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Sample records for calcium-and-magnesium ion-dependent adenosine

  1. Effects of calcium and magnesium on strontium distribution coefficients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bunde, R.L.; Rosentreter, J.J.; Liszewski, M.J.; Hemming, C.H.; Welhan, J.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of calcium and magnesium on the distribution of strontium between a surficial sediment and simulated wastewater solutions were measured as part of an investigation to determine strontium transport properties of surficial sediment at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Idaho. The investigation was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey and Idaho State University, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy. Batch experimental techniques were used to determine strontium linear sorption isotherms and distribution coefficients (K(d)'s) using simulated wastewater solutions prepared at pH 8.0??0.1 with variable concentrations of calcium and magnesium. Strontium linear sorption isotherm K(d)'s ranged from 12??1 to 85??3 ml/g, increasing as the concentration of calcium and magnesium decreased. The concentration of sorbed strontium and the percentage of strontium retained by the sediment were correlated to aqueous concentrations of strontium, calcium, and magnesium. The effect of these cation concentrations on strontium sorption was quantified using multivariate least-squares regression techniques. Analysis of data from these experiments indicates that increased concentrations of calcium and magnesium in wastewater discharged to waste disposal ponds at the INEL increases the availability of strontium for transport beneath the ponds by decreasing strontium sorption to the surficial sediment.

  2. Automatic photometric titrations of calcium and magnesium in carbonate rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shapiro, L.; Brannock, W.W.

    1955-01-01

    Rapid nonsubjective methods have been developed for the determination of calcium and magnesium in carbonate rocks. From a single solution of the sample, calcium is titrated directly, and magnesium is titrated after a rapid removal of R2O3 and precipitation of calcium as the tungstate. A concentrated and a dilute solution of disodium ethylenediamine tetraacetate are used as titrants. The concentrated solution is added almost to the end point, then the weak solution is added in an automatic titrator to determine the end point precisely.

  3. Impact of Testosterone, Zinc, Calcium and Magnesium Concentrations on Sperm Parameters in Subfertile Men

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydemir, Birsen; Kiziler, Ali Riza; Onaran, Ilhan; Alici, Bülent; Özkara, Hamdi; Akyolcu, Mehmet Can

    2007-04-01

    To investigate the impact of testosterone, zinc, calcium and magnesium concentrations in serum and seminal plasma on sperm parameters. There were significant decrease in sperm parameters, serum and seminal plasma zinc levels in subfertile males. It indicates zinc has a essential role in male infertility; the determination the level of zinc during infertility investigation is recommended.

  4. Stability and broad-sense heritability of mineral content in potato: calcium and magnesium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcium and magnesium are two minerals with prominent roles in animal and plant metabolism. Advanced potato breeding lines were found to contain between 266 and 944 µg per gram fresh weight of calcium and between 705 1089 µg per gram fresh weight of magnesium. All trials had significant genotype b...

  5. A field method for the determination of calcium and magnesium in limestone and dolomite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shapiro, Leonard; Brannock, Walter Wallace

    1957-01-01

    The method is an adaptation of a procedure described by Betz and Noll1 in 1950. Calcium and magnesium are determined by visual titration using Versene (disodium ethylenediamine tetraacetate) with Murexide (ammonium purpurate) as the indicator for calcium and Eriochrome Black T as the indicator for magnesium.

  6. Effects of dietary vitamin D on calcium and magnesium levels in mice with abnormal calcium metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Spurlock, B.G.; West, W.L.; Knight, E.M. )

    1991-03-11

    In previous studies vitamin D has been used to induce cardiac calcium overload in laboratory animals. Interrelationships between calcium and magnesium metabolism are also documented. The authors have investigated the effect of varying vitamin D in the diet on calcium and magnesium levels in plasma, kidney and heart of DBA mice which exhibit genetic abnormalities in cardiac calcium metabolism. Weanling DBA mice were maintained for 28 days on an AIN-76 diet containing either 1,000 I.U. of vitamin D{sub 3} per kg of diet (control); 4,000 I.U. of vitamin D{sub 3} per kg of diet; or no vitamin D. When compared to controls, supplemented animals showed significantly higher plasma magnesium, kidney calcium and kidney magnesium levels; animals receiving the vitamin D-deficient diet exhibited increases in cardiac calcium levels. The authors results support previous findings that vitamin D deficiency increases cardiac calcium uptake and suggest a possible role of vitamin D in magnesium metabolism.

  7. Chronic dietary fiber supplementation with wheat dextrin does not inhibit calcium and magnesium absorption in premenopausal and postmenopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover clinical study examined the effect of chronic wheat dextrin intake on calcium and magnesium absorption. Forty premenopausal and post menopausal women (mean +/- SD age 49.9 +/- 9.8 years)consumed wheat dextrin or placebo (15 g/day) for 2 weeks prior to 4...

  8. STUDYING THE EFFECTS OF CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM ON SIZE-DISTRIBUTED NITRATE AND AMMONIUM WITH EQUISOLV II. (R823186)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    A chemical equilibrium code was improved and used to show that calcium and magnesium have a large yet different effect on the aerosol size distribution in different regions of Los Angeles. In the code, a new technique of solving individual equilibrium equation...

  9. Anhydrobiosis in yeast: influence of calcium and magnesium ions on yeast resistance to dehydration-rehydration.

    PubMed

    Trofimova, Yuliya; Walker, Graeme; Rapoport, Alexander

    2010-07-01

    The influence of calcium and magnesium ions on resistance to dehydration in the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was investigated. Magnesium ion availability directly influenced yeast cells' resistance to dehydration and, when additionally supplemented with calcium ions, this provided further significant increase of yeast resistance to dehydration. Gradual rehydration of dry yeast cells in water vapour indicated that both magnesium and calcium may be important for the stabilization of yeast cell membranes. In particular, calcium ions were shown for the first time to increase the resistance of yeast cells to dehydration in stress-sensitive cultures from exponential growth phases. It is concluded that magnesium and calcium ion supplementations in nutrient media may increase the dehydration stress tolerance of S. cerevisiae cells significantly, and this finding is important for the production of active dry yeast preparations for food and fermentation industries. PMID:20487021

  10. Dietary calcium and magnesium in the development of hypertension in the spontaneously hypertensive rat

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, G.; Weaver, C.M.; Harrington, D.D.; Babbs, C.F.

    1986-03-01

    The role of dietary calcium and magnesium in attenuation of hypertension was studied in 9 groups of 9 spontaneously hypertensive rats ages 8 to 31 weeks. The animals were fed AIN 76 semipurified diets altered in calcium (0.075%, 0.5%, and 2.5%) and magnesium (0.01%, 0.05%, and 0.75%) using a 3 x 3 factorial design. An inverse relationship between dietary calcium and systolic blood pressure as determined by the photoelectric tail cuff method became significant (p<0.05) after 12 weeks. Repeated measures analysis of variance indicated that dietary magnesium had no effect on systolic blood pressure; no calcium x magnesium interaction was observed. Total and ultrafiltrable serum calcium had a significant inverse correlation with blood pressure (-0.4642, p = .001 and -0.5568, p = .001 respectively). Total and ultrafiltrable serum magnesium reflected dietary magnesium concentration. Magnesium deficiency signs, deposition of calcium in kidneys, and histological lesions were observed in high calcium fed groups receiving normal and low levels of magnesium. Thus, a lowering of blood pressure by calcium supplementation without concomitant magnesium supplementation was accompanied by biochemical and histologic abnormalities in this animal model.

  11. Synthesis and Structural Studies of Calcium and Magnesium Phosphinate and Phosphonate Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bampoh, Victoria Naa Kwale

    The work presented herein describes synthetic methodologies leading to the design of a wide array of magnesium and calcium based phosphinate and phosphonates with possible applications as bone scaffolding materials or additives to bone cements. The challenge to the chemistry of the alkaline earth phosphonate target compounds includes poor solubility of compounds, and poorly understood details on the control of the metal's coordination environment. Hence, less is known on phosphonate based alkaline earth metal organic frameworks as compared to transition metal phosphonates. Factors governing the challenges in obtaining crystalline, well-defined magnesium and calcium solids lie in the large metal diameters, the absence of energetically available d-orbitals to direct metal geometry, as well as the overall weakness of the metal-ligand bonds. A significant part of this project was concerned with the development of suitable reaction conditions to obtain X-ray quality crystals of the reaction products to allow for structural elucidation of the novel compounds. Various methodologies to aid in crystal growth including hydrothermal methods and gel crystallization were employed. We have used phosphinate and phosphonate ligands with different number of phosphorus oxygen atoms as well as diphosphonates with different linker lengths to determine their effects on the overall structural features. An interesting correlation is observed between the dimensionality of products and the increasing number of donor oxygen atoms in the ligands as we progress from phosphinic acid to the phosphorous acids. As an example, monophosphinate ligand only yielded one-dimensional compounds, whereas the phosphonates crystallize as one and two-dimensional compounds, and the di- and triphosphonate based compounds display two or three-dimensional geometries. This thesis provides a selection of calcium and magnesium compounds with one-dimensional geometry, as represented in a calcium phosphinate to novel two-dimensional sheets of magnesium and pillared calcium phosphonates. The preparation of these novel compounds has led to the establishment of synthetic protocols that allow for the direct preparation of compounds with defined structural features.

  12. Calcium and magnesium in exocrine secretion--an X-ray microanalytical study

    SciTech Connect

    Roomans, G.M.; Barnard, T.

    1982-01-01

    Calcium and magnesium distribution in mammalian exocrine glands under resting, stimulated and pathological conditions was investigated by X-ray microanalysis of thick and ultrathin cryosections. Ultrathin sections were cut from tissue frozen in the presence of a polymer cryoprotectant, dextran. The effect of this treatment on isolated rabbit pancreas. Dextran caused a disturbance in water and ion transport, partly due to an osmotic effect and the impermeability of the pancreatic epithelium to dextran; this does, however, not necessarily invalidate intracellular measurements on frozen-dried sections. Cholinergic stimulation of the rat pancreas caused a change of Ca distribution from the basal to the apical part of the cell; this may be a component of the secretory Ca flux. Kinetic considerations make a significant Ca movement via the ER-Golgi endomembrane space less likely. The mitochondrial Ca concentration is low, and not significantly changed by cholinergic stimulation. X-ray microanalysis was carried out on submandibular glands of rats after chronic treatment with reserpin and/or isoproterenol (an animal model for cystic fibrosis, CF). The acinar cells had elevated Mg and Ca and lowered K concentrations. Analysis of ultrathin cryosections showed high levels of Ca and Mg in secretory granules, mucus globules and the ER. Ca and Mg in the ER may be transported intracellularly with secretory proteins to secretion granules or mucus globules. The decrease in cell K may be due to efflux of K caused by elevated cytoplasmic Ca levels. A similar decrease in cell K was caused by incubation of rat salivary glands with diluted serum from CF patients, a treatment which has been reported to mimic the effect of a rise in cytoplasmic Ca.

  13. Levels of Serum Calcium and Magnesium in Pre-eclamptic and Normal Pregnancy: A Study from Coastal India

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh, Aparna; Rao, Kavyarashmi; Devi, Ullal Harshini; Shetty, Harish; Kumari, Sucheta; Shetty, Prasanna Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pre-eclampsia is one of the major causes of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Though the aetiology is obscure, recent studies indicate that serum levels of calcium and magnesium may have a role in pre-eclampsia. Aim: The aim of this study was to find out the relationship of serum levels of calcium and magnesium in pre-eclamptic pregnancies compared to normal pregnancies in women from southern coastal India. Settings and Design: This study was done in a medical college hospital in southern coastal India. Materials and Methods: The blood samples from 60 pre-eclamptic women and an equal number of controls were analysed for calcium and magnesium levels. Data on Body Mass Index, maternal and gestational ages, serum calcium and magnesium were compared between the two groups. Outcome of pregnancy was analysed in both the groups and compared. Statistical Analysis: Data was expressed as Mean ± Standard Deviation. Data analysis was done by SPSS version 20. Comparison of serum levels of the elements between the two groups was performed by Independent t-test and Chi-square test and P-value of < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: The serum calcium concentration was significantly lower in the pre-eclamptic group compared to normotensives (7.84 ± 0.87 mg/dl Vs 8.97± 0.69 mg/dl, p<0.001) whereas the levels of serum magnesium showed a marginal difference in both the groups. (1.43± 0.55 mg/dl Vs, 1.57 ± 0.72 mg/dl P 0.257) The study also showed that pre-eclamptic women were older, their BMI was higher and birth weight of babies lower compared to normotensives. Conclusion: According to the results of our research, intake of supplements, mainly calcium may help in the reduction of incidence of pre-eclampsia especially in a population of a developing country like ours where the nutrition is poor. Not many studies have been done in developing countries to assess the role of these elements in pre-eclampsia. The actual role of magnesium and calcium supplements needs further investigation. PMID:25177604

  14. Chelatometric determination of calcium and magnesium in iron ores, slags, anorthosite, limestone, copper-nickel-lead-zinc ores and divers materials.

    PubMed

    Hitchen, A; Zechanowitsch, G

    1980-03-01

    Chelatometric methods for the determination of calcium and magnesium in iron ores, slags, anorthosite, copper-nickel-lead-zinc ores and various other materials are described. Potential interfering elements are masked with triethanolamine and potassium cyanide. In one aliquot calcium is titrated at pH > 12, with calcein and thymolphthalein mixed indicator and in another aliquot calcium and magnesium are titrated in ammonia buffer, with o-cresolphthalein complexone screened with Naphthol Green B as indicator. The results compare favourably with certified values for reference materials of diverse nature. PMID:18962661

  15. Measurement and calculation of the Stark-broadening parameters for the resonance lines of singly ionized calcium and magnesium.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. W.; Sanchez, A.; Greig, J. R.; Griem, H. R.

    1972-01-01

    The electron-impact-broadened profiles of the resonance lines of singly ionized calcium and magnesium have been measured using an electromagnetically driven shock tube and a rapid-scanning Fabry-Perot spectrometer. For an electron density of 10 to the 17th power per cu cm and a temperature of 19,000 K, we found the Lorentzian half-width of the Ca+ line to be 0.086 A plus or minus 10% and of the Mg+ line to be 0.044 A plus or minus 10%. Using the quantum-mechanical theory of Barnes and Peach and our semiclassical calculation for the calcium lines, we found that the temperature dependence of the theoretical curves is close to that measured, although both theories predict actual values which are somewhat large.

  16. Effect of calcium and magnesium on the antimicrobial action of enterocin LR/6 produced by Enterococcus faecium LR/6.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manoj; Srivastava, Sheela

    2011-06-01

    Enterococci are well-known producers of antimicrobial peptides (enterocins) that possess potential as biopreservatives in food. In this study, divalent cations and release of intracellular potassium were used to assess the mechanism of interaction and killing of enterocin LR/6 produced by Enterococcus faecium LR/6 on three target Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, namely Micrococcus luteus, Enterococcus sp. strain LR/3 and Escherichia coli K-12. Whilst treatment with enterocin LR/6 in all cases led to a significant loss of viability, suggesting a bactericidal mode of action, E. coli K-12 showed better tolerance than the other two strains. Bacteriocins have generally been reported to create pores in the membrane of sensitive cells and this function is diminished by divalent cations. In this study it was shown that Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) markedly improved the viability of enterocin LR/6-treated cells in a concentration-dependent manner. K(+) release as a sign of membrane leakiness was higher in M. luteus compared with the other two test strains. In agreement with the viability response, pre-exposure to Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) substantially reduced the amount of K(+) leakage by M. luteus and Enterococcus sp.; in the case of E. coli K-12, no leakage of K(+) was recorded. These results suggest that enterocin LR/6, which possesses good antibacterial potential, may not be very effective as a preservative in foods containing high concentrations of calcium and magnesium. PMID:21411293

  17. Calcium and magnesium disorders.

    PubMed

    Goff, Jesse P

    2014-07-01

    Hypocalcemia is a clinical disorder that can be life threatening to the cow (milk fever) and predisposes the animal to various other metabolic and infectious disorders. Calcium homeostasis is mediated primarily by parathyroid hormone, which stimulates bone calcium resorption and renal calcium reabsorption. Parathyroid hormone stimulates the production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D to enhance diet calcium absorption. High dietary cation-anion difference interferes with tissue sensitivity to parathyroid hormone. Hypomagnesemia reduces tissue response to parathyroid hormone. PMID:24980727

  18. Multiparametric Flow System for the Automated Determination of Sodium, Potassium, Calcium, and Magnesium in Large-Volume Parenteral Solutions and Concentrated Hemodialysis Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Pistón, Mariela; Dol, Isabel

    2006-01-01

    A multiparametric flow system based on multicommutation and binary sampling has been designed for the automated determination of sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium in large-volume parenteral solutions and hemodialysis concentrated solutions. The goal was to obtain a computer-controlled system capable of determining the four metals without extensive modifications. The system involved the use of five solenoid valves under software control, allowing the establishment of the appropriate flow conditions for each analyte, that is, sample size, dilution, reagent addition, and so forth. Detection was carried out by either flame atomic emission spectrometry (sodium, potassium) or flame atomic absorption spectrometry (calcium, magnesium). The influence of several operating parameters was studied. Validation was carried out by analyzing artificial samples. Figures of merit obtained include linearity, accuracy, precision, and sampling frequency. Linearity was satisfactory: sodium, r 2 >0.999 ( 0.5 – 3.5 g/L), potassium, r 2 >0.996 (50–150 mg/L), calcium, r 2 >0.999 (30–120 mg/L), and magnesium, r 2 >0.999 (20–40 mg/L). Precision ( s r , %, n=5 ) was better than 2.1 %, and accuracy (evaluated through recovery assays) was in the range of 99.8 %– 101.0 % (sodium), 100.8 – 102.5 % (potassium), 97.3 %– 101.3 % (calcium), and 97.1 %– 99.8 % (magnesium). Sampling frequencies ( h ?1 ) were 70 (sodium), 75 (potassium), 70 (calcium), and 58 (magnesium). According to the results obtained, the use of an automated multiparametric system based on multicommutation offers several advantages for the quality control of large-volume parenteral solutions and hemodialysis concentrated solutions. PMID:17671619

  19. Abnormalities of serum calcium and magnesium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neonatal hypocalcemia is defined as a total serum calcium concentration of <7 mg/dL or an ionized calcium concentration of <4 mg/dL (1mmol/L). In very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, ionized calcium values of 0.8 to 1 mmol/L are common and not usually associated with clinical symptoms. In larger in...

  20. Adenosine and sleep

    SciTech Connect

    Yanik, G.M. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Behavioral and biochemical approaches have been used to determine the relative contribution of endogenous adenosine and adenosine receptors to the sleep-wake cycle in the rat. Adenosine concentrations in specific areas of the rat brain were not affected by 24 hours of total sleep deprivation, or by 24 or 48 hours of REM sleep deprivation. In order to assess the effect of REM sleep deprivation on adenosine A/sub 1/ receptors, /sup 3/H-L-PIA binding was measured. The Bmax values for /sup 3/H-L-PIA binding to membrane preparations of the cortices and corpus striata from 48 hour REM sleep-deprived animals were increased 14.8% and 23%, respectively. These increases were not maintained following the cessation of sleep deprivation and recovered within 2 hours. The results of a 96 hour REM deprivation experiment were similar to those of the 48 hour REM sleep deprivation experiment. However, these increases were not evident in similar structures taken from stress control animals, and conclusively demonstrated that the changes in /sup 3/H-L-PIA binding resulted from REM sleep deprivation and not from stress.

  1. Adenosine and Autism: A Spectrum of Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Masino, Susan A.; Kawamura, Masahito; Cote, Jessica L.; Williams, Rebecca B.; Ruskin, David N.

    2012-01-01

    In rodents, insufficient adenosine produces behavioral and physiological symptoms consistent with several comorbidities of autism. In rodents and humans, stimuli postulated to increase adenosine can ameliorate these comorbidities. Because adenosine is a broad homeostatic regulator of cell function and nervous system activity, increasing adenosine’s influence might be a new therapeutic target for autism with multiple beneficial effects. PMID:22940000

  2. Spectrophotometric Titration of a Mixture of Calcium and Magnesium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Robert; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Describes a spectrophotometric titration experiment which uses a manual titration spectrophotometer and manually operated buret, rather than special instrumentation. Identifies the equipment, materials, and procedures needed for the completion of the experiment. Recommends the use of this experiment in introductory quantitative analysis…

  3. Health Significance of Calcium and Magnesium: Examples from Human Studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is clear that many people do not consume recommended intakes of calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg), yet biochemical and/or functional changes indicative of deficiencies in these nutrients have been rare. This prompted two series of studies: one addressing an apparent Ca-deficiency rickets in child...

  4. Metal ion dependence of cooperative collapse transitions in RNA.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, Sarvin; Caliskan, Gokhan; Chauhan, Seema; Hyeon, Changbong; Briber, R M; Thirumalai, D; Woodson, Sarah A

    2009-10-30

    Positively charged counterions drive RNA molecules into compact configurations that lead to their biologically active structures. To understand how the valence and size of the cations influences the collapse transition in RNA, small-angle X-ray scattering was used to follow the decrease in the radius of gyration (R(g)) of the Azoarcus and Tetrahymena ribozymes in different cations. Small, multivalent cations induced the collapse of both ribozymes more efficiently than did monovalent ions. Thus, the cooperativity of the collapse transition depends on the counterion charge density. Singular value decomposition of the scattering curves showed that folding of the smaller and more thermostable Azoarcus ribozyme is well described by two components, whereas collapse of the larger Tetrahymena ribozyme involves at least one intermediate. The ion-dependent persistence length, extracted from the distance distribution of the scattering vectors, shows that the Azoarcus ribozyme is less flexible at the midpoint of transition in low-charge-density ions than in high-charge-density ions. We conclude that the formation of sequence-specific tertiary interactions in the Azoarcus ribozyme overlaps with neutralization of the phosphate charge, while tertiary folding of the Tetrahymena ribozyme requires additional counterions. Thus, the stability of the RNA structure determines its sensitivity to the valence and size of the counterions. PMID:19712681

  5. Metal Ion Dependence of Cooperative Collapse Transitions in RNA

    SciTech Connect

    Moghaddam, Sarvin; Caliskan, Gokhan; Chauhan, Seema; Hyeon, Changbong; Briber, R.M.; Thirumalai, D.; Woodson, Sarah A.

    2010-10-12

    Positively charged counterions drive RNA molecules into compact configurations that lead to their biologically active structures. To understand how the valence and size of the cations influences the collapse transition in RNA, small-angle X-ray scattering was used to follow the decrease in the radius of gyration (R{sub g}) of the Azoarcus and Tetrahymena ribozymes in different cations. Small, multivalent cations induced the collapse of both ribozymes more efficiently than did monovalent ions. Thus, the cooperativity of the collapse transition depends on the counterion charge density. Singular value decomposition of the scattering curves showed that folding of the smaller and more thermostable Azoarcus ribozyme is well described by two components, whereas collapse of the larger Tetrahymena ribozyme involves at least one intermediate. The ion-dependent persistence length, extracted from the distance distribution of the scattering vectors, shows that the Azoarcus ribozyme is less flexible at the midpoint of transition in low-charge-density ions than in high-charge-density ions. We conclude that the formation of sequence-specific tertiary interactions in the Azoarcus ribozyme overlaps with neutralization of the phosphate charge, while tertiary folding of the Tetrahymena ribozyme requires additional counterions. Thus, the stability of the RNA structure determines its sensitivity to the valence and size of the counterions.

  6. Adenosine-induced apoptosis in chick embryonic sympathetic neurons: a new physiological role for adenosine.

    PubMed Central

    Wakade, T D; Palmer, K C; McCauley, R; Przywara, D A; Wakade, A R

    1995-01-01

    1. A newly found action of adenosine in neurons, which may have an important physiological function in the growth and development of the sympathetic nervous system, is described. Adenosine (1-100 microM) inhibited neurite outgrowth within the first 24 h and killed about 80% of sympathetic neurons supported by nerve growth factor over the next 2 days in culture. Neurons supported by excess KCl, forskolin or phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate were equally susceptible to the toxic actions of adenosine. Inosine, guanosine or hypoxanthine (all 100-300 microM) were without effect on neuronal growth and survival. 2. Specific agonists of adenosine A1 and A2 receptors were not neurotoxic, and toxic effects of adenosine were not antagonized by aminophylline. These results rule out involvement of adenosine receptors and the adenylyl cyclase-cAMP signalling system in neurotoxic actions of adenosine. 3. Adenosine toxicity was prevented by inhibitors of the adenosine membrane transporter, suggesting an intracellular site of action of adenosine. 4. Inhibitors of adenosine deaminase dramatically facilitated the toxic action so that physiologically relevant concentrations of adenosine were neurotoxic. 5. Adenosine kinase activity of sympathetic neurons was dose-dependently inhibited by 5'-iodotubercidin (3-100 nM). 5'-Iodotubercidin (100 nM) completely protected neurons against toxicity of adenosine plus adenosine deaminase inhibitors. These results provide convincing evidence that phosphorylation of the nucleoside is an essential requirement for initiation of adenosine toxicity. 6. Sympathetic neurons were successfully rescued from the lethal effects of adenosine deaminase inhibitor plus adenosine by uridine or 2-deoxycytidine, but not by nicotinamide or 2-deoxyguanosine, suggesting that depletion of pyrimidine nucleotides by phosphorylated adenosine compounds and consequent inhibition of DNA synthesis produces neuronal death. 7. DNA fragmentation, assessed by the fluorescent dye bisbenzimide and by the TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end labelling) method, indicated that neuronal death induced by adenosine was apoptotic. 8. We conclude that adenosine deaminase and adenosine kinase play an important role in the metabolism of intracellular concentrations of adenosine and thereby regulate the growth and development of sympathetic neurons. Our study highlights, for the first time, the importance of adenosine as a mediator of programmed cell death of neurons supported by nerve growth factor. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 PMID:8568648

  7. Interkingdom adenosine signal reduces Pseudomonas aeruginosa pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Lili; Pu, Mingming; Hegde, Manjunath; Zhang, Yuanxing; Jayaraman, Arul; Wood, Thomas K

    2012-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is becoming recognized as an important pathogen in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Here we demonstrate that adenosine, derived from hydrolysis of ATP from the eucaryotic host, is a potent interkingdom signal in the GI tract for this pathogen. The addition of adenosine nearly abolished P.?aeruginosa biofilm formation and abolished swarming by preventing production of rhamnolipids. Since the adenosine metabolite inosine did not affect biofilm formation and since a mutant unable to metabolize adenosine behaved like the wild-type strain, adenosine metabolism is not required to reduce pathogenicity. Adenosine also reduces production of the virulence factors pyocyanin, elastase, extracellular polysaccharide, siderophores and the Pseudomonas quinolone signal which led to reduced virulence with Caenorhabditis elegans. To provide insights into how adenosine reduces the virulence of P.?aeruginosa, a whole-transcriptome analysis was conducted which revealed that adenosine addition represses genes similar to an iron-replete condition; however, adenosine did not directly bind Fur. Therefore, adenosine decreases P.?aeruginosa pathogenicity as an interkingdom signal by causing genes related to iron acquisition to be repressed. PMID:22414222

  8. Guanosine regulates adenosine levels in the kidney

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Edwin K.; Cheng, Dongmei; Mi, Zaichuan; Gillespie, Delbert G.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In cell culture, extracellular guanosine increases extracellular adenosine by attenuating the disposition of extracellular adenosine (American Journal of Physiology – Cell Physiology 304: C406–C421, 2013). The goal of this investigation was to determine whether this “guanosine–adenosine mechanism” is operative in an intact organ. Twenty?seven isolated, perfused mouse kidneys were subjected to metabolic poisons (iodoacetate plus 2,4?dinitrophenol) to cause energy depletion and thereby stimulate renal adenosine production. Adenosine levels in the renal venous perfusate increased from a baseline of 36 ± 8 to 499 ± 96, 258 ± 50, and 71 ± 13 nmol/L at 15, 30, and 60 min, respectively, after administering metabolic poisons (% of basal; 1366 ± 229, 715 ± 128, and 206 ± 33, respectively). Changes in renal venous levels of guanosine closely mirrored the time course of changes in adenosine: baseline of 15 ± 2 to 157 ± 13, 121 ± 8, and 50 ± 5 nmol/L at 15, 30, and 60 min, respectively (% of basal; 1132 ± 104, 871 ± 59, and 400 ± 51, respectively). Freeze?clamp experiments in 12 kidneys confirmed that metabolic poisons increased kidney tissue levels of adenosine and guanosine. In eight additional kidneys, we examined the ability of guanosine to reduce the renal clearance of exogenous adenosine; and these experiments revealed that guanosine significantly decreased the renal extraction of adenosine. Because guanosine is metabolized by purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNPase), in another set of 16 kidneys we examined the effects of 8?aminoguanine (PNPase inhibitor) on renal venous levels of adenosine and inosine (adenosine metabolite). Kidneys treated with 8?aminoguanine showed a more robust increase in both adenosine and inosine in response to metabolic poisons. We conclude that in the intact kidney, guanosine regulates adenosine levels. PMID:24872359

  9. Genetics Home Reference: Adenosine deaminase deficiency

    MedlinePLUS

    ... providers. American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy: Gene Therapy for Genetic Disorders Baby's First Test: Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Gene Review: Adenosine Deaminase Deficiency Genetic Testing Registry: Severe ...

  10. Partial separation of platelet and placental adenosine receptors from adenosine A2-like binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Zolnierowicz, S.; Work, C.; Hutchison, K.; Fox, I.H. )

    1990-04-01

    The ubiquitous adenosine A2-like binding protein obscures the binding properties of adenosine receptors assayed with 5'-N-({sup 3}H)ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (({sup 3}H)NECA). To solve this problem, we developed a rapid and simple method to separate adenosine receptors from the adenosine A2-like binding protein. Human platelet and placental membranes were solubilized with 1% 3-((3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio)-1-propanesulfonate. The soluble platelet extract was precipitated with polyethylene glycol and the fraction enriched in adenosine receptors was isolated from the precipitate by differential centrifugation. The adenosine A2-like binding protein was removed from the soluble placental extract with hydroxylapatite and adenosine receptors were precipitated with polyethylene glycol. The specificity of the ({sup 3}H)NECA binding is typical of an adenosine A2 receptor for platelets and an adenosine A1 receptor for placenta. This method leads to enrichment of adenosine A2 receptors for platelets and adenosine A1 receptors for placenta. This provides a useful preparation technique for pharmacologic studies of adenosine receptors.

  11. Pyridopyrimidine analogues as novel adenosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zheng, G Z; Lee, C; Pratt, J K; Perner, R J; Jiang, M Q; Gomtsyan, A; Matulenko, M A; Mao, Y; Koenig, J R; Kim, K H; Muchmore, S; Yu, H; Kohlhaas, K; Alexander, K M; McGaraughty, S; Chu, K L; Wismer, C T; Mikusa, J; Jarvis, M F; Marsh, K; Kowaluk, E A; Bhagwat, S S; Stewart, A O

    2001-08-20

    A novel series of pyridopyrimidine analogues 9 was identified as potent adenosine kinase inhibitors based on the SAR and computational studies. Substitution of the C7 position of the pyridopyrimidino core with C2' substituted pyridino moiety increased the in vivo potency and enhanced oral bioavailability of these adenosine kinase inhibitors. PMID:11514141

  12. Enzymatic regeneration of adenosine triphosphate cofactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, D. L.

    1974-01-01

    Regenerating adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) by enzymatic process which utilizes carbamyl phosphate as phosphoryl donor is technique used to regenerate expensive cofactors. Process allows complex enzymatic reactions to be considered as candidates for large-scale continuous processes.

