function. We will discuss how glial control of adenosine-function affects neuronal cell death and its implications for epilepsy, traumatic brain injury, ischemia, and Parkinson’s disease. Eventually, glial adenosine-modulating drug targets might be an attractive alternative for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. There are, however, several major open questions that remain to be tackled. PMID:19763139

Boison, Detlev; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Fredholm, Bertil B.




PubMed Central

Derivatives of adenosine receptor agonists (N6-phenyladenosines) and antagonists (1,3-dialkyl-8-phenylxanthines) bearing functionalized chains suitable for attachment to other molecules have been reported [Jacobson et al., J. med. Chem. 28, 1334 and 1341 (1985)]. The “functionalized congener” approach has been extended to the synthesis of spectroscopic and other probes for adenosine receptors that retain high affinity (Ki ~ 10?9 ?10?8 M) in A1-receptor binding. The probes have been synthesized from an antagonist xanthine amine congener (XAC) and an adenosine amine congener (ADAC). [3H]ADAC has been synthesized and found to bind highly specifically to A1-adenosine receptors of rat and calf cerebral cortical membranes with KD values of 1.4 and 0.34 nM respectively. The higher affinity in the bovine brain, seen also with many of the probes derived from ADAC and XAC, is associated with phenyl substituents. The spectroscopic probes contain a reporter group attached at a distal site of the functionalized chain. These bifunctional ligands may contain a spin label (e.g. the nitroxyl radical TEMPO) for electron spin resonance spectroscopy, or a fluorescent dye, including fluorescein and 4-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBD), or labels for 19F nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Potential applications of the spectroscopic probes in characterization of adenosine receptors are discussed. PMID:3036153

Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Ukena, Dieter; Padgett, William; Kirk, Kenneth L.; Daly, John W.



Pain-relieving prospects for adenosine receptors and ectonucleotidases  

PubMed Central

Adenosine receptor agonists have potent antinociceptive effects in diverse preclinical models of chronic pain. In contrast, the efficacy of adenosine or adenosine receptor agonists at treating pain in humans is unclear. Two ectonucleotidases that generate adenosine in nociceptive neurons were recently identified. When injected spinally, these enzymes have long-lasting adenosine A1 receptor (A1R)-dependent antinociceptive effects in inflammatory and neuropathic pain models. Furthermore, recent findings indicate that spinal adenosine A2A receptor activation can enduringly inhibit neuropathic pain symptoms. Collectively, these studies suggest the possibility of treating chronic pain in humans by targeting specific adenosine receptor subtypes in anatomically defined regions with agonists or with ectonucleotidases that generate adenosine. PMID:21236731

Zylka, Mark J.



Working memory and the homeostatic control of brain adenosine by adenosine kinase.  


The neuromodulator adenosine maintains brain homeostasis and regulates complex behaviour via activation of inhibitory and excitatory adenosine receptors (ARs) in a brain region-specific manner. AR antagonists such as caffeine have been shown to ameliorate cognitive impairments in animal disease models but their effects on learning and memory in normal animals are equivocal. An alternative approach to reduce AR activation is to lower the extracellular tone of adenosine, which can be achieved by up-regulating adenosine kinase (ADK), the key enzyme of metabolic adenosine clearance. However, mice that globally over-express an Adk transgene ('Adk-tg' mice) were devoid of a caffeine-like pro-cognitive profile; they instead exhibited severe spatial memory deficits. This may be mechanistically linked to cortical/hippocampal N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction because the motor response to acute MK-801 was also potentiated in Adk-tg mice. Here, we evaluated the extent to which the behavioural phenotypes of Adk-tg mice might be modifiable by up-regulating adenosine levels in the cortex/hippocampus. To this end, we investigated mutant 'fb-Adk-def' mice in which ADK expression was specifically reduced in the telencephalon leading to a selective increase in cortical/hippocampal adenosine, while the rest of the brain remained as adenosine-deficient as in Adk-tg mice. The fb-Adk-def mice showed an even greater impairment in spatial working memory and a more pronounced motor response to NMDAR blockade than Adk-tg mice. These outcomes suggest that maintenance of cortical/hippocampal adenosine homeostasis is essential for effective spatial memory and deviation in either direction is detrimental with increased expression seemingly more disruptive than decreased expression. PMID:22521820

Singer, P; McGarrity, S; Shen, H-Y; Boison, D; Yee, B K



Adenosine receptors and renal ischaemia reperfusion injury.  


One of the frequent clinical complications that results in billions of dollars in healthcare costs annually in the United States is acute kidney injury (AKI). Ischaemia reperfusion (IR) injury is a major cause AKI. Unfortunately, no effective treatment or preventive measure for AKI exists. With increased surgical complexity coupled with increasing number of elderly, the incidence of AKI is becoming more frequent. Adenosine is a metabolic breakdown product of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and contributes to the regulation of multiple physiological events. Extracellular adenosine activates four subtypes of adenosine receptors (AR) including A1 AR, A2 A AR, A2 B AR and A3 AR. In the kidney, adenosine regulates glomerular filtration rate, vascular tone, renin release and is an integrative part of tubular glomerular feedback signal to the afferent arterioles. In addition, each AR subtype powerfully modulates renal IR injury. The A1 AR activation protects against ischaemic insult by reducing apoptosis, necrosis and inflammation. Activation of A2 A AR protects against renal injury by modulating leucocyte-mediated inflammation as well as directly reducing renal tubular inflammation. Activation of A2 B AR acts via direct activation of renal parenchymal as well as renovascular receptors and is important in kidney preconditioning. Finally, activation of A3 AR exacerbates renal damage following renal IR injury while A3 AR antagonism attenuates renal damage following ischaemic insult. Latest body of research suggests that kidney AR modulation may be a promising approach to treat ischaemic AKI. This brief review focuses on the signalling pathways of adenosine in the kidney followed by the role for various AR modulations in protecting against ischaemic AKI. PMID:25287331

Rabadi, M M; Lee, H T



Transient adenosine efflux in the rat caudate-putamen.  


Adenosine is an endogenous byproduct of metabolism that regulates cerebral blood flow and modulates neurotransmission. Four receptors, with affinities ranging from nanomolar to micromolar, mediate the effects of adenosine. Real-time measurements are needed to understand the extracellular adenosine concentrations available to activate these receptors. In this study, we measured the subsecond time course of adenosine efflux in the caudate-putamen of anesthetized rats after a 1 s, high-frequency stimulation of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra. Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry at carbon-fiber microelectrodes was used for simultaneous detection of adenosine and dopamine, which have different oxidation potentials. While dopamine was immediately released after electrical stimulation, adenosine accumulation was slightly delayed and cleared in about 15 seconds. The concentration of adenosine measured after electrical stimulation was 0.94 +/- 0.09 microM. An adenosine kinase inhibitor, adenosine transport inhibitor, and a histamine synthetic precursor were used to pharmacologically confirm the identity of the measured substance as adenosine. Adenosine efflux was also correlated with increases in oxygen, which occur because of changes in cerebral blood flow. This study shows that extracellular adenosine transiently increases after short bursts of neuronal activity in concentrations that can activate receptors. PMID:18194431

Cechova, Sylvia; Venton, B Jill



Adenosine reagent-free detection by co-immobilization of adenosine deaminase and phenol red on an optical biostrip.  


Adenosine detection in human serum is important because this ribonucleoside has established clinical applications, modulating many physiological processes. Furthermore, a simple and cheap detection method is useful in adenosine production processes. Adenosine can be determined enzymatically using either S-adenosyl-homocysteine hydrolase and (3) [H]-adenosine, or adenosine kinase combined with GTP and luciferase, or an amperometric biosensor carrying adenosine deaminase (ADA), purine nucleoside phosphorylase, and xanthine oxidase. We developed a simple and cheap method relying on a transparent biostrip bearing ADA and the indicator phenol red (PR), co-immobilized to polyacrylamide, itself chemically adhered to a derivatized glass strip. The ADA-catalyzed conversion of adenosine to inosine and ammonia leads to a local pH alteration, changing the absorbance maximum of PR (from 425 to 567 nm), which is measured optically. The biostrip shows an analytical range 0.05-1.5 mM adenosine and is reusable when stored at 4 °C. When the biostrip was tested with serum, spiked with adenosine (70 and 100 ?M), and filtered for protein and adenosine phosphates depletion, it showed good adenosine recovery. In summary, we show the proof-of-concept that adenosine can be determined reagent-free, at moderate sensitivity on an easy to construct, cheap, and reusable biostrip, based on commercially available molecular entities. PMID:25293641

Bartzoka, Foteini; Venetsanou, Katerina; Clonis, Yannis



Fluorescence sensing of adenosine deaminase based on adenosine induced self-assembly of aptamer structures.  


A new approach is proposed for simple detection of adenosine deaminase (ADA) based on adenosine induced self-assembly of two pieces of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). These ssDNA are two fragments of the aptamer that has a strong affinity for adenosine and are labeled with carboxyfluorescein and black hole quencher-1, respectively. The complementarities of the bases in the two pieces of ssDNA are insufficient to form a stable structure. In the presence of adenosine, however, the ssDNA can be assembled into the intact aptamer tertiary structure, which results in fluorescence quenching of the carboxyfluorescein-labeled aptamer fragment. As a result, the adenosine-ssDNA complex shows a low background signal, which is rather desired for achieving sensitive detection. Reaction of the complex with ADA causes a great fluorescence enhancement by converting adenosine into inosine that has no affinity for the aptamer. This behaviour leads to the development of a simple and sensitive fluorescent method for assaying ADA activity, with a detection limit of 0.05 U mL(-1), which is more sensitive than most of the existing approaches. Furthermore, the applicability of the method has been demonstrated by detecting ADA in mouse serum samples. PMID:23462984

Feng, Tingting; Ma, Huimin



Adenosine augmentation ameliorates psychotic and cognitive endophenotypes of schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

An emerging theory of schizophrenia postulates that hypofunction of adenosine signaling may contribute to its pathophysiology. This study was designed to test the “adenosine hypothesis” of schizophrenia and to evaluate focal adenosine-based strategies for therapy. We found that augmentation of adenosine by pharmacologic inhibition of adenosine kinase (ADK), the key enzyme of adenosine clearance, exerted antipsychotic-like activity in mice. Further, overexpression of ADK in transgenic mice was associated with attentional impairments linked to schizophrenia. We observed that the striatal adenosine A2A receptor links adenosine tone and psychomotor response to amphetamine, an indicator of dopaminergic signaling. Finally, intrastriatal implants of engineered adenosine-releasing cells restored the locomotor response to amphetamine in mice overexpressing ADK, whereas the same grafts placed proximal to the hippocampus of transgenic mice reversed their working memory deficit. This functional double dissociation between striatal and hippocampal adenosine demonstrated in Adk transgenic mice highlights the independent contributions of these two interconnected brain regions in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and thus provides the rationale for developing local adenosine augmentation therapies for the treatment of schizophrenia. PMID:22706302

Shen, Hai-Ying; Singer, Philipp; Lytle, Nikki; Wei, Catherine J.; Lan, Jing-Quan; Williams-Karnesky, Rebecca L.; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Yee, Benjamin K.; Boison, Detlev



Adenosine Signaling During Acute and Chronic Disease States  

PubMed Central

Adenosine is a signaling nucleoside that is produced following tissue injury, particularly injury involving ischemia and hypoxia. The production of extracellular adenosine and its subsequent signaling through adenosine receptors plays an important role in orchestrating injury responses in multiple organs. There are four adenosine receptors that are widely distributed on immune, epithelial, endothelial, neuronal and stromal cells throughout the body. Interestingly, these receptors are subject to altered regulation following injury. Studies in mouse models and human cells and tissues have identified that the production of adenosine and its subsequent signaling through its receptors plays largely beneficial roles in acute disease states, with the exception of brain injury. In contrast, if elevated adenosine levels are sustained beyond the acute injury phase, adenosine responses can become detrimental by activating pathways that promote tissue injury and fibrosis. Understanding when during the course of disease adenosine signaling is beneficial as opposed to detrimental and defining the mechanisms involved will be critical for the advancement of adenosine based therapies for acute and chronic diseases. The purpose of this review is to discuss key observations that define the beneficial and detrimental aspects of adenosine signaling during acute and chronic disease states with an emphasis on cellular processes such as inflammatory cell regulation, vascular barrier function and tissue fibrosis. PMID:23340998

Karmouty-Quintana, Harry; Xia, Yang; Blackburn, Michael R.



The janus face of adenosine: antiarrhythmic and proarrhythmic actions.  


Adenosine is a ubiquitous, endogenous purine involved in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological regulatory mechanisms. Adenosine has been proposed as an endogenous antiarrhythmic substance to prevent hypoxia/ischemia-induced arrhythmias. Adenosine (and its precursor, ATP) has been used in the therapy of various cardiac arrhythmias over the past six decades. Its primary indication is treatment of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia, but it can be effective in other forms of supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias, like sinus node reentry based tachycardia, triggered atrial tachycardia, atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia, or ventricular tachycardia based on a cAMP-mediated triggered activity. The main advantage is the rapid onset and the short half life (1- 10 sec). Adenosine exerts its antiarrhythmic actions by activation of A1 adenosine receptors located in the sinoatrial and atrioventricular nodes, as well as in activated ventricular myocardium. However, adenosine can also elicit A2A, A2B and A3 adenosine receptor-mediated global side reactions (flushing, dyspnea, chest discomfort), but it may display also proarrhythmic actions mediated by primarily A1 adenosine receptors (e.g. bradyarrhythmia or atrial fibrillation). To avoid the non-specific global adverse reactions, A1 adenosine receptor- selective full agonists (tecadenoson, selodenoson, trabodenoson) have been developed, which agents are currently under clinical trial. During long-term administration with orthosteric agonists, adenosine receptors can be internalized and desensitized. To avoid desensitization, proarrhythmic actions, or global adverse reactions, partial A1 adenosine receptor agonists, like CVT-2759, were developed. In addition, the pharmacologically "silent" site- and event specific adenosinergic drugs, such as adenosine regulating agents and allosteric modulators, might provide attractive opportunity to increase the effectiveness of beneficial actions of adenosine and avoid the adverse reactions. PMID:25354187

Szentmiklosi, A Jozsef; Galajda, Zoltan; Cseppento, Agnes; Gesztelyi, Rudolf; Susan, Zsolt; Hegyi, Bence; Nanasi, Peter P



Functionalized Congeners of Adenosine: Preparation of Analogues with High Affinity for A1-Adenosine Receptors  

PubMed Central

A series of functionalized congeners of adenosine based on N6-phenyladenosine, a potent A1-adenosine receptor agonist, was synthesized. Derivatives of the various congeners should be useful as receptor and histochemical probes and for the preparation of radioligands and affinity columns or as targeted drugs. N6-[4-(Carboxymethyl)phenyl]adenosine served as the starting point for synthesis of the methyl ester, the methyl amide, the ethyl glycinate, and various substituted anilides. One of the latter, N6-[4-[[[4-(carbomethoxymethyl)anilino]carbonyl]methyl]phenyl]adenosine, served as the starting point for the synthesis of another series of congeners including the methyl amide, the hydrazide, and the aminoethyl amide. The terminal amino function of the last congener was acylated to provide further analogues. The various congeners were potent competitive antagonists of binding of N6-[3H]cyclohexyladenosine to A1-adenosine receptors in rat cerebral cortical membranes. The affinity of the congener for the A1 receptor was highly dependent on the nature of the spacer group and the terminal moiety with Ki values ranging 1–100 nM. A biotinylated analogue had a Ki value of 11 nM. A conjugate derived from the Bolton–Hunter reagent had a Ki value of 4.5 nM. The most potent congener contained a terminal [(aminoethyl)amino]carbonyl function and had a Ki value of less than 1 nM. PMID:2993623

Kirk, Kenneth L.; Padgett, William L.; Daly, John W.



Adenosine analogs with covalently attached lipids have enhanced potency at A1-adenosine receptors  

PubMed Central

Chemically functionalized congeners of N6-phenyladenosine and I ,3-dipropyl-8-phenylxanthine have been covalently coupled to fatty acids, diglyceridcs, and a phospholipid. The lipid-drug conjugates inhibit R-[3H]-phenylisopropyladenosinc binding to A1-adcnosine receptors in rat cerebral cortex membranes. A xanthinepbosphatidylethanolaminc conjugate bound with a K1 value of 19 nM. Various xanthine esters of low potency are potential prod rugs. Amides of an adenosine amine congener (ADA C) with 18-carbon fatty acids exhibited Ki values at A1-adenosine receptors of 70 pM, representing a 130-fold enhancement over the affinity of the corresponding acetyl amide. The very high affinity of adenosine-lipid conjugates may be due to stabilization of these adducts in the phospholipid microenvironment of the receptor protein. PMID:3691809

Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Zimmet, Jeffrey; Schulick, Richard; Barone, Suzanne; Daly, John W.; Kirk, Kenneth L.



Quantitative analysis of the ion-dependent folding stability of DNA triplexes.  


A DNA triplex is formed through binding of a third strand to the major groove of a duplex. Due to the high charge density of a DNA triplex, metal ions are critical for its stability. We recently developed the tightly bound ion (TBI) model for ion-nucleic acids interactions. The model accounts for the potential correlation and fluctuations of the ion distribution. We now apply the TBI model to analyze the ion dependence of the thermodynamic stability for DNA triplexes. We focus on two experimentally studied systems: a 24-base DNA triplex and a pair of interacting 14-base triplexes. Our theoretical calculations for the number of bound ions indicate that the TBI model provides improved predictions for the number of bound ions than the classical Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation. The improvement is more significant for a triplex, which has a higher charge density than a duplex. This is possibly due to the higher ion concentration around the triplex and hence a stronger ion correlation effect for a triplex. In addition, our analysis for the free energy landscape for a pair of 14-mer triplexes immersed in an ionic solution shows that divalent ions could induce an attractive force between the triplexes. Furthermore, we investigate how the protonated cytosines in the triplexes affect the stability of the triplex helices. PMID:22067830

Chen, Gengsheng; Chen, Shi-Jie



Stimulation of Wound Revascularization by Adenosine Receptor Activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Adenosine is an endogenous mediator implicated in wound healing. The exact mechanisms and receptors involved are still under\\u000a evaluation. We have observed that topical application of a selective adenosine A2A receptor agonist promotes wound healing in experimental animals, both healthy and with impaired healing. Histological analysis\\u000a revealed that adenosine promoted granulation tissue formation, with increased cellularity, matrix deposition, and vessel

M. Carmen Montesinos; María D. Valls


Adenosine Receptors in Wound Healing, Fibrosis and Angiogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Wound healing and tissue repair are critical processes, and adenosine, released from injured or ischemic tissues, plays an\\u000a important role in promoting wound healing and tissue repair. Recent studies in genetically manipulated mice demonstrate that\\u000a adenosine receptors are required for appropriate granulation tissue formation and in adequate wound healing. A2A and A2B adenosine receptors stimulate both of the critical functions

Igor Feoktistov; Italo Biaggioni; Bruce N. Cronstein


Adenosine receptor ligands: differences with acute versus chronic treatment  

PubMed Central

Adenosine receptors have been the target of intense research with respect to potential use of selective ligands in a variety of therapeutic areas. Caffeine and theophylline are adenosine receptor antagonists, and over the past three decades a wide range of selective agonists and antagonists for adenosine receptor subtypes have been developed. A complication to the therapeutic use of adenosine receptor ligands is the observation that the effects of acute administration of a particular ligand can be diametrically opposite to the chronic effects of the same ligand. This ‘effect inversion’ is discussed here by Ken Jecobson and colleagues, and has been observed for effects on cognitive processes, seizures and ischaemic damage. PMID:8936347

Jacobson, Kenneth A.; von Lubitz, Dag K. J. E.; Daly, John W.; Fredholm, Bertil B.



Passive and active in vitro resorption of calcium and magnesium phosphate cements by osteoclastic cells.  


Biocements are clinically applied materials for bone replacement in non-load-bearing defects. Depending on their final composition, cements can be either resorbed or remain stable at the implantation site. Degradation can occur by two different mechanisms, by simple dissolution (passive) or after osteoclastic bone remodeling (active). This study investigated both the passive and active in vitro resorption behavior of brushite (CaHPO??· 2H?O), monetite (CaHPO?), calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA; Ca?(PO?)?HPO?OH), and struvite (MgNH?PO??·?6H?O) cements. Passive resorption was measured by incubating the cement samples in a cell culture medium, whereas active resorption was determined during the surface culture of multinuclear osteoclastic cells derived from RAW 264.7 macrophages. Osteoclast formation was confirmed by showing tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity on CDHA, brushite, and monetite surfaces, as well as by measuring calcitonin receptor (CT-R) expression as an osteoclast-specific protein by Western blot analysis for struvite ceramics. An absence of passive degradation and only marginally active degradation of <0.01% were found for CDHA matrices. For the secondary calcium phosphates brushite and monetite, active degradation was predominant with a cumulative Ca²+ release of 2.02 (1.20) ?mol during 13 days, whereas passive degradation released only 0.788 (0.04) ?mol calcium ions into the medium. The struvite cement was the most degradable with a passive (active) release of 9.26 (2.92) Mg²+ ions and a total weight loss of 4.7% over 13 days of the study. PMID:20673025

Grossardt, Christian; Ewald, Andrea; Grover, Liam M; Barralet, Jake E; Gbureck, Uwe



Effect of Calcium and Magnesium on Phosphatidylserine Membranes: Experiments and All-Atomic Simulations  

PubMed Central

It is known that phosphatidylserine (PS?) lipids have a very similar affinity for Ca2+ and Mg2+ cations, as revealed by electrokinetic and stability experiments. However, despite this similar affinity, experimental evidence shows that the presence of Ca2+ or Mg2+ induces very different aggregation behavior for PS? liposomes as characterized by their fractal dimensions. Also, turbidity measurements confirm substantial differences in aggregation behavior depending on the presence of Ca2+ or Mg2+ cations. These puzzling results suggest that although these two cations have a similar affinity for PS? lipids, they induce substantial structural differences in lipid bilayers containing each of these cations. In other words, these cations have strong ion-specific effects on the structure of PS? membranes. This interpretation is supported by all-atomic molecular-dynamics simulations showing that Ca2+ and Mg2+ cations have different binding sites and induce different membrane hydration. We show that although both ions are incorporated deep into the hydrophilic region of the membrane, they have different positions and configurations at the membrane. Absorbed Ca2+ cations present a peak at a distance ?2 nm from the center of the lipid bilayer, and their most probable binding configuration involves two oxygen atoms from each of the charged moieties of the PS molecule (phosphate and carboxyl groups). In contrast, the distribution of absorbed Mg2+ cations has two different peaks, located a few angstroms before and after the Ca2+ peak. The most probable configurations (corresponding to these two peaks) involve binding to two oxygen atoms from carboxyl groups (the most superficial binding peak) or two oxygen atoms from phosphate groups (the most internal peak). Moreover, simulations also show differences in the hydration structure of the membrane: we obtained a hydration of 7.5 and 9 water molecules per lipid in simulations with Ca2+ and Mg2+, respectively. PMID:22824273

Martín-Molina, Alberto; Rodríguez-Beas, César; Faraudo, Jordi



Bioadsorption Behavior of Rhodococcus Opacus on the Surface of Calcium and Magnesium Minerals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surface properties of minerals can be influenced and changed by microbial activities when microorganisms adhere to the mineral surface. The change of mineral surface properties and thus mineral floatability can be used to separate gangues from valuable minerals. This study investigated the Rhodococcus opacus (R. opacus) adsorption behavior on the surfaces of calcite, serpentine, and dolomite by bioadhesive test, contact angle measurements, Zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that R. opacus could be absorbed well onto the surfaces of calcite, serpentine, and dolomite in a few minutes, with adsorption rate up to 96%. The cell adsorption was dependent on the pH value and the most suitable pH is 7.2, whereas no significant influence of temperature on adsorption was found. Increasing pulp density could provide more adsorption sites to R. opacus cells and increase the adsorption rate consequently. The contact angle of three minerals decreased after R. opacus attached, which indicated that the dispersibility of the mineral surface was improved and in favor of being separated. Zeta potential measurements showed that the cell with the charge was opposite to that of minerals on a broad of pH value. The SEM images showed that R. opacus attached very tightly onto the mineral surface, with a large number of small mineral particles gathered around the cell. FTIR spectra showed the presence of polymer groups on the cell wall that could have given a net charge on the mineral surface.

Li, Hongxu; Zhang, Mingming; Li, Chao; Yang, Xie; Li, An; Zhang, Lifeng



Decadal changes in potassium, calcium, and magnesium in a deciduous forest soil  

SciTech Connect

Decadal changes in soil exchangeable K{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}, and Mg{sup 2+} concentrations and contents from 1972 to 2004 in eight intensively monitored plots on Walker Branch Watershed were compared with estimates of increments or decrements in vegetation and detritus. The results from these eight plots compared favorably with those from a more extensive set from 24 soil sampling plots sampled in 1972 and 2004. Increases in exchangeable K{sup +} were noted between 1972 and 1982, but few changes were noted between 1982 and 2004 despite significant increments in vegetation and detritus and significant potential losses by leaching. Total K contents of soils in the 0- to 60-cm sampling depth were very large and a slight amount of weathering could have replenished the K{sup +} lost from exchanges sites. With one notable exception, exchangeable Ca{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+} concentrations and contents decreased continuously during the sampling period. Decreases in exchangeable Ca{sup 2+} could be attributed mostly to increments in biomass and detritus, whereas decreases in exchangeable Mg{sup 2+} could not and were attributed to leaching. The major exception to these patterns was in the case of exchangeable Ca{sup 2+}, where significant increases were noted in one plot and attributed to Ca release from the decomposition of Ca-rich coarse woody debris from oak (Quercus spp.) mortality. With minor exceptions, soils and changes in soils among the eight intensively sampled core plots were similar to those in a more extensive set of plots distributed across the watershed. This study shows that averaging among plots can mask significant and important spatial patterns in soil change that must be taken into account in assessing long-term trends.

Mulholland, Patrick J [ORNL; Johnson, Dale W. [University of Nevada, Reno; Todd Jr, Donald E [ORNL; Trettin, Carl [USDA Forest Service



A study of the role of calcium and magnesium in casein micellar structure in human milk  

E-print Network

A STUDY OF THE ROLE OF CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUN IN CASEIN MICELLAR STRUCTURE IN HUNAN MILK A Thesis by SHEILA ANN GALLAWAY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1988 Major Subject: Nutrition A STUDY OF THE ROLE OF CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUN IN CASEIN MICELLAR STRUCTURE IN HUMAN MILK A Thesis by SHEILA ANN GALLAWAY Approved as to style and content by; C. . Dil (Chair of Committee...

Gallaway, Sheila Ann



Relative importance of calcium and magnesium in hardness-based modification of copper toxicity  

SciTech Connect

Because of the relationship between water hardness and the toxicity of many metals, total hardness is used as a model parameter to calculate ambient water quality criteria for copper and other metals. However, the relative contribution of the Ca and Mg components of total hardness as modifiers of metals toxicity is not considered in the water quality criteria. Acute Cu toxicity was measured in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) swim-up fry in laboratory waters that were formulated to have similar total hardness and alkalinity but different Ca and Mg concentrations. Experiments were performed at nominal total hardness values of 40 and 90 mg/L (as CaCO{sub 3}). In four paired toxicity tests, acute Cu toxicity was significantly lower, i.e., 96-h LC50s were higher, in laboratory waters containing proportionately more Ca (Ca:Mg molar ratios of 1.5--5.2) than in waters containing less Ca (Ca:Mg molar ratios of 0.2--0.8). the relative increase in the 96-h Cu LC50 at higher Ca concentrations, but similar total hardness concentrations, was between 29 and 86% when the low Ca treatment was similar to American Society for Testing and Materials laboratory water. Failure to account for differences in Ca when matching or adjusting for total hardness thus exerts an important influence on the prediction of metal toxicity. These differences must be addressed in water-effect ratio testing in which paired tests with laboratory and site waters are conducted.

Welsh, P.G.; Lipton, J.; Chapman, G.A.; Podrabsky, T.L.



Cardiovascular mortality and calcium and magnesium in drinking water: An ecological study in elderly people  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Previous studies found relations between cardiovascular mortality and minerals in drinking water, but the major works considered water hardness or neglected the differences between adults and elderly. Drinking water is an important source of calcium in the elderly particularly because of increased needs and decreased consumption of dairy products. Methods: We collected informations about all deaths (14,311) occurring in

Sébastien Marque; Hélène Jacqmin-Gadda; Jean-Francois Dartigues; Daniel Commenges



Calcium and magnesium binding to human centrin 3 and interaction with target peptides.  


There are four isoforms of centrin in mammals, with variable sequence, tissue expression, and functional properties. We have recently characterized a number of structural, ion, and target binding properties of human centrin isoform HsCen2. This paper reports a similar characterization of HsCen3, overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified by phase-reversed chromatography. Equilibrium and dynamic binding studies revealed that HsCen3 has one mixed Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) binding site of high affinity (K(d) = 3 and 10 microM for Ca(2+) and Mg(2+), respectively) and two Ca(2+)-specific sites of low affinity (K(d) = 140 microM). The metal-free protein is fragmented by an unidentified protease into a polypeptide segment of 11 kDa, which was purified by HPLC, and identified by mass spectrometry as the segment of residues 21-112. Similarly, controlled trypsinolysis on Ca(2+)-bound HsCen3 yielded a mixture of segments of residues 1-124 and 1-125. The Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) site could be assigned to this segment and thus resides in the N-terminal half of HsCen3. Temperature denaturation experiments, circular dichroism, and utilization of fluorescence hydrophobic probes allowed us to propose that the metal-free protein has molten globule characteristics and that the dication-bound forms are compact with a polar surface for the Mg(2+) form and a hydrophobic exposed surface for the Ca(2+) form. Thus, HsCen3 could be classified as a Ca(2+) sensor protein. In addition, it is able to bind strongly to a model target peptide (melittin), as well as to peptides derived from the protein XPC and Kar1p, with a moderate Ca(2+) dependence. PMID:15654740

Cox, Jos A; Tirone, Fabiana; Durussel, Isabelle; Firanescu, Claudia; Blouquit, Yves; Duchambon, Patricia; Craescu, Constantin T



Effects of calcium and magnesium hardness on acute copper toxicity to juvenile channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of calcium or magnesium hardness on the acute toxicity of copper sulfate to juvenile channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) in low alkalinity environments. A preliminary bioassay determined the 48-h LC50 of copper sulfate to be 1.25 mg l?1 for juvenile catfish placed in water with calcium hardness and total alkalinity set at 20

Peter W. Perschbacher; William A. Wurts



Dietary calcium and magnesium supplements in spontaneously hypertensive rats and isolated arterial reactivity.  

PubMed Central

1. High calcium diet attenuates the development of hypertension but an associated undesirable effect is that Mg2+ loss to the urine is enhanced. Therefore, we studied the effects of high calcium diet alone and in combination with increased magnesium intake on blood pressure and arterial function. 2. Forty-eight young spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were allocated into four groups, the dietary contents of Ca2+ and Mg2+ being: 1.1%, 0.2% (SHR); 2.5%, 0.2% (Ca-SHR); 2.5%, 0.8% (CaMg-SHR); and 1.1%, 0.8% (Mg-SHR), respectively. Development of hypertension was followed for 13 weeks, whereafter electrolyte balance, lymphocyte intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+]i), and mesenteric arterial responses in vitro were examined. Forty normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were investigated in a similar manner. 3. Calcium supplementation comparably attenuated the development of Lypertension during normal and high magnesium intake in SHR, with an associated reduced lymphocyte [Ca2+]i and increased Mg2+ loss to the urine. 4. Endothelium-dependent arterial relaxation to acetylcholine was augmented in Ca-SHR and CaMg-SHR, while the relaxations to isoprenaline and the nitric oxide donor SIN-1 were similar in all SHR groups. Relaxation responses induced by the return of K+ to the organ bath upon precontractions in K(+)-free solution were used to evaluate the function of arterial Na+, K(+)-ATPase. The rate of potassium relaxation was similar in Ca-SHR and CaMg-SHR and faster than in untreated SHR.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8564205

Mäkynen, H.; Kähönen, M.; Arvola, P.; Wuorela, H.; Vapaatalo, H.; Pörsti, I.



Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium release from two compressed fertilizers: column experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We used soil columns to study nutrients release from two compressed NPK fertilizers. The columns were filled with soil material from the surface horizon of a granitic soil. Tablets of two slow-release NPK fertilizers (11-18-11 or 8-8-16) were placed into the soil, and then water was percolated through the columns in a saturated regime. Percolates were analyzed for N, P, K, Ca and Mg. These nutrients were also determined in soil and fertilizer tablets at the end of the trials. Nutrient concentrations were high in the first percolates, reaching a steady state when 1426 mm water have percolated, which is equivalent to approximately 1.5 years of rainfall in the geographic area. In the whole trial, both tablets lost more than 80% of their initial N, P and K contents. However, K, Ca and Mg were the most leached, whereas N and P were lost in leachates to a lesser extent. Nutrient release was slower from the tablet with composition 8-8-16 than from the 11-18-11 fertilizer. In view of that, the 8-8-16 tablet can be considered more adequate for crops with a nutrient demand sustained over time. At the end of the trial, the effects of these fertilizers on soil chemical parameters were still evident.

Fernández-Sanjurjo, M. J.; Alvarez-Rodríguez, E.; Núñez-Delgado, A.; Fernández-Marcos, M. L.; Romar-Gasalla, A.



Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium release from two compressed fertilizers: column experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this work was to study nutrients release from two compressed nitrogen-potassium-phosphorous (NPK) fertilizers. In the Lourizán Forest Center, tablet-type controlled-release fertilizers (CRF) were prepared by compressing various mixtures of fertilizers without covers or binders. We used soil columns (50 cm long and 7.3 cm inner diameter) that were filled with soil from the surface layer (0-20 cm) of an A horizon corresponding to a Cambic Umbrisol. Tablets of two slow-release NPK fertilizers (11-18-11 or 8-8-16) were placed into the soil (within the first 3 cm), and then water was percolated through the columns in a saturated regime for 80 days. Percolates were analyzed for N, P, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+. These elements were also determined in soil and fertilizer tablets at the end of the trials. Nutrient concentrations were high in the first leachates and reached a steady state when 1426 mm of water had been percolated, which is equivalent to approximately 1.5 years of rainfall in this geographic area. In the whole trial, both tablets lost more than 80% of their initial N, P and K contents. However, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ were the most leached, whereas N and P were lost in leachates to a lesser extent. Nutrient release was slower from the tablet with a composition of 8-8-16 than from the 11-18-11 fertilizer. In view of that, the 8-8-16 tablet can be considered more adequate for crops with a nutrient demand sustained over time. At the end of the trial, the effects of these fertilizers on soil chemical parameters were still evident, with a significant increase of pH, available Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, P and effective cation exchange capacity (eCEC) in the fertilized columns, as well as a significant decrease in exchangeable Al3+, reaching values < 0.08 cmol (+) kg-1.

Fernández-Sanjurjo, M. J.; Alvarez-Rodríguez, E.; Núñez-Delgado, A.; Fernández-Marcos, M. L.; Romar-Gasalla, A.



Minerals to Dairy Cows with Focus on Calcium and Magnesium Balance  

E-print Network

of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science Department of Animal Nutrition and Management Uppsala Doctoral Thesis. However, high levels of calcium in the diet resulted in decreased magnesium absorption. High amounts of potassium in the diet were associated with increased risk of high milk fever incidence, while high amounts


Adenosine: Tipping the balance towards hepatic steatosis and fibrosis  

PubMed Central

Fatty liver is commonly associated with alcohol ingestion and abuse. While the molecular pathogenesis of these fatty changes is well understood, the histochemical and pharmacological mechanisms by which ethanol stimulates these molecular changes remain unknown. During ethanol metabolism, adenosine is generated by the enzyme ecto-5?-nucleotidase, and adenosine production and adenosine receptor activation are known to play critical roles in the development of hepatic fibrosis. We therefore investigated whether adenosine and its receptors play a role in the development of alcohol-induced fatty liver. WT mice fed ethanol on the Lieber-DeCarli diet developed hepatic steatosis, including increased hepatic triglyceride content, while mice lacking ecto-5-nucleotidase or adenosine A1 or A2B receptors were protected from developing fatty liver. Similar protection was also seen in WT mice treated with either an adenosine A1 or A2B receptor antagonist. Steatotic livers demonstrated increased expression of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis, which was prevented by blockade of adenosine A1 receptors, and decreased expression of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism, which was prevented by blockade of adenosine A2B receptors. In vitro studies supported roles for adenosine A1 receptors in promoting fatty acid synthesis and for A2B receptors in decreasing fatty acid metabolism. These results indicate that adenosine generated by ethanol metabolism plays an important role in ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis via both A1 and A2B receptors and suggest that targeting adenosine receptors may be effective in the prevention of alcohol-induced fatty liver. PMID:20395005

Robson, Simon C.; Schuppan, Detlef



Adenosine receptor agonists: from basic medicinal chemistry to clinical development.  


Adenosine is a physiological nucleoside which acts as an autocoid and activates G protein-coupled membrane receptors, designated A(1), A(2A), A(2B) and A(3). Adenosine plays an important role in many (patho)physiological conditions in the CNS as well as in peripheral organs and tissues. Adenosine receptors are present on virtually every cell. However, receptor subtype distribution and densities vary greatly. Adenosine itself is used as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of supraventricular paroxysmal tachycardia and arrhythmias and as a vasodilatatory agent in cardiac imaging. During the past 20 years, a number of selective agonists for A(1), A(2A) and A(3) adenosine receptors have been developed, all of them structurally derived from adenosine. Several such compounds are currently undergoing clinical trials for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases (A(1)and A(2A)), pain (A(1)), wound healing (A(2A)), diabetic foot ulcers (A(2A)), colorectal cancer (A(3)) and rheumatoid arthritis (A(3)). Clinical evaluation of some A(1) and A(2A) adenosine receptor agonists has been discontinued. Major problems include side effects due to the wide distribution of adenosine receptors; low brain penetration, which is important for the targeting of CNS diseases; short half-lifes of compounds; or a lack of effects, in some cases perhaps due to receptor desensitisation or to low receptor density in the targeted tissue. Partial agonists, inhibitors of adenosine metabolism (adenosine kinase and deaminase inhibitors) or allosteric activators of adenosine receptors may be advantageous for certain indications, as they may exhibit fewer side effects. PMID:14662005

Yan, Luo; Burbiel, Joachim C; Maass, Astrid; Müller, Christa E



Transcapillary adenosine transport in isolated guinea pig and rat hearts.  


Transcapillary adenosine transport was studied in isolated guinea pig and rat hearts perfused with a colloid-free solution. High-performance liquid chromatography techniques were used to measure adenosine concentration of venous and interstitial (epicardial surface) fluid during steady-state perfusion with various concentrations of adenosine. A mathematical model was used to analyze these data to obtain estimates of the following parameters of transcapillary adenosine transport: PSg, permeability-surface area product for adenosine movement through interendothelial cell channels; PSecl, permeability-surface area product for adenosine movement through the luminal plasma membrane of endothelial cells; and Gec, clearance rate constant for endothelial cell metabolism and/or sequestration of adenosine. In both guinea pig and rat hearts, PSg was estimated to be less than or equal to 3 ml.min-1.g-1. Estimates of PSecl and Gec of guinea pig hearts (7.2 +/- 0.4 and 230 +/- 157 ml.min-1.g-1) were significantly less than those of rat hearts (66 +/- 11 and 2,490 +/- 1,360 ml.min-1.g-1). That PSecl is greater than PSg in both species indicates that endothelial cells represent an important pathway for transcapillary adenosine transport. That Gec is much greater than PSecl in both species implies that endothelial cells act as a sink for adenosine from surrounding areas. Our results indicate that endothelium is a stronger sink for adenosine in rat hearts than in guinea pig hearts. Inosine infusion (10(-4)M) had little effect on the estimated PSecl and Gec in guinea pig hearts but reduced these parameters several-fold in rat hearts, suggesting that different transport mechanisms for adenosine exist in endothelia of guinea pig and rat hearts. PMID:2396688

Mohrman, D E; Heller, L J



Adenosine and its receptors as therapeutic targets: An overview  

PubMed Central

The main goal of the authors is to present an overview of adenosine and its receptors, which are G-protein coupled receptors. The four known adenosine receptor subtypes are discussed along with the therapeutic potential indicating that these receptors can serve as targets for various dreadful diseases. PMID:23960840

Sachdeva, Sakshi; Gupta, Monika



A High-Affinity Adenosine Kinase from Anopheles Gambiae  

SciTech Connect

Genome analysis revealed a mosquito orthologue of adenosine kinase in Anopheles gambiae (AgAK; the most important vector for the transmission of Plasmodium falciparum in Africa). P. falciparum are purine auxotrophs and do not express an adenosine kinase but rely on their hosts for purines. AgAK was kinetically characterized and found to have the highest affinity for adenosine (K{sub m} = 8.1 nM) of any known adenosine kinase. AgAK is specific for adenosine at the nucleoside site, but several nucleotide triphosphate phosphoryl donors are tolerated. The AgAK crystal structure with a bound bisubstrate analogue Ap{sub 4}A (2.0 {angstrom} resolution) reveals interactions for adenosine and ATP and the geometry for phosphoryl transfer. The polyphosphate charge is partly neutralized by a bound Mg{sup 2+} ion and an ion pair to a catalytic site Arg. The AgAK structure consists of a large catalytic core in a three-layer {alpha}/{beta}/{alpha} sandwich, and a small cap domain in contact with adenosine. The specificity and tight binding for adenosine arise from hydrogen bond interactions of Asn14, Leu16, Leu40, Leu133, Leu168, Phe168, and Thr171 and the backbone of Ile39 and Phe168 with the adenine ring as well as through hydrogen bond interactions between Asp18, Gly64, and Asn68 and the ribosyl 2'- and 3'-hydroxyl groups. The structure is more similar to that of human adenosine kinase (48% identical) than to that of AK from Toxoplasma gondii (31% identical). With this extraordinary affinity for AgAK, adenosine is efficiently captured and converted to AMP at near the diffusion limit, suggesting an important role for this enzyme in the maintenance of the adenine nucleotide pool. mRNA analysis verifies that AgAK transcripts are produced in the adult insects.

M Cassera; M Ho; E Merino; E Burgos; A Rinaldo-Matthis; S Almo; V Schramm



Constitutively released adenosine diphosphate regulates proplatelet formation by human megakaryocytes  

PubMed Central

Background The interaction of adenosine diphosphate with its P2Y1 and P2Y12 receptors on platelets is important for platelet function. However, nothing is known about adenosine diphosphate and its function in human megakaryocytes. Design and Methods We studied the role of adenosine diphosphate and P2Y receptors on proplatelet formation by human megakaryocytes in culture. Results Megakaryocytes expressed all the known eight subtypes of P2Y receptors, and constitutively released adenosine diphosphate. Proplatelet formation was inhibited by the adenosine diphosphate scavengers apyrase and CP/CPK by 60-70% and by the P2Y12 inhibitors cangrelor and 2-MeSAMP by 50-60%, but was not inhibited by the P2Y1 inhibitor MRS 2179. However, the active metabolites of the anti-P2Y12 drugs, clopidogrel and prasugrel, did not inhibit proplatelet formation. Since cangrelor and 2-MeSAMP also interact with P2Y13, we hypothesized that P2Y13, rather than P2Y12 is involved in adenosine diphosphate-regulated proplatelet formation. The specific P2Y13 inhibitor MRS 2211 inhibited proplatelet formation in a concentration-dependent manner. Megakaryocytes from a patient with severe congenital P2Y12 deficiency showed normal proplatelet formation, which was inhibited by apyrase, cangrelor or MRS 2211 by 50-60%. The platelet count of patients with congenital delta-storage pool deficiency, who lack secretable adenosine diphosphate, was significantly lower than that of patients with other platelet function disorders, confirming the important role of secretable adenosine diphosphate in platelet formation. Conclusions This is the first demonstration that adenosine diphosphate released by megakaryocytes regulates their function by interacting with P2Y13. The clinical relevance of this not previously described physiological role of adenosine diphosphate and P2Y13 requires further exploration. PMID:22689668

Balduini, Alessandra; Di Buduo, Christian Andrea; Malara, Alessandro; Lecchi, Anna; Rebuzzini, Paola; Currao, Manuela; Pallotta, Isabella; Jakubowski, Joseph A.; Cattaneo, Marco



The Molecular Mechanism of Ion-Dependent Gating in Secondary Transporters  

PubMed Central

LeuT-like fold Na-dependent secondary active transporters form a large family of integral membrane proteins that transport various substrates against their concentration gradient across lipid membranes, using the free energy stored in the downhill concentration gradient of sodium ions. These transporters play an active role in synaptic transmission, the delivery of key nutrients, and the maintenance of osmotic pressure inside the cell. It is generally believed that binding of an ion and/or a substrate drives the conformational dynamics of the transporter. However, the exact mechanism for converting ion binding into useful work has yet to be established. Using a multi-dimensional path sampling (string-method) followed by all-atom free energy simulations, we established the principal thermodynamic and kinetic components governing the ion-dependent conformational dynamics of a LeuT-like fold transporter, the sodium/benzyl-hydantoin symporter Mhp1, for an entire conformational cycle. We found that inward-facing and outward-facing states of Mhp1 display nearly the same free energies with an ion absent from the Na2 site conserved across the LeuT-like fold transporters. The barrier separating an apo-state from inward-facing or outward-facing states of the transporter is very low, suggesting stochastic gating in the absence of ion/substrate bound. In contrast, the binding of a Na2 ion shifts the free energy stabilizing the outward-facing state and promoting substrate binding. Our results indicate that ion binding to the Na2 site may also play a key role in the intracellular thin gate dynamics modulation by altering its interactions with the transmembrane helix 5 (TM5). The Potential of Mean Force (PMF) computations for a substrate entrance displays two energy minima that correspond to the locations of the main binding site S1 and proposed allosteric S2 binding site. However, it was found that substrate's binds to the site S1 ?5 kcal/mol more favorable than that to the site S2 for all studied bound combinations of ions and a substrate. PMID:24204233

Zhao, Chunfeng; Noskov, Sergei Yu.



Excess adenosine in murine penile erectile tissues contributes to priapism via A2B adenosine receptor signaling  

PubMed Central

Priapism, abnormally prolonged penile erection in the absence of sexual excitation, is associated with ischemia-mediated erectile tissue damage and subsequent erectile dysfunction. It is common among males with sickle cell disease (SCD), and SCD transgenic mice are an accepted model of the disorder. Current strategies to manage priapism suffer from a poor fundamental understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the disorder. Here we report that mice lacking adenosine deaminase (ADA), an enzyme necessary for the breakdown of adenosine, displayed unexpected priapic activity. ADA enzyme therapy successfully corrected the priapic activity both in vivo and in vitro, suggesting that it was dependent on elevated adenosine levels. Further genetic and pharmacologic evidence demonstrated that A2B adenosine receptor–mediated (A2BR-mediated) cAMP and cGMP induction was required for elevated adenosine–induced prolonged penile erection. Finally, priapic activity in SCD transgenic mice was also caused by elevated adenosine levels and A2BR activation. Thus, we have shown that excessive adenosine accumulation in the penis contributes to priapism through increased A2BR signaling in both Ada–/– and SCD transgenic mice. These findings provide insight regarding the molecular basis of priapism and suggest that strategies to either reduce adenosine or block A2BR activation may prove beneficial in the treatment of this disorder. PMID:18340377

Mi, Tiejuan; Abbasi, Shahrzad; Zhang, Hong; Uray, Karen; Chunn, Janci L.; Xia, Ling Wei; Molina, Jose G.; Weisbrodt, Norman W.; Kellems, Rodney E.; Blackburn, Michael R.; Xia, Yang



The Safety and Efficacy of Intrathecal Adenosine in Patients with Chronic Neuropathic Pain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adenosine and adenosine analogs decrease pain-like behavior in animal models of both acute nociceptive and neuropathic pain via adenosine receptor activation at spinal and\\/or supraspinal levels. This open study is the first in a series of intrathecal (IT) adenosine admin- istration studied for the evaluation of efficacy and side effects in 14 patients. All had chronic neuropathic pain with tactile

Måns Belfrage; M arta Segerdahl; Staffan Arner; Alf Sollevi


Role of adenosine signalling and metabolism in ?-cell regeneration  

SciTech Connect

Glucose homeostasis, which is controlled by the endocrine cells of the pancreas, is disrupted in both type I and type II diabetes. Deficiency in the number of insulin-producing ? cells – a primary cause of type I diabetes and a secondary contributor of type II diabetes – leads to hyperglycemia and hence an increase in the need for insulin. Although diabetes can be controlled with insulin injections, a curative approach is needed. A potential approach to curing diabetes involves regenerating the ?-cell mass, e.g. by increasing ?-cell proliferation, survival, neogenesis or transdifferentiation. The nucleoside adenosine and its cognate nucleotide ATP have long been known to affect insulin secretion, but have more recently been shown to increase ?-cell proliferation during homeostatic control and regeneration of the ?-cell mass. Adenosine is also known to have anti-inflammatory properties, and agonism of adenosine receptors can promote the survival of ?-cells in an inflammatory microenvironment. In this review, both intracellular and extracellular mechanisms of adenosine and ATP are discussed in terms of their established and putative effects on ?-cell regeneration. - Highlights: • A potential way to cure diabetes is to regenerate the ?-cell mass by promoting cell survival, proliferation or neogenesis. • Adenosine may promote ?-cell regeneration through several cellular mechanisms. • Adenosine and its cognate nucleotide ATP can each promote ?-cell proliferation. • Do adenosine and ATP interact in promoting ?-cell proliferation?.

Andersson, Olov, E-mail:



Extracellular adenosine controls NKT-cell-dependent hepatitis induction.  


Extracellular adenosine regulates inflammatory responses via the A2A adenosine receptor (A2AR). A2AR deficiency results in much exaggerated acute hepatitis, indicating nonredundancy of adenosine-A2AR pathway in inhibiting immune activation. To identify a critical target of immunoregulatory effect of extracellular adenosine, we focused on NKT cells, which play an indispensable role in hepatitis. An A2AR agonist abolished NKT-cell-dependent induction of acute hepatitis by concanavalin A (Con A) or ?-galactosylceramide in mice, corresponding to downregulation of activation markers and cytokines in NKT cells and of NK-cell co-activation. These results show that A2AR signaling can downregulate NKT-cell activation and suppress NKT-cell-triggered inflammatory responses. Next, we hypothesized that NKT cells might be under physiological control of the adenosine-A2AR pathway. Indeed, both Con A and ?-galactosylceramide induced more severe hepatitis in A2AR-deficient mice than in WT controls. Transfer of A2AR-deficient NKT cells into A2AR-expressing recipients resulted in exaggeration of Con A-induced liver damage, suggesting that NKT-cell activation is controlled by endogenous adenosine via A2AR, and this physiological regulatory mechanism of NKT cells is critical in the control of tissue-damaging inflammation. The current study suggests the possibility to manipulate NKT-cell activity in inflammatory disorders through intervention to the adenosine-A2AR pathway. PMID:24448964

Subramanian, Meenakshi; Kini, Radhika; Madasu, Manasa; Ohta, Akiko; Nowak, Michael; Exley, Mark; Sitkovsky, Michail; Ohta, Akio



Increased Cortical Extracellular Adenosine Correlates with Seizure Termination  

PubMed Central

Objective Seizures are currently defined by their electrographic features. However, neuronal networks are intrinsically dependent upon neurotransmitters of which little is known regarding their peri-ictal dynamics. Evidence supports adenosine as having a prominent role in seizure termination, as its administration can terminate and reduce seizures in animal models. Further, microdialysis studies in humans suggest adenosine is elevated peri-ictally, but the relationship to the seizure is obscured by its temporal measurement limitations. Because electrochemical techniques can provide vastly superior temporal resolution, we test the hypothesis that extracellular adenosine concentrations rise during seizure termination in an animal model and humans using electrochemistry. Methods White farm swine (n=45) were used in an acute cortical model of epilepsy and 10 human epilepsy patients were studied during intraoperative electrocorticography (Ecog). Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration Sensor (WINCS) based fast scan cyclic voltametry (FSCV) and fixed potential amperometry were obtained utilizing an adenosine specific triangular waveform or biosensors respectively. Results Simultaneous Ecog and electrochemistry demonstrated an average adenosine rise of 260% compared to baseline at 7.5 ± 16.9 seconds with amperometry (n=75 events) and 2.6 ± 11.2 seconds with FSCV (n=15 events) prior to electrographic seizure termination. In agreement with these animal data, adenosine elevation prior to seizure termination in a human patient utilizing FSCV was also seen. Significance Simultaneous Ecog and electrochemical recording supports the hypothesis that adenosine rises prior to seizure termination, suggesting that adenosine itself may be responsible for seizure termination. Future work using intraoperative WINCS based FSCV recording may help to elucidate the precise relationship between adenosine and seizure termination. PMID:24483230

Van Gompel, Jamie J.; Bower, Mark R.; Worrell, Gregory A.; Stead, Matt; Chang, Su-Youne; Goerss, Stephan J.; Kim, Inyong; Bennet, Kevin E.; Meyer, Fredric B.; Marsh, W. Richard; Blaha, Charles D.; Lee, Kendall H.



Adenosine receptor antagonists effect on plasma-enhanced killing.  


Previous studies demonstrated that naive plasma has inherent capabilities to enhance bacterial opsonization and phagocyte killing, but not all plasma is equally effective. This raised the question of whether plasma constituents other than opsonins may play a role. Adenosine receptor antagonists have been shown to modulate cytokine response and survival in mice after a bacterial challenge. We investigated whether selective adenosine receptor blockade would influence the ability of naive plasma to effectively control bacterial growth. Colonic bacteria- and thioglycollate-elicited peritoneal macrophages and neutrophils were obtained from naive mice. Stock murine plasma from naive was purchased and categorized as having high plasma-enhanced bacterial killing capacity using our previously described methods. Bacteria and plasma were incubated to allow for opsonization and then added to macrophages previously exposed to selected adenosine receptor antagonists: ZM 241385: A2A, MRS1754: A2B, DPCPX: A1, and MRS1220: A3. The final mixture was plated on blood agar plates in aerobic and anaerobic conditions and bacterial colony-forming units quantified after 24 h. This study demonstrated that exogenous adenosine was able to significantly decrease phagocyte killing of cecal bacteria. Blocking adenosine receptors with selective antagonists altered the bacterial killing capacity of plasma. Selectively blocking the A1, A2A, or A2B receptors proved most beneficial at reversing the effect of adenosine. Consistent with previous work, only macrophage killing of bacteria could be modulated by adenosine receptor blockade because neutrophils were unaffected. These data demonstrate that adenosine decreases macrophage killing of enteric bacteria and that this effect is mediated through the adenosine receptors. PMID:24089004

Bauzá, Gustavo; Moitra, Rituparna; Remick, Daniel



Immunosuppression via adenosine receptor activation by adenosine monophosphate released from apoptotic cells  

PubMed Central

Apoptosis is coupled with recruitment of macrophages for engulfment of dead cells, and with compensatory proliferation of neighboring cells. Yet, this death process is silent, and it does not cause inflammation. The molecular mechanisms underlying anti-inflammatory nature of the apoptotic process remains poorly understood. In this study, we found that the culture supernatant of apoptotic cells activated the macrophages to express anti-inflammatory genes such as Nr4a and Thbs1. A high level of AMP accumulated in the apoptotic cell supernatant in a Pannexin1-dependent manner. A nucleotidase inhibitor and A2a adenosine receptor antagonist inhibited the apoptotic supernatant-induced gene expression, suggesting AMP was metabolized to adenosine by an ecto-5’-nucleotidase expressed on macrophages, to activate the macrophage A2a adenosine receptor. Intraperitoneal injection of zymosan into Adora2a- or Panx1-deficient mice produced high, sustained levels of inflammatory mediators in the peritoneal lavage. These results indicated that AMP from apoptotic cells suppresses inflammation as a ‘calm down’ signal. DOI: PMID:24668173

Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Maruyama, Toshihiko; Urade, Yoshihiro; Nagata, Shigekazu



Characteristic molecular vibrations of adenosine receptor ligands.  


Although the regulation of membrane receptor activation is known to be crucial for molecular signal transduction, the molecular mechanism underlying receptor activation is not fully elucidated. Here we study the physicochemical nature of membrane receptor behavior by investigating the characteristic molecular vibrations of receptor ligands using computational chemistry and informatics methods. By using information gain, t-tests, and support vector machines, we have identified highly informative features of adenosine receptor (AdoR) ligand and corresponding functional amino acid residues such as Asn (6.55) of AdoR that has informative significance and is indispensable for ligand recognition of AdoRs. These findings may provide new perspectives and insights into the fundamental mechanism of class A G protein-coupled receptor activation. PMID:25622891

Chee, Hyun Keun; Yang, Jin-San; Joung, Je-Gun; Zhang, Byoung-Tak; Oh, S June



21 CFR 864.7040 - Adenosine triphosphate release assay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR




21 CFR 864.7040 - Adenosine triphosphate release assay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR




21 CFR 864.7040 - Adenosine triphosphate release assay.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR




[Sleep-wake regulation by prostaglandin D2 and adenosine].  


Prostaglandin (PG) D2 and adenosine are potent endogenous somnogens that accumulate in the brain during prolonged wakefulness. Lipocalin-type PGD synthase (L-PGDS) catalyzes the isomerization of PGH2, a common precursor of various prostanoids, to produce PGD2. L-PGDS is localized in the leptomeninges, choroid plexus, and oligodendrocytes of the central nervous system. PGD2 stimulates DP1 receptors localized in the basal forebrain and increases the local extracellular concentration of adenosine, a paracrine signaling molecule, to promote sleep. Adenosine activates adenosine A2A receptor-expressing neurons in the basal forebrain and ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO) and inhibits adenosine A1 receptor-possessing arousal neurons. Sleep-promoting neurons in the VLPO send inhibitory signals to suppress the histaminergic neurons in the tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN); the histaminergic neurons contribute to arousal through histamine H1 receptors. GABAergic inhibition of TMN is involved in the induction of non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep by PGD2 and adenosine A2A agonists. The neural network between the VLPO and TMN is considered to play a key role in regulation of vigilance states. Administering an L-PGD inhibitor (SeCl4), DP1 antagonist (ONO-4127Na), or adenosine A2A receptor antagonist (caffeine) suppresses both non-REM and REM sleep, indicating that the PGD2-adenosine system is crucial for maintaining physiological sleep. Selective gene-deletion strategies based on Cre/loxP technology and focal RNA interference have been used for silencing the expression of the A2A receptor by local infection with adeno-associated virus carrying Cre-recombinase or short hairpin RNA. The results of these studies have shown that the A2Asubreceptors in the shell region of the nucleus accumbens are responsible for the effect of caffeine on wakefulness. PMID:22647469

Nagata, Nanae; Urade, Yoshihiro



Proton transfer in oxidized adenosine self-aggregates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The UV-vis and the IR spectra of derivativized adenosine in dichloromethane have been recorded during potentiostatic oxidation at an optically transparent thin layer electrode. Oxidized adenosine shows a broad Zundel like absorption extending from 2800 up to 3600 cm-1, indicating that a proton transfer process is occurring. Theoretical computations predict that proton transfer is indeed favored in oxidized 1:1 self-association complexes and allow to assign all the observed transient spectroscopic signals.

Capobianco, Amedeo; Caruso, Tonino; Celentano, Maurizio; La Rocca, Mario Vincenzo; Peluso, Andrea



Adenosine promotes vascular barrier function in hyperoxic lung injury  

PubMed Central

Abstract Hyperoxic lung injury is characterized by cellular damage from high oxygen concentrations that lead to an inflammatory response in the lung with cellular infiltration and pulmonary edema. Adenosine is a signaling molecule that is generated extracellularly by CD73 in response to injury. Extracellular adenosine signals through cell surface receptors and has been found to be elevated and plays a protective role in acute injury situations. In particular, ADORA2B activation is protective in acute lung injury. However, little is known about the role of adenosine signaling in hyperoxic lung injury. We hypothesized that hyperoxia?induced lung injury leads to CD73?mediated increases in extracellular adenosine, which is protective through ADORA2B signaling pathways. To test this hypothesis, we exposed C57BL6, CD73?/?, and Adora2B?/? mice to 95% oxygen or room air and examined markers of pulmonary inflammation, edema, and monitored lung histology. Hyperoxic exposure caused pulmonary inflammation and edema in association with elevations in lung adenosine levels. Loss of CD73?mediated extracellular adenosine production exacerbated pulmonary edema without affecting inflammatory cell counts. Furthermore, loss of the ADORA2B had similar results with worsening of pulmonary edema following hyperoxia exposure without affecting inflammatory cell infiltration. This loss of barrier function correlated with a decrease in occludin in pulmonary vasculature in CD73?/? and Adora2B?/? mice following hyperoxia exposure. These results demonstrate that exposure to a hyperoxic environment causes lung injury associated with an increase in adenosine concentration, and elevated adenosine levels protect vascular barrier function in hyperoxic lung injury through the ADORA2B?dependent regulation of occludin. PMID:25263205

Davies, Jonathan; Karmouty?Quintana, Harry; Le, Thuy T.; Chen, Ning?Yuan; Weng, Tingting; Luo, Fayong; Molina, Jose; Moorthy, Bhagavatula; Blackburn, Michael R.



Cell type-specific effects of adenosine on cortical neurons.  


The neuromodulator adenosine is widely considered to be a key regulator of sleep homeostasis and an indicator of sleep need. Although the effect of adenosine on subcortical areas has been previously described, the effects on cortical neurons have not been addressed systematically to date. To that purpose, we performed in vitro whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and biocytin staining of pyramidal neurons and interneurons throughout all layers of rat prefrontal and somatosensory cortex, followed by morphological analysis. We found that adenosine, via the A1 receptor, exerts differential effects depending on neuronal cell type and laminar location. Interneurons and pyramidal neurons in layer 2 and a subpopulation of layer 3 pyramidal neurons that displayed regular spiking were insensitive to adenosine application, whereas other pyramidal cells in layers 3-6 were hyperpolarized (range 1.2-10.8 mV). Broad tufted pyramidal neurons with little spike adaptation showed a small adenosine response, whereas slender tufted pyramidal neurons with substantial adaptation showed a bigger response. These studies of the action of adenosine at the postsynaptic level may contribute to the understanding of the changes in cortical circuit functioning that take place between sleep and awakening. PMID:24108800

van Aerde, Karlijn I; Qi, Guanxiao; Feldmeyer, Dirk



The A3 adenosine receptor: history and perspectives.  


By general consensus, the omnipresent purine nucleoside adenosine is considered a major regulator of local tissue function, especially when energy supply fails to meet cellular energy demand. Adenosine mediation involves activation of a family of four G protein-coupled adenosine receptors (ARs): A(1), A(2)A, A(2)B, and A(3). The A(3) adenosine receptor (A(3)AR) is the only adenosine subtype to be overexpressed in inflammatory and cancer cells, thus making it a potential target for therapy. Originally isolated as an orphan receptor, A(3)AR presented a twofold nature under different pathophysiologic conditions: it appeared to be protective/harmful under ischemic conditions, pro/anti-inflammatory, and pro/antitumoral depending on the systems investigated. Until recently, the greatest and most intriguing challenge has been to understand whether, and in which cases, selective A(3) agonists or antagonists would be the best choice. Today, the choice has been made and A(3)AR agonists are now under clinical development for some disorders including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, glaucoma, and hepatocellular carcinoma. More specifically, the interest and relevance of these new agents derives from clinical data demonstrating that A(3)AR agonists are both effective and safe. Thus, it will become apparent in the present review that purine scientists do seem to be getting closer to their goal: the incorporation of adenosine ligands into drugs with the ability to save lives and improve human health. PMID:25387804

Borea, Pier Andrea; Varani, Katia; Vincenzi, Fabrizio; Baraldi, Pier Giovanni; Tabrizi, Mojgan Aghazadeh; Merighi, Stefania; Gessi, Stefania



Endothelial cell uptake of adenosine in canine skeletal muscle  

PubMed Central

The vascularly isolated muscles in the hindlimbs of five dogs were perfused with an oxygenated physiological salt solution. The extractions of adenosine and of a nontransported analogue of adenosine, 9-?-d-arabinofuranosyl hypoxanthine (AraH), were determined by the single-pass indicator-dilution technique. A bolus containing [125I]albumin (reference tracer), [14C]adenosine, and [3H]AraH was injected into the artery while samples of venous effluent were collected over the next minute. This injection was repeated with dipyridamole (10–5 M) in the perfusate. Early extractions of AraH (EAra) and adenosine (EAdo) under control conditions were 48 ± 4 and 80 ± 4%, respectively. In the presence of dipyridamole, EAra was unchanged (47 ± 5) while EAdo decreased to 45 ± 7%. Since early extraction reflects primarily the barrier posed by endothelial cells, these results demonstrate significant endothelial uptake of adenosine. Analysis of these data using a mathematical model of blood-tissue exchange indicates that, under the conditions of these experiments, at least 78% of the adenosine taken up by skeletal muscle entered endothelial cells. PMID:3513628




Adenosine Stimulates Fibroblast Growth Factor7 Gene Expression Via Adenosine A2b Receptor Signaling in Dermal Papilla Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been previously reported that an adenosine receptor-mediated signal-transduction pathway in the dermal papilla cells (DPCs) of hair contributes to minoxidil-induced hair growth. In this study, we investigated this hypothesis further and have elucidated some underlying mechanisms. We performed DNA microarray analyses of DPCs and found that adenosine stimulation increases fibroblast growth factor-7 (FGF-7) gene expression levels by greater

Masato Iino; Ritsuko Ehama; Yosuke Nakazawa; Tokuro Iwabuchi; Masashi Ogo; Masahiro Tajima; Seiji Arase



Adenosine-5'-triphosphate-adenosine-glutathione cross-linked hemoglobin as erythropoiesis-stimulating agent.  


An effective hemoglobin (Hb)-based blood substitute that acts as a physiological oxygen carrier and volume expander ought to stimulate erythropoiesis. A speedy replacement of blood loss with endogenous red blood cells should be an essential feature of any blood substitute product because of its relatively short circulatory retention time and high autoxidation rate. Erythropoiesis is a complex process controlled by oxygen and redox-regulated transcription factors and their target genes that can be affected by Hb physicochemical properties. Using an in vitro cellular model, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of erythropoietic action of unmodified tetrameric Hb (UHb) and Hb cross-linked with adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP), adenosine, and reduced glutathione (GSH). These effects were studied under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Results indicate that these Hb solutions have different effects on stabilization and nuclear translocation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 alpha, induction of the erythropoietin (EPO) gene, activation of nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B, and expression of the anti-erythropoietic agents-tumor necrosis factor-alpha and transforming growth factor-beta 1. UHb suppresses erythropoiesis by increasing the cytoplasmic degradation of HIF-1 alpha and decreasing binding to the EPO gene while inducing NF-kappa B-dependent anti-erythropoietic genes. Cross-linked Hb accelerates erythropoiesis by downregulating NF-kappa B, stabilizing and facilitating HIF-1 alpha binding to the EPO gene, under both oxygen conditions. ATP and adenosine contribute to normoxic stabilization of HIF-1 and, with GSH, inhibit the NF-kappa B pathway that is involved in the suppression of erythroid-specific genes. Proper chemical/pharmacological modification is required to consider acellular Hb as an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent. PMID:22339724

Simoni, Jan; Simoni, Grace; Moeller, John F; Feola, Mario; Griswold, John A; Wesson, Donald E



Detecting adenosine triphosphate in the pericellular space  

PubMed Central

Release of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) into the extracellular space occurs in response to a multiplicity of physiological and pathological stimuli in virtually all cells and tissues. A role for extracellular ATP has been identified in processes as different as neurotransmission, endocrine and exocrine secretion, smooth muscle contraction, bone metabolism, cell proliferation, immunity and inflammation. However, ATP measurement in the extracellular space has proved a daunting task until recently. To tackle this challenge, some years ago, we designed and engineered a novel luciferase probe targeted to and expressed on the outer aspect of the plasma membrane. This novel probe was constructed by appending to firefly luciferase the N-terminal leader sequence and the C-terminal glycophosphatidylinositol anchor of the folate receptor. This chimeric protein, named plasma membrane luciferase, is targeted and localized to the outer side of the plasma membrane. With this probe, we have generated stably transfected HEK293 cell clones that act as an in vitro and in vivo sensor of the extracellular ATP concentration in several disease conditions, such as experimentally induced tumours and inflammation. PMID:23853707

Falzoni, Simonetta; Donvito, Giovanna; Di Virgilio, Francesco



Adenosine deaminase from Streptomyces coelicolor: recombinant expression, purification and characterization.  


The sequencing of the genome of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) identified seven putative adenine/adenosine deaminases and adenosine deaminase-like proteins, none of which have been biochemically characterized. This report describes recombinant expression, purification and characterization of SCO4901 which had been annotated in data bases as a putative adenosine deaminase. The purified putative adenosine deaminase gives a subunit Mr=48,400 on denaturing gel electrophoresis and an oligomer molecular weight of approximately 182,000 by comparative gel filtration. These values are consistent with the active enzyme being composed of four subunits with identical molecular weights. The turnover rate of adenosine is 11.5 s?¹ at 30 °C. Since adenine is deaminated ?10³ slower by the enzyme when compared to that of adenosine, these data strongly show that the purified enzyme is an adenosine deaminase (ADA) and not an adenine deaminase (ADE). Other adenine nucleosides/nucleotides, including 9-?-D-arabinofuranosyl-adenine (ara-A), 5'-AMP, 5'-ADP and 5'-ATP, are not substrates for the enzyme. Coformycin and 2'-deoxycoformycin are potent competitive inhibitors of the enzyme with inhibition constants of 0.25 and 3.4 nM, respectively. Amino acid sequence alignment of ScADA with ADAs from other organisms reveals that eight of the nine highly conserved catalytic site residues in other ADAs are also conserved in ScADA. The only non-conserved residue is Asn317, which replaces Asp296 in the murine enzyme. Based on these data, it is suggested here that ADA and ADE proteins are divergently related enzymes that have evolved from a common ?/? barrel scaffold to catalyze the deamination of different substrates, using a similar catalytic mechanism. PMID:21511036

Pornbanlualap, Somchai; Chalopagorn, Pornchanok



Tween 20-stabilized gold nanoparticles combined with adenosine triphosphate-BODIPY conjugates for the fluorescence detection of adenosine with more than 1000-fold selectivity.  


This study describes the development of a simple, enzyme-free, label-free, sensitive, and selective system for detecting adenosine based on the use of Tween 20-stabilized gold nanoparticles (Tween 20-AuNPs) as an efficient fluorescence quencher for boron dipyrromethene-conjugated adenosine 5'-triphosphate (BODIPY-ATP) and as a recognition element for adenosine. BODIPY-ATP can interact with Tween 20-AuNPs through the coordination between the adenine group of BODIPY-ATP and Au atoms on the NP surface, thereby causing the fluorescence quenching of BODIPY-ATP through the nanometal surface energy transfer (NSET) effect. When adenosine attaches to the NP surface, the attached adenosine exhibits additional electrostatic attraction to BODIPY-ATP. As a result, the presence of adenosine enhances the efficiency of AuNPs in fluorescence quenching of BODIPY-ATP. The AuNP-induced fluorescence quenching of BODIPY-ATP progressively increased with an increase in the concentration of adenosine; the detection limit at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 for adenosine was determined to be 60nM. The selectivity of the proposed system was more than 1000-fold for adenosine over any adenosine analogs and other nucleotides. The proposed system combined with a phenylboronic acid-containing column was successfully applied to the determination of adenosine in urine. PMID:25604821

Hung, Szu-Ying; Shih, Ya-Chen; Tseng, Wei-Lung



Intracoronary Versus Intravenous Adenosine-Induced Maximal Coronary Hyperemia for Fractional Flow Reserve Measurements  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Maximal hyperemia is the critical prerequisite for fractional flow reserve (FFR) assessment. Despite intravenous (IV) adenosine currently being the recommended approach, intracoronary (IC) administration of adenosine constitutes a valuable alternative in everyday practice. However, it is surprisingly unclear which IC strategy allows the achievement of FFR values that are comparable to IV adenosine. OBJECTIVES This study sought to compare increasing doses of IC adenosine versus IV adenosine for FFR. METHODS 30 intermediate coronary stenoses undergoing FFR measurement were prospectively and consecutively enrolled. Hyperemia was sequentially induced by bolus of IC adenosine (ADN; 150 ?g) followed by IV adenosine (IVADN) infusion over 3 minutes at dose of (140 ?g/kg/min). FFR values, symptoms, and development of atrioventricular block were recorded. RESULTS 150 ?g doses of IC adenosine were well tolerated and associated with fewer symptoms than IV adenosine. Intracoronary adenosine doses induced a significant decrease of FFR compared with baseline levels (P < 0.01). Among the 6 patients with FFR values less than 0.80 identified by IVADN, 4 were correctly identified also by 150 ?g bolus IC adenosine. Larger randomized studies with cross-over design are necessary to verify the results. CONCLUSIONS This small pilot study suggests that IC adenosine might be an alternative to IV adenosine. Larger randomized studies with a cross-over design are necessary. PMID:24558302

Khashaba, Ahmed; Mortada, Ayman; Omran, Azza



Manipulation of adenosine kinase affects sleep regulation in mice  

PubMed Central

Sleep and sleep intensity are enhanced by adenosine and its receptor agonists, while adenosine receptor antagonists induce wakefulness. Adenosine kinase (ADK) is the primary enzyme metabolizing adenosine in adult brain. To investigate whether adenosine metabolism or clearance affects sleep we recorded sleep in mice with engineered mutations in Adk. Adk-tg mice over-express a transgene encoding the cytoplasmic isoform of ADK in the brain, but lack the nuclear isoform of the enzyme. Wild-type mice and Adk+/? mice that have a 50% reduction of the cytoplasmic and the nuclear isoforms of ADK served as controls. Adk-tg mice showed a remarkable reduction of EEG power in low frequencies in all vigilance states and in theta activity (6.25–11 Hz) in REM sleep and waking. Adk-tg mice were awake 58 min more per day than wild-type mice and spent significantly less time in REM sleep (102±3 vs 128±3 min in wild-type). After sleep deprivation slow-wave activity (0.75–4 Hz), the intensity component of NREM sleep, increased significantly less in Adk-tg mice and their slow-wave energy was reduced. In contrast, the vigilance states and EEG spectra of Adk+/? and wild-type mice did not differ. Our data suggest that over-expression of the cytoplasmic isoform of ADK is sufficient to alter sleep physiology. ADK might orchestrate neurotransmitter pathways involved in the generation of EEG oscillations and regulation of sleep. PMID:20881134

Palchykova, Svitlana; Winsky-Sommerer, Raphaelle; Shen, Hai-Ying; Boison, Detlev; Gerling, Andrea; Tobler, Irene



Investigating real-time activation of adenosine receptors by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adenosine receptors play important roles in many physiological and pathological processes, for example regulating myocardial oxygen consumption and the release of neurotransmitters. The activations of adenosine receptors have been studied by some kinds of techniques, such as western blot, immunohistochemistry, etc. However, these techniques cannot reveal the dynamical response of adenosine receptors under stimulation. In this paper, bioluminescence resonance energy transfer technique was introduced to study the real-time activation of adenosine receptors by monitoring the dynamics of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) level. The results showed that there were significant differences between adenosine receptors on real-time responses under stimulation. Moreover, the dynamics of cAMP level demonstrated that competition between adenosine receptors existed. Taken together, our study indicates that monitoring the dynamics of cAMP level using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer technique could be one potential approach to investigate the mechanism of competitions between adenosine receptors.

Huang, Yimei; Yang, Hongqin; Zheng, Liqin; Chen, Jiangxu; Wang, Yuhua; Li, Hui; Xie, Shusen



Release of Adenosine and ATP During Ischemia and Epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Eighty years ago Drury & Szent-Györgyi described the actions of adenosine, AMP (adenylic acid) and ATP (pyrophosphoric or diphosphoric ester of adenylic acid) on the mammalian cardiovascular system, skeletal muscle, intestinal and urinary systems. Since then considerable insight has been gleaned on the means by which these compounds act, not least of which in the distinction between the two broad classes of their respective receptors, with their many subtypes, and the ensuing diversity in cellular consequences their activation invokes. These myriad actions are of course predicated on the release of the purines into the extracellular milieu, but, surprisingly, there is still considerable ambiguity as to how this occurs in various physiological and pathophysiological conditions. In this review we summarise the release of ATP and adenosine during seizures and cerebral ischemia and discuss mechanisms by which the purines adenosine and ATP may be released from cells in the CNS under these conditions. PMID:20190959

Dale, Nicholas; Frenguelli, Bruno G



Adenosine and cardioprotection: what can we learn from nature's genetic polymorphism?  


Adenosine is an endogenous nucleoside that has been shown to be beneficial for the myocardium in different settings by a large number of experimental studies. In this article, we 1) outline adenosine's metabolic pathways, 2) address cardioprotective properties of adenosine, and 3) discuss possible implications of the two recently published clinical studies disclosing a positive effect of adenosine monophosphate deaminase 1 (AMPD1) gene mutation on cardiovascular survival in heart failure and ischemic heart disease. (Fig. 2, Ref. 84.) PMID:12448564

Skalova, K; Luptak, I; Turcani, M; Hulin, I



Subclasses of adenosine receptors in the central nervous system: Interaction with caffeine and related methylxanthines  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The potencies of caffeine and related methylxanthines as adenosine antagonists were assessed with respect to three apparent subtypes of adenosine receptors in rat brain preparations: (i) the A1-adenosine receptor which binds with a very high affinity the ligand [3H]cyclohexyladenosine (KD, 1 nM) in rat brain membranes; (ii) a ubiquitous low-affinity A2-adenosine receptor which activates cyclic AMP accumulation in rat brain

John W. Daly; Pamela Butts-Lamb; William Padgett



Stability of Diluted Adenosine Solutions in Polyolefin Infusion Bags  

PubMed Central

Background: Intravenous or intracoronary adenosine is used in the cardiac catherization lab to achieve maximal coronary blood flow and determine fractional flow reserve. Objective: To determine the stability of adenosine 10 and 50 µg/mL in either 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection in polyolefin infusion bags stored at 2 temperatures, refrigeration (2°C-8°C) or controlled room temperature (20°C-25°C). Methods: Adenosine 10 µg/mL and 50 µg/mL solutions were prepared in 50 mL polyolefin infusion bags containing 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection and stored at controlled room temperature or under refrigeration. Each combination of concentration, diluent, and storage was prepared in triplicate. Samples were assayed using stability-indicating, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography immediately at time 0 and at 24 hours, 48 hours, 7 days, and 14 days. Stability was defined as retaining 90% to 110% of the initial adenosine concentration. The samples were also visually inspected against a light background for clarity, color, and the presence of particulate matter. Results: After 14 days, all samples retained 99% to 101% of the initial adenosine concentration. No considerable change in pH or visual appearance was noted. The stability data indicated no significant loss of drug due to chemical degradation or physical interactions during storage. Conclusion: Adenosine solutions of 10 and 50 µg/mL were stable for at least 14 days in 50 mL polyolefin infusion bags of 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection stored at controlled room temperature and refrigerated conditions. PMID:24421510

Almagambetova, Elise; Hutchinson, David; Blais, Danielle M.; Zhao, Fang



Role of adenosine in the hypoxia-induced hypothermia of toads  

E-print Network

Role of adenosine in the hypoxia-induced hypothermia of toads LUIZ G. S. BRANCO,1 ALEXANDRE A, Glenn J. Tattersall, and Stephen C. Wood. Role of adenosine in the hypoxia-induced hypothermia of toads remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that adenosine mediates hypoxia-induced hypothermia in toads

Tattersall, Glenn


Elevated Ecto-5’-nucleotidase-Mediated Increased Renal Adenosine Signaling Via A2B Adenosine Receptor Contributes to Chronic Hypertension  

PubMed Central

Rationale Hypertension is the most prevalent life-threatening disease worldwide and is frequently associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the molecular basis underlying hypertensive CKD is not fully understood. Objective We sought to identify specific factors and signaling pathways that contribute to hypertensive CKD and thereby exacerbate disease progression. Methods and Results Using high-throughput quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction profiling, we discovered that the expression level of 5?-ectonucleotidase (CD73), a key enzyme that produces extracellular adenosine, was significantly increased in the kidneys of angiotensin II–infused mice, an animal model of hypertensive nephropathy. Genetic and pharmacological studies in mice revealed that elevated CD73-mediated excess renal adenosine preferentially induced A2B adenosine receptor (ADORA2B) production and that enhanced kidney ADORA2B signaling contributes to angiotensin II–induced hypertension. Similarly, in humans, we found that CD73 and ADORA2B levels were significantly elevated in the kidneys of CKD patients compared with normal individuals and were further elevated in hypertensive CKD patients. These findings led us to further discover that elevated renal CD73 contributes to excess adenosine signaling via ADORA2B activation that directly stimulates endothelin-1 production in a hypoxia-inducible factor-?–dependent manner and underlies the pathogenesis of the disease. Finally, we revealed that hypoxia-inducible factor-? is an important factor responsible for angiotensin II–induced CD73 and ADORA2B expression at the transcriptional level. Conclusions Overall, our studies reveal that angiotensin II–induced renal CD73 promotes the production of renal adenosine that is a prominent driver of hypertensive CKD by enhanced ADORA2B signaling–mediated endothelin-1 induction in a hypoxia-inducible factor-?–dependent manner. The inhibition of excess adenosine-mediated ADORA2B signaling represents a novel therapeutic target for the disease. PMID:23584256

Zhang, Weiru; Zhang, Yujin; Wang, Wei; Dai, Yingbo; Ning, Chen; Luo, Renna; Sun, Kaiqi; Glover, Louise; Grenz, Almut; Sun, Hong; Tao, Lijian; Zhang, Wenzheng; Colgan, Sean P.; Blackburn, Michael R.; Eltzschig, Holger K.; Kellems, Rodney E.; Xia, Yang



Acetate supplementation modulates brain adenosine metabolizing enzymes and adenosine A2A receptor levels in rats subjected to neuroinflammation  

PubMed Central

Background Acetate supplementation reduces neuroglia activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in rat models of neuroinflammation and Lyme neuroborreliosis. Because single-dose glyceryl triacetate (GTA) treatment increases brain phosphocreatine and reduces brain AMP levels, we postulate that GTA modulates adenosine metabolizing enzymes and receptors, which may be a possible mechanism to reduce neuroinflammation. Methods To test this hypothesis, we quantified the ability of GTA to alter brain levels of ecto-5’-nucleotidase (CD73), adenosine kinase (AK), and adenosine A2A receptor using western blot analysis and CD73 activity by measuring the rate of AMP hydrolysis. Neuroinflammation was induced by continuous bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infusion in the fourth ventricle of the brain for 14 and 28 days. Three treatment strategies were employed, one and two where rats received prophylactic GTA through oral gavage with LPS infusion for 14 or 28 days. In the third treatment regimen, an interventional strategy was used where rats were subjected to 28 days of neuroinflammation, and GTA treatment was started on day 14 following the start of the LPS infusion. Results We found that rats subjected to neuroinflammation for 28 days had a 28% reduction in CD73 levels and a 43% increase in AK levels that was reversed with prophylactic acetate supplementation. CD73 activity in these rats was increased by 46% with the 28-day GTA treatment compared to the water-treated rats. Rats subjected to neuroinflammation for 14 days showed a 50% increase in levels of the adenosine A2A receptor, which was prevented with prophylactic acetate supplementation. Interventional GTA therapy, beginning on day 14 following the induction of neuroinflammation, resulted in a 67% increase in CD73 levels and a 155% increase in adenosine A2A receptor levels. Conclusion These results support the hypothesis that acetate supplementation can modulate brain CD73, AK and adenosine A2A receptor levels, and possibly influence purinergic signaling. PMID:24898794



Synthesis of oligo-RNAs with photocaged adenosine 2-hydroxyls  

E-print Network

the clea- vage reaction catalyzed by the hammerhead ribozyme6; cleavage is initiated by photo- lysis of the ribozyme . substrate complex3. This approach has also been extended to the caging of the branch adenosine11 and tertiary structures, the transient nature of RNA . RNA or RNA .protein complexes, and in some cases

Glover, Mark


Role of Extracellular Adenosine in Acute Lung Injury  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Acute lung injury (ALI) is a lung disease characterized by pulmonary edema and severe hypoxia. The past decade hosted a search for endogenous mechanisms controlling lung inflammation and pulmonary edema during ALI. As such, recent evidence indicates extracellular adenosine in orchestrating the resolution of pulmonary edema and inflammation during ALI.

Tobias Eckle (University of Colorado Denver Anesthesiology, Mucosal Inflammation Program); Michael Koeppen (University of Colorado Denver Anesthesiology); Holger K. Eltzschig (University of Colorado Denver Anesthesiology)



A Role for Adenosine Deaminase in Drosophila Larval Development  

E-print Network

considered an important stress hormone that is released in excessive amounts in the vicinity of immune cells cellular immunity and decreased production of immunoglobulins [2]. Without intervention, the affected during both systemic and cellular stress [6]. The predominant source of extracellular adenosine during

Gibson, Matt


A comparison of adenosine and arbutamine for myocardial perfusion imaging.  


We have compared our standard stress protocol (adenosine combined with exercise) with the new stress agent arbutamine, for thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) in order to assess the comparative value of arbutamine. We studied 23 patients referred for MPI, and each patient had two studies (18 males, median age 66 years, five with previous myocardial infarction). Uptake scores were assigned to each of nine segments, and the extent and severity of defects were measured using a polar plot. Haemodynamic changes were greater with arbutamine (rate-pressure product increase 78% vs 51%, P = 0.003). Symptoms were experienced by 21 patients with arbutamine and 16 with adenosine (P = 0.07). Agreement between the techniques for classification of patients as normal or as having reversible, fixed or mixed defects was good (19 of 23 studies, 83%, kappa = 0.76). Agreement for similar classification of segments was also good (82%, kappa = 0.71). Segmental agreement for stress scores was good (86%, kappa = 0.77). However, mean size of stress defect was larger with adenosine (83+/-52 pixels vs 65+/-48 pixels, P<0.05), though severity and reversibility were similar (P = NS). We conclude that arbutamine provides comparable results to those obtained with adenosine and exercise and that the observed differences are not clinically significant. PMID:9553169

Anagnostopoulos, C; Pennell, D; Francis, J; Serup-Hansen, K; Davies, G; Underwood, R



Labeled adenosine(5')tetraphospho(5')adenosine (Ap4A) and adenosine(5')tetraphospho(5')nucleoside (Ap4N). Synthesis with firefly luciferase.  


Labeled dinucleoside polyphosphates are not commercially available, in spite of being important molecules in metabolic regulation. Firefly luciferase (EC is a useful enzyme for the synthesis of adenosine(5')tetraphospho(5')adenosine (Ap4A). As luciferase behaves as a nucleotidase at low ATP concentration, adequate concentrations (higher than 0.1 mM ATP) should be used to obtain a good yield of labeled Ap4A. [32P]Ap4A has also been synthesized from ATP and [32P]PPi. In a first step, [beta, gamma-32P]ATP is generated in a ATP-[32P]PPi exchange reaction catalyzed by luciferase. In a second step, the reaction is supplemented with pyrophosphatase and 32P labeled Ap4A is obtained. Radioactive adenosine(5')tetraphospho(5')nucleoside (Ap4N) can also be synthesized from ATP gamma S and labeled NTP or from low concentrations of labeled ATP and high concentrations of cold NTP. The syntheses of radioactive ApnA and pnA (n > 4) can also be approached with luciferase. PMID:7494096

Garrido, S; Zaera, E; Torrecilla, A; Sillero, A; Günther Sillero, M A



Adenosine in cold blood cardioplegia – a placebo-controlled study  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE Adenosine as an additive in blood cardioplegia is cardioprotective in animal studies, but its clinical role in myocardial protection remains controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the addition of adenosine in continuous cold blood cardioplegia would enhance myocardial protection. METHODS In a prospective double-blind study comparing adenosine 400 ?mol l?1 to placebo in continuous cold blood cardioplegia, 80 patients undergoing isolated aortic valve replacement were randomized into four groups: antegrade cardioplegia with adenosine (n = 19), antegrade cardioplegia with placebo (n = 21), retrograde cardioplegia with adenosine (n = 21) and retrograde cardioplegia with placebo (n = 19). Myocardial arteriovenous differences in oxygen and lactate were measured before, during and after aortic occlusion. Myocardial concentrations of adenine nucleotides and lactate were determined from left ventricular biopsies obtained before aortic occlusion, after bolus cardioplegia, at 60 min of aortic occlusion and at 20 min after aortic occlusion. Plasma creatine kinase (CK-MB) and troponin T were measured at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 24 h after aortic occlusion. Haemodynamic profiles were obtained before surgery and 1, 8 and 24 h after cardiopulmonary bypass. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used for significance testing. RESULTS Adenosine had no effects on myocardial metabolism of oxygen, lactate and adenine nucleotides, postoperative enzyme release or haemodynamic performance. When compared with the antegrade groups, the retrograde groups showed higher myocardial oxygen uptake (17.3 ± 11.4 versus 2.5 ± 3.6 ml l?1 at 60 min of aortic occlusion, P < 0.001) and lactate accumulation (43.1 ± 20.7 versus 36.3 ± 23.0 µmol g?1 at 60 min of aortic occlusion, P = 0.052) in the myocardium during aortic occlusion, and lower postoperative left ventricular stroke work index (27.2 ± 8.4 versus 30.1 ± 7.9 g × m × m?2, P = 0.034). CONCLUSIONS Adenosine 400 ?mol l?1 in cold blood cardioplegia showed no cardioprotective effects on the parameters studied. Myocardial ischaemia was more pronounced in patients receiving retrograde cardioplegia. PMID:22108937

Ahlsson, Anders; Sobrosa, Claudio; Kaijser, Lennart; Jansson, Eva; Bomfim, Vollmer



Feed-Forward Inhibition of CD73 and Upregulation of Adenosine Deaminase Contribute to the Loss of Adenosine Neuromodulation in Postinflammatory Ileitis  

PubMed Central

Purinergic signalling is remarkably plastic during gastrointestinal inflammation. Thus, selective drugs targeting the “purinome” may be helpful for inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases. The myenteric neuromuscular transmission of healthy individuals is fine-tuned and controlled by adenosine acting on A2A excitatory receptors. Here, we investigated the neuromodulatory role of adenosine in TNBS-inflamed longitudinal muscle-myenteric plexus of the rat ileum. Seven-day postinflammation ileitis lacks adenosine neuromodulation, which may contribute to acceleration of gastrointestinal transit. The loss of adenosine neuromodulation results from deficient accumulation of the nucleoside at the myenteric synapse despite the fact that the increases in ATP release were observed. Disparity between ATP outflow and adenosine deficit in postinflammatory ileitis is ascribed to feed-forward inhibition of ecto-5?-nucleotidase/CD73 by high extracellular ATP and/or ADP. Redistribution of NTPDase2, but not of NTPDase3, from ganglion cell bodies to myenteric nerve terminals leads to preferential ADP accumulation from released ATP, thus contributing to the prolonged inhibition of muscle-bound ecto-5?-nucleotidase/CD73 and to the delay of adenosine formation at the inflamed neuromuscular synapse. On the other hand, depression of endogenous adenosine accumulation may also occur due to enhancement of adenosine deaminase activity. Both membrane-bound and soluble forms of ecto-5?-nucleotidase/CD73 and adenosine deaminase were detected in the inflamed myenteric plexus. These findings provide novel therapeutic targets for inflammatory gut motility disorders. PMID:25210228

Magalhães-Cardoso, Maria Teresa; Ferreirinha, Fátima; Dias, Ana Sofia; Pelletier, Julie



cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulates inhibition of adenosine transport by ethanol.  


Ethanol inhibits adenosine uptake, thereby increasing the concentration of extracellular adenosine. Elevation of extracellular adenosine increases intracellular cAMP concentration via activation of adenosine A2 receptors. Extracellular adenosine is also required for the subsequent development of ethanol-induced heterologous desensitization. Here we report that activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase is necessary for inhibition of adenosine uptake by ethanol and for the consequent accumulation of extracellular adenosine. Ethanol does not inhibit adenosine uptake in mutants of the S49 cell line that lack receptor-stimulated cAMP production (unc cells) or cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity (kin- cells). Forskolin, which bypasses the receptor-coupling defect in unc cells to increase cAMP levels, restores inhibition of adenosine uptake by ethanol. In contrast, in kin- cells forskolin did not restore inhibition of adenosine uptake by ethanol, despite similar increases in cAMP levels. Taken together, these results suggest that cAMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylates a component of the nucleoside transporter, thereby regulating the sensitivity of adenosine transport to ethanol. PMID:1658611

Nagy, L E; Diamond, I; Gordon, A S



Modulation of bladder function by luminal adenosine turnover and A1 receptor activation.  


The bladder uroepithelium transmits information to the underlying nervous and musculature systems, is under constant cyclical strain, expresses all four adenosine receptors (A(1), A(2A), A(2B), and A(3)), and is a site of adenosine production. Although adenosine has a well-described protective effect in several organs, there is a lack of information about adenosine turnover in the uroepithelium or whether altering luminal adenosine concentrations impacts bladder function or overactivity. We observed that the concentration of extracellular adenosine at the mucosal surface of the uroepithelium was regulated by ecto-adenosine deaminase and by equilibrative nucleoside transporters, whereas adenosine kinase and equilibrative nucleoside transporters modulated serosal levels. We further observed that enriching endogenous adenosine by blocking its routes of metabolism or direct activation of mucosal A(1) receptors with 2-chloro-N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA), a selective agonist, stimulated bladder activity by lowering the threshold pressure for voiding. Finally, CCPA did not quell bladder hyperactivity in animals with acute cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis but instead exacerbated their irritated bladder phenotype. In conclusion, we find that adenosine levels at both surfaces of the uroepithelium are modulated by turnover, that blocking these pathways or stimulating A(1) receptors directly at the luminal surface promotes bladder contractions, and that adenosine further stimulates voiding in animals with cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis. PMID:22552934

Prakasam, H Sandeep; Herrington, Heather; Roppolo, James R; Jackson, Edwin K; Apodaca, Gerard



Modulation of bladder function by luminal adenosine turnover and A1 receptor activation  

PubMed Central

The bladder uroepithelium transmits information to the underlying nervous and musculature systems, is under constant cyclical strain, expresses all four adenosine receptors (A1, A2A, A2B, and A3), and is a site of adenosine production. Although adenosine has a well-described protective effect in several organs, there is a lack of information about adenosine turnover in the uroepithelium or whether altering luminal adenosine concentrations impacts bladder function or overactivity. We observed that the concentration of extracellular adenosine at the mucosal surface of the uroepithelium was regulated by ecto-adenosine deaminase and by equilibrative nucleoside transporters, whereas adenosine kinase and equilibrative nucleoside transporters modulated serosal levels. We further observed that enriching endogenous adenosine by blocking its routes of metabolism or direct activation of mucosal A1 receptors with 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA), a selective agonist, stimulated bladder activity by lowering the threshold pressure for voiding. Finally, CCPA did not quell bladder hyperactivity in animals with acute cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis but instead exacerbated their irritated bladder phenotype. In conclusion, we find that adenosine levels at both surfaces of the uroepithelium are modulated by turnover, that blocking these pathways or stimulating A1 receptors directly at the luminal surface promotes bladder contractions, and that adenosine further stimulates voiding in animals with cyclophosphamide-induced cystitis. PMID:22552934

Prakasam, H. Sandeep; Herrington, Heather; Roppolo, James R.; Jackson, Edwin K.



Neuronal adenosine release, and not astrocytic ATP release, mediates feedback inhibition of excitatory activity  

PubMed Central

Adenosine is a potent anticonvulsant acting on excitatory synapses through A1 receptors. Cellular release of ATP, and its subsequent extracellular enzymatic degradation to adenosine, could provide a powerful mechanism for astrocytes to control the activity of neural networks during high-intensity activity. Despite adenosine's importance, the cellular source of adenosine remains unclear. We report here that multiple enzymes degrade extracellular ATP in brain tissue, whereas only Nt5e degrades AMP to adenosine. However, endogenous A1 receptor activation during cortical seizures in vivo or heterosynaptic depression in situ is independent of Nt5e activity, and activation of astrocytic ATP release via Ca2+ photolysis does not trigger synaptic depression. In contrast, selective activation of postsynaptic CA1 neurons leads to release of adenosine and synaptic depression. This study shows that adenosine-mediated synaptic depression is not a consequence of astrocytic ATP release, but is instead an autonomic feedback mechanism that suppresses excitatory transmission during prolonged activity. PMID:22421436

Lovatt, Ditte; Xu, Qiwu; Liu, Wei; Takano, Takahiro; Smith, Nathan A.; Schnermann, Jurgen; Tieu, Kim; Nedergaard, Maiken



2-(N'-alkylidenehydrazino)adenosines: potent and selective coronary vasodilators.  


The reaction of aliphatic aldehydes and ketones with 2-hydrazinoadenosine under relatively mild conditions (at room temperature or in refluxing methanol) formed 2-(N'-alkylidenehydrazino)-adenosines, 5-22, in good yields. Two kinds of adenosine receptors regulate cardiac and coronary physiology. In supraventricular tissues an A1AR coupled to muscarinic K channels mediates the negative chronotropic, dromotropic, and inotropic actions of adenosine, and an inhibitory A1AR coupled to adenylate cyclase mediates the "antiadrenergic" action of adenosine. One or more kinds of A2 receptors mediate coronary vasodilation. Bioassays employing a guinea pig heart Langendorff preparation showed that 5-22 weakly retard impulse conduction through the AV node (negative dromotropic effect), but several analogues were very active coronary vasodilators. The coronary vasoactivity of the (n-alkylidene- and of the (isoalkylidenehydrazino)adenosines paralleled the length of the alkyl chain, the EC50s of the of the most active n-pentylidene (8) and isopentylidene (18) congeners being 1 nM. The EC50s of the cyclohexylmethylene (9), cyclohexylethylidene (10), and cyclohex-3-enylmethylene (12), analogues were likewise < 1 nM, but the cyclohex-1-enylmethylene congener 12 was 10 times less active than 9. The unselective adenosine receptor antagonist 8-(p-sulfophenyl)theophylline (0.1 mM) raised the EC50s of the negative dromotropic effects of 8, 9, and 18 by 5-28-fold and the EC50s of coronary vasodilation of 22-90-fold. Catalytic reduction of 9 increased the hydrophobicity and changed the UV spectrum, suggesting reduction of the --CH = N-- bond. The product darkened on exposure to air and so was not characterized further. A new method for preparing 2',3',5'-tri-O-acetyl-2,6-dichloropurine riboside, a precursor in the synthesis of 2-hydrazinoadenosine, consists of the addition of tert-butyl nitrite to a mixture of 2',3',5'-tri-O-acetyl-6-chloroguanosine and CuCl in CHCl3 saturated with Cl2. PMID:1469687

Niiya, K; Olsson, R A; Thompson, R D; Silvia, S K; Ueeda, M



Adenosine Regulation of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator through Prostenoids in Airway Epithelia  

PubMed Central

Cystic fibrosis is caused by dysfunction of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein, leading to altered ion transport, chronic infection, and excessive inflammation. Here we investigated regulation of CFTR in airway cell monolayers by adenosine, adenosine receptors, and arachidonic acid. Our studies demonstrate that the A2B adenosine receptor is expressed at high levels relative to the other adenosine receptor subtypes, with a characteristic low-affinity profile for adenosine-stimulated CFTR Cl? currents in both Calu-3 cells and CFBE41o- airway cell monolayers stably transduced with wild-type CFTR. The levels of adenosine found in sputum from patients with cystic fibrosis with moderate to severe lung disease stimulated apical prostaglandin release in Calu-3 and CFBE41o- cells, implicating adenosine regulation of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity. A2B adenosine receptor and arachidonic acid stimulation produced CFTR-dependent currents in airway monolayers and increased cAMP levels that were sensitive to cyclooxygenase inhibition. Arachidonic acid demonstrated dual regulation of CFTR, stimulating CFTR and Cl? currents in intact airway monolayers, and potently inhibiting PKA-activated Cl? currents in excised membrane patches. Cl? currents produced by arachidonic acid were sensitive to inhibition of PKA, cyclooxygenase, and 5-lipoxygenase. Together, the results provide a converging mechanism to link regulation of CFTR and airway cell inflammation through adenosine and adenosine receptors. PMID:16399952

Li, Yao; Wang, Wei; Parker, William; Clancy, J. P.



Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor desensitization is regulated by activation-induced extracellular adenosine accumulation.  


Adenosine modulation of nicotinic ACh receptor (nAChR) function was studied in primary cultures of rat skeletal muscle. Activation of the nAChR by carbachol increased extracellular adenosine concentration in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, carbachol activation of the nicotinic receptor resulted in a twofold increase in cAMP levels in the muscle cells. The carbachol-dependent increase in cAMP levels was inhibited by adenosine receptor antagonists as well as by nicotinic receptor antagonists. These results suggest that the increased cAMP levels were due to adenosine receptor activation by the extracellular adenosine accumulated on nAChR activation. Others have shown that desensitization of the nAChR by agonist is mediated, in part, by phosphorylation. Since we found that nicotinic cholinergic agonists also cause adenosine accumulation with concomitant cAMP increases, we determined whether the accumulated adenosine has a role in desensitization. We found that the adenosine receptor antagonist, BW1434U, significantly inhibited carbachol-induced nAChR desensitization, indicating that extracellular adenosine is involved in nAChR desensitization. Our data suggest that nAChR function is regulated via a feedback mechanism mediated by adenosine released from muscle on activation of the nAChR. PMID:1331363

Pitchford, S; Day, J W; Gordon, A; Mochly-Rosen, D



Estimates of interstitial adenosine from surface exudates of isolated rat hearts.  


The adenosine concentration of exudate formed on the surface of isolated perfused rat hearts has been used to obtain estimates of interstitial values. At a constant perfusion of approximately 15 ml/min/g, exudate was collected from below ring seals that either fitted snugly (compressing seals) or that acted as wicks (wicking seals) to deflect venous effluent away from the apical surface. Steady state exudates flows obtained below each of these seals were 0.96 +/- 0.05 ml/min and 0.18 +/- 0.02 ml/min, respectively. Adenosine concentration of surface exudate and venous effluent from hearts with the compressing seal were 130 +/- 8 nM and 23 +/- 3 nM, respectively, and from those with the wicking seal were 770 +/- 93 nM and 36 +/- 9 nM, respectively. Interstitial adenosine concentration in a situation with no net filtration may be slightly higher than that achieved in the exudate from preparations with the wicking seal. Addition of exogenous adenosine to the perfusate (1.0 microM) decreased vascular resistance and automaticity of all preparations, increased the venous effluent adenosine concentration to 236 +/- 18 nM and 251 +/- 30 nM with the compressing and wicking seals, respectively, but did not significantly alter the exudate adenosine concentration with either of the seals. This finding suggests that increases in vascular adenosine may influence functional characteristics without altering interstitial levels. Perfusion with 10 microM adenosine increased adenosine concentration in both effluent and exudate in all preparations but the gradient was reversed so that effluent levels were significantly higher than exudate levels. We conclude that venous adenosine determinations significantly underestimate the interstitial adenosine concentration associated with endogenous adenosine production and significantly overestimate the interstitial levels achieved by infusion of exogenous adenosine. PMID:3216405

Heller, L J; Mohrman, D E



Adenosine detection by using gold nanoparticles and designed aptamer sequences.  


Based on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and engineered DNA aptamers, we designed a novel bioassay strategy for the detection of adenosine as a small target molecule. In this design, an aptamer is engineered to consist of two pieces of random-coil like ssDNA which are respectively attached to AuNPs through their 5'-thiol-modified end. They can reassemble into the intact aptamer tertiary structure and induce nanoparticle aggregation in the presence of the specific target. Results have demonstrated that gold nanoparticles can effectively differentiate these two different DNA structures via their characteristic surface plasmon resonance-based color change. With this method, adenosine can be selectively detected in the low micromolar range, which means that the strategy reported here can be applicable to the detection of several other small target molecules. PMID:19562201

Li, Fan; Zhang, Juan; Cao, Xuni; Wang, Lihua; Li, Di; Song, Shiping; Ye, Bangce; Fan, Chunhai



Adenosine deaminase activity in the diagnosis of tuberculous peritonitis.  

PubMed Central

We studied the activity of adenosine deaminase in the peritoneal fluid of 66 patients who were divided into five groups according to causes of ascites as follows: tuberculous peritonitis (group I), septic peritonitis (group II), secondary to malignant tumours (group III), miscellaneous conditions (group IV), and control subjects of transudates (group V). In patients with tuberculous peritonitis the enzyme activity was significantly higher than for the rest of the groups (p less than 0.001), and enzyme concentrations in all patients were well above the upper non-tuberculous value. Adenosine deaminase activity in the peritoneal fluid has proved to be a simple and reliable method for early diagnosis of tuberculous peritonitis. PMID:3758818

Martinez-Vazquez, J M; Ocaña, I; Ribera, E; Segura, R M; Pascual, C



Purification of an adenosine deaminase complexing protein from human plasma.  