  13. Ion-Dependent Dynamics of DNA Ejections for Bacteriophage l David Van Valen,6

    E-print Network

    Phillips, Rob

    Ion-Dependent Dynamics of DNA Ejections for Bacteriophage l David Wu,6 David Van Valen,6 Qicong Hu studied the control parameters that govern the dynamics of in vitro DNA ejection in bacteriophage l. Previous work demonstrated that bacteriophage DNA is highly pressurized, and this pressure has been

  14. The Hepatitis C Virus Internal Ribosome Entry Site Adopts an Ion-dependent Tertiary Fold

    E-print Network

    Doudna, Jennifer A.

    The Hepatitis C Virus Internal Ribosome Entry Site Adopts an Ion-dependent Tertiary Fold Jeffrey S-0539, USA Hepatitis C virus (HCV) contains an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) located in the 5H entry site (IRES); hepatitis C virus (HCV); chemical and enzymatic probing*Corresponding author

  15. Halobacterial adenosine triphosphatases and the adenosine triphosphatase from Halobacterium saccharovorum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kristjansson, Hordur; Sadler, Martha H.; Hochstein, Lawrence I.

    1986-01-01

    Membranes prepared from various members of the genus Halobacterium contained a Triton X-l00 activated adenosine triphosphatase. The enzyme from Halobacterium saccharovorum was unstable in solutions of low ionic strength and maximally active in the presence of 3.5 M NaCl. A variety of nucleotide triphosphates was hydrolyzed. MgADP, the product of ATP hydrolysis, was not hydrolyzed and was a competitive inhibitor with respect to MgATP. The enzyme from H. saccharovorum was composed of at least 2 and possibly 4 subunits. The 83-kDa and 60-kDa subunits represented about 90 percent of total protein. The 60-kDa subunit reacted with dicyclohexyl-carbodiimide when inhibition was carried out in an acidic medium. The enzyme from H. saccharovorum, possesses properties of an F(1)F(0) as well as an E(1)E(2) ATPase.

  16. Adenosine-dependent pulmonary fibrosis in adenosine deaminase-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Chunn, Janci L; Molina, Jose G; Mi, Tiejuan; Xia, Yang; Kellems, Rodney E; Blackburn, Michael R

    2005-08-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a common feature of numerous lung disorders, including interstitial lung diseases, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Despite the prevalence of pulmonary fibrosis, the molecular mechanisms governing inflammatory and fibroproliferative aspects of the disorder are not clear. Adenosine is a purine-signaling nucleoside that is generated in excess during cellular stress and damage. This signaling molecule has been implicated in the regulation of features of chronic lung disease; however, the impact of adenosine on pulmonary fibrosis is not well understood. The goal of this study was to explore the impact of endogenous adenosine elevations on pulmonary fibrosis. To accomplish this, adenosine deaminase (ADA)-deficient mice were treated with various levels of ADA enzyme replacement therapy to regulate endogenous adenosine levels in the lung. Maintaining ADA-deficient mice on low dosages of ADA enzyme therapy led to chronic elevations in lung adenosine levels that were associated with pulmonary inflammation, expression of profibrotic molecules, collagen deposition, and extreme alteration in airway structure. These features could be blocked by preventing elevations in lung adenosine. Furthermore, lowering lung adenosine levels after the establishment of pulmonary fibrosis resulted in a resolution of fibrosis. These findings demonstrate that chronic adenosine elevations are associated with pulmonary fibrosis in ADA-deficient mice and suggest that the adenosine functions as a profibrotic signal in the lung. PMID:16034138

  17. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate, calcium, acetylcholine and the current induced by adenosine in the Xenopus oocyte.

    PubMed Central

    Stinnakre, J; Van Renterghem, C

    1986-01-01

    The K+ current response to bath-applied adenosine has been studied on follicle-enclosed full grown oocytes from Xenopus laevis, using the two electrodes voltage-clamp technique. The response to adenosine was mimicked by forskolin, an activator of adenylate cyclase. Forskolin applied at low concentration potentiated the response to adenosine. At low concentration, isoprenaline, a beta-adrenergic agonist known to induce a potassium current via a rise of adenosine 3',5'-phosphate (cyclic AMP) into the oocyte, potentiated the response to adenosine. Progesterone (10(-5) M) reversibly induced a slight decrease (-24%) of the response to adenosine. The calcium ionophore A23187 applied in normal external medium reduced the response to adenosine (about -70%). Intracellular injection of EGTA induced an increase (+64%) of the peak response to adenosine. Acetylcholine (0.5-10 microM) inhibited the response to 3-10 microM adenosine by 44-91%. This inhibition was suppressed by atropine and was seen even on cells which did not show any current in response to acetylcholine application. The inhibition by ACh of the sensitivity to adenosine was long lasting (more than 1 h after the wash-out of ACh). A long term inhibition (-28 to -90%) also occurred when ACh was applied alone and washed before adenosine application. It is concluded that in Xenopus oocyte: increased cyclic AMP synthesis mediates the potassium response to adenosine; intracellular calcium ion concentration modulates this response; muscarinic stimulation induces a long-lasting inhibition of the sensitivity to adenosine. PMID:2427707

  18. Adenosine Kinase: Exploitation for Therapeutic Gain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Adenosine kinase (ADK; EC 2.7.1.20) is an evolutionarily conserved phosphotransferase that converts the purine ribonucleoside adenosine into 5?-adenosine-monophosphate. This enzymatic reaction plays a fundamental role in determining the tone of adenosine, which fulfills essential functions as a homeostatic and metabolic regulator in all living systems. Adenosine not only activates specific signaling pathways by activation of four types of adenosine receptors but it is also a primordial metabolite and regulator of biochemical enzyme reactions that couple to bioenergetic and epigenetic functions. By regulating adenosine, ADK can thus be identified as an upstream regulator of complex homeostatic and metabolic networks. Not surprisingly, ADK dysfunction is involved in several pathologies, including diabetes, epilepsy, and cancer. Consequently, ADK emerges as a rational therapeutic target, and adenosine-regulating drugs have been tested extensively. In recent attempts to improve specificity of treatment, localized therapies have been developed to augment adenosine signaling at sites of injury or pathology; those approaches include transplantation of stem cells with deletions of ADK or the use of gene therapy vectors to downregulate ADK expression. More recently, the first human mutations in ADK have been described, and novel findings suggest an unexpected role of ADK in a wider range of pathologies. ADK-regulating strategies thus represent innovative therapeutic opportunities to reconstruct network homeostasis in a multitude of conditions. This review will provide a comprehensive overview of the genetics, biochemistry, and pharmacology of ADK and will then focus on pathologies and therapeutic interventions. Challenges to translate ADK-based therapies into clinical use will be discussed critically. PMID:23592612

  19. Adenosine receptors as drug targets — what are the challenges?

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiang-Fan; Eltzschig, Holger K.; Fredholm, Bertil B.

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine signalling has long been a target for drug development, with adenosine itself or its derivatives being used clinically since the 1940s. In addition, methylxanthines such as caffeine have profound biological effects as antagonists at adenosine receptors. Moreover, drugs such as dipyridamole and methotrexate act by enhancing the activation of adenosine receptors. There is strong evidence that adenosine has a functional role in many diseases, and several pharmacological compounds specifically targeting individual adenosine receptors — either directly or indirectly — have now entered the clinic. However, only one adenosine receptor-specific agent — the adenosine A2A receptor agonist regadenoson (Lexiscan; Astellas Pharma) — has so far gained approval from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Here, we focus on the biology of adenosine signalling to identify hurdles in the development of additional pharmacological compounds targeting adenosine receptors and discuss strategies to overcome these challenges. PMID:23535933

  20. Partially adenosine deaminase-deficient mice develop pulmonary fibrosis in association with adenosine elevations.

    PubMed

    Chunn, Janci L; Mohsenin, Amir; Young, Hays W J; Lee, Chun G; Elias, Jack A; Kellems, Rodney E; Blackburn, Michael R

    2006-03-01

    Adenosine, a signaling nucleoside, exhibits tissue-protective and tissue-destructive effects. Adenosine levels in tissues are controlled in part by the enzyme adenosine deaminase (ADA). ADA-deficient mice accumulate adenosine levels in multiple tissues, including the lung, where adenosine contributes to the development of pulmonary inflammation and chronic airway remodeling. The present study describes the development of pulmonary fibrosis in mice that have been genetically engineered to possess partial ADA enzyme activity and, thus, accumulate adenosine over a prolonged period of time. These partially ADA-deficient mice live for up to 5 mo and die from apparent respiratory distress. Detailed investigations of the lung histopathology of partially ADA-deficient mice revealed progressive pulmonary fibrosis marked by an increase in the number of pulmonary myofibroblasts and an increase in collagen deposition. In addition, in regions of the distal airways that did not exhibit fibrosis, an increase in the number of large foamy macrophages and a substantial enlargement of the alveolar air spaces suggest emphysemic changes. Furthermore, important proinflammatory and profibrotic signaling pathways, including IL-13 and transforming growth factor-beta1, were activated. Increases in tissue fibrosis were also seen in the liver and kidneys of these mice. These changes occurred in association with pronounced elevations of lung adenosine concentrations and alterations in lung adenosine receptor levels, supporting the hypothesis that elevation of endogenous adenosine is a proinflammatory and profibrotic signal in this model. PMID:16258000

  1. Adenosine inhibits glutamatergic input to basal forebrain cholinergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    Hawryluk, J. M.; Ferrari, L. L.; Keating, S. A.

    2012-01-01

    Adenosine has been proposed as an endogenous homeostatic sleep factor that accumulates during waking and inhibits wake-active neurons to promote sleep. It has been specifically hypothesized that adenosine decreases wakefulness and promotes sleep recovery by directly inhibiting wake-active neurons of the basal forebrain (BF), particularly BF cholinergic neurons. We previously showed that adenosine directly inhibits BF cholinergic neurons. Here, we investigated 1) how adenosine modulates glutamatergic input to BF cholinergic neurons and 2) how adenosine uptake and adenosine metabolism are involved in regulating extracellular levels of adenosine. Our experiments were conducted using whole cell patch-clamp recordings in mouse brain slices. We found that in BF cholinergic neurons, adenosine reduced the amplitude of AMPA-mediated evoked glutamatergic excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) and decreased the frequency of spontaneous and miniature EPSCs through presynaptic A1 receptors. Thus we have demonstrated that in addition to directly inhibiting BF cholinergic neurons, adenosine depresses excitatory inputs to these neurons. It is therefore possible that both direct and indirect inhibition may synergistically contribute to the sleep-promoting effects of adenosine in the BF. We also found that blocking the influx of adenosine through the equilibrative nucleoside transporters or inhibiting adenosine kinase and adenosine deaminase increased endogenous adenosine inhibitory tone, suggesting a possible mechanism through which adenosine extracellular levels in the basal forebrain are regulated. PMID:22357797

  2. Role of adenosine receptors in caffeine tolerance

    SciTech Connect

    Holtzman, S.G.; Mante, S.; Minneman, K.P. )

    1991-01-01

    Caffeine is a competitive antagonist at adenosine receptors. Receptor up-regulation during chronic drug treatment has been proposed to be the mechanism of tolerance to the behavioral stimulant effects of caffeine. This study reassessed the role of adenosine receptors in caffeine tolerance. Separate groups of rats were given scheduled access to drinking bottles containing plain tap water or a 0.1% solution of caffeine. Daily drug intake averaged 60-75 mg/kg and resulted in complete tolerance to caffeine-induced stimulation of locomotor activity, which could not be surmounted by increasing the dose of caffeine. 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (0.001-1.0 mg/kg) dose dependently decreased the locomotor activity of caffeine-tolerant rats and their water-treated controls but was 8-fold more potent in the latter group. Caffeine (1.0-10 mg/kg) injected concurrently with 5-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine antagonized the decreases in locomotor activity comparably in both groups. Apparent pA2 values for tolerant and control rats also were comparable: 5.05 and 5.11. Thus, the adenosine-antagonist activity of caffeine was undiminished in tolerant rats. The effects of chronic caffeine administration on parameters of adenosine receptor binding and function were measured in cerebral cortex. There were no differences between brain tissue from control and caffeine-treated rats in number and affinity of adenosine binding sites or in receptor-mediated increases (A2 adenosine receptor) and decreases (A1 adenosine receptor) in cAMP accumulation. These results are consistent with theoretical arguments that changes in receptor density should not affect the potency of a competitive antagonist. Experimental evidence and theoretical considerations indicate that up-regulation of adenosine receptors is not the mechanism of tolerance to caffeine-induced stimulation of locomotor activity.

  3. Electrocardiographic profile of adenosine pharmacological stress testing

    PubMed Central

    SUN, HAO; TIAN, YUEQIN; ZHENG, LIHUI; PAN, QINGRONG; XIE, BOQIA

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine stress testing in conjunction with radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging has become a common approach for the detection of coronary artery diseases in patients who are unable to perform adequate levels of exercise. However, specific electrocardiographic alterations during the test have been rarely described. Using a Chinese population, the aim of the present study was to provide a detailed electrocardiographic profile of adenosine stress testing. The study population included 1,168 consecutive outpatients who had undergone adenosine-induced stress myocardial perfusion imaging. Electrocardiographic data during and immediately following the adenosine infusion were collected, and the corresponding myocardial perfusion images were assessed. During adenosine infusion, 174 transient and 47 persistent arrhythmic events occurred in 110 patients (9.42%). Furthermore, frequent premature atrial contractions occurred in 65 individuals and frequent premature ventricular contractions were observed in 73 individuals. Atrioventricular block (AVB) occurred in 75 patients [first degree (I°) AVB, 16; second degree (II°) AVB, 58; third degree AVB, 1), while sinoatrial block occurred in eight patients. ST depression emerged in 69 patients. Patients with a baseline I° AVB had an increased risk of a II° AVB, and patients exhibiting baseline ST depression were more likely to have a further depressed ST segment during the stress test (odds ratio, 28.68 and 5.01, respectively; both P<0.001). Following adenosine infusion, 10 patients (0.86%) exhibited newly occurred arrhythmic events. However, no patient presented with acute myocardial infarction or sudden mortality. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that adenosine infusion was a safe method, despite the relatively high incidence of arrhythmic events. The majority of arrhythmias that occurred during infusion were transient, were reversible with the termination of infusion and did not indicate abnormal perfusion results. PMID:25780406

  4. MOLECULAR PROBES FOR EXTRACELLULAR ADENOSINE RECEPTORS

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Ukena, Dieter; Padgett, William; Kirk, Kenneth L.; Daly, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Derivatives of adenosine receptor agonists (N6-phenyladenosines) and antagonists (1,3-dialkyl-8-phenylxanthines) bearing functionalized chains suitable for attachment to other molecules have been reported [Jacobson et al., J. med. Chem. 28, 1334 and 1341 (1985)]. The “functionalized congener” approach has been extended to the synthesis of spectroscopic and other probes for adenosine receptors that retain high affinity (Ki ~ 10?9 ?10?8 M) in A1-receptor binding. The probes have been synthesized from an antagonist xanthine amine congener (XAC) and an adenosine amine congener (ADAC). [3H]ADAC has been synthesized and found to bind highly specifically to A1-adenosine receptors of rat and calf cerebral cortical membranes with KD values of 1.4 and 0.34 nM respectively. The higher affinity in the bovine brain, seen also with many of the probes derived from ADAC and XAC, is associated with phenyl substituents. The spectroscopic probes contain a reporter group attached at a distal site of the functionalized chain. These bifunctional ligands may contain a spin label (e.g. the nitroxyl radical TEMPO) for electron spin resonance spectroscopy, or a fluorescent dye, including fluorescein and 4-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBD), or labels for 19F nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Potential applications of the spectroscopic probes in characterization of adenosine receptors are discussed. PMID:3036153

  5. The role of adenosine receptors and endogenous adenosine in citalopram-induced cardiovascular toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Oransay, Kubilay; Hocaoglu, Nil; Buyukdeligoz, Mujgan; Tuncok, Yesim; Kalkan, Sule

    2014-01-01

    Aim: We investigated the role of adenosine in citalopram-induced cardiotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Protocol 1: Rats were randomized into four groups. Sodium cromoglycate was administered to rats. Citalopram was infused after the 5% dextrose, 8-Cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX; A1 receptor antagonist), 8-(-3-chlorostyryl)-caffeine (CSC; A2a receptor antagonist), or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) administrations. Protocol 2: First group received 5% dextrose intraperitoneally 1 hour prior to citalopram. Other rats were pretreated with erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl) adenine (EHNA; inhibitor of adenosine deaminase) and S-(4-Nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine (NBTI; inhibitor of facilitated adenosine transport). After pretreatment, group 2 received 5% dextrose and group 3 received citalopram. Adenosine concentrations, mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), QRS duration and QT interval were evaluated. Results: In the dextrose group, citalopram infusion caused a significant decrease in MAP and HR and caused a significant prolongation in QRS and QT. DPCPX infusion significantly prevented the prolongation of the QT interval when compared to control. In the second protocol, citalopram infusion did not cause a significant change in plasma adenosine concentrations, but a significant increase observed in EHNA/NBTI groups. In EHNA/NBTI groups, citalopram-induced MAP and HR reductions, QRS and QT prolongations were more significant than the dextrose group. Conclusions: Citalopram may lead to QT prolongation by stimulating adenosine A1 receptors without affecting the release of adenosine. PMID:25097274

  6. Adenosine is crucial for deep brain stimulationmediated attenuation of tremor

    E-print Network

    Newman, Eric A.

    suppress tremor activity and limit stimulation-induced side effects, thereby providing a new with increases in extracellular adenosine. Using an amperometric biosensor, we found that adenosine abun- dance

  7. 21 CFR 864.7040 - Adenosine triphosphate release assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adenosine triphosphate release assay. 864.7040 Section 864.7040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Adenosine triphosphate release assay. (a) Identification. An adenosine triphosphate release assay is...

  8. INTERACTIONS OF FLAVONES AND OTHER PHYTOCHEMICALS WITH ADENOSINE RECEPTORS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adenosine receptors are involved in the homeostasis of the immune, cardiovascular, and central nervous systems, and adenosine agonists/ antagonists exert many similar effects. The affinity of flavonoids to adenosine receptors suggests that a wide range of natural substances in the diet may potentia...

  9. Adenosine Triphosphate and Synchronous Mitosis in Physarum polycephalum

    PubMed Central

    Chin, B.; Bernstein, I. A.

    1968-01-01

    Synchronous mitoses occur in Physarum polycephalum in the absence of cell division. Nucleoside and nucleotide profiles were prepared from synchronously growing P. polycephalum at intervals throughout the growth cycle. Comparison of these profiles demonstrates that the pool of adenosine triphosphate decreases from a high level at prophase to a minimum through mitosis and increases again in the postmitotic period. These events appear to coincide with changes in the pools of adenosine diphosphate and adenosine but not with that of adenosine monophosphate. This observed decrease in the pool of adenosine triphosphate during mitosis was confirmed by direct enzymatic assay. These results presumably reflect the energy demands of the cell during mitosis. PMID:5691835

  10. Effects of adenosine infusion into renal interstitium on renal hemodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Pawlowska, D.; Granger, J.P.; Knox, F.G.

    1987-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate the hemodynamic effects of exogenous adenosine in the interstitium of the rat kidney. Adenosine or its analogues were infused into the renal interstitium by means of chronically implanted capsules. In fusion of adenosine decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR) from 0.81 +/- 0.06 to 0.37 +/- 0.06 ml/min while having no effect on renal blood flow (RBF). The metabolically stable analogue, 2-chloradenosine (2-ClAdo), decreased GFR from 0.73 +/- 0.07 to 021 +/- 0.06 ml/min. Interstitial infusion of theophylline, an adenosine receptor antagonist, completely abolished the effects of adenosine and 2-ClAdo on GFR. The distribution of adenosine, when infused into the renal interstitium, was determined using radiolabeled 5'-(N-ethyl)-carboxamidoadenosine (NECA), a metabolically stable adenosine agonist. After continuous infusion, (/sup 3/H)NECA was distributed throughout the kidney. The effects of NECA to reduce GFR were similar to those of adenosine and 2-ClAdo. They conclude that increased levels of adenosine in the renal interstitium markedly decrease GFR without affecting RBF in steady-state conditions. The marked effects of adenosine agonists during their infusion into the renal interstitium and the complete blockade of these effects by theophylline suggest an extracellular action of adenosine.

  11. Functionalized Congeners of Adenosine: Preparation of Analogues with High Affinity for A1-Adenosine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Kenneth L.; Padgett, William L.; Daly, John W.

    2012-01-01

    A series of functionalized congeners of adenosine based on N6-phenyladenosine, a potent A1-adenosine receptor agonist, was synthesized. Derivatives of the various congeners should be useful as receptor and histochemical probes and for the preparation of radioligands and affinity columns or as targeted drugs. N6-[4-(Carboxymethyl)phenyl]adenosine served as the starting point for synthesis of the methyl ester, the methyl amide, the ethyl glycinate, and various substituted anilides. One of the latter, N6-[4-[[[4-(carbomethoxymethyl)anilino]carbonyl]methyl]phenyl]adenosine, served as the starting point for the synthesis of another series of congeners including the methyl amide, the hydrazide, and the aminoethyl amide. The terminal amino function of the last congener was acylated to provide further analogues. The various congeners were potent competitive antagonists of binding of N6-[3H]cyclohexyladenosine to A1-adenosine receptors in rat cerebral cortical membranes. The affinity of the congener for the A1 receptor was highly dependent on the nature of the spacer group and the terminal moiety with Ki values ranging 1–100 nM. A biotinylated analogue had a Ki value of 11 nM. A conjugate derived from the Bolton–Hunter reagent had a Ki value of 4.5 nM. The most potent congener contained a terminal [(aminoethyl)amino]carbonyl function and had a Ki value of less than 1 nM. PMID:2993623

  12. Adenosine Receptors: Expression, Function and Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Sheth, Sandeep; Brito, Rafael; Mukherjea, Debashree; Rybak, Leonard P.; Ramkumar, Vickram

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine receptors (ARs) comprise a group of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) which mediate the physiological actions of adenosine. To date, four AR subtypes have been cloned and identified in different tissues. These receptors have distinct localization, signal transduction pathways and different means of regulation upon exposure to agonists. This review will describe the biochemical characteristics and signaling cascade associated with each receptor and provide insight into how these receptors are regulated in response to agonists. A key property of some of these receptors is their ability to serve as sensors of cellular oxidative stress, which is transmitted by transcription factors, such as nuclear factor (NF)-?B, to regulate the expression of ARs. Recent observations of oligomerization of these receptors into homo- and heterodimers will be discussed. In addition, the importance of these receptors in the regulation of normal and pathological processes such as sleep, the development of cancers and in protection against hearing loss will be examined. PMID:24477263

  13. Chemoelectrical energy conversion of adenosine triphosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundaresan, Vishnu Baba; Sarles, Stephen Andrew; Leo, Donald J.

    2007-04-01

    Plant and animal cell membranes transport charged species, neutral molecules and water through ion pumps and channels. The energy required for moving species against established concentration and charge gradients is provided by the biological fuel - adenosine triphosphate (ATP) -synthesized within the cell. The adenosine triphosphatase (ATPases) in a plant cell membrane hydrolyze ATP in the cell cytoplasm to pump protons across the cell membrane. This establishes a proton gradient across the membrane from the cell exterior into the cell cytoplasm. This proton motive force stimulates ion channels that transport nutrients and other species into the cell. This article discusses a device that converts the chemical energy stored in adenosine triphosphate into electrical power using a transporter protein, ATPase. The V-type ATPase proteins used in our prototype are extracted from red beet(Beta vulgaris) tonoplast membranes and reconstituted in a bilayer lipid membrane or BLM formed from POPC and POPS lipids. A pH7 medium that can support ATP hydrolysis is provided on both sides of the membrane and ATP is dissolved in the pH7 buffer on one side of the membrane. Hydrolysis of ATP results in the formation of a phosphate ion and adenosine diphosphate. The energy from the reaction activates ATPase in the BLM and moves a proton across the membrane. The charge gradient established across the BLM due to the reaction and ion transport is converted into electrical current by half-cell reference electrodes. The prototype ATPase cell with an effective BLM area of 4.15 mm2 carrying 15 ?l of ATPase proteins was observed to develop a steady state peak power output of 70 nW, which corresponds to a specific power of 1.69 ?W/cm2 and a current density of 43.4 ?A/cm2 of membrane area.

  14. Adenosine-tri-phosphate treatment for supraventricular tachycardia in infants.

    PubMed

    De Wolf, D; Rondia, G; Verhaaren, H; Matthys, D

    1994-11-01

    Adenosine is an endogenous nucleoside acting on coronary perfusion and myocardial conduction. Although the anti-arrhythmic effects of adenosine have been known for decades, interest in the use of adenosine or adenosine-triphosphate (ATP) (a precursor of adenosine) in termination of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) has been renewed. We studied the use of striadyne (ATP and a mixture of other nucleosides including adenosine) in 22 infants younger than 6 months in order to evaluate efficiency and safety of the drug in this particular age group. Striadyne stopped SVT in 17 cases and was diagnostic in another 4 cases. Ten out of 17 successfully converted infants showed one or more reinitiations of SVT, which were easily controlled. The results support the efficiency of ATP for the termination of re-entry types of tachycardia, as well as its diagnostic value and its lack of serious side-effects. PMID:7843191

  15. Protection against cisplatin ototoxicity by adenosine agonists.

    PubMed

    Whitworth, Craig A; Ramkumar, Vickram; Jones, Brett; Tsukasaki, Naoki; Rybak, Leonard P

    2004-05-01

    Cisplatin is a commonly used antineoplastic agent that causes ototoxicity through the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Previous studies have shown that cisplatin causes an upregulation of A(1) adenosine receptor (A(1)AR) in the cochlea, and that application of the adenosine agonist, R-phenylisopropyladenosine (R-PIA), to the round window (RW) results in significant increases in cochlear glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. These data suggest that adenosine receptors (ARs) are an important part of the cytoprotective system of the cochlea in response to oxidative stress. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of various adenosine agonists on cisplatin ototoxicity using RW application. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) thresholds were recorded in anesthetized chinchillas at 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16kHz. The auditory bullae were surgically opened, and 1mM R-PIA, 10microM 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX)/R-PIA (1mM) cocktail, 100microM 2-chloro-N-cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA), 2-[4-(2-p-carboxy-ethyl)phenylamino]-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (CGS) or vehicle were applied to the RW. After 90min, the remaining solution was removed and cisplatin was applied to the RW. The bullae were closed and the animals recovered for 72h, after which, follow-up ABRs were performed. Cochleae were harvested for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and for lipid peroxides. Pre-administration of the A(1)AR agonists R-PIA or CCPA significantly reduced cisplatin-induced threshold changes at all but the highest test frequency. In addition, A(1)AR agonists protected against cisplatin-induced hair cell damage and significantly reduced cisplatin-induced lipid peroxidation. Co-administration of the A(1)AR antagonist, DPCPX, completely reversed the protective effects of R-PIA. In contrast, pretreatment with CGS-21680, an A(2A) adenosine receptor (A(2A)AR) agonist, significantly increased cisplatin-induced threshold changes. Our findings are consistent with the notion that the A(1)AR contributes significantly to cytoprotection in the cochlea, and thereby protects against hearing loss. PMID:15081879

  16. Measurement of plasma adenosine concentration: methodological and physiological considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Gewirtz, H.; Brown, P.; Most, A.S.

    1987-05-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that measurements of plasma adenosine concentration made on samples of blood obtained in dipyridamole and EHNA (i.e., stopping solution) may be falsely elevated as a result of ongoing in vitro production and accumulation of adenosine during sample processing. Studies were performed with samples of anticoagulated blood obtained from anesthesized domestic swine. Adenosine concentration of ultra filtrated plasma was determined by HPLC. The following parameters were evaluated: (i) rate of clearance of (/sup 3/H)adenosine added to plasma, (ii) endogenous adenosine concentration of matched blood samples obtained in stopping solution alone, stopping solution plus EDTA, and perchloric acid (PCA), (iii) plasma and erythrocyte endogenous adenosine concentration in nonhemolyzed samples, and (iv) plasma adenosine concentration of samples hemolyzed in the presence of stopping solution alone or stopping solution plus EDTA. We observed that (i) greater than or equal to 95% of (/sup 3/H)adenosine added to plasma is removed from it by formed elements of the blood in less than 20 s, (ii) plasma adenosine concentration of samples obtained in stopping solution alone is generally 10-fold greater than that of matched samples obtained in stopping solution plus EDTA, (iii) deliberate mechanical hemolysis of blood samples obtained in stopping solution alone resulted in substantial augmentation of plasma adenosine levels in comparison with matched nonhemolyzed specimens--addition of EDTA to stopping solution prevented this, and (iv) adenosine content of blood samples obtained in PCA agreed closely with the sum of plasma and erythrocyte adenosine content of samples obtained in stopping solution plus EDTA.

  17. Folding Study of Venus Reveals a Strong Ion Dependence of Its Yellow Fluorescence under Mildly Acidic Conditions*S

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Sophie

    Folding Study of Venus Reveals a Strong Ion Dependence of Its Yellow Fluorescence under Mildly- cencethatisrelativelyinsensitivetochangesinpHandionconcen- trations. Here, we present a detailed study of the stability and fold- ing of Venus. By following hydrogen-deuterium exchange of 15 N-labeled Venus using NMR spectroscopy over 13 months, residue

  18. Adenosine receptor ligands: differences with acute versus chronic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Kenneth A.; von Lubitz, Dag K. J. E.; Daly, John W.; Fredholm, Bertil B.

    2012-01-01

    Adenosine receptors have been the target of intense research with respect to potential use of selective ligands in a variety of therapeutic areas. Caffeine and theophylline are adenosine receptor antagonists, and over the past three decades a wide range of selective agonists and antagonists for adenosine receptor subtypes have been developed. A complication to the therapeutic use of adenosine receptor ligands is the observation that the effects of acute administration of a particular ligand can be diametrically opposite to the chronic effects of the same ligand. This ‘effect inversion’ is discussed here by Ken Jecobson and colleagues, and has been observed for effects on cognitive processes, seizures and ischaemic damage. PMID:8936347

  19. An Essential Role for Adenosine Signaling in Alcohol Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Ruby, Christina L.; Adams, Chelsea; Knight, Emily J.; Nam, Hyung Wook; Choi, Doo-Sup

    2014-01-01

    In the central nervous system (CNS), adenosine plays an important role in regulating neuronal activity and modulates signaling by other neurotransmitters, including GABA, glutamate, and dopamine. Adenosine suppresses neurotransmitter release, reduces neuronal excitability, and regulates ion channel function through activation of four classes of G protein-coupled receptors, A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Central adenosine levels are largely controlled by nucleoside transporters, which regulate adenosine levels across the plasma membrane. Adenosine has been shown to modulate cortical glutamate signaling and ventral-tegmental dopaminergic signaling, which are involved in several aspects of alcohol use disorders. Acute ethanol elevates extracellular adenosine levels by selectively inhibiting the type 1 equilibrative nucleoside transporter, ENT1. Raised adenosine levels mediate the ataxic and sedative/hypnotic effects of ethanol through activation of A1 receptors in the cerebellum, striatum, and cerebral cortex. Recently, we have shown that pharmacological inhibition or genetic deletion of ENT1 reduces the expression of excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2), the primary regulator of extracellular glutamate, in astrocytes. These lines of evidence support a central role for adenosine-mediated glutamate signaling and the involvement of astrocytes in regulating ethanol intoxication and preference. In this paper, we discuss recent findings on the implication of adenosine signaling in alcohol use disorders. PMID:21054262

  20. Structures and stability of calcium and magnesium carbonates at mantle pressures

    E-print Network

    Pickard, Chris J.; Needs, Richard J.

    2015-03-02

    in under- standing the Earth’s mantle, and especially the carbon cycle. The low-pressure calcite form8 of CaCO3 is one of the most abundant minerals on the Earth’s surface and is the main constituent of metamorphic marbles. Several metastable calcite... -like phases have been observed9–11, and a calcite-related phase has been reported at around 25 GPa11,12. At pressures of about 2 GPa calcite trans- forms to the aragonite structure13 of Pnma symmetry. At about 40 GPa aragonite transforms into the “post...

  1. Synthesis, structure and enhanced photoluminescence properties of two robust, water stable calcium and magnesium coordination networks.

    PubMed

    Xu, Feng; Wang, Hao; Teat, Simon J; Liu, Wei; Xia, Qibin; Li, Zhong; Li, Jing

    2015-12-21

    Two new 3D coordination networks Ca(cca)·H2O (1) and Mg(cca)·2H2O (2) (H2cca = 4-carboxycinnamic acid) are synthesized by solvothermal reactions and characterized by single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, optical diffuse reflection, photoluminescence spectroscopy, and internal quantum yield measurements. Crystal structure analysis reveals that compound 1 is built from edge-sharing chains of seven-coordinated calcium polyhedra, which are connected by the cca ligand to form a 2D layered structure. Compound 2 contains isolated magnesium polyhedra layers. These layers are linked by cca ligands to complete the 3D connectivity. Both compounds 1 and 2 have high thermal stability and remain intact in aqueous solutions of a broad range of pH values ranging from 3 to 11. Both compounds also show significantly enhanced luminescence with respect to the free ligand, giving rise to an increase in quantum yield by as much as 4-fold. PMID:26541284

  2. Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium release from two compressed fertilizers: column experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Sanjurjo, M. J.; Alvarez-Rodríguez, E.; Núñez-Delgado, A.; Fernández-Marcos, M. L.; Romar-Gasalla, A.

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this work was to study nutrients release from two compressed nitrogen-potassium-phosphorous (NPK) fertilizers. In the Lourizán Forest Center, tablet-type controlled-release fertilizers (CRF) were prepared by compressing various mixtures of fertilizers without covers or binders. We used soil columns (50 cm long and 7.3 cm inner diameter) that were filled with soil from the surface layer (0-20 cm) of an A horizon corresponding to a Cambic Umbrisol. Tablets of two slow-release NPK fertilizers (11-18-11 or 8-8-16) were placed into the soil (within the first 3 cm), and then water was percolated through the columns in a saturated regime for 80 days. Percolates were analyzed for N, P, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+. These elements were also determined in soil and fertilizer tablets at the end of the trials. Nutrient concentrations were high in the first leachates and reached a steady state when 1426 mm of water had been percolated, which is equivalent to approximately 1.5 years of rainfall in this geographic area. In the whole trial, both tablets lost more than 80% of their initial N, P and K contents. However, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ were the most leached, whereas N and P were lost in leachates to a lesser extent. Nutrient release was slower from the tablet with a composition of 8-8-16 than from the 11-18-11 fertilizer. In view of that, the 8-8-16 tablet can be considered more adequate for crops with a nutrient demand sustained over time. At the end of the trial, the effects of these fertilizers on soil chemical parameters were still evident, with a significant increase of pH, available Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, P and effective cation exchange capacity (eCEC) in the fertilized columns, as well as a significant decrease in exchangeable Al3+, reaching values < 0.08 cmol (+) kg-1.

  3. Factors affecting ex-situ aqueous mineral carbonation using calcium and magnesium silicate minerals

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdemann, Stephen J.; Dahlin, David C.; O'Connor, William K.; Penner, Larry R.; Rush, G.E.

    2004-01-01

    Carbonation of magnesium- and calcium-silicate minerals to form their respective carbonates is one method to sequester carbon dioxide. Process development studies have identified reactor design as a key component affecting both the capital and operating costs of ex-situ mineral sequestration. Results from mineral carbonation studies conducted in a batch autoclave were utilized to design and construct a unique continuous pipe reactor with 100% recycle (flow-loop reactor). Results from the flow-loop reactor are consistent with batch autoclave tests, and are being used to derive engineering data necessary to design a bench-scale continuous pipeline reactor.

  4. Effects of ion pairing with calcium and magnesium on selenate availability to higher plants

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, D.R.; Tice, K.R.; Thomason, D.N.

    1997-03-01

    The effects of solution speciation on the bioavailability of trace metals are well documented, but the role of speciation in the bioavailability of oxyanionic trace elements that may form significant ion pairs with Ca and Mg in saline media has not been investigated. The authors assessed the effects of such ion pairing on the availability of selenate to representative monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous higher plants. Formation constants for the CaSO{sub 4}{sup 0} formation was confirmed, but the value of 10{sup 2.7} for CaSeO{sub 4}{sup 0} was found to be in error; a value of 10{sup 2.0} is proposed here as the correct formation constant. Five solution culture experiments were conducted using alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) or tall wheatgrass (Elytrigia pontica [Podp.] Holub) with treatments consisting of NaSeO{sub 4} levels in combination with various levels of MgCl{sub 2} or CaCl{sub 2}. Both shoot Se concentrations and whole-plant Se contents were highly correlated with the free SeO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} activity but were poorly correlated with the sum of the free ion plus Ca and Mg ion pair species. Thus, the authors have shown, for the first time, that the free ion model of trace metal bioavailability is also valid for oxyanions that form complexes with Ca and Mg in saline media but that this conclusion hinges critically on the accuracy of the pertinent formation constants.

  5. Nitrogen and phosphorus leaching as affected by gypsum amendment and exchangeable calcium and magnesium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The movement of N and P from the soil by leaching contributes to losses from agricultural land and represents an important environmental and human health concern. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of gypsum amendment and the resultant impact of different levels of exchangeable C...

  6. Deep SDSS optical spectroscopy of distant halo stars II. Iron, calcium, and magnesium abundances

    E-print Network

    Fernández-Alvar, E; Schlesinger, K J; Beers, T C; Robin, A C; Schneider, D P; Lee, Y S; Bizyaev, D; Ebelke, G; Malanushenko, E; Malanushenko, V; Oravetz, D; Pan, K; Simmons, A

    2015-01-01

    We analyze a sample of 3,944 low-resolution (R ~ 2000) optical spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), focusing on stars with effective temperatures 5800 magnesium at large distances from the Galactic center. The median abundances for the halo stars analyzed are fairly constant up to a Galactocentric distance r ~ 20 kpc, rapidly decrease between r ~ 20 and r ~ 40 kpc, and flatten out to significantly lower values at larger...

  7. Calcium and Magnesium Self-Diffusion in Natural Diopside Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. Y.; Ganguly, J.; Ito, M.; Hervig, R. L.

    2006-12-01

    Clinopyroxenes in slowly cooled igneous rocks in both planetary and terrestrial environments (e.g. lunar basalts, layered igneous intrusives) commonly show exsolution lamellae of augite and pigeonite (which may be inverted to orthopyroxene) normal to the c-axis. The Ca-Mg-Fe zoning and thickness of these lamellae depend on the cooling rate of the host rock. This can be retrieved if the self-diffusion data for these cations are available. We have, thus, been engaged in systematic experimental studies to determine self-diffusion coefficients of divalent cations and report recent results on Ca and Mg. Gem quality diopside single crystals were oriented in a four-circle X ray diffractometer and cut as thin slabs normal to the c, b and a* axial directions. The cut pieces were polished, then the polished slabs were pre- annealed for 1-2 days at or close to experimental temperature and oxygen fugacity conditions. The source materials for Mg and Ca diffusion, which were ^{26}MgO or 44CaO powders, respectively, were deposited on the polished surfaces by thermal evaporation in an evacuated chamber. The diffusion experiments were conducted at 1 bar pressure at 950-1100 °C in a vertical tube-furnace. The oxygen fugacity was imposed by a computer controlled flowing mixture of CO and CO2, with a mixing ratio corresponding to the f (O2) of the wustite-iron buffer. The induced diffusion profiles were measured by Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, and modeled by either thin film source or constant surface solutions for one-dimensional diffusion. The choice of the appropriate model was dictated by the criteria of better fit to the experimental data. Our results show that diffusion in diopside is anisotropic with the fastest diffusion parallel to c- and slowest diffusion parallel to a*-axis, with D(//c) ~ 2D(//a*). D(Mg) is slightly faster than D(Ca) but are ~ an order magnitude faster than the D(Ca) determined by Dimanov (1996). The activation energy for diffusion of Ca parallel to the c-axis is ~ 350 kJ/mol. These results will be updated with additional experimental data and applied to the modeling of exsolution processes in natural clinopyroxenes.

  8. Bioadsorption Behavior of Rhodococcus Opacus on the Surface of Calcium and Magnesium Minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongxu; Zhang, Mingming; Li, Chao; Yang, Xie; Li, An; Zhang, Lifeng

    2015-02-01

    The surface properties of minerals can be influenced and changed by microbial activities when microorganisms adhere to the mineral surface. The change of mineral surface properties and thus mineral floatability can be used to separate gangues from valuable minerals. This study investigated the Rhodococcus opacus ( R. opacus) adsorption behavior on the surfaces of calcite, serpentine, and dolomite by bioadhesive test, contact angle measurements, Zeta potential, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that R. opacus could be absorbed well onto the surfaces of calcite, serpentine, and dolomite in a few minutes, with adsorption rate up to 96%. The cell adsorption was dependent on the pH value and the most suitable pH is 7.2, whereas no significant influence of temperature on adsorption was found. Increasing pulp density could provide more adsorption sites to R. opacus cells and increase the adsorption rate consequently. The contact angle of three minerals decreased after R. opacus attached, which indicated that the dispersibility of the mineral surface was improved and in favor of being separated. Zeta potential measurements showed that the cell with the charge was opposite to that of minerals on a broad of pH value. The SEM images showed that R. opacus attached very tightly onto the mineral surface, with a large number of small mineral particles gathered around the cell. FTIR spectra showed the presence of polymer groups on the cell wall that could have given a net charge on the mineral surface.

  9. Calcium and magnesium isotope systematics in rivers draining the Himalaya-Tibetan-Plateau region: Lithological

    E-print Network

    Cambridge, University of

    of average riverine d26 Mg values is in contrast to the main rock types (lime- stone, dolostone and silicate) which range in their average d26 Mg values by more than 2. Tributaries draining the dolostones of these river waters is strongly influenced by dolostone (solute Mg/Ca close to unity) and both d26 Mg (À1

  10. Nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium release from two compressed fertilizers: column experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Sanjurjo, M. J.; Alvarez-Rodríguez, E.; Núñez-Delgado, A.; Fernández-Marcos, M. L.; Romar-Gasalla, A.

    2014-07-01

    We used soil columns to study nutrients release from two compressed NPK fertilizers. The columns were filled with soil material from the surface horizon of a granitic soil. Tablets of two slow-release NPK fertilizers (11-18-11 or 8-8-16) were placed into the soil, and then water was percolated through the columns in a saturated regime. Percolates were analyzed for N, P, K, Ca and Mg. These nutrients were also determined in soil and fertilizer tablets at the end of the trials. Nutrient concentrations were high in the first percolates, reaching a steady state when 1426 mm water have percolated, which is equivalent to approximately 1.5 years of rainfall in the geographic area. In the whole trial, both tablets lost more than 80% of their initial N, P and K contents. However, K, Ca and Mg were the most leached, whereas N and P were lost in leachates to a lesser extent. Nutrient release was slower from the tablet with composition 8-8-16 than from the 11-18-11 fertilizer. In view of that, the 8-8-16 tablet can be considered more adequate for crops with a nutrient demand sustained over time. At the end of the trial, the effects of these fertilizers on soil chemical parameters were still evident.

  11. Relationship of Cotton Fiber Calcium and Magnesium Contents on Dye Uptake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton from a single bale was processed into knit fabrics and prepared for dyeing. Following scouring, fabrics were soaked in either a metal sequestering solution or a water solution, bleached and dyed using 5 dye shades from both reatice and direct dye classes. Results indicate that removal of re...

  12. Allosterically Coupled Calcium and Magnesium Binding Sites are Unmasked by Ryanodine Receptor Chimeras

    PubMed Central

    Voss, Andrew A.; Allen, Paul D.; Pessah, Isaac N.; Perez, Claudio F.

    2009-01-01

    We studied cation regulation of wild type ryanodine receptor type 1 (WTRyR1), type 3 (WTRyR3) and RyR3/RyR1 chimeras (Ch) expressed in 1B5 dyspedic myotubes. Using [3H]ryanodine binding to sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membranes, Ca2+ titrations with WTRyR3 and three chimeras show biphasic activation that is allosterically coupled to attenuated inhibition relative to WTRyR1. Chimeras show biphasic Mg2+ inhibition profiles at 3 and 10?M Ca2+, no observable inhibition at 20?M Ca2+ and monophasic inhibition at 100?M Ca2+. Ca2+ imaging of intact myotubes expressing Ch-4 exhibit caffeine-induced Ca2+ transients with inhibition kinetics that are significantly slower than those expressing WTRyR1 or WTRyR3. Four new aspects of RyR regulation are evident: 1) high affinity (H) activation and low affinity (L) inhibition sites are allosterically coupled, 2) Ca2+ facilitates removal of the inherent Mg2+ block, 3) WTRyR3 exhibits reduced cooperativity between H activation sites when compared to WTRyR1, and 4) uncoupling of these sites in Ch-4 results in decreased rates of inactivation of caffeine-induced Ca transients. PMID:18096513

  13. THE EFFECT OF CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM ON THE ACTIVITY OF BOVICIN HC5 AND NISIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some Gram-positive bacteria produce small peptides (bacteriocins) that have antimicrobial activity, but many bacteria can become bacteriocin-resistant. Bovicin HC5, an antibiotic produced by Streptococcus bovis HC5, has the ability to inhibit nisin-resistant bacteria. Because nisin resistance has,...

  14. Decadal changes in potassium, calcium, and magnesium in a deciduous forest soil

    SciTech Connect

    Mulholland, Patrick J; Johnson, Dale W.; Todd Jr, Donald E; Trettin, Carl

    2008-01-01

    Decadal changes in soil exchangeable K{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}, and Mg{sup 2+} concentrations and contents from 1972 to 2004 in eight intensively monitored plots on Walker Branch Watershed were compared with estimates of increments or decrements in vegetation and detritus. The results from these eight plots compared favorably with those from a more extensive set from 24 soil sampling plots sampled in 1972 and 2004. Increases in exchangeable K{sup +} were noted between 1972 and 1982, but few changes were noted between 1982 and 2004 despite significant increments in vegetation and detritus and significant potential losses by leaching. Total K contents of soils in the 0- to 60-cm sampling depth were very large and a slight amount of weathering could have replenished the K{sup +} lost from exchanges sites. With one notable exception, exchangeable Ca{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+} concentrations and contents decreased continuously during the sampling period. Decreases in exchangeable Ca{sup 2+} could be attributed mostly to increments in biomass and detritus, whereas decreases in exchangeable Mg{sup 2+} could not and were attributed to leaching. The major exception to these patterns was in the case of exchangeable Ca{sup 2+}, where significant increases were noted in one plot and attributed to Ca release from the decomposition of Ca-rich coarse woody debris from oak (Quercus spp.) mortality. With minor exceptions, soils and changes in soils among the eight intensively sampled core plots were similar to those in a more extensive set of plots distributed across the watershed. This study shows that averaging among plots can mask significant and important spatial patterns in soil change that must be taken into account in assessing long-term trends.

  15. Elevated adenosine signaling via adenosine A2B receptor induces normal and sickle erythrocyte sphingosine kinase 1 activity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Kaiqi; Zhang, Yujin; Bogdanov, Mikhail V; Wu, Hongyu; Song, Anren; Li, Jessica; Dowhan, William; Idowu, Modupe; Juneja, Harinder S; Molina, Jose G; Blackburn, Michael R; Kellems, Rodney E; Xia, Yang

    2015-03-01

    Erythrocyte possesses high sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) activity and is the major cell type supplying plasma sphingosine-1-phosphate, a signaling lipid regulating multiple physiological and pathological functions. Recent studies revealed that erythrocyte SphK1 activity is upregulated in sickle cell disease (SCD) and contributes to sickling and disease progression. However, how erythrocyte SphK1 activity is regulated remains unknown. Here we report that adenosine induces SphK1 activity in human and mouse sickle and normal erythrocytes in vitro. Next, using 4 adenosine receptor-deficient mice and pharmacological approaches, we determined that the A2B adenosine receptor (ADORA2B) is essential for adenosine-induced SphK1 activity in human and mouse normal and sickle erythrocytes in vitro. Subsequently, we provide in vivo genetic evidence that adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency leads to excess plasma adenosine and elevated erythrocyte SphK1 activity. Lowering adenosine by ADA enzyme therapy or genetic deletion of ADORA2B significantly reduced excess adenosine-induced erythrocyte SphK1 activity in ADA-deficient mice. Finally, we revealed that protein kinase A-mediated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation functioning downstream of ADORA2B underlies adenosine-induced erythrocyte SphK1 activity. Overall, our findings reveal a novel signaling network regulating erythrocyte SphK1 and highlight innovative mechanisms regulating SphK1 activity in normal and SCD. PMID:25587035

  16. Elevated adenosine signaling via adenosine A2B receptor induces normal and sickle erythrocyte sphingosine kinase 1 activity

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Kaiqi; Zhang, Yujin; Bogdanov, Mikhail V.; Wu, Hongyu; Song, Anren; Li, Jessica; Dowhan, William; Idowu, Modupe; Juneja, Harinder S.; Molina, Jose G.; Blackburn, Michael R.; Kellems, Rodney E.

    2015-01-01

    Erythrocyte possesses high sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) activity and is the major cell type supplying plasma sphingosine-1-phosphate, a signaling lipid regulating multiple physiological and pathological functions. Recent studies revealed that erythrocyte SphK1 activity is upregulated in sickle cell disease (SCD) and contributes to sickling and disease progression. However, how erythrocyte SphK1 activity is regulated remains unknown. Here we report that adenosine induces SphK1 activity in human and mouse sickle and normal erythrocytes in vitro. Next, using 4 adenosine receptor-deficient mice and pharmacological approaches, we determined that the A2B adenosine receptor (ADORA2B) is essential for adenosine-induced SphK1 activity in human and mouse normal and sickle erythrocytes in vitro. Subsequently, we provide in vivo genetic evidence that adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency leads to excess plasma adenosine and elevated erythrocyte SphK1 activity. Lowering adenosine by ADA enzyme therapy or genetic deletion of ADORA2B significantly reduced excess adenosine-induced erythrocyte SphK1 activity in ADA-deficient mice. Finally, we revealed that protein kinase A-mediated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation functioning downstream of ADORA2B underlies adenosine-induced erythrocyte SphK1 activity. Overall, our findings reveal a novel signaling network regulating erythrocyte SphK1 and highlight innovative mechanisms regulating SphK1 activity in normal and SCD. PMID:25587035

  17. Antiadrenergic effects of adenosine in pressure overload hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Meyer, T E; Chung, E S; Perlini, S; Norton, G R; Woodiwiss, A J; Lorbar, M; Fenton, R A; Dobson, J G

    2001-03-01

    In the present study, we sought to evaluate whether the antiadrenergic action of adenosine in the heart is altered in pressure overload hypertrophy produced in rats by suprarenal aortic banding. Epicardial and coronary effluent adenosine and inosine concentrations and release were significantly elevated in compensated pressure overload hypertrophy but not in hearts with left ventricular failure. In pressure overload hearts, the contractile response to beta-adrenergic stimulation was less inhibited by incremental concentrations of either adenosine or the selective A(1) receptor agonist chloro-N:(6)-cyclopentyl adenosine than in controls. Furthermore, the extent of desensitization to the antiadrenergic actions of adenosine in pressure overload hypertrophy appeared to be proportional to the extent of chamber dilation and dysfunction. A 60-minute infusion of adenosine produced a sustained antiadrenergic effect that lasted up to 45 minutes after the infusion was terminated in both controls and hearts with compensated hypertrophy. This effect was not observed in the decompensated left ventricular failure group. Subsequent infusion with adenosine of the A(2A) receptor antagonist 8-(3-chlorostyryl)-caffeine to counteract the proadrenergic effect of A(2A) receptor stimulation did not alter the decreased sensitivity to the antiadrenergic actions of adenosine in hypertrophied hearts. Finally, isolated myocytes from hypertrophied hearts demonstrated a decreased ability to suppress isoproterenol-elicited increases in [Ca(2+)](i) transients in the presence of adenosine and the A(2A) receptor antagonist compared with myocytes from control hearts. Myocardial adenosine concentrations increase during the compensated phase of pressure overload hypertrophy but then decrease when there is evidence of decompensation. The antiadrenergic actions of adenosine transduced via the myocardial A(1) receptor are diminished in pressure overload hypertrophied hearts. These factors may render these hearts more vulnerable to the detrimental effects of chronically increased sympathetic activity. PMID:11244009

  18. Isolation, characterization and immunological properties of bovine liver adenosine kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Noda, M.; Kunz, B.C.; Tsai, S.C.; Adamik, R.; Murtagh, J.J.; Chen, H.C.; Moss, J.; Vaughan, M.

    1987-05-01

    Adenosine kinase catalyzes the transfer of phosphate from nucleoside triphosphates to adenosine. It also is important in the phosphorylation of adenosine analogs active as anti-cancer and anti-viral drugs. Adenosine kinase from bovine liver was purified by sequential chromatography on DEAE-Sephacel, hydroxylapatite, Ultrogel AcA54, octyl Sepharose, and heptylamine-Sepharose. It exhibited one major band (approx.40 kDa) by sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and a single peak of similar size by gel permeation chromatography. (/sup 35/S) GTP..gamma..S binding was stimulated in the presence of Mg/sup 2 +/ and adenosine. The K/sub m/ for adenosine was 2.6 ..mu..M. Antibodies raised in rabbits to adenosine kinase, after purification on Protein A-and adenosine kinase-Sepharose, were used to screen several bovine tissues. A 40 kDa immunoreactive protein was most abundant in liver, but was also detected in heart; it was found predominantly in soluble fractions. Antibodies did not significantly cross-react with other guanyl nucleotide-binding proteins.

  19. Adenosine strongly potentiates pressor responses to nicotine in rats.

    PubMed Central

    von Borstel, R W; Renshaw, A A; Wurtman, R J

    1984-01-01

    Intravenous infusion of subhypotensive doses of adenosine strongly potentiates the pressor response of anesthetized rats to nicotine. A dose of nicotine (40 micrograms/kg, i.v.), which, given alone, elicits a peak increase in diastolic pressure of approximately equal to 15 mm Hg, increases pressure by approximately equal to 70 mm Hg when arterial plasma adenosine levels have been increased to 2 microM from a basal concentration of approximately equal to 1 microM. The pressor response to cigarette smoke applied to the lungs is also strongly potentiated during infusion of adenosine. Slightly higher adenosine concentrations (approximately equal to 4 microM) attenuate pressor responses to electrical stimulation of preganglionic sympathetic nerves, or to injections of the alpha-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine, but continue to potentiate pressor responses to nicotine. Low doses (0.25-5 micrograms/kg) of the synthetic adenosine receptor agonists 5'-N-cyclopropylcarboxamidoadenosine, 2-chloroadenosine, and N6-L-phenylisopropyladenosine also potentiate pressor responses to nicotine. Caffeine and theophylline (10 mg/kg) block the potentiating effect of adenosine, and also decrease basal responses to nicotine, suggesting that endogenous adenosine might normally potentiate some nicotine responses. The synergism between nicotine and adenosine appears to take place within sympathetic ganglia. PMID:6591207

  20. Comorbidities in Neurology: Is adenosine the common link?

    PubMed

    Boison, Detlev; Aronica, Eleonora

    2015-10-01

    Comorbidities in Neurology represent a major conceptual and therapeutic challenge. For example, temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a syndrome comprised of epileptic seizures and comorbid symptoms including memory and psychiatric impairment, depression, and sleep dysfunction. Similarly, Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) are accompanied by various degrees of memory dysfunction. Patients with AD have an increased likelihood for seizures, whereas all four conditions share certain aspects of psychosis, depression, and sleep dysfunction. This remarkable overlap suggests common pathophysiological mechanisms, which include synaptic dysfunction and synaptotoxicity, as well as glial activation and astrogliosis. Astrogliosis is linked to synapse function via the tripartite synapse, but astrocytes also control the availability of gliotransmitters and adenosine. Here we will specifically focus on the 'adenosine hypothesis of comorbidities' implying that astrocyte activation, via overexpression of adenosine kinase (ADK), induces a deficiency in the homeostatic tone of adenosine. We present evidence from patient-derived samples showing astrogliosis and overexpression of ADK as common pathological hallmark of epilepsy, AD, PD, and ALS. We discuss a transgenic 'comorbidity model', in which brain-wide overexpression of ADK and resulting adenosine deficiency produces a comorbid spectrum of seizures, altered dopaminergic function, attentional impairment, and deficits in cognitive domains and sleep regulation. We conclude that dysfunction of adenosine signaling is common in neurological conditions, that adenosine dysfunction can explain co-morbid phenotypes, and that therapeutic adenosine augmentation might be effective for the treatment of comorbid symptoms in multiple neurological conditions. PMID:25979489

  1. Human in vivo research on the vascular effects of adenosine.

    PubMed

    Riksen, Niels P; Rongen, Gerard A; Yellon, Derek; Smits, Paul

    2008-05-13

    In situations of impending tissue danger, such as during ischaemia, the concentration of the endogenous purine nucleoside adenosine rapidly increases. Subsequent stimulation of G-protein coupled adenosine receptors induces several cardiovascular effects, such as vasodilation, inhibition of inflammation, modulation of sympathetic nervous system activity, and increasing myocardial tolerance against ischaemia-reperfusion, which are all aimed at protecting the affected tissue. Although animal models have consistently shown profound cardiovascular protection by adenosine, up to now translation of this knowledge into clinical practice is limited. This current review is focused on human in vivo studies on the cardiovascular effects of adenosine. Several techniques, such as microdialysis, venous occlusion plethysmography, and (99m)Tc-annexin A5 scintigraphy can be used to study these effects of adenosine in healthy volunteers in vivo. By use of these techniques, recent studies have shown that the cardiovascular effects of adenosine can be modulated by genetic factors (e.g. a single nucleotide polymorphism in the gene encoding for adenosine monophosphate deaminase), by metabolic factors (e.g. by the plasma homocysteine concentration), and by drugs, such as caffeine, dipyridamole, and methotrexate. Given the cardiovascular protective properties of adenosine, these factors could well modulate the risk or extent of cardiovascular disease in patients and knowledge of these factors could be of benefit in daily clinical practice to optimize treatment in patients with cardiovascular disease. PMID:18417123

  2. Adenosine strongly potentiates pressor responses to nicotine in rats.

    PubMed

    von Borstel, R W; Renshaw, A A; Wurtman, R J

    1984-09-01

    Intravenous infusion of subhypotensive doses of adenosine strongly potentiates the pressor response of anesthetized rats to nicotine. A dose of nicotine (40 micrograms/kg, i.v.), which, given alone, elicits a peak increase in diastolic pressure of approximately equal to 15 mm Hg, increases pressure by approximately equal to 70 mm Hg when arterial plasma adenosine levels have been increased to 2 microM from a basal concentration of approximately equal to 1 microM. The pressor response to cigarette smoke applied to the lungs is also strongly potentiated during infusion of adenosine. Slightly higher adenosine concentrations (approximately equal to 4 microM) attenuate pressor responses to electrical stimulation of preganglionic sympathetic nerves, or to injections of the alpha-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine, but continue to potentiate pressor responses to nicotine. Low doses (0.25-5 micrograms/kg) of the synthetic adenosine receptor agonists 5'-N-cyclopropylcarboxamidoadenosine, 2-chloroadenosine, and N6-L-phenylisopropyladenosine also potentiate pressor responses to nicotine. Caffeine and theophylline (10 mg/kg) block the potentiating effect of adenosine, and also decrease basal responses to nicotine, suggesting that endogenous adenosine might normally potentiate some nicotine responses. The synergism between nicotine and adenosine appears to take place within sympathetic ganglia. PMID:6591207

  3. A High-Affinity Adenosine Kinase from Anopheles Gambiae

    SciTech Connect

    M Cassera; M Ho; E Merino; E Burgos; A Rinaldo-Matthis; S Almo; V Schramm

    2011-12-31

    Genome analysis revealed a mosquito orthologue of adenosine kinase in Anopheles gambiae (AgAK; the most important vector for the transmission of Plasmodium falciparum in Africa). P. falciparum are purine auxotrophs and do not express an adenosine kinase but rely on their hosts for purines. AgAK was kinetically characterized and found to have the highest affinity for adenosine (K{sub m} = 8.1 nM) of any known adenosine kinase. AgAK is specific for adenosine at the nucleoside site, but several nucleotide triphosphate phosphoryl donors are tolerated. The AgAK crystal structure with a bound bisubstrate analogue Ap{sub 4}A (2.0 {angstrom} resolution) reveals interactions for adenosine and ATP and the geometry for phosphoryl transfer. The polyphosphate charge is partly neutralized by a bound Mg{sup 2+} ion and an ion pair to a catalytic site Arg. The AgAK structure consists of a large catalytic core in a three-layer {alpha}/{beta}/{alpha} sandwich, and a small cap domain in contact with adenosine. The specificity and tight binding for adenosine arise from hydrogen bond interactions of Asn14, Leu16, Leu40, Leu133, Leu168, Phe168, and Thr171 and the backbone of Ile39 and Phe168 with the adenine ring as well as through hydrogen bond interactions between Asp18, Gly64, and Asn68 and the ribosyl 2'- and 3'-hydroxyl groups. The structure is more similar to that of human adenosine kinase (48% identical) than to that of AK from Toxoplasma gondii (31% identical). With this extraordinary affinity for AgAK, adenosine is efficiently captured and converted to AMP at near the diffusion limit, suggesting an important role for this enzyme in the maintenance of the adenine nucleotide pool. mRNA analysis verifies that AgAK transcripts are produced in the adult insects.