A protein which specifically complexes with adenosine deaminase (complexing protein) has been purified to homogeneity from human plasma. This protein was compared with complexing protein isolated from human kidney. The two proteins produce electrophoretically different forms of high molecular weight adenosine deaminase when combined with the Mr = 36,000 enzyme monomer from erythrocytes. This difference may, at least in part, be due to the greater sialic acid content of complexing protein from plasma. By other criteria, including amino acid composition, total carbohydrate content, and subunit structure, the two proteins are quite similar. In addition, plasma complexing protein shows complete cross-reactivity with anti-kidney complexing protein serum. These results suggest that plasma and kidney complexing proteins are products of the same gene. PMID:115875

Schrader, W P; Woodward, F J; Pollara, B



Effects of adenosine 5?-monophosphate on epidermal turnover  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure and function of the epidermis is maintained by cell renewal based on epidermal turnover. Epidermal turnover\\u000a is delayed by aging, and it is thought that the delay of the epidermal turnover is a cause of aging alternation of skin. The\\u000a epidermal turnover is related to the energy metabolism of epidermal basal cells. Adenosine 5?-triphosphate (ATP) is needed\\u000a for

Fukumi Furukawa; Shoko Kanehara; Fumiki Harano; Shigeo Shinohara; Junko Kamimura; Shigekatsu Kawabata; Sachiyo Igarashi; Mitsuaki Kawamura; Yuki Yamamoto; Yoshiki Miyachi



Adenosine signaling in striatal circuits and alcohol use disorders.  


Adenosine signaling has been implicated in the pathophysiology of alcohol use disorders and other psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression. Numerous studies have indicated a role for A1 receptors (A1R) in acute ethanol-induced motor incoordination, while A2A receptors (A2AR) mainly regulate the rewarding effect of ethanol in mice. Recent findings have demonstrated that dampened A2AR-mediated signaling in the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) promotes ethanol-seeking behaviors. Moreover, decreased A2AR function is associated with decreased CREB activity in the DMS, which enhances goal-oriented behaviors and contributes to excessive ethanol drinking in mice. Interestingly, caffeine, the most commonly used psychoactive substance, is known to inhibit both the A1R and A2AR. This dampened adenosine receptor function may mask some of the acute intoxicating effects of ethanol. Furthermore, based on the fact that A2AR activity plays a role in goal-directed behavior, caffeine may also promote ethanol-seeking behavior. The A2AR is enriched in the striatum and exclusively expressed in striatopallidal neurons, which may be responsible for the regulation of inhibitory behavioral control over drug rewarding processes through the indirect pathway of the basal ganglia circuit. Furthermore, the antagonistic interactions between adenosine and dopamine receptors in the striatum also play an integral role in alcoholism and addiction-related disorders. This review focuses on regulation of adenosine signaling in striatal circuits and the possible implication of caffeine in goal-directed behaviors and addiction. PMID:23912595

Nam, Hyung Wook; Bruner, Robert C; Choi, Doo-Sup



Adenosine Signaling in Striatal Circuits and Alcohol Use Disorders  

PubMed Central

Adenosine signaling has been implicated in the pathophysiology of alcohol use disorders and other psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression. Numerous studies have indicated a role for A1 receptors (A1R) in acute ethanol-induced motor incoordination, while A2A receptors (A2AR) mainly regulate the rewarding effect of ethanol in mice. Recent findings have demonstrated that dampened A2AR-mediated signaling in the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) promotes ethanol-seeking behaviors. Moreover, decreased A2AR function is associated with decreased CREB activity in the DMS, which enhances goal-oriented behaviors and contributes to excessive ethanol drinking in mice. Interestingly, caffeine, the most commonly used psychoactive substance, is known to inhibit both the A1R and A2AR. This dampened adenosine receptor function may mask some of the acute intoxicating effects of ethanol. Furthermore, based on the fact that A2AR activity plays a role in goal-directed behavior, caffeine may also promote ethanol-seeking behavior. The A2AR is enriched in the striatum and exclusively expressed in striatopallidal neurons, which may be responsible for the regulation of inhibitory behavioral control over drug rewarding processes through the indirect pathway of the basal ganglia circuit. Furthermore, the antagonistic interactions between adenosine and dopamine receptors in the striatum also play an integral role in alcoholism and addiction-related disorders. This review focuses on regulation of adenosine signaling in striatal circuits and the possible implication of caffeine in goal-directed behaviors and addiction. PMID:23912595

Nam, Hyung Wook; Bruner, Robert C.; Choi, Doo-Sup



A comparison of adenosine and arbutamine for myocardial perfusion imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   We have compared our standard stress protocol (adenosine combined with exercise) with the new stress agent arbutamine, for\\u000a thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) in order to assess the comparative value of arbutamine. We studied 23 patients\\u000a referred for MPI, and each patient had two studies (18 males, median age 66 years, five with previous myocardial infarction).\\u000a Uptake scores were

Constantinos Anagnostopoulos; Dudley Pennell; Jane Francis; Kristine Serup-Hansen; Glyn Davies; Richard Underwood



Moonlighting adenosine deaminase: a target protein for drug development.  


Interest in adenosine deaminase (ADA) in the context of medicine has mainly focused on its enzymatic activity. This is justified by the importance of the reaction catalyzed by ADA not only for the intracellular purine metabolism, but also for the extracellular purine metabolism as well, because of its capacity as a regulator of the concentration of extracellular adenosine that is able to activate adenosine receptors (ARs). In recent years, other important roles have been described for ADA. One of these, with special relevance in immunology, is the capacity of ADA to act as a costimulator, promoting T-cell proliferation and differentiation mainly by interacting with the differentiation cluster CD26. Another role is the ability of ADA to act as an allosteric modulator of ARs. These receptors have very general physiological implications, particularly in the neurological system where they play an important role. Thus, ADA, being a single chain protein, performs more than one function, consistent with the definition of a moonlighting protein. Although ADA has never been associated with moonlighting proteins, here we consider ADA as an example of this family of multifunctional proteins. In this review, we discuss the different roles of ADA and their pathological implications. We propose a mechanism by which some of their moonlighting functions can be coordinated. We also suggest that drugs modulating ADA properties may act as modulators of the moonlighting functions of ADA, giving them additional potential medical interest. PMID:24933472

Cortés, Antoni; Gracia, Eduard; Moreno, Estefania; Mallol, Josefa; Lluís, Carme; Canela, Enric I; Casadó, Vicent



Agonist Derived Molecular Probes for A2A Adenosine Receptors  

PubMed Central

The adenosine agonist 2-(4-(2-carboxyethyl)phenylethylamino)-5?-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (CGS21680) was recently reported to be selective for the A2A adenosine receptor subtype, which mediates its hypotensive action. To investigate structurelactivity relationships at a distal site, CGS21680 was derivatized using a functionalized congener approach. The carboxylic group of CGS21680 has been esterified to form a methyl ester, which was then treated with ethylenediamine to produce an amine congener. The amine congener was an intermediate for acylation reactions, in which the reactive acyl species contained a reported group, or the precursor for such. For radioiodination, derivatives of p-hydroxyphenylpropionic, 2-thiophenylacetic, and p-aminophenylacetic acids were prepared. The latter derivative (PAPA-APEC) was iodinated electrophilically using [125I]iodide resulting in a radioligand which was used for studies of competition of binding to striatal A, adenosine receptors in bovine brain. A biotin conjugate and an aryl sulfonate were at least 350-fold selective for A, receptors. For spectroscopic detection, a derivative of the stable free radical tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy (TEMPO) was prepared. For irreversible inhibition of receptors, meta- and para-phenylenediisothiocyanate groups were incorporated in the analogs. We have demonstrated that binding at A2A receptors is relatively insensitive to distal structural changes at the 2-position, and we report high affinity molecular probes for receptor characterization by radioactive, spectroscopic and affinity labelling methodology. PMID:2561548

Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Pannell, Lewis K.; Ji, Xiao-duo; Jarvis, Michael F.; Williams, Michael; Hutchison, Alan J.; Barrington, William W.; Stiles, Gary L.



Identification of widespread adenosine nucleotide binding in Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

SciTech Connect

The annotation of protein function is almost completely performed by in silico approaches. However, computational prediction of protein function is frequently incomplete and error prone. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), ~25% of all genes have no predicted function and are annotated as hypothetical proteins. This lack of functional information severely limits our understanding of Mtb pathogenicity. Current tools for experimental functional annotation are limited and often do not scale to entire protein families. Here, we report a generally applicable chemical biology platform to functionally annotate bacterial proteins by combining activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) and quantitative LC-MS-based proteomics. As an example of this approach for high-throughput protein functional validation and discovery, we experimentally annotate the families of ATP-binding proteins in Mtb. Our data experimentally validate prior in silico predictions of >250 ATPases and adenosine nucleotide-binding proteins, and reveal 73 hypothetical proteins as novel ATP-binding proteins. We identify adenosine cofactor interactions with many hypothetical proteins containing a diversity of unrelated sequences, providing a new and expanded view of adenosine nucleotide binding in Mtb. Furthermore, many of these hypothetical proteins are both unique to Mycobacteria and essential for infection, suggesting specialized functions in mycobacterial physiology and pathogenicity. Thus, we provide a generally applicable approach for high throughput protein function discovery and validation, and highlight several ways in which application of activity-based proteomics data can improve the quality of functional annotations to facilitate novel biological insights.

Ansong, Charles; Ortega, Corrie; Payne, Samuel H.; Haft, Daniel H.; Chauvigne-Hines, Lacie M.; Lewis, Michael P.; Ollodart, Anja R.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Shukla, Anil K.; Fortuin, Suereta; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Grundner, Christoph; Wright, Aaron T.



Adenosine handling in interstitia of cremaster muscle studied by bioassay.  


We used video-microscopic techniques to study responses of rat cremaster muscle arterioles to adenosine (ADO) placed in a bathing solution in an effort to determine 1) the sensitivity of these vessels to local interstitial ADO concentration and 2) the parameters of interstitial adenosine handling. Two vessels, located at different depths (approximately 40 and 115 microns) below the surface of the tissue, were studied simultaneously. Invariably, a higher bath ADO concentration was required to induce vasodilation in the deeper vessel; the concentration required for 50% dilation response (EC50) for ADO dilation increased at an average of 1.8 +/- 0.2 log10 U/100 microns of depth into the tissue. This result was shown to be due to a standing gradient in interstitial ADO concentration. By extrapolating results to the tissue surface, we estimate that the EC50 for arteriolar dilation to local interstitial ADO is approximately 0.1 microM. The steepness of the tissue ADO gradient indicates that the rate constant for interstitial ADO loss is near 0.24/s. The gradients for nonmetabolizable adenosine analogues were less than 1/10th as steep as that for ADO itself. Qualitatively similar results were obtained from experiments on hamster cremaster muscle preparations. PMID:3344827

Mohrman, D E



Structural basis for calcium and magnesium regulation of a large conductance calcium-activated potassium channel with ?1 subunits.  


Large conductance Ca(2+)- and voltage-activated potassium (BK) channels, composed of pore-forming ? subunits and auxiliary ? subunits, play important roles in diverse physiological activities. The ?1 is predominately expressed in smooth muscle cells, where it greatly enhances the Ca(2+) sensitivity of BK channels for proper regulation of smooth muscle tone. However, the structural basis underlying dynamic interaction between BK mSlo1 ? and ?1 remains elusive. Using macroscopic ionic current recordings in various Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) concentrations, we identified two binding sites on the cytosolic N terminus of ?1, namely the electrostatic enhancing site (mSlo1(K392,R393)-?1(E13,T14)), increasing the calcium sensitivity of BK channels, and the hydrophobic site (mSlo1(L906,L908)-?1(L5,V6,M7)), passing the physical force from the Ca(2+) bowl onto the enhancing site and S6 C-linker. Dynamic binding of these sites affects the interaction between the cytosolic domain and voltage-sensing domain, leading to the reduction of Mg(2+) sensitivity. A comprehensive structural model of the BK(mSlo1 ?-?1) complex was reconstructed based on these functional studies, which provides structural and mechanistic insights for understanding BK gating. PMID:24764303

Liu, Hao-Wen; Hou, Pan-Pan; Guo, Xi-Ying; Zhao, Zhi-Wen; Hu, Bin; Li, Xia; Wang, Lu-Yang; Ding, Jiu-Ping; Wang, Sheng



On the mechanism by which calcium and magnesium affect the spontaneous release of transmitter from mammalian motor nerve terminals  

PubMed Central

1. The frequency of miniature end-plate potentials (m.e.p.p.s) was recorded from neuromuscular junctions in rat diaphragm phrenic nerve preparations in vitro after preparations had soaked in solutions containing Ca in concentrations between 10-10 and 10-2 M and a similar range of [Mg]. 2. Ethylenediamine tetra-acetate (EDTA) and ethyleneglycol bis (?-aminoethyl ether) tetra-acetate (EGTA) buffers were added to prepare solutions with [Ca] and [Mg] below 10-4 M. A computer program was used to estimate the free [Ca2+] in these solutions, and it was shown that the effects of Ca could be attributed to the free [Ca2+] in the bathing solution. 3. M.e.p.p.s could still be detected without difficulty after soaking preparations for 6-8 hr in solutions containing EDTA or EGTA buffers and no added Ca. The basal frequency was unchanged upon exhibition of Ca in concentrations up to 10-5 M and/or Mg in concentrations up to 10-3 M. 4. Ca in concentrations of and above 10-4 M accelerated m.e.p.p. frequency from the basal level. This effect reached a maximum in [Ca] of 10 mM and raising the [Ca] above this level did not further change frequency. These effects were explained by the combination of Ca molecules with a nerve terminal receptor site. It was postulated that this combination allosterically activated the spontaneous release mechanism. 5. Mg could accelerate m.e.p.p. frequency in the absence of added Ca. The interactions of Ca and Mg upon m.e.p.p. frequency indicated that Ca and Mg competed for the same sites. 6. Raising the [H+] of the bathing medium accelerated m.e.p.p. frequency. This effect was thought to be exerted partly by combination with the same receptor sites as Ca and Mg and partly by variation of the ionization of the CaCl2 of the bathing solution. PMID:4295698

Hubbard, J. I.; Jones, S. F.; Landau, E. M.



Seasonal patterns of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium in the leaves of the Massachusetts cranberry. [Vaccinium macrocarpon  

SciTech Connect

Leaf samples from cranberry plants in Wareham, MA, were collected during the 1980-82 growing seasons and analyzed for N, P, K, Ca and Mg. The seasonal patterns which emerged allowed the proposal of normal ranges for the elements and optimum times for sampling. The foliar nutrient levels obtained were compared to those for cranberries grown in other areas as well as to those for crops which are grown under similar conditions.

DeMoranville, C.J.; Deubert, K.H.



Effects of oligofructose-enriched inulin on intestinal absorption of calcium and magnesium and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal women  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Deficiency of oestrogen at menopause decreases intestinal Ca absorption, contributing to a negative Ca balance and bone loss. Mg deficiency has also been associated with bone loss. The purpose of the present investigation was to test the hypothesis that treatment with a spray-dried mixture of chicor...


Influence of oral co-administration of a preparation containing calcium and magnesium and food on enrofloxacin pharmacokinetics.  


The objective of this study has been to determine the influence of food and ions on the pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin (ENRO) in turkeys, administered per os at a dose of 10?mg/kg of body weight (b.w.). Co-administration of ENRO with ions or with food significantly retarded its absorption, and the interaction was more pronounced when the drug was given together with food. The bioavailability of ENRO was 65.78?±?7.81% and 47.99?±?9.48% with ions and food, respectively. The maximum concentration (Cmax) in plasma of animals exposed to ions reached 0.87?±?0.26??g/ml in a tmax of 2.07?±?0.76?h; in animals which were fed while medicated, the analogous parameters were 0.36?±?0.13??g/ml and 8.06?±?3.08?h. The PK/PD analysis demonstrated that a decrease in the concentration of ENRO in turkeys' blood due to the interaction with ions or food might impair the drug's clinical efficacy toward some pathogenic microorganisms in turkeys if a routine dose of 10?mg ENRO/kg b.w. is administered. PMID:24875062

Zió?kowski, Hubert; Jaroszewski, Jerzy J; Ma?lanka, Tomasz; Grabowski, Tomasz; Katolik, Kinga; Paw?ska, Justyna; Siemianowska, Ma?gorzata; Jasiecka, Agnieszka; Markiewicz, W?odzimierz; Spodniewska, Anna



Calcium and magnesium concentrations in uterine fluid and blood serum during the estrous cycle in the bovine  

PubMed Central

To investigate uterine and serum Ca++ and Mg++ variations during the estrous cycle in the bovine, 66 genital tracts and blood samples were collected from Urmia abattoir, Urmia, Iran. The phase of the estrous cycle was determined by examination of the structures present on ovaries and uterine tonicity. Of the collected samples, 17 were pro-estrus, 12 estrus, 14 metestrus and 23 diestrus. The uterine fluid was collected by gentle scraping of the uterine mucosa with a curette. The mean ± SEM concentration of serum Ca++ in pro-estrus, estrus, metestrus and diestrus was 5.77 ± 0.69, 8.87 ± 1.83, 10.95 ± 1.52, 11.09 ± 1.08 mg dL-1, and the mean concentration of uterine fluid Ca++ was 4.40 ± 0.72, 3.15 ± 0.67, 5.89 ± 0.88, 8.63 ± 0.97 mg dL-1, respectively. The mean concentration of serum Mg++ in pro-estrus, estrus, metestrus and diestrus was 3.53 ± 0.30, 4.20 ± 0.52, 3.49 ± 0.38, 3.39 ± 0.29 mg dL-1, and mean concentration of uterine fluid Mg++ was 5.27 ± 0.42, 4.92 ± 0.60, 5.56 ± 0.30, 5.88 ± 0.36 mg dL-1, respectively. The serum and uterine fluid Ca++ in pro-estrus were significantly different from those of the metestrus and diestrus. In all stages of estrous cycle the mean concentration of serum Ca++ was higher than that in the uterine fluid. The difference between serum and uterine fluid Ca++ in estrus, metestrus and diestrus was significant. There was no significant difference between serum Mg++ content nor was it different from uterine fluid Mg++ content at any stages of estrous cycle. In all stages of estrous cycle the uterine fluid Mg++ was higher than that of the serum. These results suggest that during the estrous cycle in the cow, Ca++ is passively secreted in uterine fluids and is mostly dependent on blood serum Ca++ variations but Mg++ is secreted independently and does not follow variations in the serum concentrations.

Alavi-Shoushtari, Sayed Mortaza; Asri-Rezaie, Siamak; Abedizadeh, Roya; Khaki, Amir; Pak, Mozhgan; Alizadeh, Sajad



Evaluation of calcium and magnesium in scalp hair samples of population consuming different drinking water: risk of kidney stone.  


The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) in underground water (UGW), bottled mineral water (BMW), and domestic treated water (DTW) with related to risk of kidney stones. The water samples were collected from different areas of Sindh, Pakistan. The scalp hair samples of both genders, age ranged 30-60 years, consuming different types of water, have or have not kidney disorders, were selected. The Ca and Mg concentrations were determined in scalp hair of study subjects and water by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. The Ca and Mg contents in different types of drinking water, UGW, DTW, and BMW, were found in the range of 79.1-466, 23.7-140, and 45-270 mg/L and 4.43-125, 5.23-39.6, and 7.16-51.3 mg/L, respectively. It was observed that Ca concentration in the scalp hair samples of kidney stone patients consuming different types of drinking water was found to be higher (2,895-4721 ?g/g) while Mg level (84.3-101 ?g/g) was lower as compare to referents subjects (2,490-2,730 ?g/g for Ca, 107-128 ?g/g for Mg) in both genders. The positive correlation was found between Ca and Mg levels in water with related to kidney stone formations in population, especially who consumed underground water. A relative risk and odd ratio were calculated; the relative risk had a strong positive association with incidence of kidney stone which depends on types of drinking water. PMID:24218227

Panhwar, Abdul Haleem; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Shaikh, Haffeezur Rehman; Arain, Salma Aslam; Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Brahman, Kapil Dev



Fractionation of calcium and magnesium in honeys, juices and tea infusions by ion exchange and flame atomic absorption spectrometry.  


An analytical procedure was proposed to study the operational fractionation of Ca and Mg in bee honeys, fruit juices and tea infusions. The protocol devised was based on the solid phase extraction of distinct metal fractions on different sorbents, namely strong acidic cation exchanger Dowex 50W x 4, weak acidic cation exchanger Diaion WT01S and strong basic anion exchange resin Dowex 1 x 4. For the evaluation of the amounts of the metal fractions distinguished, a flame atomic absorption spectrometry was used off-line prior to the determination of Ca and Mg concentrations in the effluents obtained. It was established that Ca and Mg are mostly present in the analysed samples in the form of cationic species (96-100%). The accuracy of the entire fractionation scheme and sample preparation procedures involved was verified by the performance of the recovery tests. PMID:18970707

Pohl, P; Prusisz, B



Adenosine stimulates CREB activation in macrophages via a p38 MAPK-mediated mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adenosine is an endogenously released autocoid that has potent receptor-mediated modulatory effects on macrophage function. The intracellular pathways mediating these effects are incompletely understood. Since adenosine receptor occupancy has been associated with activation of the cAMP–PKA system as well as of p38 MAPK and p42\\/44 MAPK, all of which can activate the CREB transcription factor system, we hypothesized that adenosine

Zoltán H Németh; S. Joseph Leibovich; Edwin A Deitch; Beáta Sperlágh; László Virág; E. Sylvester Vizi; Csaba Szabó; György Haskó



Modulatory Effects of Endogenous Adenosine on Epinephrine Secretion From the Adrenal Medulla of the Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine (1) whether endogenous,adenosine receptors inhibit the release of epineph- rine and norepinephrine,from adrenal medulla in response to physiological and pharmacological,stimuli and (2) whether,the renin-angiotensin system modulates,this effect of endogenous adenosine. We used a conscious animal model,to approximate normal physiological conditions. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with a surface adenosine receptor antagonist,

Ching-jiunn Tseng; Wen-yu Ho; Hui-ching Lin; Che-se Tung; Chia-jen Kuan


Estimation of skeletal muscle interstitial adenosine during forearm dynamic exercise in humans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has been proposed that adenosine is a metabolic signal that triggers activation of muscle afferents involved in the exercise pressor reflex. Furthermore, exogenous adenosine induces sympathetic activation that mimics the exercise pressor reflex, and blockade of adenosine receptors inhibits sympathetic activation induced by exercise. Thus, we hypothesize that adenosine is released locally by the muscle during exercise. We used microdialysis probes, placed in the flexor digitorium superficialis muscle, to estimate muscle interstitial adenosine levels in humans. We estimated resting in vivo muscle interstitial adenosine concentrations (0.292+/-0.058 micromol/L, n=4) by perfusing increasing concentrations of adenosine to determine the gradient produced in the dialysate. Muscle interstitial adenosine concentrations increased from 0.23+/-0.04 to 0.82+/-0.14 micromol/L (n=14, P<0.001) during intermittent dynamic exercise at 50% of maximal voluntary contraction. Lactate increased from 0.8+/-0.1 to 2.3+/-0.3 mmol/L (P<0.001). Lower intensity (15% maximal voluntary contraction) intermittent dynamic exercise increased adenosine concentrations from 0.104+/-0.02 to 0.42+/-0.16 micromol/L (n=7). The addition of ischemia to this low level of exercise produced a greater increase in adenosine (from 0.095+/-0.02 to 0.48+/-0.2 micromol/L) compared with nonischemic exercise (0. 095+/-0.02 to 0.25+/-0.12 micromol/L). These results indicate that microdialysis is useful in estimating adenosine concentrations and in reflecting changes in muscle interstitial adenosine during dynamic exercise in humans.

Costa, F.; Heusinkveld, J.; Ballog, R.; Davis, S.; Biaggioni, I.



Adenosine as an adjunct to thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESThe Acute Myocardial Infarction STudy of ADenosine (AMISTAD) trial was designed to test the hypothesis that adenosine as an adjunct to thrombolysis would reduce myocardial infarct size.BACKGROUNDReperfusion therapy for acute myocardial infarction (MI) has been shown to reduce mortality, but reperfusion itself also may have deleterious effects.METHODSThe AMISTAD trial was a prospective, open-label trial of thrombolysis with randomization to adenosine

Kenneth W Mahaffey; Joseph A Puma; N. Alejandro Barbagelata; Marcelo F DiCarli; Massoud A Leesar; Kevin F Browne; Paul R Eisenberg; Roberto Bolli; A. Cecilia Casas; Victor Molina-Viamonte; Cesare Orlandi; Roger Blevins; Raymond J Gibbons; Robert M Califf; Christopher B Granger



Adenosine: an activity-dependent axonal signal regulating MAP kinase and proliferation in developing Schwann cells  

PubMed Central

Nonsynaptic release of ATP from electrically stimulated dorsal root gangion (DRG) axons inhibits Schwann cell (SC) proliferation and arrests SC development at the premyelinating stage, but the specific types of purinergic receptor(s) and intracellular signaling pathways involved in this form of neuron–glia communication are not known. Recent research shows that adenosine is a neuron–glial transmitter between axons and myelinating glia of the CNS. The present study investigates the possibility that adenosine might have a similar function in communicating between axons and premyelinating SCs. Using a combination of pharmacological and molecular approaches, we found that mouse SCs in culture express functional adenosine receptors and ATP receptors, a far more complex array of purinergic receptors than thought previously. Adenosine, but not ATP, activates ERK/MAPK through stimulation of cAMP-linked A2A adenosine receptors. Both ATP and adenosine inhibit proliferation of SCs induced by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), via mechanisms that are partly independent. In contrast to ATP, adenosine failed to inhibit the differentiation of SCs to the O4+ stage. This indicates that, in addition to ATP, adenosine is an activity-dependent signaling molecule between axons and premyelinating Schwann cells, but that electrical activity, acting through adenosine, has opposite effects on the differentiation of myelinating glia in the PNS and CNS. PMID:16429616

Stevens, Beth; Ishibashi, Tomoko; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Fields, R. Douglas



Adenosine and Glutamate Signaling in Neuron-Glial interactions: Implications in Alcoholism and Sleep Disorders  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have demonstrated that the function of glia is not restricted to the support of neuronal function. Especially, astrocytes are essential for neuronal activity in the brain. Astrocytes actively participate in synapse formation and brain information processing by releasing or uptaking gliotransmitters such as glutamate, D-serine, adenosine 5?-triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine. In the central nervous system, adenosine plays an important role in regulating neuronal activity as well as in controlling other neurotransmitter systems such as GABA, glutamate and dopamine. Ethanol increases extracellular adenosine levels, which regulates the ataxic and hypnotic/sedative (somnogenic) effects of ethanol. Adenosine signaling is also involved in the homeostasis of major inhibitory-excitatory neurotransmission (i.e. GABA or glutamate) through neuron-glial interactions, which regulates the effect of ethanol and sleep. Adenosine transporters or astrocytic SNARE-mediated transmitter release regulates extracellular or synaptic adenosine levels. Adenosine then exerts its function through several adenosine receptors and regulates glutamate levels in the brain. This review presents novel findings on how neuron-glial interactions, particularly adenosinergic signaling and glutamate uptake activity involving glutamate transporter 1 (GLT1), are implicated in alcoholism and sleep disorders. PMID:22309182

Nam, Hyung Wook; McIver, Sally R.; Hinton, David J.; Thakkar, Mahesh M.; Sari, Youssef; Parkinson, Fiona E.; Haydon, Phillip G.; Choi, Doo-Sup



Adenosine and glutamate signaling in neuron-glial interactions: implications in alcoholism and sleep disorders.  


Recent studies have demonstrated that the function of glia is not restricted to the support of neuronal function. Especially, astrocytes are essential for neuronal activity in the brain. Astrocytes actively participate in synapse formation and brain information processing by releasing or uptaking gliotransmitters such as glutamate, d-serine, adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), and adenosine. In the central nervous system, adenosine plays an important role in regulating neuronal activity as well as in controlling other neurotransmitter systems such as GABA, glutamate, and dopamine. Ethanol (EtOH) increases extracellular adenosine levels, which regulates the ataxic and hypnotic/sedative (somnogenic) effects of EtOH. Adenosine signaling is also involved in the homeostasis of major inhibitory/excitatory neurotransmission (i.e., GABA or glutamate) through neuron-glial interactions, which regulates the effect of EtOH and sleep. Adenosine transporters or astrocytic SNARE-mediated transmitter release regulates extracellular or synaptic adenosine levels. Adenosine then exerts its function through several adenosine receptors and regulates glutamate levels in the brain. This review presents novel findings on how neuron-glial interactions, particularly adenosinergic signaling and glutamate uptake activity involving glutamate transporter 1 (GLT1), are implicated in alcoholism and sleep disorders. PMID:22309182

Nam, Hyung W; McIver, Sally R; Hinton, David J; Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sari, Youssef; Parkinson, Fiona E; Haydon, Phillip G; Choi, Doo-Sup



The 1976C>T polymorphism in the adenosine A2A receptor gene does not affect the vasodilator response to adenosine in humans in vivo.  


The 1976C>T polymorphism in the adenosine A2A receptor gene (ADORA2A) modulates the psychological response to administration of the adenosine receptor antagonist caffeine. We quantified the vascular response to adenosine and caffeine to determine the relevance of this variant allele in the physiological response to these agents. We selected 10 study participants with the TT genotype and 10 CC controls, matched for activities of other proteins involved in the metabolism of adenosine. The vasodilator response to the intrabrachial administration of adenosine (0.5, 1.5, 5.0, 15.0, and 50.0 microg/min/dl; venous occlusion plethysmography) was not different between the groups (P=0.4). In addition, the effect of subsequent administration of caffeine (90 microg/min/dl) was not different (P=0.7). We conclude that the 1976C>T polymorphism does not affect the vascular response to adenosine and caffeine in humans in vivo. Therefore, this polymorphism does not contribute to the variation in the effects of adenosine receptor stimulation. PMID:17558310

Riksen, Niels P; Franke, Barbara; van den Broek, Petra; Smits, Paul; Rongen, Gerard A



Activity-Dependent Adenosine Release May Be Linked to Activation of Na+-K+ ATPase: An In Vitro Rat Study  

PubMed Central

In the brain, extracellular adenosine increases as a result of neuronal activity. The mechanisms by which this occurs are only incompletely understood. Here we investigate the hypothesis that the Na+ influxes associated with neuronal signalling activate the Na+-K+ ATPase which, by consuming ATP, generates intracellular adenosine that is then released via transporters. By measuring adenosine release directly with microelectrode biosensors, we have demonstrated that AMPA-receptor evoked adenosine release in basal forebrain and cortex depends on extracellular Na+. We have simultaneously imaged intracellular Na+ and measured adenosine release. The accumulation of intracellular Na+ during AMPA receptor activation preceded adenosine release by some 90 s. By removing extracellular Ca2+, and thus preventing indiscriminate neuronal activation, we used ouabain to test the role of the Na+-K+ ATPase in the release of adenosine. Under conditions which caused a Na+ influx, brief applications of ouabain increased the accumulation of intracellular Na+ but conversely rapidly reduced extracellular adenosine levels. In addition, ouabain greatly reduced the amount of adenosine released during application of AMPA. Our data therefore suggest that activity of the Na+-K+ ATPase is directly linked to the efflux of adenosine and could provide a universal mechanism that couples adenosine release to neuronal activity. The Na+-K+ ATPase-dependent adenosine efflux is likely to provide adenosine-mediated activity-dependent negative feedback that will be important in many diverse functional contexts including the regulation of sleep. PMID:24489921

Sims, Robert Edward; Dale, Nicholas



Absolute rates of adenosine formation during ischaemia in rat and pigeon hearts.  

PubMed Central

1. The activities of ecto- and cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase (EC, adenosine kinase (EC, adenosine deaminase (EC and AMP deaminase (EC were compared in ventricular myocardium from man, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, pigeons and turtles. The most striking variation was in the activity of the ecto-5'-nucleotidase, which was 20 times less active in rabbit heart and 300 times less active in pigeon heart than in rat heart. The cytochemical distribution of ecto-5'-nucleotidase was also highly variable between species. 2. Adenosine formation was quantified in pigeon and rat ventricular myocardium in the presence of inhibitors of adenosine kinase and adenosine deaminase. 3. Both adenosine formation rates and the proportion of ATP catabolized to adenosine were greatest during the first 2 min of total ischaemia at 37 degrees C. Adenosine formation rates were 410 +/- 40 nmol/min per g wet wt. in pigeon hearts and 470 +/- 60 nmol/min per g wet wt. in rat hearts. Formation of adenosine accounted for 46% of ATP plus ADP broken down in pigeon hearts and 88% in rat hearts. 4. The data show that, in both pigeon and rat hearts, adenosine is the major catabolite of ATP in the early stages of normothermic myocardial ischaemia. The activity of ecto-5'-nucleotidase in pigeon ventricle (16 +/- 4 nmol/min per g wet wt.) was insufficient to account for adenosine formation, indicating the existence of an alternative catabolic pathway. Images Fig. 1. PMID:2833226

Meghji, P; Middleton, K M; Newby, A C



Adenosine Inhibits the Excitatory Synaptic Inputs to Basal Forebrain Cholinergic, GABAergic, and Parvalbumin Neurons in Mice  

PubMed Central

Coffee and tea contain the stimulants caffeine and theophylline. These compounds act as antagonists of adenosine receptors. Adenosine promotes sleep and its extracellular concentration rises in association with prolonged wakefulness, particularly in the basal forebrain (BF) region involved in activating the cerebral cortex. However, the effect of adenosine on identified BF neurons, especially non-cholinergic neurons, is incompletely understood. Here we used whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in mouse brain slices prepared from two validated transgenic mouse lines with fluorescent proteins expressed in GABAergic or parvalbumin (PV) neurons to determine the effect of adenosine. Whole-cell recordings were made from BF cholinergic neurons and from BF GABAergic and PV neurons with the size (>20??m) and intrinsic membrane properties (prominent H-currents) corresponding to cortically projecting neurons. A brief (2?min) bath application of adenosine (100??M) decreased the frequency but not the amplitude of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in all groups of BF cholinergic, GABAergic, and PV neurons we recorded. In addition, adenosine decreased the frequency of miniature EPSCs in BF cholinergic neurons. Adenosine had no effect on the frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents in cholinergic neurons or GABAergic neurons with large H-currents but reduced them in a group of GABAergic neurons with smaller H-currents. All effects of adenosine were blocked by a selective, adenosine A1 receptor antagonist, cyclopentyltheophylline (CPT, 1??M). Adenosine had no postsynaptic effects. Taken together, our work suggests that adenosine promotes sleep by an A1 receptor-mediated inhibition of glutamatergic inputs to cortically projecting cholinergic and GABA/PV neurons. Conversely, caffeine and theophylline promote attentive wakefulness by inhibiting these A1 receptors in BF thereby promoting the high-frequency oscillations in the cortex required for attention and cognition. PMID:23801984

Yang, Chun; Franciosi, Serena; Brown, Ritchie E.



75 FR 8981 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Treatment of Glaucoma by Administration of Adenosine A3...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...benzopyran one-, and triazoloquinazoline derivatives, their preparation and use as adenosine...benzopyran one-, and triazoloquinazoline derivatives, their preparation and use as adenosine...benzopyran one-, and triazoloquinazoline derivatives, their preparation and use as...



Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as a possible indicator of extraterrestrial biology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ubiquity of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in terrestrial organisms provides the basis for proposing the assay of this vital metabolic intermediate for detecting extraterrestrial biological activity. If an organic carbon chemistry is present on the planets, the occurrence of ATP is possible either from biosynthetic or purely chemical reactions. However, ATP's relative complexity minimizes the probability of abiogenic synthesis. A sensitive technique for the quantitative detection of ATP was developed using the firefly bioluminescent reaction. The procedure was used successfully for the determination of the ATP content of soil and bacteria. This technique is also being investigated from the standpoint of its application in clinical medicine.

Chappelle, E. W.; Picciolo, G. L.



Adenosine triphosphatases of thermophilic archaeal double-stranded DNA viruses  

PubMed Central

Adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) of double-stranded (ds) DNA archaeal viruses are structurally related to the AAA+?hexameric helicases and translocases. These ATPases have been implicated in viral life cycle functions such as DNA entry into the host, and viral genome packaging into preformed procapsids. We summarize bioinformatical analyses of a wide range of archaeal ATPases, and review the biochemical and structural properties of those archaeal ATPases that have measurable ATPase activity. We discuss their potential roles in genome delivery into the host, virus assembly and genome packaging in comparison to hexameric helicases and packaging motors from bacteriophages. PMID:25105011



Melatonin production in organ cultured chicken pineal: Modulation by adenosine and its analogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of adenosine, of its non-metabolizable analogs, and of compounds related to its metabolism, were investigated in the photosensitive chicken pineal, maintained in static culture or in superfusion. Stimulation or inhibition of melatonin production was obtained, depending on the experimental conditions tested. Endogenous adenosine is involved in the regulation of the melatonin output. The effects of the nucleoside might

Jacky Falcón; Jocelyne Brun-Marmillon; Bruno Claustrat; Jean-Pierre Collin



Demethylation of 6-O-Methylinosine by an RNA-Editing Adenosine Deaminase  

E-print Network

-modifying enzyme adenosine deaminase (ADA).5-8 These experiments illustrate significant mechanistic similarities R/G site).9 Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is a nucleoside-modifying enzyme that has been extensively hydrolytic deamination of its nucleoside substrate. The oxygen in the product of the ADAR reaction has also

Beal, Peter A.


Aptamer affinity chromatography for rapid assay of adenosine in microdialysis samples collected in vivo.  


An anti-adenosine aptamer was evaluated as a stationary phase in packed capillary liquid chromatography. Using an aqueous mobile phase containing 20 mM Mg2+, adenosine was strongly retained on the column. A gradient of increasing Ni2+ (to 18 mM), which is presumed to complex with nitrogen atoms in adenosine involved in binding to the aptamer, eluted adenosine in a narrow zone. Up to 6 microl of 1.2 microM adenosine could be injected onto the 150-microm I.D. x 7 cm long column without loss of adenosine. With UV absorbance detection, the detection limit was 30 nM or 120 fmol (4 microl injected). Samples could be repetitively injected with 4.6% relative standard deviation in peak area. Columns were stable to at least 200 injections. The adenosine assay, which required no sample preparation, was used on microdialysis samples collected from the somatosensory cortex of chloral hydrate anesthetized rats. Total analysis times were short enough that dialysate samples could be injected every 5 min. Basal dialysate concentrations of adenosine stabilized at 87+/-10 nM (n=5) with the probe operated at 0.6 microl/min. PMID:12924787

Deng, Qing; Watson, Christopher J; Kennedy, Robert T



Effect of aminophylline on adenosine and exercise dilation of rat cremaster arterioles.  


The present study was undertaken to evaluate the role that adenosine may play in exercise vasodilation. Responses of rat cremaster muscle arterioles to either topically applied adenosine or muscle exercise were recorded via video-microscopy before and after topical administration of aminophylline (10(-4) M). In all experiments, alpha-adrenergic receptors were blocked by pretreatment with phentolamine. Under control conditions the average concentration of adenosine required to produce a 50% dilation response (ED50) was 1.9 X 10(-6) M, and the full dose-response curve spanned 2 log units from threshold to near maximum responses. Topical aminophylline increased the ED50 for adenosine dilation to 9.1 X 10(-6) M. Stepwise increases in muscle twitch rate produced a progressive arteriolar dilation, and the dilation associated with 2-Hz exercise approached the maximal dilation observed with adenosine. Topical aminophylline, however, had no effect on the arteriolar dilation response to cremaster muscle exercise. It is unlikely that our results can be explained by any influence that exercise might have on the arteriolar sensitivity to adenosine or on the efficacy of aminophylline blockade because aminophylline had no effect on the arteriolar response to even the lowest rates of exercise tested. We conclude either that adenosine does not mediate exercise dilation in rat cremaster muscle or that interstitial adenosine levels during exercise in the presence of 10(-4) M aminophylline are significantly higher (5X) than during exercise without aminophylline. PMID:6720915

Mohrman, D E; Heller, L J



Recombinant ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73) has long lasting antinociceptive effects that are dependent on adenosine A1 receptor activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Ecto-5'-nucleotidase (NT5E, also known as CD73) hydrolyzes extracellular adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) to adenosine in nociceptive circuits. Since adenosine has antinociceptive effects in rodents and humans, we hypothesized that NT5E, an enzyme that generates adenosine, might also have antinociceptive effects in vivo. RESULTS: To test this hypothesis, we purified a soluble version of mouse NT5E (mNT5E) using the baculovirus expression

Nathaniel A Sowa; Meagen K Voss; Mark J Zylka



Suppression of inflammatory and immune responses by the A2A adenosine receptor: an introduction  

PubMed Central

The purine nucleoside adenosine has been described as a ‘retaliatory metabolite' by virtue of its ability to function in an autocrine manner to modify the activity of a range of cell types following its extracellular accumulation during cell stress or injury. These effects are largely protective and are triggered by the binding of adenosine to any of four G-protein-coupled adenosine receptors. Most of the anti-inflammatory effects of adenosine have been assigned to the adenosine A2A receptor subtype, which is expressed in many immune and inflammatory cells. In this brief article, we will outline the growing evidence to support the hypothesis that the development of agonists selective for the A2A receptor is an effective strategy for suppressing the exaggerated inflammatory responses associated with many diseases by virtue of the receptor's ability to inhibit multiple pro-inflammatory signalling cascades. PMID:18026131

Palmer, T M; Trevethick, M A




PubMed Central

Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are pulmonary disorders characterized by various degrees of inflammation and tissue remodeling. Adenosine is a signaling molecule that is elevated in the lungs of patients with asthma and COPD. Adenosine elicits its actions by engaging cell surface adenosine receptors, and substantial preclinical evidence suggests that targeting these receptors will provide novel approaches for the treatment of asthma and COPD. Studies in animal models of airway disease suggest that there may be clinical benefit to the use of A1, A3 and A2B adenosine receptor antagonists in the treatment of features of asthma and/or COPD, while A2A agonists may also prove effective. Several adenosine receptor based pharmacologic agents have entered clinical development for the treatment of asthma and COPD; however, the studies have been limited and the efficacy of such approaches is not yet clear. PMID:19762093

Polosa, Riccardo; Blackburn, Michael R.



Suppression of inflammatory and immune responses by the A(2A) adenosine receptor: an introduction.  


The purine nucleoside adenosine has been described as a 'retaliatory metabolite' by virtue of its ability to function in an autocrine manner to modify the activity of a range of cell types following its extracellular accumulation during cell stress or injury. These effects are largely protective and are triggered by the binding of adenosine to any of four G-protein-coupled adenosine receptors. Most of the anti-inflammatory effects of adenosine have been assigned to the adenosine A(2A) receptor subtype, which is expressed in many immune and inflammatory cells. In this brief article, we will outline the growing evidence to support the hypothesis that the development of agonists selective for the A(2A) receptor is an effective strategy for suppressing the exaggerated inflammatory responses associated with many diseases by virtue of the receptor's ability to inhibit multiple pro-inflammatory signalling cascades. PMID:18026131

Palmer, T M; Trevethick, M A



Serum adenosine deaminase, catalase and carbonic anhydrase activities in patients with bladder cancer  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: The relationship between adenosine deaminase and various cancers has been investigated in several studies. However, serum adenosine deaminase activity and carbonic anhydrase and catalase activities in patients with bladder cancer have not previously been reported. Therefore, the aim of this study was to measure serum adenosine deaminase, carbonic anhydrase and catalase activities in patients with bladder cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty patients with bladder cancer and 30 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Serum adenosine deaminase, carbonic anhydrase and catalase activities were measured spectrophotometrically. RESULTS: Serum adenosine deaminase, carbonic anhydrase and catalase activities were significantly higher in patients with bladder cancer than controls (all significant, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: These markers might be a potentially important finding as an additional diagnostic biochemical tool for bladder cancer. PMID:23295599

Pirinççi, Necip; Geçit, ?lhan; Güne?, Mustafa; Bilgehan Y?ksel, Mehmet; Kaba, Mehmet; Tan?k, Serhat; Demir, Halit; Aslan, Mehmet



Adenosine-5?-phosphosulfate – a multifaceted modulator of bifunctional 3?-phospho-adenosine-5?-phosphosulfate synthases and related enzymes  

PubMed Central

All sulfation reactions rely on active sulfate in the form of 3?-phospho-adenosine-5?-phosphosulfate (PAPS). In fungi, bacteria, and plants, the enzymes responsible for PAPS synthesis, ATP sulfurylase and adenosine-5?-phosphosulfate (APS) kinase, reside on separate polypeptide chains. In metazoans, however, bifunctional PAPS synthases catalyze the consecutive steps of sulfate activation by converting sulfate to PAPS via the intermediate APS. This intricate molecule and the related nucleotides PAPS and 3?-phospho-adenosine-5?-phosphate modulate the function of various enzymes from sulfation pathways, and these effects are summarized in this review. On the ATP sulfurylase domain that initially produces APS from sulfate and ATP, APS acts as a potent product inhibitor, being competitive with both ATP and sulfate. For the APS kinase domain that phosphorylates APS to PAPS, APS is an uncompetitive substrate inhibitor that can bind both at the ATP/ADP-binding site and the PAPS/APS-binding site. For human PAPS synthase 1, the steady-state concentration of APS has been modelled to be 1.6 ?m, but this may increase up to 60 ?m under conditions of sulfate excess. It is noteworthy that the APS concentration for maximal APS kinase activity is 15 ?m. Finally, we recognized APS as a highly specific stabilizer of bifunctional PAPS synthases. APS most likely stabilizes the APS kinase part of these proteins by forming a dead-end enzyme–ADP–APS complex at APS concentrations between 0.5 and 5 ?m; at higher concentrations, APS may bind to the catalytic centers of ATP sulfurylase. Based on the assumption that cellular concentrations of APS fluctuate within this range, APS can therefore be regarded as a key modulator of PAPS synthase functions. PMID:23517310

Mueller, Jonathan W; Shafqat, Naeem



Effects of nucleotides adenosine monophosphate and adenosine triphosphate in combination with L-arginine on male rabbit corpus cavernosum tissue.  


Purines and more specifically adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) have a strong relaxant effect on smooth muscle cells of the dog, rabbit and human corpus cavernosum, to approximately the same degree as nitric oxide (NO). However, purines are considered as modulators of erectile function rather than key mediators. This suggests that the use of purines combined with NO donors could be effective to treat some specific erectile disorders. The relaxation induced by the combination of l-arginine (Arg), a natural substrate for NO synthase, was assessed with a purine-nucleotide (AMP, ATP) on a rabbit corpus cavernosum model, to determine if these substances could potentiate each other's effect. When a pre-contraction was induced by phenylephrine, AMP alone induced a 43% CC relaxation rate and ATP alone a 26% rate. The relaxation rate induced by Arg was lower in comparison (8% at 5.10(-4) m vs. 25% at AMP 5.10(-4) m and 15% at ATP 5.10(-4) m). NO synthase inhibitor n-nitro-l-arginine did not modify the relaxing effect provoked by AMP suggesting that the mechanism of action of this nucleotide does not involve the NO pathway. The combination of Arg at 5.10(-4) m with either AMP or ATP at different doses ranging from 5.10(-4) to 10(-3) m significantly enhanced the relaxing response reaching rates of 62 and 80% respectively, leading to a synergistic effect. The present data indicate that a 'NO donor' combined with an 'adenosine donor' could be an effective therapeutic approach. PMID:22709341

Hupertan, V; Neuzillet, Y; Stücker, O; Pons, C; Leammel, E; Lebret, T



Methotrexate and sulfasalazine promote adenosine release by a mechanism that requires ecto-5'-nucleotidase-mediated conversion of adenine nucleotides.  

PubMed Central

We and others have shown that an increased extracellular concentration of adenosine mediates the antiinflammatory effects of methotrexate and sulfasalazine both in vitro and in vivo, but the mechanism by which these drugs increase extracellular adenosine remains unclear. The results of the experiments reported here provide three distinct lines of evidence that adenosine results from the ecto-5'-nucleotidase- mediated conversion of adenine nucleotides to adenosine. First, pretreatment of a human microvascular endothelial cell line (HMEC-1) with methotrexate increases extracellular adenosine after exposure of the pretreated cells to activated neutrophils; the ecto-5'-nucleotidase inhibitor alpha, beta-methylene adenosine-5'-diphosphate (APCP) abrogates completely the increase in extracellular adenosine. Second, there is no methotrexate-mediated increase in extracellular adenosine concentration in the supernate of cells deficient in ecto-5'-nucleotidase, but there is a marked increase in extracellular adenosine concentration in the supernates of these cells after transfection and surface expression of the enzyme. Finally, as we have shown previously, adenosine mediates the antiinflammatory effects of methotrexate and sulfasalazine in the murine air pouch model of inflammation, and injection of APCP, the ecto-5'-nucleotidase inhibitor, abrogates completely the increase in adenosine and the decrement in inflammation in this in vivo model. These results not only show that ecto-5'-nucleotidase activity is a critical mediator of methotrexate- and sulfasalazine-induced antiinflammatory activity in vitro and in vivo but also indicate that adenine nucleotides, released from cells, are the source of extracellular adenosine. PMID:9435300

Morabito, L; Montesinos, M C; Schreibman, D M; Balter, L; Thompson, L F; Resta, R; Carlin, G; Huie, M A; Cronstein, B N



Release of adenosine and ATP in the brain of the freshwater turtle ( Trachemys scripta) during long-term anoxia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracellular adenosine and ATP levels were monitored by microdialysis in the striatum of the freshwater turtle Trachemys scripta during long-term N2 respiration. After an initial rise in extracellular adenosine, a second peak of longer duration and higher in intensity, followed. The frequencies of these adenosine cycles varied considerably between individual turtles, such that the shortest time between the peaks was

Peter L Lutz; Sandra Kabler



Autophagy occurs within an hour of adenosine triphosphate treatment after nerve cell damage: the neuroprotective effects of adenosine triphosphate against apoptosis  

PubMed Central

After hypoxia, ischemia, or inflammatory injuries to the central nervous system, the damaged cells release a large amount of adenosine triphosphate, which may cause secondary neuronal death. Autophagy is a form of cell death that also has neuroprotective effects. Cell Counting Kit assay, monodansylcadaverine staining, flow cytometry, western blotting, and real-time PCR were used to determine the effects of exogenous adenosine triphosphate treatment at different concentrations (2, 4, 6, 8, 10 mmol/L) over time (1, 2, 3, and 6 hours) on the apoptosis and autophagy of SH-SY5Y cells. High concentrations of extracellular adenosine triphosphate induced autophagy and apoptosis of SH-SY5Y cells. The enhanced autophagy first appeared, and peaked at 1 hour after treatment with adenosine triphosphate. Cell apoptosis peaked at 3 hours, and persisted through 6 hours. With prolonged exposure to the adenosine triphosphate treatment, the fraction of apoptotic cells increased. These data suggest that the SH-SY5Y neural cells initiated autophagy against apoptosis within an hour of adenosine triphosphate treatment to protect themselves against injury. PMID:25368646

Lu, Na; Wang, Baoying; Deng, Xiaohui; Zhao, Honggang; Wang, Yong; Li, Dongliang



Decreased adenosine receptor binding in dystonic brains of the dt(sz) mutant.  


In patients with paroxysmal non-kinesigenic dyskinesias, episodes of dystonia can be provoked by stress and also by methylxanthines (e.g. caffeine), which inhibit adenosine A(1)/A(2A) receptors. In the dt(sz) mutant hamster, a model of this movement disorder, adenosine A(1) receptor antagonists were previously found to worsen dystonia, while adenosine A(1) and A(2A) receptor agonists exerted pronounced beneficial effects. Therefore, in the present study, adenosine receptor A(1) and A(2A) binding was determined by autoradiographic analyses in dt(sz) hamsters under basal conditions, i.e. in the absence of a dystonic attack, and in a group of mutant hamsters which exhibited severe stress-induced dystonic attacks prior to kill. In comparison with non-dystonic control hamsters, [(3)H]DPCPX (8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine) binding to adenosine A(1) receptors and [(3)H]CGS 21680 (2p-(2carboxyethylphen-ethylamino-5'-N-ethlycarboxamindoadenosine) binding to adenosine A(2A) receptors were significantly lower throughout the brain of dystonic animals. Under normal resting conditions, mutant hamsters showed significant decreases in adenosine A(1) (-12 to-42%) and in A(2A) (-19 to-34%) receptor binding compared with controls. Stressful stimulation increased adenosine A(1) and A(2A) receptor binding in almost all brain regions in both control and dystonic hamsters. The stress-induced increase was more marked in mutant hamsters, leading to a disappearance of differences in most regions compared with stimulated controls, except the striatum. In view of previous findings of striking beneficial effects of adenosine A(1) and A(2A) receptor agonists and of striatal dysfunctions in the dt(sz) mutant, the reduced adenosine receptor binding may be an important factor in the pathogenesis of paroxysmal dystonia. PMID:15961243

Nobrega, J N; Barlow, K L; Raymond, R; Richter, A



Endogenous Production of Extracellular Adenosine by Trabecular Meshwork Cells: Potential Role in Outflow Regulation  

PubMed Central

Purpose. To investigate the mechanisms for endogenous production of extracellular adenosine in trabecular meshwork (TM) cells and evaluate its physiological relevance to the regulation of aqueous humor outflow facility. Methods. Extra-cellular levels of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and adenosine in porcine trabecular meshwork (PTM) cells treated with adenosine triphosphate (ATP), AMP, cAMP or forskolin with or without specific inhibitors of phosphodiesterases (IBMX) and CD73 (AMPCP) were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography fluorometry. Extracellular adenosine was also evaluated in cell cultures subjected to cyclic mechanical stress (CMS) (20% stretching; 1 Hz) and after disruption of lipid rafts with methyl-?-cyclodextrin. Expression of CD39 and CD73 in porcine TM cells and tissue were examined by Q-PCR and Western blot. The effect of inhibition of CD73 on outflow facility was evaluated in perfused living mouse eyes. Results. PTM cells generated extracellular adenosine from extracellular ATP and AMP but not from extracellular cAMP. Increased intracellular cAMP mediated by forskolin led to a significant increase in extracellular adenosine production that was not prevented by IBMX. Inhibition of CD73 resulted, in all cases, in a significant decrease in extracellular adenosine. CMS induced a significant activation of extracellular adenosine production. Inhibition of CD73 activity with AMPCP in living mouse eyes resulted in a significant decrease in outflow facility. Conclusions. These results support the concept that the extracellular adenosine pathway might play an important role in the homeostatic regulation of outflow resistance in the TM, and suggest a novel mechanism by which pathologic alteration of the TM, such as increased tissue rigidity, could lead to abnormal elevation of IOP in glaucoma. PMID:22997289

Wu, Jing; Li, Guorong; Luna, Coralia; Spasojevic, Ivan; Epstein, David L.; Gonzalez, Pedro



Angiotensin AT1 receptor blockade abolishes the reflex sympatho-excitatory response to adenosine.  

PubMed Central

We tested the hypothesis that endogenous angiotensin II participates in the direct and reflex effects of adenosine on the sympathetic nervous system. Nine healthy men were studied after 1 wk of the angiotensin II type I receptor antagonist losartan (100 mg daily) or placebo, according to a double-blind randomized crossover design. Bilateral forearm blood flows, NE appearance rates, and total body NE spillover were determined before and during graded brachial arterial infusion of adenosine (0.5, 1.5, 5, and 15 microg/100 ml forearm tissue) and nitroprusside. Adenosine increased total body NE spillover (P < 0.05) whereas nitroprusside did not. Losartan lowered BP (P < 0.05), had no effect on total body NE spillover at rest, or forearm vasodilation during either infusion, but reduced the systemic noradrenergic response to adenosine from 1.0+/-0.4 nmol/min on the placebo day to 0.2+/-0.3 nmol/min (P < 0.01), and forearm NE appearance rate in response to adenosine was lower in the infused, as compared with the contralateral arm (P = 0.04). The sympatho-excitatory reflex elicited by adenosine is mediated through pathways involving the angiotensin II type I receptor. Interactions between adenosine and angiotensin II may assume importance during ischemia or congestive heart failure and could contribute to the benefit of converting enzyme inhibition in these conditions. PMID:9466971

Rongen, G A; Brooks, S C; Ando, S i; Abramson, B L; Floras, J S



Role of adenosine receptors in regulating chemotaxis and cytokine production of plasmacytoid dendritic cells.  


Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDCs) are potent regulators of immune function and the major source of type I interferon (IFN) following viral infection. PDCs are found at sites of inflammation in allergic reactions, autoimmune disorders, and cancer, but the mechanisms leading to the recruitment of PDCs to these sites remain elusive. During inflammation, adenosine is released and functions as a signaling molecule via adenosine receptors. This study analyzes adenosine receptor expression and function in human PDCs. Adenosine was found to be a potent chemotactic stimulus for immature PDCs via an A(1) receptor-mediated mechanism. The migratory response toward adenosine was comparable to that seen with CXCL12 (stromal-derived factor-1 alpha [SDF-1 alpha), the most potent chemotactic stimulus identified thus far for immature PDCs. Upon maturation, PDCs down-regulate the A(1) receptor, resulting in a loss of migratory function. In contrast, mature PDCs up-regulate the A(2a) receptor, which is positively coupled to adenylyl cyclase and has been implicated in the down-regulation of DC cytokine-producing capacity. We show that in mature PDCs adenosine reduces interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-12, and IFN-alpha production in response to CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN). These findings indicate that adenosine may play a dual role in PDC-mediated immunity by initially recruiting immature PDCs to sites of inflammation and by subsequently limiting the extent of the inflammatory response induced by mature PDCs by inhibiting their cytokine-producing capacity. PMID:14551144

Schnurr, Max; Toy, Tracey; Shin, Amanda; Hartmann, Gunther; Rothenfusser, Simon; Soellner, Julia; Davis, Ian D; Cebon, Jonathan; Maraskovsky, Eugene



Inhibition of erythroblast growth and fetal hemoglobin production by ribofuranose-substituted adenosine derivatives.  


In vivo, inhibition of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) expression in humans around the time of birth causes the clinical manifestation of sickle cell and beta-thalassemia syndromes. Inhibition of HbF among cultured cells was recently described by the adenosine derivative molecule named SQ22536. Here, a primary cell culture model was utilized to further explore the inhibition of HbF by adenosine derivative molecules. SQ22536 demonstrated down-regulation of growth and HbF expression among erythroblasts cultured from fetal and adult human blood. The effects upon HbF were noted in a majority of cells, and quantitative PCR analysis demonstrated a transcriptional mechanism. Screening assays demonstrated that two additional molecules named 5'-deoxy adenosine and 2',3'-dideoxy adenosine had effects on HbF comparable to SQ22536. Other adenosine derivative molecules, adenosine receptor binding ligands, and cAMP-signaling regulators failed to inhibit HbF in matched cultures. These results suggest that structurally related ribofuranose-substituted adenosine analogues act through an unknown mechanism to inhibit HbF expression in fetal and adult human erythroblasts. PMID:18586086

Bhanu, Natarajan V; Lee, Y Terry; Oneal, Patricia A; Gantt, Nicole M; Aerbajinai, Wulin; Noel, Pierre; Thomas, Craig J; Miller, Jeffery L



Evidence for constitutively-active adenosine receptors at mammalian motor nerve endings.  


A study was made to determine if constitutively active adenosine receptors are present at mouse motor nerve endings. In preparations blocked by low Ca(2+)/high Mg(2+) solution, 8-cyclopentyl-1,3,dipropylxanthine (CPX, 10-100 nM), which has been reported to be both an A(1) adenosine receptor antagonist and inverse agonist, produced a dose-dependent increase in the number of acetylcholine quanta released by a nerve impulse. Adenosine deaminase, which degrades ambient adenosine into its inactive congener, inosine, failed to alter the response to 100 nM CPX. 8-Cyclopentyltheophylline (CPT, 3 ?M), a competitive inhibitor at A(1) adenosine receptors, prevented the increase in acetylcholine release produced by CPX. At normal levels of acetylcholine release, neither adenosine deaminase nor CPX affected acetylcholine release at low frequencies of nerve stimulation in (+)-tubocurarine blocked preparations. The results suggest that a proportion of the acetylcholine release process is controlled by constitutively active adenosine receptors at murine motor nerve endings, providing the first evidence for constitutive activity of G-protein-coupled receptors that modulate the function of mammalian nerve endings. PMID:22542659

Searl, Timothy J; Silinsky, Eugene M



Autocrine Adenosine Signaling Promotes Regulatory T Cell–Mediated Renal Protection  

PubMed Central

Regulatory T cells (Tregs) suppress the innate inflammation associated with kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), but the mechanism is not well understood. Tregs express CD73, the final enzyme involved in the production of extracellular adenosine, and activation of the adenosine 2A receptor (A2AR) on immune cells suppresses inflammation and preserves kidney function after IRI. We hypothesized that Treg-generated adenosine is required to block innate immune responses in kidney IRI and that the Treg-generated adenosine would signal through A2ARs on inflammatory cells and, in an autocrine manner, on Tregs themselves. We found that adoptively transferred wild-type Tregs protected wild-type mice from kidney IRI, but the absence of adenosine generation (CD73-deficient Tregs) or adenosine responsiveness (A2AR-deficient Tregs) led to inhibition of Treg function. Pharmacologic stimulation of A2AR before adoptive transfer augmented the ability of wild-type and CD73-deficient Tregs to suppress kidney IRI. Microarray analysis and flow cytometry revealed that A2AR activation enhanced surface PD-1 expression on Tregs in the absence of any other activation signal. Treatment of Tregs with a PD-1 blocking antibody before adoptive transfer reversed their protective effects, even if pretreated with an A2AR agonist. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the simultaneous ability to generate and respond to adenosine is required for Tregs to suppress innate immune responses in IRI through a PD-1–dependent mechanism. PMID:22835488

Huang, Liping; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Khutsishvili, Konstantine; Becker, David A.; Ye, Hong; Lobo, Peter I.; Okusa, Mark D.



Antinociception of intrathecal adenosine receptor subtype agonists in rat formalin test.  


Adenosine has shown antinociceptive action via spinal adenosine receptors. There are four types of adenosine receptors: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. We characterized the nature of types of adenosine receptors for the control of nociception at the spinal level. For nociception, formalin solution (5%, 50 microL) was injected into the hindpaw of male Sprague-Dawley rats. The effects of intrathecal adenosine A1 (CPA), A2A (DPMA), and A3 (IB-MECA) receptor agonists were examined. CPA and IB-MECA produced limited or no effect on the early phase response of the formalin test, respectively, but the two drugs depressed the late phase response. DPMA suppressed both phase responses. CPA was the most potent drug among the three in the late phase. These results suggest that spinal adenosine A1 and A2A receptors may be involved in the modulation of the early and the late phase responses of the formalin test, whereas adenosine A3 receptor may be involved in the regulation of the late phase response. PMID:16244004

Yoon, Myung Ha; Bae, Hong Beom; Choi, Jeong Il



Traditional Acupuncture Triggers a Local Increase in Adenosine in Human Subjects  

PubMed Central

Acupuncture is a form of Eastern medicine that has been practiced for centuries. Despite its long history and worldwide application, the biological mechanisms of acupuncture in relieving pain have been poorly defined. Recent studies in mice, however, demonstrate that acupuncture triggers increases in interstitial adenosine, which reduces the severity of chronic pain through adenosine A1 receptors, suggesting that adenosine-mediated antinociception contributes to the clinical benefits of acupuncture. We asked here whether acupuncture in human subjects is also linked to a local increase in interstitial adenosine concentration. We collected microdialysis samples of interstitial fluid before, during, and after delivering 30 minutes of conventional acupuncture in the Zusanli point in human subjects. The interstitial adenosine concentration increased significantly during acupuncture and remained elevated for 30 minutes after the acupuncture. Acupuncture-mediated adenosine release was not observed if acupuncture was not delivered in the Zusanli point or if the acupuncture needle was inserted, but not rotated. This study strengthens the role of adenosine in acupuncture-mediated antinociception by directly providing such evidence in humans. PMID:23182227

Takano, Takahiro; Chen, Xiaolin; Luo, Fang; Fujita, Takumi; Ren, Zeguang; Goldman, Nanna; Zhao, Yuanli; Markman, John D.; Nedergaard, Maiken



The NLRP3 inflammasome is activated by nanoparticles through ATP, ADP and adenosine.  


The NLR pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is a major component of the innate immune system, but its mechanism of activation by a wide range of molecules remains largely unknown. Widely used nano-sized inorganic metal oxides such as silica dioxide (nano-SiO2) and titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) activate the NLRP3 inflammasome in macrophages similarly to silica or asbestos micro-sized particles. By investigating towards the molecular mechanisms of inflammasome activation in response to nanoparticles, we show here that active adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release and subsequent ATP, adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine receptor signalling are required for inflammasome activation. Nano-SiO2 or nano-TiO2 caused a significant increase in P2Y1, P2Y2, A2A and/or A2B receptor expression, whereas the P2X7 receptor was downregulated. Interestingly, IL-1? secretion in response to nanoparticles is increased by enhanced ATP and ADP hydrolysis, whereas it is decreased by adenosine degradation or selective A2A or A2B receptor inhibition. Downstream of these receptors, our results show that nanoparticles activate the NLRP3 inflammasome via activation of PLC-InsP3 and/or inhibition of adenylate cyclase (ADCY)-cAMP pathways. Finally, a high dose of adenosine triggers inflammasome activation and IL-1? secretion through adenosine cellular uptake by nucleotide transporters and by its subsequent transformation in ATP by adenosine kinase. In summary, we show for the first time that extracellular adenosine activates the NLRP3 inflammasome by two ways: by interacting with adenosine receptors at nanomolar/micromolar concentrations and through cellular uptake by equilibrative nucleoside transporters at millimolar concentrations. These findings provide new molecular insights on the mechanisms of NLRP3 inflammasome activation and new therapeutic strategies to control inflammation. PMID:25654762

Baron, L; Gombault, A; Fanny, M; Villeret, B; Savigny, F; Guillou, N; Panek, C; Le Bert, M; Lagente, V; Rassendren, F; Riteau, N; Couillin, I



Lack of Endogenous Adenosine Tonus on Sympathetic Neurotransmission in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat Mesenteric Artery  

PubMed Central

Background Increased sympathetic activity has been implicated in hypertension. Adenosine has been shown to play a role in blood flow regulation. In the present study, the endogenous adenosine neuromodulatory role, in mesenteric arteries from normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats, was investigated. Methods and Results The role of endogenous adenosine in sympathetic neurotransmission was studied using electrically-evoked [3H]-noradrenaline release experiments. Purine content was determined by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Localization of adenosine A1 or A2A receptors in adventitia of mesenteric arteries was investigated by Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy. Results indicate a higher electrically-evoked noradrenaline release from hypertensive mesenteric arteries. The tonic inhibitory modulation of noradrenaline release is mediated by adenosine A1 receptors and is lacking in arteries from hypertensive animals, despite their purine levels being higher comparatively to those determined in normotensive ones. Tonic facilitatory adenosine A2A receptor-mediated effects were absent in arteries from both strains. Immunohistochemistry revealed an adenosine A1 receptors redistribution from sympathetic fibers to Schwann cells, in adventitia of hypertensive mesenteric arteries which can explain, at least in part, the absence of effects observed for these receptors. Conclusion Data highlight the role of purines in hypertension revealing that an increase in sympathetic activity in hypertensive arteries is occurring due to a higher noradrenaline/ATP release from sympathetic nerves and the loss of endogenous adenosine inhibitory tonus. The observed nerve-to-glial redistribution of inhibitory adenosine A1 receptors in hypertensive arteries may explain the latter effect. PMID:25158061

Sousa, Joana Beatriz; Vieira-Rocha, Maria Sofia; Sá, Carlos; Ferreirinha, Fátima; Correia-de-Sá, Paulo; Fresco, Paula; Diniz, Carmen



Severe hemorrhage attenuates cardiopulmonary chemoreflex control of regional sympathetic outputs via NTS adenosine receptors.  


Selective stimulation of inhibitory A1 and facilitatory A2a adenosine receptor subtypes located in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) powerfully inhibits cardiopulmonary chemoreflex (CCR) control of regional sympathetic outputs via different mechanisms: direct inhibition of glutamate release and facilitation of an inhibitory neurotransmitter release, respectively. However, it remains unknown whether adenosine naturally released into the NTS has similar inhibitory effects on the CCR as the exogenous agonists do. Our previous study showed that adenosine is released into the NTS during severe hemorrhage and contributes to reciprocal changes of renal (decreases) and adrenal (increases) sympathetic nerve activity observed in this setting. Both A1 and A2a adenosine receptors are involved. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that, during severe hemorrhage, CCR control of the two sympathetic outputs is attenuated by adenosine naturally released into the NTS. We compared renal and adrenal sympathoinhibitory responses evoked by right atrial injections of 5HT3 receptor agonist phenylbiguanide (2-8 ?g/kg) under control conditions, during hemorrhage, and during hemorrhage preceded by blockade of NTS adenosine receptors with bilateral microinjections of 8-(p-sulfophenyl) theophylline (1 nmol/100 nl) in urethane/chloralose anesthetized rats. CCR-mediated inhibition of renal and adrenal sympathetic activity was significantly attenuated during severe hemorrhage despite reciprocal changes in the baseline activity levels, and this attenuation was removed by bilateral blockade of adenosine receptors in the caudal NTS. This confirmed that adenosine endogenously released into the NTS has a similar modulatory effect on integration of cardiovascular reflexes as stimulation of NTS adenosine receptors with exogenous agonists. PMID:25063794

Minic, Zeljka; Li, Cailian; O'Leary, Donal S; Scislo, Tadeusz J



Footprint traversal by adenosine-triphosphate-dependent chromatin remodeler motor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adenosine-triphosphate (ATP)-dependent chromatin remodeling enzymes (CREs) are biomolecular motors in eukaryotic cells. These are driven by a chemical fuel, namely, ATP. CREs actively participate in many cellular processes that require accessibility of specific segments of DNA which are packaged as chromatin. The basic unit of chromatin is a nucleosome where 146 bp ˜ 50 nm of a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) is wrapped around a spool formed by histone proteins. The helical path of histone-DNA contact on a nucleosome is also called “footprint.” We investigate the mechanism of footprint traversal by a CRE that translocates along the dsDNA. Our two-state model of a CRE captures effectively two distinct chemical (or conformational) states in the mechanochemical cycle of each ATP-dependent CRE. We calculate the mean time of traversal. Our predictions on the ATP dependence of the mean traversal time can be tested by carrying out in vitro experiments on mononucleosomes.

Garai, Ashok; Mani, Jesrael; Chowdhury, Debashish



Role of adenosine A2B receptors in inflammation  

PubMed Central

Recent progress in our understanding of the unique role of A2B receptors in the regulation of inflammation, immunity and tissue repair was considerably facilitated with the introduction of new pharmacological and genetic tools. However, it also led to seemingly conflicting conclusions on the role of A2B adenosine receptors in inflammation with some publications indicating pro-inflammatory effects and others suggesting the opposite. This chapter reviews the functions of A2B receptors in various cell types related to inflammation and integrated effects of A2B receptor modulation in several animal models of inflammation. It is argued that translation of current findings into novel therapies would require a better understanding of A2B receptors functions in diverse types of inflammatory responses in various tissues and at different points of their progression. PMID:21586358

Feoktistov, Igor; Biaggioni, Italo



Increased Adenosine Triphosphatase in Leukocytes of Asthmatic Children  

PubMed Central

Adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activities were compared in leukocytes of asthmatic and nonasthmatic children. Both Mg2+- and Ca2+-dependent ATPase activities were significantly elevated in two membrane fractions (59 to 66%) and in a superntant fraction (68 to 72%) prepared from sonicated leukocytes of asthmatic subjects. Intact cell surface or ecto ATPase was also elevated (67 to 76%) in asthmatic leukocytes. Alternate day glucocorticosteroid therapy was associated with leukocyte ATPase activities intermediate between those for asthmatics not receiving steroids and for nonasthmatic control subjects. Incubation of normal leukocytes with 10-8 M hydrocortisone or leukocyte membranes with 10-4-10-3 M hydrocortisone in vitro also resulted in decreased ATPase activities. The elevated leukocyte ATPase activities appear to relate to the adrenergic imbalance in asthma previously characterized by reduced beta adrenergic responsiveness of adenylate cyclase and suggest the possibility of more than one enzymatic abnormality intrinsic to the asthmatic condition. PMID:4276134

Coffey, Ronald G.; Hadden, John W.; Middleton, Elliott



Identification of widespread adenosine nucleotide binding in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  


Computational prediction of protein function is frequently error-prone and incomplete. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), ~25% of all genes have no predicted function and are annotated as hypothetical proteins, severely limiting our understanding of Mtb pathogenicity. Here, we utilize a high-throughput quantitative activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) platform to probe, annotate, and validate ATP-binding proteins in Mtb. We experimentally validate prior in silico predictions of >240 proteins and identify 72 hypothetical proteins as ATP binders. ATP interacts with proteins with diverse and unrelated sequences, providing an expanded view of adenosine nucleotide binding in Mtb. Several hypothetical ATP binders are essential or taxonomically limited, suggesting specialized functions in mycobacterial physiology and pathogenicity. PMID:23352146

Ansong, Charles; Ortega, Corrie; Payne, Samuel H; Haft, Daniel H; Chauvignè-Hines, Lacie M; Lewis, Michael P; Ollodart, Anja R; Purvine, Samuel O; Shukla, Anil K; Fortuin, Suereta; Smith, Richard D; Adkins, Joshua N; Grundner, Christoph; Wright, Aaron T



Structural and metabolic specificity of methylthiocoformycin for malarial adenosine deaminases†  

PubMed Central

Plasmodium falciparum is a purine auxotroph requiring hypoxanthine as a key metabolic precursor. Erythrocyte adenine nucleotides are the source of the purine precursors, making adenosine deaminase (ADA) a key enzyme in the pathway of hypoxanthine formation. Methylthioadenosine (MTA) is a substrate for most malarial ADAs, but not for human ADA. The catalytic site specificity of malarial ADAs permits methylthiocoformycin (MT-coformycin) to act as a Plasmodium-specific transition state analogue with low affinity for human ADA (Tyler, P. C., Taylor, E. A., Fröhlich, R. G. G. and Schramm, V. L. (2007) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129, 6872–6879). The structural basis for MTA and MT-coformycin specificity in malarial ADAs is the subject of speculation (Larson, E. T. et al. (2008) J. Mol. Biol. 381, 975–988). Here, the crystal structure of ADA from Plasmodium vivax in complex with MT-coformycin reveals an unprecedented binding geometry for 5’-methylthioribosyl groups in the malarial ADAs. Compared to malarial ADA complexes with adenosine or deoxycoformycin, 5’-methylthioribosyl groups are rotated 130°. A hydrogen bonding network between Asp172 and the 3'-hydroxyl of MT-coformycin is essential for recognition of the 5’-methylthioribosyl group. Water occupies the 5'-hydroxyl binding site when MT-coformycin is bound. Mutagenesis of Asp172 destroys the substrate specificity for MTA and MT-coformycin. Kinetic, mutagenic and structural analyses of PvADA and kinetic analysis of five other plasmodial ADAs establishes the unique structural basis for its specificity for MTA and MT-coformycin. Plasmodium gallinaceum ADA does not use MTA as a substrate, is not inhibited by MT-coformycin and is missing Asp172. Treatment of P. falciparum cultures with coformycin or MT-coformycin in the presence of MTA is effective in inhibiting parasite growth. PMID:19728741

Ho, Meng-Chiao; Cassera, María B.; Madrid, Dennis C.; Ting, Li-Min; Tyler, Peter C.; Kim, Kami; Almo, Steven C.; Schramm, Vern L.



Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA, RNA editing, and interferon action.  


Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) catalyze adenosine (A) to inosine (I) editing of RNA that possesses double-stranded (ds) structure. A-to-I RNA editing results in nucleotide substitution, because I is recognized as G instead of A both by ribosomes and by RNA polymerases. A-to-I substitution can also cause dsRNA destabilization, as I:U mismatch base pairs are less stable than A:U base pairs. Three mammalian ADAR genes are known, of which two encode active deaminases (ADAR1 and ADAR2). Alternative promoters together with alternative splicing give rise to two protein size forms of ADAR1: an interferon-inducible ADAR1-p150 deaminase that binds dsRNA and Z-DNA, and a constitutively expressed ADAR1-p110 deaminase. ADAR2, like ADAR1-p110, is constitutively expressed and binds dsRNA. A-to-I editing occurs with both viral and cellular RNAs, and affects a broad range of biological processes. These include virus growth and persistence, apoptosis and embryogenesis, neurotransmitter receptor and ion channel function, pancreatic cell function, and post-transcriptional gene regulation by microRNAs. Biochemical processes that provide a framework for understanding the physiologic changes following ADAR-catalyzed A-to-I (?=?G) editing events include mRNA translation by changing codons and hence the amino acid sequence of proteins; pre-mRNA splicing by altering splice site recognition sequences; RNA stability by changing sequences involved in nuclease recognition; genetic stability in the case of RNA virus genomes by changing sequences during viral RNA replication; and RNA-structure-dependent activities such as microRNA production or targeting or protein-RNA interactions. PMID:21182352

George, Cyril X; Gan, Zhenji; Liu, Yong; Samuel, Charles E



Adenosine Deaminases Acting on RNA, RNA Editing, and Interferon Action  

PubMed Central

Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) catalyze adenosine (A) to inosine (I) editing of RNA that possesses double-stranded (ds) structure. A-to-I RNA editing results in nucleotide substitution, because I is recognized as G instead of A both by ribosomes and by RNA polymerases. A-to-I substitution can also cause dsRNA destabilization, as I:U mismatch base pairs are less stable than A:U base pairs. Three mammalian ADAR genes are known, of which two encode active deaminases (ADAR1 and ADAR2). Alternative promoters together with alternative splicing give rise to two protein size forms of ADAR1: an interferon-inducible ADAR1-p150 deaminase that binds dsRNA and Z-DNA, and a constitutively expressed ADAR1-p110 deaminase. ADAR2, like ADAR1-p110, is constitutively expressed and binds dsRNA. A-to-I editing occurs with both viral and cellular RNAs, and affects a broad range of biological processes. These include virus growth and persistence, apoptosis and embryogenesis, neurotransmitter receptor and ion channel function, pancreatic cell function, and post-transcriptional gene regulation by microRNAs. Biochemical processes that provide a framework for understanding the physiologic changes following ADAR-catalyzed A-to-I (?=?G) editing events include mRNA translation by changing codons and hence the amino acid sequence of proteins; pre-mRNA splicing by altering splice site recognition sequences; RNA stability by changing sequences involved in nuclease recognition; genetic stability in the case of RNA virus genomes by changing sequences during viral RNA replication; and RNA-structure-dependent activities such as microRNA production or targeting or protein–RNA interactions. PMID:21182352

George, Cyril X.; Gan, Zhenji; Liu, Yong



Structural and Metabolic Specificity of Methylthiocoformycin for Malarial Adenosine Deaminases  

SciTech Connect

Plasmodium falciparum is a purine auxotroph requiring hypoxanthine as a key metabolic precursor. Erythrocyte adenine nucleotides are the source of the purine precursors, making adenosine deaminase (ADA) a key enzyme in the pathway of hypoxanthine formation. Methylthioadenosine (MTA) is a substrate for most malarial ADAs, but not for human ADA. The catalytic site specificity of malarial ADAs permits methylthiocoformycin (MT-coformycin) to act as a Plasmodium-specific transition state analogue with low affinity for human ADA. The structural basis for MTA and MT-coformycin specificity in malarial ADAs is the subject of speculation. Here, the crystal structure of ADA from Plasmodium vivax (PvADA) in a complex with MT-coformycin reveals an unprecedented binding geometry for 5?-methylthioribosyl groups in the malarial ADAs. Compared to malarial ADA complexes with adenosine or deoxycoformycin, 5?-methylthioribosyl groups are rotated 130 degrees. A hydrogen bonding network between Asp172 and the 3?-hydroxyl of MT-coformycin is essential for recognition of the 5?-methylthioribosyl group. Water occupies the 5?-hydroxyl binding site when MT-coformycin is bound. Mutagenesis of Asp172 destroys the substrate specificity for MTA and MT-coformycin. Kinetic, mutagenic, and structural analyses of PvADA and kinetic analysis of five other Plasmodium ADAs establish the unique structural basis for its specificity for MTA and MT-coformycin. Plasmodium gallinaceum ADA does not use MTA as a substrate, is not inhibited by MT-coformycin, and is missing Asp172. Treatment of P. falciparum cultures with coformycin or MT-coformycin in the presence of MTA is effective in inhibiting parasite growth.

Ho, M.; Cassera, M; Madrid, D; Ting, L; Tyler, P; Kim, K; Almo, S; Schramm, V



Passive targeting of ischemic-reperfused myocardium with adenosine-loaded silica nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Pharmacological agents suggested for infarct size limitation have serious side effects when used at cardioprotective doses which hinders their translation into clinical practice. The solution to the problem might be direct delivery of cardioprotective drugs into ischemic-reperfused myocardium. In this study, we explored the potential of silica nanoparticles for passive delivery of adenosine, a prototype cardioprotective agent, into ischemic-reperfused heart tissue. In addition, the biodegradation of silica nanoparticles was studied both in vitro and in vivo. Immobilization of adenosine on the surface of silica nanoparticles resulted in enhancement of adenosine-mediated infarct size limitation in the rat model. Furthermore, the hypotensive effect of adenosine was attenuated after its adsorption on silica nanoparticles. We conclude that silica nanoparticles are biocompatible materials that might potentially be used as carriers for heart-targeted drug delivery. PMID:22619519

Galagudza, Michael; Korolev, Dmitry; Postnov, Viktor; Naumisheva, Elena; Grigorova, Yulia; Uskov, Ivan; Shlyakhto, Eugene



Laboratory procedures manual for the firefly luciferase assay for adenosine triphosphate (ATP)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A manual on the procedures and instruments developed for the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) luciferase assay is presented. Data cover, laboratory maintenance, maintenance of bacterial cultures, bacteria measurement, reagents, luciferase procedures, and determination of microbal susceptibility to antibiotics.

Chappelle, E. W.; Picciolo, G. L.; Curtis, C. A.; Knust, E. A.; Nibley, D. A.; Vance, R. B.



The adenosine triphosphate–sensitive potassium channel opener nicorandil protects the ischemic rabbit spinal cord  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We investigated the protective effects of an adenosine triphosphate–sensitive potassium channel opener nicorandil in the rabbit model of spinal cord ischemia. Methods: Rabbits were randomized into 4 groups (each n = 6): the nicorandil group (100 ?g\\/kg intravenous nicorandil 10 minutes before ischemia); the glibenclamide plus nicorandil group (3 mg\\/kg intravenous glibenclamide, an antagonist of adenosine triphosphate–sensitive potassium channels,

Yutaka Wakamatsu; Norihiko Shiiya; Takashi Kunihara; Satoshi Watanabe; Keishu Yasuda



Methotrexate inhibits neutrophil function by stimulating adenosine release from connective tissue cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although commonly used to control a variety of inflammatory diseases, the mechanism of action of a low dose of methotrexate remains a mystery. Methotrexate accumulates intracellularly where it may interfere with purine metabolism. Therefore, the authors determined whether a 48-hr pretreatment with methotrexate affected adenosine release from (¹⁴C)adenine-labeled human fibroblasts and umbilical vein endothelial cells. Methotrexate significantly increased adenosine release

B. N. Cronstein; M. A. Eberle; R. I. Levin; H. E. Gruber



Radioligand binding and functional responses of ligands for human recombinant adenosine A(3) receptors.  


The binding and functional properties of adenosine receptor ligands were compared in Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with human adenosine A(3) receptors. Inhibition of [(125)I]-aminobenzyl-5'-N-methylcarboamidoadenosine ([(125)I]-AB-MECA) binding by adenosine receptor ligands was examined in membrane preparations. Inhibition of forskolin-induced cAMP accumulation by agonists was measured using a cAMP enzyme immunoassay. The rank order of agonist potency for both assays was N(6)-(3-iodobenzyl)-adenosine-5'-N-methyluronamide (IB-MECA) > 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA) > (-)-N(6)-[(R)-phenylisopropyl] adenosine (R-PIA) > 4-aminobenzyl-5'-N-methylcarboxamidoadenosine (AB-MECA) > N(6)-cyclopentyl adenosine (CPA) > adenosine. The radioligand binding rank order of antagonist potency was N-[9-chloro-2-(2-furanyl)[1,2,4]-triazolo[1,5-c]quinazolin-5-benzeneacetamide (MRS1220) > 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (DPCPX) > 8-phenyltheophylline (8-PT) > 8-(p-sulfophenyl)-theophylline (8-SPT). MRS1220 competitively inhibited the effect of IB-MECA on cAMP production, with a K(B) value of 0.35 nm. These data are characteristic of adenosine A(3) receptors. The absence of Mg(2+) and presence of guanosine 5'-(gamma-thio)triphosphate (GTPgammaS) significantly reduced agonist binding inhibition potency, indicating binding to high- and low-affinity states. The IB-MECA, NECA and R-PIA IC(50) values were greater for the cAMP assay than for radioligand binding, suggesting an efficient stimulus-response transduction pathway. PMID:16553647

Yates, L; Clark, J H; Martin, T J; James, S; Broadley, K J; Kidd, E J



Involvement of adenosine A 1 receptors in the discriminative-stimulus effects of caffeine in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: Caffeineisanon-selectiveadenosine receptor antagonist in vitro, but involvement of different adenosine receptor subtypes, particularly adenosine A1 and A2A receptors, in the central effects of caffeine remains a matter of debate. Objective: Investigate the role of aden- osine A1 and A2A receptors in the discriminative-stimulus effects of caffeine. Methods: Rats were trained to dis- criminate an injection of 30 mg\\/kg (i.p.)

Marcello Solinas; Sergi Ferré; Katerina Antoniou; Davide Quarta; Zuzana Justinova; Jörg Hockemeyer; Lara A. Pappas; Pavan N. Segal; Carrie Wertheim; Christa E. Müller; Steven R. Goldberg



Sitagliptin attenuates sympathetic innervation via modulating reactive oxygen species and interstitial adenosine in infarcted rat hearts.  


We investigated whether sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, attenuates arrhythmias through inhibiting nerve growth factor (NGF) expression in post-infarcted normoglycemic rats, focusing on adenosine and reactive oxygen species production. DPP-4 bound adenosine deaminase has been shown to catalyse extracellular adenosine to inosine. DPP-4 inhibitors increased adenosine levels by inhibiting the complex formation. Normoglycemic male Wistar rats were subjected to coronary ligation and then randomized to either saline or sitagliptin in in vivo and ex vivo studies. Post-infarction was associated with increased oxidative stress, as measured by myocardial superoxide, nitrotyrosine and dihydroethidium fluorescent staining. Measurement of myocardial norepinephrine levels revealed a significant elevation in vehicle-treated infarcted rats compared with sham. Compared with vehicle, infarcted rats treated with sitagliptin significantly increased interstitial adenosine levels and attenuated oxidative stress. Sympathetic hyperinnervation was blunted after administering sitagliptin, as assessed by immunofluorescent analysis and western blotting and real-time quantitative RT-PCR of NGF. Arrhythmic scores in the sitagliptin-treated infarcted rats were significantly lower than those in vehicle. Ex vivo studies showed a similar effect of erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl) adenine (an adenosine deaminase inhibitor) to sitagliptin on attenuated levels of superoxide and NGF. Furthermore, the beneficial effects of sitagliptin on superoxide anion production and NGF levels can be reversed by 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropulxanthine (adenosine A1 receptor antagonist) and exogenous hypoxanthine. Sitagliptin protects ventricular arrhythmias by attenuating sympathetic innervation via adenosine A1 receptor and xanthine oxidase-dependent pathways, which converge through the attenuated formation of superoxide in the non-diabetic infarcted rats. PMID:25388908

Lee, Tsung-Ming; Chen, Wei-Ting; Yang, Chen-Chia; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Chang, Nen-Chung



Cerebral A 1 adenosine receptors (A 1 AR) in liver cirrhosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The cerebral mechanisms underlying hepatic encephalopathy (HE) are poorly understood. Adenosine, a neuromodulator that pre-\\u000a and postsynaptically modulates neuronal excitability and release of classical neurotransmitters via A1 adenosine receptors (A1AR), is likely to be involved. The present study investigates changes of cerebral A1AR binding in cirrhotic patients by means of positron emission tomography (PET) and [18F]CPFPX, a novel selective A1AR

Christian Boy; Philipp T. Meyer; Gerald Kircheis; Marcus H. Holschbach; Hans Herzog; David Elmenhorst; Hans Juergen Kaiser; Heinz H. Coenen; Dieter Haussinger; Karl Zilles; Andreas Bauer



Opiate-induced Changes in Brain Adenosine Levels and Narcotic Drug Responses  

PubMed Central

We have very little information about the metabolomic changes that mediate neurobehavioral responses, including addiction. It was possible that opioid-induced metabolomic changes in brain could mediate some of the pharmacodynamic effects of opioids. To investigate this, opiate-induced brain metabolomic responses were profiled using a semi-targeted method in C57BL/6 and 129Sv1 mice, which exhibit extreme differences in their tendency to become opiate dependent. Escalating morphine doses (10–40 mg/kg) administered over a 4-day period selectively induced a two-fold decrease (p<0.00005) in adenosine abundance in the brainstem of C57BL/6 mice, which exhibited symptoms of narcotic drug dependence; but did not decrease adenosine abundance in 129Sv1 mice, which do not exhibit symptoms of dependence. Based on this finding, the effect of adenosine on dependence was investigated in genetically engineered mice with alterations in adenosine tone in the brain and in pharmacologic experiments. Morphine withdrawal behaviors were significantly diminished (P<0.0004) in genetically engineered mice with reduced adenosine tone in the brainstem, and by treatment with an adenosine receptor1 (A1) agonist (2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine, 0.5 mg/kg) or an A2a receptor (A2a) antagonist (SCH 58261 1 mg/kg). These results indicate that adenosine homeostasis plays a crucial role in narcotic drug responses. Opiate-induced changes in brain adenosine levels may explain many important neurobehavioral features associated with opiate addiction and withdrawal. PMID:23098802

Wu, Manhong; Sahbaie, Peyman; Zheng, Ming; Lobato, Robert; Boison, Detlev; Clark, J. David; Peltz, Gary



LDL-cholesterol reduction in patients with hypercholesterolemia by modulation of adenosine triphosphate-citrate lyase and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review To review the profile of ETC-1002, as shown in preclinical and clinical studies, including LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C)-lowering activity and beneficial effects on other cardiometabolic risk markers as they relate to the inhibition of adenosine triphosphate-citrate lyase and the activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase. Recent findings ETC-1002 is an adenosine triphosphate-citrate lyase inhibitor/adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase activator currently in Phase 2b clinical development. In seven Phase 1 and Phase 2a clinical studies, ETC-1002 dosed once daily for 2–12 weeks has lowered LDL-C and reduced high-sensitivity C-reactive protein by up to 40%, with neutral to positive effects on glucose levels, blood pressure, and body weight. Importantly, use of ETC-1002 in statin-intolerant patients has shown statin-like lowering of LDL-C without the muscle pain and weakness responsible for discontinuation of statin use by many patients. ETC-1002 has also been shown to produce an incremental benefit, lowering LDL-C as an add-on therapy to a low-dose statin. In over 300 individuals in studies of up to 12 weeks, ETC-1002 has been well tolerated with no serious adverse effects. Summary Because adenosine triphosphate-citrate lyase and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase play central roles in regulating lipid and glucose metabolism, pharmacological modulation of these two enzymes could provide an important therapeutic alternative for statin-intolerant patients with hypercholesterolemia. PMID:24978142

Filippov, Sergey; Pinkosky, Stephen L.; Newton, Roger S.



Role of adenosine deaminase, ecto-(5'-nucleotidase) and ecto-(non-specific phosphatase) in cyanide-induced adenosine monophosphate catabolism in rat polymorphonuclear leucocytes.  

PubMed Central

1. The role of adenosine deaminase (EC, ecto-(5'-nucleotidase) (EC and ecto-(non-specific phosphatase) in the CN-induced catabolism of adenine nucleotides in intact rat polymorphonuclear leucocytes was investigated by inhibiting the enzymes in situ. 2. KCN (10mM for 90 min) induced a 20-30% fall in ATP concentration accompanied by an approximately equimolar increase in hypoxanthine, ADP, AMP and adenosine concentrations were unchanged, and IMP and inosine remained undetectable ( less than 0.05 nmol/10(7) cells). 3. Cells remained 98% intact, as judged by loss of the cytoplasmic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (EC 4. Pentostatin (30 microM), a specific inhibitor of adenosine deaminase, completely inhibited hypoxanthine production from exogenous adenosine (55 microM), but did not black CN-induced hypoxanthine production or cause adenosine accumulation in intact cells. This implied that IMP rather than adenosine was an intermediate in AMP breakdown in response to cyanide. 5. Antibodies raised against purified plasma-membrane 5'-nucleotidase inhibited the ecto-(5'-nucleotidase) by 95-98%. Non-specific phosphatases were blocked by 10 mM-sodium beta-glycerophosphate. 6. These two agents together blocked hypoxanthine production from exogenous AMP and IMP (200 microM) by more than 90%, but had no effect on production from endogenous substrates. 7. These data suggest that ectophosphatases do not participate in CN-induced catabolism of intracellular AMP in rat polymorphonuclear leucocytes. 8. A minor IMPase, not inhibited by antiserum, was detected in the soluble fraction of disrupted cells. PMID:6249264

Newby, A C



Inhibition of adenosine uptake by ethanol is specific for one class of nucleoside transporters.  


Adenosine uptake via nucleoside transporters is inhibited when S49 and NG108-15 cell lines cells are exposed to ethanol. This inhibition leads to an accumulation of extracellular adenosine that binds to adenosine A2 receptors and increases cAMP production. Subsequently, there is a heterologous desensitization of receptors coupled to adenylyl cyclase for which adenosine also is required. There are multiple classes of facilitative and concentrative nucleoside transporters that could be inhibited by ethanol to initiate this cascade of events. In this paper, we establish that adenosine uptake by only one type of nucleoside transporter, an NBMPR-sensitive facilitative transporter, is inhibited by ethanol. There is no effect on other classes of nucleoside transporters even when present in the same cell. Thus, ethanol-induced extracellular accumulation of adenosine results specifically from inhibition of NBMPR-sensitive facilitative nucleoside transporters. We also find that human lymphocytes express only facilitative nucleoside transporters and that the NBMPR-sensitive type is predominant. Thus, inhibition of this type of transporter by ethanol may be related to the desensitization of cAMP signal transduction that we have reported in lymphocytes from alcoholics. PMID:7902530

Krauss, S W; Ghirnikar, R B; Diamond, I; Gordon, A S



Roles of the Adenosine Receptor and CD73 in the Regulatory Effect of ?? T Cells  

PubMed Central

The adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR), the main functional adenosine receptor on murine T cells, plays a unique role in the attenuation of inflammation and tissue damage in vivo. Here, we showed that, of the immune cell types tested, activated ?? T cells expressed the highest levels of A2AR mRNA and that A2AR ligation inhibited ?? T cell activation, but enhanced ?? T cell activation. We also showed that the inhibitory effect of an adenosine receptor agonist on autoreactive T cells was prevented by addition of a low percentage of activated ?? T cells. Furthermore, compared to resting cells, activated ?? T cells expressed significantly lower levels of CD73, an enzyme involved in the generation of extracellular adenosine. Exogenous AMP had a significant inhibitory effect on autoreactive T cell responses, but only in the presence of CD73+ ?? T cells, and this effect was abolished by a CD73 inhibitor. Our results show that expression of increased amounts of A2AR allows ?? T cells to bind adenosine and thereby attenuate its suppressive effect, while decreased expression of CD73 results in less generation of adenosine in the inflammatory site. Together, these events allow activated ?? T cells to acquire increased proinflammatory activity, leading to augmented autoimmune responses. PMID:25268760

Liang, Dongchun; Zuo, Aijun; Shao, Hui; Chen, Mingjiazi; Kaplan, Henry J.; Sun, Deming



Caffeine reverses antinociception by oxcarbazepine by inhibition of adenosine A1 receptors: insights using knockout mice.  


Oxcarbazepine is an anticonvulsant drug that has been explored as a novel therapeutic agent to treat neuropathic pain in humans. It produces antinociception in several preclinical models of pain, and these actions are blocked by methylxanthine adenosine receptor antagonists which implicates adenosine it its actions. In this study, the antinociceptive effect of oxcarbazepine, and the ability of caffeine to reverse its actions, were examined using the formalin test (2%) in wild-type mice and in mice lacking adenosine A(1) receptors by way of further exploring the involvement of adenosine in its actions. Oxcarbazepine produced dose-related suppression of formalin-evoked flinching responses in wild-type mice following both systemic and intraplantar administration, and this action was reversed by systemic and intraplantar administration of caffeine, respectively. The ability of oxcarbazepine to inhibit flinching after systemic and intraplantar administration was unaltered in homozygous (-/-) and heterozygous (+/-) adenosine A(1) receptor knockout mice. However, caffeine no longer reversed this antinociception. Our results indicate that, while adenosine A(1) receptors are not required for oxcarbazepine to produce antinociception in knockout mice, such receptors are essential in order to see caffeine reversal of this antinociceptive effect. PMID:20176083

Sawynok, Jana; Reid, Allison R; Fredholm, Bertil B



Suppression of Adenosine-Activated Chloride Transport by Ethanol in Airway Epithelia  

PubMed Central

Alcohol abuse is associated with increased lung infections. Molecular understanding of the underlying mechanisms is not complete. Airway epithelial ion transport regulates the homeostasis of airway surface liquid, essential for airway mucosal immunity and lung host defense. Here, air-liquid interface cultures of Calu-3 epithelial cells were basolaterally exposed to physiologically relevant concentrations of ethanol (0, 25, 50 and 100 mM) for 24 hours and adenosine-stimulated ion transport was measured by Ussing chamber. The ethanol exposure reduced the epithelial short-circuit currents (ISC) in a dose-dependent manner. The ion currents activated by adenosine were chloride conductance mediated by cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a cAMP-activated chloride channel. Alloxazine, a specific inhibitor for A2B adenosine receptor (A2BAR), largely abolished the adenosine-stimulated chloride transport, suggesting that A2BAR is a major receptor responsible for regulating the chloride transport of the cells. Ethanol significantly reduced intracellular cAMP production upon adenosine stimulation. Moreover, ethanol-suppression of the chloride secretion was able to be restored by cAMP analogs or by inhibitors to block cAMP degradation. These results imply that ethanol exposure dysregulates CFTR-mediated chloride transport in airways by suppression of adenosine-A2BAR-cAMP signaling pathway, which might contribute to alcohol-associated lung infections. PMID:22442662

Raju, Sammeta V.; Wang, Guoshun



Inhibition of enterovirus 71 by adenosine analog NITD008.  


Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a major viral pathogen in China and Southeast Asia. There is no clinically approved vaccine or antiviral therapy for EV71 infection. NITD008, an adenosine analog, is an inhibitor of flavivirus that blocks viral RNA synthesis. Here we report that NITD008 has potent antiviral activity against EV71. In cell culture, the compound inhibits EV71 at a 50% effective concentration of 0.67 ?M and a 50% cytotoxic concentration of 119.97 ?M. When administered at 5 mg/kg in an EV71 mouse model, the compound reduced viral loads in various organs and completely prevented clinical symptoms and death. To study the antiviral mechanism and drug resistance, we selected escape mutant viruses by culturing EV71 with increasing concentrations of NITD008. Resistance mutations were reproducibly mapped to the viral 3A and 3D polymerase regions. Resistance analysis with recombinant viruses demonstrated that either a 3A or a 3D mutation alone could lead to resistance to NITD008. A combination of both 3A and 3D mutations conferred higher resistance, suggesting a collaborative interplay between the 3A and 3D proteins during viral replication. The resistance results underline the importance of combination therapy required for EV71 treatment. Importance: Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) has emerged as a major cause of viral encephalitis in children worldwide, especially in the Asia-Pacific region. Vaccines and antivirals are urgently needed to prevent and treat EV71 infections. In this study, we report the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of NITD008 (an adenosine analog) as an inhibitor of EV71. The efficacy results validated the potential of nucleoside analogs as antiviral drugs for EV71 infections. Mechanistically, we showed that mutations in the viral 3A and 3D polymerases alone or in combination could confer resistance to NITD008. The resistance results suggest an intrinsic interaction between viral proteins 3A and 3D during replication, as well as the importance of combination therapy for the treatment of EV71 infections. PMID:25100827

Deng, Cheng-Lin; Yeo, Huimin; Ye, Han-Qing; Liu, Si-Qing; Shang, Bao-Di; Gong, Peng; Alonso, Sylvie; Shi, Pei-Yong; Zhang, Bo



Cloned Blood–Brain Barrier Adenosine Transporter Is Identical to the Rat Concentrative Na+ Nucleoside Cotransporter CNT2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adenosine transport into brain is regulated by the activity of the adenosine transporter located at the brain capillary endothelial wall, which forms the blood–brain barrier (BBB) in vivo. To facilitate cloning of BBB adenosine transporters, poly A+ RNA was purified from isolated rat brain capillaries for production of a rat BBB cDNA library in the pSPORT vector. The cloned RNA

Jian Yi Li; Ruben J. Boado; William M. Pardridge



Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate in the Nervous System of Aplysia californica  

PubMed Central

Serotonin and dopamine, both likely transmitter substances in Aplysia, stimulated formation of adenosine-3',5' monophosphate (cAMP) in ganglia, connectives, and identified nerve cell bodies. This widespread distribution suggests that receptors for the response are localized throughout the nervous system, as is adenyl cyclase. Both synthesis of cAMP-3H from precursor previously labeled in incubations with adenine-3H and total content of cAMP were stimulated up to 15-fold. The acetylcholine analogue carbachol, glutamate, norepinephrine, and histamine were inactive. Full stimulation occurred within 2–4 min of applying serotonin; the extent of the effect was half maximal at 6µ serotonin. Even in the continued presence of serotonin, the increased cAMP diminished with time. When serotonin was removed, tissue remained refractory for 15–20 min; sensitivity returned after 25 min. Serotonin stimulated cAMP after removal of extracellular Na, K, or Cl and in isotonic sucrose, with all extracellular ions removed. Elevating Mg, which blocked the stimulation of cAMP caused by synaptic activity, did not affect the response to serotonin. Thus the response appeared to be independent of transmitter release and of changes in synaptic potentials and current flow. The role of cAMP in neuronal functioning remains to be determined. Conditions which markedly increased cAMP in neurons, however, did not affect the rate of RNA synthesis, nor did they alter the distribution of phosphorylated adenine or uridine nucleotides. PMID:4345440

Cedar, Howard; Schwartz, James H.



An adenosine nucleoside analogue NITD008 inhibits EV71 proliferation.  


Enterovirus 71 (EV71), one of the major causative agents of Hand-Foot-Mouth Disease (HFMD), causes severe pandemics and hundreds of deaths in the Asia-Pacific region annually and is an enormous public health threat. However, effective therapeutic antiviral drugs against EV71 are rare. Nucleoside analogues have been successfully used in the clinic for the treatment of various viral infections. We evaluated a total of 27 nucleoside analogues and discovered that an adenosine nucleoside analogue NITD008, which has been reported to be an antiviral reagent that specifically inhibits flaviviruses, effectively suppressed the propagation of different strains of EV71 in RD, 293T and Vero cells with a relatively high selectivity index. Triphosphorylated NITD008 (ppp-NITD008) functions as a chain terminator to directly inhibit the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity of EV71, and it does not affect the EV71 VPg uridylylation process. A significant synergistic anti-EV71 effect of NITD008 with rupintrivir (AG7088) (a protease inhibitor) was documented, supporting the potential combination therapy of NITD008 with other inhibitors for the treatment of EV71 infections. PMID:25446894

Shang, Luqing; Wang, Yaxin; Qing, Jie; Shu, Bo; Cao, Lin; Lou, Zhiyong; Gong, Peng; Sun, Yuna; Yin, Zheng



Altered adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing in human cancer  

PubMed Central

Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing was recently shown to be abundant in the human transcriptome, affecting thousands of genes. Employing a bioinformatic approach, we identified significant global hypoediting of Alu repetitive elements in brain, prostate, lung, kidney, and testis tumors. Experimental validation confirmed this finding, showing significantly reduced editing in Alu sequences within MED13 transcripts in brain tissues. Looking at editing of specific recoding and noncoding sites, including in cancer-related genes, a more complex picture emerged, with a gene-specific editing pattern in tumors vs. normal tissues. Additionally, we found reduced RNA levels of all three editing mediating enzymes, ADAR, ADARB1, and ADARB2, in brain tumors. The reduction of ADARB2 correlated with the grade of malignancy of glioblastoma multiforme, the most aggressive of brain tumors, displaying a 99% decrease in ADARB2 RNA levels. Consistently, overexpression of ADAR and ADARB1 in the U87 glioblastoma multiforme cell line resulted in decreased proliferation rate, suggesting that reduced A-to-I editing in brain tumors is involved in the pathogenesis of cancer. Altered epigenetic control was recently shown to play a central role in oncogenesis. We suggest that A-to-I RNA editing may serve as an additional epigenetic mechanism relevant to cancer development and progression. PMID:17908822

Paz, Nurit; Levanon, Erez Y.; Amariglio, Ninette; Heimberger, Amy B.; Ram, Zvi; Constantini, Shlomi; Barbash, Zohar S.; Adamsky, Konstantin; Safran, Michal; Hirschberg, Avi; Krupsky, Meir; Ben-Dov, Issachar; Cazacu, Simona; Mikkelsen, Tom; Brodie, Chaya; Eisenberg, Eli; Rechavi, Gideon



Uridine adenosine tetraphosphate induces contraction and relaxation in rat aorta  

PubMed Central

Uridine adenosine tetraphosphate (Up4A) has been recently reported as an endothelium-derived vasoconstrictor and plasma levels of this dinucleotide are increased in juvenile hypertensive subjects. This study aimed to evaluate the vascular actions of Up4A, typify the putative purinergic receptors that might mediate these effects and characterize the intracellular signaling pathways that may govern Up4A responses. Up4A induced a modest endothelium-dependent relaxation of rat aortic rings contracted with phenylephrine. From baseline, Up4A induced concentration-dependent contractions that were significantly potentiated by endothelium removal or nitric oxide synthase inhibition. The contractile response induced by Up4A was not tachyphylactic and was significantly reduced in the presence of P1 or P2X receptor antagonists, L-type Ca2+ channel blocker and Rho-kinase inhibitor. Up4A-induced contraction apparently involves superoxide anion formation since it was significantly reduced by treatment with apocynin or tempol. This study presents the unique findings that the endogenous compound Up4A is able to induce relaxation in addition to contraction of rat aorta. Up4A-induced contraction is modulated by nitric oxide production, mediated by P1 and P2X receptor activation, and involves L-type Ca2+ channels, Rho-kinase pathway and superoxide formation. PMID:18467183

Linder, A. Elizabeth; Tumbri, Michelle; Linder, Felipe F. P.; Webb, R. Clinton; Leite, Romulo



A putative osmoreceptor system that controls neutrophil function through the release of ATP, its conversion to adenosine, and activation of A2 adenosine and P2 receptors  

E-print Network

p38 MAPK), and suppression occurs via increases in cyclic aden- osine monophosphate (cAMP) and activation of protein kinase A (PKA),p38 MAPK activation, or ATP is converted to adenosine, which suppresses PMN functions via A2 receptors that activate cAMP/PKA

Chen, Y; Shukla, A; Namiki, S; Insel, P A; Junger, W G



Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel N6-[4-(substituted)sulfonamidophenylcarbamoyl]adenosine-5'-uronamides as A3 adenosine receptor agonists.  