  4. Excess adenosine in murine penile erectile tissues contributes to priapism via A2B adenosine receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Tiejuan; Abbasi, Shahrzad; Zhang, Hong; Uray, Karen; Chunn, Janci L.; Xia, Ling Wei; Molina, Jose G.; Weisbrodt, Norman W.; Kellems, Rodney E.; Blackburn, Michael R.; Xia, Yang

    2008-01-01

    Priapism, abnormally prolonged penile erection in the absence of sexual excitation, is associated with ischemia-mediated erectile tissue damage and subsequent erectile dysfunction. It is common among males with sickle cell disease (SCD), and SCD transgenic mice are an accepted model of the disorder. Current strategies to manage priapism suffer from a poor fundamental understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the disorder. Here we report that mice lacking adenosine deaminase (ADA), an enzyme necessary for the breakdown of adenosine, displayed unexpected priapic activity. ADA enzyme therapy successfully corrected the priapic activity both in vivo and in vitro, suggesting that it was dependent on elevated adenosine levels. Further genetic and pharmacologic evidence demonstrated that A2B adenosine receptor–mediated (A2BR-mediated) cAMP and cGMP induction was required for elevated adenosine–induced prolonged penile erection. Finally, priapic activity in SCD transgenic mice was also caused by elevated adenosine levels and A2BR activation. Thus, we have shown that excessive adenosine accumulation in the penis contributes to priapism through increased A2BR signaling in both Ada–/– and SCD transgenic mice. These findings provide insight regarding the molecular basis of priapism and suggest that strategies to either reduce adenosine or block A2BR activation may prove beneficial in the treatment of this disorder. PMID:18340377

  5. Excess adenosine in murine penile erectile tissues contributes to priapism via A2B adenosine receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Mi, Tiejuan; Abbasi, Shahrzad; Zhang, Hong; Uray, Karen; Chunn, Janci L; Xia, Ling Wei; Molina, Jose G; Weisbrodt, Norman W; Kellems, Rodney E; Blackburn, Michael R; Xia, Yang

    2008-04-01

    Priapism, abnormally prolonged penile erection in the absence of sexual excitation, is associated with ischemia-mediated erectile tissue damage and subsequent erectile dysfunction. It is common among males with sickle cell disease (SCD), and SCD transgenic mice are an accepted model of the disorder. Current strategies to manage priapism suffer from a poor fundamental understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the disorder. Here we report that mice lacking adenosine deaminase (ADA), an enzyme necessary for the breakdown of adenosine, displayed unexpected priapic activity. ADA enzyme therapy successfully corrected the priapic activity both in vivo and in vitro, suggesting that it was dependent on elevated adenosine levels. Further genetic and pharmacologic evidence demonstrated that A2B adenosine receptor-mediated (A2BR-mediated) cAMP and cGMP induction was required for elevated adenosine-induced prolonged penile erection. Finally, priapic activity in SCD transgenic mice was also caused by elevated adenosine levels and A2BR activation. Thus, we have shown that excessive adenosine accumulation in the penis contributes to priapism through increased A2BR signaling in both Ada -/- and SCD transgenic mice. These findings provide insight regarding the molecular basis of priapism and suggest that strategies to either reduce adenosine or block A2BR activation may prove beneficial in the treatment of this disorder. PMID:18340377

  6. Chaperoning of the A1-Adenosine Receptor by Endogenous Adenosine—An Extension of the Retaliatory Metabolite Concept*

    PubMed Central

    Kusek, Justyna; Yang, Qiong; Witek, Martin; Gruber, Christian W.; Nanoff, Christian; Freissmuth, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Cell-permeable orthosteric ligands can assist folding of G protein–coupled receptors in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER); this pharmacochaperoning translates into increased cell surface levels of receptors. Here we used a folding-defective mutant of human A1-adenosine receptor as a sensor to explore whether endogenously produced adenosine can exert a chaperoning effect. This A1-receptor-Y288 A was retained in the ER of stably transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells but rapidly reached the plasma membrane in cells incubated with an A1 antagonist. This was phenocopied by raising intracellular adenosine levels with a combination of inhibitors of adenosine kinase, adenosine deaminase, and the equilibrative nucleoside transporter: mature receptors with complex glycosylation accumulated at the cell surface and bound to an A1-selective antagonist with an affinity indistinguishable from the wild-type A1 receptor. The effect of the inhibitor combination was specific, because it did not result in enhanced surface levels of two folding-defective human V2-vasopressin receptor mutants, which were susceptible to pharmacochaperoning by their cognate antagonist. Raising cellular adenosine levels by subjecting cells to hypoxia (5% O2) reproduced chaperoning by the inhibitor combination and enhanced surface expression of A1-receptor-Y288 A within 1 hour. These findings were recapitulated for the wild-type A1 receptor. Taken together, our observations document that endogenously formed adenosine can chaperone its cognate A1 receptor. This results in a positive feedback loop that has implications for the retaliatory metabolite concept of adenosine action: if chaperoning by intracellular adenosine results in elevated cell surface levels of A1 receptors, these cells will be more susceptible to extracellular adenosine and thus more likely to cope with metabolic distress. PMID:25354767

  7. Role of adenosine signalling and metabolism in ?-cell regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Andersson, Olov

    2014-02-01

    Glucose homeostasis, which is controlled by the endocrine cells of the pancreas, is disrupted in both type I and type II diabetes. Deficiency in the number of insulin-producing ? cells – a primary cause of type I diabetes and a secondary contributor of type II diabetes – leads to hyperglycemia and hence an increase in the need for insulin. Although diabetes can be controlled with insulin injections, a curative approach is needed. A potential approach to curing diabetes involves regenerating the ?-cell mass, e.g. by increasing ?-cell proliferation, survival, neogenesis or transdifferentiation. The nucleoside adenosine and its cognate nucleotide ATP have long been known to affect insulin secretion, but have more recently been shown to increase ?-cell proliferation during homeostatic control and regeneration of the ?-cell mass. Adenosine is also known to have anti-inflammatory properties, and agonism of adenosine receptors can promote the survival of ?-cells in an inflammatory microenvironment. In this review, both intracellular and extracellular mechanisms of adenosine and ATP are discussed in terms of their established and putative effects on ?-cell regeneration. - Highlights: • A potential way to cure diabetes is to regenerate the ?-cell mass by promoting cell survival, proliferation or neogenesis. • Adenosine may promote ?-cell regeneration through several cellular mechanisms. • Adenosine and its cognate nucleotide ATP can each promote ?-cell proliferation. • Do adenosine and ATP interact in promoting ?-cell proliferation?.

  8. Immunosuppression via adenosine receptor activation by adenosine monophosphate released from apoptotic cells

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Maruyama, Toshihiko; Urade, Yoshihiro; Nagata, Shigekazu

    2014-01-01

    Apoptosis is coupled with recruitment of macrophages for engulfment of dead cells, and with compensatory proliferation of neighboring cells. Yet, this death process is silent, and it does not cause inflammation. The molecular mechanisms underlying anti-inflammatory nature of the apoptotic process remains poorly understood. In this study, we found that the culture supernatant of apoptotic cells activated the macrophages to express anti-inflammatory genes such as Nr4a and Thbs1. A high level of AMP accumulated in the apoptotic cell supernatant in a Pannexin1-dependent manner. A nucleotidase inhibitor and A2a adenosine receptor antagonist inhibited the apoptotic supernatant-induced gene expression, suggesting AMP was metabolized to adenosine by an ecto-5’-nucleotidase expressed on macrophages, to activate the macrophage A2a adenosine receptor. Intraperitoneal injection of zymosan into Adora2a- or Panx1-deficient mice produced high, sustained levels of inflammatory mediators in the peritoneal lavage. These results indicated that AMP from apoptotic cells suppresses inflammation as a ‘calm down’ signal. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02172.001 PMID:24668173

  9. Immunosuppression via adenosine receptor activation by adenosine monophosphate released from apoptotic cells.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Maruyama, Toshihiko; Urade, Yoshihiro; Nagata, Shigekazu

    2014-01-01

    Apoptosis is coupled with recruitment of macrophages for engulfment of dead cells, and with compensatory proliferation of neighboring cells. Yet, this death process is silent, and it does not cause inflammation. The molecular mechanisms underlying anti-inflammatory nature of the apoptotic process remains poorly understood. In this study, we found that the culture supernatant of apoptotic cells activated the macrophages to express anti-inflammatory genes such as Nr4a and Thbs1. A high level of AMP accumulated in the apoptotic cell supernatant in a Pannexin1-dependent manner. A nucleotidase inhibitor and A2a adenosine receptor antagonist inhibited the apoptotic supernatant-induced gene expression, suggesting AMP was metabolized to adenosine by an ecto-5'-nucleotidase expressed on macrophages, to activate the macrophage A2a adenosine receptor. Intraperitoneal injection of zymosan into Adora2a- or Panx1-deficient mice produced high, sustained levels of inflammatory mediators in the peritoneal lavage. These results indicated that AMP from apoptotic cells suppresses inflammation as a 'calm down' signal. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02172.001. PMID:24668173

  10. Increased Cortical Extracellular Adenosine Correlates with Seizure Termination

    PubMed Central

    Van Gompel, Jamie J.; Bower, Mark R.; Worrell, Gregory A.; Stead, Matt; Chang, Su-Youne; Goerss, Stephan J.; Kim, Inyong; Bennet, Kevin E.; Meyer, Fredric B.; Marsh, W. Richard; Blaha, Charles D.; Lee, Kendall H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Seizures are currently defined by their electrographic features. However, neuronal networks are intrinsically dependent upon neurotransmitters of which little is known regarding their peri-ictal dynamics. Evidence supports adenosine as having a prominent role in seizure termination, as its administration can terminate and reduce seizures in animal models. Further, microdialysis studies in humans suggest adenosine is elevated peri-ictally, but the relationship to the seizure is obscured by its temporal measurement limitations. Because electrochemical techniques can provide vastly superior temporal resolution, we test the hypothesis that extracellular adenosine concentrations rise during seizure termination in an animal model and humans using electrochemistry. Methods White farm swine (n=45) were used in an acute cortical model of epilepsy and 10 human epilepsy patients were studied during intraoperative electrocorticography (Ecog). Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration Sensor (WINCS) based fast scan cyclic voltametry (FSCV) and fixed potential amperometry were obtained utilizing an adenosine specific triangular waveform or biosensors respectively. Results Simultaneous Ecog and electrochemistry demonstrated an average adenosine rise of 260% compared to baseline at 7.5 ± 16.9 seconds with amperometry (n=75 events) and 2.6 ± 11.2 seconds with FSCV (n=15 events) prior to electrographic seizure termination. In agreement with these animal data, adenosine elevation prior to seizure termination in a human patient utilizing FSCV was also seen. Significance Simultaneous Ecog and electrochemical recording supports the hypothesis that adenosine rises prior to seizure termination, suggesting that adenosine itself may be responsible for seizure termination. Future work using intraoperative WINCS based FSCV recording may help to elucidate the precise relationship between adenosine and seizure termination. PMID:24483230

  11. Adenosine diphosphate sulphurylase activity in leaf tissue

    PubMed Central

    Burnell, Jim N.; Anderson, John W.

    1973-01-01

    1. A new method is described for the assay of ADP sulphurylase. The method involves sulphate-dependent [32P]Pi–ADP exchange; the method is simpler, more sensitive and more direct than the method involving adenosine 5?-sulphatophosphate-dependent uptake of Pi. 2. ADP sulphurylase activity was demonstrated in crude extracts of leaf tissue from a range of plants. Crude spinach extract catalysed the sulphate-dependent synthesis of [32P]ADP from [32P]Pi; spinach extracts did not catalyse sulphate-dependent AMP–Pi, ADP–PPi or ATP–Pi exchange under standard assay conditions. ADP sulphurylase activity in spinach leaf tissue was associated with chloroplasts and was liberated by sonication. 3. Some elementary kinetics of crude spinach leaf and purified yeast ADP sulphurylases in the standard assay are described; addition of Ba2+ was necessary to minimize endogenous Pi–ADP exchange of the yeast enzyme and crude extracts of winter-grown spinach. 4. Spinach leaf ADP sulphurylase was activated by Ba2+ and Ca2+; Mg2+ was ineffective. The yeast enzyme was also activated by Ba2+. The activity of both enzymes decreased with increasing ionic strength. 5. Purified yeast and spinach leaf ADP sulphurylases were sensitive to thiol-group reagents and fluoride. The pH optimum was 8. ATP inhibited sulphate-dependent Pi–ADP exchange. Neither selenate nor molybdate inhibited sulphate-dependent Pi–ADP exchange and crude spinach extracts did not catalyse selenate-dependent Pi–ADP exchange. 6. The presence of ADP sulphurylase activity jeopardizes the enzymic synthesis of adenosine 5?-sulphatophosphate from ATP and sulphate with purified ATP sulphurylase and pyrophosphatase. PMID:4582047

  12. Extracellular Adenosine Mediates a Systemic Metabolic Switch during Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Bajgar, Adam; Kucerova, Katerina; Jonatova, Lucie; Tomcala, Ales; Schneedorferova, Ivana; Okrouhlik, Jan; Dolezal, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    Immune defense is energetically costly, and thus an effective response requires metabolic adaptation of the organism to reallocate energy from storage, growth, and development towards the immune system. We employ the natural infection of Drosophila with a parasitoid wasp to study energy regulation during immune response. To combat the invasion, the host must produce specialized immune cells (lamellocytes) that destroy the parasitoid egg. We show that a significant portion of nutrients are allocated to differentiating lamellocytes when they would otherwise be used for development. This systemic metabolic switch is mediated by extracellular adenosine released from immune cells. The switch is crucial for an effective immune response. Preventing adenosine transport from immune cells or blocking adenosine receptor precludes the metabolic switch and the deceleration of development, dramatically reducing host resistance. Adenosine thus serves as a signal that the “selfish” immune cells send during infection to secure more energy at the expense of other tissues. PMID:25915062

  13. Structures of adenosine kinase from Trypanosoma brucei brucei

    PubMed Central

    Timm, Jennifer; González-Pacanowska, Dolores; Wilson, Keith S.

    2014-01-01

    Trypanosoma brucei is a single-cellular parasite of the genus Kinetoplastida and is the causative agent of African sleeping sickness in humans. Adenosine kinase is a key enzyme in the purine-salvage pathway, phosphorylating adenosine to AMP, and also activates cytotoxic analogues such as cordycepin and Ara-A by their phosphorylation. The structures of T. brucei brucei adenosine kinase (TbAK) in its unliganded open conformation and complexed with adenosine and ADP in the closed conformation are both reported to 2.6?Å resolution. The structures give insight into the binding mode of the substrates and the conformational change induced upon substrate binding. This information can be used to guide the improvement of cytotoxic substrate analogues as potential antitrypanosomal drugs. PMID:24419613

  14. Detrimental effects of adenosine signaling in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yujin; Dai, Yingbo; Wen, Jiaming; Zhang, Weiru; Grenz, Almut; Sun, Hong; Tao, Lijian; Lu, Guangxiu; Alexander, Danny C; Milburn, Michael V; Carter-Dawson, Louvenia; Lewis, Dorothy E; Zhang, Wenzheng; Eltzschig, Holger K; Kellems, Rodney E; Blackburn, Michael R; Juneja, Harinder S; Xia, Yang

    2011-01-01

    Hypoxia can act as an initial trigger to induce erythrocyte sickling and eventual end organ damage in sickle cell disease (SCD). Many factors and metabolites are altered in response to hypoxia and may contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. Using metabolomic profiling, we found that the steady-state concentration of adenosine in the blood was elevated in a transgenic mouse model of SCD. Adenosine concentrations were similarly elevated in the blood of humans with SCD. Increased adenosine levels promoted sickling, hemolysis and damage to multiple tissues in SCD transgenic mice and promoted sickling of human erythrocytes. Using biochemical, genetic and pharmacological approaches, we showed that adenosine A(2B) receptor (A(2B)R)-mediated induction of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, an erythrocyte-specific metabolite that decreases the oxygen binding affinity of hemoglobin, underlies the induction of erythrocyte sickling by excess adenosine both in cultured human red blood cells and in SCD transgenic mice. Thus, excessive adenosine signaling through the A(2B)R has a pathological role in SCD. These findings may provide new therapeutic possibilities for this disease. PMID:21170046

  15. Cell type-specific effects of adenosine on cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    van Aerde, Karlijn I; Qi, Guanxiao; Feldmeyer, Dirk

    2015-03-01

    The neuromodulator adenosine is widely considered to be a key regulator of sleep homeostasis and an indicator of sleep need. Although the effect of adenosine on subcortical areas has been previously described, the effects on cortical neurons have not been addressed systematically to date. To that purpose, we performed in vitro whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and biocytin staining of pyramidal neurons and interneurons throughout all layers of rat prefrontal and somatosensory cortex, followed by morphological analysis. We found that adenosine, via the A1 receptor, exerts differential effects depending on neuronal cell type and laminar location. Interneurons and pyramidal neurons in layer 2 and a subpopulation of layer 3 pyramidal neurons that displayed regular spiking were insensitive to adenosine application, whereas other pyramidal cells in layers 3-6 were hyperpolarized (range 1.2-10.8 mV). Broad tufted pyramidal neurons with little spike adaptation showed a small adenosine response, whereas slender tufted pyramidal neurons with substantial adaptation showed a bigger response. These studies of the action of adenosine at the postsynaptic level may contribute to the understanding of the changes in cortical circuit functioning that take place between sleep and awakening. PMID:24108800

  16. Modulation of sensory irritation responsiveness by adenosine and malodorants.

    PubMed

    Willis, Daniel N; Morris, John B

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory tract reflex responses are an important defense mechanism against noxious airborne materials. This study was aimed at defining the effects of adenosine on sensory irritation responsiveness and its role in odorant-irritant interactions. These experiments were aimed at testing the hypothesis that adenosine, through the A2 receptor, enhances trigeminal nerve responses to multiple irritants and that odorants enhance responsiveness to irritants through A2 pathways in the female C57Bl/6 mouse. The adenosine precursor, AMP, immediately and markedly increased the sensory irritation response to capsaicin, cyclohexanone, and styrene, irritants that activate chemosensory nerves through differing receptor pathways. The neuromodulatory effect was blocked by the general adenosine receptor antagonist theophylline and by the A2 receptor-specific antagonist DMPX. Multiple odorants were examined, including R-carvone (spearmint), linalool (lavender), trimethylamine (rotting fish), mercaptoethanol, and ethyl sulfide (stench and rotten eggs). Of these, only mercaptoethanol and ethyl sulfide exhibited neuromodulatory effects, enhancing the sensory irritation response to styrene or cyclohexanone. This effect was blocked by theophylline and DMPX indicating the importance of adenosine A2 receptor pathways in this effect. These results highlight that trigeminal chemosensory responsiveness is not static, but can be quickly modulated by adenosine and select odors resulting in hyperresponsive states. PMID:23162088

  17. Role of adenosine in dialysis-induced hypotension.

    PubMed

    Shinzato, T; Miwa, M; Nakai, S; Morita, H; Odani, H; Inoue, I; Maeda, K

    1994-06-01

    First, this investigation showed that plasma levels of inosine, hypoxanthine, and xanthine, which are metabolites of adenosine, rose sharply when blood pressure dropped suddenly along with symptoms during a hemodialysis session (sudden hypotension), but not when it decreased gradually with eventual symptoms (gradual hypotension). Because adenosine has an action to dilate vessels, this result indicates the possibility that the increased release of adenosine would be a cause of sudden hypotension. Second, it was found that the frequency of sudden hypotension decreases with the administration of caffeine, which is an adenosine-receptor antagonist, whereas the frequency of gradual hypotension did not change. This result supports the above-mentioned hypothesis that adenosine may well be a mediator of sudden hypotension, but not of gradual hypotension. Third, our investigation demonstrated no significant differences in plasma norepinephrine level, in plasma renin activity, or in mean blood pressure between the hemodialysis session in which caffeine was administered and the session in which a placebo was given. These findings suggest that the effect of caffeine administration to prevent sudden hypotension is not mediated by the stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system or activation of the renin-angiotensin system, but by the adenosine-receptor antagonism. PMID:7919152

  18. Adenosine deaminase from Streptomyces coelicolor: recombinant expression, purification and characterization.

    PubMed

    Pornbanlualap, Somchai; Chalopagorn, Pornchanok

    2011-08-01

    The sequencing of the genome of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) identified seven putative adenine/adenosine deaminases and adenosine deaminase-like proteins, none of which have been biochemically characterized. This report describes recombinant expression, purification and characterization of SCO4901 which had been annotated in data bases as a putative adenosine deaminase. The purified putative adenosine deaminase gives a subunit Mr=48,400 on denaturing gel electrophoresis and an oligomer molecular weight of approximately 182,000 by comparative gel filtration. These values are consistent with the active enzyme being composed of four subunits with identical molecular weights. The turnover rate of adenosine is 11.5 s?¹ at 30 °C. Since adenine is deaminated ?10³ slower by the enzyme when compared to that of adenosine, these data strongly show that the purified enzyme is an adenosine deaminase (ADA) and not an adenine deaminase (ADE). Other adenine nucleosides/nucleotides, including 9-?-D-arabinofuranosyl-adenine (ara-A), 5'-AMP, 5'-ADP and 5'-ATP, are not substrates for the enzyme. Coformycin and 2'-deoxycoformycin are potent competitive inhibitors of the enzyme with inhibition constants of 0.25 and 3.4 nM, respectively. Amino acid sequence alignment of ScADA with ADAs from other organisms reveals that eight of the nine highly conserved catalytic site residues in other ADAs are also conserved in ScADA. The only non-conserved residue is Asn317, which replaces Asp296 in the murine enzyme. Based on these data, it is suggested here that ADA and ADE proteins are divergently related enzymes that have evolved from a common ?/? barrel scaffold to catalyze the deamination of different substrates, using a similar catalytic mechanism. PMID:21511036

  19. Increased adenosine contributes to penile fibrosis, a dangerous feature of priapism, via A2B adenosine receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jiaming; Jiang, Xianzhen; Dai, Yingbo; Zhang, Yujin; Tang, Yuxin; Sun, Hong; Mi, Tiejuan; Phatarpekar, Prasad V; Kellems, Rodney E; Blackburn, Michael R; Xia, Yang

    2010-03-01

    Priapism is a condition of persistent penile erection in the absence of sexual excitation. Of men with sickle cell disease (SCD), 40% display priapism. The disorder is a dangerous and urgent condition, given its association with penile fibrosis and eventual erectile dysfunction. Current strategies to prevent its progression are poor because of a lack of fundamental understanding of the molecular mechanisms for penile fibrosis in priapism. Here we demonstrate that increased adenosine is a novel causative factor contributing to penile fibrosis in two independent animal models of priapism, adenosine deaminase (ADA)-deficient mice and SCD transgenic mice. An important finding is that chronic reduction of adenosine by ADA enzyme therapy successfully attenuated penile fibrosis in both mouse models, indicating an essential role of increased adenosine in penile fibrosis and a novel therapeutic possibility for this serious complication. Subsequently, we identified that both mice models share a similar fibrotic gene expression profile in penile tissue (including procollagen I, TGF-beta(1), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 mRNA), suggesting that they share similar signaling pathways for progression to penile fibrosis. Thus, in an effort to decipher specific cell types and underlying mechanism responsible for adenosine-mediated penile fibrosis, we purified corpus cavernosal fibroblast cells (CCFCs), the major cell type involved in this process, from wild-type mice. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that the major receptor expressed in these cells is the adenosine receptor A(2B)R. Based on this fact, we further purified CCFCs from A(2B)R-deficient mice and demonstrated that A(2B)R is essential for excess adenosine-mediated penile fibrosis. Finally, we revealed that TGF-beta functions downstream of the A(2B)R to increase CCFC collagen secretion and proliferation. Overall, our studies identify an essential role of increased adenosine in the pathogenesis of penile fibrosis via A(2B)R signaling and offer a potential target for prevention and treatment of penile fibrosis, a dangerous complication seen in priapism.-Wen, J., Jiang, X., Dai, Y., Zhang, Y., Tang, Y., Sun, H., Mi, T., Phatarpekar, P. V., Kellems, R. E., Blackburn, M. R., Xia, Y. Increased adenosine contributes to penile fibrosis, a dangerous feature of priapism, via A(2B) adenosine receptor signaling. PMID:19858092

  20. Increased adenosine contributes to penile fibrosis, a dangerous feature of priapism, via A2B adenosine receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Jiaming; Jiang, Xianzhen; Dai, Yingbo; Zhang, Yujin; Tang, Yuxin; Sun, Hong; Mi, Tiejuan; Phatarpekar, Prasad V.; Kellems, Rodney E.; Blackburn, Michael R.; Xia, Yang

    2010-01-01

    Priapism is a condition of persistent penile erection in the absence of sexual excitation. Of men with sickle cell disease (SCD), 40% display priapism. The disorder is a dangerous and urgent condition, given its association with penile fibrosis and eventual erectile dysfunction. Current strategies to prevent its progression are poor because of a lack of fundamental understanding of the molecular mechanisms for penile fibrosis in priapism. Here we demonstrate that increased adenosine is a novel causative factor contributing to penile fibrosis in two independent animal models of priapism, adenosine deaminase (ADA)-deficient mice and SCD transgenic mice. An important finding is that chronic reduction of adenosine by ADA enzyme therapy successfully attenuated penile fibrosis in both mouse models, indicating an essential role of increased adenosine in penile fibrosis and a novel therapeutic possibility for this serious complication. Subsequently, we identified that both mice models share a similar fibrotic gene expression profile in penile tissue (including procollagen I, TGF-?1, and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 mRNA), suggesting that they share similar signaling pathways for progression to penile fibrosis. Thus, in an effort to decipher specific cell types and underlying mechanism responsible for adenosine-mediated penile fibrosis, we purified corpus cavernosal fibroblast cells (CCFCs), the major cell type involved in this process, from wild-type mice. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that the major receptor expressed in these cells is the adenosine receptor A2BR. Based on this fact, we further purified CCFCs from A2BR-deficient mice and demonstrated that A2BR is essential for excess adenosine-mediated penile fibrosis. Finally, we revealed that TGF-? functions downstream of the A2BR to increase CCFC collagen secretion and proliferation. Overall, our studies identify an essential role of increased adenosine in the pathogenesis of penile fibrosis via A2BR signaling and offer a potential target for prevention and treatment of penile fibrosis, a dangerous complication seen in priapism.—Wen, J., Jiang, X., Dai, Y., Zhang, Y., Tang, Y., Sun, H., Mi, T., Phatarpekar, P. V., Kellems, R. E., Blackburn, M. R., Xia, Y. Increased adenosine contributes to penile fibrosis, a dangerous feature of priapism, via A2B adenosine receptor signaling. PMID:19858092

  1. Tween 20-stabilized gold nanoparticles combined with adenosine triphosphate-BODIPY conjugates for the fluorescence detection of adenosine with more than 1000-fold selectivity.

    PubMed

    Hung, Szu-Ying; Shih, Ya-Chen; Tseng, Wei-Lung

    2015-02-01

    This study describes the development of a simple, enzyme-free, label-free, sensitive, and selective system for detecting adenosine based on the use of Tween 20-stabilized gold nanoparticles (Tween 20-AuNPs) as an efficient fluorescence quencher for boron dipyrromethene-conjugated adenosine 5'-triphosphate (BODIPY-ATP) and as a recognition element for adenosine. BODIPY-ATP can interact with Tween 20-AuNPs through the coordination between the adenine group of BODIPY-ATP and Au atoms on the NP surface, thereby causing the fluorescence quenching of BODIPY-ATP through the nanometal surface energy transfer (NSET) effect. When adenosine attaches to the NP surface, the attached adenosine exhibits additional electrostatic attraction to BODIPY-ATP. As a result, the presence of adenosine enhances the efficiency of AuNPs in fluorescence quenching of BODIPY-ATP. The AuNP-induced fluorescence quenching of BODIPY-ATP progressively increased with an increase in the concentration of adenosine; the detection limit at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 for adenosine was determined to be 60nM. The selectivity of the proposed system was more than 1000-fold for adenosine over any adenosine analogs and other nucleotides. The proposed system combined with a phenylboronic acid-containing column was successfully applied to the determination of adenosine in urine. PMID:25604821

  2. Investigating real-time activation of adenosine receptors by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yimei; Yang, Hongqin; Zheng, Liqin; Chen, Jiangxu; Wang, Yuhua; Li, Hui; Xie, Shusen

    2013-02-01

    Adenosine receptors play important roles in many physiological and pathological processes, for example regulating myocardial oxygen consumption and the release of neurotransmitters. The activations of adenosine receptors have been studied by some kinds of techniques, such as western blot, immunohistochemistry, etc. However, these techniques cannot reveal the dynamical response of adenosine receptors under stimulation. In this paper, bioluminescence resonance energy transfer technique was introduced to study the real-time activation of adenosine receptors by monitoring the dynamics of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) level. The results showed that there were significant differences between adenosine receptors on real-time responses under stimulation. Moreover, the dynamics of cAMP level demonstrated that competition between adenosine receptors existed. Taken together, our study indicates that monitoring the dynamics of cAMP level using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer technique could be one potential approach to investigate the mechanism of competitions between adenosine receptors.