A new series of 1-deoxy-1-[(6-(4-(substituted-aminosulfonyl)phenyl)amino)carbonylamino-9H-purin-9-yl]-N-ethyl-beta-D-ribofuranuronamides (83-102) have been synthesized and tested at the human A3 adenosine receptor subtype. All the derivatives described in this work displayed affinity versus this receptor in the nanomolar range and good selectivity versus A1 adenosine receptor subtype, confirming that the p-sulfonamido moiety positively affected the activity of the molecules. The best substituents at the sulfonamido nucleus were found to be small alkyl groups, like methyl, isopropyl, ethyl, or allyl moieties (compounds 96-100), whereas monosubstitution at the amino group led to a decrease in A3 affinity values. The selectivity versus A1 adenosine receptor subtype is increased when the amino group in the sulfonamido core is represented by a hydrogenated heterocyclic ring like piperidine, morpholine, or pyrroline. Bulky groups, like adamantane and alkyl chains with more than four carbon atoms, are detrimental for the affinity and the selectivity of the A3 adenosine receptor agonists described here. PMID:15481989

Baraldi, Pier Giovanni; Fruttarolo, Francesca; Tabrizi, Mojgan Aghazadeh; Romagnoli, Romeo; Preti, Delia; Bovero, Andrea; Pineda de Las Infantas, Maria Josè; Moorman, Allan; Varani, Katia; Borea, Pier Andrea



Structure-Activity Relationships of 2,N6,5?-Substituted Adenosine Derivatives with Potent Activity at the A2B Adenosine Receptor  

PubMed Central

2, N6, and/or 5? substituted adenosine derivatives were synthesized via alkylation of 2-oxypurine nucleosides leading to 2-aralkylether derivatives. 2-(3-(Indolyl)ethyloxy)adenosine 17 was found to be a potent agonist of the human A2BAR in both binding and cAMP assays. Simplification, altered connectivity and mimicking of the indole ring of 17 failed to maintain A2BAR potency. Introduction of N6-ethyl or N6-guanidino substitution, shown to favor A2BAR potency, failed to enhance potency in the 2-(3-(indolyl)ethyloxy)adenosine series. Indole 5?- or 6?-halo substitution was favored at the A2BAR, but a 5?-N-ethylcarboxyamide did not further enhance potency. 2-(3?-(6?-Bromoindolyl)ethyloxy)adenosine 28 displayed an A2BAR EC50 value (nM) of 128, i.e. more potent than the parent 17 (299) and similar to 5?-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (140). 28 was a full agonist at A2B and A2AARs and a low efficacy partial agonist at A1 and A3ARs. Thus, we have identified and optimized 2-(2-arylethyl)oxo moieties in AR agonists that enhance A2BAR potency and selectivity. PMID:17378544

Adachi, Hayamitsu; Palaniappan, Krishnan K.; Ivanov, Andrei A.; Bergman, Nathaniel; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Jacobson, Kenneth A.



Fluorometric Determination of Adenosine Nucleotide Derivatives as Measures of the Microfouling, Detrital, and Sedimentary Microbial Biomass and Physiological Status  

PubMed Central

Adenosine, adenine, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP), AMP, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, adenosine diphosphate, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were recovered quantitatively from aqueous portions of lipid extracts of microfouling, detrital, and sedimentary microbial communities. These could be detected quantitatively in the picomolar range by forming their 1-N6-etheno derivatives and analyzing by high-pressure liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Lipid extraction and subsequent analysis allowed the simultaneous measurement of the microbial community structure, total microbial biomass with the quantitative recovery of the adenine-containing cellular components, which were protected from enzymatic destruction. This extraction and fluorescent derivatization method showed equivalency with the luciferin-luciferase method for bacterial ATP measurements. Quick-freezing samples in the field with dry ice-acetone preserved the ATP and energy charge (a ratio of adenosine nucleotides) for analysis at remote laboratories. The metabolic lability of ATP in estuarine detrital and microfouling communities, as well as bacterial monocultures of constant biomass, showed ATP to be a precarious measure of biomass under some conditions. Combinations of adenosine and adenine nucleotides gave better correlations with microbial biomass measured as extractable lipid phosphate in the detrital and microfouling microbial communities than did ATP alone. Stresses such as anoxia or filtration are reflected in the rapid accumulation of intracellular adenosine and the excretion of adenosine and AMP into the surrounding milieu. Increases in AMP and adenosine may prove to be more sensitive indicators of metabolic status than the energy charge. PMID:16345633

Davis, William M.; White, David C.



Inhibition of Platelet Activation and Thrombus Formation by Adenosine and Inosine: Studies on Their Relative Contribution and Molecular Modeling  

PubMed Central

Background The inhibitory effect of adenosine on platelet aggregation is abrogated after the addition of adenosine-deaminase. Inosine is a naturally occurring nucleoside degraded from adenosine. Objectives The mechanisms of antiplatelet action of adenosine and inosine in vitro and in vivo, and their differential biological effects by molecular modeling were investigated. Results Adenosine (0.5, 1 and 2 mmol/L) inhibited phosphatidylserine exposure from 52±4% in the control group to 44±4 (p<0.05), 29±2 (p<0.01) and 20±3% (p<0.001). P-selectin expression in the presence of adenosine 0.5, 1 and 2 mmol/L was inhibited from 32±4 to 27±2 (p<0.05), 14±3 (p<0.01) and 9±3% (p<0.001), respectively. At the concentrations tested, only inosine to 4 mmol/L had effect on platelet P-selectin expression (p<0.05). Adenosine and inosine inhibited platelet aggregation and ATP release stimulated by ADP and collagen. Adenosine and inosine reduced collagen-induced platelet adhesion and aggregate formation under flow. At the same concentrations adenosine inhibited platelet aggregation, decreased the levels of sCD40L and increased intraplatelet cAMP. In addition, SQ22536 (an adenylate cyclase inhibitor) and ZM241385 (a potent adenosine receptor A2A antagonist) attenuated the effect of adenosine on platelet aggregation induced by ADP and intraplatelet level of cAMP. Adenosine and inosine significantly inhibited thrombosis formation in vivo (62±2% occlusion at 60 min [n?=?6, p<0.01] and 72±1.9% occlusion at 60 min, [n?=?6, p<0.05], respectively) compared with the control (98±2% occlusion at 60 min, n?=?6). A2A is the adenosine receptor present in platelets; it is known that inosine is not an A2A ligand. Docking of adenosine and inosine inside A2A showed that the main difference is the formation by adenosine of an additional hydrogen bond between the NH2 of the adenine group and the residues Asn253 in H6 and Glu169 in EL2 of the A2A receptor. Conclusion Therefore, adenosine and inosine may represent novel agents lowering the risk of arterial thrombosis. PMID:25393959

Fuentes, Eduardo; Pereira, Jaime; Mezzano, Diego; Alarcón, Marcelo; Caballero, Julio; Palomo, Iván



CD73+ regulatory T cells contribute to adenosine-mediated resolution of acute lung injury  

PubMed Central

Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by alveolar injury and uncontrolled inflammation. Since most cases of ALI resolve spontaneously, understanding the endogenous mechanisms that promote ALI resolution is important to developing effective therapies. Previous studies have implicated extracellular adenosine signaling in tissue adaptation and wound healing. Therefore, we hypothesized a functional contribution for the endogenous production of adenosine during ALI resolution. As a model, we administered intratracheal LPS and observed peak lung injury at 3 d, with resolution by d 14. Treatment with pegylated adenosine-deaminase to enhance extracellular adenosine breakdown revealed impaired ALI resolution. Similarly, genetic deletion of cd73, the pacemaker for extracellular adenosine generation, was associated with increased mortality (0% wild-type and 40% in cd73?/? mice; P<0.05) and failure to resolve ALI adequately. Studies of inflammatory cell trafficking into the lungs during ALI resolution revealed that regulatory T cells (Tregs) express the highest levels of CD73. While Treg numbers in cd73?/? mice were similar to controls, cd73-deficient Tregs had attenuated immunosuppressive functions. Moreover, adoptive transfer of cd73-deficient Tregs into Rag?/? mice emulated the observed phenotype in cd73?/? mice, while transfer of wild-type Tregs was associated with normal ALI resolution. Together, these studies implicate CD73-dependent adenosine generation in Tregs in promoting ALI resolution.—Ehrentraut, H., Clambey, E. T., McNamee, E. N., Brodsky, K. S., Ehrentraut, S. F., Poth, J. M., Riegel, A. K., Westrich, J. A., Colgan, S. P., Eltzschig, H. K. CD73+ regulatory T cells contribute to adenosine-mediated resolution of acute lung injury. PMID:23413361

Ehrentraut, Heidi; Clambey, Eric T.; McNamee, Eoin N.; Brodsky, Kelley S.; Ehrentraut, Stefan F.; Poth, Jens M.; Riegel, Ann K.; Westrich, Joseph A.; Colgan, Sean P.; Eltzschig, Holger K.



An enzyme-linked immuno-mass spectrometric assay with the substrate adenosine monophosphate.  


An enzyme-linked immuno-mass spectrometric assay (ELIMSA) with the specific detection probe streptavidin conjugated to alkaline phosphatase catalyzed the production of adenosine from the substrate adenosine monophosphate (AMP) for sensitive quantification of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) by mass spectrometry. Adenosine ionized efficiently and was measured to the femtomole range by dilution and direct analysis with micro-liquid chromatography, electrospray ionization, and mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS). The LC-ESI-MS assay for adenosine production was shown to be linear and accurate using internal (13)C(15)N adenosine isotope dilution, internal (13)C(15)N adenosine one-point calibration, and external adenosine standard curves with close agreement. The detection limits of LC-ESI-MS for alkaline phosphatase-streptavidin (AP-SA, ?190,000 Da) was tested by injecting 0.1 ?l of a 1 pg/ml solution, i.e., 100 attograms or 526 yoctomole (5.26E-22) of the alkaline-phosphatase labeled probe on column (about 315 AP-SA molecules). The ELIMSA for PSA was linear and showed strong signals across the picogram per milliliter range and could robustly detect PSA from all of the prostatectomy patients and all of the female plasma samples that ranged as low as 70 pg/ml with strong signals well separated from the background and well within the limit of quantification of the AP-SA probe. The results of the ELIMSA assay for PSA are normal and homogenous when independently replicated with a fresh standard over multiple days, and intra and inter diem assay variation was less than 10 % of the mean. In a blind comparison, ELIMSA showed excellent agreement with, but was more sensitive than, the present gold standard commercial fluorescent ELISA, or ECL-based detection, of PSA from normal and prostatectomy samples, respectively. PMID:25519722

Florentinus-Mefailoski, Angelique; Soosaipillai, Antonius; Dufresne, Jaimie; Diamandis, Eleftherios P; Marshall, John G



Adenosine activates brown adipose tissue and recruits beige adipocytes via A2A receptors.  


Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is specialized in energy expenditure, making it a potential target for anti-obesity therapies. Following exposure to cold, BAT is activated by the sympathetic nervous system with concomitant release of catecholamines and activation of ?-adrenergic receptors. Because BAT therapies based on cold exposure or ?-adrenergic agonists are clinically not feasible, alternative strategies must be explored. Purinergic co-transmission might be involved in sympathetic control of BAT and previous studies reported inhibitory effects of the purinergic transmitter adenosine in BAT from hamster or rat. However, the role of adenosine in human BAT is unknown. Here we show that adenosine activates human and murine brown adipocytes at low nanomolar concentrations. Adenosine is released in BAT during stimulation of sympathetic nerves as well as from brown adipocytes. The adenosine A2A receptor is the most abundant adenosine receptor in human and murine BAT. Pharmacological blockade or genetic loss of A2A receptors in mice causes a decrease in BAT-dependent thermogenesis, whereas treatment with A2A agonists significantly increases energy expenditure. Moreover, pharmacological stimulation of A2A receptors or injection of lentiviral vectors expressing the A2A receptor into white fat induces brown-like cells-so-called beige adipocytes. Importantly, mice fed a high-fat diet and treated with an A2A agonist are leaner with improved glucose tolerance. Taken together, our results demonstrate that adenosine-A2A signalling plays an unexpected physiological role in sympathetic BAT activation and protects mice from diet-induced obesity. Those findings reveal new possibilities for developing novel obesity therapies. PMID:25317558

Gnad, Thorsten; Scheibler, Saskia; von Kügelgen, Ivar; Scheele, Camilla; Kili?, Ana; Glöde, Anja; Hoffmann, Linda S; Reverte-Salisa, Laia; Horn, Philipp; Mutlu, Samet; El-Tayeb, Ali; Kranz, Mathias; Deuther-Conrad, Winnie; Brust, Peter; Lidell, Martin E; Betz, Matthias J; Enerbäck, Sven; Schrader, Jürgen; Yegutkin, Gennady G; Müller, Christa E; Pfeifer, Alexander



Postnatal changes in response to adenosine and adenine nucleotides in rat duodenum.  

PubMed Central

1. The effects of adenosine and adenine nucleotides were studied in rat duodenum from postnatal day 1 to day 70. The mechanical activity of duodenal segments was recorded through an isotonic transducer connected to a polygraphic recorder. 2. In rat duodenal segments, adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP, 10(-4) M) and adenosine-5'-diphosphate (ADP, 10(-4) M) produced a contractile response on postnatal day 1. This response increased with age, peaking on day 7, followed by a gradual decrease and was non-existent by day 21. In contrast, a relaxant response to ATP and ADP was apparent on day 21, and continued to increase up to day 70. 3. The contraction caused by ATP was inhibited by indomethacin or the P2y-purinoceptor antagonist, reactive blue-2 but not by tetrodotoxin or hyoscine. Thus, it may be mediated by production of prostaglandin through the P2y-purinoceptor. The relaxation produced by ATP was inhibited by reactive blue-2 but not by tetrodotoxin, guanethidine or the P1-purinoceptor antagonist, 8-phenyltheophylline indicating that ATP acts on smooth muscle directly through the P2y-purinoceptor. The pD2 for the contractile response to ATP was 5.15 on day 7 and that for the relaxant response, 6.64 on day 70. 4. Adenosine (10(-4) M) and adenosine-5'-monophosphate (AMP, 10(-4) M) elicited no response before day 14. On day 14, both adenosine and AMP produced a small relaxant response which increased with age. The relaxation produced by adenosine was inhibited by 8-phenyltheophylline but not by tetrodotoxin or guanethidine, indicating that it is mediated by an action on the P1-purinoceptor of smooth muscle.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2790377

Furukawa, K.; Nomoto, T.



Artificial oxygen carrier with pharmacologic actions of adenosine-5'-triphosphate, adenosine, and reduced glutathione formulated to treat an array of medical conditions.  


Effective artificial oxygen carriers may offer a solution to tackling current transfusion medicine challenges such as blood shortages, red blood cell storage lesions, and transmission of emerging pathogens. These products, could provide additional therapeutic benefits besides oxygen delivery for an array of medical conditions. To meet these needs, we developed a hemoglobin (Hb)-based oxygen carrier, HemoTech, which utilizes the concept of pharmacologic cross-linking. It consists of purified bovine Hb cross-linked intramolecularly with open ring adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) and intermolecularly with open ring adenosine, and conjugated with reduced glutathione (GSH). In this composition, ATP prevents Hb dimerization, and adenosine promotes formation of Hb polymers as well as counteracts the vasoconstrictive and pro-inflammatory properties of Hb via stimulation of adenosine receptors. ATP also serves as a regulator of vascular tone through activation of purinergic receptors. GSH blocks Hb's extravasation and glomerular filtration by lowering the isoelectric point, as well as shields heme from nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species. HemoTech and its manufacturing technology have been broadly tested, including viral and prion clearance validation studies and various nonclinical pharmacology, toxicology, genotoxicity, and efficacy tests. The clinical proof-of-concept was carried out in sickle cell anemia subjects. The preclinical and clinical studies indicate that HemoTech works as a physiologic oxygen carrier and has efficacy in treating: (i) acute blood loss anemia by providing a temporary oxygen bridge while stimulating an endogenous erythropoietic response; (ii) sickle cell disease by counteracting vaso-occlusive/inflammatory episodes and anemia; and (iii) ischemic vascular diseases particularly thrombotic and restenotic events. The pharmacologic cross-linking of Hb with ATP, adenosine, and GSH showed usefulness in designing an artificial oxygen carrier for multiple therapeutic indications. PMID:24980041

Simoni, Jan; Simoni, Grace; Moeller, John F; Feola, Mario; Wesson, Donald E



WS0701: a novel sedative-hypnotic agent acting on the adenosine system.  


To characterize the sedative and hypnotic profile of the novel adenosine derivative ((3S,4R,5R)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(6-((4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)amino)-9H-purin-9-yl)tetrahydrofuran-2-yl) methyl diaconate (WS0701), we performed a variety of behavioural tests and investigated the influence of WS0701 on various sleep stages. In mice, WS0701 significantly increased the number of entries and time spent in open arms in the elevated plus maze test, indicating an anxiolytic effect. WS0701 decreased locomotor activity counts and head dips in the hole-board test and enhanced sodium pentobarbital-induced hypnosis. However, WS0701 did not induce the loss of the righting reflex or amnesic effects in behavioural models. In rats, WS0701 exerted a sedative effect and markedly prolonged the time spent in non-rapid-eye-movement sleep, especially slow-wave sleep, but reduced the time spent in rapid-eye-movement sleep (REMS). Pretreatment with the selective adenosine A2a receptor antagonist SCH58261 attenuated the sedative and hypnotic effects of WS0701. WS0701 did not protect mice against picrotoxin-induced seizures, but inhibited adenosine deaminase activity and increased adenosine levels in the frontal cortex and hypothalamus of mice. In conclusion, WS0701 shows anxiolytic, sedative as well as sleep stage alterative effects, which may be related to the adenosine system. PMID:25171078

Bai, Xiao-Yu; Zhang, Xue-Qiong; Zhang, Yong-He; Wu, Song; Hao, Ling-Hua; Liu, Rui; Huang, Zhong-Lin; Zhang, Wei-Ku; Sun, Zong-Miao; Du, Guan-Hua



ATP-adenosine-glutathione cross-linked hemoglobin as clinically useful oxygen carrier.  


To attenuate hemoglobin's (Hb) intrinsic toxicity, Texas Tech University scientists developed a novel concept of "pharmacologic cross-linking" to formulate an effective oxygen carrier, HemoTech, which consists of purified bovine Hb cross-linked intramolecularly with ATP and intermolecularly with adenosine, and conjugated with reduced glutathione (GSH). In this composition, while ATP prevents Hb dimerization, adenosine permits the formation of homogeneous polymers. ATP also serves as a regulator of blood vessel tone via activation of the P2Y receptor, whereas adenosine counteracts the vasoconstrictive and pro-inflammatory properties of Hb via stimulation of adenosine A2 and A3 receptors. GSH introduces electronegative charge onto the Hb surface that blocks Hb's transglomerular and transendothelial passage. Besides, GSH shields heme from nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species, thus enhancing vasodilation and lowering Hb prooxidative potential. HemoTech underwent favorable initial pre-clinical testing and proof of medical concept, and is under commercial development by HemoBioTech Inc. HemoTech has entered the regulatory process in the US. Several mandated requirements have already been met, including viral/transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) clearance validation studies and various pre-clinical pharmacological, pharmacokinetic, toxicological, genotoxicity and efficacy tests. These studies provided further evidence that "pharmacologic cross-linking" of the Hb molecule with ATP, adenosine and GSH, is useful for designing a viable Hb-based oxygen carrier. PMID:21902624

Simoni, Jan; Simoni, Grace; Wesson, Donald E; Feola, Mario



Adenosine transport in peripheral blood lymphocytes from Lesch-Nyhan patients.  

PubMed Central

We postulated that adenosine function could be related to some of the neurological features of Lesch-Nyhan syndrome and therefore characterized adenosine transport in PBLs (peripheral blood lymphocytes) obtained from Lesch-Nyhan patients (PBL(LN)) and from controls (PBL(C)). Adenosine transport was significantly lower in PBL(LN) when compared with that in PBL(C) and a significantly lower number of high affinity sites for [(3)H]nitrobenzylthioinosine binding were quantified per cell ( B (max)) in PBL(LN) when compared with that in PBL(C). After incubation with 25 microM hypoxanthine, adenosine transport was significantly decreased in PBL(LN) with respect to PBL(C). Hypoxanthine incubation lowers [(3)H]nitrobenzylthioinosine binding in PBL(C), with respect to basal conditions, but does not affect it in PBL(LN). This indicates that hypoxanthine affects adenosine transport in control and hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase-deficient cells by different mechanisms. PMID:14572307

Torres, Rosa J; Deantonio, Isabel; Prior, Carmen; Puig, Juan G



Squalenoyl adenosine nanoparticles provide neuroprotection after stroke and spinal cord injury.  


There is an urgent need to develop new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of severe neurological trauma, such as stroke and spinal cord injuries. However, many drugs with potential neuropharmacological activity, such as adenosine, are inefficient upon systemic administration because of their fast metabolization and rapid clearance from the bloodstream. Here, we show that conjugation of adenosine to the lipid squalene and the subsequent formation of nanoassemblies allows prolonged circulation of this nucleoside, providing neuroprotection in mouse stroke and rat spinal cord injury models. The animals receiving systemic administration of squalenoyl adenosine nanoassemblies showed a significant improvement of their neurologic deficit score in the case of cerebral ischaemia, and an early motor recovery of the hindlimbs in the case of spinal cord injury. Moreover, in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that the nanoassemblies were able to extend adenosine circulation and its interaction with the neurovascular unit. This Article shows, for the first time, that a hydrophilic and rapidly metabolized molecule such as adenosine may become pharmacologically efficient owing to a single conjugation with the lipid squalene. PMID:25420034

Gaudin, Alice; Yemisci, Müge; Eroglu, Hakan; Lepetre-Mouelhi, Sinda; Turkoglu, Omer Faruk; Dönmez-Demir, Buket; Caban, Seçil; Sargon, Mustafa Fevzi; Garcia-Argote, Sébastien; Pieters, Grégory; Loreau, Olivier; Rousseau, Bernard; Tagit, Oya; Hildebrandt, Niko; Le Dantec, Yannick; Mougin, Julie; Valetti, Sabrina; Chacun, Hélène; Nicolas, Valérie; Desmaële, Didier; Andrieux, Karine; Capan, Yilmaz; Dalkara, Turgay; Couvreur, Patrick



Neurochemical Measurement of Adenosine in Discrete Brain Regions of Five Strains of Inbred Mice  

PubMed Central

Adenosine (ADO), a non-classical neurotransmitter and neuromodulator, and its metabolites adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP), have been shown to play an important role in a number of biochemical processes. Although their signaling is well described, it has been difficult to directly, accurately and simultaneously quantitate these purines in tissue or fluids. Here, we describe a novel method for measuring adenosine (ADO) and its metabolites using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD). Using this chromatographic technique, we examined baseline levels of ADO and ATP, ADP and AMP in 6 different brain regions of the C57BL/6J mouse: stratum, cortex, hippocampus, olfactory bulb, substantia nigra and cerebellum and compared ADO levels in 5 different strains of mice (C57BL/6J, Swiss-Webster, FVB/NJ, 129P/J, and BALB/c). These studies demonstrate that baseline levels of purines vary significantly among the brain regions as well as between different mouse strains. These dissimilarities in purine concentrations may explain the variable phenotypes among background strains described in neurological disease models. PMID:24642754

Pani, Amar K.; Jiao, Yun; Sample, Kenneth J.; Smeyne, Richard J.



Squalenoyl adenosine nanoparticles provide neuroprotection after stroke and spinal cord injury  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is an urgent need to develop new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of severe neurological trauma, such as stroke and spinal cord injuries. However, many drugs with potential neuropharmacological activity, such as adenosine, are inefficient upon systemic administration because of their fast metabolization and rapid clearance from the bloodstream. Here, we show that conjugation of adenosine to the lipid squalene and the subsequent formation of nanoassemblies allows prolonged circulation of this nucleoside, providing neuroprotection in mouse stroke and rat spinal cord injury models. The animals receiving systemic administration of squalenoyl adenosine nanoassemblies showed a significant improvement of their neurologic deficit score in the case of cerebral ischaemia, and an early motor recovery of the hindlimbs in the case of spinal cord injury. Moreover, in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that the nanoassemblies were able to extend adenosine circulation and its interaction with the neurovascular unit. This Article shows, for the first time, that a hydrophilic and rapidly metabolized molecule such as adenosine may become pharmacologically efficient owing to a single conjugation with the lipid squalene.

Gaudin, Alice; Yemisci, Müge; Eroglu, Hakan; Lepetre-Mouelhi, Sinda; Turkoglu, Omer Faruk; Dönmez-Demir, Buket; Caban, Seçil; Sargon, Mustafa Fevzi; Garcia-Argote, Sébastien; Pieters, Grégory; Loreau, Olivier; Rousseau, Bernard; Tagit, Oya; Hildebrandt, Niko; Le Dantec, Yannick; Mougin, Julie; Valetti, Sabrina; Chacun, Hélène; Nicolas, Valérie; Desmaële, Didier; Andrieux, Karine; Capan, Yilmaz; Dalkara, Turgay; Couvreur, Patrick



Sulfur-Containing 1,3-Dialkylxanthine Derivatives as Selective Antagonists at A1-Adenosine Receptors  

PubMed Central

Sulfur-containing analogues of 8-substituted xanthines were prepared in an effort to increase selectivity or potency as antagonists at adenosine receptors. Either cyclopentyl or various aryl substituents were utilized at the 8-position, because of the association of these groups with high potency at A1-adenosine receptors. Sulfur was incorporated on the purine ring at positions 2 and/or 6, in the 8-position substituent in the form of 2- or 3-thienyl groups, or via thienyl groups separated from an 8-aryl substituent through an amide-containing chain. The feasibility of using the thienyl group as a prosthetic group for selective iodination via its Hg2+ derivative was explored. Receptor selectivity was determined in binding assays using membrane homogenates from rat cortex [[3H]-N6-(phenylisopropyl) adenosine as radioligand] or striatum [[3H]-5?-(N-ethylcarbamoyl)adenosine as radioligand] for A1- and A2-adenosine receptors, respectively. Generally, 2-thio-8-cycloalkylxanthines were at least as A1 selective as the corresponding oxygen analogue. 2-Thio-8-aryl derivatives tended to be more potent at A2 receptors than the oxygen analogue. 8-[4-[(Carboxymethyl)oxy]phenyl]-1,3-dipropyl-2-thioxanthine ethyl ester was >740-fold A1 selective. PMID:2754711

Kiriasis, Leonidas; Barone, Suzanne; Bradbury, Barton J.; Kammula, Udai; Campagne, Jean Michel; Secunda, Sherrie; Daly, John W.; Neumeyer, John L.; Pfleiderer, Wolfgang



Comparison of long-term mortality risk following normal exercise vs adenosine myocardial perfusion SPECT  

PubMed Central

Background A higher frequency of clinical events has been observed in patients undergoing pharmacological vs exercise myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). While this difference is attributed to greater age and co-morbidities, it is not known whether these tests also differ in prognostic ability among patients with similar clinical profiles. Methods and Results We assessed all-cause mortality rates in 6,069 patients, followed for 10.2 ± 1.7 years after undergoing exercise or adenosine SPECT. We employed propensity analysis to match exercise and adenosine subgroups by age, gender, symptoms, and coronary risk factors. Within our propensity-matched cohorts, adenosine patients had an annualized mortality rate event rates that was more than twice that of exercise patients (3.9% vs 1.6%, P < .0001). Differences in mortality persisted among age groups, including those <55 years old. In the exercise cohort, mortality was inversely related to exercise duration, with comparable mortality noted for patients exercising <3 min and those undergoing adenosine testing. Conclusions Among patients with normal stress SPECT tests, those undergoing adenosine testing manifest a mortality rate that is substantially higher than that observed among adequately exercising patients, but comparable to that observed among very poorly exercising patients. This elevated risk underscores an important challenge for managing patients undergoing pharmacological stress testing. PMID:21076898

Rozanski, Alan; Gransar, Heidi; Hayes, Sean W.; Friedman, John D.; Hachamovitch, Rory



Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Bacillus subtilis Responding to Dissolved Oxygen in Adenosine Fermentation  

PubMed Central

Dissolved oxygen (DO) is an important factor for adenosine fermentation. Our previous experiments have shown that low oxygen supply in the growth period was optimal for high adenosine yield. Herein, to better understand the link between oxygen supply and adenosine productivity in B. subtilis (ATCC21616), we sought to systematically explore the effect of DO on genetic regulation and metabolism through transcriptome analysis. The microarrays representing 4,106 genes were used to study temporal transcript profiles of B. subtilis fermentation in response to high oxygen supply (agitation 700 r/min) and low oxygen supply (agitation 450 r/min). The transcriptome data analysis revealed that low oxygen supply has three major effects on metabolism: enhance carbon metabolism (glucose metabolism, pyruvate metabolism and carbon overflow), inhibit degradation of nitrogen sources (glutamate family amino acids and xanthine) and purine synthesis. Inhibition of xanthine degradation was the reason that low oxygen supply enhanced adenosine production. These provide us with potential targets, which can be modified to achieve higher adenosine yield. Expression of genes involved in energy, cell type differentiation, protein synthesis was also influenced by oxygen supply. These results provided new insights into the relationship between oxygen supply and metabolism. PMID:21625606

Yin, Chun-Yun; Zhou, Ying; Ye, Bang-Ce



Aberrant Bone Density in Aging Mice Lacking the Adenosine Transporter ENT1  

PubMed Central

Adenosine is known to regulate bone production and resorption in humans and mice. Type 1 equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT1) is responsible for the majority of adenosine transport across the plasma membrane and is ubiquitously expressed in both humans and mice. However, the contribution of ENT1-mediated adenosine levels has not been studied in bone remodeling. With the recent identification of the importance of adenosine signaling in bone homeostasis, it is essential to understand the role of ENT1 to develop novel therapeutic compounds for bone disorders. Here we examined the effect of ENT1 deletion on bone density using X-ray, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and micro-computerized tomography analysis. Our results show that bone density and bone mineral density is reduced in the lower thoracic and lumbar spine as well as the femur of old ENT1 null mice (>7 months) compared to wild-type littermates. Furthermore, we found increased mRNA expression of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), an osteoclast marker, in isolated long bones from 10 month old ENT1 null mice compared to wild-type mice. In addition, aged ENT1 null mice displayed severe deficit in motor coordination and locomotor activity, which might be attributed to dysregulated bone density. Overall, our study suggests that ENT1-regulated adenosine signaling plays an essential role in lumbar spine and femur bone density. PMID:24586402

Hinton, David J.; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E.; Lee, Moonnoh R.; Kwong, Hoi K.; Westendorf, Jennifer J.; Choi, Doo-Sup



Acute Hyperammonemia and Systemic Inflammation is Associated with Increased Extracellular Brain Adenosine in Rats: A Biosensor Study.  


Acute liver failure (ALF) can lead to brain edema, cerebral hyperperfusion and intracranial hypertension. These complications are thought to be mediated by hyperammonemia and inflammation leading to altered brain metabolism. As increased levels of adenosine degradation products have been found in brain tissue of patients with ALF we investigated whether hyperammonemia could induce adenosine release in brain tissue. Since adenosine is a potent vasodilator and modulator of cerebral metabolism we furthermore studied the effect of adenosine receptor ligands on intracranial pressure (ICP) and cerebral blood flow (CBF). We measured the adenosine concentration with biosensors in rat brain slices exposed to ammonia and in a rat model with hyperammonemia and systemic inflammation. Exposure to ammonia in concentrations from 0.15-10 mM led to increases in the cortical adenosine concentration up to 18 µM in brain slices. In vivo recordings showed a tendency towards increased adenosine levels in rats with hyperammonemia and systemic inflammation compared to a control group (3.7 ± 0.7 vs. 0.8 ± 0.2 µM, P = 0.06). This was associated with a significant increase in ICP and CBF. Intervention with the non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist theophyllamine, the A2A receptor antagonist ZM241385, or the A1 receptor agonist N6-Cyclopentyladenosine did not reduce ICP or CBF. In conclusion, our results show that the adenosine concentration in cortex increases during exposure to ammonia, and is associated with a rise in intracranial pressure and cerebral perfusion. However adenosine receptor antagonism/agonism did not reduce the ICP or CBF which indicates that adenosine may not be of direct importance for these cerebral complications in ALF. PMID:24925263

Bjerring, Peter Nissen; Dale, Nicholas; Larsen, Fin Stolze



Predictors and Diagnostic Significance of the Adenosine Related Side Effects on Myocardial Perfusion SPECT/CT Imaging  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between patient characteristics and adenosine-related side-effects during stress myocard perfusion imaging (MPI). The effect of presence of adenosine-related side-effects on the diagnostic value of MPI with integrated SPECT/CT system for coronary artery disease (CAD), was also assessed in this study. Methods: Total of 281 patients (109 M, 172 F; mean age:62.6±10) who underwent standard adenosine stress protocol for MPI, were included in this study. All symptoms during adenosine infusion were scored according to the severity and duration. For the estimation of diagnostic value of adenosine MPI with integrated SPECT/CT system, coronary angiography (CAG) or clinical follow-up were used as gold standard. Results: Total of 173 patients (61.6%) experienced adenosine-related side-effects (group 1); flushing, dyspnea, and chest pain were the most common. Other 108 patients completed pharmacologic stress (PS) test without any side-effects (group 2). Test tolerability were similar in the patients with cardiovascular or airway disease to others, however dyspnea were observed significantly more common in patients with mild airway disease. Body mass index (BMI) ?30 kg/m2 and age ?45 years were independent predictors of side-effects. The diagnostic value of MPI was similar in both groups. Sensitivity of adenosine MPI SPECT/CT was calculated to be 86%, specificity was 94% and diagnostic accuracy was 92% for diagnosis of CAD. Conclusion: Adenosine MPI is a feasible and well tolerated method in patients who are not suitable for exercise stress test as well as patients with cardiopulmonary disease. However age ?45 years and BMI ?30 kg/m2 are the positive predictors of adenosine-related side-effects, the diagnostic value of adenosine MPI SPECT/CT is not affected by the presence of adenosine related side-effects. PMID:25541932

Y?ld?r?m Poyraz, Nilüfer; Özdemir, Elif; Poyraz, Bar?? Mustafa; Kandemir, Zuhal; Keskin, Mutlay; Türkölmez, ?eyda



Adenosine 5?-Triphosphate Flux Through the North Inlet Marsh System †  

PubMed Central

The distribution, fluctuation, and short-term transport of total microbial biomass (measured as adenosine 5?-triphosphate [ATP]) was investigated in a large salt marsh creek. Hourly samples were collected synoptically for 25 h from 10 boats positioned across the 320-m width of the creek. Samples were collected from three depths ranging from 0.2 to 8.0 m. Hourly data obtained from each station were graphed, plotting depth against ATP. Subsequently, interpolated ATP values were generated for every one-tenth depth from the surface to the bottom with the use of an 11-point proportional divider. A total of 2,750 values were generated, and a mean value of 0.865 mg of ATP per m3 was determined. Maximum levels of ATP were found at high tide and minimal values were found at low tide. The distribution of ATP concentrations was found to be complex, with no suggestion of vertical stratification; however, horizontal divisions were apparent. ATP values corrected for direction of flow or velocity indicated two ebb-directed channels; however, when considered in total, there was a net import of ATP through the interface. The total import of ATP for this 25-h sampling period was calculated to be 3.58 kg, corresponding to a net transport of 39.8 mg of ATP per s through the cross section. Results suggest that detailed characterization of a creek transect in terms of ATP or any similar parameter requires the simultaneous measurements of both the concentration of the parameter in question and the velocity at the time and point from which the sample was taken. PMID:16345382

Chrzanowski, Thomas H.; Stevenson, L. Harold; Kjerfve, Bjorn



Reduced Adenosine Release from the Aged Mammalian Heart  

PubMed Central

Adenosine (ADO) released in the heart results in enhanced coronary blood flow and reduced catecholamine release and myocardial responsiveness to adrenergic stimulation (anti-adrenergic action). ADO release from the adrenergic-stimulated aged heart is less than that from the young adult heart. Because adrenergic signaling in the aged heart is impaired, this study was conducted to determine if reduced ADO release from the aged heart results from this reduced adrenergic responsiveness. Hearts of 3-4 mo (young adult) and 21-22 mo (aged) Fischer-344 rats were perfused with ADO deamination and re-phosphorylation inhibited. Coronary effluent ADO levels were determined. Cellular free ADO levels with and without sodium acetate (NaAc)-induced mitochondrial AMP synthesis were assessed using formed S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) in L-homocysteine thiolactone (L-HC) treated hearts. The activities of SAH-hydrolase were determined. Aged heart ADO release was 61% less than from young hearts. NaAc augmented young heart ADO release by 104%, while that of aged hearts remained unchanged. SAH synthesis was 51% and 56% lower in the aged heart in the absence and presence of NaAc, respectively, despite an 89% greater SAH hydrolase activity found in the aged hearts. Since synthesized AMP may be diverted to IMP and ultimately inosine by AMP deaminase, inosine release was determined. Aged heart inosine levels in the absence and presence of NaAc were 74% and 59% less than for the young hearts. It is concluded that a reduced mitochondrial AMP synthesis is in part responsible for the attenuation in ADO release from the adrenergic-stimulated aged heart. PMID:22378276

Fenton, Richard A.; Dobson, James G.



Autoimmune Dysregulation and Purine Metabolism in Adenosine Deaminase Deficiency  

PubMed Central

Genetic defects in the adenosine deaminase (ADA) gene are among the most common causes for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). ADA-SCID patients suffer from lymphopenia, severely impaired cellular and humoral immunity, failure to thrive, and recurrent infections. Currently available therapeutic options for this otherwise fatal disorder include bone marrow transplantation (BMT), enzyme replacement therapy with bovine ADA (PEG-ADA), or hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy (HSC-GT). Although varying degrees of immune reconstitution can be achieved by these treatments, breakdown of tolerance is a major concern in ADA-SCID. Immune dysregulation such as autoimmune hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus, hemolytic anemia, and immune thrombocytopenia are frequently observed in milder forms of the disease. However, several reports document similar complications also in patients on long-term PEG-ADA and after BMT or GT treatment. A skewed repertoire and decreased immune functions have been implicated in autoimmunity observed in certain B-cell and/or T-cell immunodeficiencies, but it remains unclear to what extent specific mechanisms of tolerance are affected in ADA deficiency. Herein we provide an overview about ADA-SCID and the autoimmune manifestations reported in these patients before and after treatment. We also assess the value of the ADA-deficient mouse model as a useful tool to study both immune and metabolic disease mechanisms. With focus on regulatory T- and B-cells we discuss the lymphocyte subpopulations particularly prone to contribute to the loss of self-tolerance and onset of autoimmunity in ADA deficiency. Moreover we address which aspects of immune dysregulation are specifically related to alterations in purine metabolism caused by the lack of ADA and the subsequent accumulation of metabolites with immunomodulatory properties. PMID:22969765

Sauer, Aisha Vanessa; Brigida, Immacolata; Carriglio, Nicola; Aiuti, Alessandro



Circadian rhythm in adenosine A1 receptor of mouse cerebral cortex  

SciTech Connect

In order to investigate diurnal variation in adenosine A1 receptors binding parameters, Bmax and Kd values of specifically bound N6-cyclohexyl-({sup 3}H)adenosine were determined in the cerebral cortex of mice that had been housed under controlled light-dark cycles for 4 weeks. Significant differences were found for Bmax values measured at 3-hr intervals across a 24-h period, with low Bmax values during the light period and high Bmax values during the dark period. The amplitude between 03.00 and 18.00 hr was 33%. No substantial rhythm was found in the Kd values. It is suggested that the changes in the density of A1 receptors could reflect a physiologically-relevant mechanism by which adenosine exerts its modulatory role in the central nervous system.

Florio, C.; Rosati, A.M.; Traversa, U.; Vertua, R. (Univ. of Trieste (Italy))



Computational Elucidation of Structural Basis for Ligand Binding with Leishmania donovani Adenosine Kinase  

PubMed Central

Enzyme adenosine kinase is responsible for phosphorylation of adenosine to AMP and is crucial for parasites which are purine auxotrophs. The present study describes development of robust homology model of Leishmania donovani adenosine kinase to forecast interaction phenomenon with inhibitory molecules using structure-based drug designing strategy. Docking calculation using reported organic small molecules and natural products revealed key active site residues such as Arg131 and Asp16 for ligand binding, which is consistent with previous studies. Molecular dynamics simulation of ligand protein complex revealed the importance of hydrogen bonding with active site residues and solvent molecules, which may be crucial for successful development of drug candidates. Precise role of Phe168 residue in the active site was elucidated in this report that provided stability to ligand-protein complex via aromatic-? contacts. Overall, the present study is believed to provide valuable information to design a new compound with improved activity for antileishmanial therapeutics development. PMID:23984386

Kar, Rajiv K.; Ansari, Md. Yousuf; Suryadevara, Priyanka; Sahoo, Bikash R.; Sahoo, Ganesh C.; Dikhit, Manas R.; Das, Pradeep



Computational study of the molecular mechanisms of caffeine action: Caffeine complexes with adenosine receptors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To understand the molecular basis of the principal biological action of the caffeine (CAF), the molecular mechanics calculations of possible complexes between CAF and the fragments of human A1 adenosine receptor were performed. The fragments were selected after considerations of the CAF molecular structure and its possible interactions, as well as after an analysis of the extensive bibliography on the structure, biological role, site-directed mutagenesis, and the modeling of the adenosine receptors. The minimum energy configurations of these complexes were obtained using two different computer programs with different force fields. The most favorable configurations correspond to the formation of two hydrogen bonds between the CAF molecule and hydrophilic amino acid residues of the fragments of transmembrane domains of the receptor. These configurations are supposed to contribute to CAF blocking of the adenosine receptors. They will be used later for the construction of model CAF complexes with two transmembrane domains simultaneously.

Poltev, V. I.; Rodríguez, E.; Grokhlina, T. I.; Deriabina, A.; Gonzalez, E.


Human ?-Defensin 2 Induces Extracellular Accumulation of Adenosine in Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Human ?-defensins are host defense peptides performing antimicrobial as well as immunomodulatory functions. The present study investigated whether treatment of Escherichia coli with human ?-defensin 2 could generate extracellular molecules of relevance for immune regulation. Mass spectrometry analysis of bacterial supernatants detected the accumulation of purine nucleosides triggered by ?-defensin 2 treatment. Other cationic antimicrobial peptides tested presented variable outcomes with regard to extracellular adenosine accumulation; human ?-defensin 2 was the most efficient at inducing this response. Structural and biochemical evidence indicated that a mechanism other than plain lysis was involved in the observed phenomenon. By use of isotope (13C) labeling, extracellular adenosine was found to be derived from preexistent RNA, and a direct interaction between the peptide and bacterial nucleic acid was documented for the first time for ?-defensin 2. Taken together, the data suggest that defensin activity on a bacterial target may alter local levels of adenosine, a well-known immunomodulator influencing inflammatory processes. PMID:23817371

Rohde, Manfred; Gutierrez, Maximiliano Gabriel; Molinari, Gabriella; Abraham, Wolf-Rainer



Role of adenosine in the antiepileptic effects of deep brain stimulation  

PubMed Central

Despite the effectiveness of anterior thalamic nucleus (AN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) for the treatment of epilepsy, mechanisms responsible for the antiepileptic effects of this therapy remain elusive. As adenosine modulates neuronal excitability and seizure activity in animal models, we hypothesized that this nucleoside could be one of the substrates involved in the effects of AN DBS. We applied 5 days of stimulation to rats rendered chronically epileptic by pilocarpine injections and recorded epileptiform activity in hippocampal slices. We found that slices from animals given DBS had reduced hippocampal excitability and were less susceptible to develop ictal activity. In live animals, AN DBS significantly increased adenosine levels in the hippocampus as measured by microdialysis. The reduced excitability of DBS in vitro was completely abolished in animals pre-treated with A1 receptor antagonists and was strongly potentiated by A1 receptor agonists. We conclude that some of the antiepileptic effects of DBS may be mediated by adenosine. PMID:25324724

Miranda, Maisa F.; Hamani, Clement; de Almeida, Antônio-Carlos G.; Amorim, Beatriz O.; Macedo, Carlos E.; Fernandes, Maria José S.; Nobrega, José N.; Aarão, Mayra C.; Madureira, Ana Paula; Rodrigues, Antônio M.; Andersen, Monica L.; Tufik, Sergio; Mello, Luiz E.; Covolan, Luciene



Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of modified adenosines joined to mono-functional platinum moieties.  


The synthesis of four novel platinum complexes, bearing N6-(6-amino-hexyl)adenosine or a 1,6-di(adenosin-N6-yl)-hexane respectively, as ligands of mono-functional cisplatin or monochloro(ethylendiamine)platinum(II), is reported. The chemistry exploits the high affinity of the charged platinum centres towards the N7 position of the adenosine base system and a primary amine of an alkyl chain installed on the C6 position of the purine. The cytotoxic behaviour of the synthesized complexes has been studied in A549 adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial and MCF7 human breast adenocarcinomic cancer cell lines, in order to investigate their effects on cell viability and proliferation. PMID:24995920

D'Errico, Stefano; Oliviero, Giorgia; Borbone, Nicola; Piccialli, Vincenzo; Pinto, Brunella; De Falco, Francesca; Maiuri, Maria Chiara; Carnuccio, Rosa; Costantino, Valeria; Nici, Fabrizia; Piccialli, Gennaro



Calcium mobilization in Jurkat cells via A2b adenosine receptors  

PubMed Central

A functional study of cell surface A2b adenosine receptors was performed on the T cell leukaemia line, Jurkat. A2b receptors were coupled both to the adenylate cyclase system and to intracellular calcium channels. In fact, the agonist of A2b receptors, 5?-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA), led to a transient accumulation of intracellular calcium by an inositol phosphate-independent mechanism. The NECA-induced accumulation of cGMP was not responsible for the calcium mobilization via A2b receptors. The calcium response elicited by activation of A2b receptors was independent of that evoked by activation of the T cell receptor. These findings not only delineate a novel transduction mechanism for adenosine but also support a specific role for adenosine in modulating signals elicited via the T cell receptor. PMID:9401772

Mirabet, Maribel; Mallol, Josefa; Lluis, Carmen; Franco, Rafael



Binary Drugs: Conjugates of Purines and a Peptide That Bind to Both Adenosine and Substance P Receptors  

PubMed Central

A “functionalized congener” approach to adenosine receptor antagonists has provided a means to synthesize highly potent peptide conjugates of 1,3-dialkylxanthines. The antagonist XAC, such a functionalized xanthine amine congener, has been attached to a segment derived from the neurotransmitter peptide substance P (SP) to form a binary drug that binds to both receptors with Ki values of 35 nM (central A1-adenosine) and 300 nM (striatal SP). Coupling of the functionalized adenosine agonist N6-[p-(carboxymethyl)phenyl]adenosine to an SP C-terminal peptide also resulted in a binary drug that binds to both receptors. The demonstration that the biochemical properties of two unrelated drugs, both of which act through binding at extracellular receptors, may be combined in the same molecule suggests a novel strategy for drug design. In principle, a combined effect of the two different substances that produce the same final effect (e.g., hypotension by adenosine agonists and by SP analogues) might occur in vivo. Adenosine analogues have analgesic properties, and the binary drug derived from substance P and adenosine agonists or antagonists might provide useful tools for probing interrelationships of SP pathways and sites for the antinociceptive action of adenosine. PMID:2441057

Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Lipkowski, Andrzej W.; Moody, Terry W.; Padgett, William; Pijl, Evelyn; Kirk, Kenneth L.; Daly, John W.



2?-O Methylation of Internal Adenosine by Flavivirus NS5 Methyltransferase  

PubMed Central

RNA modification plays an important role in modulating host-pathogen interaction. Flavivirus NS5 protein encodes N-7 and 2?-O methyltransferase activities that are required for the formation of 5? type I cap (m7GpppAm) of viral RNA genome. Here we reported, for the first time, that flavivirus NS5 has a novel internal RNA methylation activity. Recombinant NS5 proteins of West Nile virus and Dengue virus (serotype 4; DENV-4) specifically methylates polyA, but not polyG, polyC, or polyU, indicating that the methylation occurs at adenosine residue. RNAs with internal adenosines substituted with 2?-O-methyladenosines are not active substrates for internal methylation, whereas RNAs with adenosines substituted with N6-methyladenosines can be efficiently methylated, suggesting that the internal methylation occurs at the 2?-OH position of adenosine. Mass spectroscopic analysis further demonstrated that the internal methylation product is 2?-O-methyladenosine. Importantly, genomic RNA purified from DENV virion contains 2?-O-methyladenosine. The 2?-O methylation of internal adenosine does not require specific RNA sequence since recombinant methyltransferase of DENV-4 can efficiently methylate RNAs spanning different regions of viral genome, host ribosomal RNAs, and polyA. Structure-based mutagenesis results indicate that K61-D146-K181-E217 tetrad of DENV-4 methyltransferase forms the active site of internal methylation activity; in addition, distinct residues within the methyl donor (S-adenosyl-L-methionine) pocket, GTP pocket, and RNA-binding site are critical for the internal methylation activity. Functional analysis using flavivirus replicon and genome-length RNAs showed that internal methylation attenuated viral RNA translation and replication. Polymerase assay revealed that internal 2?-O-methyladenosine reduces the efficiency of RNA elongation. Collectively, our results demonstrate that flavivirus NS5 performs 2?-O methylation of internal adenosine of viral RNA in vivo and host ribosomal RNAs in vitro. PMID:22496660

Dong, Hongping; Chang, David C.; Hua, Maggie Ho Chia; Lim, Siew Pheng; Chionh, Yok Hian; Hia, Fabian; Lee, Yie Hou; Kukkaro, Petra; Lok, Shee-Mei; Dedon, Peter C.; Shi, Pei-Yong



Adenosine A1 and A3 receptors protect astrocytes from hypoxic damage.  


Brain levels of adenosine are elevated during hypoxia. Through effects on adenosine receptors (A(1), A(2A), A(2B) and A(3)) on astrocytes, adenosine can influence functions such as glutamate uptake, reactive gliosis, swelling, as well as release of neurotrophic and neurotoxic factors having an impact on the outcome of metabolic stress. We have studied the roles of these receptors in astrocytes by evaluating their susceptibility to damage induced by oxygen deprivation or exposure to the hypoxia mimic cobalt chloride (CoCl(2)). Hypoxia caused ATP breakdown and purine release, whereas CoCl(2) (0.8 mM) mainly reduced ATP by causing cell death in human D384 astrocytoma cells. Further experiments were conducted in primary astrocytes prepared from specific adenosine receptor knock-out (KO) and wild type (WT) mice. In WT cells purine release following CoCl(2) exposure was mainly due to nucleotide release, whereas hypoxia-induced intracellular ATP breakdown followed by nucleoside efflux. N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA), an unselective adenosine receptor agonist, protected from cell death following hypoxia. Cytotoxicity was more pronounced in A(1)R KO astrocytes and tended to be higher in WT cells in the presence of the A(1) receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX). Genetic deletion of A(2A) receptor resulted in less prominent effects. A(3)R KO glial cells were more affected by hypoxia than WT cells. Accordingly, the A(3) receptor agonist 2-chloro-N(6)-(3-iodobenzyl)-N-methyl-5'-carbamoyladenosine (CL-IB-MECA) reduced ATP depletion caused by hypoxic conditions. It also reduced apoptosis in human astroglioma D384 cells after oxygen deprivation. In conclusion, the data point to a cytoprotective role of adenosine mediated by both A(1) and A(3) receptors in primary mouse astrocytes. PMID:18727925

Björklund, Olga; Shang, Mingmei; Tonazzini, Ilaria; Daré, Elisabetta; Fredholm, Bertil B



Caffeine's Attenuation of Cocaine-Induced Dopamine Release by Inhibition of Adenosine.  