  3. Adenosine and its receptors in the heart: regulation, retaliation and adaptation.

    PubMed

    Headrick, John P; Peart, Jason N; Reichelt, Melissa E; Haseler, Luke J

    2011-05-01

    The purine nucleoside adenosine is an important regulator within the cardiovascular system, and throughout the body. Released in response to perturbations in energy state, among other stimuli, local adenosine interacts with 4 adenosine receptor sub-types on constituent cardiac and vascular cells: A(1), A(2A), A(2B), and A(3)ARs. These G-protein coupled receptors mediate varied responses, from modulation of coronary flow, heart rate and contraction, to cardioprotection, inflammatory regulation, and control of cell growth and tissue remodeling. Research also unveils an increasingly complex interplay between members of the adenosine receptor family, and with other receptor groups. Given generally favorable effects of adenosine receptor activity (e.g. improving the balance between myocardial energy utilization and supply, limiting injury and adverse remodeling, suppressing inflammation), the adenosine receptor system is an attractive target for therapeutic manipulation. Cardiovascular adenosine receptor-based therapies are already in place, and trials of new treatments underway. Although the complex interplay between adenosine receptors and other receptors, and their wide distribution and functions, pose challenges to implementation of site/target specific cardiovascular therapy, the potential of adenosinergic pharmacotherapy can be more fully realized with greater understanding of the roles of adenosine receptors under physiological and pathological conditions. This review addresses some of the major known and proposed actions of adenosine and adenosine receptors in the heart and vessels, focusing on the ability of the adenosine receptor system to regulate cell function, retaliate against injurious stressors, and mediate longer-term adaptive responses. PMID:21094127

  4. Neuronal transporter and astrocytic ATP exocytosis underlie activity-dependent adenosine release in the hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Mark J; Dale, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    The neuromodulator adenosine plays an important role in many physiological and pathological processes within the mammalian CNS. However, the precise mechanisms of how the concentration of extracellular adenosine increases following neural activity remain contentious. Here we have used microelectrode biosensors to directly measure adenosine release induced by focal stimulation in stratum radiatum of area CA1 in mouse hippocampal slices. Adenosine release was both action potential and Ca2+ dependent and could be evoked with low stimulation frequencies and small numbers of stimuli. Adenosine release required the activation of ionotropic glutamate receptors and could be evoked by local application of glutamate receptor agonists. Approximately 40% of stimulated-adenosine release occurred by translocation of adenosine via equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs). This component of release persisted in the presence of the gliotoxin fluoroacetate and thus results from the direct release of adenosine from neurons. A reduction of adenosine release in the presence of NTPDase blockers, in slices from CD73?/? and dn-SNARE mice, provides evidence that a component of adenosine release arises from the extracellular metabolism of ATP released from astrocytes. This component of release appeared to have slower kinetics than the direct ENT-mediated release of adenosine. These data suggest that activity-dependent adenosine release is surprisingly complex and, in the hippocampus, arises from at least two distinct mechanisms with different cellular sources. PMID:23713028

  5. Anticancer effect of adenosine on gastric cancer via diverse signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchiya, Ayako; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular adenosine induces apoptosis in a variety of cancer cells via intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. In the former pathway, adenosine uptake into cells triggers apoptosis, and in the latter pathway, adenosine receptors mediate apoptosis. Extracellular adenosine also induces apoptosis of gastric cancer cells. Extracellular adenosine is transported into cells through an adenosine transporter and converted to AMP by adenosine kinase. In turn, AMP activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK is the factor responsible for caspase-independent apoptosis of GT3-TKB gastric cancer cells. Extracellular adenosine, on the other hand, induces caspase-dependent apoptosis of MKN28 and MKN45 gastric cancer cells by two mechanisms. Firstly, AMP, converted from intracellularly transported adenosine, initiates apoptosis, regardless of AMPK. Secondly, the A3 adenosine receptor, linked to Gi/Gq proteins, mediates apoptosis by activating the Gq protein effector, phospholipase C?, to produce inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and diacylglycerol, which activate protein kinase C. Consequently, the mechanisms underlying adenosine-induced apoptosis vary, depending upon gastric cancer cell types. Understand the contribution of each downstream target molecule of adenosine to apoptosis induction may aid the establishment of tailor-made chemotherapy for gastric cancer. PMID:26494951

  6. Elevated Ecto-5’-nucleotidase-Mediated Increased Renal Adenosine Signaling Via A2B Adenosine Receptor Contributes to Chronic Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weiru; Zhang, Yujin; Wang, Wei; Dai, Yingbo; Ning, Chen; Luo, Renna; Sun, Kaiqi; Glover, Louise; Grenz, Almut; Sun, Hong; Tao, Lijian; Zhang, Wenzheng; Colgan, Sean P.; Blackburn, Michael R.; Eltzschig, Holger K.; Kellems, Rodney E.; Xia, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Hypertension is the most prevalent life-threatening disease worldwide and is frequently associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the molecular basis underlying hypertensive CKD is not fully understood. Objective We sought to identify specific factors and signaling pathways that contribute to hypertensive CKD and thereby exacerbate disease progression. Methods and Results Using high-throughput quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction profiling, we discovered that the expression level of 5?-ectonucleotidase (CD73), a key enzyme that produces extracellular adenosine, was significantly increased in the kidneys of angiotensin II–infused mice, an animal model of hypertensive nephropathy. Genetic and pharmacological studies in mice revealed that elevated CD73-mediated excess renal adenosine preferentially induced A2B adenosine receptor (ADORA2B) production and that enhanced kidney ADORA2B signaling contributes to angiotensin II–induced hypertension. Similarly, in humans, we found that CD73 and ADORA2B levels were significantly elevated in the kidneys of CKD patients compared with normal individuals and were further elevated in hypertensive CKD patients. These findings led us to further discover that elevated renal CD73 contributes to excess adenosine signaling via ADORA2B activation that directly stimulates endothelin-1 production in a hypoxia-inducible factor-?–dependent manner and underlies the pathogenesis of the disease. Finally, we revealed that hypoxia-inducible factor-? is an important factor responsible for angiotensin II–induced CD73 and ADORA2B expression at the transcriptional level. Conclusions Overall, our studies reveal that angiotensin II–induced renal CD73 promotes the production of renal adenosine that is a prominent driver of hypertensive CKD by enhanced ADORA2B signaling–mediated endothelin-1 induction in a hypoxia-inducible factor-?–dependent manner. The inhibition of excess adenosine-mediated ADORA2B signaling represents a novel therapeutic target for the disease. PMID:23584256

  7. ATP-Sensitive K+ Channels Regulate the Concentrative Adenosine Transporter CNT2 following Activation by A1 Adenosine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Duflot, Sylvie; Riera, Bárbara; Fernández-Veledo, Sonia; Casadó, Vicent; Norman, Robert I.; Casado, F. Javier; Lluís, Carme; Franco, Rafael; Pastor-Anglada, Marçal

    2004-01-01

    This study describes a novel mechanism of regulation of the high-affinity Na+-dependent adenosine transporter (CNT2) via the activation of A1 adenosine receptors (A1R). This regulation is mediated by the activation of ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels. The high-affinity Na+-dependent adenosine transporter CNT2 and A1R are coexpressed in the basolateral domain of the rat hepatocyte plasma membrane and are colocalized in the rat hepatoma cell line FAO. The transient increase in CNT2-mediated transport activity triggered by (?)-N6-(2-phenylisopropyl)adenosine is fully inhibited by KATP channel blockers and mimicked by a KATP channel opener. A1R agonist activation of CNT2 occurs in both hepatocytes and FAO cells, which express Kir6.1, Kir6.2, SUR1, SUR2A, and SUR2B mRNA channel subunits. With the available antibodies against Kir6.X, SUR2A, and SUR2B, it is shown that all of these proteins colocalize with CNT2 and A1R in defined plasma membrane domains of FAO cells. The extent of the purinergic modulation of CNT2 is affected by the glucose concentration, a finding which indicates that glycemia and glucose metabolism may affect this cross-regulation among A1R, CNT2, and KATP channels. These results also suggest that the activation of KATP channels under metabolic stress can be mediated by the activation of A1R. Cell protection under these circumstances may be achieved by potentiation of the uptake of adenosine and its further metabolization to ATP. Mediation of purinergic responses and a connection between the intracellular energy status and the need for an exogenous adenosine supply are novel roles for KATP channels. PMID:15024061

  8. Synthesis of oligo-RNAs with photocaged adenosine 2-hydroxyls

    E-print Network

    Glover, Mark

    Synthesis of oligo-RNAs with photocaged adenosine 2¢-hydroxyls Steven G Chaulk & Andrew M Mac reactivity associated with an RNA func- tionality, the 2¢-hydroxyl group3­5, as specific RNA 2¢-hydroxyls act- tions with 2¢-hydroxyl groups are critical in the formation of higher order RNA struc- tures as well

  9. 21 CFR 864.7040 - Adenosine triphosphate release assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adenosine triphosphate release assay. 864.7040 Section 864.7040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages §...

  10. 21 CFR 864.7040 - Adenosine triphosphate release assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adenosine triphosphate release assay. 864.7040 Section 864.7040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages §...

  11. 21 CFR 864.7040 - Adenosine triphosphate release assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adenosine triphosphate release assay. 864.7040 Section 864.7040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages §...

  12. A SELECTIVE AGONIST AFFINITY LABEL FOR A3 ADENOSINE RECEPTORS

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Xiao-duo; Gallo-Rodriguez, Carola; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    A newly synthesized, chemically reactive adenosine derivative, N6-(3-isothiocyanatobenzyl)adenosine-5'-N-methyluronamide, was found to bind selectively to A3 receptors. Ki values for this isothiocyanate derivative in competition binding at rat brain A1, A2a, and A3 receptors were 145, 272 and 10.0 nM, respectively. A preincubation with this derivative resulted in irreversible inhibition of radioligand binding at rat A3 receptors in membranes of transfected CHO cells or RBL-2H3 mast cells, but not at rat A1 or A2a receptors. The loss of binding sites for 0.1 nM [125I]N6-(4-aminobenzyl)adenosine-5'-N-methyluronamide, a high affinity A3 receptor radioligand, in transfected CHO cell membranes was concentration-dependent with an IC50 of 50 nM. No change was observed in the Kd value of the remaining A3 receptor sites. The inhibition was also insensitive to theophylline (1 mM), consistent with the pharmacology of rat A3 receptors. Structurally similar adenosine analogues lacking the chemically reactive isothiocyanate group failed to irreversibly inhibit A3-binding. PMID:8074705

  13. 21 CFR 864.7040 - Adenosine triphosphate release assay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adenosine triphosphate release assay. 864.7040 Section 864.7040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages §...

  14. Adenosine receptor modulation of seizure susceptibility in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Szot, P.

    1987-01-01

    Adenosine is considered to be a neuromodulator or cotransmitter in the periphery and CNS. This neuromodulatory action of adenosine may be observed as an anticonvulsant effect. Dose-response curves for R-phenylisopropyladenosine (PIA), cycohexyladenosine (CHA), 2-chloroadenosine (2-ClAdo), N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA) and S-PIA were generated against PTZ seizure thresholds in the rat. The rank order of potency for adenosine agonists to elevate PTZ seizure threshold was R-PIA > 2-ClAdo > NECA > CHA > S-PIA. R-PIA was approximately 80-fold more potent than S-PIA. This 80-fold difference in potency between the diasteriomers of PIA was consistent with an A{sub 1} adenoise receptor-mediated response. The anticonvulsant action of 2-ClAdo was reversed by pretreatment with theoplylline. Chronic administration of theophylline significantly increased the specific binding of {sup 3}H-cyclohexyladenosine in membranes of the cerebral cortex and cerebellum of the rat. Chronic exposure to theophylline produced a significant increase in the densities of both the high- and low-affinity forms of A{sub 1} adenosine receptors in the cerebral cortex.

  15. Multi-objective evolutionary design of adenosine receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    van der Horst, Eelke; Marqués-Gallego, Patricia; Mulder-Krieger, Thea; van Veldhoven, Jacobus; Kruisselbrink, Johannes; Aleman, Alexander; Emmerich, Michael T M; Brussee, Johannes; Bender, Andreas; Ijzerman, Adriaan P

    2012-07-23

    A novel multiobjective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA) for de novo design was developed and applied to the discovery of new adenosine receptor antagonists. This method consists of several iterative cycles of structure generation, evaluation, and selection. We applied an evolutionary algorithm (the so-called Molecule Commander) to generate candidate A1 adenosine receptor antagonists, which were evaluated against multiple criteria and objectives consisting of high (predicted) affinity and selectivity for the receptor, together with good ADMET properties. A pharmacophore model for the human A1 adenosine receptor (hA1AR) was created to serve as an objective function for evolution. In addition, three support vector machine models based on molecular fingerprints were developed for the other adenosine receptor subtypes (hA2A, hA2B, and hA3) and applied as negative objective functions, to aim for selectivity. Structures with a higher evolutionary fitness with respect to ADMET and pharmacophore matching scores were selected as input for the next generation and thus developed toward overall fitter ("better") compounds. We finally obtained a collection of 3946 unique compounds from which we derived chemical scaffolds. As a proof-of-principle, six of these templates were selected for actual synthesis and subsequently tested for activity toward all adenosine receptors subtypes. Interestingly, scaffolds 2 and 3 displayed low micromolar affinity for many of the adenosine receptor subtypes. To further investigate our evolutionary design method, we performed systematic modifications on scaffold 3. These modifications were guided by the substitution patterns as observed in the set of generated compounds that contained scaffold 3. We found that an increased affinity with appreciable selectivity for hA1AR over the other adenosine receptor subtypes was achieved through substitution of the scaffold; compound 3a had a Ki value of 280 nM with approximately 10-fold selectivity with respect to hA2AR, while 3g had a 1.6 ?M affinity for hA1AR with negligible affinity for the hA2A, hA2B, and hA3 receptor subtypes. PMID:22647079

  16. Metabolic changes of cultured DRG neurons induced by adenosine using confocal microscopy imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Liqin; Huang, Yimei; Chen, Jiangxu; Wang, Yuhua; Yang, Hongqin; Zhang, Yanding; Xie, Shusen

    2012-12-01

    Adenosine exerts multiple effects on pain transmission in the peripheral nervous system. This study was performed to use confocal microscopy to evaluate whether adenosine could affect dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons in vitro and test which adenosine receptor mediates the effect of adenosine on DRG neurons. After adding adenosine with different concentration, we compared the metabolic changes by the real time imaging of calcium and mitochondria membrane potential using confocal microscopy. The results showed that the effect of 500 ?M adenosine on the metabolic changes of DRG neurons was more significant than others. Furthermore, four different adenosine receptor antagonists were used to study which receptor mediated the influences of adenosine on the cultured DRG neurons. All adenosine receptor antagonists especially A1 receptor antagonist (DPCPX) had effect on the Ca2+ and mitochondria membrane potential dynamics of DRG neurons. The above studies demonstrated that the effect of adenosine which may be involved in the signal transmission on the sensory neurons was dose-dependent, and all the four adenosine receptors especially the A1R may mediate the transmission.

  17. Adenosine signalling at immature parallel fibre–Purkinje cell synapses in rat cerebellum

    PubMed Central

    Atterbury, Alison; Wall, Mark J

    2009-01-01

    The purine adenosine is an extracellular signalling molecule involved in a large number of physiological and pathological conditions throughout the mammalian brain. However little is known about how adenosine release and its subsequent clearance change during brain development. We have combined electrophysiology and microelectrode biosensor measurements to investigate the properties of adenosine signalling at early stages of cerebellar development, when parallel fibre–Purkinje cell synapses have recently been formed (postnatal days 9–12). At this stage of development, we could detect little or no inhibitory A1 receptor tone in basal conditions and during trains of stimuli. Addition of pharmacological agents, to inhibit adenosine clearance, had only minor effects on synaptic transmission suggesting that under basal conditions, the concentration of adenosine moving in and out of the extracellular space is small. Active adenosine release was stimulated with hypoxia and trains of electrical stimuli. Although hypoxia released significant concentrations of adenosine, the release was delayed and slow. No adenosine release could be detected following electrical stimulation in the molecular layer. In conclusion, at this stage of development, although adenosine receptors and the mechanisms of adenosine clearance are present there is very little adenosine release. PMID:19651764

  18. Brain regional levels of adenosine and adenosine nucleotides in rats killed by high-energy focused microwave irradiation.

    PubMed

    Delaney, S M; Geiger, J D

    1996-02-01

    A high-energy focused microwave system for killing experimental animals was used to rapidly inactivate enzymes and prevent postmortem breakdown of adenine nucleotides and adenosine, thereby enabling accurate measurements of AMP, ADP, ATP and adenosine in rat brain. For comparison, purine levels were measured in brains of rats killed by decapitation, decapitation into liquid nitrogen, or in situ freezing of the brain with liquid nitrogen. Of the three microwave irradiation power levels used, 10, 6.0 or 3.5 kW, rats killed by 10 kW had the highest ATP levels (28.8 nmol/mg protein) and cellular energy charge value (0.8), and the lowest levels of AMP (2.2 nmol/mg protein) and adenosine (19.7 pmol/mg protein). Of the 6 brain regions studied, adenosine levels (pmol/mg protein) ranged from 10 in cerebral cortex to 170 in cerebellum of rats killed using 10 kW microwave irradiation and, for comparison, ranged from 840 in cerebral cortex to 2498 in striatum of rats killed by decapitation. Focused microwave killing permits precise and accurate measurements of purines in discrete regions of rat brain. PMID:8699875

  19. Predominant role of A1 adenosine receptors in mediating adenosine induced vasodilatation of rat diaphragmatic arterioles: involvement of nitric oxide and the ATP-dependent K+ channels

    PubMed Central

    Danialou, Gawiyou; Vicaut, Eric; Sambe, Abdoulaye; Aubier, Michel; Boczkowski, Jorge

    1997-01-01

    We investigated, by intravital microscopy in rats, the role of the subtypes of adenosine receptors A1 (A1/AR) and A2 (A2AR) in mediating adenosine-induced vasodilatation of second and third order arterioles of the diaphragm. Adenosine, and the A1AR selective agonists R(?)-N6-(2-phenylisopropyl)-adenosine (R-PIA) and N6-cyclo-pentyl-adenosine (CPA) induced a similar concentration-dependent dilatation of diaphragmatic arterioles. The non selective A2AR subtype agonist N6-[2-(3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-(2-methylphenyl) ethyl]adenosine (DPMA) also dilated diaphragmatic arterioles but induced a significantly smaller dilatation than adenosine. By contrast the selective A2aAR subtype agonist 2-[p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenyl amino]-5?-N-ethyl carboxamido adenosine (CGS 21680) did not modify diaphragmatic arteriolar diameter. The non selective adenosine receptor antagonist 1,3-dipropyl-8-p-sulphophenylxanthine (SPX, 100??M) and the selective A1AR antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (CPX, 50?nM) significantly attenuated adenosine-induced dilatation of diaphragmatic arterioles. By contrast, adenosine significantly dilated diaphragmatic arterioles in the presence of A2AR antagonist 3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine (DMPX, 10??M). The dilatation induced by adenosine was unchanged by the mast cell stabilizing agent sodium cromoglycate (cromolyn, 10??M). The nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor N?-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG, 300??M) attenuated the dilatation induced by adenosine, and by the A1AR and A2AR agonists. The ATP-dependent K+ channel blocker glibenclamide (3??M) significantly attenuated diaphragmatic arteriolar dilatation induced by adenosine and by the A1AR agonists R-PIA and CPA. By contrast, glibenclamide did not significantly modify arteriolar dilatation induced by the A2AR agonist DPMA. These findings suggest that adenosine-induced dilatation of diaphragmatic arterioles in the rat is predominantly mediated by the A1AR, via the release of NO and activation of the ATP-dependent K+ channels. PMID:9257914

  20. Adenosine protected against pulmonary edema through transporter- and receptor A2-mediated endothelial barrier enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Qing; Harrington, Elizabeth O.; Newton, Julie; Casserly, Brian; Radin, Gregory; Warburton, Rod; Zhou, Yang; Blackburn, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that adenosine plus homocysteine enhanced endothelial basal barrier function and protected against agonist-induced barrier dysfunction in vitro through attenuation of RhoA activation by inhibition of isoprenylcysteine-O-carboxyl methyltransferase. In the current study, we tested the effect of elevated adenosine on pulmonary endothelial barrier function in vitro and in vivo. We noted that adenosine alone dose dependently enhanced endothelial barrier function. While adenosine receptor A1 or A3 antagonists were ineffective, an adenosine transporter inhibitor, NBTI, or a combination of DPMX and MRS1754, antagonists for adenosine receptors A2A and A2B, respectively, partially attenuated the barrier-enhancing effect of adenosine. Similarly, inhibition of both A2A and A2B receptors with siRNA also blunted the effect of adenosine on barrier function. Interestingly, inhibition of both transporters and A2A/A2B receptors completely abolished adenosine-induced endothelial barrier enhancement. The adenosine receptor A2A and A2B agonist, NECA, also significantly enhanced endothelial barrier function. These data suggest that both adenosine transporters and A2A and A2B receptors are necessary for exerting maximal effect of adenosine on barrier enhancement. We also found that adenosine enhanced Rac1 GTPase activity and overexpression of dominant negative Rac1 attenuated adenosine-induced increases in focal adhesion complexes. We further demonstrated that elevation of cellular adenosine by inhibition of adenosine deaminase with Pentostatin significantly enhanced endothelial basal barrier function, an effect that was also associated with enhanced Rac1 GTPase activity and with increased focal adhesion complexes and adherens junctions. Finally, using a non-inflammatory acute lung injury (ALI) model induced by ?-naphthylthiourea, we found that administration of Pentostatin, which elevated lung adenosine level by 10-fold, not only attenuated the development of edema before ALI but also partially reversed edema after ALI. The data suggest that adenosine deaminase inhibition may be useful in treatment of pulmonary edema in settings of ALI. PMID:20228181

  1. Adenosine-mediated modulation of ventral horn interneurons and spinal motoneurons in neonatal mice

    PubMed Central

    Witts, Emily C.; Nascimento, Filipe

    2015-01-01

    Neuromodulation allows neural networks to adapt to varying environmental and biomechanical demands. Purinergic signaling is known to be an important modulatory system in many parts of the CNS, including motor control circuitry. We have recently shown that adenosine modulates the output of mammalian spinal locomotor control circuitry (Witts EC, Panetta KM, Miles GB. J Neurophysiol 107: 1925–1934, 2012). Here we investigated the cellular mechanisms underlying this adenosine-mediated modulation. Whole cell patch-clamp recordings were performed on ventral horn interneurons and motoneurons within in vitro mouse spinal cord slice preparations. We found that adenosine hyperpolarized interneurons and reduced the frequency and amplitude of synaptic inputs to interneurons. Both effects were blocked by the A1-type adenosine receptor antagonist DPCPX. Analysis of miniature postsynaptic currents recorded from interneurons revealed that adenosine reduced their frequency but not amplitude, suggesting that adenosine acts on presynaptic receptors to modulate synaptic transmission. In contrast to interneurons, recordings from motoneurons revealed an adenosine-mediated depolarization. The frequency and amplitude of synaptic inputs to motoneurons were again reduced by adenosine, but we saw no effect on miniature postsynaptic currents. Again these effects on motoneurons were blocked by DPCPX. Taken together, these results demonstrate differential effects of adenosine, acting via A1 receptors, in the mouse spinal cord. Adenosine has a general inhibitory action on ventral horn interneurons while potentially maintaining motoneuron excitability. This may allow for adaptation of the locomotor pattern generated by interneuronal networks while helping to ensure the maintenance of overall motor output. PMID:26311185

  2. Activity-Dependent Release of Adenosine: A Critical Re-Evaluation of Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Mark; Dale, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    Adenosine is perhaps the most important and universal modulator in the brain. The current consensus is that it is primarily produced in the extracellular space from the breakdown of previously released ATP. It is also accepted that it can be released directly, as adenosine, during pathological events primarily by equilibrative transport. Nevertheless, there is a growing realization that adenosine can be rapidly released from the nervous system in a manner that is dependent upon the activity of neurons. We consider three competing classes of mechanism that could explain neuronal activity dependent adenosine release (exocytosis of ATP followed by extracellular conversion to adenosine; exocytotic release of an unspecified transmitter followed by direct non-exocytotic adenosine release from an interposed cell; and direct exocytotic release of adenosine) and outline discriminatory experimental tests to decide between them. We review several examples of activity dependent adenosine release and explore their underlying mechanisms where these are known. We discuss the limits of current experimental techniques in definitively discriminating between the competing models of release, and identify key areas where technologies need to advance to enable definitive discriminatory tests. Nevertheless, within the current limits, we conclude that there is evidence for a mechanism that strongly resembles direct exocytosis of adenosine underlying at least some examples of neuronal activity dependent adenosine release. PMID:19587854

  3. Cyclic AMP-adenosine binding protein/S-adenosylhomocysteinase from mouse liver. A fraction of adenosine bound is converted to adenine.

    PubMed

    Ueland, M; Saebø, J

    1979-07-18

    1. Adenosine bound to the cyclic AMP-adenosine binding protein/S-adenosylhomocysteinase from mouse liver was partly converted to a product which was identified as adenine in four chromatographic systems. Ribose was formed in equivalent amounts. 2. The time course of the reaction was characterized by an initial burst phase lasting for less than one second followed by a slow progressive phase. The reaction was partly reversed by prolonged incubation, slow denaturation of the protein, dilution of the incubation mixture and removal of adenosine by converting it to inosine by the enzyme adenosine deaminase. 3. Both the ATP-treated (Ueland, P.M. and Døskeland, S.O. (1978) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 185, 195--203) and the non-treated protein were subjected to polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis at pH 8.8. The adenosine-adenine, the cyclic AMP binding activities and the conversion activity comigrated with the main protein band, indicating that these properties reside on the same protein molecule. 4. Adenine generated by hydrolysis of adenosine was mainly bound to the protein as judged by nearly complete reversion of the conversion upon dilution in the presence of excess unlabelled adenine and by Sephadex G-25 chromatography. 5. The conversion of adenosine to inosine by the enzyme adenosine deaminase was decreased in the presence of the binding protein. 6. Adenine formation could also be demonstrated under condition of enzymic formation of S-adenosylhomocysteine, i.e. in the presence of hymocysteine. PMID:223649

  4. Ticagrelor potentiates adenosine-induced stimulation of neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Alsharif, Khalaf F; Thomas, Mark R; Judge, Heather M; Khan, Haroon; Prince, Lynne R; Sabroe, Ian; Ridger, Victoria C; Storey, Robert F

    2015-08-01

    In the PLATO study, ticagrelor was associated with fewer pulmonary infections and subsequent deaths than clopidogrel. Neutrophils are a first-line defence against bacterial lung infection; ticagrelor inhibits cellular uptake of adenosine, a known regulator of neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis. We assessed whether the inhibition of adenosine uptake by ticagrelor influences neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis. Neutrophils and erythrocytes were isolated from healthy volunteers. Concentration-dependent effects of adenosine on IL-8-induced neutrophil chemotaxis were investigated and the involved receptors identified using adenosine receptor antagonists. The modulatory effects of ticagrelor on adenosine-mediated changes in neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae were determined in the presence of erythrocytes to replicate physiological conditions of cellular adenosine uptake. Low-concentration adenosine (10(-8)M) significantly increased IL-8-induced neutrophil chemotaxis (% neutrophil chemotaxis: adenosine 28.7%±4.4 vs. control 22.6%±2.4; p<0.01) by acting on the high-affinity A1 receptor. Erythrocytes attenuated the effect of adenosine, although this was preserved by ticagrelor and dipyridamole (another inhibitor of adenosine uptake) but not by control or by cangrelor. Similarly, in the presence of erythrocytes, a low concentration of adenosine (10(-8)M) significantly increased neutrophil phagocytic index compared to control when ticagrelor was present (37.6±6.6 vs. 28.0±6.6; p=0.028) but had no effect in the absence of ticagrelor. We therefore conclude that the inhibition of cellular adenosine reuptake by ticagrelor potentiates the effects of a nanomolar concentration of adenosine on neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis. This represents a potential mechanism by which ticagrelor could influence host defence against bacterial lung infection. PMID:25869515

  5. Ticagrelor potentiates adenosine-induced stimulation of neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Alsharif, Khalaf F.; Thomas, Mark R.; Judge, Heather M.; Khan, Haroon; Prince, Lynne R.; Sabroe, Ian; Ridger, Victoria C.; Storey, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    In the PLATO study, ticagrelor was associated with fewer pulmonary infections and subsequent deaths than clopidogrel. Neutrophils are a first-line defence against bacterial lung infection; ticagrelor inhibits cellular uptake of adenosine, a known regulator of neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis. We assessed whether the inhibition of adenosine uptake by ticagrelor influences neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis. Neutrophils and erythrocytes were isolated from healthy volunteers. Concentration-dependent effects of adenosine on IL-8-induced neutrophil chemotaxis were investigated and the involved receptors identified using adenosine receptor antagonists. The modulatory effects of ticagrelor on adenosine-mediated changes in neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae were determined in the presence of erythrocytes to replicate physiological conditions of cellular adenosine uptake. Low-concentration adenosine (10? 8 M) significantly increased IL-8-induced neutrophil chemotaxis (% neutrophil chemotaxis: adenosine 28.7% ± 4.4 vs. control 22.6% ± 2.4; p < 0.01) by acting on the high-affinity A1 receptor. Erythrocytes attenuated the effect of adenosine, although this was preserved by ticagrelor and dipyridamole (another inhibitor of adenosine uptake) but not by control or by cangrelor. Similarly, in the presence of erythrocytes, a low concentration of adenosine (10? 8 M) significantly increased neutrophil phagocytic index compared to control when ticagrelor was present (37.6 ± 6.6 vs. 28.0 ± 6.6; p = 0.028) but had no effect in the absence of ticagrelor. We therefore conclude that the inhibition of cellular adenosine reuptake by ticagrelor potentiates the effects of a nanomolar concentration of adenosine on neutrophil chemotaxis and phagocytosis. This represents a potential mechanism by which ticagrelor could influence host defence against bacterial lung infection. PMID:25869515

  6. Adenosine: an endogenous mediator in the pathogenesis of psoriasis*

    PubMed Central

    Festugato, Moira

    2015-01-01

    It is known that inflammatory and immune responses protect us from the invasion of micro-organisms and eliminate "wastes" from the injured sites, but they may also be responsible for significant tissue damage. Adenosine, as a purine nucleoside, which is produced in inflamed or injured sites, fulfills its role in limiting tissue damage. Although, it may have a pleiotropic effect, which signals it with a proinflammatory state in certain situations, it can be considered a potent anti-inflammatory mediator. The effects of adenosine, which acts through its receptors on T cell, on mast cell and macrophages, on endothelial cells, on neutrophils and dendritic cells, as they indicate TNF-alpha and cytokines, show that this mediator has a central role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. The way it acts in psoriasis will be reviewed in this study.

  7. Abiotic regioselective phosphorylation of adenosine with borate in formamide.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Yoshihiro; Kim, Hyo-Joong; Hutter, Daniel; Benner, Steven A

    2015-04-01

    Nearly 40 years ago, Schoffstall and his coworkers used formamide as a solvent to permit the phosphorylation of nucleosides by inorganic phosphate to give nucleoside phosphates, which (due to their thermodynamic instability with respect to hydrolysis) cannot be easily created in water by an analogous phosphorylation (the "water problem" in prebiotic chemistry). More recently, we showed that borate could stabilize certain carbohydrates against degradation (the "asphalt problem"). Here, we combine the two concepts to show that borate can work in formamide to guide the reactivity of nucleosides under conditions where they are phosphorylated. Specifically, reaction of adenosine in formamide with inorganic phosphate and pyrophosphate in the presence of borate gives adenosine-5'-phosphate as the only detectable phosphorylated product, with formylation (as opposed to hydrolysis) being the competing reaction. PMID:25826074

  8. Variation in One Residue Associated with the Metal Ion-Dependent Adhesion Site Regulates ?IIb?3 Integrin Ligand Binding Affinity

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xue; Xiu, Zhilong; Li, Guohui; Luo, Bing-Hao

    2013-01-01

    The Asp of the RGD motif of the ligand coordinates with the ? I domain metal ion dependent adhesion site (MIDAS) divalent cation, emphasizing the importance of the MIDAS in ligand binding. There appears to be two distinct groups of integrins that differ in their ligand binding affinity and adhesion ability. These differences may be due to a specific residue associated with the MIDAS, particularly the ?3 residue Ala252 and corresponding Ala in the ?1 integrin compared to the analogous Asp residue in the ?2 and ?7 integrins. Interestingly, mutations in the adjacent to MIDAS (ADMIDAS) of integrins ?4?7 and ?L?2 increased the binding and adhesion abilities compared to the wild-type, while the same mutations in the ?2?1, ?5?1, ?V?3, and ?IIb?3 integrins demonstrated decreased ligand binding and adhesion. We introduced a mutation in the ?IIb?3 to convert this MIDAS associated Ala252 to Asp. By combination of this mutant with mutations of one or two ADMIDAS residues, we studied the effects of this residue on ligand binding and adhesion. Then, we performed molecular dynamics simulations on the wild-type and mutant ?IIb?3 integrin ? I domains, and investigated the dynamics of metal ion binding sites in different integrin-RGD complexes. We found that the tendency of calculated binding free energies was in excellent agreement with the experimental results, suggesting that the variation in this MIDAS associated residue accounts for the differences in ligand binding and adhesion among different integrins, and it accounts for the conflicting results of ADMIDAS mutations within different integrins. This study sheds more light on the role of the MIDAS associated residue pertaining to ligand binding and adhesion and suggests that this residue may play a pivotal role in integrin-mediated cell rolling and firm adhesion. PMID:24116162

  9. Metal Ion-dependent Heavy Chain Transfer Activity of TSG-6 Mediates Assembly of the Cumulus-Oocyte Matrix.

    PubMed

    Briggs, David C; Birchenough, Holly L; Ali, Tariq; Rugg, Marilyn S; Waltho, Jon P; Ievoli, Elena; Jowitt, Thomas A; Enghild, Jan J; Richter, Ralf P; Salustri, Antonietta; Milner, Caroline M; Day, Anthony J

    2015-11-27

    The matrix polysaccharide hyaluronan (HA) has a critical role in the expansion of the cumulus cell-oocyte complex (COC), a process that is necessary for ovulation and fertilization in most mammals. Hyaluronan is organized into a cross-linked network by the cooperative action of three proteins, inter-?-inhibitor (I?I), pentraxin-3, and TNF-stimulated gene-6 (TSG-6), driving the expansion of the COC and providing the cumulus matrix with its required viscoelastic properties. Although it is known that matrix stabilization involves the TSG-6-mediated transfer of I?I heavy chains (HCs) onto hyaluronan (to form covalent HC·HA complexes that are cross-linked by pentraxin-3) and that this occurs via the formation of covalent HC·TSG-6 intermediates, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we have determined the tertiary structure of the CUB module from human TSG-6, identifying a calcium ion-binding site and chelating glutamic acid residue that mediate the formation of HC·TSG-6. This occurs via an initial metal ion-dependent, non-covalent, interaction between TSG-6 and HCs that also requires the presence of an HC-associated magnesium ion. In addition, we have found that the well characterized hyaluronan-binding site in the TSG-6 Link module is not used for recognition during transfer of HCs onto HA. Analysis of TSG-6 mutants (with impaired transferase and/or hyaluronan-binding functions) revealed that although the TSG-6-mediated formation of HC·HA complexes is essential for the expansion of mouse COCs in vitro, the hyaluronan-binding function of TSG-6 does not play a major role in the stabilization of the murine cumulus matrix. PMID:26468290

  10. Metal Ion-dependent Heavy Chain Transfer Activity of TSG-6 Mediates Assembly of the Cumulus-Oocyte Matrix*

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, David C.; Birchenough, Holly L.; Ali, Tariq; Rugg, Marilyn S.; Waltho, Jon P.; Ievoli, Elena; Jowitt, Thomas A.; Enghild, Jan J.; Richter, Ralf P.; Salustri, Antonietta; Milner, Caroline M.; Day, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    The matrix polysaccharide hyaluronan (HA) has a critical role in the expansion of the cumulus cell-oocyte complex (COC), a process that is necessary for ovulation and fertilization in most mammals. Hyaluronan is organized into a cross-linked network by the cooperative action of three proteins, inter-?-inhibitor (I?I), pentraxin-3, and TNF-stimulated gene-6 (TSG-6), driving the expansion of the COC and providing the cumulus matrix with its required viscoelastic properties. Although it is known that matrix stabilization involves the TSG-6-mediated transfer of I?I heavy chains (HCs) onto hyaluronan (to form covalent HC·HA complexes that are cross-linked by pentraxin-3) and that this occurs via the formation of covalent HC·TSG-6 intermediates, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we have determined the tertiary structure of the CUB module from human TSG-6, identifying a calcium ion-binding site and chelating glutamic acid residue that mediate the formation of HC·TSG-6. This occurs via an initial metal ion-dependent, non-covalent, interaction between TSG-6 and HCs that also requires the presence of an HC-associated magnesium ion. In addition, we have found that the well characterized hyaluronan-binding site in the TSG-6 Link module is not used for recognition during transfer of HCs onto HA. Analysis of TSG-6 mutants (with impaired transferase and/or hyaluronan-binding functions) revealed that although the TSG-6-mediated formation of HC·HA complexes is essential for the expansion of mouse COCs in vitro, the hyaluronan-binding function of TSG-6 does not play a major role in the stabilization of the murine cumulus matrix. PMID:26468290

  11. The importance of adenosine deaminase for lymphocyte development and function.

    PubMed

    Aldrich, M B; Blackburn, M R; Kellems, R E

    2000-06-01

    Deficiency in the enzyme adenosine deaminase (ADA) in humans manifests primarily as severe lymphopenia and immunodeficiency, resulting in death by 6 months of age, if untreated. In this review, we discuss phenotypical, biochemical, and metabolic hallmarks of the disease, and describe a mouse model in which levels of ADA can be biochemically and genetically manipulated. This model provides exciting possibilities for uncovering the mechanisms by which this purine catabolic enzyme affects lymphopoiesis. PMID:10833410

  12. Genetic removal of the A2A adenosine receptor enhances pulmonary inflammation, mucin production, and angiogenesis in adenosine deaminase-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Mohsenin, Amir; Mi, Tiejuan; Xia, Yang; Kellems, Rodney E; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Blackburn, Michael R

    2007-09-01

    Adenosine is generated at sites of tissue injury where it serves to regulate inflammation and damage. Adenosine signaling has been implicated in the regulation of pulmonary inflammation and damage in diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; however, the contribution of specific adenosine receptors to key immunoregulatory processes in these diseases is still unclear. Mice deficient in the purine catabolic enzyme adenosine deaminase (ADA) develop pulmonary inflammation and mucous metaplasia in association with adenosine elevations making them a useful model for assessing the contribution of specific adenosine receptors to adenosine-mediated pulmonary disease. Studies suggest that the A(2A) adenosine receptor (A(2A)R) functions to limit inflammation and promote tissue protection; however, the contribution of A(2A)R signaling has not been examined in the ADA-deficient model of adenosine-mediated lung inflammation. The purpose of the current study was to examine the contribution of A(2A)R signaling to the pulmonary phenotype seen in ADA-deficient mice. This was accomplished by generating ADA/A(2A)R double knockout mice. Genetic removal of the A(2A)R from ADA-deficient mice resulted in enhanced inflammation comprised largely of macrophages and neutrophils, mucin production in the bronchial airways, and angiogenesis, relative to that seen in the lungs of ADA-deficient mice with the A(2A)R. In addition, levels of the chemokines monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and CXCL1 were elevated, whereas levels of cytokines such as TNF-alpha and IL-6 were not. There were no compensatory changes in the other adenosine receptors in the lungs of ADA/A(2A)R double knockout mice. These findings suggest that the A(2A)R plays a protective role in the ADA-deficient model of pulmonary inflammation. PMID:17601796

  13. Thermodynamics of the conversion of calcium and magnesium fluorides to the parent metal oxides and hydrogen fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    West, M.H.; Axler, K.M.

    1997-02-01

    The authors have used thermodynamic modeling to examine the reaction of calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}) and magnesium fluoride (MgF{sub 2}) with water (H{sub 2}O) at elevated temperatures. The calculated, equilibrium composition corresponds to the global free-energy minimum for the system. Optimum, predicted reaction temperatures and reactant mole ratios are reported for the recovery of hydrogen fluoride (HF), a valuable industrial feedstock. Complete conversion of MgF{sub 2} is found at 1,000 C and a ratio of 40 moles of H{sub 2}O per 1 mole of MgF{sub 2}. For CaF{sub 2}, temperatures as high as 1,400 C are required for complete conversion at a corresponding mole ratio of 40 moles of H{sub 2}O per 1 mole of CaF{sub 2}. The authors discuss the presence of minor chemical constituents as well as the stability of various potential container materials for the pyrohydrolysis reactions at elevated temperatures. CaF{sub 2} and MgF{sub 2} slags are available as wastes at former uranium production facilities within the Department of Energy Complex and other facilities regulated by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Recovery of HF from these wastes is an example of environmental remediation at such facilities.

  14. Evaluation of the content and bioaccessibility of iron, zinc, calcium and magnesium from groats, rice, leguminous grains and nuts.

    PubMed

    Suliburska, Joanna; Krejpcio, Zbigniew

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the content and the bioaccessibility of minerals (Fe, Zn, Ca and Mg) in commonly consumed food products, such as cereal groats, rice, leguminous grains and nuts purchased from the local market. The contents of Fe, Zn, Ca and Mg in foods were assayed after dry ashing of samples, while the bioaccessibility of these minerals after enzymatic in vitro digestion, was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. A relatively high content of Fe was found in cashew nuts and green lentils, while cashew nuts and buckwheat groats had the highest concentration of Zn. It was found that the highest amount of macro-elements was generally in nuts, in particular: brazil nuts (Ca and Mg), cashews (Mg) and hazelnuts (Ca and Mg). Concerning the mineral bioaccessibility, the highest values for Fe were obtained in cashew nuts and green lentils (2.8 and 1.7 mg/100 g), for Zn in green lentils (2.1 mg/100 g), for Ca in brazil nuts and shelled pea (32.6 and 29.1 mg/100 g), while for Mg in shelled peas and green lentils (43.4 and 33.9 mg/100 g). Generally, the best sources of bioaccessible minerals seem to be leguminous grains and nuts. PMID:24587537

  15. Effect of water-soluble silicon supplementation on bone status and balance of calcium and magnesium in male mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Hyun; Kim, Eun-Jin; Jung, Ji-Youn; Choi, Mi-Kyeong

    2014-05-01

    Silicon (Si) is important for the growth and development of bone and connective tissues. Several studies have reported that Si supplementation improved bone mineral density (BMD) in female ovarectomized rats. However, few studies have investigated the effects of Si supplementation on bone status and bone metabolism in male animals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Si supplementation on BMD and balance of calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) in adult male mice. Si was administrated orally through demineralized water containing different contents of Si as a form of sodium metasilicate (0 %, control; 0.025 %, Si50; 0.050 %, Si100; and 0.075 %, Si150) to 9-week-old male mice for 4 weeks. Si supplementation did not alter weight gain or BMD of femur and tibia in male mice. However, a high level of Si (0.05 and 0.075 %) supplementation significantly decreased Mg retention without changing Ca retention. Serum alkaline phosphatase of Si-supplemented groups significantly decreased compared with that of the control. According to these results, short-term Si supplementation did not affect BMD but showed a possible effect on increasing the need for Mg in adult male mice. PMID:24664270

  16. Effects of calcium and magnesium hardness on the fertilization and hatching success of channel X blue hybrid catfish eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aquifer used for hybrid catfish hatcheries is less than 10 mg/L of calcium hardness and 1- 25 mg/L of magnesium hardness. Embryonic development is deemed to be the most sensitive stage in the life cycle of a teleost. As egg development takes outside the fish’s body, water hardness is one abioti...

  17. Evaluation of postmortem serum calcium and magnesium levels in relation to the causes of death in forensic autopsy.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bao-Li; Ishikawa, Takaki; Quan, Li; Li, Dong-Ri; Zhao, Dong; Michiue, Tomomi; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2005-12-01

    There appears to be very poor investigation of postmortem serum calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) for diagnostic evidence to determine the cause of death. The aim of the present study was a comprehensive analysis of the serum levels in relation to the causes of death in routine casework. Autopsy cases (total, n=360; 5-48 h postmortem), including blunt injury (n=76), sharp injury (n=29), asphyxiation (n=42), drownings (n=28: freshwater, n=11; saltwater, n=17), fire fatalities (n=79), methamphetamine (MA) poisoning (n=8), delayed death from traumas (n=37), and acute myocardial infarction/ischemia (AMI, n=61), were examined. In total cases, there was no significant postmortem time-dependent rise in serum Ca and Mg. Both Ca and Mg levels in the heart and peripheral blood were significantly higher in saltwater drowning compared with those of the other groups. In addition, a significant elevation in the Ca level was observed in freshwater drowning and fire fatalities, and in the Mg level in fatal MA intoxication and asphyxiation. Topographic analyses suggested a rise in serum Ca and Mg due to aspirated saltwater in drowning, that in serum Ca in freshwater drowning and fire fatalities of peripheral skeletal muscle origin and that in serum Mg in MA fatality and asphyxiation of myocardial and/or peripheral origin. These markers may be useful especially for diagnosis and differentiation of salt- and freshwater drownings and may be also helpful to determine the causes of death involving skeletal muscle damage, including burns and MA intoxication. PMID:16216707

  18. Effects of oligofructose-enriched inulin on intestinal absorption of calcium and magnesium and bone turnover markers in postmenopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Deficiency of oestrogen at menopause decreases intestinal Ca absorption, contributing to a negative Ca balance and bone loss. Mg deficiency has also been associated with bone loss. The purpose of the present investigation was to test the hypothesis that treatment with a spray-dried mixture of chicor...

  19. Seasonal patterns of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium in the leaves of the Massachusetts cranberry. [Vaccinium macrocarpon

    SciTech Connect

    DeMoranville, C.J.; Deubert, K.H.

    1986-01-01

    Leaf samples from cranberry plants in Wareham, MA, were collected during the 1980-82 growing seasons and analyzed for N, P, K, Ca and Mg. The seasonal patterns which emerged allowed the proposal of normal ranges for the elements and optimum times for sampling. The foliar nutrient levels obtained were compared to those for cranberries grown in other areas as well as to those for crops which are grown under similar conditions.

  20. Identification of widespread adenosine nucleotide binding in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Ansong, Charles; Ortega, Corrie; Payne, Samuel H.; Haft, Daniel H.; Chauvigne-Hines, Lacie M.; Lewis, Michael P.; Ollodart, Anja R.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Shukla, Anil K.; Fortuin, Suereta; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Grundner, Christoph; Wright, Aaron T.

    2013-01-24

    The annotation of protein function is almost completely performed by in silico approaches. However, computational prediction of protein function is frequently incomplete and error prone. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), ~25% of all genes have no predicted function and are annotated as hypothetical proteins. This lack of functional information severely limits our understanding of Mtb pathogenicity. Current tools for experimental functional annotation are limited and often do not scale to entire protein families. Here, we report a generally applicable chemical biology platform to functionally annotate bacterial proteins by combining activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) and quantitative LC-MS-based proteomics. As an example of this approach for high-throughput protein functional validation and discovery, we experimentally annotate the families of ATP-binding proteins in Mtb. Our data experimentally validate prior in silico predictions of >250 ATPases and adenosine nucleotide-binding proteins, and reveal 73 hypothetical proteins as novel ATP-binding proteins. We identify adenosine cofactor interactions with many hypothetical proteins containing a diversity of unrelated sequences, providing a new and expanded view of adenosine nucleotide binding in Mtb. Furthermore, many of these hypothetical proteins are both unique to Mycobacteria and essential for infection, suggesting specialized functions in mycobacterial physiology and pathogenicity. Thus, we provide a generally applicable approach for high throughput protein function discovery and validation, and highlight several ways in which application of activity-based proteomics data can improve the quality of functional annotations to facilitate novel biological insights.

  1. Agonist Derived Molecular Probes for A2A Adenosine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Pannell, Lewis K.; Ji, Xiao-duo; Jarvis, Michael F.; Williams, Michael; Hutchison, Alan J.; Barrington, William W.; Stiles, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    The adenosine agonist 2-(4-(2-carboxyethyl)phenylethylamino)-5?-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (CGS21680) was recently reported to be selective for the A2A adenosine receptor subtype, which mediates its hypotensive action. To investigate structurelactivity relationships at a distal site, CGS21680 was derivatized using a functionalized congener approach. The carboxylic group of CGS21680 has been esterified to form a methyl ester, which was then treated with ethylenediamine to produce an amine congener. The amine congener was an intermediate for acylation reactions, in which the reactive acyl species contained a reported group, or the precursor for such. For radioiodination, derivatives of p-hydroxyphenylpropionic, 2-thiophenylacetic, and p-aminophenylacetic acids were prepared. The latter derivative (PAPA-APEC) was iodinated electrophilically using [125I]iodide resulting in a radioligand which was used for studies of competition of binding to striatal A, adenosine receptors in bovine brain. A biotin conjugate and an aryl sulfonate were at least 350-fold selective for A, receptors. For spectroscopic detection, a derivative of the stable free radical tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy (TEMPO) was prepared. For irreversible inhibition of receptors, meta- and para-phenylenediisothiocyanate groups were incorporated in the analogs. We have demonstrated that binding at A2A receptors is relatively insensitive to distal structural changes at the 2-position, and we report high affinity molecular probes for receptor characterization by radioactive, spectroscopic and affinity labelling methodology. PMID:2561548

  2. Anthranilic acid release in adenosine-inhibited cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its inhibition by thiamin.

    PubMed

    Iwashima, A; Kawasaki, Y; Kimura, Y; Hasegawa, T

    1992-10-01

    Adenosine, at 1 mM concentrations or above, was found to have a fungistatic effect on Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A substance with amethyst fluorescence was detected in the medium of adenosine-inhibited cultures of S. cerevisiae. This compound was isolated and physicochemically identified as anthranilic acid. Both the inhibition of growth and release of anthranilic acid induced by adenosine were abrogated by thiamin or by the pyrimidine portion of thiamin, 2-methyl-4-amino-5-hdroxymethyl-pyrimidine (hydroxymethyl-pyrimidine); the latter was found to restore intracellular thiamin content that had been reduced by adenosine. It was demonstrated that effects of thiamin and hydroxymethylpyrimidine on S. cerevisiae cultured with adenosine resulted from their inhibition of adenosine uptake by growing yeast cells. PMID:1426996

  3. [Effects of dopamine and adenosine on regulation of water-electrolyte exchange in Amoeba proteus].

    PubMed

    Bagrov, Ia Iu; Manusova, N B

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine and adenosine both regulate transport of sodium chloride in the renal tubules in mammals. We have studied the effect of dopamine and adenosine on spontaneous activity of contractile vacuole of Amoeba proteous. Both substances stimulated contractile vacuole. The effect of dopamine was suppressed by D2 receptor antagonist, haloperidol, but not by D1 antagonist, SCH 39166. Adenylate cyclase inhibitor, 2.5-dideoxyadenosine, suppressed the effect of dopamine, but not of adenosine. Inhibitor of protein kinase C, staurosporine, in contrast, blocked the effect of adenosine, but not dopamine. Notably, dopamine opposed effect of adenosine and vice versa. These results suggest that similar effects of dopamine and adenosine could be mediated by different intracellulare mechanisms. PMID:25509166

  4. Sequestration of adenosine in crude extract from mouse liver and other tissues.

    PubMed

    Ueland, P M; Saebø, J

    1979-10-18

    Adenosine (1 microM) was incubated in the presence of dialyzed crude tissue extract from mouse liver and its degradation determined. At high concentration of tissue extract, a fraction of adenosine was not metabolized. This phenomenon, termed sequestration of adenosine, was shown to be affected in the same way by the same factors (pH, salt, reducing agent and adenine) as those affecting the protection of adenosine against deamination in the presence of the purified cyclic AMP-adenosine binding protein/S-adenosylhomocysteinase from mouse liver (Saebø, J. and Ueland, P.M. (1979) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 587, 333--340). These data point to a role of this protein in the sequestration of adenosine in crude extract. The sequestration potency in crude extract could be determined by diluting the extract in the presence of a constant amount of adenosine deaminase added to the tissue extract. Under these conditions there was linearity of adenosine not available for degradation versus the concentration of tissue extract, and a total recovery of the sequestration potency of purified binding protein added to the crude extract was observed. The tissue level of the cyclic AMP-adenosine binding protein/S-adenosylhomocysteinase in mouse liver was determined by two independent procedures based on the sequestration of adenosine and the hydrolysis of S-adenosylhomocysteine, respectively. The intracellular concentration was calculated to be 10 microM. The sequestration of adenosine in crude extract from mouse, rat, rabbit and bovine tissues was determined and showed requirements similar to those of the sequestration in mouse liver extract. The ability to sequester adenosine was high in liver and decreased in the following order: liver, kidney, adrenal cortex, brain, uterus, cardiac and skeletal muscle. PMID:45002

  5. Adenosine-mediated inhibition of casein production by mouse mammary glands in culture.

    PubMed

    Hom, Y K; Bandyopadhyay, G K; Levay-Young, B K; Nandi, S

    1996-08-01

    The present study was carried out to examine whether activation of adenosine receptors by adenosine analogues will affect casein production by mouse mammary epithelial cells. The morphogenesis and functions of epithelial tissue in the mammary gland are influenced by their surrounding adipocytes. Adipocytes are known to release adenosine into the extracellular fluid which can modulate cyclic-AMP levels in surrounding cells through binding to their adenosine receptors. To examine a possible paracrine effect of adenosine, the modulation of casein production in mammary explant culture and mammary epithelial cell (MEC) culture by adenosine receptor agonists has been investigated. We have observed that activation of the A1-adenosine receptor subtype in mammary tissue by an adenosine analogue (-)N6-(R-phenyl-isopropyl)-adenosine (PIA) raised cAMP levels. PIA and another adenosine receptor agonist, isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX), inhibited casein accumulation both in explants and in MEC cultures in the presence of lactogenic hormones, which suggests that PIA or adenosine can act directly on the epithelial cells. This inhibition does not appear to be caused by elevation of cAMP levels or phosphodiesterase activity. The inhibition of intracellular casein accumulation by PIA and IBMX in explant cultures can be reversed via treatment of pertussis toxin which is known to ADP-ribosylate GTP-binding G alpha i-proteins, indicating that a Gi-protein-dependent pathway may be involved in this inhibition. The results also suggest that local accumulation of adenosine in the extracellular fluids of mammary glands is likely to inhibit the lactogenic response of mammary epithelial cells. PMID:8707867

  6. Estimation of skeletal muscle interstitial adenosine during forearm dynamic exercise in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costa, F.; Heusinkveld, J.; Ballog, R.; Davis, S.; Biaggioni, I.

    2000-01-01

    It has been proposed that adenosine is a metabolic signal that triggers activation of muscle afferents involved in the exercise pressor reflex. Furthermore, exogenous adenosine induces sympathetic activation that mimics the exercise pressor reflex, and blockade of adenosine receptors inhibits sympathetic activation induced by exercise. Thus, we hypothesize that adenosine is released locally by the muscle during exercise. We used microdialysis probes, placed in the flexor digitorium superficialis muscle, to estimate muscle interstitial adenosine levels in humans. We estimated resting in vivo muscle interstitial adenosine concentrations (0.292+/-0.058 micromol/L, n=4) by perfusing increasing concentrations of adenosine to determine the gradient produced in the dialysate. Muscle interstitial adenosine concentrations increased from 0.23+/-0.04 to 0.82+/-0.14 micromol/L (n=14, P<0.001) during intermittent dynamic exercise at 50% of maximal voluntary contraction. Lactate increased from 0.8+/-0.1 to 2.3+/-0.3 mmol/L (P<0.001). Lower intensity (15% maximal voluntary contraction) intermittent dynamic exercise increased adenosine concentrations from 0.104+/-0.02 to 0.42+/-0.16 micromol/L (n=7). The addition of ischemia to this low level of exercise produced a greater increase in adenosine (from 0.095+/-0.02 to 0.48+/-0.2 micromol/L) compared with nonischemic exercise (0. 095+/-0.02 to 0.25+/-0.12 micromol/L). These results indicate that microdialysis is useful in estimating adenosine concentrations and in reflecting changes in muscle interstitial adenosine during dynamic exercise in humans.

  7. A rapid enzymatic assay for high-throughput screening of adenosine-producing strains

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Huina; Zu, Xin; Zheng, Ping; Zhang, Dawei

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine is a major local regulator of tissue function and industrially useful as precursor for the production of medicinal nucleoside substances. High-throughput screening of adenosine overproducers is important for industrial microorganism breeding. An enzymatic assay of adenosine was developed by combined adenosine deaminase (ADA) with indophenol method. The ADA catalyzes the cleavage of adenosine to inosine and NH3, the latter can be accurately determined by indophenol method. The assay system was optimized to deliver a good performance and could tolerate the addition of inorganic salts and many nutrition components to the assay mixtures. Adenosine could be accurately determined by this assay using 96-well microplates. Spike and recovery tests showed that this assay can accurately and reproducibly determine increases in adenosine in fermentation broth without any pretreatment to remove proteins and potentially interfering low-molecular-weight molecules. This assay was also applied to high-throughput screening for high adenosine-producing strains. The high selectivity and accuracy of the ADA assay provides rapid and high-throughput analysis of adenosine in large numbers of samples. PMID:25580842

  8. Impaired inhibitory function of presynaptic A1-adenosine receptors in SHR mesenteric arteries.

    PubMed

    Rocha-Pereira, Carolina; Arribas, Silvia Magdalena; Fresco, Paula; González, Maria Carmen; Gonçalves, Jorge; Diniz, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    In hypertension, vascular reactivity alterations have been attributed to numerous factors, including higher sympathetic innervation/adenosine. This study examined the modulation of adenosine receptors on vascular sympathetic nerves and their putative contribution to higher noradrenaline spillover in hypertension. We assessed adenosine receptors distribution in the adventitia through confocal microscopy, histomorphometry, and their regulatory function on electrically-evoked [(3)H]-noradrenaline overflow, using selective agonists/antagonists. We found that: i) A1-adenosine receptor agonist (CPA: 100 nM) inhibited tritium overflow to a lower extent in SHR (25% ± 3%, n = 14) compared to WKY (38% ± 3%, n = 14) mesenteric arteries; ii) A2A-adenosine receptor agonist (CGS 21680: 100 nM) induced a slight increase of tritium overflow that was similar in SHR (22% ± 8%, n = 8) and WKY (24% ± 5%, n = 8) mesenteric arteries; iii) A2B- and A3-adenosine receptors did not alter tritium overflow in either strain; iv) all adenosine receptors were present on mesenteric artery sympathetic nerves and/or some adventitial cells of both strains; and v) A1-adenosine receptor staining fractional area was lower in SHR than in WKY mesenteric arteries. We conclude that there is an impaired inhibitory function of vascular presynaptic A1-adenosine receptors in SHR, likely related to a reduced presence of these receptors on sympathetic innervation, which might lead to higher levels of noradrenaline in the synaptic cleft and contribute to hypertension in this strain. PMID:23782593

  9. Adenosine and inosine release during hypoxia in the isolated spinal cord of neonatal rats

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, T; Otsuguro, K; Ohta, T; Ito, S

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Adenosine and inosine accumulate extracellularly during hypoxia/ischaemia in the brain and may act as neuroprotectants. In spinal cord, there is pharmacological evidence for increases in extracellular adenosine during hypoxia, but no direct measurements of purine release. Furthermore, the efflux pathways and origin of extracellular purines are not defined. To characterize hypoxia-evoked purine accumulation, we examined the effect of acute hypoxia on the extracellular levels of adenosine and inosine in isolated spinal cords from rats. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Extracellular adenosine and inosine concentrations were assayed in an in vitro preparation of the isolated spinal cord of the neonatal rat by HPLC. KEY RESULTS The extracellular level of inosine was about 10-fold higher than that of adenosine. Acute hypoxia (10 min) caused a temperature-dependent increase in these two purines, which were inhibited by an increase in external Ca2+, but not by several inhibitors of efflux pathways or metabolic enzymes of adenine nucleotides. Inhibitors of adenosine deaminase or the equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) abolished the hypoxia-evoked increase in inosine but not adenosine. The inhibition of glial metabolism abolished the increase of both purines evoked by hypoxia but not by oxygen-glucose deprivation, hypercapnia or an adenosine kinase inhibitor. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Our data suggest that hypoxia releases adenosine itself from intracellular sources. Inosine formed intracellularly may be released through ENTs. During hypoxia, astrocytes appear to play a key role in purine release from neonatal rat spinal cord. PMID:20735412

  10. Molecular Vibration-Activity Relationship in the Agonism of Adenosine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Chee, Hyun Keun

    2013-01-01

    The molecular vibration-activity relationship in the receptor-ligand interaction of adenosine receptors was investigated by structure similarity, molecular vibration, and hierarchical clustering in a dataset of 46 ligands of adenosine receptors. The resulting dendrogram was compared with those of another kind of fingerprint or descriptor. The dendrogram result produced by corralled intensity of molecular vibrational frequency outperformed four other analyses in the current study of adenosine receptor agonism and antagonism. The tree that was produced by clustering analysis of molecular vibration patterns showed its potential for the functional classification of adenosine receptor ligands. PMID:24465242

  11. Mechanical stimulation evokes rapid increases in extracellular adenosine concentration in the prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Ashley E.; Nguyen, Michael D.; Privman, Eve; Venton, B. Jill

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical perturbations can release ATP, which is broken down to adenosine. In this work, we used carbon-fiber microelectrodes and fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to measure mechanically-stimulated adenosine in the brain by lowering the electrode 50 ?m. Mechanical stimulation evoked adenosine in vivo (average: 3.3 ± 0.6 ?M) and in brain slices (average: 0.8 ± 0.1 ?M) in the prefrontal cortex. The release was transient, lasting 18 ± 2 s. Lowering a 15 ?m diameter glass pipette near the carbon-fiber microelectrode produced similar results as lowering the actual microelectrode. However, applying a small puff of artificial cerebral spinal fluid was not sufficient to evoke adenosine. Multiple stimulations within a 50 ?m region of a slice did not significantly change over time or damage cells. Chelating calcium with EDTA or blocking sodium channels with tetrodotoxin (TTX) significantly decreased mechanically evoked adenosine, signifying that the release is activity-dependent. An alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) receptor antagonist, 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX), did not affect mechanically-stimulated adenosine; however, the nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase 1,2 and 3 (NTDPase) inhibitor POM-1 significantly reduced adenosine so a portion of adenosine is dependent on extracellular ATP metabolism. Thus, mechanical perturbations from inserting a probe in the brain cause rapid, transient adenosine signaling which might be neuroprotective. PMID:24606335

  12. The hydrogen bonding and hydration of 2'-OH in adenosine and adenosine 3'-ethyl phosphate.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Parag; Chattopadhyaya, Jyoti

    2002-03-22

    The 2'-OH group has major structural implications in the recognition, processing, and catalytic properties of RNA. We report here intra- and intermolecular H-bonding of 2'-OH in adenosine 3'-ethyl phosphate (1), 3'-deoxyadenosine (2), and adenosine (3) by both temperature- and concentration-dependent NMR studies, as well as by detailed endo ((3)J(H,H)) and exocyclic ((3)J(H,OH)) coupling constant analyses. We have also examined the nature of hydration and exchange processes of 2'-OH with water by a combination of NOESY and ROESY experiments in DMSO-d(6) containing 2 mol % HOD. The NMR-constrained molecular modeling (by molecular mechanics as well as by ab initio methods both in the gas and solution phase) has been used to characterize the energy minima among the four alternative dihedrals possible from the solution of the Karplus equation for (3)J(H2',OH) and (3)J(H3',OH) to delineate the preferred orientation of 2'-O-H proton in 1 and 2 as well as for 2'/3'-O-H protons in 3. The NMR line shape analysis of 2'-OH gave the DeltaG(H-bond)(298K) of 7.5 kJ mol(-1) for 1 and 8.4 kJ mol(-1) for 3; similar analyses of the methylene protons of 3'-ethyl phosphate moiety in 1 also gave comparable DeltaG(H-bond)(298K) of 7.3 kJ mol(-1). The donor nature of the 2'-OH in the intramolecular H-bonding in 3 is evident from its relatively reduced flexibility [-TDeltaS++](2'-OH) = -17.9(+/-0.5) kJ mol(-1)] because of the loss of conformational freedom owing to the intramolecular 2'O-H...O3' H-bonding, compared to the acceptor 3'-OH in 3 [-TDeltaS++](3'-OH) = -19.8 (+/- 0.6) kJ mol(-1)] at 298 K. The presence of intramolecular 2'-OH...O3' H-bonding in 3 is also corroborated by the existence of weak long-range (4)J(H2',OH3') in 3 (i.e., W conformation of H2'-C2'-C3'-O3'-H) as well as by (3)J(H,OH) dependent orientation of the 2'- and 3'-OH groups. The ROESY spectra for 1 and 3 at 308 K, in DMSO-d(6), show a clear positive ROE contact of both 2'- and 3'-OH with water. The presence of a hydrophilic 3'-phosphate group in 1 causes a much higher water activity in the vicinity of its 2'-OH, which in turn causes the 2'-OH to exchange faster, culminating in a shorter exchange lifetime (tau) for 2'-OH proton with HOD in 1 (tau2'-OH: 489 ms) compared to that in 3 (tau2'-OH: 6897 ms). The activation energy (E(a)) of the exchange with the bound-water for 2'- and 3'-OH in 3 (48.3 and 45.0 kJ mol(-1), respectively) is higher compared to that of 2'-OH in 1 (31.9 kJ mol(-1)), thereby showing that the kinetic availability of hydrated 2'-OH in 1 for any inter- and intramolecular interactions, in general, is owing to the vicinal 3'-phosphate residue. It also suggests that 2'-OH in native RNA can mediate other inter- or intramolecular interactions only in competition with the bound-water, depending upon the specific chemical nature and spatial orientation of other functions with potential for hydrogen bonding in the neighborhood. This availability of the bound water around 2'-OH in RNA would, however, be dictated by whether the vicinal phosphate is exposed to the bulk water or not. This implies that relatively poor hydration around a specific 2'-OH across a polyribonucleotide chain, owing to some hydrophobic microenvironmental pocket around that hydroxyl, may make it more accessible to interact with other donor or acceptor functions for H-bonding interactions, which might then cause the RNA to fold in a specific manner generating a new motif leading to specific recognition and function. Alternatively, a differential hydration of a specific 2'-OH may modulate its nucleophilicity to undergo stereospecific transesterification reaction as encountered in ubiquitous splicing of pre-mRNA to processed RNA or RNA catalysis, in general. PMID:11895403

  13. Characterization of the adenosine receptors of the rat superior cervical ganglion.

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, G. P.; Stone, T. W.; Brown, F.