Background: It is well known that the reinforcing properties of cocaine addiction are caused by the sharp increase of dopamine (DA) in the reward areas of the brain. However, other mechanisms have been speculated to contribute to the increase. Adenosine is one system that is associated with the sleep-wake cycle and is most important in regulating neuronal activity. Thus, more and more evidence is pointing to its involvement in regulating DA release. The current study set out to examine the role of adenosine in cocaine-induced DA release. Methods: Increasing doses of cocaine, caffeine, and their combination, as well as, 8-cyclopentyltheophylline (CPT), an adenosine A1 antagonist (alone and in combination with cocaine) were used to denote a response curve. A novel biosensor, the BRODERICK PROBE(®) was implanted in the nucleus accumbens to image the drug-induced surge of DA release in vivo, in the freely moving animal in real time. Results: Combinations of cocaine and caffeine were observed to block the increased release of DA moderately after administration of the low dose (2.5?mg/kg cocaine and 12.5?mg/kg caffeine) and dramatically after administration of the high dose (10?mg/kg cocaine and 50?mg/kg caffeine), suggesting neuroprotection. Similarly, CPT and cocaine showed a decreased DA surge when administered in combination. Thus, the low and high dose of a nonselective adenosine antagonist, caffeine, and a moderate dose of a selective adenosine antagonist, CPT, protected against the cocaine-induced DA release. Conclusions: These results show a significant interaction between adenosine and DA release and suggest therapeutic options for cocaine addiction and disorders associated with DA dysfunction. PMID:25054079

Malave, Lauren B; Broderick, Patricia A



CD73-Generated Adenosine Is Critical for Immune Regulation during Toxoplasma gondii Infection.  


As an obligate intracellular pathogen, the apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii evades immune system-mediated clearance by undergoing stage differentiation to persist indefinitely in susceptible hosts. Previously, we found that mice deficient in the ectoenzyme CD73, which generates adenosine in the extracellular matrix, were resistant to chronic toxoplasmosis after oral infection with T. gondii. Resistance in CD73 knockout mice was due to a delay in parasite differentiation in the central nervous system (CNS). To further clarify the role of CD73 and extracellular adenosine in T. gondii pathogenesis, we infected wild-type (WT) and CD73(-/-) mice with T. gondii cysts systemically by the intraperitoneal (i.p.) route. In contrast to oral infection, i.p. infected CD73(-/-) mice were highly susceptible to immune-mediated pathology, with significantly increased infiltration of neutrophils and T cells into the peritoneal cavity. Administration of the broad-spectrum adenosine receptor agonist 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA) protected CD73(-/-) mice against T. gondii-induced immunopathology, suggesting that the absence of CD73-generated adenosine led to the increased susceptibility in these mice. Peritoneal exudate cells from infected CD73(-/-) mice produced higher levels of the inflammatory mediators nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), and interleukin-1? (IL-1?), without enhanced parasite killing or clearance. Bone marrow chimeras established that CD73 expression in both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic compartments contributes to limiting T. gondii-induced immunopathology. In addition, mice deficient in the adenosine receptor A2A were more susceptible to immunopathology during intraperitoneal infection with T. gondii than WT mice. Thus, extracellular adenosine is a key immune regulator that limits collateral tissue damage due to an intracellular pathogen and promotes host survival. PMID:25452548

Mahamed, Deeqa A; Toussaint, Leon E; Bynoe, Margaret S



Adenosine receptor antagonists alter the stability of human epileptic GABAA receptors  

PubMed Central

We examined how the endogenous anticonvulsant adenosine might influence ?-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor stability and which adenosine receptors (ARs) were involved. Upon repetitive activation (GABA 500 ?M), GABAA receptors, microtransplanted into Xenopus oocytes from neurosurgically resected epileptic human nervous tissues, exhibited an obvious GABAA-current (IGABA) run-down, which was consistently and significantly reduced by treatment with the nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist CGS15943 (100 nM) or with adenosine deaminase (ADA) (1 units/ml), that inactivates adenosine. It was also found that selective antagonists of A2B (MRS1706, 10 nM) or A3 (MRS1334, 30 nM) receptors reduced IGABA run-down, whereas treatment with the specific A1 receptor antagonist DPCPX (10 nM) was ineffective. The selective A2A receptor antagonist SCH58261 (10 nM) reduced or potentiated IGABA run-down in ?40% and ?20% of tested oocytes, respectively. The ADA-resistant, AR agonist 2-chloroadenosine (2-CA) (10 ?M) potentiated IGABA run-down but only in ?20% of tested oocytes. CGS15943 administration again decreased IGABA run-down in patch-clamped neurons from either human or rat neocortex slices. IGABA run-down in pyramidal neurons was equivalent in A1 receptor-deficient and wt neurons but much larger in neurons from A2A receptor-deficient mice, indicating that, in mouse cortex, GABAA-receptor stability is tonically influenced by A2A but not by A1 receptors. IGABA run-down from wt mice was not affected by 2-CA, suggesting maximal ARs activity by endogenous adenosine. Our findings strongly suggest that cortical A2–A3 receptors alter the stability of GABAA receptors, which could offer therapeutic opportunities. PMID:18809912

Roseti, Cristina; Martinello, Katiuscia; Fucile, Sergio; Piccari, Vanessa; Mascia, Addolorata; Di Gennaro, Giancarlo; Quarato, Pier Paolo; Manfredi, Mario; Esposito, Vincenzo; Cantore, Gianpaolo; Arcella, Antonella; Simonato, Michele; Fredholm, Bertil B.; Limatola, Cristina; Miledi, Ricardo; Eusebi, Fabrizio



Interstitial adenosine concentration during norepinephrine infusion in isolated guinea pig hearts.  


This study determined the effect of norepinephrine (NE) on cardiac interstitial fluid adenosine concentration [( ADO]isf). Isolated guinea pig hearts were perfused with a Krebs-Henseleit buffer solution. Radiolabeled albumin, sucrose, and adenosine were injected under control conditions and after 3 and 20 min of NE infusion to obtain multiple indicator dilution curves that were used to determine capillary transport parameters for adenosine. These parameters together with venous adenosine concentrations were used in a mathematical model to a calculate [ADO]isf. Capillary transport parameters were not changed significantly by NE infusion. Because of uncertainty regarding two model parameters, two sets of [ADO]isf values were calculated. One set used best-fit values obtained from indicator dilution curves, and a second set used parameters chosen to provide the highest [ADO]isf values consistent with indicator dilution curves. Venous adenosine concentrations were 1.9 +/- 0.4 nM under control conditions and 243 +/- 110 and 45 +/- 25 nM after 3 and 20 min of NE infusion, respectively. Calculated [ADO]isf was 2.6-9.4, 591-1,288, and 166-324 nM, respectively, under these same conditions. We conclude that NE infusion greatly increases [ADO]isf, and adenosine is responsible for most of the vasodilation at 3 min. The subsequent fall in venous concentration is due to a fall in [ADO]isf rather than to decreased capillary permeability. Vascular resistance remained low while [ADO]isf fell, which suggests that additional vasodilators are important during maintained NE infusion. PMID:1887934

Gorman, M W; Wangler, R D; Bassingthwaighte, J B; Mohrman, D E; Wang, C Y; Sparks, H V



Interstitial adenosine concentration during norepinephrine infusion in isolated guinea pig hearts  

PubMed Central

This study determined the effect of norepinephrine (NE) on cardiac interstitial fluid adenosine concentration ([ADO]isf). Isolated guinea pig hearts were perfused with a Krebs-Henseleit buffer solution. Radiolabeled albumin, sucrose, and adenosine were injected under control conditions and after 3 and 20 min of NE infusion to obtain multiple indicator dilution curves that were used to determine capillary transport parameters for adenosine. These parameters together with venous adenosine concentrations were used in a mathematical model to calculate [ADO]isf. Capillary transport parameters were not changed significantly by NE infusion. Because of uncertainty regarding two model parameters, two sets of [ADO]isf values were calculated. One set used best-fit values obtained from indicator dilution curves, and a second set used parameters chosen to provide the highest [ADO]isf values consistent with indicator dilution curves. Venous adenosine concentrations were 1.9 ± 0.4 nM under control conditions and 243 ± 110 and 45 ± 25 nM after 3 and 20 min of NE infusion, respectively. Calculated [ADO]isf was 2.6–9.4, 591–1,288, and 166–324 nM, respectively, under these same conditions. We conclude that NE infusion greatly increases [ADO]isf, and adenosine is responsible for most of the vasodilation at 3 min. The subsequent fall in venous concentration is due to a fall in [ADO]isf rather than to decreased capillary permeability. Vascular resistance remained low while [ADO]isf fell, which suggests that additional vasodilators are important during maintained NE infusion. PMID:1887934




Biological functions of ecto-enzymes in regulating extracellular adenosine levels in neoplastic and inflammatory disease states  

PubMed Central

When present in the extracellular environment, the nucleoside adenosine protects cells and tissues from excessive inflammation and immune-mediated damage while promoting healing processes. This role has been highlighted experimentally using distinct disease models, including those of colitis, diabetes, asthma, sepsis, and ischemic injury. Adenosine also suppresses immune responses, as in the tumor microenvironment, assisting immune evasion while promoting angiogenesis. The mechanisms involved in adenosine signaling are addressed elsewhere in this issue. Here, the authors specifically address the generation of adenosine from extracellular nucleotides. This process is catalyzed by a series of plasma membrane ectonucleotidases, with the focus in this article on members of the CD39, CD73, and CD38 families and on their role in inflammatory and neoplastic hematological diseases. Pharmacological modulation of adenosine generation by drugs that either have or modulate ectonucleotidase function might be exploited to treat these diverse conditions. PMID:23292173

Robson, Simon C.; Bernstein, Steven H.; Serra, Sara



Activation of the A 3 adenosine receptor affects cell cycle progression and cell growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The A3 adenosine receptor has been implicated in modulation of cell growth. As a first step to the characterization of the underlying mechanisms, we exposed Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells transfected with the human A3 receptor (A3R-CHO) to selective A3 receptor ligands. At micromolar concentrations, the A3 agonists N6-(3-iodobenzyl)-adenosine-5'-N-methyluronamide (IB-MECA) and its 2-chloro derivative Cl-IB-MECA reduced cell number, with no

Roberta Brambilla; Flaminio Cattabeni; Stefania Ceruti; Daniela Barbieri; Claudio Franceschi; Yong-Chul Kim; Kenneth A. Jacobson; Karl-Norbert Klotz; Martin J. Lohse; Maria P. Abbracchio



Regulation of photoreceptor gap junction phosphorylation by adenosine in zebrafish retina.  


Electrical coupling of photoreceptors through gap junctions suppresses voltage noise, routes rod signals into cone pathways, expands the dynamic range of rod photoreceptors in high scotopic and mesopic illumination, and improves detection of contrast and small stimuli. In essentially all vertebrates, connexin 35/36 (gene homologs Cx36 in mammals, Cx35 in other vertebrates) is the major gap junction protein observed in photoreceptors, mediating rod-cone, cone-cone, and possibly rod-rod communication. Photoreceptor coupling is dynamically controlled by the day/night cycle and light/dark adaptation, and is directly correlated with phosphorylation of Cx35/36 at two sites, serine110 and serine 276/293 (homologous sites in teleost fish and mammals, respectively). Activity of protein kinase A (PKA) plays a key role during this process. Previous studies have shown that activation of dopamine D4 receptors on photoreceptors inhibits adenylyl cyclase, down-regulates cAMP and PKA activity, and leads to photoreceptor uncoupling, imposing the daytime/light condition. In this study, we explored the role of adenosine, a nighttime signal with a high extracellular concentration at night and a low concentration in the day, in regulating photoreceptor coupling by examining photoreceptor Cx35 phosphorylation in zebrafish retina. Adenosine enhanced photoreceptor Cx35 phosphorylation in daytime, but with a complex dose-response curve. Selective pharmacological manipulations revealed that adenosine A2a receptors provide a potent positive drive to phosphorylate photoreceptor Cx35 under the influence of endogenous adenosine at night. A2a receptors can be activated in the daytime as well by micromolar exogenous adenosine. However, the higher affinity adenosine A1 receptors are also present and have an antagonistic though less potent effect. Thus, the nighttime/darkness signal adenosine provides a net positive drive on Cx35 phosphorylation at night, working in opposition to dopamine to regulate photoreceptor coupling via a push-pull mechanism. However, the lower concentration of adenosine present in the daytime actually reinforces the dopamine signal through action on the A1 receptor. PMID:24844306

Li, Hongyan; Chuang, Alice Z; O'Brien, John



Identification of Novel Adenosine A2A Receptor Antagonists by Virtual Screening  

PubMed Central

Virtual screening was performed against experimentally enabled homology models of the adenosine A2A receptor, identifying a diverse range of ligand efficient antagonists (hit rate 9%). By use of ligand docking and Biophysical Mapping (BPM), hits 1 and 5 were optimized to potent and selective lead molecules (11–13 from 5, pKI = 7.5–8.5, 13- to >100-fold selective versus adenosine A1; 14–16 from 1, pKI = 7.9–9.0, 19- to 59-fold selective). PMID:22250781



Contributory role of adenosine deaminase in metabolic syndrome.  


Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is an enzyme of purine metabolism commonly associated with severe combined immunodeficiency disease and believed to modulate bioactivity of insulin. Its contributory role in patients with metabolic syndrome (having features such as obesity, insulin resistance, fasting hyperglycaemia, lipid abnormalities and hypertension) in South Eastern Nigeria was studied. Body mass index (BMI), fasting blood glucose (FBG), Glycated haemoglobin (GHbA1c), total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol (usually impaired in metabolic syndrome) and total serum ADA activity were measured in different groups of patients with metabolic syndrome (test subjects) and apparently healthy subjects (controls). The test subjects comprised six subgroups made up of the following; obese diabetic (N=25), obese non-diabetic (N=25), Non-obese diabetic (N=25), patients with hypercholesterolaemia (N=25), LDL-cholesterolaemia (N=25) and HDL-cholesterolaemia (N=25). The results showed that the mean values of all the parameters studied (BMI, FBG, GHbA1c, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol) were higher in the test subjects than their controls. BMI did not correlate significantly with FBG, GHbA1c, and ADA in the test and control subjects respectively. The mean serum ADA activity in the test subjects of obese diabetic, obese non-diabetic and non-obese diabetic subjects was higher than in controls (p< 0.001). ADA activity was also higher in the test subjects of hypercholesterolaemia, HDL-cholesterolaemia and LDL-cholesterolaemia than in control (p< 0.001). ADA activity also correlated positively with hypercholesterolemia (r = 0.640; p<0.001), HDL-cholesterolaemia (r = 0.646; p<0.001) and LDL-cholesterolaemia (r = 0.932; p<0.001), with the highest correlation in the LDL-cholesterolaemia. In conclusion, ADA activity is increased significantly in all parameters of metabolic syndrome studied and showed a significant correlation with all the three groups of dyslipidaemic subjects studied. ADA could therefore be used in daily routine laboratory assessment of most metabolic diseases especially in obese and diabetic patients. PMID:23955411

Nwankwo, A A; Osim, E E; Bisong, S A



Adenosine regulates CD8 T-cell priming by inhibition of membrane-proximal T-cell receptor signalling  

PubMed Central

Adenosine is a well-described anti-inflammatory modulator of immune responses within peripheral tissues. Extracellular adenosine accumulates in inflamed and damaged tissues and inhibits the effector functions of various immune cell populations, including CD8 T cells. However, it remains unclear whether extracellular adenosine also regulates the initial activation of naïve CD8 T cells by professional and semi-professional antigen-presenting cells, which determines their differentiation into effector or tolerant CD8 T cells, respectively. We show that adenosine inhibited the initial activation of murine naïve CD8 T cells after ?CD3/CD28-mediated stimulation. Adenosine caused inhibition of activation, cytokine production, metabolic activity, proliferation and ultimately effector differentiation of naïve CD8 T cells. Remarkably, adenosine interfered efficiently with CD8 T-cell priming by professional antigen-presenting cells (dendritic cells) and semi-professional antigen-presenting cells (liver sinusoidal endothelial cells). Further analysis of the underlying mechanisms demonstrated that adenosine prevented rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of the key kinase ZAP-70 as well as Akt and ERK1/2 in naïve ?CD3/CD28-stimulated CD8 cells. Consequently, ?CD3/CD28-induced calcium-influx into CD8 cells was reduced by exposure to adenosine. Our results support the notion that extracellular adenosine controls membrane-proximal T-cell receptor signalling and thereby also differentiation of naïve CD8 T cells. These data raise the possibility that extracellular adenosine has a physiological role in the regulation of CD8 T-cell priming and differentiation in peripheral organs. PMID:19740334

Linnemann, Carsten; Schildberg, Frank A; Schurich, Anna; Diehl, Linda; Hegenbarth, Silke I; Endl, Elmar; Lacher, Svenja; Müller, Christa E; Frey, Jürgen; Simeoni, Luca; Schraven, Burkhart; Stabenow, Dirk; Knolle, Percy A



The Metal Ion-Dependent Adhesion Site Motif of the Enterococcus faecalis EbpA Pilin Mediates Pilus Function in Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Though the bacterial opportunist Enterococcus faecalis causes a myriad of hospital-acquired infections (HAIs), including catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs), little is known about the virulence mechanisms that it employs. However, the endocarditis- and biofilm-associated pilus (Ebp), a member of the sortase-assembled pilus family, was shown to play a role in a mouse model of E. faecalis ascending UTI. The Ebp pilus comprises the major EbpC shaft subunit and the EbpA and EbpB minor subunits. We investigated the biogenesis and function of Ebp pili in an experimental model of CAUTI using a panel of chromosomal pilin deletion mutants. A nonpiliated pilus knockout mutant (EbpABC? strain) was severely attenuated compared to its isogenic parent OG1RF in experimental CAUTI. In contrast, a nonpiliated ebpC deletion mutant (EbpC? strain) behaved similarly to OG1RF in vivo because it expressed EbpA and EbpB. Deletion of the minor pilin gene ebpA or ebpB perturbed pilus biogenesis and led to defects in experimental CAUTI. We discovered that the function of Ebp pili in vivo depended on a predicted metal ion-dependent adhesion site (MIDAS) motif in EbpA’s von Willebrand factor A domain, a common protein domain among the tip subunits of sortase-assembled pili. Thus, this study identified the Ebp pilus as a virulence factor in E. faecalis CAUTI and also defined the molecular basis of this function, critical knowledge for the rational development of targeted therapeutics. PMID:22829678

Nielsen, Hailyn V.; Guiton, Pascale S.; Kline, Kimberly A.; Port, Gary C.; Pinkner, Jerome S.; Neiers, Fabrice; Normark, Staffan; Henriques-Normark, Birgitta; Caparon, Michael G.; Hultgren, Scott J.



Intracellular ATP influences synaptic plasticity in area CA1 of rat hippocampus via metabolism to adenosine and activity-dependent activation of adenosine A1 receptors.  


The extent to which brain slices reflect the energetic status of the in vivo brain has been a subject of debate. We addressed this issue to investigate the recovery of energetic parameters and adenine nucleotides in rat hippocampal slices and the influence this has on synaptic transmission and plasticity. We show that, although adenine nucleotide levels recover appreciably within 10 min of incubation, it takes 3 h for a full recovery of the energy charge (to ? 0.93) and that incubation of brain slices at 34°C results in a significantly higher ATP/AMP ratio and a threefold lower activity of AMP-activated protein kinase compared with slices incubated at room temperature. Supplementation of artificial CSF with d-ribose and adenine (Rib/Ade) increased the total adenine nucleotide pool of brain slices, which, when corrected for the influence of the dead cut edges, closely approached in vivo values. Rib/Ade did not affect basal synaptic transmission or paired-pulse facilitation but did inhibit long-term potentiation (LTP) induced by tetanic or weak theta-burst stimulation. This decrease in LTP was reversed by strong theta-burst stimulation or antagonizing the inhibitory adenosine A(1) receptor suggesting that the elevated tissue ATP levels had resulted in greater activity-dependent adenosine release during LTP induction. This was confirmed by direct measurement of adenosine release with adenosine biosensors. These observations provide new insight into the recovery of adenine nucleotides after slice preparation, the sources of loss of such compounds in brain slices, the means by which to restore them, and the functional consequences of doing so. PMID:21508245

zur Nedden, Stephanie; Hawley, Simon; Pentland, Naomi; Hardie, D Grahame; Doney, Alexander S; Frenguelli, Bruno G



Neuroprotection by Caffeine and A 2A Adenosine Receptor Inactivation in a Model of Parkinson's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent epidemiological studies have established an associa- tion between the common consumption of coffee or other caffeinated beverages and a reduced risk of developing Parkin- son's disease (PD). To explore the possibility that caffeine helps prevent the dopaminergic deficits characteristic of PD, we in- vestigated the effects of caffeine and the adenosine receptor subtypes through which it may act in

Jiang-Fan Chen; Kui Xu; Jacobus P. Petzer; Roland Staal; Yue-Hang Xu; Mark Beilstein; Patricia K. Sonsalla; Kay Castagnoli; Neal Castagnoli Jr; Michael A. Schwarzschild


Label-free aptasensor for adenosine deaminase sensing based on fluorescence turn-on.  


A label-free and fluorescence turn-on aptamer biosensor has been developed for the detection of adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity with simplicity and selectivity. Adenosine aptamer will form a tight stem-loop structure upon binding with adenosine. In the absence of ADA, only a small quantity of picagreen intercalates into the stem section of aptamer, resulting in a low fluorescence of picagreen when excited at 490 nm. Interestingly, after the addition of ADA, adenosine is hydrolyzed to inosine, and the released aptamer forms double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) with its complementary single-stranded DNAc, followed by the intercalation of picagreen to dsDNA. When the solution is excited, picagreen emits strong green fluorescence. The increased fluorescence intensity of picagreen is dependent on the concentration of ADA. The detection limit of the ADA is determined to be 2 U L(-1), which is lower than ADA cutoff value (4 U L(-1)) in the clinical requirement and more sensitive than most of the reported methods. Compared to other previous ADA sensors, the assay is not only label-free but also a turn-on signal, and possesses properties of lower cost and simpler detection system. Furthermore, this label-free strategy is also applicable to the assay of other enzymes and screening of corresponding inhibitors. PMID:25521724

Zeng, X; Wang, C; Li, Y X; Li, X X; Su, Y Y; An, J; Tang, Y L



Enhanced A3 adenosine receptor selectivity of multivalent nucleoside-dendrimer conjugates  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: An approach to use multivalent dendrimer carriers for delivery of nucleoside signaling molecules to their cell surface G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) was recently introduced. RESULTS: A known adenosine receptor (AR) agonist was conjugated to polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer carriers for delivery of the intact covalent conjugate to on the cell surface. Depending on the linking moiety, multivalent conjugates of the

Athena M Klutz; Zhan-Guo Gao; John Lloyd; Asher Shainberg; Kenneth A Jacobson



Oxanosine Is a Substrate of Adenosine Deaminase. Implications for the Quest for a Toxicological Marker for  

E-print Network

Oxanosine Is a Substrate of Adenosine Deaminase. Implications for the Quest for a Toxicological relevant in toxicology in 1996 with the discovery that it is formed in nitrosative guanosine deamination toxicology. Hence, a more detailed and quan- titative understanding is required of nitrosation in biological

Glaser, Rainer


Determination of adenosine triphosphate on marine particulates: synthesis of methods for use on OTEC samples  

SciTech Connect

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is an indicator of living biomass in marine particulates. This report details the method used by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to analyze particulate ATP in samples taken from oligotrophic, tropical ocean waters. It represents a synthesis of previously published methods.

Jones, A.T.; Hartwig, E.O.



Determination of Adenosine Triphosphate on Marine Particulates:Synthesis of Methods for Use on OTEC Samples  

SciTech Connect

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is an indicator of living biomass in marine particulates. This report details the method used by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to analyze particulate ATP in samples taken from oligotrophic, tropical ocean waters. It represents a synthesis of previously published methods.

Jones, Anthony T.; Hartwig, Eric O.



Chromosome 20: gene for adenosine deaminase, Matt RidleySite: DNA Interactive (  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Interviewee: Matt Ridley DNAi Location:Genome>tour>genome spots>Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID) Location: chromosome 20 and X gene name: ADA (adenosine deaminase) Mutations in the sequence of the ADA gene (and another gene on the X chromosome called IL2RG) can cause severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). People with SCID are prone to bacterial, viral, and fungal infections.




EPA Science Inventory

Mice given the adenosine deaminase inhibitor 2-deoxycoformycin, for five days were evaluated 24 h, 72 h and 6 days after the final dose. Spleen weight was decreased for up to 6 days after treatment. The number and relative percentage of circulating lymphocytes were decreased 24 a...


Design and application of locally delivered agonists of the adenosine A(2A) receptor.  


The broad spectrum anti-inflammatory actions of adenosine A(2A) receptor agonists are well described. The wide distribution of this receptor, however, suggests that the therapeutic potential of these agents is likely to reside in topical treatments to avoid systemic side effects associated with oral administration. Adenosine A(2A) receptor agonists have been assessed as topical agents: GW328267X (GSK; allergic rhinitis and asthma), UK-432097 (Pfizer; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [COPD]) and Sonedenoson (MRE0094, King Pharmaceuticals; wound healing). All trials failed to achieve effects against the desired clinical end points. This broad-based review will discuss general principles of chemical design of topically applied agents and potential therapeutic topical applications of current adenosine A(2A) receptor agonists. Potential factors contributing to the lack of efficacy in the above clinical trials will be discussed together with design principles, which may influence efficacy in disease states. Our analysis suggests that adenosine A(2A) receptor agonists have a wide therapeutic potential as topical agents in a wide variety of diseases, such as neutrophil-dependent lung diseases (acute lung injury, exacerbations in asthma and COPD), allergic rhinitis, glaucoma and wound repair. Factors that will influence topical activity include formulation, tissue retention, compound potency, receptor kinetics and pharmacokinetics. PMID:22111533

Mantell, Simon; Jones, Rhys; Trevethick, Mike



Cardioprotective effects of adenosine within the border and remote areas of myocardial infarction  

PubMed Central

Background Adenosine may have beneficial effects on left ventricular function after myocardial infarction (MI), but the magnitude of this effect on remote and MI areas is controversial. We assessed the long-term effects of adenosine after MI using electrocardiogram-triggered 18?F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. Methods Wistar rats were subjected to coronary ligation and randomized into three groups treated daily for 2 months by NaCl (control; n?=?7), 2-chloroadenosine (CADO; n?=?8) or CADO with 8-sulfophenyltheophilline, an antagonist of adenosine receptors (8-SPT; n?=?8). Results After 2 months, control rats exhibited left ventricular remodelling, with increased end-diastolic volume and decreased ejection fraction. Left ventricular remodelling was not significantly inhibited by CADO. Segmental contractility, as assessed by the change in myocardial thickening after 2 months, was improved in CADO rats compared to control rats (+1.6%?±?0.8% vs. ?2.3%?±?0.8%, p?adenosine protects the left ventricle from contractile dysfunction following MI. PMID:24028474



Substrate Analogues for an RNA-Editing Adenosine Deaminase: Mechanistic Investigation and Inhibitor Design  

E-print Network

of a naturally occurring substrate for ADAR2, we infer features of the enzyme's active site and reaction out to this point has focused on the identification of the enzymes and substrates involved is the deamination of the nucleotides adenosine and cytidine within an RNA strand.12,13 Because hydrolytic

Beal, Peter A.


A Functionalized Congener Approach to Adenosine Receptor Antagonists: Amino Acid Conjugates of 1,3-Dipropylxanthine  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY 1,3-Dipropyl-8-phenylxanthine, a synthetic analog of theophylline and a potent antagonist of adenosine at A1 and A2-adenosine receptors, has been attached covalently through a functionalized chain to amino acids and oligopeptides. The xanthine conjugates have been studied as competitive inhibitors of the specific binding of [3H]N6-cyclohexyladenosine to A1-receptors of rat cerebral cortical membranes and for inhibition of cyclic AMP accumulation elicited by 2-chloroadenosine in guinea pig brain slices through A2-receptors. A free amino group on the extended chain generally resulted in high potency at A1-receptors. The potency (in some cases extending into the subnanomolar range) and selectivity for A1-receptors (up to 200-fold) suggest that this approach can yield a versatile class of “functionalized congeners” of adenosine receptor antagonists in which distal modifications of the attached moiety (“carrier”) can serve also to improve pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic parameters. The water solubility in many of the more potent analogs has been enhanced by two orders of magnitude over that of simple, uncharged 8-phenyl xanthine derivatives. Analogs in which the carrier contains d-tyrosine have potential for development of iodinated radioligands for adenosine receptors. The functionalized congener approach is potentially applicable to other drugs and for development of prodrugs. PMID:3005825




Adenosine A3 receptor stimulation induces protection of skeletal muscle from eccentric exercise-mediated injury  

E-print Network

Adenosine A3 receptor stimulation induces protection of skeletal muscle from eccentric exercise of skeletal muscle from eccentric exercise-mediated injury. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 299: R259­R267, 2010. First published April 28, 2010; doi:10.1152/ajpregu.00060.2010.--Effective therapy

Campbell, Kevin P.


Free energy calculations of A2A adenosine receptor mutation effects on agonist binding.  


A general computational scheme to evaluate the effects of single point mutations on ligand binding is reported. This scheme is applied to characterize agonist binding to the A2A adenosine receptor, and is found to accurately explain how point mutations of different nature affect the binding affinity of a potent agonist. PMID:25633558

Keränen, Henrik; Åqvist, Johan; Gutiérrez-de-Terán, Hugo



Cardiac myocyte–secreted cAMP exerts paracrine action via adenosine receptor activation  

PubMed Central

Acute stimulation of cardiac ?-adrenoceptors is crucial to increasing cardiac function under stress; however, sustained ?-adrenergic stimulation has been implicated in pathological myocardial remodeling and heart failure. Here, we have demonstrated that export of cAMP from cardiac myocytes is an intrinsic cardioprotective mechanism in response to cardiac stress. We report that infusion of cAMP into mice averted myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis in a disease model of cardiac pressure overload. The protective effect of exogenous cAMP required adenosine receptor signaling. This observation led to the identification of a potent paracrine mechanism that is dependent on secreted cAMP. Specifically, FRET-based imaging of cAMP formation in primary cells and in myocardial tissue from murine hearts revealed that cardiomyocytes depend on the transporter ABCC4 to export cAMP as an extracellular signal. Extracellular cAMP, through its metabolite adenosine, reduced cardiomyocyte cAMP formation and hypertrophy by activating A1 adenosine receptors while delivering an antifibrotic signal to cardiac fibroblasts by A2 adenosine receptor activation. Together, our data reveal a paracrine role for secreted cAMP in intercellular signaling in the myocardium, and we postulate that secreted cAMP may also constitute an important signal in other tissues. PMID:25401477

Sassi, Yassine; Ahles, Andrea; Truong, Dong-Jiunn Jeffery; Baqi, Younis; Lee, Sang-Yong; Husse, Britta; Hulot, Jean-Sébastien; Foinquinos, Ariana; Thum, Thomas; Müller, Christa E.; Dendorfer, Andreas; Laggerbauer, Bernhard; Engelhardt, Stefan



Adenosine A2A Receptors Modulate Acute Injury and Neuroinflammation in Brain Ischemia  

PubMed Central

The extracellular concentration of adenosine in the brain increases dramatically during ischemia. Adenosine A2A receptor is expressed in neurons and glial cells and in inflammatory cells (lymphocytes and granulocytes). Recently, adenosine A2A receptor emerged as a potential therapeutic attractive target in ischemia. Ischemia is a multifactorial pathology characterized by different events evolving in the time. After ischemia the early massive increase of extracellular glutamate is followed by activation of resident immune cells, that is, microglia, and production or activation of inflammation mediators. Proinflammatory cytokines, which upregulate cell adhesion molecules, exert an important role in promoting recruitment of leukocytes that in turn promote expansion of the inflammatory response in ischemic tissue. Protracted neuroinflammation is now recognized as the predominant mechanism of secondary brain injury progression. A2A receptors present on central cells and on blood cells account for important effects depending on the time-related evolution of the pathological condition. Evidence suggests that A2A receptor antagonists provide early protection via centrally mediated control of excessive excitotoxicity, while A2A receptor agonists provide protracted protection by controlling massive blood cell infiltration in the hours and days after ischemia. Focus on inflammatory responses provides for adenosine A2A receptor agonists a wide therapeutic time-window of hours and even days after stroke. PMID:25165414

Pedata, Felicita; Pugliese, Anna Maria; Coppi, Elisabetta; Dettori, Ilaria; Maraula, Giovanna; Cellai, Lucrezia; Melani, Alessia



Effects of A1-adenosine receptor antagonists on purinergic transmission in the guinea-pig vas deferens in vitro  

PubMed Central

Intracellularly recorded excitatory junction potentials ( were used to study the effects of adenosine receptor antagonists on neurotransmitter release from postganglionic sympathetic nerve terminals in the guinea-pig vas deferens in vitro.The A1 adenosine receptor antagonists, 8-phenyltheophylline (10??M) and 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (0.1??M), increased the amplitude of evoked during trains of 20 stimuli at 1?Hz in the presence, but not in the absence, of the ?2-adrenoceptor antagonist, yohimbine (1??M) or the non-selective ?-adrenoceptor antagonist, phentolamine (1??M).Adenosine (100??M) reduced the amplitude of, both in the presence and in the absence of phentolamine (1??M). This inhibitory effect of adenosine is most likely caused by a reduction in transmitter release as there was no detectable change in spontaneous e.j.p. amplitudes.In the presence of phentolamine, application of the adenosine uptake inhibitor, S-(p-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine (0.1??M), had no effect on e.j.p. amplitudes.The phosphodiesterase inhibitor, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (100??M), significantly increased the amplitudes of all evoked during trains of 20 stimuli at 1?Hz, both in the presence and in the absence of phentolamine (1??M).These results suggest that endogenous adenosine modulates neurotransmitter release by an action at prejunctional A1 adenosine receptors only when ?2-adrenoceptors are blocked. PMID:10372818

Hardy, Todd A; Brock, James A



Differences in adenosine A-1 and A-2 receptor density revealed by autoradiography in methylxanthine-sensitive and insensitive mice  

SciTech Connect

Two strains of inbred mice, CBA/J and SWR/J, have been identified which are, respectively, sensitive and insensitive to the behavioral and toxic effects of methylxanthines. Autoradiographic analyses of brain adenosine receptors were conducted with (/sup 3/H)CHA to label adenosine A-1 receptors and (/sup 3/H)NECA, in the presence of 50 nM CPA, to label adenosine A-2 receptors. For both mouse strains, adenosine A-1 receptors were most highly concentrated in the hippocampus and cerebellum whereas adenosine A-2 receptors were selectively localized in the striatum. CBA/J mice displayed a 30% greater density of adenosine A-1 receptors in the hippocampal CA-1 and CA-3 regions and in the cerebellum as compared to the SWR/J mice. The number of A-2 receptors (Bmax) was 40% greater in the striatum and olfactory tubercle of CBA/J as compared to SWR/J mice. No significant regional differences in A-1 or A-2 receptor affinities were observed between these inbred strains of mice. These results indicate that the differential sensitivity to methylxanthines between these mouse strains may reflect a genetically mediated difference in regional adenosine receptor densities.

Jarvis, M.F.; Williams, M.



International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. LXXXI. Nomenclature and Classification of Adenosine Receptors—An Update  

PubMed Central

In the 10 years since our previous International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology report on the nomenclature and classification of adenosine receptors, no developments have led to major changes in the recommendations. However, there have been so many other developments that an update is needed. The fact that the structure of one of the adenosine receptors has recently been solved has already led to new ways of in silico screening of ligands. The evidence that adenosine receptors can form homo- and heteromultimers has accumulated, but the functional significance of such complexes remains unclear. The availability of mice with genetic modification of all the adenosine receptors has led to a clarification of the functional roles of adenosine, and to excellent means to study the specificity of drugs. There are also interesting associations between disease and structural variants in one or more of the adenosine receptors. Several new selective agonists and antagonists have become available. They provide improved possibilities for receptor classification. There are also developments hinting at the usefulness of allosteric modulators. Many drugs targeting adenosine receptors are in clinical trials, but the established therapeutic use is still very limited. PMID:21303899

IJzerman, Adriaan P.; Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Linden, Joel; Müller, Christa E.



Adenosine 5'-tetraphosphate phosphohydrolase activity is an inherent property of soluble exopolyphosphatase from yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  


Homogeneous soluble exopolyphosphatase (EC from yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, (scPPX1) behaves as an adenosine 5'-tetraphosphate phosphohydrolase (EC The hydrolysis of adenosine 5'-tetraphosphate (p4A) to ATP and orthophosphate absolutely depends on one of the following cations: Co2+>Mn2+>Mg2+>Ni2+. Optimum pH is around 4.75 and the Km for p4A estimated at that pH in 50 mM sodium acetate and at 5 mM CoCl2 is 80+/-10 microM. Adenosine 5'-pentaphosphate (p5A) is degraded under these conditions 18-fold more slowly than p4A. Assuming that the mass of scPPX1 is 45 kDa, the calculated kcat values for p4A and for p5A are 723 and 40 s-1, respectively. Two other nucleoside 5'-tetraphosphates (p4N), guanosine tetraphosphate (p4G) and inosine tetraphosphate (p4I), were hydrolyzed to Pi and either GTP or ITP, respectively, at the same rate as that observed for the hydrolysis of p4A. Ammonium molybdate, sodium o-vanadate and zinc chloride inhibit the hydrolysis of p4A (I50 values are 0.08, 0.3 and 0.4 mM, respectively). This newly recognized 'acidic' adenosine tetraphosphatase activity from yeast is compared with two 'pH 8' adenosine tetraphosphatases described earlier in rabbit and yellow lupin. PMID:9565693

Guranowski, A; Starzy?ska, E; Barnes, L D; Robinson, A K; Liu, S



Acute inhibition of the betaine transporter by ATP and adenosine in renal MDCK cells  

PubMed Central

Extracellular ATP interacts with purinergic P2 receptors to regulate a range of physiological responses, including downregulation of transport activity in the nephron. ATP is released from cells by mechanical stimuli such as cell volume changes, and autocrine signaling by extracellular ATP could occur in renal medullary cells during diuresis. This was tested in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, a model used frequently to study P1 and P2 receptor activity. ATP was released within 1 min after transfer from 500 to 300 mosmol/kgH2O medium. A 30-min incubation with ATP produced dose-dependent inhibition (0.01–0.10 mM) of the renal betaine/GABA transporter (BGT1) with little effect on other osmolyte transporters. Inhibition was reproduced by specific agonists for P2X (?,?-methylene-ATP) and P2Y (UTP) receptors. Adenosine, the final product of ATP hydrolysis, also inhibited BGT1 but not taurine transport. Inhibition by ATP and adenosine was blocked by pertussis toxin and A73122, suggesting involvement of inhibitory G protein and PLC in postreceptor signaling. Both ATP and adenosine (0.1 mM) produced rapid increases in intracellular Ca2+, due to the mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ stores and Ca2+ influx. Blocking these Ca2+ increases with BAPTA-AM also blocked the action of ATP and adenosine on BGT1 transport. Finally, immunohistochemical studies indicated that inhibition of BGT1 transport may be due to endocytic accumulation of BGT1 proteins from the plasma membrane. We conclude that ATP and adenosine, through stimulation of PLC and intracellular Ca2+, may be rapidly acting regulators of BGT1 transport especially in response to a fall in extracellular osmolarity. PMID:18448594

Kempson, Stephen A.; Edwards, Jason M.; Osborn, Alyssa; Sturek, Michael



Whole-body recruitment of glycocalyx volume during intravenous adenosine infusion  

PubMed Central

Adenosine-mediated recruitment of microvascular volume in heart and muscle has been suggested to include, in addition to vasodilation of resistance vessels, an increased accessibility of the endothelial glycocalyx for flowing plasma as a result of an impairment of its barrier properties. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of systemic intravenous administration of adenosine on the glycocalyx-dependent exclusion of circulating blood at a whole-body level. In anesthetized goats (N = 6), systemic blood-excluded glycocalyx volume was measured by comparing the intravascular distribution volume of the suggested glycocalyx accessible tracer dextrans with a molecular weight of 40 kDa (Dex-40) to that of circulating plasma, derived from the dilution of labeled red blood cells and large vessel hematocrit. Systemic glycocalyx volume was determined at baseline and during intravenous infusion of adenosine (157 ± 11.6 ?g/kg min?1). Blood-inaccessible glycocalyx volume decreased from 458.1 ± 95.5 to 18.1 ± 62.2 mL (P < 0.01) during adenosine administration. While circulating plasma volume did not change significantly (617.1 ± 48.5 vs. 759.2 ± 47.9 mL, NS), the decrease in blood-excluded glycocalyx volume was associated with a decrease in Dex-40 distribution volume (from 1075.2 ± 71.0 to 777.3 ± 60.0 mL, P < 0.01). Intravenous administration of adenosine is associated with a robust impairment of whole-body glycocalyx barrier properties, reflected by a greatly reduced exclusion of circulating blood compared to small dextrans. The observed decrease in Dex-40 distribution volume suggests that the reduction in glycocalyx volume coincides with a reduction in tracer-accessible vascular volume. PMID:24303174

Brands, Judith; van Haare, Judith; Vink, Hans; VanTeeffelen, Jurgen W G E



Functionalized Congeners of 1,4-Dihydropyridines as Antagonist Molecular Probes for A3 Adenosine Receptors  

PubMed Central

4-Phenylethynyl-6-phenyl-1,4-dihydropyridine derivatives are selective antagonists at human A3 adenosine receptors, with Ki values in a radioligand binding assay vs [125I]AB-MECA [N6-(4-amino-3-iodobenzyl)-5?-N-methylcarbamoyl-adenosine] in the submicromolar range. In this study, functionalized congeners of 1,4-dihydropyridines were designed as chemically reactive adenosine A3 antagonists, for the purpose of synthesizing molecular probes for this receptor subtype. Selectivity of the new analogues for cloned human A3 adenosine receptors was determined in radioligand binding in comparison to binding at rat brain A1 and A2A receptors. Benzyl ester groups at the 3- and/or 5-positions and phenyl groups at the 2- and/or 6-positions were introduced as potential sites for chain attachment. Structure–activity analysis at A3 adenosine receptors indicated that 3,5-dibenzyl esters, but not 2,6-diphenyl groups, are tolerated in binding. Ring substitution of the 5-benzyl ester with a 4-fluorosulfonyl group provided enhanced A3 receptor affinity resulting in a Ki value of 2.42 nM; however, a long-chain derivative containing terminal amine functionalization at the 4-position of the 5-benzyl ester showed only moderate affinity. This sulfonyl fluoride derivative appeared to bind irreversibly to the human A3 receptor (1 h incubation at 100 nM resulting in the loss of 56% of the specific radioligand binding sites), while the binding of other potent dihydropyridines and other antagonists was generally reversible. At the 3-position of the dihydropyridine ring, an amine-functionalized chain attached at the 4-position of a benzyl ester provided higher A3 receptor affinity than the corresponding 5-position isomer. This amine congener was also used as an intermediate in the synthesis of a biotin conjugate, which bound to A3 receptors with a Ki value of 0.60 ?M. PMID:10411465

Li, An-Hu; Chang, Louis; Ji, Xiao-duo; Melman, Neli; Jacobson, Kenneth A.



Anti-arthritic effect of methotrexate: is it really mediated by adenosine?  


The mechanism of action for the anti-arthritic effect of methotrexate (MTX) was investigated in rats with antigen-induced arthritis (AIA). Arthritis intensity was quantified as area under the curve (AUC) for the joint swelling. The response to MTX was in several respects similar to what is seen in the clinic. The drug reduced the AUC in a dose-dependent manner after oral weekly (2-4 mg/kg/week) or daily (0.3 mg/kg/day) dosing. This effect was not affected by supplementation with an equal dose of folate. The model thus seemed suitable for this type of study. Supplementation with folate in excess abolished the effect of MTX. A structurally similar antifolate, aminopterin, also reduced the arthritis. The effect thus seemed to be due to folate antagonism although a complete inhibition of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) might not be essential. Hence, it could be that the main target is a process downstream of DHFR. It has been proposed that inhibition of AICAR-transformylase induce the release of adenosine with anti-inflammatory properties. Here the adenosine antagonist R-PIA reduced the arthritis but when MTX was combined with adenosine antagonists no attenuation of the anti-arthritic effect was seen. On the contrary, three adenosine agonists (8-p-sulphophenyltheophyllamine 30 mg/kg i.p. twice daily; 3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine, p.o. 3 mg/kg/day and 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine, 1.5 mg/kg/day p.o.) potentiated MTX. The specific thymidylate synthase inhibitor 5-fluourouracil (0. 3-3.0 mg/kg/day) had no anti-arthritic effect. Neither did our data support the hypotheses that syntheses of polyamines or cytokines were primary targets. It is thus possible that the mechanism of action is inhibition of a process downstream of DHFR but the release of adenosine seems not to be important. PMID:10664473

Andersson, S E; Johansson, L H; Lexmüller, K; Ekström, G M



Maintenance of adenosine A1 receptor function during long-term anoxia in the turtle brain.  


It has been established that adenosine has a critical role in the extraordinary ability of the turtle brain to survive anoxia. To further investigate this phenomenon we compared rat and turtle brain adenosine A1 receptors using cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine, 8-[dipropyl-2,3-3H(N)] ([3H]DPCPX) saturation binding analyses and determined the effects of prolonged anoxia (6, 12, and 24 h) on the adenosine A1 receptor of the turtle brain. The rat brain had a 10-fold greater density of A1 receptors compared with the turtle [rat cortex receptor density (Bmax) = 1,400 +/- 134.6 fmol/mg protein, turtle forebrain Bmax = 103.2 +/- 4.60 fmol/mg protein] and a higher affinity [dissociation constant (Kd) rat cortex = 0.328 +/- 0.035 nM, Kd turtle forebrain = 1.16 +/- 0.06 nM]. However, the turtle Kd is within the reported mammalian range, and the Bmax is similar to that reported for other poikilotherms. Unlike the mammal, in which A1 receptor function is rapidly compromised in anoxia, in the turtle forebrain no significant changes in the A1 receptor population were seen during 24-h anoxia. However, in the hindbrain, whereas the Bmax remained unchanged, the Kd significantly decreased from 2.1 to 0.5 nM after 6 h anoxia and this higher affinity was maintained at 12- and 24-h anoxia. These findings indicate that, unlike the GABAA receptor, the protective effectiveness of adenosine in the anoxic turtle brain is not related to an enhanced receptor number. Protection from a hypoxia-induced compromise in A1 receptor function and an increased A1 sensitivity in the hindbrain may be important factors for maintaining the adenosine-mediated downregulation of energy demand during long-term anoxia. PMID:10070121

Lutz, P L; Manuel, L



A role for adenosine in metabolic depression in the marine invertebrate Sipunculus nudus.  


Involvement of neurotransmitters in metabolic depression under hypoxia and hypercapnia was examined in Sipunculus nudus. Concentration changes of several putative neurotransmitters in nervous tissue during anoxic or hypercapnic exposure or during combined anoxia and hypercapnia were determined. Among amino acids (gamma-aminobutyric acid, glutamate, glycine, taurine, serine, and aspartate) and monoamines (serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine), some changes were significant, but none were consistent with metabolic depression under all experimental conditions applied. Only the neuromodulator adenosine displayed concentration changes in accordance with metabolic depression under all experimental conditions. Levels increased during anoxia, during hypercapnia, and to an even greater extent during anoxic hypercapnia. Adenosine infusions into coelomic fluid via an indwelling catheter induced a significant depression of the normocapnic rate of O2 consumption from 0.36 +/- 0.04 to a minimum of 0.24 +/- 0.02 (SE) mumol.g-1.h-1 after 90 min (n = 6). Application of the adenosine antagonist theophylline caused a transient rise in O2 consumption 30 min after infusion during hypercapnia but not during normocapnia. Effects of adenosine and theophylline were observed in intact individuals but not in isolated body wall musculature. The results provide evidence for a role of adenosine in inducing metabolic depression in S. nudus, probably through the established effects of decreasing neuronal excitability and neurotransmitter release. In consideration of our previous finding that metabolic depression in isolated body wall musculature was elicited by extracellular acidosis, it is concluded that central and cellular mechanisms combine to contribute to the overall reduction in metabolic rate in S. nudus. PMID:9039028

Reipschläger, A; Nilsson, G E; Pörtner, H O



Role of nitric oxide in adenosine-induced vasodilation in humans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vasodilation is one of the most prominent effects of adenosine and one of the first to be recognized, but its mechanism of action is not completely understood. In particular, there is conflicting information about the potential contribution of endothelial factors. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of nitric oxide in the vasodilatory effect of adenosine. Forearm blood flow responses to intrabrachial adenosine infusion (125 microg/min) were assessed with venous occlusion plethysmography during intrabrachial infusion of saline or the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) (12.5 mg/min). Intrabrachial infusions of acetylcholine (50 microg/min) and nitroprusside (3 microg/min) were used as a positive and negative control, respectively. These doses were chosen to produce comparable levels of vasodilation. In a separate study, a second saline infusion was administered instead of L-NMMA to rule out time-related effects. As expected, pretreatment with L-NMMA reduced acetylcholine-induced vasodilation; 50 microg/min acetylcholine increased forearm blood flow by 150+/-43% and 51+/-12% during saline and L-NMMA infusion, respectively (P<.01, n=6). In contrast, L-NMMA did not affect the increase in forearm blood flow produced by 3 microg/min nitroprusside (165+/-30% and 248+/-41% during saline and L-NMMA, respectively) or adenosine (173+/-48% and 270+/-75% during saline and L-NMMA, respectively). On the basis of our observations, we conclude that adenosine-induced vasodilation is not mediated by nitric oxide in the human forearm.

Costa, F.; Biaggioni, I.; Robertson, D. (Principal Investigator)



Nucleus tractus solitarii A(2a) adenosine receptors inhibit cardiopulmonary chemoreflex control of sympathetic outputs.  


Previously we have shown that stimulation of inhibitory A1 adenosine receptors located in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) attenuates cardiopulmonary chemoreflex (CCR) evoked inhibition of renal, adrenal and lumbar sympathetic nerve activity and reflex decreases in arterial pressure and heart rate. Activation of facilitatory A2a adenosine receptors, which dominate over A1 receptors in the NTS, contrastingly alters baseline activity of regional sympathetic outputs: it decreases renal, increases adrenal and does not change lumbar nerve activity. Considering that NTS A2a receptors may facilitate release of inhibitory transmitters we hypothesized that A2a receptors will act in concert with A1 receptors differentially inhibiting regional sympathetic CCR responses (adrenal>lumbar>renal). In urethane/chloralose anesthetized rats (n=38) we compared regional sympathetic responses evoked by stimulation of the CCR with right atrial injections of serotonin 5HT3 receptor agonist, phenylbiguanide, (1-8?g/kg) before and after selective stimulation, blockade or combined blockade and stimulation of NTS A2a adenosine receptors (microinjections into the NTS of CGS-21680 0.2-20pmol/50nl, ZM-241385 40pmol/100nl or ZM-241385+CGS-21680, respectively). We found that stimulation of A2a adenosine receptors uniformly inhibited the regional sympathetic and hemodynamic reflex responses and this effect was abolished by the selective blockade of NTS A2a receptors. This indicates that A2a receptor triggered inhibition of CCR responses and the contrasting shifts in baseline sympathetic activity are mediated via different mechanisms. These data implicate that stimulation of NTS A2a receptors triggers unknown inhibitory mechanism(s) which in turn inhibit transmission in the CCR pathway when adenosine is released into the NTS during severe hypotension. PMID:24216055

Minic, Zeljka; O'Leary, Donal S; Scislo, Tadeusz J



Role of Cordycepin and Adenosine on the Phenotypic Switch of Macrophages via Induced Anti-inflammatory Cytokines  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic low grade inflammation is closely linked to type II diabetes, obesity, and atherosclerosis. Macrophages play a key role in the regulation of pro- or anti-inflammatory actions at the lesion sites of disease. Components of cordyceps militaris, cordycepin and adenosine, have been used for the modulation of inflammatory diseases. The effects of cordycepin in the modulation of macrophages have yet to be elucidated. We investigated the effects of cordycepin and adenosine on the morphological changes of macrophages under the inflammatory condition of LPS and an anti-inflammatory condition involving high concentrations of adenosine. Methods We confirmed the mRNA levels of the M1/M2 cytokine genes through RT-PCR and morphological change. Results LPS-activated macrophages returned to their inactivated original shape, i.e., they looked like naïve macrophages, through the treatment with high concentrations of cordycepin (40 µg/ml). LPS and adenosine activated macrophages also returned to their original inactivated shapes after cordycepin treatment; however, at relatively higher levels of cordycepin than adenosine. This change did not occur with relatively low concentrations of cordycepin. Adenosine down-regulated the gene expression of M1 cytokines (IL-1?, TNF-?) and chemokines (CX3CR1, RANTES), as well as cordycepin. Additionally, M2 cytokines (IL-10, IL-1ra, TGF-?) were up-regulated by both cordycepin and adenosine. Conclusion Based on these observations, both cordycepin and adenosine regulated the phenotypic switch on macrophages and suggested that cordycepin and adenosine may potentially be used as immunomodulatory agents in the treatment of inflammatory disease. PMID:20157613

Shin, Seulmee; Moon, Sunhee; Park, Yoonhee; Kwon, Jeonghak; Lee, Seungjeong; Lee, Chong-Kil; Cho, Kyunghae; Ha, Nam-Joo



Treating lung inflammation with agonists of the adenosine A2A receptor: promises, problems and potential solutions.  


Adenosine A(2A) receptor agonists may be important regulators of inflammation. Such conclusions have come from studies demonstrating that, (i) adenosine A(2A) agonists exhibit anti-inflammatory properties in vitro and in vivo, (ii) selective A(2A) antagonists enhance inflammation in vivo and, (iii) knock outs of this receptor aggravate inflammation in a wide variety of in vivo models. Inflammation is a hallmark of asthma and COPD and adenosine has long been suggested to be involved in disease pathology. Two recent publications, however, suggested that an inhaled adenosine A(2A) receptor agonist (GW328267X) did not affect either the early and late asthmatic response or symptoms associated with allergic rhinitis suggesting that the rationale for treating inflammation with an adenosine A(2A) receptor agonist may be incorrect. A barrier to fully investigating the role of adenosine A(2A) receptor agonists as anti-inflammatory agents in the lung is the side effect profile due to systemic exposure, even with inhalation. Unless strategies can be evolved to limit the systemic exposure of inhaled adenosine A(2A) receptor agonists, the promise of treating lung inflammation with such agents may never be fully explored. Using strategies similar to that devised to improve the therapeutic index of inhaled corticosteroids, UK371,104 was identified as a selective agonist of the adenosine A(2A) receptor that has a lung focus of pharmacological activity following delivery to the lung in a pre clinical in vivo model of lung function. Lung-focussed agents such as UK371,104 may be suitable for assessing the anti-inflammatory potential of inhaled adenosine A(2A) receptor agonists. PMID:18846036

Trevethick, M A; Mantell, S J; Stuart, E F; Barnard, A; Wright, K N; Yeadon, M



Treating lung inflammation with agonists of the adenosine A2A receptor: promises, problems and potential solutions  

PubMed Central

Adenosine A2A receptor agonists may be important regulators of inflammation. Such conclusions have come from studies demonstrating that, (i) adenosine A2A agonists exhibit anti-inflammatory properties in vitro and in vivo, (ii) selective A2A antagonists enhance inflammation in vivo and, (iii) knock outs of this receptor aggravate inflammation in a wide variety of in vivo models. Inflammation is a hallmark of asthma and COPD and adenosine has long been suggested to be involved in disease pathology. Two recent publications, however, suggested that an inhaled adenosine A2A receptor agonist (GW328267X) did not affect either the early and late asthmatic response or symptoms associated with allergic rhinitis suggesting that the rationale for treating inflammation with an adenosine A2A receptor agonist may be incorrect. A barrier to fully investigating the role of adenosine A2A receptor agonists as anti-inflammatory agents in the lung is the side effect profile due to systemic exposure, even with inhalation. Unless strategies can be evolved to limit the systemic exposure of inhaled adenosine A2A receptor agonists, the promise of treating lung inflammation with such agents may never be fully explored. Using strategies similar to that devised to improve the therapeutic index of inhaled corticosteroids, UK371,104 was identified as a selective agonist of the adenosine A2A receptor that has a lung focus of pharmacological activity following delivery to the lung in a pre clinical in vivo model of lung function. Lung-focussed agents such as UK371,104 may be suitable for assessing the anti-inflammatory potential of inhaled adenosine A2A receptor agonists. PMID:18846036

Trevethick, M A; Mantell, S J; Stuart, E F; Barnard, A; Wright, K N; Yeadon, M



Regulation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated synaptic responses by adenosine receptors in the rat hippocampus.  

PubMed Central

1. Intracellular current clamp recordings were made from CA1 pyramidal neurones in rat hippocampal slices. Experiments were performed in the presence of ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonists and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor antagonists to block all fast excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission. A single stimulus, delivered extracellularly in the stratum oriens, caused a reduction in spike frequency adaptation in response to a depolarizing current step delivered 2 s after the stimulus. A 2- to 10-fold increase in stimulus intensity evoked a slow excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) which was associated with a small increase in input resistance. The peak amplitude of the EPSP occurred approximately 2.5 s after the stimulus and its magnitude (up to 30 mV) and duration (10-50 s) increased with increasing stimulus intensity. 2. The slow EPSP was unaffected by the metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonist (+)-alpha-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine ((+)-MCPG; 1000 microM) but was greatly enhanced by the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine (1-5 microM). Both the slow EPSP and the stimulus-evoked reduction in spike frequency adaptation were inhibited by the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) antagonist atropine (1-5 microM). These results are consistent with these effects being mediated by mAChRs. 3. Both the mAChR-mediated EPSP (EPSPm) and the associated reduction in spike frequency adaptation were reversibly depressed (up to 97%) by either adenosine (100 microM) or its non-hydrolysable analogue 2-chloroadenosine (CADO; 0.1-5.0 microM). These effects were often accompanied by postsynaptic hyperpolarization (up to 8 mV) and a reduction in input resistance (up to 11%). The selective adenosine A1 receptor agonists 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA; 0.1-0.4 microM) and R(-)N6-(2-phenylisopropyl)-adenosine (R-PIA; 1 microM) both depressed the EPSPm. In contrast, the adenosine A2A receptor agonist 2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)-phenethylamino-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (CGS 21680; 0.5-1.0 microM) did not significantly affect the EPSPm. 4. The selective adenosine A1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX; 0.2 microM) fully reversed the depressant effects of both adenosine (100 microM) and CADO (1 microM) on the EPSPm and the stimulus-evoked reductions in spike frequency adaptation. 5. DPCPX (0.2 microM) alone caused a small but variable mean increase in the EPSPm of 22 +/- 19% and enabled activation of an EPSPm by a previously subthreshold stimulus. In contrast, the selective adenosine kinase inhibitor 5-iodotubercidin (5-IT; 10 microM) inhibited the EPSPm by 74 +/- 10%, an effect that was reversed by DPCPX. 6. The concentration-response relationship for the depressant action of CADO on the EPSPm more closely paralleled that for its presynaptic depressant action on glutamate-mediated EPSPs than that for postsynaptic hyperpolarization. The respective mean IC50 and EC50 concentrations for these effects were 0.3, 0.8 and 3.0 microM. 7. CADO (1-5 microM) did not have a significant effect on the postsynaptic depolarization, increase in input resistance and reduction in spike frequency adaptation evoked by carbachol (0.5-3.0 microM). All these effects were abolished by atropine (1 microM). 8. These data provide good evidence for an adenosine A1 receptor-mediated inhibition of mAChR-mediated synaptic responses in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurones. This inhibition is mediated predominantly presynaptically, is active tonically and can be enhanced when extracellular levels of endogenous adenosine are raised. PMID:9234198

Morton, R A; Davies, C H



Gibberellic acid mediated co-ordination of calcium and magnesium ameliorate physiological activities, seed yield and fibre yield of Linum usitatissimum L.—a dual-purpose crop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial cultivation of linseed for both seed and fibre is not keeping pace with increasing demand for linseed products.\\u000a Although, different strategies are being adopted to produce a dual-purpose linseed crop with good yield of seed and fibre,\\u000a little progress has been achieved. The present study was carried out to investigate whether application of gibberellic acid\\u000a (GA3) along with CaCl2

Mohammad Nasir Khan; Firoz Mohammad; Manzer H. Siddiqui; M. Naeem



The content of fluoride, calcium and magnesium in the hair of young men of the Bantu language group from Tanzania versus social conditioning.  


The present study aimed at analysing the content of fluorine (F), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) in the hair of young male students (n =52) of a secondary school in Mafinga in Tanzania (Africa) who participated in anthropological examinations. Ca and Mg concentrations were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer while F levels using a potentiometric method. F in the hair of boys from older group (?16 years old; n =24) was significantly higher than in the younger group (<16 years old; n =28) versus Ca and Mg levels. High carbohydrate diet was predominant- mainly based on corn or bean and meat served once a week, with few fruit and raw vegetables. Collective catering in the dormitory reflected habits and culinary preferences at home. The lack of balanced diet, with majority of the nutritional energy supplied by easily accessible and cheap carbohydrates, was reflected in dietary deficiencies, characterised, among others, by visible skin conditions and tooth decay. PMID:24234514

R?bacz-Maron, Ewa; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Gutowska, Izabela; Krzywania, Natalia; Chlubek, Dariusz



Calcium and magnesium content of the uterine fluid and blood serum during the estrous cycle and pre-pubertal phase in water buffaloes.  


To investigate uterine fluid and serum calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (Mg) variations during the estrus cycle in water buffaloes, 71 genital tracts and blood samples were collected from the abattoir in Urmia. The phase of the estrous cycle was determined by examining ovarian structures. 18 animals were pro-estrous, 15 estrous, 16 met-estrous and 22 diestrous. The uterine fluid was collected by gentle scraping of the uterine mucosa with a curette. Blood serum and uterine fluid samples of 71 pre-pubertal buffalo calves were also collected and treated in similar manners. The mean ± SEM total serum and uterine fluid Ca in cyclic buffaloes were 8.68 ± 0.28 mg dL(-1) and 8.10 ± 0.2 mg dL(-1) vs. 6.76 ± 0.65 mg dL(-1) and 7.90 ± 0.15 mg dL(-1) in pre-pubertal calves, respectively. Blood serum Mg was not different in cyclic and pre-pubertal animals but the uterine fluid Mg in cyclic cows was higher than those in pre-pubertal calves. Serum Ca in pro-estrus and estrus were higher than those in other stages and also higher than those in the uterine fluid. The lowest Mg content of serum was recorded in diestrus, while in the uterine fluid it was observed in estrus. In all stages of estrous cycle except for estrus the uterine fluid Mg content was significantly higher than those of the serum. These results suggested that during the estrous cycle in the buffalo cows, Ca was passively secreted in uterine lumen and mostly dependent on blood serum Ca concentrations but Mg was secreted independently. The values (except for serum total Mg) also increased after puberty. PMID:25610582

Alavi Shoushtari, Sayed Mortaza; Asri Rezaie, Siamak; Khaki, Amir; Belbasi, Abulfazle; Tahmasebian, Hamid



Effect of Hypoxia on the Calcium and Magnesium Content, Lipid Peroxidation Level, and Ca2+-ATPase Activity of Syncytiotrophoblast Plasma Membranes from Placental Explants  

PubMed Central

In the current study the possible relationship between the Ca2+/Mg2+ ratio of human syncytiotrophoblast plasma membranes and their lipid peroxidation and Ca2+-ATPase activity was determined. Syncytiotrophoblast plasma membranes of placental explants cultured under hypoxia increased their lipid peroxidation and Ca2+ content, diminished their Ca2+-ATPase activity, and kept their Mg2+ content unchanged. Membranes preincubated with different concentrations of Ca2+ increased their Ca2+ content without changes in their Mg2+ content. There is a direct relationship between Ca2+ content and lipid peroxidation of the membranes, as well as an inverse relationship between their Ca2+ content and Ca2+-ATPase activity. On the contrary, preincubation of membranes with different concentrations of Mg2+ showed a higher Mg2+ content without changing their lipid peroxidation and Ca2+-ATPase activity. Explants cultured under hypoxia in the presence of 4?mM MgSO4 showed similar values of lipid peroxidation and Ca2+-ATPase activity of their membranes compared to those of explants cultured under normoxia. Increased Ca2+ content of the membranes by interacting with negatively charged phospholipids could result in destabilizing effects of the membrane structure, exposing hydrocarbon chains of fatty acids to the action of free radicals. Mg2+ might exert a stabilizing effect of the membranes, avoiding their exposure to free radicals. PMID:25180187

Chiarello, Delia I.; Benzo, Zully; Piñero, Sandy; Botana, Desirée; Abad, Cilia



Calcium and magnesium content of the uterine fluid and blood serum during the estrous cycle and pre-pubertal phase in water buffaloes  

PubMed Central

To investigate uterine fluid and serum calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (Mg) variations during the estrus cycle in water buffaloes, 71 genital tracts and blood samples were collected from the abattoir in Urmia. The phase of the estrous cycle was determined by examining ovarian structures. 18 animals were pro-estrous, 15 estrous, 16 met-estrous and 22 diestrous. The uterine fluid was collected by gentle scraping of the uterine mucosa with a curette. Blood serum and uterine fluid samples of 71 pre-pubertal buffalo calves were also collected and treated in similar manners. The mean ± SEM total serum and uterine fluid Ca in cyclic buffaloes were 8.68 ± 0.28 mg dL-1 and 8.10 ± 0.2 mg dL-1 vs. 6.76 ± 0.65 mg dL-1 and 7.90 ± 0.15 mg dL-1 in pre-pubertal calves, respectively. Blood serum Mg was not different in cyclic and pre-pubertal animals but the uterine fluid Mg in cyclic cows was higher than those in pre-pubertal calves. Serum Ca in pro-estrus and estrus were higher than those in other stages and also higher than those in the uterine fluid. The lowest Mg content of serum was recorded in diestrus, while in the uterine fluid it was observed in estrus. In all stages of estrous cycle except for estrus the uterine fluid Mg content was significantly higher than those of the serum. These results suggested that during the estrous cycle in the buffalo cows, Ca was passively secreted in uterine lumen and mostly dependent on blood serum Ca concentrations but Mg was secreted independently. The values (except for serum total Mg) also increased after puberty. PMID:25610582

Alavi Shoushtari, Sayed Mortaza; Asri Rezaie, Siamak; Khaki, Amir; Belbasi, Abulfazle; Tahmasebian, Hamid



Autophagy is required for preconditioning by the adenosine A1 receptor-selective agonist CCPA  

PubMed Central

We have shown that the cellular process of macroautophagy plays a protective role in HL-1 cardiomyocytes subjected to simulated ischemia/reperfusion (sI/R) (Hamacher-Brady et al. in J Biol Chem 281(40):29776–29787). Since the nucleoside adenosine has been shown to mimic both early and late phase ischemic preconditioning, a potent cardioprotective phenomenon, the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of adenosine on autophagosome formation. Autophagy is a highly regulated intracellular degradation process by which cells remove cytosolic long-lived proteins and damaged organelles, and can be monitored by imaging the incorporation of microtubule-associated light chain 3 (LC3) fused to a fluorescent protein (GFP or mCherry) into nascent autophagosomes. We investigated the effect of adenosine receptor agonists on autophagy and cell survival following sI/R in GFP-LC3 infected HL-1 cells and neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. The A1 adenosine receptor agonist 2-chloro-N(6)-cyclopentyl-adenosine (CCPA) (100 nM) caused an increase in the number of autophagosomes within 10 min of treatment; the effect persisted for at least 300 min. A significant inhibition of autophagy and loss of protection against sI/R measured by release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), was demonstrated in CCPA-pretreated cells treated with an A1 receptor antagonist, a phospholipase C inhibitor, or an intracellular Ca(+2) chelator. To determine whether autophagy was required for the protective effect of CCPA, autophagy was blocked with a dominant negative inhibitor (Atg5K130R) delivered by transient transfection (in HL-1 cells) or protein transduction (in adult rat cardiomyocytes). CCPA attenuated LDH release after sI/R, but protection was lost when autophagy was blocked. To assess autophagy in vivo, transgenic mice expressing the red fluorescent autophagy marker mCherry-LC3 under the control of the alpha myosin heavy chain promoter were treated with CCPA 1 mg/kg i.p. Fluorescence microscopy of cryosections taken from the left ventricle 30 min after CCPA injection revealed a large increase in the number of mCherry-LC3-labeled structures, indicating the induction of autophagy by CCPA in vivo. Taken together, these results indicate that autophagy plays an important role in mediating the cardioprotective effects conferred by adenosine pretreatment. PMID:19242639

Yitzhaki, Smadar; Huang, Chengqun; Liu, Wayne; Lee, Youngil; Gustafsson, Åsa B.; Mentzer, Robert M.



The role of adenosine in functional hyperaemia in the coronary circulation of anaesthetized dogs.  

PubMed Central

1. The aim of this investigation was to determine the contribution of adenosine to coronary active hyperaemia in the dog denervated heart by using adenosine deaminase. 2. Beagles were anaesthetized with thiopentone sodium (500 mg, I.V.) and chloralose (100 mg kg-1, LV.) and artificially ventilated. The hearts were denervate by bilateral cervical vagotomy and cardiac sympathectomy. Blood samples were collected from the coronary sinus via a cannula passed through the right external jugular vein. The anterior descending or circumflex branch of the left coronary artery was cannulated and perfused with blood from the left subclavian artery under systemic blood pressure through an electromagnetic flow probe and a perfusion circuit. The heart was paced (3 V, 0.2 ms and a suitable frequency) via two electrodes attached to the right atrium from 109 +/- 7.3 to 170 +/- 9.8 beats min-4 (means +/- S.E.M.) for 3-4 min, first during an infusion of the solvent, and then during an infusion of a solution of adenosine deaminase (5 U kg-1 min-1) into the circuit. 3. In seventeen tests in eight dogs, infusion of adenosine deaminase did not cause a significant change in the basal coronary blood flow nor in the immediate increase (within 10s) in blood flow induced by pacing the heart from its basal rate to 170 beats min-1. However, adenosine deaminase did cause a significant attenuation by 58 +/- 5.2% (P < 0.05) of the increase in coronary blood flow induced at 3-4 min of pacing from 31 +/- 4.6 to 43 +/- 5.8 ml min-1 (100 g cardiac tissue)-1. Concomitantly, the pacing-induced increase in coronary vascular conductance (from 0.41 +/- 0.08 to 0.54 +/- 0.12 ml min-1 (100 g)-1 mmHg-1) was reduced by 75 +/- 6.6% (P < 0.02) and the increase in myocardial O2 consumption (from 13 +/- 3.5 to 21 +/- 4.2 ml min-1 (100 g)-1) was reduced by 50 +/- 12% (P < 0.05) but without significant changes in oxygen extraction or myocardial contractility. 4. The results show that although adenosine is unlikely to play a significant role in the regulation of the basal coronary blood flow, it can play a major role in the coronary active (functional) hyperaemia induced by atrial pacing to a high rate in the denervated heart of anaesthetized dogs. Images Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 PMID:8683477

Karim, F; Goonewardene, I P



Status epilepticus may be caused by loss of adenosine anticonvulsant mechanisms.  


The inhibitory neuromodulator adenosine is an endogenous anticonvulsant that terminates brief seizures in the brain and it has been proposed that loss of adenosine or adenosine-mediating systems may play a major role in the development of status epilepticus, a seizure condition characterized by prolonged and/or recurrent seizures that last by definition, at least 20 min. In this study, the effect of specific A1-adenosine agonists and antagonists were tested for their ability to prevent and cause status epilepticus in two electrical stimulation models in rats. In a recurrent electrical stimulation model, whereas no vehicle-treated animals developed status epilepticus after 20 recurrent electrical stimulations, rats injected with 10 mg/kg of the specific A1-adenosine antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine intraperitoneally developed status epilepticus after stimulation. 8-(p-Sulphophenyl)-theophylline, which has limited penetrability into the brain when administered peripherally, did not cause status epilepticus when injected intraperitoneally. However, when 200 micrograms of 8-(p-sulphophenyl)-theophylline were administered intracerebroventricularly, status epilepticus developed in all animals, suggesting status epilepticus developed as a result of central adenosine receptor antagonism. In the second study, whereas all vehicle-treated animals developed status epilepticus after constant electrical stimulation, administration of N6-cyclohexyladenosine and N6-cyclopentyladenosine prior to stimulation suppressed the development of status epilepticus. N6-Cyclohexyladenosine was also effective in terminating status epilepticus after it had progressed for 20 min. The effects of a selective A2-agonist was also tested on both stimulation models and had no anticonvulsant effects. An electrical stimulus given to rats pretreated three days prior to stimulation with pertussis toxin, a compound which inactivates Gi-proteins, also resulted in generalized status epilepticus, suggesting that impairment of G-protein-linked receptors is involved in the development of status epilepticus. The effects of a GABAB antagonist, phaclofen, and a GABAB agonist, baclofen, were also tested in the recurrent stimulation model, as GABAB receptors are also coupled to the same subset of K+ channels as the A1-receptor. Rats given phaclofen did not develop status epilepticus after recurrent electrical stimulation, although baclofen was effective at preventing the induction of status epilepticus in the constant stimulation model. These results, together with some preliminary data obtained showing that the GABAA antagonist picrotoxin did not cause status epilepticus after recurrent stimulation, suggest that loss of GABAergic inhibition only has a minor role in status epilepticus development in our models. Brains from all animals were also assessed for brain injury.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8152537

Young, D; Dragunow, M



Interactions between caffeine and cocaine in tests of motor activity: role of the adenosine A2 receptor  

E-print Network

The interaction between cocaine and caffeine as well as the role of adenosine A2 receptors in this interaction were assessed in three experiments. In the first experiment horizontal activity was measured in rats that were treated with an acute...

Snow, Steven Wayne



Adenosine – dopamine receptor interactions in the isolated rat nodose ganglion but not in membranes of dorsal vagal complex  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study has employed in vitro electrophysiology and radioligand binding assays to determine whether dopamine and\\u000a adenosine receptors interact with each other on rat vagal afferent neurons. Preincubation of the isolated rat nodose ganglion\\u000a with the adenosine A2a agonists CGS 21680 or DPMA (Both 1??M) resulted in a functional antagonism of the ability of dopamine to depolarise the preparation.

Andrew J. Lawrence; Elena Krstew; Bevyn Jarrott



The Effects of Environmental Temperature on the Properties of Myofibrillar Adenosine Triphosphatase from Various Species of Fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Myofibrillar adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activities were measured for white myotomal muscle of 19 species of fish. 2. The activity was measured at different temperatures and after periods of preincubation at 37°C. 3. The inactivation half-life at 37°C depended on environmental temperature, increasing as the temperature increased. 4. Cold-water fish had higher myofibrillar adenosine triphosphatase activity at low temperatures than



Adenosine A(2a) receptor-mediated inhibition of rod opsin mRNA expression in tiger salamander.  


The neuromodulator adenosine mediates dark-adaptive changes in retinal photoreceptors through A(2a) receptors. In cold-blooded vertebrates, opsin mRNA expression is lower at night than during the day. In the present study, we tested whether adenosine could inhibit opsin mRNA expression in cultured rod cells and if endogenous adenosine acts to suppress opsin mRNA in the intact retina at night. Semi-quantitative in situ hybridization showed that treatment with 100 nm of the A(2a)/A(2b) agonist N(6)-[2-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-(2-methylphenyl)-ethyl]adenosine (DPMA) reduced opsin mRNA 41% in cultured rod cells. The effect of DPMA was blocked by 10 microm of the A(2a) antagonist 8-(3-chlorostyryl)caffeine (CSC) but not by 10 microm of the A(2b) antagonist alloxazine. One micromolar adenosine alone had no effect on opsin mRNA. However, in the presence of the adenosine deaminase inhibitor erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)adenine hydrochloride (EHNA), 1 microm adenosine reduced opsin mRNA 61%. EHNA alone reduced opsin mRNA by 26%. Consistent with an A(2a) receptor mechanism, 100 nm forskolin (adenylate cyclase agonist) decreased opsin mRNA 34%. Finally, northern blots showed that intravitreal injection of 10 microm CSC at night increased opsin I mRNA 38%. Thus, endogenous adenosine suppresses rod opsin I mRNA expression at night; in vitro results indicate this reduction occurs through A(2a)-like receptor binding and stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity. PMID:12390528

Alfinito, Peter D; Alli, Roshni; Townes-Anderson, Ellen



Adenosine does not bind to the growth hormone secretagogue receptor type-1a (GHS-R1a)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ghrelin regulates GH secretion and energy homeostasis through the GH secretagogue receptor type-1a (GHS-R1a). This G-protein coupled receptor shows the peculiarity to transduce information provided not just by ghrelin as well as by adenosine through a supposed binding site different from the characterized ghrelin-binding pocket. Indeed, adenosine triggers intracellular calcium rise through a distinct signaling pathway to the one described

Marcos C Carreira; Jesus P Camina; E. Diaz-Rodriguez; Rodrigo Alvear-Perez; Catherine Llorens-Cortes; Felipe F Casanueva



Adenosine A1 Receptor-Dependent Antinociception Induced by Inosine in Mice: Pharmacological, Genetic and Biochemical Aspects.  


Inosine is an endogenous nucleoside that has anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties. Inosine is a metabolite of adenosine, and some of its actions suggest the involvement of adenosine A1 receptors (A1Rs). The purpose of this study was to better understand mechanisms of inosine-induced antinociception by investigating the role of A1Rs and purine metabolism inhibitors. Inosine antinociception was evaluated using the formalin test in mice. An A1R-selective antagonist (DPCPX), A1R knockout mice (gene deletion) and mice with A1R reduced expression (antisense oligonucleotides) were used to assess the role of A1Rs in the antinociceptive action of inosine. Binding assays were performed to compare the affinity of inosine and adenosine for A1Rs. Finally, the role of adenosine and inosine breakdown was assessed using deoxycoformycin (DCF) and forodesine (FDS) as enzymatic inhibitors of adenosine deaminase and purine nucleoside phosphorylase, respectively. Inosine induced antinociception in the formalin test when given by systemic, spinal and peripheral routes. Systemically, inosine exhibited a potency similar to adenosine, and its effects were inhibited by DPCPX. Inosine did not induce antinociception in A1R knockout mice or in mice with reduced A1R expression. In binding studies, inosine bound to A1Rs with an affinity similar to adenosine. DCF had no effect on inosine actions. FDS augmented the antinociceptive effect of a low systemic dose of inosine and, at a higher dose, induced antinociception by itself. Collectively, these data indicate that inosine is an agonist for A1Rs with antinociceptive properties and a potency similar to adenosine and can be considered another endogenous ligand for this receptor. PMID:25064055

Nascimento, Francisney Pinto; Macedo-Júnior, Sérgio José; Pamplona, Fabrício Alano; Luiz-Cerutti, Murilo; Córdova, Marina Machado; Constantino, Leandra; Tasca, Carla Inês; Dutra, Rafael Cypriano; Calixto, João B; Reid, Allison; Sawynok, Jana; Santos, Adair Roberto Soares



Localized adenosine signaling provides fine-tuned negative feedback over a wide dynamic range of neocortical network activities.  


Although the patterns of activity produced by neocortical networks are now better understood, how these states are activated, sustained, and terminated still remains unclear. Negative feedback by the endogenous neuromodulator adenosine may potentially play an important role, as it can be released by activity and there is dense A1 receptor expression in the neocortex. Using electrophysiology, biosensors, and modeling, we have investigated the properties of adenosine signaling during physiological and pathological network activity in rat neocortical slices. Both low- and high-rate network activities were reduced by A1 receptor activation and enhanced by block of A1 receptors, consistent with activity-dependent adenosine release. Since the A1 receptors were neither saturated nor completely unoccupied during either low- or high-rate activity, adenosine signaling provides a negative-feedback mechanism with a wide dynamic range. Modeling and biosensor experiments show that during high-rate activity increases in extracellular adenosine concentration are highly localized and are uncorrelated over short distances that are certainly < 500 ?m. Modeling also predicts that the slow rise of the purine waveform cannot be from diffusion from distal release sites but more likely results from uptake and metabolism. The inability to directly measure adenosine release during low-rate activity, although it is present, is probably a consequence of small localized increases in adenosine concentration that are rapidly diminished by diffusion and active removal mechanisms. Saturation of such removal mechanisms when higher concentrations of adenosine are released results in the accumulation of inosine, explaining the strong purine signal during high-rate activity. PMID:25392170

Wall, Mark J; Richardson, Magnus J E



Effects of ions on adenosine binding and enzyme activity of purified S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase from bovine kidney.  


The present investigation was undertaken to determine the effect of various ions on the characteristics of S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) hydrolase from bovine kidney. The binding sites of [3H]-adenosine to purified SAH hydrolase were not influenced by phosphate, magnesium, potassium, sodium, chloride or calcium ions at physiological cytosolic concentrations. To test whether NAD+ in the SAH hydrolase is essential for adenosine binding, we prepared the apoenzyme by removing NAD+ with ammonium sulfate. The resulting apoenzyme did not exhibit any [3H]-adenosine binding. Since the apoenzyme was enzymatically inactive, it is suggested that adenosine binds to the active site and not to an allosteric site of the intact enzyme. The kinetics of the hydrolysis and the synthesis of SAH catalyzed by the enzyme SAH hydrolase were measured in the presence and absence of phosphate and magnesium. Phosphate increased the Vmax for both synthesis and hydrolysis. However, only the affinity of adenosine for SAH synthesis was significantly enhanced from 10.1+/-1.3 microM to 5.4+/-0.5 microM by phosphate. This effect was already maximal at a phosphate concentration of 1 mM. All other tested ions were without effect on the enzyme activity. Our results show that phosphate at physiological concentrations shifts the thermodynamic equilibrium of SAH hydrolase in the direction of SAH synthesis. These findings imply that SAH-sensitive transmethylation reactions are inhibited during renal hypoxia when intracellular levels of phosphate, adenosine, and SAH are elevated. PMID:9827583

Kloor, D; Fuchs, S; Petroktistis, F; Delabar, U; Mühlbauer, B; Quast, U; Osswald, H



Effect of N-methyl-D-aspartate on motor activity and in vivo adenosine striatal outflow in the rat.  


It has been previously found that the systemic administration of low doses of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) in mice induces motor depression. The effects of the systemic administration of different doses of NMDA (10, 30 and 60 mg/kg s.c.) on the motor activity and on the in vivo extracellular levels of adenosine in the striatum was studied in Sprague-Dawley rats. The adenosine concentration in samples of perfusate was determined 24 h after implantation of a transverse microdialysis probe. At 30 and 60 mg/kg, but not 10 mg/kg, NMDA induced both a significant motor depression (motility and rearing) and a significant increase in the striatal extracellular levels of adenosine. Both the motor depression and the changes in the extracellular levels of adenosine were only evident during the first 30 min after NMDA administration. The non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg s.c.) completely counteracted the effects of NMDA (30 mg/kg s.c.) on motor activity (motility) and on the striatal extracellular levels of adenosine. The correlation between the behavioural and the biochemical data strongly support the hypothesis that adenosine release in the striatum is a main mechanism responsible for the motor depressant effects produced by the systemic administration of NMDA. PMID:10594340

Melani, A; Corsi, C; Giménez-Llort, L; Martínez, E; Ogren, S O; Pedata, F; Ferré, S



Efficiency of Purine Utilization by Helicobacter pylori: Roles for Adenosine Deaminase and a NupC Homolog  

PubMed Central

The ability to synthesize and salvage purines is crucial for colonization by a variety of human bacterial pathogens. Helicobacter pylori colonizes the gastric epithelium of humans, yet its specific purine requirements are poorly understood, and the transport mechanisms underlying purine uptake remain unknown. Using a fully defined synthetic growth medium, we determined that H. pylori 26695 possesses a complete salvage pathway that allows for growth on any biological purine nucleobase or nucleoside with the exception of xanthosine. Doubling times in this medium varied between 7 and 14 hours depending on the purine source, with hypoxanthine, inosine and adenosine representing the purines utilized most efficiently for growth. The ability to grow on adenine or adenosine was studied using enzyme assays, revealing deamination of adenosine but not adenine by H. pylori 26695 cell lysates. Using mutant analysis we show that a strain lacking the gene encoding a NupC homolog (HP1180) was growth-retarded in a defined medium supplemented with certain purines. This strain was attenuated for uptake of radiolabeled adenosine, guanosine, and inosine, showing a role for this transporter in uptake of purine nucleosides. Deletion of the GMP biosynthesis gene guaA had no discernible effect on mouse stomach colonization, in contrast to findings in numerous bacterial pathogens. In this study we define a more comprehensive model for purine acquisition and salvage in H. pylori that includes purine uptake by a NupC homolog and catabolism of adenosine via adenosine deaminase. PMID:22701700

Miller, Erica F.; Vaish, Soumya; Maier, Robert J.



Measurements of Rates of Adenosine 3?:5?-Cyclic Monophosphate Synthesis in Intact Escherichia coli B  

PubMed Central

A method for labeling adenosine 3?:5?-cyclic monophosphate in vivo from precursor adenosine followed by quantitative analysis of the labeled nucleotide is described. When the labeling period is short and the specific activity of the ATP pool is determined, the rate of incorporation of radioactivity corresponds to a determination of adenylate cyclase activity in vivo. In E. coli B the specific activity of adenylate cyclase in vivo varies under different growth conditions. Under all conditions tested, the adenylate cyclase activity in vivo is great enough to account for the pattern of accumulation of cyclic AMP. This is in contrast to previous adenylate cyclase assays in vitro, where the measured enzyme activities were insufficient to account for the amounts of cyclic AMP accumulated. PMID:4352975

Peterkofsky, Alan; Gazdar, Celia



Adenosine A(2A) receptors in psychopharmacology: modulators of behavior, mood and cognition.  


The adenosine A(2A) receptor (A(2A)R) is in the center of a neuromodulatory network affecting a wide range of neuropsychiatric functions by interacting with and integrating several neurotransmitter systems, especially dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission. These interactions and integrations occur at multiple levels, including (1) direct receptor- receptor cross-talk at the cell membrane, (2) intracellular second messenger systems, (3) trans-synaptic actions via striatal collaterals or interneurons in the striatum, (4) and interactions at the network level of the basal ganglia. Consequently, A(2A)Rs constitute a novel target to modulate various psychiatric conditions. In the present review we will first summarize the molecular interaction of adenosine receptors with other neurotransmitter systems and then discuss the potential applications of A(2A)R agonists and antagonists in physiological and pathophysiological conditions, such as psychostimulant action, drug addiction, anxiety, depression, schizophrenia and learning and memory. PMID:20190961

Shen, Hai-Ying; Chen, Jiang-Fan



Double-stranded RNA-specific adenosine deaminase: nucleic acid binding properties.  


The RNA-specific adenosine deaminase (ADAR1, herein referred to as ADAR) is an interferon-inducible RNA-editing enzyme. ADAR catalyzes the C-6 deamination of adenosine in double-stranded (ds) structures present in viral RNAs and cellular pre-mRNAs as well as synthetic dsRNA substrates. ADAR possesses three functionally distinct copies of the highly conserved double-stranded RNA binding R motif (RI, RII, RIII) implicated in the recognition of dsRNA structures within the substrate RNAs. ADAR is also a Z-DNA-binding protein. Two Z-DNA binding motifs (Zalpha and Zbeta) present in ADAR correspond to repeated regions homologous to the N-terminal region of the vaccinia virus E3L protein. Here we describe assay methods for measurement of ADAR enzymatic activity, dsRNA binding activity, and Z-DNA binding activity. PMID:9735305

Liu, Y; Herbert, A; Rich, A; Samuel, C E



Adenosine induces dephosphorylation of myosin II regulatory light chain in cultured bovine corneal endothelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Dephosphorylation of the myosin II regulatory light chain (MLC) promotes barrier integrity of cellular monolayers through relaxation of the actin cytoskeleton. This study has investigated the influence of adenosine (ADO) on MLC phosphorylation in cultured bovine corneal endothelial cells (BCEC).Methods: MLC phosphorylation was assessed by urea-glycerol gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. Elevation of cAMP in response to agonists of A2b

S. P. Srinivas; M. Satpathy; P. Gallagher; E. Larivière; W. Van Driessche



Age-related expression of adenosine receptors in brain from the senescence-accelerated mouse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Senescence-accelerated mice (SAM) are used as a model of aging and age-associated diseases. SAMP8 are prone strains that show shortened life span and deficits in learning and memory processes, while SAMR1 are strains of accelerated senescence-resistant, long-lived mice. Due to their abnormal APP (amyloid precursor protein) metabolism in brain, SAMP8 may be an Alzheimer-type model. Adenosine receptors are G-protein coupled

C. A. Castillo; J. L. Albasanz; D. León; J. Jordán; M. Pallàs; A. Camins; M. Martín



Isolation of a sixth dynein subunit adenosine triphosphatase of Chlamydomonas axonemes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study of the axoneme led to the identification of a previously unknown adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase), which is likely a major com- ponent of inner dynein arms. The ATPase was isolated from a soluble fraction of axonemes obtained from pf28, a Chlamydomonas mutant lacking the outer dynein arms. The activity hydrolyzed up to 2.3 Ixmol of -~ of protein

Gianni Piperno



Effects of an induced adenosine deaminase deficiency on T-cell differentiation in the rat  

SciTech Connect

Inherited deficiency of the enzyme adenosine deaminase (ADA) has been found in a significant proportion of patients with severe combined immunodeficiency disease and inherited defect generally characterized by a deficiency of both B and T cells. Two questions are central to understanding the pathophysiology of this disease: (1) at what stage or stages in lymphocyte development are the effects of the enzyme deficiency manifested; (2) what are the biochemical mechanisms responsible for the selective pathogenicity of the lymphoid system. We have examined the stage or stages of rat T-cell development in vivo which are affected by an induced adenosine deaminase deficiency using the ADA inhibitors, erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)adenine (EHNA) and 2'-deoxycoformycin (DCF). In normal rats given daily administration of an ADA inhibitor, cortical thymocytes were markedly depleted; peripheral lymphocytes and pluripotent hemopoietic stem cells (CFU-S) all were relatively unaffected. Since a deficiency of ADA affects lymphocyte development, the regeneration of cortical and medullary thymocytes and their precursors after sublethal irradiation was used as a model of lymphoid development. By Day 5 after irradiation the thymus was reduced to 0.10-0.5% of its normal size; whereas at Days 9 and 14 the thymus was 20-40% and 60-80% regenerated, respectively. When irradiated rats were given daily parenteral injections of the ADA inhibitor plus adenosine or deoxyadenosine, thymus regeneration at Days 9 and 14 was markedly inhibited, whereas the regeneration of thymocyte precursors was essentially unaffected. Thymus regeneration was at least 40-fold lower than in rats given adenosine or deoxyadenosine alone. Virtually identical results were obtained with both ADA inhibitors, EHNA and DCF.

Barton, R.W.



Microcontroller-Assisted Compensation of Adenosine Triphosphate Levels: Instrument and Method Development  

PubMed Central

In order to ascertain optimum conditions for biocatalytic processes carried out in vitro, we have designed a bio-opto-electronic system which ensures real-time compensation for depletion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in reactions involving transfer of phosphate groups. The system covers ATP concentration range of 2–48??M. The report demonstrates feasibility of the device operation using apyrase as the ATP-depleting enzyme. PMID:25633338

Hu, Jie-Bi; Chen, Ting-Ru; Chen, Yu-Chie; Urban, Pawel L.



Inhibition of Adenosine Triphosphatases in Vitro by Silver Nitrate and Silver Sulfadiazine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inhibition of adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) by silver nitrate (AgNO3) in vitro was studied in microsomal fractions or tissue homogenates of canine brain and kidney and human kidney. In microsomal fractions, AgNO3 was an indiscriminate inhibitor of ouabain-sensitive (Na+ + K+ ATPase) and ouabain-insensitive (Mg2+ ATPase) activities, with 50% inhibition obtaining at concentrations on the order of 10–7 to 10–6 M.

B. R. Nechay; J. P. Saunders



Adenosine receptor expression in rheumatoid synovium: a basis for methotrexate action  

PubMed Central

Introduction Methotrexate (MTX) exerts at least part of its anti-inflammatory effects through adenosine receptors (ADOR). The aims of this study were to determine the expression of all four adenosine receptor genes (ADORA1, ADORA2A, ADORA2B, ADORA3 and ADORA3variant) in rheumatoid synovial tissue and any influence of MTX exposure on this expression. Furthermore, we investigated whether polymorphisms within ADORA3 were associated with response and/or adverse effects associated with MTX. Methods Adenosine receptor gene expression was undertaken using PCR in 20 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovial samples. A separate cohort of 225 RA patients receiving MTX was genotyped for SNPs in the ADORA3 receptor gene. Double immunofluorescence was used to identify cells expressing ADOR protein. Results All ADOR genes were expressed in all synovial samples. ADORA3 and A3variant were the dominant subtypes expressed irrespective of MTX therapy. Expression of ADORA2A and ADORA2B was increased in patients receiving MTX compared to those not receiving MTX. There was no association between the ADORA3 rs1544224 SNP and high and low disease activity or MTX-associated adverse effects. ADORA2B protein expression was most obvious in vascular endothelial cells whereas ADORA3 protein was more abundant and expressed by synovial fibroblasts. Conclusions We have shown that adenosine receptors are expressed in RA synovium. There is differential expression of receptors such that ADORA3 is expressed at significantly higher levels. This evidence demonstrates the potential for MTX to exert its anti-inflammatory effects at the primary site of pathology within the joints of patients with RA. PMID:22682496



Comparative analysis of adenosine triphosphate-magnesium chloride and allopurinol following small-bowel ischemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intestinal lesions caused by ischemia and reperfusion may lead to grave sequelae. To study the efficacy of adenosine triphosphate magnesium chloride (ATP-MgCl2) and allopurinol (ALLO) in protecting the small bowel from ischemia, rabbits in two groups, 1 (n = 7) and 2 (n = 7), were pretreated with either 1 ml saline or ATP-MgCl2 just prior to intestinal ischemia

Xian-ping Liao; Ya-xiong She; Cheng-ren Shi; Zong-de Zhang; Min Li



Glucose Transfer from Adenosine Diphosphate-Glucose to Starch in Preparations of Waxy Seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preparation of starch granules from the developing seeds of 17 different waxy mutants of maize all transfer glucose from adenosine diphosphate-glucose to starch at about one-tenth of the rate of similar preparations from seeds of non-waxy maize. The source of most, if not all, of the activity in preparations from waxy mutants is a limited number of enzymatically active starch

Oliver E. Nelson; Chia Yin Tsai



Regio- and diastereo-selectivity of montmorillonite-catalyzed oligomerization of racemic adenosine 5'-phosphorimidazolide.  


Clay is a possible candidate for an effective catalyst in prebiotic chemical evolution of biomolecules. Montmorillonite was reported to effectively catalyze oligomerization of racemic adenosine 5'-phosphorimidazolide (DL-ImpA). In the oligomerization reaction, considerable amounts of cyclic dimers as well as linear dimers were produced in the oligomerization reactions. To assess the regio- and diastereo-selectivities of the oligomerization reaction, the dimer products including cyclic dimers were completely identified by means of enzymatic degradation reactions of the products. PMID:18404575

Urata, Hidehito; Fujimori, Mami; Aono, Chie; Yamakawa, Tomomi; Harada, Emi; Akagi, Masao



Infrared-Assisted Extraction of Adenosine from Radix Isatidis Using Orthogonal Experimental Design and LC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work reports a novel method for the extraction of adenosine from Isatis indigotica Fort. The extraction mechanism is based on rapid heating of extracting solvent and sample matrix under infrared radiation. Aqueous\\u000a ethanol was used as extraction solvent. Extraction conditions of infrared-assisted extraction (IRAE) were optimized using\\u000a orthogonal design, and the optimum conditions were as follows: infrared power

Wei Zhou; Xiaoyan Zhang; Meifen Xie; Yile Chen; Yan Li; Gengli Duan



Influence of fluorophore and linker composition on the pharmacology of fluorescent adenosine A1 receptor ligands  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose: The introduction of fluorescence-based techniques, and in particular the development of fluorescent ligands, has allowed the study of G protein-coupled receptor pharmacology at the single cell and single molecule level. This study evaluated how the physicochemical nature of the linker and the fluorophore affected the pharmacological properties of fluorescent agonists and antagonists. Experimental approach: Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing the human adenosine A1 receptor and a cyclic 3?,5? adenosine monophosphate response element-secreted placental alkaline phosphatase (CRE-SPAP) reporter gene, together with whole cell [3H]-8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX) radioligand binding, were used to evaluate the pharmacological properties of a range of fluorescent ligands based on the antagonist xanthine amine congener (XAC) and the agonist 5? (N-ethylcarboxamido) adenosine (NECA). Key results: Derivatives of NECA and XAC with different fluorophores, but equivalent linker length, showed significant differences in their binding properties to the adenosine A1 receptor. The BODIPY 630/650 derivatives had the highest affinity. Linker length also affected the pharmacological properties, depending on the fluorophore used. Particularly in fluorescent agonists, higher agonist potency could be achieved with large or small linkers for dansyl and BODIPY 630/650 derivatives, respectively. Conclusions and implications: The pharmacology of a fluorescent ligand was critically influenced by both the fluorophore and the associated linker. Furthermore, our data strongly suggest that the physicochemical properties of the fluorophore/linker pairing determine where in the environment of the target receptor the fluorophore is placed, and this, together with the environmental sensitivity of the resulting fluorescence, may finally decide its utility as a fluorescent probe. This article is part of a themed section on Imaging in Pharmacology. To view the editorial for this themed section visit PMID:20105183

Baker, Jillian G; Middleton, Richard; Adams, Luke; May, Lauren T; Briddon, Stephen J; Kellam, Barrie; Hill, Stephen J



Interactions of PPAR-alpha and adenosine receptors in hypoxia-induced angiogenesis.  


Hypoxia and adenosine are known to upregulate angiogenesis; however, the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?) in angiogenesis is controversial. Using transgenic Tg(fli-1:EGFP) zebrafish embryos, interactions of PPAR? and adenosine receptors in angiogenesis were evaluated under hypoxic conditions. Epifluorescent microscopy was used to assess angiogenesis by counting the number of intersegmental (ISV) and dorsal longitudinal anastomotic vessel (DLAV) at 28 h post-fertilization (hpf). Hypoxia (6h) stimulated angiogenesis as the number of ISV and DLAV increased by 18-fold (p<0.01) and 100 ± 8% (p<0.001), respectively, at 28 hpf. Under normoxic and hypoxic conditions, WY-14643 (10 ?M), a PPAR? activator, stimulated angiogenesis at 28 hpf, while MK-886 (0.5 ?M), an antagonist of PPAR?, attenuated these effects. Compared to normoxic condition, adenosine receptor activation with NECA (10 ?M) promoted angiogenesis more effectively under hypoxic conditions. Involvement of A2B receptor was implied in hypoxia-induced angiogenesis as MRS-1706 (10nM), a selective A2B antagonist attenuated NECA (10 ?M)-induced angiogenesis. NECA- or WY-14643-induced angiogenesis was also inhibited by miconazole (0.1 ?M), an inhibitor of epoxygenase dependent production of eicosatrienoic acid (EET) epoxide. Thus, we conclude that: activation of PPAR? promoted angiogenesis just as activation of A2B receptors through an epoxide dependent mechanism. PMID:24050945

Rizvi, Yasmeen Q; Mehta, Chander S; Oyekan, Adebayo



Histidine starvation and adenosine 5'-triphosphate depletion in chemotaxis of Salmonella typhimurium.  

PubMed Central

Starvation for histidine prevented tumbling in Salmonella typhimurium hisF auxotrophs, including constantly tumbling strains with an additional mutation in cheB or cheZ. However, histidine-starved cheZs hisF strains were not defective in flagellar function or the tumbling mechanism since freshly starved auxotrophs tumbled in response to a variety of repellents. Tumbling in histidine-starved S. typhimurium could be restored in 13 s by addition of adenine or in 4 min by addition of histidine. Chloramphenicol did not prevent restoration of tumbling by these substances. Assays of adenosine 5'-triphosphate were performed based upon previous demonstration of adenine depletion in hisF auxotrophs starved for histidine. The adenosine 5'-triphosphate concentration dropped rapidly during the course of starvation, falling to less than 5% of the initial level as the cells ceased tumbling entirely. The change to smooth motility was prevented by 2-thiazolealanine, which inhibits phosphoribosyltransferase, thereby preventing adenine depletion during histidine starvation. These results suggest that an adenosine 5'-triphosphate deficiency was responsible for the change in tumbling frequency. Images PMID:7002904

Galloway, R J; Taylor, B L



Adenosine 5?-Triphosphate-Sulfurylase in Corn Roots and Its Partial Purification 1  

PubMed Central

ATP-sulfurylase (ATP-sulfate adenyltransferase, EC was found in nonparticulate fractions of both roots and leaves of Zea mays L. seedlings using two detection methods. Addition of exogenous pyrophosphatase was essential for maximum rates of conversion of 35SO42? to labeled adenosine phosphosulfate in unpurified root extracts, but not in unpurified leaf extracts. In the presence of exogenous pyrophosphatase, the enzyme from roots exhibited specific activities as high as those obtained with the leaf enzyme. The root enzyme was purified 33-fold by centrifugation and column chromatography procedures. Its molecular weight obtained by Sephadex gel filtration was about 42,000. Its Km for pyrophosphate was 7 ?m, while for adenosine phosphosulfate, the Km was 1.35 ?m. None of the enzyme fractions studied converted adenosine phosphosulfate into detectable amounts of 3?-phosphoadenosine-5?-phosphosulfate. ATP-sulfurylase was also found in roots of corn seedlings grown aseptically. The data suggest that at least the first reaction in sulfate reduction might proceed as effectively in roots as in shoots. Images PMID:16658609

Onajobi, Funmilayo D.; Cole, C. V.; Ross, Cleon



Inhibition of radioligand binding to A1 adenosine receptors by Bay K8644 and nifedipine.  


Two dihydropyridine compounds, Bay K8644 (a calcium entry activator) and nifedipine (a calcium entry blocker), were found to inhibit the binding of [3H]phenylisopropyladenosine ([3H]PIA) to A1 adenosine receptors in rat cerebral cortex membranes with comparable potencies (IC50 10-30 microM). Scatchard analyses indicated that both Bay K8644 and nifedipine inhibited the binding of [3H]PIA by increasing the KD but without significant effect on the Bmax. When tested at 100 microM, neither Bay K8644 nor nifedipine showed a significant effect on [3H]-p-aminoclonidine ([3H]PAC; alpha 2-adrenergic receptor), [3H]dihydroalprenolol ([3H]DHA; beta-adrenergic receptor), [3H]spiperone (dopamine receptor), and [3H]nitrobenzylthioinosine [( 3H]NBMPR; nucleoside transporter) binding. In the presence of 10 mM Mg2+, the ability of 2-chloroadenosine (2-Cl-Ad, an A1 adenosine receptor agonist) to displace [3H]PIA binding was increased. Conversely, the potencies of 1,3-diethyl-8-phenylxanthine (DPX; an A1 receptor antagonist), Bay K8644 and nifedipine in inhibiting [3H]PIA binding were unchanged. It is suggested that both Bay K8644 and nifedipine may act as antagonists of adenosine A1 receptors, in addition to their well-known effects on calcium channels. PMID:2440436

Cheung, W T; Shi, M M; Young, J D; Lee, C M



Vascular CD39/ENTPD1 Directly Promotes Tumor Cell Growth by Scavenging Extracellular Adenosine Triphosphate12  

PubMed Central

Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is known to boost immune responses in the tumor microenvironment but might also contribute directly to cancer cell death. CD39/ENTPD1 is the dominant ectonucleotidase expressed by endothelial cells and regulatory T cells and catalyzes the sequential hydrolysis of ATP to AMP that is further degraded to adenosine by CD73/ecto-5?-nucleotidase. We have previously shown that deletion of Cd39 results in decreased growth of transplanted tumors in mice, as a result of both defective angiogenesis and heightened innate immune responses (secondary to loss of adenosinergic immune suppression). Whether alterations in local extracellular ATP and adenosine levels as a result of CD39 bioactivity directly affect tumor growth and cytotoxicity has not been investigated to date. We show here that extracellular ATP exerts antitumor activity by directly inhibiting cell proliferation and promoting cancer cell death. ATP-induced antiproliferative effects and cell death are, in large part, mediated through P2X7 receptor signaling. Tumors in Cd39 null mice exhibit increased necrosis in association with P2X7 expression. We further demonstrate that exogenous soluble NTPDase, or CD39 expression by cocultured liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, stimulates tumor cell proliferation and limits cell death triggered by extracellular ATP. Collectively, our findings indicate that local expression of CD39 directly promotes tumor cell growth by scavenging extracellular ATP. Pharmacological or targeted inhibition of CD39 enzymatic activity may find utility as an adjunct therapy in cancer management. PMID:21390184

Feng, Lili; Sun, Xiaofeng; Csizmadia, Eva; Han, Lihui; Bian, Shu; Murakami, Takashi; Wang, Xin; Robson, Simon C; Wu, Yan



Functionalized Congeners of 1,3-Dialkylxanthines: Preparation of Analogues with High Affinity for Adenosine Receptors  

PubMed Central

A series of functionalized congeners of 1,3-dialkylxanthines has been prepared as adenosine receptor antagonists. On the basis of the high potency of 8-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-1,3-dialkylxanthines, the parent compounds were 8-[4-[(carboxymethyl)oxy]phenyl] derivatives of theophylline and 1,3-dipropylxanthine. A series of analogues including esters of ethanol and N-hydroxysuccinimide, amides, a hydrazide, an acylurea, and anilides were prepared. The potency in blocking A1-adenosine receptors (inhibition of binding of N6-[3H]cyclohexyladenosine to brain membranes) and A2-adenosine receptors (inhibition of 2-chloroadenosine-elicited accumulations of cyclic AMP in brain slices) was markedly affected by structural changes distal to the primary pharmacophore (8-phenyl-1,3-dialkylxanthine). Potencies in the dipropyl series at the A1 receptor ranged from K1 values of 1.2 nM for a congener with a terminal amidoethyleneamine moiety to a K1 value of 58 nM for the parent carboxylic acid to a K1 of 96 nM for the bulky ureido congener. Certain congeners were up to 145-fold more active at A1 receptors than at A2 receptors. Various derivatives of the congeners should be useful as receptor probes and for radioidodination, avidin binding, and preparation of affinity columns. PMID:2993622

Kirk, Kenneth L.; Padgett, William L.; Daly, John W.