    1993-01-01

    1. Adenosine analogues caused hyperpolarization and inhibition of the depolarizing response to muscarine of the rat isolated superior cervical ganglion (SCG) measured by a 'grease gap' recording technique. The receptors mediating these responses have been characterized by use of a range of selective adenosine analogues and adenosine receptor antagonists. 2. In decreasing order of potency N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), 2-chloroadenosine (2CA), adenosine, 2-phenylaminoadenosine (PAA), caused concentration-dependent hyperpolarizations whilst N6-(9-fluorenylmethyl)adenosine (PD 117,413) was inactive at up to 100 microM. 3. The order of potency of adenosine analogues in depressing depolarization caused by a submaximal concentration of muscarine (100 nM) was: CPA > R-PIA = 2CA > NECA > S-PIA > BZA > adenosine > PAA, where R- and S-PIA = R(-)- and S(+)-N6-(2-phenylisopropyl)adenosine, NECA = 5'N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine and BZA = N6-benzyladenosine. PD 117,413 was inactive at concentrations up to 100 microM. The maximum inhibitions of the muscarine-induced depolarization by CPA, 2CA, NECA and BZA were similar. R-PIA, S-PIA and PAA produced similar maximal inhibitions which were significantly smaller than those produced by CPA. 4. Hyperpolarizations caused by adenosine were antagonized by the P1-purinoceptor selective antagonist 1,3-dimethyl-8-phenylxanthine (8PT) and by the selective A1-adenosine receptor antagonist, 1,3-dipropyl-8-(4-((2-aminoethyl)amino)carbonylmethyloxyphenyl++ +)xanthine (XAC). Hyperpolarizations caused by CPA, adenosine and PAA were antagonized by the A1-selective antagonist, 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX) but not by the A2-selective antagonist, 3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine (DMPX).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8242261

  14. Adenosine Release Evoked by Short Electrical Stimulations in Striatal Brain Slices Is Primarily Activity Dependent

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Adenosine is an important neuromodulator in the brain. Traditionally, adenosine is thought to arise in the extracellular space by either an extracellular mechanism, where it is formed outside the cell by the breakdown of released ATP, or an intracellular mechanism, where adenosine made inside the cell is transported out. Recently, a third mechanism of activity dependent adenosine release has also been proposed. Here, we used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to compare the time course and mechanism of adenosine formation evoked by either low- or high-frequency stimulations in striatal rat brain slices. Low-frequency stimulations (5 pulses at 10 Hz) resulted in an average adenosine efflux of 0.22 ± 0.02 ?M, while high-frequency stimulations (5 pulses, 60 Hz) evoked 0.36 ± 0.04 ?M. Blocking intracellular formation by inhibiting adenosine transporters with S-(4-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioinosine (NBTI) or propentofylline did not decrease release for either frequency, indicating that the release was not due to the intracellular mechanism. Blocking extracellular formation with ARL-67156 reduced low-frequency release about 60%, but did not affect high-frequency release. Both low- and high-frequency stimulated release were almost completely blocked by the removal of calcium, indicating activity dependence. Reducing dopamine efflux did not affect adenosine release but inhibiting ionotropic glutamate receptors did, indicating that adenosine release is dependent on downstream effects of glutamate. Therefore, adenosine release after short, high-frequency physiological stimulations is independent of transporter activity or ATP metabolism and may be due to the direct release of adenosine after glutamate receptor activation. PMID:21218131

  15. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as a possible indicator of extraterrestrial biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappelle, E. W.; Picciolo, G. L.

    1974-01-01

    The ubiquity of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in terrestrial organisms provides the basis for proposing the assay of this vital metabolic intermediate for detecting extraterrestrial biological activity. If an organic carbon chemistry is present on the planets, the occurrence of ATP is possible either from biosynthetic or purely chemical reactions. However, ATP's relative complexity minimizes the probability of abiogenic synthesis. A sensitive technique for the quantitative detection of ATP was developed using the firefly bioluminescent reaction. The procedure was used successfully for the determination of the ATP content of soil and bacteria. This technique is also being investigated from the standpoint of its application in clinical medicine.

  16. Adenosine conjugated lipidic nanoparticles for enhanced tumor targeting.

    PubMed

    Swami, Rajan; Singh, Indu; Jeengar, Manish Kumar; Naidu, V G M; Khan, Wahid; Sistla, Ramakrishna

    2015-05-30

    Delivering chemotherapeutics by nanoparticles into tumor is impeded majorly by two factors: nonspecific targeting and inefficient penetration. Targeted delivery of anti-cancer agents solely to tumor cells introduces a smart strategy because it enhances the therapeutic index compared with untargeted drugs. The present study was performed to investigate the efficiency of adenosine (ADN) to target solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) to over expressing adenosine receptor cell lines such as human breast cancer and prostate cancer (MCF-7 and DU-145 cells), respectively. SLN were prepared by emulsification and solvent evaporation process using docetaxel (DTX) as drug and were characterized by various techniques like dynamic light scattering, differential scanning calorimeter and transmission electron microscopy. DTX loaded SLNs were surface modified with ADN, an adenosine receptors ligand using carbodiimide coupling. Conjugation was confirmed using infrared spectroscopy and quantified using phenol-sulfuric acid method. Conjugated SLN were shown to have sustained drug release as compared to unconjugated nanoparticles and drug suspension. Compared with free DTX and unconjugated SLN, ADN conjugated SLN showed significantly higher cytotoxicity of loaded DTX, as evidenced by in vitro cell experiments. The IC50 was 0.41 ?g/ml for native DTX, 0.30 ?g/ml for unconjugated SLN formulation, and 0.09 ?g/ml for ADN conjugated SLN formulation in MCF-7 cell lines. Whereas, in DU-145, there was 2 fold change in IC50 of ADN-SLN as compared to DTX. IC50 was found to be 0.44 ?g/ml for free DTX, 0.39 ?g/ml for unconjugated SLN and 0.22 ?g/ml for ADN-SLN. Annexin assay and cell cycle analysis assay further substantiated the cell cytotoxicity. Fluorescent cell uptake and competitive ligand-receptor binding assay corroborated the receptor mediated endocytosis pathway indicated role of adenosine receptors in internalization of conjugated particles. Pharmacokinetic studies of lipidic formulations depicted significant improvement in pharmacokinetic parameters than marketed formulation. ADN conjugated SLN proved to be an efficient drug delivery vehicle. Hence, ADN can be used as a potential ligand to target breast and prostate cancer. PMID:25839415

  17. Adenosine triphosphatases of thermophilic archaeal double-stranded DNA viruses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) of double-stranded (ds) DNA archaeal viruses are structurally related to the AAA+?hexameric helicases and translocases. These ATPases have been implicated in viral life cycle functions such as DNA entry into the host, and viral genome packaging into preformed procapsids. We summarize bioinformatical analyses of a wide range of archaeal ATPases, and review the biochemical and structural properties of those archaeal ATPases that have measurable ATPase activity. We discuss their potential roles in genome delivery into the host, virus assembly and genome packaging in comparison to hexameric helicases and packaging motors from bacteriophages. PMID:25105011

  18. 75 FR 8981 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Treatment of Glaucoma by Administration of Adenosine A3...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ...benzopyran one-, and triazoloquinazoline derivatives, their preparation and use as adenosine...benzopyran one-, and triazoloquinazoline derivatives, their preparation and use as adenosine...benzopyran one-, and triazoloquinazoline derivatives, their preparation and use as...

  19. Digoxin and Adenosine Triphosphate Enhance the Functional Properties of Tissue-Engineered Cartilage

    E-print Network

    Athanasiou, Kyriacos

    Digoxin and Adenosine Triphosphate Enhance the Functional Properties of Tissue-Engineered Cartilage known Ca2 + modulators, digoxin and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), can be employed as novel stimuli formed by scaffold-free self-assembling of primary bovine articular chondrocytes. Digoxin, ATP, or both

  20. Photomodulation of G Protein-Coupled Adenosine Receptors by a Novel Light-Switchable Ligand

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The adenosinergic system operates through G protein-coupled adenosine receptors, which have become promising therapeutic targets for a wide range of pathological conditions. However, the ubiquity of adenosine receptors and the eventual lack of selectivity of adenosine-based drugs have frequently diminished their therapeutic potential. Accordingly, here we aimed to develop a new generation of light-switchable adenosine receptor ligands that change their intrinsic activity upon irradiation, thus allowing the spatiotemporal control of receptor functioning (i.e., receptor activation/inactivation dependent on location and timing). Therefore, we synthesized an orthosteric, photoisomerizable, and nonselective adenosine receptor agonist, nucleoside derivative MRS5543 containing an aryl diazo linkage on the N6 substituent, which in the dark (relaxed isomer) behaved as a full adenosine A3 receptor (A3R) and partial adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) agonist. Conversely, upon photoisomerization with blue light (460 nm), it remained a full A3R agonist but became an A2AR antagonist. Interestingly, molecular modeling suggested that structural differences encountered within the third extracellular loop of each receptor could modulate the intrinsic, receptor subtype-dependent, activity. Overall, the development of adenosine receptor ligands with photoswitchable activity expands the pharmacological toolbox in support of research and possibly opens new pharmacotherapeutic opportunities. PMID:25248077

  1. Beneficial and detrimental role of adenosine signaling in diseases and therapy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Xia, Yang

    2015-11-15

    Adenosine is a major signaling nucleoside that orchestrates cellular and tissue adaptation under energy depletion and ischemic/hypoxic conditions by activation of four G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). The regulation and generation of extracellular adenosine in response to stress are critical in tissue protection. Both mouse and human studies reported that extracellular adenosine signaling plays a beneficial role during acute states. However, prolonged excess extracellular adenosine is detrimental and contributes to the development and progression of various chronic diseases. In recent years, substantial progress has been made to understand the role of adenosine signaling in different conditions and to clarify its significance during the course of disease progression in various organs. These efforts have and will identify potential therapeutic possibilities for protection of tissue injury at acute stage by upregulation of adenosine signaling or attenuation of chronic disease progression by downregulation of adenosine signaling. This review is to summarize current progress and the importance of adenosine signaling in different disease stages and its potential therapeutic effects. PMID:26316513

  2. On-Pump Inhibition of the es-ENT1 Nucleoside Transporter and Adenosine Deaminase during Aortic Cross-Clamping Entraps Intracellular Adenosine and Protects against Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Abd-Elfattah, Anwar Saad; Ding, Mai; Jessen, Michael E.; Wechsler, Andrew S.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Inhibition of adenosine deaminase, with EHNA (erythro-9 (2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)-adenine), and the es-ENT1 transporter, with NBMPR (p-nitro- benzylthioinosine), entraps myocardial intracellular adenosine during on pump warm cross clamping (ACC) leading to a complete recovery of cardiac function and ATP during reperfusion. The differential role of entrapped intracellular and circulating adenosine in EHNA/NBMPR-mediated protection is unknown. Selective, DPCPX [8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropyl-xanthine], or non-selective, [8-(p-sulfophenyltheophyline], A1-receptor antagonists were used to block adenosine A1-receptor contribution in EHNA/NBMPR-mediated cardiac recovery. Methods Anesthetized dogs (n= 45), instrumented to measure heart performance using sonomicrometry, were subjected to 30 minutes of warm ACC and 60 minutes of reperfusion. Three boluses of the vehicle (Series A) or 100?M EHNA and 25?M NBMPR (Series B) were infused into the pump at baseline, before ischemia and before reperfusion. DPCPX (10 ?M) or 8-SPT (100?M) was intra-aortically infused immediately after ACC distal to the clamp in Series (A) and Series (B). ATP pool and NAD+ was determined using HPLC. Results Ischemia depleted ATP in all groups by 50%. The ratios between adenosine to inosine were >10 fold higher in Series (B) than in Series (A) (p<0.001). ATP and function recovered in the EHNA/NBMPR-treated group (p<0.05 vs. control group). DPCPX or 8-SPT partially reduced cardiac function in Series (A) and (B) to the same degree but did not abolish EHNA/NBMPR-mediated protection in Series (B). Conclusion In addition to cardioprotection mediated by activation of adenosine receptors by extracellular adenosine, EHNA/NBMPR-entrapment of intracellular adenosine provides a significant component of myocardial protection despite of A1-R blockade. PMID:22325325

  3. Exploring human adenosine A3 receptor complementarity and activity for adenosine analogues modified in the ribose and purine moiety

    PubMed Central

    Van Rompaey, Philippe; Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Gross, Ariel S.; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Van Calenbergh, Serge

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigated the influence on affinity, selectivity and intrinsic activity upon modification of the adenosine agonist scaffold at the 3?- and 5?-positions of the ribofuranosyl moiety and the 2- and N6-positions of the purine base. This resulted in the synthesis of various analogues, that is, 3–12 and 24–33, with good hA3AR selectivity and moderate-to-high affinities (as in 32, Ki = 27 nM). Interesting was the ability to tune the intrinsic activity depending on the substituent introduced at the 3?-position. PMID:15670905

  4. Human Placental Adenosine Receptor Expression is Elevated in Preeclampsia and Hypoxia Increases Expression of the A2A Receptor

    PubMed Central

    von Versen-Höynck, F.; Rajakumar, A.; Bainbridge, S.A.; Gallaher, M.J.; Roberts, J.M.; Powers, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    Placental hypoxia as a result of impaired trophoblast invasion is suggested to be involved in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. Hypoxia is a potent stimulus for the release of adenosine, and the actions of adenosine are mediated through four adenosine receptors, A1, A2A, A2B and A3. We investigated the presence, distribution and expression of adenosine receptor subtypes in the human placenta, the expression of the adenosine receptors in placentas from pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia, small for gestational age (SGA) infants and uncomplicated pregnancies, and the effect of hypoxia on placental adenosine receptor expression. Immunofluorescent microscopy localized A1, A2A, A2B and A3 adenosine receptors to the syncytiotrophoblast, endothelial cells and myo-/fibroblasts within the human placenta. Adenosine receptor protein and message expression levels were significantly higher in placentas from preeclamptic pregnancies with or without SGA infants, but not different in pregnancies with SGA infants alone. In vitro exposure of placental villous explants to hypoxia (2% oxygen) increased the expression of A2A adenosine receptor 50%. These data indicate that all four known adenosine receptors are expressed in the human placenta and adenosine receptor expression is significantly higher in pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that differences in placental adenosine receptors may contribute to alterations in placental function in preeclampsia. PMID:19303140

  5. Pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and metabolism of squalenoyl adenosine nanoparticles in mice using dual radio-labeling and radio-HPLC analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gaudin, Alice; Lepetre-Mouelhi, Sinda; Mougin, Julie; Parrod, Martine; Pieters, Grégory; Garcia-Argote, Sébastien; Loreau, Olivier; Goncalves, Jordan; Chacun, Hélène; Courbebaisse, Yann; Clayette, Pascal; Desmaële, Didier; Rousseau, Bernard; Andrieux, Karine; Couvreur, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine is a pleiotropic endogenous nucleoside with potential neuroprotective pharmacological activity. However, clinical use of adenosine is hampered by its extremely fast metabolization. To overcome this limitation, we recently developed a new squalenoyl nanomedicine of adenosine [Squalenoyl-Adenosine (SQAd)] by covalent linkage of this nucleoside to the squalene, a natural lipid. The resulting nanoassemblies (NAs) displayed a dramatic pharmacological activity both in cerebral ischemia and spinal cord injury pre-clinical models. The aim of the present study was to investigate the plasma profile and tissue distribution of SQAd NAs using both Squalenoyl-[3H]-Adenosine NAs and [14C]-Squalenoyl-Adenosine NAs as respective tracers of adenosine and squalene moieties of the SQAd bioconjugate. This study was completed by radio-HPLC analysis allowing to determine the metabolization profile of SQAd. We report here that SQAd NAs allowed a sustained circulation of adenosine under its prodrug form (SQAd) for at least 1 h after intravenous administration, when free adenosine was metabolized within seconds after injection. Moreover, the squalenoylation of adenosine and its formulation as NAs also significantly modified biodistribution, as SQAd NAs were mainly captured by the liver and spleen, allowing a significant release of adenosine in the liver parenchyma. Altogether, these results suggest that SQAd NAs provided a reservoir of adenosine into the bloodstream which may explain the previously observed neuroprotective efficacy of SQAd NAs against cerebral ischemia and spinal cord injury. PMID:26087468

  6. Impaired germinal center maturation in adenosine deaminase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Aldrich, Melissa B; Chen, Wilma; Blackburn, Michael R; Martinez-Valdez, Hector; Datta, Surjit K; Kellems, Rodney E

    2003-11-15

    Mice deficient in the enzyme adenosine deaminase (ADA) have small lymphoid organs that contain reduced numbers of peripheral lymphocytes, and they are immunodeficient. We investigated B cell deficiency in ADA-deficient mice and found that B cell development in the bone marrow was normal. However, spleens were markedly smaller, their architecture was dramatically altered, and splenic B lymphocytes showed defects in proliferation and activation. ADA-deficient B cells exhibited a higher propensity to undergo B cell receptor-mediated apoptosis than their wild-type counterparts, suggesting that ADA plays a role in the survival of cells during Ag-dependent responses. In keeping with this finding, IgM production by extrafollicular plasmablast cells was higher in ADA-deficient than in wild-type mice, thus indicating that activated B cells accumulate extrafollicularly as a result of a poor or nonexistent germinal center formation. This hypothesis was subsequently confirmed by the profound loss of germinal center architecture. A comparison of levels of the ADA substrates, adenosine and 2'-deoxyadenosine, as well resulting dATP levels and S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase inhibition in bone marrow and spleen suggested that dATP accumulation in ADA-deficient spleens may be responsible for impaired B cell development. The altered splenic environment and signaling abnormalities may concurrently contribute to a block in B cell Ag-dependent maturation in ADA-deficient mouse spleens. PMID:14607964

  7. Function of murine adenosine deaminase in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Xu, P A; Kellems, R E

    2000-03-24

    Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency in humans leads to a combined immunodeficiency characterized by severe T and B cell lymphopenia. ADA-deficient humans also display defective development of gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT). They lack lymphoid cells, and the Peyer's patches are without germinal centers. In mice, ADA-deficient fetuses die perinatally due to liver damage, but they also exhibit pathology in the thymus, spleen, and the small intestine. The GI phenotype associated with ADA-deficient humans prompted us to examine the effect of ADA-deficiency on mouse small intestine tissue. The work presented here focuses on understanding the physiological role of ADA in the GI tract, using ADA-deficient mice rescued from perinatal lethality by restoring Ada expression to trophoblast cells. Histologically and immunologically, the GALT was compromised at all sites in ADA-/- mice, with the most dramatic changes seen in the Peyer's patches. Profound disturbances in purine metabolism were detected in all the gastrointestinal tissues. In particular, adenosine and deoxyadenosine, the ADA substrates, increased markedly while the product inosine decreased. The activity of S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase decreased throughout the GI tract, indicating a possible disruption of cellular transmethylation and activation of apoptotic pathways. There were also disturbances in the purine metabolic pathway with a decrease in the production of downstream nucleosides hypoxanthine and xanthine. PMID:10720488

  8. Inhibition of renal Na+, K+-adenosine triphosphatase by gentamicin

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, P.D.; Trimble, M.E.; Crespo, L.; Holohan, P.D.; Freedman, J.C.; Ross, C.R.

    1984-11-01

    Inhibition of renal Na+,K+-adenosine triphosphatase is an early biochemical manifestation of gentamicin treatment in rats. Studies with isolated, perfused rat kidneys in filtering and nonfiltering modes indicate that gentamicin is transported across the brush border membrane before enzyme inhibition. The drug caused enzyme inhibition (42%) only in filtering kidneys, and this inhibition was blocked by spermine, an inhibitor of gentamicin binding. In purified rat renal basolateral membranes, bound (/sup 3/H)gentamicin was displaced 88% by unlabeled gentamicin. After in vivo exposure to (/sup 3/H)gentamicin, the radioactivity associated with the isolated basolateral membranes was displaced only 46% by unlabeled drug. These results suggest that inhibition of renal Na+,K+-adenosine triphosphatase by gentamicin is probably due to an interaction at the cytoplasmic face of the basolateral membrane. Scatchard plots of (/sup 3/H)gentamicin binding to basolateral and brush border membranes revealed a single class of noninteracting sites in each membrane. Gentamicin did not change the bulk membrane lipid fluidity, as estimated by the fluorescence polarization of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene.

  9. Adenosine Signaling and the Energetic Costs of Induced Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Lazzaro, Brian P.

    2015-01-01

    Life history theory predicts that trait evolution should be constrained by competing physiological demands on an organism. Immune defense provides a classic example in which immune responses are presumed to be costly and therefore come at the expense of other traits related to fitness. One strategy for mitigating the costs of expensive traits is to render them inducible, such that the cost is paid only when the trait is utilized. In the current issue of PLOS Biology, Bajgar and colleagues elegantly demonstrate the energetic and life history cost of the immune response that Drosophila melanogaster larvae induce after infection by the parasitoid wasp Leptopilina boulardi. These authors show that infection-induced proliferation of defensive blood cells commands a diversion of dietary carbon away from somatic growth and development, with simple sugars instead being shunted to the hematopoetic organ for rapid conversion into the raw energy required for cell proliferation. This metabolic shift results in a 15% delay in the development of the infected larva and is mediated by adenosine signaling between the hematopoietic organ and the central metabolic control organ of the host fly. The adenosine signal thus allows D. melanogaster to rapidly marshal the energy needed for effective defense and to pay the cost of immunity only when infected. PMID:25915419

  10. Adenosine Deaminase Enzyme Therapy Prevents and Reverses the Heightened Cavernosal Relaxation in Priapism

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Jiaming; Jiang, Xianzhen; Dai, Yingbo; Zhang, Yujin; Tang, Yuxin; Sun, Hong; Mi, Tiejuan; Kellems, Rodney E.; Blackburn, Michael R.; Xia, Yang

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Priapism featured with painful prolonged penile erection is dangerous and commonly seen in sickle cell disease (SCD). The preventive approaches or effective treatment options for the disorder are limited because of poor understanding of its pathogenesis. Recent studies have revealed a novel role of excess adenosine in priapism caused by heightened cavernosal relaxation, and therefore present an intriguing mechanism-based therapeutic possibility. Aim The aim of this study was to determine the therapeutic effects of adenosine deaminase (ADA) enzyme therapy to lower adenosine in priapism. Methods Both ADA-deficient mice and SCD transgenic (Tg) mice display priapism caused by excessive adenosine. Thus, we used these two distinct lines of mouse models of priapism as our investigative tools. Specifically, we treated both of these mice with different dosages of polyethylene glycol–modified ADA (PEG–ADA) to reduce adenosine levels in vivo. At the end points of the experiments, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of PEG–ADA treatment by measuring adenosine levels and monitoring the cavernosal relaxation. Main Outcome Measures Adenosine levels in penile tissues were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, and cavernosal relaxation was quantified by electrical field stimulation (EFS)-induced corporal cavernosal strip (CCS) assays. Results We found that lowering adenosine levels in penile tissues by PEG–ADA treatment from birth in ADA-deficient mice prevented the increased EFS-induced CCS relaxation associated with priapism. Intriguingly, in both ADA-deficient mice and SCD Tg mice with established priapism, we found that normalization of adenosine levels in penile tissues by PEG–ADA treatment relieved the heightened EFS-induced cavernosal relaxation in priapism. Conclusions Our studies have identified that PEG–ADA is a novel, safe, and mechanism-based drug to prevent and correct excess adenosine-mediated increased cavernosal relaxation seen in two independent priapic animal models, and suggested its therapeutic possibility in men suffering from priapism. PMID:19845544

  11. Real-time monitoring of extracellular adenosine using enzyme-linked microelectrode arrays.

    PubMed

    Hinzman, Jason M; Gibson, Justin L; Tackla, Ryan D; Costello, Mark S; Burmeister, Jason J; Quintero, Jorge E; Gerhardt, Greg A; Hartings, Jed A

    2015-12-15

    Throughout the central nervous system extracellular adenosine serves important neuroprotective and neuromodulatory functions. However, current understanding of the in vivo regulation and effects of adenosine is limited by the spatial and temporal resolution of available measurement techniques. Here, we describe an enzyme-linked microelectrode array (MEA) with high spatial (7500 µm(2)) and temporal (4 Hz) resolution that can selectively measure extracellular adenosine through the use of self-referenced coating scheme that accounts for interfering substances and the enzymatic breakdown products of adenosine. In vitro, the MEAs selectively measured adenosine in a linear fashion (r(2)=0.98±0.01, concentration range=0-15 µM, limit of detection =0.96±0.5 µM). In vivo the limit of detection was 0.04±0.02 µM, which permitted real-time monitoring of the basal extracellular concentration in rat cerebral cortex (4.3±1.5 µM). Local cortical injection of adenosine through a micropipette produced dose-dependent transient increases in the measured extracellular concentration (200 nL: 6.8±1.8 µM; 400 nL: 19.4±5.3 µM) [P<0.001]. Lastly, local injection of dipyridamole, which inhibits transport of adenosine through equilibrative nucleoside transporter, raised the measured extracellular concentration of adenosine by 120% (5.6?12.3 µM) [P<0.001]. These studies demonstrate that MEAs can selectively measure adenosine on temporal and spatial scales relevant to adenosine signaling and regulation in normal and pathologic states. PMID:26183072

  12. Adenosine receptors in rat basophilic leukaemia cells: transductional mechanisms and effects on 5-hydroxytryptamine release.

    PubMed Central

    Abbracchio, M. P.; Paoletti, A. M.; Luini, A.; Cattabeni, F.; De Matteis, M. A.

    1992-01-01

    1. The presence of adenosine receptors linked to adenylate cyclase activity and their functional role in calcium-evoked 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) release was investigated in rat basophilic leukaemia (RBL) cells, a widely used model for studying the molecular mechanisms responsible for stimulus-secretion coupling. 2. In [3H]-5-HT-loaded cells triggered to release by the calcium ionophore A23187, a biphasic modulation of 5-HT secretion was induced by adenosine analogues, with inhibition of stimulated release at nM and potentiation at microM concentrations, suggesting the presence of adenosine receptor subtypes mediating opposite effects on calcium-dependent release. This was also confirmed by results obtained with other agents interfering with adenosine pharmacology, such as adenosine deaminase and the non-selective A1/A2 antagonist 8-phenyl-theophylline. 3. Similar biphasic dose-response curves were obtained with a variety of adenosine analogues on basal adenylate cyclase activity in RBL cells, with inhibition and stimulation of adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) production at nM and microM concentrations, respectively. The rank order of potency of adenosine analogues for inhibition and stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity and the involvement of G-proteins in modulation of cyclic AMP levels suggested the presence of cyclase-linked A1 high-affinity and A2-like low-affinity adenosine receptor subtypes. However, the atypical antagonism profile displayed by adenosine receptor xanthine antagonists on cyclase stimulation suggested that the A2-like receptor expressed by RBL cells might represent a novel cyclase-coupled A2 receptor subtype.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1313728

  13. Overexpression, purification and crystallographic analysis of a unique adenosine kinase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yimin; Long, Mary C.; Ranganathan, Senthil; Escuyer, Vincent; Parker, William B.; Li, Rongbao

    2005-06-01

    Adenosine kinase from M. tuberculosis has been overexpressed, purified and crystallized in the presence of adenosine. Structure determination using molecular replacement with diffraction data collected at 2.2 Å reveals a dimeric structure. Adenosine kinase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the only prokaryotic adenosine kinase that has been isolated and characterized. The enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of adenosine to adenosine monophosphate and is involved in the activation of 2-methyladenosine, a compound that has demonstrated selective activity against M. tuberculosis. The mechanism of action of 2-methyladenosine is likely to be different from those of current tuberculosis treatments and this compound (or other adenosine analogs) may prove to be a novel therapeutic intervention for this disease. The M. tuberculosis adenosine kinase was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and the enzyme was purified with activity comparable to that reported previously. The protein was crystallized in the presence of adenosine using the vapour-diffusion method. The crystals diffracted X-rays to high resolution and a complete data set was collected to 2.2 Å using synchrotron radiation. The crystal belonged to space group P3{sub 1}21, with unit-cell parameters a = 70.2, c = 111.6 Å, and contained a single protein molecule in the asymmetric unit. An initial structural model of the protein was obtained by the molecular-replacement method, which revealed a dimeric structure. The monomers of the dimer were related by twofold crystallographic symmetry. An understanding of how the M. tuberculosis adenosine kinase differs from the human homolog should aid in the design of more potent and selective antimycobacterial agents that are selectively activated by this enzyme.