Adenosine activation of A2B receptor(s) is essential for stimulated epithelial ciliary motility and clearance  

PubMed Central

Mucociliary clearance, vital to lung clearance, is dependent on cilia beat frequency (CBF), coordination of cilia, and the maintenance of periciliary fluid. Adenosine, the metabolic breakdown product of ATP, is an important modulator of ciliary motility. However, the contributions of specific adenosine receptors to key airway ciliary motility processes are unclear. We hypothesized that adenosine modulates ciliary motility via activation of its cell surface receptors (A1, A2A, A2B, or A3). To test this hypothesis, mouse tracheal rings (MTRs) excised from wild-type and adenosine receptor knockout mice (A1, A2A, A2B, or A3, respectively), and bovine ciliated bronchial epithelial cells (BBECs) were stimulated with known cilia activators, isoproterenol (ISO; 10 ?M) and/or procaterol (10 ?M), in the presence or absence of 5?-(N-ethylcarboxamido) adenosine (NECA), a nonselective adenosine receptor agonist [100 nM (A1, A2A, A3); 10 ?M (A2B)], and CBF was measured. Cells and MTRs were also stimulated with NECA (100 nM or 10 ?M) in the presence and absence of adenosine deaminase inhibitor, erythro-9- (2-hydroxy-3-nonyl) adenine hydrochloride (10 ?M). Both ISO and procaterol stimulated CBF in untreated cells and/or MTRs from both wild-type and adenosine knockout mice by ?3 Hz. Likewise, CBF significantly increased ?2–3 Hz in BBECs and wild-type MTRs stimulated with NECA. MTRs from A1, A2A, and A3 knockout mice stimulated with NECA also demonstrated an increase in CBF. However, NECA failed to stimulate CBF in MTRs from A2B knockout mice. To confirm the mechanism by which adenosine modulates CBF, protein kinase activity assays were conducted. The data revealed that NECA-stimulated CBF is mediated by the activation of cAMP-dependent PKA. Collectively, these data indicate that purinergic stimulation of CBF requires A2B adenosine receptor activation, likely via a PKA-dependent pathway. PMID:21622845

Blackburn, Michael R.; Schneider, Daniel J.; Zhang, Hui; Bluitt, DeAndre L.; Jarrell, Justin C.; Yanov, Daniel; Sisson, Joseph H.; Wyatt, Todd A.



Contractile responses to adenosine, R-PIA and ovalbumen in passively sensitized guinea-pig isolated airways  

PubMed Central

Responses to adenosine, R-PIA and ovalbumen were examined in guinea-pig isolated superfused tracheal spirals to determine the effects of passive sensitization by overnight incubation in serum from ovalbumen (OA)-sensitized or non-sensitized guinea-pigs. Tissues incubated with serum from non-sensitized and OA-sensitized guinea-pigs contracted (0.07±0.02 and 0.04±0.01 g, respectively) to adenosine (300 ?M) whereas non-incubated or Krebs-incubated tissues produced no contractions to adenosine or ovalbumen (10 ?g). Ovalbumen caused substantial contractions (0.40±0.09 g) after OA-sensitized serum incubation and significantly (P<0.05) smaller contractions (0.08±0.03 g) after non-sensitized serum incubation. Tracheae from guinea-pigs actively sensitized to ovalbumen 14–21 days beforehand also contracted to adenosine, R-PIA (3 ?M) and ovalbumen. The A1/A2 adenosine receptor antagonist, 8-phenyltheophylline (8-PT, 3 ?M), failed to antagonize these contractions, suggesting that A1/A2 adenosine receptors were not involved. Unlike adenosine, R-PIA (3 ?M) produced contractions in non-incubated (0.23±0.04 g) or Krebs-incubated (0.15±0.04 g) tracheae, as well as after passive and active sensitization. None of these responses were blocked by 8-PT. The A3 receptor agonist, IB-MECA, in the presence of 8-PT produced small contractions in passively sensitized tracheae (10 ?M, 0.02±0.003 g) and, in larger doses (100 ?M and 1 mM), contracted actively sensitized tracheae. In actively sensitized trachea, the A3 receptor antagonist, MRS-1220 (100 nM), significantly (P<0.05) attenuated adenosine contractions in the presence of 8-PT from 0.23±0.07 g to 0.07±0.03 g. These results show that passive, like active sensitization, reveals bronchoconstrictions to adenosine of isolated tracheae. The insensitivity to 8-PT blockade, the antagonism by MRS-1220, and the fact that the A3 receptor agonist, IB-MECA, mimics this response, suggest involvement of A3 receptors. R-PIA, however, has a different profile of adenosine receptor activity. PMID:12411402

Martin, Timothy J; Broadley, Kenneth J



Adenosine and adenine nucleotides are independently released from both the nerve terminals and the muscle fibres upon electrical stimulation of the innervated skeletal muscle of the frog  

Microsoft Academic Search

The independent release of adenosine and adenine nucleotides upon electrical stimulation was studied in the innervated sartorius muscle of the frog after blockade of the extracellular catabolism of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) through exo-AMP deaminase and ecto-5'-nucleotidase. Nerve stimulation (30 min, 0.2Hz) induced the release of both adenosine (19±3 pmol) and adenine nucleotides (101±7 pmol). Experiments performed in the presence of

Rodrigo A. Cunha; A. M. Sebastião



Caffeine and a selective adenosine A2A receptor antagonist induce sensitization and cross-sensitization behavior associated with increased striatal dopamine in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Caffeine, a nonselective adenosine A1 and A2A receptor antagonist, is the most widely used psychoactive substance in the world. Evidence demonstrates that caffeine and selective adenosine A2A antagonists interact with the neuronal systems involved in drug reinforcement, locomotor sensitization, and therapeutic effect in Parkinson's disease (PD). Evidence also indicates that low doses of caffeine and a selective adenosine A2A

Chih W Hsu; Chin S Wang; Ted H Chiu



TNF-? upregulates adenosine 2b (A2b) receptor expression and signaling in intestinal epithelial cells: a basis for A2bR overexpression in colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  Adenosine is an endogenous signaling molecule upregulated during inflammatory conditions. Acting through the A2b receptor\\u000a (A2bR), the predominant adenosine receptor in human colonic epithelia, adenosine has been directly implicated in immune and\\u000a inflammatory responses in the intestine. Little is known about expression and regulation of A2bR during inflammation. Tumor\\u000a necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) is highly upregulated during chronic and acute

L. Wang; T. S. Obertone; T. R. Ziegler; D. Merlin; S. V. Sitaraman



Adenosine postconditioning protects against myocardial ischemia–reperfusion injury though modulate production of TNF-? and prevents activation of transcription factor NF-kappaB  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adenosine serves a number of important physiological roles in the body, which is the most widely studied endogenous signal\\u000a molecules, and the underlying mechanism responsible for such cardioprotection needs more understood, particularly adenosine\\u000a postconditioning in myocardial ischemia\\/reperfusion model. In the present study we performed to investigate the inflammatory\\u000a response of adenosine postconditioning on the cardiac TNF-? expression and NF-?B activation.

Jian-Juan KeFeng-Xu; Feng-Xu Yu; Yan Rao; Yan-Lin Wang



Cyclic AMP efflux, via MRPs and A1 adenosine receptors, is critical for bovine sperm capacitation.  


Sperm capacitation has been largely associated with an increase in cAMP, although its relevance in the underlying mechanisms of this maturation process remains elusive. Increasing evidence shows that the extrusion of cAMP through multidrug resistance associated protein 4 (MRP4) regulates cell homeostasis not only in physiological but also in pathophysiological situations and studies from our laboratory strongly support this assumption. In the present work we sought to establish the role of cAMP efflux in the regulation of sperm capacitation. Sperm capacitation was performed in vitro by exposing bovine spermatozoa to bicarbonate 40 and 70 mM; cAMP; probenecid (a MRPs general inhibitor) and an adenosine type 1 receptor (A1 adenosine receptor) selective antagonist (DPCPX). Capacitation was assessed by chlortetracycline assay and lysophosphatidylcholine-induced acrosome reaction assessed by PSA-FITC staining. Intracellular and extracellular cAMP was measured by radiobinding the regulatory subunit of PKA under the same experimental conditions. MRP4 was detected by western blot and immunohistochemistry assays. Results showed that the inhibition of soluble adenylyl cyclase significantly inhibited bicarbonate-induced sperm capacitation. Furthermore, in the presence of 40 and 70 mM bicarbonate bovine spermatozoa synthesized and extruded cAMP. Interestingly, in the absence of IBMX (a PDEs inhibitor) cAMP efflux still operated in sperm cells, suggesting that cAMP extrusion would be a physiological process in the spermatozoa complementary to the action of PDE. Blockade of MRPs by probenecid abolished the efflux of the cyclic nucleotide resulting not only in the accumulation of intracellular cAMP but also in the inhibition of bicarbonate-induced sperm capacitation. The effect of probenecid was abolished by exposing sperm cells to cAMP. The high-affinity efflux pump for cAMP, MRP4 was expressed in bovine spermatozoa and localized to the midpiece of the tail as previously reported for soluble adenylyl cyclase and A1 adenosine receptor. Additionally, blockade of A1 adenosine receptor abolished not only bicarbonate-induced sperm capacitation but also that stimulated by cAMP. Present findings strongly support that cAMP efflux, presumably through MRP4, and the activation of A1 adenosine receptor regulate some events associated with bicarbonate-induced sperm capacitation, and further suggest a paracrine and/or autocrine role for cAMP. PMID:23907162

Osycka-Salut, Claudia; Diez, Federico; Burdet, Juliana; Gervasi, María Gracia; Franchi, Ana; Bianciotti, Liliana G; Davio, Carlos; Perez-Martinez, Silvina



Ethanol-induced increase in portal blood flow: Role of acetate and A sub 1 - and A sub 2 -adenosine receptors  

SciTech Connect

The increase in portal blood flow induced by ethanol appears to be adenosine mediated. Acetate, which is released by the liver during ethanol metabolism, is known to increase adenosine levels in tissues and in blood. The effects of acetate on portal blood flow were investigated in rats using the microsphere technique. The intravenous infusion of acetate resulted in vasodilation of the preportal vasculature and in a dose-dependent increase in portal blood flow. This acetate-induced increase in portal blood flow was suppressed by the adenosine receptor blocker, 8-phenyltheophylline. Using the A{sub 1}-adenosine receptor agonist N-6-cyclohexyl adenosine and the A{sub 2}-agonist 5{prime}-N-ethylcarboxamido adenosine, we demonstrate that the effect of adenosine on the preportal vasculature is mediated by the A{sub 2}-subtype of adenosine receptors. In conclusion, these data support the hypothesis that the increase in portal blood flow after ethanol administration results from a preportal vasodilatory effect of adenosine formed from acetate metabolism in extrahepatic tissues.

Carmichael, F.J.; Saldivia, V.; Varghese, G.A.; Israel, Y.; Orrego, H. (Addiction Research Foundation Clinical Institute, Toronto, Ontario (Canada) Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))



A(2A) adenosine receptor-mediated increase in coronary flow in hyperlipidemic APOE-knockout mice.  


Adenosine-induced coronary vasodilation is predominantly A(2A) adenosine receptor (AR)-mediated, whereas A(1) AR is known to negatively modulate the coronary flow (CF). However, the coronary responses to adenosine in hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis are not well understood. Using hyperlipidemic/atherosclerotic apolipoprotein E (APOE)-knockout mice, CF responses to nonspecific adenosine agonist (5'-N-ethylcarboxamide adenosine, NECA) and specific adenosine agonists (2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyl-adenosine [CCPA, A(1) AR-specific] and CGS-21680, A(2A) AR-specific) were assessed using isolated Langendorff hearts. Western blot analysis was performed in the aorta from APOE and their wild-type (WT) control (C57BL/6J). Baseline CF (expressed as mL/min/g heart weight) was not different among WT (13.23 ± 3.58), APOE (13.22 ± 2.78), and APOE on high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks (APOE-HFD, 12.37 ± 4.76). Concentration response curves induced by CGS-21680 were significantly shifted to the left in APOE and APOE-HFD when compared with WT. CCPA induced an increase in CF only at 10(-6) M in all groups and the effect was reversed by the addition of a selective A(2A) AR antagonist, SCH-58261 (10(-6) M), and a significant decrease in CF from baseline was observed. Western blot analysis showed a significant upregulation of A(2A) AR in the aorta from APOE and APOE-HFD. This study provides the first evidence that CF responses to A(2A) AR stimulation were upregulated in hyperlipidemic/atherosclerotic animals. The speculation is that the use of A(2A) AR-specific agonist for myocardial perfusion imaging (such as regadenoson) could overestimate the coronary reserve in coronary artery disease patients. PMID:21847356

Teng, Bunyen; Mustafa, S Jamal



Activation of A1, A2A, or A3 adenosine receptors attenuates lung ischemia-reperfusion injury  

PubMed Central

Objective Adenosine and the activation of specific adenosine receptors are implicated in the attenuation of inflammation and organ ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. We hypothesized that activation of A1, A2A, or A3 adenosine receptors would provide protection against lung IR injury. Methods Using an isolated, ventilated, blood-perfused rabbit lung model, lungs underwent 18 hours cold ischemia followed by 2 hours reperfusion. Lungs were administered either vehicle, adenosine, or selective A1, A2A, or A3 receptor agonists (CCPA, ATL-313, or IB-MECA, respectively) alone or with their respective antagonists (DPCPX, ZM241385, or MRS1191) during reperfusion. Results Compared to the vehicle-treated control group, treatment with A1, A2A, or A3 agonists significantly improved function (increased lung compliance and oxygenation and decreased pulmonary artery pressure), decreased neutrophil infiltration by myeloperoxidase activity, decreased edema, and reduced TNF-? production. Adenosine treatment was also protective but not to the level of the agonists. When each agonist was paired with its respective antagonist, all protective effects were blocked. The A2A agonist reduced pulmonary artery pressure and myeloperoxidase activity and increased oxygenation to a greater degree than the A1 or A3 agonists. Conclusions Selective activation of A1, A2A, or A3 adenosine receptors provides significant protection against lung IR injury. The decreased elaboration of the potent proinflammatory cytokine, TNF-?, and decreased neutrophil sequestration likely contribute to the overall improvement in pulmonary function. These results provide evidence for the therapeutic potential of specific adenosine receptor agonists in lung transplant recipients. PMID:20398911

Gazoni, Leo M.; Walters, Dustin M.; Unger, Eric B.; Linden, Joel; Kron, Irving L.; Laubach, Victor E.



The effect of cannabidiol on ischemia/reperfusion-induced ventricular arrhythmias: the role of adenosine A1 receptors.  


Cannabidiol (CBD) is a nonpsychoactive phytocannabinoid with anti-inflammatory activity mediated by enhancing adenosine signaling. As the adenosine A1 receptor activation confers protection against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced ventricular arrhythmias, we hypothesized that CBD may have antiarrhythmic effect through the activation of adenosine A1 receptor. Cannabidiol has recently been shown to suppress ischemia-induced ventricular arrhythmias. We aimed to research the effect of CBD on the incidence and the duration of I/R-induced ventricular arrhythmias and to investigate the role of adenosine A1 receptor activation in the possible antiarrhythmic effect of CBD. Myocardial ischemia and reperfusion was induced in anesthetized male rats by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery for 6 minutes and by loosening the bond at the coronary artery, respectively. Cannabidiol alone was given in a dose of 50 µg/kg, 10 minutes prior to coronary artery occlusion and coadministrated with adenosine A1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX) in a dose of 100 µg/kg, 15 minutes prior to coronary artery occlusion to investigate whether the antiarrhythmic effect of CBD is modified by the activation of adenosine A1 receptors. The experimental groups were as follows: (1) vehicle control (n = 10), (2) CBD (n = 9), (3) DPCPX (n = 7), and (4) CBD + DPCPX group (n = 7). Cannabidiol treatment significantly decreased the incidence and the duration of ventricular tachycardia, total length of arrhythmias, and the arrhythmia scores compared to control during the reperfusion period. The DPCPX treatment alone did not affect the incidence and the duration of any type of arrhythmias. However, DPCPX aborted the antiarrhythmic effect of CBD when it was combined with it. The present results demonstrated that CBD has an antiarrhythmic effect against I/R-induced arrhythmias, and the antiarrhythmic effect of CBD may be mediated through the activation of adenosine A1 receptor. PMID:24853683

Gonca, Ersöz; Dar?c?, Faruk



Adenosine Kinase Inhibition Protects The Kidney Against Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes Through Anti-inflammatory and Anti-oxidant Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Adenosine provides anti-inflammatory effects in cardiovascular disease via the activation of adenosine A2A receptors; however, the physiological effect of adenosine could be limited due to its phosphorylation by adenosine kinase. We hypothesized that inhibition of adenosine kinase exacerbates extracellular adenosine levels to reduce renal inflammation and injury in streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Diabetes was induced in male C57BL/6 mice by daily injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg/day, i.p. for 5 days). Control and diabetic mice were then treated with the adenosine kinase inhibitor ABT702 (1.5 mg/kg, i.p two times a week for 8 weeks, n = 7–8/group) or the vehicle (5% DMSO). ABT702 treatment reduced blood glucose level in diabetic mice (~ 20%; p<0.05). ABT702 also reduced albuminuria and markers of glomerular injury, nephrinuria and podocalyxin excretion levels, in diabetic mice. Renal NADPH oxidase activity and urinary thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) excretion, indices of oxidative stress, were also elevated in diabetic mice and ABT702 significantly reduced these changes. ABT702 increased renal endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression (eNOS) and nitrate/nitrite excretion levels in diabetic mice. In addition, the diabetic mice displayed an increase in renal macrophage infiltration, in association with increased renal NFB activation. Importantly, treatment with ABT702 significantly reduced all these inflammatory parameters (P< 0.05). Furthermore, ABT702 decreased glomerular permeability and inflammation and restored the decrease in glomerular occludin expression in vitro in high glucose treated human glomerular endothelial cells. Collectively, the results suggest that the reno-protective effects of ABT702 could be attributed to the reduction in renal inflammation and oxidative stress in diabetic mice. PMID:24841126

Pye, Chelsey; Elsherbiny, Nehal M.; Ibrahim, Ahmed S.; Liou, Gregory I.; Chadli, Ahmed; Al-Shabrawey, Mohamed; Elmarakby, Ahmed A.



Characterization of human and rodent native and recombinant adenosine A(2B) receptors by radioligand binding studies.  


Adenosine A(2B) receptors of native human and rodent cell lines were investigated using [(3)H]PSB-298 [(8-{4-[2-(2-hydroxyethylamino)-2-oxoethoxy]phenyl}-1-propylxanthine] in radioligand binding studies. [(3)H]PSB-298 showed saturable and reversible binding. It exhibited a K(D) value of 60 +/- 1 nM and limited capacity (B(max) = 3.511 fmol per milligram protein) at recombinant human adenosine A(2B) receptors expressed in human embryonic kidney cells (HEK-293). The addition of sodium chloride (100 mM) led to a threefold increase in the number of binding sites recognized by the radioligand. The curve of the agonist 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA) was shifted to the right in the presence of NaCl, while the curve of the antagonist PSB-298 was shifted to the left, indicating that PSB-298 may be an inverse agonist at A(2B) receptors. Adenosine A(2B) receptors were shown to be the major adenosine A(2) receptor subtype on the mouse neuroblastoma x rat glioma hybrid cell line NG108-15 cells. Binding studies at rat INS-1 cells (insulin secreting cell line) demonstrated that [(3)H]PSB-298 is a selective radioligand for adenosine A(2B) binding sites in this cell line. PMID:18404493

Bertarelli, Daniela C G; Diekmann, Martina; Hayallah, Alaa M; Rüsing, Dorothee; Iqbal, Jamshed; Preiss, Birgit; Verspohl, Eugen J; Müller, Christa E



Excess adenosine A2B receptor signaling contributes to priapism through HIF-1? mediated reduction of PDE5 gene expression.  


Priapism is featured with prolonged and painful penile erection and is prevalent among males with sickle cell disease (SCD). The disorder is a dangerous urological and hematological emergency since it is associated with ischemic tissue damage and erectile disability. Here we report that phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) gene expression and PDE activity is significantly reduced in penile tissues of two independent priapic models: SCD mice and adenosine deaminase (ADA)-deficient mice. Moreover, using ADA enzyme therapy to reduce adenosine or a specific antagonist to block A(2B) adenosine receptor (ADORA2B) signaling, we successfully attenuated priapism in both ADA(-/-) and SCD mice by restoring penile PDE5 gene expression to normal levels. This finding led us to further discover that excess adenosine signaling via ADORA2B activation directly reduces PDE5 gene expression in a hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?)-dependent manner. Overall, we reveal that excess adenosine-mediated ADORA2B signaling underlies reduced penile PDE activity by decreasing PDE5 gene expression in a HIF-1?-dependent manner and provide new insight for the pathogenesis of priapism and novel therapies for the disease. PMID:24614760

Ning, Chen; Wen, Jiaming; Zhang, Yujin; Dai, Yingbo; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Weiru; Qi, Lin; Grenz, Almut; Eltzschig, Holger K; Blackburn, Michael R; Kellems, Rodney E; Xia, Yang



Poly(adenosine 5'-diphosphate) ribose polymerase activation as a cause of metabolic dysfunction in critical illness.  


Poly(adenosine 5'-diphosphate) ribose polymerase is a nuclear enzyme activated in response to genotoxic stress induced by a variety of DNA damaging agents. Several oxygen and nitrogen-centered free radicals, notably peroxynitrite, are strong inducers of DNA damage and poly(adenosine 5'-diphosphate) ribose polymerase activation in vitro and in vivo. Activation of this nuclear enzyme depletes the intracellular stores of its substrate nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, slowing the rate of glycolysis, mitochondrial electron transport and adenosine triphosphate formation. This process triggers a severe energetic crisis within the cell, leading to acute cell dysfunction and cell necrosis. Poly(adenosine 5'-diphosphate) ribose polymerase also plays an important role in the regulation of inflammatory cascades, through a functional association with various transcription factors and transcription co-activators. Recent works identified this enzyme as a critical mediator of cellular metabolic dysfunction, inflammatory injury, and organ damage in conditions associated with overwhelming oxidative stress, including systemic inflammation, circulatory shock, and ischemia-reperfusion. Accordingly, pharmacological inhibitors of poly(adenosine 5'-diphosphate) ribose polymerase protect against cell death and tissue injury in such conditions, and may therefore represent novel therapeutic tools to limit multiple organ damage and dysfunction in critically ill patients. PMID:11844985

Liaudet, Lucas



Stimulation of central A1 adenosine receptors suppresses seizure and neuropathology in a soman nerve agent seizure rat model.  


The current regimen for treating nerve agent poisoning does not sufficiently suppress the excitotoxic activity that causes severe brain damage, especially in cases where treatment is delayed and nerve agent-induced status epilepticus develops. New therapeutic targets are required to improve survivability and minimize neuropathology after irreversible acetylcholinesterase inactivation. Earlier studies have shown that systemic delivery of adenosine agonists decreases nerve agent lethality; however, the mechanism of protection remains to be understood. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the role of central adenosine receptor (AR) stimulation in neuroprotection by directly injecting (6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), an adenosine agonist specific to the A1 receptor subtype (A1R), into the brain intracerebroventricularly (ICV) in a soman seizure rat model. In addition to general A1R stimulation, we hypothesized that bilateral micro-injection of CPA into the cholinergic basal forebrain (BF) could also suppress excitotoxic activity. The results from these studies demonstrated that centrally administered adenosine agonists are anti-seizure and neuroprotective. CPA-delivered ICV prevented seizure and convulsion in 100% of the animals. Moreover, neuropathological evaluation indicated that adenosine treatments reduced brain damage from severe to minimal. Inhibition of the BF via CPA had varied results. Some animals were protected by treatment; however, others displayed similar pathology to the control. Overall, these data suggest that stimulating central ARs could be an effective target for the next generation countermeasures for nerve agent intoxication. PMID:24785252

Thomas, Thaddeus P; Shih, Tsung-Ming



Inhibition of T cell and natural killer cell function by adenosine and its contribution to immune evasion by tumor cells (Review).  


The resistance of many human cancers to immune-based therapies, including adoptive immunotherapy and the administration of therapeutic cancer vaccines, has been attributed to tumor-associated immune suppression, due in part to immunosuppressive molecules located within the tumor microenvironment. Adenosine is a purine nucleoside found within the interstitial fluid of solid tumors at concentrations that are able to inhibit cell-mediated immune responses to tumor cells. It is well established that extracellular adenosine inhibits T lymphocyte activation and effector function, including T cell adhesion to tumor cells and cytotoxic activity, by signaling primarily through A2a and A3 adenosine receptors on the surface of T cells. Importantly, A2a adenosine receptor-deficient mice exhibit enhanced anti-tumor immune responses by CD8+ T cells, as well as a dramatic reduction in the growth of experimental tumors in comparison to wild-type controls. A2a adenosine receptor signaling has also been implicated in adenosine-mediated inhibition of cytokine production and cytotoxic activity by activated natural killer (NK) cells, although the process of NK cell granule exocytosis is apparently suppressed via a distinct and as yet uncharacterized adenosine receptor. In this report, we review the evidence that adenosine is a potent inhibitor of cellular immune responses and may therefore be a major barrier to the successful immunotherapy of human carcinomas. The signaling pathways through which adenosine exerts its inhibitory effects on cell-mediated immune responses are also discussed. The accumulated evidence suggests that the effectiveness of immune-based therapies for solid tumors may be enhanced by selective antagonism of the adenosine receptor subtypes through which adenosine inhibits the anti-tumor activity of T lymphocytes and NK cells. PMID:18292929

Hoskin, David W; Mader, Jamie S; Furlong, Suzanne J; Conrad, David M; Blay, Jonathan



Functional and RNA expression profile of adenosine receptor subtypes in mouse mesenteric arteries.  


Concentration-response curves (CRCs) of adenosine receptor (AR) agonists, NECA (nonspecific), CCPA (A1 specific), CGS-216870 (A2A specific), BAY 60-6583 (A2B specific), and Cl-IB-MECA (A3 specific) for mesenteric arteries (MAs) from 4 AR knockout (KO) mice (A1, A2A, A2B, and A3) and their wild type (WT) were constructed. The messenger RNA expression of MAs from KO mice and WT were also studied. Adenosine (10 to 10 M) and NECA (10 to 10 M) induced relaxation in all mice except A2B KO mice, which only showed constriction by adenosine at 10 to 10 and NECA at 10 to 10 M. The CCPA induced a significant constriction at 10 and 10 M in all mice, except A1KO. BAY 60-6583 induced relaxation (10 to 10 M) in WT and no response in A2BKO except at 10 M. The CRCs for BAY 60-6583 in A1, A2A, and A3 KO mice shifted to the left when compared with WT mice, suggesting an upregulation of A2B AR. No responses were noted to CGS-21680 in all mice. Cl-IB-MECA only induced relaxation at concentration greater than 10 M, and no differences were found between different KO mice. The CRC for Bay 60-6583 was not significantly changed in the presence of 10 M of L-NAME, 10 M of indomethacin, or both. Our data suggest that A2B AR is the predominant AR subtype and the effect may be endothelial independent, whereas A1 AR plays a significant modulatory role in mouse MAs. PMID:23288107

Teng, Bunyen; Fil, Daniel; Tilley, Stephen L; Ledent, Catherine; Krahn, Thomas; Mustafa, S Jamal



Upregulation of adenosine kinase in astrocytes in experimental and human temporal lobe epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Purpose Adenosine kinase (ADK) represents the key metabolic enzyme for the regulation of extracellular adenosine levels in the brain. In adult brain, ADK is primarily present in astrocytes. Several lines of experimental evidence support a critical role of ADK in different types of brain injury associated with astrogliosis, which is also a prominent morphological feature of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We hypothesized that dysregulation of ADK is an ubiquitous pathological hallmark of TLE. Methods Using immunocytochemistry and western blot analysis, we investigated ADK protein expression in a rat model of TLE during epileptogenesis and the chronic epileptic phase and compared those findings with tissue resected from TLE patients with mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS). Key findings In rat control hippocampus and cortex, a low baseline expression of ADK was found with mainly nuclear localization. One week after the electrical induction of status epilepticus (SE), prominent up-regulation of ADK became evident in astrocytes with a characteristic cytoplasmic localization. This increase in ADK persisted at least for 3-4 months after SE in rats developing a progressive form of epilepsy. In line with the findings from the rat model, expression of astrocytic ADK was also found to be increased in the hippocampus and temporal cortex of TLE patients. In addition, in vitro experiments in human astrocyte cultures showed that ADK expression was increased by several pro-inflammatory molecules (interleukin-1? and LPS). Significance These results suggest that dysregulation of ADK in astrocytes is a common pathological hallmark of TLE. Moreover, in vitro data suggest the existence of an additional layer of modulatory crosstalk between the astrocyte-based adenosine cycle and inflammation. Whether this interaction also can play role in vivo needs to be further investigated. PMID:21635241

Aronica, Eleonora; Zurolo, Emanuele; Iyer, Anand; de Groot, Marjolein; Anink, Jasper; Carbonell, Caterina; van Vliet, Erwin A.; Baayen, Johannes C.; Boison, Detlev; Gorter, Jan A.



Effect of adenosine on the supramolecular architecture and activity of 5-fluorouracil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reactions of adenosine (Ad) with 5-halouracils (5XU where X = F for 1, Cl for 2, Br for 3 and I for 4) resulted in the formation of co-crystals 1-4 in monoclinic with P21 space group. Despite of great variation in the halo substituent at the 5th position of the uracil, each structure contains the same number and same type of non-covalent interactions i.e., primary N-H⋯N, N-H⋯O, O-H⋯N, O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and secondary C-H⋯O and X⋯O interactions within these motifs as well as with neighboring molecules. As compared to Ad the size of cavity increases in co-crystal 1 to accommodate the 5FU as a guest. With the variation of halogen from fluoro to iodo on the uracil, the orientation of the molecules remains the same with a slight difference in the dihedral angle in all the co-crystals 1-4. This study demonstrates that hydrogen-bonded interactions between adenosine and halouracils provide a supramolecular assembly to these co-crystals. Computational studies illustrate that the size of the halo substituents on uracil has no effect on the hydrogen bond interaction energy. It further reveals that the orientation of molecules remain same in both solid phase as well as in the gaseous phase. The antitumor and DNA cleavage activity studies show that the antitumor activity of 5-fluorouracil against MCF-7 breast cancer decreases in the presence of adenosine.

Singh, Udai P.; Kashyap, Sujata; Singh, Hari Ji; Mishra, Bhupesh Kumar; Roy, Partha; Chakraborty, Ajanta



Role of adenosine and glycogen in ischemic preconditioning of rat hearts.  


We tested whether ischemic preconditioning of the rat heart is mediated by reduced glycogenolysis during ischemia, an event triggered by adenosine A1 receptor activation. Rat hearts (n=40) were studied with [31P] and [13C] nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, using the Langendorff perfusion technique (5.5 mM [1-13C]glucose, 10 U/l insulin). In parallel experiments, hearts (n=43) were freeze-clamped at different time-points throughout the protocol. They were subjected to either ischemic preconditioning (PC), PC in the presence of 50 microM adenosine receptor antagonist, 8-(p-sulfophenyl)-theophylline (SPT), or intermittent infusion of 0.25 microM adenosine A1 receptor agonist, 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA). After 30 min ischemia and reperfusion, recovery of heart ratexpressure product was improved in hearts treated with preconditioning (33+/-13%) or CCPA (58+/-14%) compared with the SPT and ischemic control (IC) groups, which both failed to recover (P<0.05). CCPA administration induced a 58% increase in pre-ischemic [13C]glycogen (P<0.05 vs. all groups). In the PC and SPT groups, [13C]glycogen decreased by 25 and 47%, respectively (P<0.05) due to the short bouts of ischemia, resulting in lower pre-ischemic glycogen compared to ischemic control and CCPA hearts (P<0.05). The rate of [13C]glycogen utilization during the first 15 min of ischemia (in micromol/min g wwt) was not statistically different between IC (0.42+/-0.03), PC (0.30+/-0.04), and CCPA (0.38+/-0.05) hearts, but was reduced in SPT hearts (0.24+/-0.05; P<0.05). Total glycogen depletion during 30-min ischemia was reduced in PC hearts (0.61 mg/g wwt) compared to IC (1.84 mg/g wwt) and CCPA (1.75 mg/g wwt) hearts; SPT did not block reduced glycogenolysis during ischemia in PC hearts (0.77 mg/g wwt vs. IC). This study adds further strong evidence that in rat hearts, adenosine is involved in ischemic preconditioning. However, protection is unrelated to pre-ischemic glycogen levels and glycogenolysis during ischemia. PMID:11230995

de Jonge, R; de Jong, J W; Giacometti, D; Bradamante, S



Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) inhibits schwann cell demyelination during Wallerian degeneration.  


Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) is implicated in intercellular communication as a neurotransmitter in the peripheral nervous system. In addition, ATP is known as lysosomal exocytosis activator. In this study, we investigated the role of extracellular ATP on demyelination during Wallerian degeneration (WD) using ex vivo and in vivo nerve degeneration models. We found that extracellular ATP inhibited myelin fragmentation and axonal degradation during WD. Furthermore, metformin and chlorpromazine, lysosomal exocytosis antagonists blocked the effect of ATP on the inhibition of demyelination. Thus, these findings indicate that ATP-induced-lysosomal exocytosis may be involved in demyelination during WD. PMID:24363123

Shin, Youn Ho; Chung, Hyung-Joo; Park, Chan; Jung, Junyang; Jeong, Na Young



Selective regulation of nuclear orphan receptors 4A by adenosine receptor subtypes in human mast cells  

PubMed Central

Nuclear orphan receptors 4A (NR4A) are early responsive genes that belong to the superfamily of hormone receptors and comprise NR4A1, NR4A2 and NR4A3. They have been associated to transcriptional activation of multiple genes involved in inflammation, apoptosis and cell cycle control. Here, we establish a link between NR4As and adenosine, a paradoxical inflammatory molecule that can contribute to persistence of inflammation or mediate inflammatory shutdown. Transcriptomics screening of the human mast cell-line HMC-1 revealed a sharp induction of transcriptionally active NR4A2 and NR4A3 by the adenosine analogue NECA. The concomitant treatment of NECA and the adenosine receptor A2A (A2AAR) selective antagonist SCH-58261 exaggerated this effect, suggesting that upregulation of these factors in mast cells is mediated by other AR subtypes (A2B and A3) and that A2AAR activation counteracts NR4A2 and NR4A3 induction. In agreement with this, A2AAR-silencing amplified NR4A induction by NECA. Interestingly, a similar A2AAR modulatory effect was observed on ERK1/2 phosphorylation because A2AAR blockage exacerbated NECA-mediated phosphorylation of ERK1/2. In addition, PKC or MEK1/2 inhibition prevented ERK1/2 phosphorylation and antagonized AR-mediated induction of NR4A2 and NR4A3, suggesting the involvement of these kinases in AR to NR4A signaling. Finally, we observed that selective A2AAR activation with CGS-21680 blocked PMA-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation and modulated the overexpression of functional nuclear orphan receptors 4A. Taken together, these results establish a novel PKC/ERK/nuclear orphan receptors 4A axis for adenosinergic signaling in mast cells, which can be modulated by A2AAR activation, not only in the context of adenosine but of other mast cell activating stimuli as well. PMID:21234122

Zhang, Li; Paine, Catherine



Selective regulation of nuclear orphan receptors 4A by adenosine receptor subtypes in human mast cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear orphan receptors 4A (NR4A) are early responsive genes that belong to the superfamily of hormone receptors and comprise\\u000a NR4A1, NR4A2 and NR4A3. They have been associated to transcriptional activation of multiple genes involved in inflammation,\\u000a apoptosis and cell cycle control. Here, we establish a link between NR4As and adenosine, a paradoxical inflammatory molecule\\u000a that can contribute to persistence of

Li Zhang; Catherine Paine; Ramiro Dip



Inhibition of protein kinase activity of phorboid and ingenoid receptor by di(adenosine-5')oligophosphate.  


Di(adenosine-5')oligophosphate nucleotides of general structure ApnA (n = 3-6) inhibited the protein kinase activity of homogeneous phorboid receptor. These nucleotides did not affect the phorboid binding activity. Ap4A competed for an ATP binding site on the phorboid receptor. Km for ATP was increased from 0.5 to 2 microM in the presence of 0.2 mM of Ap4A. KI was calculated to be approximately 0.1 mM. Ap4A-elicited inhibition of phorboid receptor kinase activity was independent of receptor concentration as well as of phosphoacceptor substrate concentration. PMID:3855354

Shoyab, M



Extraction and quantification of adenosine triphosphate in mammalian tissues and cells.  


Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) is the "energy currency" of organisms and plays central roles in bioenergetics, whereby its level is used to evaluate cell viability, proliferation, death, and energy transmission. In this chapter, we describe an improved and efficient method for extraction of ATP from tissues and cells using phenol-based reagents. The chaotropic extraction reagents reported so far co-precipitate ATP with insoluble proteins during extraction and with salts during neutralization. In comparison, the phenol-based reagents extract ATP well without the risks of co-precipitation. The extracted ATP can be quantified by the luciferase assay or high-performance liquid chromatography. PMID:24166365

Chida, Junji; Kido, Hiroshi



A Review of Tandem Mass Spectrometry Characterization of Adenosine Diphosphate-Ribosylated Peptides  

PubMed Central

The use of tandem mass spectrometry to identify and characterize sites of protein adenosine diphosphate (ADP) ribosylation will be reviewed. Specifically, we will focus on data acquisition schemes and fragmentation techniques that provide peptide sequence and modification site information. Also discussed are uses of synthetic standards to aid characterization, and an enzymatic method that converts ADP-ribosylated peptides into ribosyl mono phosphorylated peptides making identification amenable to traditional phosphopeptide characterization methods. Finally the potential uses of these techniques to characterize poly ADP-ribosylation sites, and inherent challenges, are addressed. PMID:22563295

Hengel, Shawna M.; Goodlett, David R.



Adenosine is required for sustained inflammasome activation via the A2A receptor and the HIF-1? pathway  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inflammasome pathways are important in chronic diseases; however, it is not known how the signalling is sustained after initiation. Inflammasome activation is dependent on stimuli such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ATP that provide two distinct signals resulting in rapid production of interleukin (IL)-1?, with the lack of response to repeat stimulation. Here we report that adenosine is a key regulator of inflammasome activity, increasing the duration of the inflammatory response via the A2A receptor. Adenosine does not replace signals provided by stimuli such as LPS or ATP but sustains inflammasome activity via a cAMP/PKA/CREB/HIF-1? pathway. In the setting of the lack of IL-1? responses after previous exposure to LPS, adenosine can supersede this tolerogenic state and drive IL-1? production. These data reveal that inflammasome activity is sustained, after initial activation, by A2A receptor-mediated signalling.

Ouyang, Xinshou; Ghani, Ayaz; Malik, Ahsan; Wilder, Tuere; Colegio, Oscar Rene; Flavell, Richard Anthony; Cronstein, Bruce Neil; Mehal, Wajahat Zafar



High-frequency Electrocardiogram Analysis in the Ability to Predict Reversible Perfusion Defects during Adenosine Myocardial Perfusion Imaging  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Background: A previous study has shown that analysis of high-frequency QRS components (HF-QRS) is highly sensitive and reasonably specific for detecting reversible perfusion defects on myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) scans during adenosine. The purpose of the present study was to try to reproduce those findings. Methods: 12-lead high-resolution electrocardiogram recordings were obtained from 100 patients before (baseline) and during adenosine Tc-99m-tetrofosmin MPI tests. HF-QRS were analyzed regarding morphology and changes in root mean square (RMS) voltages from before the adenosine infusion to peak infusion. Results: The best area under the curve (AUC) was found in supine patients (AUC=0.736) in a combination of morphology and RMS changes. None of the measurements, however, were statistically better than tossing a coin (AUC=0.5). Conclusion: Analysis of HF-QRS was not significantly better than tossing a coin for determining reversible perfusion defects on MPI scans.

Tragardh, Elin; Schlegel, Todd T.; Carlsson, Marcus; Pettersson, Jonas; Nilsson, Klas; Pahlm, Olle



Modification of cardiovascular response of adenosine A2 receptor agonist by adenylate cyclase in the spinal cord of rats.  


This study was performed to investigate the influence of spinal adenosine A2 receptors on the central regulation of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR), and to define whether its mechanism is mediated by adenylate cyclase or guanylate cyclase. Intrathecal (i.t.) administration of drugs at the thoracic level were performed in anesthetized, artificially ventilated male Sprague-Dawley rats. Injection (i.t.) of adenosine A2 receptor agonist, 5'-(N-cyclopropyl)-carboxamidoadenosine (CPCA; 1, 2 and 3 nmol) produced a dose dependent decrease of BP and HR. Pretreatment with adenylate cyclase inhibitor, MDL-12,330, attenuated the depressor and bradycardiac effects of CPCA (2 nmol), but not with guanylate cyclase inhibitor, LY-83,583. These results suggest that adenosine A2 receptor in the spinal cord plays an inhibitory role in the central cardiovascular regulation and that the depressor and bradycardiac actions are mediated by adenylate cyclase. PMID:11065134

Koh, H C; Lee, T K; Kang, J S; Lee, C H; Lee, H; Paik, D J; Shin, I C



Modification of cardiovascular response of posterior hypothalamic adenosine A 2 receptor stimulation by adenylate cylase, guanylate cyclase and by K ATP channel blockade in anesthetized rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cardiovascular inhibitory effects induced by posterior hypothalamic adenosine A2 receptors and their modulation by nitric oxide were suggested by our previous report. In this experiment, we examined the modulation of cardiovascular effects of adenosine A2 receptor stimulation by adenylate cyclase, guanylate cyclase and ATP-sensitive K+ channel in the posterior hypothalamus. Posterior hypothalamic injection of drugs was performed in anesthetized, artificially

Min Jeong Kang; Moon Seung Park; In Chul Shin; Hyun Chul Koh



Comparison of adenosine echocardiography, with and without isometric handgrip, to exercise echocardiography in the detection of ischemia in patients with coronary artery disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to evaluate whether adenosine echocardiography is comparable to exercise echocardiography in the detection of ischemia in patients with suspected coronary artery disease and to assess whether the addition of handgrip exercise to adenosine enhances the induction of ischemia in these patients. Accordingly, 67 patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease referred for exercise testing underwent

Cyril B. Tawa; William B. Baker; Neal S. Kleiman; Anatole Trakhtenbroit; Ranley Desir; William A. Zoghbi



Effects of suramin on contractions of the guinea-pig vas deferens induced by analogues of adenosine 5'-triphosphate.  

PubMed Central

1. Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) and some of its analogues contract the guinea-pig vas deferens, acting via receptors which have been classified as P2X-purinoceptors. We have recently shown, however, that the effects of ATP are enhanced, rather than inhibited, by the non-selective P2 antagonist, suramin, and that this enhancement could not easily be explained in terms of inhibition by suramin of the breakdown of ATP. We therefore investigated the effects of suramin on contractions induced by ATP analogues, to define the structure-activity relationships of the suramin-resistant response. 2. In the absence of suramin, the order of potency for ATP analogues was adenosine 5'-(alpha,beta-methylene)triphosphonate (AMPCPP) = P1,P5-diadenosine pentaphosphate (Ap5A) = adenosine 5'-tetraphosphate (Ap4) > adenosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (ATP gamma S) = adenylyl 5'-(beta,gamma-methylene) diphosphonate (AMPPCP) > P1,P5-diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) > adenosine 5'-O-(2- thiodiphosphate) (ADP beta S) > 2-methylthioadenosine 5'-triphosphate (MeSATP) > or = ATP > adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP). This is generally in agreement with previously reported structure-activity relationships in this tissue. 3. In the presence of suramin (1 mM), responses to Ap5A, Ap4A, AMPPCP, ADP beta S and ADP were abolished or greatly reduced, and contractions induced by AMPCPP, Ap4 and ATP gamma S were inhibited. Contractions induced by MeSATP however, like those induced by ATP itself, were not reduced, but at concentrations above 100 microM were enhanced.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7620701

Bailey, S J; Hourani, S M



Using caffeine and other adenosine receptor antagonists and agonists as therapeutic tools against neurodegenerative diseases: A review  

PubMed Central

Caffeine is the most consumed pychostimulant in the world, and it is known to affect basic and fundamental human processes such as sleep, arousal, cognition and learning and memory. It works as a nonselective blocker of adenosine receptors (A1, A2a, A2b and A3) and has been related to the regulation of heart rate, the contraction/relaxation of cardiac and smooth muscles, and the neural signaling in the central nervous system (CNS). Since the late 1990s, studies using adenosine receptor antagonists, such as Caffeine, to block the A1 and A2a adenosine receptor subtypes have shown to reduce the physical, cellular and molecular damages caused by a spinal cord injury (SCI) or a stroke (cerebral infarction) and by other neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Interestingly, other studies using adenosine receptor agonists have also shown to provide a neuroprotective effect on various models of neurodegenerative diseases through the reduction of excitatory neurotransmitter release, apoptosis and inflammatory responses, among others. The seemingly paradoxical use of both adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists as neuroprotective agents has been attributed to differences in dosage levels, drug delivery method, extracellular concentration of excitatory neurotransmitters and stage of disease progression. We discuss and compare recent findings using both antagonists and agonists of adenosine receptors in animal models and patients that have suffered spinal cord injuries, brain strokes, and Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Additionally, we propose alternative interpretations on the seemingly paradoxical use of these drugs as potential pharmacological tools to treat these various types of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24530739

Rivera-Oliver, Marla; Díaz-Ríos, Manuel



Decreased Extracellular Adenosine Levels Lead to Loss of Hypoxia-Induced Neuroprotection after Repeated Episodes of Exposure to Hypoxia  

PubMed Central

Achieving a prolonged neuroprotective state following transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) is likely to effectively reduce the brain damage and neurological dysfunction associated with recurrent stroke. HPC is a phenomenon in which advanced exposure to mild hypoxia reduces the stroke volume produced by a subsequent TIA. However, this neuroprotection is not long-lasting, with the effects reaching a peak after 3 days. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the use of multiple episodes of hypoxic exposure at different time intervals to induce longer-term protection in a mouse stroke model. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to different hypoxic preconditioning protocols: a single episode of HPC or five identical episodes at intervals of 3 days (E3d HPC) or 6 days (E6d HPC). Three days after the last hypoxic exposure, temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was induced. The effects of these HPC protocols on hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) regulated gene mRNA expression were measured by quantitative PCR. Changes in extracellular adenosine concentrations, known to exert neuroprotective effects, were also measured using in vivo microdialysis and high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Neuroprotection was provided by E6d HPC but not E3d HPC. HIF-regulated target gene expression increased significantly following all HPC protocols. However, E3d HPC significantly decreased extracellular adenosine and reduced cerebral blood flow in the ischemic region with upregulated expression of the adenosine transporter, equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1). An ENT1 inhibitor, propentofylline increased the cerebral blood flow and re-established neuroprotection in E3d HPC. Adenosine receptor specific antagonists showed that adenosine mainly through A1 receptor mediates HPC induced neuroprotection. Our data indicate that cooperation of HIF-regulated genes and extracellular adenosine is necessary for HPC-induced neuroprotection. PMID:23437309

Li, Tianfu; Chen, Fangzhe; Dong, Qiang; Zhao, Yanxin; Liu, Xueyuan



Using caffeine and other adenosine receptor antagonists and agonists as therapeutic tools against neurodegenerative diseases: a review.  


Caffeine is the most consumed pychostimulant in the world, and it is known to affect basic and fundamental human processes such as sleep, arousal, cognition and learning and memory. It works as a nonselective blocker of adenosine receptors (A1, A2a, A2b and A3) and has been related to the regulation of heart rate, the contraction/relaxation of cardiac and smooth muscles, and the neural signaling in the central nervous system (CNS). Since the late 1990s, studies using adenosine receptor antagonists, such as Caffeine, to block the A1 and A2a adenosine receptor subtypes have shown to reduce the physical, cellular and molecular damages caused by a spinal cord injury (SCI) or a stroke (cerebral infarction) and by other neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Interestingly, other studies using adenosine receptor agonists have also shown to provide a neuroprotective effect on various models of neurodegenerative diseases through the reduction of excitatory neurotransmitter release, apoptosis and inflammatory responses, among others. The seemingly paradoxical use of both adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists as neuroprotective agents has been attributed to differences in dosage levels, drug delivery method, extracellular concentration of excitatory neurotransmitters and stage of disease progression. We discuss and compare recent findings using both antagonists and agonists of adenosine receptors in animal models and patients that have suffered spinal cord injuries, brain strokes, and Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Additionally, we propose alternative interpretations on the seemingly paradoxical use of these drugs as potential pharmacological tools to treat these various types of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24530739

Rivera-Oliver, Marla; Díaz-Ríos, Manuel



Trifunctional Agents as a Design Strategy for Tailoring Ligand Properties: Irreversible Inhibitors of A1 Adenosine Receptors†  

PubMed Central

The 1,3-phenylene diisothiocyanate conjugate of XAC (8-[4-[[[[(2-aminoethyl)amino]carbonyl]methyl]-oxy]phenyl]-l,3-dipropylxanthine, a potent A1 selective adenosine antagonist) has been characterized as an irreversible inhibitor of A1 adenosine receptors. To further extend this work, a series of analogues were prepared containing a third substituent in the phenyl isothiocyanate ring, incorporated to modify the physiochemical or spectroscopic properties of the conjugate. Symmetrical trifunctional cross-linking reagents bearing two isothiocyanate groups were prepared as general intermediates for cross-linking functionalized congeners and receptors. Xanthine isothiocyanate derivatives containing hydrophilic, fluorescent, or reactive substituents, linked via an amide, thiourea, or methylene group in the 5-position, were synthesized and found to be irreversible inhibitors of A1 adenosine receptors. The effects of the 5-substituent on water solubility and on the A1/A2 selectivity ratio derived from binding assays in rat brain membranes were examined. Inhibition of binding of [3H]-N6-(2-phenylisopropyl)-adenosine and [3H]CGS21680 (2-[[2-[4-(2-carboxyethyl)phenyl]ethyl]amino]adenosine-5?-N-ethylcarboxamide) at central A1 and A2 adenosine receptors, respectively, was measured. A conjugate of XAC and 1,3,5-triisothiocyanatobenzene was 894-fold selective for A1 receptors. Reporter groups, such as fluorescent dyes and a spin-label, were included as chain substituents in the irreversibly binding analogues, which were designed for spectroscopic assays, histochemical characterization, and biochemical characterization of the receptor protein. PMID:1868116

Boring, Daniel L.; Ji, Xiao-Duo; Zimmet, Jeff; Taylor, Kirk E.; Stiles, Gary L.