  14. Effect of adenosine and adenosine receptor antagonist on Müller cell potassium channel in Rat chronic ocular hypertension models

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zijian; Huang, Ping; Liu, Xiaohong; Huang, Shouyue; Deng, Lianfu; Jin, Zhe; Xu, Shuo; Shen, Xi; Luo, Xunda; Zhong, Yisheng

    2015-01-01

    Müller cells are principal glial cells in rat retina and have attracted much attention in glaucoma studies. However, it is not clear whether adenosine and adenosine receptor (AR) antagonists play any roles in the regulation of potassium channels in Müller cells and subsequently in the promotion of glutamine synthetase (GS) and L-Glutamate/L-Aspartate Transporter (GLAST) functions. We found that chronic ocular hypertension (COH) in rat down-regulated Müller cells Kir2.1, Kir4.1, TASK-1, GS and GLAST expressions and attenuated the peak of inward potassium current. Retinal ganglion cells (RGC) count was lower in the COH rats than that in the sham operation animals. Intravitreal injection of selective A2A AR antagonist SCH442416 up-regulated Müller cell Kir4.1, TASK-1, GS and GLAST expressions and enhanced inward potassium currents compared with those in the COH rats with vehicle control. Meanwhile, the RGC count was higher following intravitreal injection of SCH442416 in the COH rats than that after vehicle injection. The fact that PKA inhibitor H-89 blocked these SCH442416 effects suggested that the PKA signaling pathway was involved in the observed ocular responses following the intravitreal SCH442416 injection. PMID:26063641

  15. Extracellular 3?,5?-cAMP-Adenosine Pathway Inhibits Glomerular Mesangial Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Raghvendra K.; Rosselli, Marinella; Gillespie, Delbert G.; Mi, Zaichuan

    2010-01-01

    Abnormal growth of glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs) contributes to the pathophysiology of many types of nephropathy. Because adenosine is an autocrine/paracrine factor that potentially could regulate GMC proliferation and because the extracellular 3?,5?-cAMP-adenosine pathway (i.e., the conversion of extracellular 3?,5?-cAMP to 5?-AMP and adenosine on the cell surface) could generate adenosine in the biophase of GMC receptors, we investigated the role of the 3?,5?-cAMP-adenosine pathway in modulating growth [cell proliferation, DNA synthesis ([3H]thymidine incorporation), collagen synthesis ([3H]proline incorporation), and mitogen-activated protein kinase activity] of GMCs. The addition of exogenous 3?,5?-cAMP to human GMCs increased extracellular levels of 5?-AMP, adenosine, and inosine, and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (phosphodiesterase inhibitor), 1,3-dipropyl-8-p-sulfophenylxanthine (ecto-phosphodiesterase inhibitor), and ?,?-methylene-adenosine-5?-diphosphate (ecto-5?-nucleotidase inhibitor) attenuated the increases in adenosine and inosine. Forskolin augmented extracellular 3?,5?-cAMP and adenosine concentrations, and 2?,5?-dideoxyadenosine (adenylyl cyclase inhibitor) blocked these increases. Exogenous 3?,5?-cAMP and forskolin inhibited all indices of cell growth, and antagonism of A2 [(E)-8-(3,4-dimethoxystyryl)-1,3-dipropyl-7-methylxanthine, KF17837] or A1/A2 (1,3-dipropyl-8-p-sulfophenylxanthine, DPSPX), but not A1 (8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine), or A3{N-(2-methoxyphenyl)-N?-[2-(3-pyridinyl)-4-quinazolinyl]-urea, VUF5574}, adenosine receptors blocked the growth-inhibitory actions of exogenous 3?,5?-cAMP, but not the effects of 8-bromo-3?,5?-cAMP (stable 3?,5?-cAMP analog). Erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)adenine (adenosine deaminase inhibitor) plus 5-iodotubercidin (adenosine kinase inhibitor) enhanced the growth inhibition by exogenous 3?,5?-cAMP and forskolin, and A2 receptor antagonism blocked this effect. In rat GMCs, down-regulation of A2B receptors with antisense, but not sense or scrambled, oligonucleotides abrogated the inhibitory effects of 3?,5?-cAMP and forskolin on cell growth. The extracellular 3?,5?-cAMP-adenosine pathway exists in GMCs and attenuates cell growth via A2B receptors. Pharmacological augmentation of this pathway could abate pathological glomerular remodeling. PMID:20194527

  16. Control of adenosine deaminase levels in human lymphoblasts.

    PubMed

    Daddona, P E; Kelley, W N

    1982-01-01

    High levels of adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity have been associated with normal T cell differentiation and T cell disease, such as acute lymphoblastic leukemia; however, possible mechanisms controlling the level of this enzyme have not been explored. In this study, the properties and rate of turnover of ADA are compared in cultured human T and B lymphoblast cell lines. (1) Relative to B lymphoblasts, the level of ADA activity in extracts of T lymphoblast cell lines (MOLT-4, RPMI-8402, CCRF-CEM and CCRF-HSB-2) is elevated 7- to 14-fold and differs by 2-fold among the T-cell lines. (2) In T and B lymphoblast extracts, the enzyme is apparently identical based on Km for adenosine and deoxyadenosine, Ki for inosine, Vmax for adenosine, S20w, isoelectric pH, and heat stability. Further, by radioimmunoassay the quantity of ADA immunoreactive protein is proportional to the level of enzyme activity in all cell lines studied. (3) Using a purification and selective immunoprecipitation technique, the enzyme turnover could be assessed in cell lines labeled with [35S]methionine. The apparent rate of ADA synthesis, relative to total protein, is 2-fold faster in both T cell lines (RPMI-8402 and CCRF-CEM) than in the B cell lines (MGL-8 and GM-130). The apparent half-life (t1/2) for the enzyme degradation is 19 and 39 hr, respectively, for CCRF-CEM and RPMI-8402, while the t1/2 for both B cell lines is 7-9 hr. From the net rate of synthesis and degradation, the T cell lines exhibit a 6- and 12-fold difference in ADA turnover relative to B cells, consistent with the observed differences in enzyme activity. (4) The level of ADA (activity and/or protein) in cultured T or B lymphoblasts is not influenced by either substrates or products of the ADA reaction or an ADA inhibitor or a selected group of immunosuppressive drugs added to these cells in culture. These studies indicate that while ADA is apparently identical in all T and B lymphoblasts, alterations in both the rate of ADA synthesis and degradation lead to its accumulation and high steady-state level in T cells. PMID:6981287

  17. Latest QSAR study of adenosine A[Formula: see text] receptor affinity of xanthines and deazaxanthines.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Garrido, Alfonso; Rivero-Buceta, Virginia; Cano, Gaspar; Kumar, Sanjay; Pérez-Sánchez, Horacio; Bautista, Marta Teijeira

    2015-11-01

    Adenosine, a widespread and endogenous nucleoside that acts as a powerful neuromodulator in the nervous system, is a promising therapeutic target in a wide range of conditions. The structural similarity between xanthine derivatives and neurotransmitter adenosine has led to the derivatives of the heterocyclic ring being among the most abundant chemical classes of ligand antagonists of adenosine receptor subtypes. Small changes in the xanthine scaffold have resulted in a wide array of adenosine receptor antagonists. In this work, we developed a QSAR model for the [Formula: see text] subtype, which is, as yet, not well characterized, with two purposes in mind: to predict adenosine [Formula: see text] antagonist activity and to offer a substructural interpretation of this group of xanthines. The QSAR model provided good classifications of both the test and external sets. In addition, most of the contributions to adenosine [Formula: see text] receptor affinity derived by subfragmentation of the molecules in the training set agree with the relationships observed in the literature. These two factors mean that this QSAR ensemble could be used as a model to predict future adenosine [Formula: see text] antagonist candidates. PMID:26160364

  18. The NLRP3 inflammasome is activated by nanoparticles through ATP, ADP and adenosine

    PubMed Central

    Baron, L; Gombault, A; Fanny, M; Villeret, B; Savigny, F; Guillou, N; Panek, C; Le Bert, M; Lagente, V; Rassendren, F; Riteau, N; Couillin, I

    2015-01-01

    The NLR pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is a major component of the innate immune system, but its mechanism of activation by a wide range of molecules remains largely unknown. Widely used nano-sized inorganic metal oxides such as silica dioxide (nano-SiO2) and titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) activate the NLRP3 inflammasome in macrophages similarly to silica or asbestos micro-sized particles. By investigating towards the molecular mechanisms of inflammasome activation in response to nanoparticles, we show here that active adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release and subsequent ATP, adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine receptor signalling are required for inflammasome activation. Nano-SiO2 or nano-TiO2 caused a significant increase in P2Y1, P2Y2, A2A and/or A2B receptor expression, whereas the P2X7 receptor was downregulated. Interestingly, IL-1? secretion in response to nanoparticles is increased by enhanced ATP and ADP hydrolysis, whereas it is decreased by adenosine degradation or selective A2A or A2B receptor inhibition. Downstream of these receptors, our results show that nanoparticles activate the NLRP3 inflammasome via activation of PLC-InsP3 and/or inhibition of adenylate cyclase (ADCY)-cAMP pathways. Finally, a high dose of adenosine triggers inflammasome activation and IL-1? secretion through adenosine cellular uptake by nucleotide transporters and by its subsequent transformation in ATP by adenosine kinase. In summary, we show for the first time that extracellular adenosine activates the NLRP3 inflammasome by two ways: by interacting with adenosine receptors at nanomolar/micromolar concentrations and through cellular uptake by equilibrative nucleoside transporters at millimolar concentrations. These findings provide new molecular insights on the mechanisms of NLRP3 inflammasome activation and new therapeutic strategies to control inflammation. PMID:25654762

  19. Lack of Endogenous Adenosine Tonus on Sympathetic Neurotransmission in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rat Mesenteric Artery

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Joana Beatriz; Vieira-Rocha, Maria Sofia; Sá, Carlos; Ferreirinha, Fátima; Correia-de-Sá, Paulo; Fresco, Paula; Diniz, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Background Increased sympathetic activity has been implicated in hypertension. Adenosine has been shown to play a role in blood flow regulation. In the present study, the endogenous adenosine neuromodulatory role, in mesenteric arteries from normotensive and spontaneously hypertensive rats, was investigated. Methods and Results The role of endogenous adenosine in sympathetic neurotransmission was studied using electrically-evoked [3H]-noradrenaline release experiments. Purine content was determined by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Localization of adenosine A1 or A2A receptors in adventitia of mesenteric arteries was investigated by Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy. Results indicate a higher electrically-evoked noradrenaline release from hypertensive mesenteric arteries. The tonic inhibitory modulation of noradrenaline release is mediated by adenosine A1 receptors and is lacking in arteries from hypertensive animals, despite their purine levels being higher comparatively to those determined in normotensive ones. Tonic facilitatory adenosine A2A receptor-mediated effects were absent in arteries from both strains. Immunohistochemistry revealed an adenosine A1 receptors redistribution from sympathetic fibers to Schwann cells, in adventitia of hypertensive mesenteric arteries which can explain, at least in part, the absence of effects observed for these receptors. Conclusion Data highlight the role of purines in hypertension revealing that an increase in sympathetic activity in hypertensive arteries is occurring due to a higher noradrenaline/ATP release from sympathetic nerves and the loss of endogenous adenosine inhibitory tonus. The observed nerve-to-glial redistribution of inhibitory adenosine A1 receptors in hypertensive arteries may explain the latter effect. PMID:25158061

  20. Cellular and molecular mechanism(s) of coronary flow regulation by adenosine.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, S J

    1980-06-18

    There is strong evidence in favor of a major role for adenosine in the metabolic regulation of blood flow to the heart. The exact nature of the molecular and cellular events leading to the vasodilatation by adenosine are poorly understood. In the present report we have provided experimental evidence that; (i) hypoxia of cardiac cells resulted in the production of adenosine (and its degradative products) which can be responsible for the hypoxic dilation observed by several workers; (ii) the release of metabolites such as potassium and inorganic phosphate was unchanged due to a 30-minute hypoxia of cardiac cells; (iii) the release of prostaglandin E but not F was enhanced due to hypoxia of cardiac cells which may be due to the storage pools in the cells; (iv) prostaglandin E1, E2 and F2 alpha inhibited the uptake of adenosine at pharmacological concentrations but not at physiological concentrations; (v) prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors (aspirin and indomethacin) nonspecifically inhibited the uptake of adenosine in the cardiac cells; (vi) lowering of pH resulted in inhibition in the uptake of adenosine and its incorporation into adenine nucleotides in cardiac cells; (vii) lowering the pH of the perfusion medium resulted in the increased release of perfusate adenosine (and its degradative products) with a simultaneous increase in coronary blood flow; (ix) specific adenosine receptor sites were found in cardiac muscle, coronary arteries, and carotid arteries of the dog and rabbit aorta, which satisfy the basic characteristic of receptor binding; and (x) these receptor binding sites were different from the adenosine uptake protein and were competitively blocked by theophylline or aminophylline. It is concluded that adensine plays a major role in blood flow regulation to the heart and acts through specific receptors to produce vasodilatation. PMID:6774229

  1. Severe hemorrhage attenuates cardiopulmonary chemoreflex control of regional sympathetic outputs via NTS adenosine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Minic, Zeljka; Li, Cailian; O'Leary, Donal S.

    2014-01-01

    Selective stimulation of inhibitory A1 and facilitatory A2a adenosine receptor subtypes located in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) powerfully inhibits cardiopulmonary chemoreflex (CCR) control of regional sympathetic outputs via different mechanisms: direct inhibition of glutamate release and facilitation of an inhibitory neurotransmitter release, respectively. However, it remains unknown whether adenosine naturally released into the NTS has similar inhibitory effects on the CCR as the exogenous agonists do. Our previous study showed that adenosine is released into the NTS during severe hemorrhage and contributes to reciprocal changes of renal (decreases) and adrenal (increases) sympathetic nerve activity observed in this setting. Both A1 and A2a adenosine receptors are involved. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that, during severe hemorrhage, CCR control of the two sympathetic outputs is attenuated by adenosine naturally released into the NTS. We compared renal and adrenal sympathoinhibitory responses evoked by right atrial injections of 5HT3 receptor agonist phenylbiguanide (2–8 ?g/kg) under control conditions, during hemorrhage, and during hemorrhage preceded by blockade of NTS adenosine receptors with bilateral microinjections of 8-(p-sulfophenyl) theophylline (1 nmol/100 nl) in urethane/chloralose anesthetized rats. CCR-mediated inhibition of renal and adrenal sympathetic activity was significantly attenuated during severe hemorrhage despite reciprocal changes in the baseline activity levels, and this attenuation was removed by bilateral blockade of adenosine receptors in the caudal NTS. This confirmed that adenosine endogenously released into the NTS has a similar modulatory effect on integration of cardiovascular reflexes as stimulation of NTS adenosine receptors with exogenous agonists. PMID:25063794

  2. Adenosine Monophosphate-Based Detection of Bacterial Spores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, Roger G.; Chen, Fei; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Hattori, Nori; Suzuki, Shigeya

    2009-01-01

    A method of rapid detection of bacterial spores is based on the discovery that a heat shock consisting of exposure to a temperature of 100 C for 10 minutes causes the complete release of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) from the spores. This method could be an alternative to the method described in the immediately preceding article. Unlike that method and related prior methods, the present method does not involve germination and cultivation; this feature is an important advantage because in cases in which the spores are those of pathogens, delays involved in germination and cultivation could increase risks of infection. Also, in comparison with other prior methods that do not involve germination, the present method affords greater sensitivity. At present, the method is embodied in a laboratory procedure, though it would be desirable to implement the method by means of a miniaturized apparatus in order to make it convenient and economical enough to encourage widespread use.

  3. Structural and Metabolic Specificity of Methylthiocoformycin for Malarial Adenosine Deaminases

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, M.; Cassera, M; Madrid, D; Ting, L; Tyler, P; Kim, K; Almo, S; Schramm, V

    2009-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum is a purine auxotroph requiring hypoxanthine as a key metabolic precursor. Erythrocyte adenine nucleotides are the source of the purine precursors, making adenosine deaminase (ADA) a key enzyme in the pathway of hypoxanthine formation. Methylthioadenosine (MTA) is a substrate for most malarial ADAs, but not for human ADA. The catalytic site specificity of malarial ADAs permits methylthiocoformycin (MT-coformycin) to act as a Plasmodium-specific transition state analogue with low affinity for human ADA. The structural basis for MTA and MT-coformycin specificity in malarial ADAs is the subject of speculation. Here, the crystal structure of ADA from Plasmodium vivax (PvADA) in a complex with MT-coformycin reveals an unprecedented binding geometry for 5?-methylthioribosyl groups in the malarial ADAs. Compared to malarial ADA complexes with adenosine or deoxycoformycin, 5?-methylthioribosyl groups are rotated 130 degrees. A hydrogen bonding network between Asp172 and the 3?-hydroxyl of MT-coformycin is essential for recognition of the 5?-methylthioribosyl group. Water occupies the 5?-hydroxyl binding site when MT-coformycin is bound. Mutagenesis of Asp172 destroys the substrate specificity for MTA and MT-coformycin. Kinetic, mutagenic, and structural analyses of PvADA and kinetic analysis of five other Plasmodium ADAs establish the unique structural basis for its specificity for MTA and MT-coformycin. Plasmodium gallinaceum ADA does not use MTA as a substrate, is not inhibited by MT-coformycin, and is missing Asp172. Treatment of P. falciparum cultures with coformycin or MT-coformycin in the presence of MTA is effective in inhibiting parasite growth.

  4. Magnetite nanoparticle-induced fluorescence quenching of adenosine triphosphate-BODIPY Conjugates: application to adenosine triphosphate and pyrophosphate sensing.

    PubMed

    Yu, Cheng-Ju; Wu, Su-Mei; Tseng, Wei-Lung

    2013-09-17

    We report that magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) act as an efficient quencher for boron dipyrromethene-conjugated adenosine 5'-triphosphate (BODIPY-ATP) that is highly fluorescent in bulk solution. BODIPY-ATP molecules attached to the surface of Fe3O4 NPs through the coordination between the triphosphate group of BODIPY-ATP and Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) on the NP surface. The formed complexes induced an apparent reduction in the BODIPY-ATP fluorescence resulting from an oxidative-photoinduced electron transfer (PET) from the BODIPY-ATP excited state to an unfilled d shell of Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) on the NP surface. A comparison of the Stern-Volmer quenching constant between Fe(3+) and Fe(2+) suggests that Fe(3+) on the NP surface dominantly controls this quenching process. The efficiency for Fe3O4 NP-induced fluorescence quenching of the BODIPY-ATP was enhanced by increasing the concentration of Fe3O4 NPs and lowering the pH of the solution to below 6.0. We found that pyrophosphate and ATP compete with BODIPY-ATP for binding to Fe3O4 NPs. Thus, we amplified BODIPY-ATP fluorescence in the presence of increasing the pyrophosphate and ATP concentration; the detection limits at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 for pyrophosphate and ATP were determined to be 7 and 30 nM, respectively. The Fe3O4 NP-based competitive binding assay detected ATP and pyrophosphate in only 5 min. The selectivity of this assay for ATP over metal ions, amino acids, and adenosine analogues is particularly high. The practicality of using the developed method to determine ATP in a single drop of blood is also validated. PMID:23919280

  5. Passive targeting of ischemic-reperfused myocardium with adenosine-loaded silica nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Galagudza, Michael; Korolev, Dmitry; Postnov, Viktor; Naumisheva, Elena; Grigorova, Yulia; Uskov, Ivan; Shlyakhto, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Pharmacological agents suggested for infarct size limitation have serious side effects when used at cardioprotective doses which hinders their translation into clinical practice. The solution to the problem might be direct delivery of cardioprotective drugs into ischemic-reperfused myocardium. In this study, we explored the potential of silica nanoparticles for passive delivery of adenosine, a prototype cardioprotective agent, into ischemic-reperfused heart tissue. In addition, the biodegradation of silica nanoparticles was studied both in vitro and in vivo. Immobilization of adenosine on the surface of silica nanoparticles resulted in enhancement of adenosine-mediated infarct size limitation in the rat model. Furthermore, the hypotensive effect of adenosine was attenuated after its adsorption on silica nanoparticles. We conclude that silica nanoparticles are biocompatible materials that might potentially be used as carriers for heart-targeted drug delivery. PMID:22619519

  6. Microthalamotomy effect during Deep Brain Stimulation: Potential Involvement of Adenosine and Glutamate Efflux

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Su-Youne; Shon, Young Min; Agnesi, Filippo; Lee, Kendall H.

    2010-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the thalamus is widely used in humans to treat essential tremor and tremor dominant Parkinson’s disease. After DBS lead implantation, tremor is often reduced even without electrical stimulation. Often called “microthalamotomy” effect, the exact mechanism is unknown, although it is presumed to be due to micro lesioning. Here, we tested whether microthalamotomy effect may, in fact, be mediated via release of neurotransmitters adenosine and glutamate, using fast scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) and amperometry, respectively. Implantation of microelectrodes into the ventrolateral (VL) thalamus of the rat resulted in transient rise in adenosine and glutamate level from mechanical stimulation. Similarly, high frequency stimulation (100 – 130 Hz) of the VL thalamus also resulted in adenosine and glutamate release. These results suggest that glutamate and adenosine release may be an important and unappreciated mechanism whereby mechanical stimulation via electrode implantation procedure may achieve the microthalamotomy effect. PMID:19964296

  7. Characteristic molecular vibrations of adenosine receptor ligands Hyun Keun Chee a

    E-print Network

    , Je-Gun Joung c , Byoung-Tak Zhang b , S. June Oh d, a Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Accepted 15 January 2015 Available online 23 January 2015 Edited by Alfonso Valencia Keywords: Adenosine

  8. Laboratory procedures manual for the firefly luciferase assay for adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappelle, E. W.; Picciolo, G. L.; Curtis, C. A.; Knust, E. A.; Nibley, D. A.; Vance, R. B.

    1975-01-01

    A manual on the procedures and instruments developed for the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) luciferase assay is presented. Data cover, laboratory maintenance, maintenance of bacterial cultures, bacteria measurement, reagents, luciferase procedures, and determination of microbal susceptibility to antibiotics.

  9. Pericardial Effusion and Adenosine Deaminase False Positivity Due to Parvovirus B19.

    PubMed

    Öner, Taliha; Ocak, Seda; Telhan, Leyla; Hatipoglu, Dilek; Dalgic, Nazan

    2015-09-01

    This case is presented to highlight that one of the causes for massive exudative pericardial effusion in a child may be parvovirus B19, and adenosine deaminase can be falsely positive in such patients. PMID:26376310

  10. Methotrexate inhibits neutrophil function by stimulating adenosine release from connective tissue cells.

    PubMed Central

    Cronstein, B N; Eberle, M A; Gruber, H E; Levin, R I

    1991-01-01

    Although commonly used to control a variety of inflammatory diseases, the mechanism of action of a low dose of methotrexate remains a mystery. Methotrexate accumulates intracellularly where it may interfere with purine metabolism. Therefore, we determined whether a 48-hr pretreatment with methotrexate affected adenosine release from [14C]adenine-labeled human fibroblasts and umbilical vein endothelial cells. Methotrexate significantly increased adenosine release by fibroblasts from 4 +/- 1% to 31 +/- 6% of total purine released (EC50, 1 nM) and by endothelial cells from 24 +/- 4% to 42 +/- 7%. Methotrexate-enhanced adenosine release from fibroblasts was further increased to 51 +/- 4% (EC50, 6 nM) and from endothelial cells was increased to 58 +/- 5% of total purine released by exposure to stimulated (fMet-Leu-Phe at 0.1 microM) neutrophils. The effect of methotrexate on adenosine release was not due to cytotoxicity since cells treated with maximal concentrations of methotrexate took up [14C]adenine and released 14C-labeled purine (a measure of cell injury) in a manner identical to control cells. Methotrexate treatment of fibroblasts dramatically inhibited adherence to fibroblasts by both unstimulated neutrophils (IC50, 9 nM) and stimulated neutrophils (IC50, 13 nM). Methotrexate treatment inhibited neutrophil adherence by enhancing adenosine release from fibroblasts since digestion of extracellular adenosine by added adenosine deaminase completely abrogated the effect of methotrexate on neutrophil adherence without, itself, affecting adherence. One hypothesis that explains the effect of methotrexate on adenosine release is that, by inhibition of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) transformylase, methotrexate induces the accumulation of AICAR, the nucleoside precursor of which (5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside referred to hereafter as acadesine) has previously been shown to cause adenosine release from ischemic cardiac tissue. We found that acadesine also promotes adenosine release from and inhibits neutrophil adherence to connective tissue cells. The observation that the antiinflammatory actions of methotrexate are due to the capacity of methotrexate to induce adenosine release may form the basis for the development of an additional class of antiinflammatory drugs. PMID:2006182

  11. Ticagrelor Does Not Inhibit Adenosine Transport at Relevant Concentrations: A Randomized Cross-Over Study in Healthy Subjects In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Rongen, G. A.; van den Broek, P. H. H.; Bilos, A.; Donders, A. R. T.; Gomes, M. E.; Riksen, N. P.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose In patients with myocardial infarction, ticagrelor reduces cardiovascular and sepsis-related mortality, and can cause dyspnea. It is suggested that this is caused by adenosine receptor stimulation, because in preclinical studies, ticagrelor blocks the nucleoside transporter and increases cellular ATP release. We now investigated the effects of ticagrelor on the adenosine system in humans in vivo. Experimental Approach In a double-blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over trial in 14 healthy subjects, we have tested whether ticagrelor (180 mg) affects adenosine- and dipyridamole-induced forearm vasodilation, as surrogates of nucleoside uptake inhibition and adenosine formation, respectively. Also, ex vivo uptake of adenosine and uridine in isolated red blood cells was measured. Primary endpoint was adenosine-induced vasodilation. Key Results Ticagrelor did not affect adenosine- or dipyridamole-induced forearm vasodilation. Also, ex vivo uptake of adenosine and uridine in isolated red blood cells was not affected by ticagrelor. In vitro, ticagrelor dose-dependently inhibited nucleoside uptake, but only at supra-physiological concentrations. Conclusion and Implications In conclusion, at relevant plasma concentration, ticagrelor does not affect adenosine transport, nor adenosine formation in healthy subjects. Therefore, it is unlikely that this mechanism is a relevant pleiotropic effect of ticagrelor. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01996735 PMID:26509673

  12. Human adenosine deaminase: properties and turnover in cultured T and B lymphoblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Daddona, P.E.

    1981-12-10

    In this study, the properties and rate of turnover of adenosine deaminase are compared in cultured human T and B lymphoblast cell lines. 1) Relative to B lymphoblasts, the level of adenosine deaminase activity in extracts of T lymphoblast cell lines (MOLT-4, RPMI-8402, CCRF-CEM, and CCRF-HSB-2) is elevated 7-14-fold and differs by 2-fold between the C cell lines. 2) In both T and B lymphoblast extracts, the enzyme is apparently identical, based on K/sub m/ for adenosine and deoxyadenosine, K/sub i/ for inosine, V/sub max/ for adenosine, /sub S20,w/, isoelectric pH, and heat stability. Furthermore, by radioimmunoassay, the quantity of adenosine deaminase-immunocreative protein is proportional to the level of enzyme activity in all cell lines studies. 3) Using a purification and selective immunoprecipitation technique, the enzyme turnover could be assessed in cell lines labeled with (/sup 35/S)methionine. The apparent rate of adenosine deaminase synthesis, relative to total protein, is 2-fold faster in both T cell lines (RPMI-8402 and CCRF-CEM) than in the B cell lines (MGL-8 and GM-130). The apparent half-life (tsub1/2) for the enzyme degradation is 19 and 39 h, respectively, in CCFR-CEM and RPMI-8402, while the tsub1/2 in both B cell lines is 7-9 h. From the net rate of synthesis and degradation, the T cell lines, respectively, exhibit approximately a 6- and 12-fold difference in adenosine deaminase turnover relative to B cells, consistent with the observed differences in enzyme activity. This study suggests that while adenosine deaminase is apparently identical in both T and B lymphoblast cell lines, alterations in both the rate of enzyme synthesis and degradation contribute to its high steady state level in T cells.

  13. Sitagliptin attenuates sympathetic innervation via modulating reactive oxygen species and interstitial adenosine in infarcted rat hearts

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tsung-Ming; Chen, Wei-Ting; Yang, Chen-Chia; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Chang, Nen-Chung

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, attenuates arrhythmias through inhibiting nerve growth factor (NGF) expression in post-infarcted normoglycemic rats, focusing on adenosine and reactive oxygen species production. DPP-4 bound adenosine deaminase has been shown to catalyse extracellular adenosine to inosine. DPP-4 inhibitors increased adenosine levels by inhibiting the complex formation. Normoglycemic male Wistar rats were subjected to coronary ligation and then randomized to either saline or sitagliptin in in vivo and ex vivo studies. Post-infarction was associated with increased oxidative stress, as measured by myocardial superoxide, nitrotyrosine and dihydroethidium fluorescent staining. Measurement of myocardial norepinephrine levels revealed a significant elevation in vehicle-treated infarcted rats compared with sham. Compared with vehicle, infarcted rats treated with sitagliptin significantly increased interstitial adenosine levels and attenuated oxidative stress. Sympathetic hyperinnervation was blunted after administering sitagliptin, as assessed by immunofluorescent analysis and western blotting and real-time quantitative RT-PCR of NGF. Arrhythmic scores in the sitagliptin-treated infarcted rats were significantly lower than those in vehicle. Ex vivo studies showed a similar effect of erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl) adenine (an adenosine deaminase inhibitor) to sitagliptin on attenuated levels of superoxide and NGF. Furthermore, the beneficial effects of sitagliptin on superoxide anion production and NGF levels can be reversed by 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropulxanthine (adenosine A1 receptor antagonist) and exogenous hypoxanthine. Sitagliptin protects ventricular arrhythmias by attenuating sympathetic innervation via adenosine A1 receptor and xanthine oxidase-dependent pathways, which converge through the attenuated formation of superoxide in the non-diabetic infarcted rats. PMID:25388908

  14. Effect of adenosine on GLAST expression in the retina of a chronic ocular hypertension rat model

    PubMed Central

    YANG, ZI-JIAN; ZHONG, YI-SHENG

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the effect of adenosine and an adenosine receptor antagonist on the expression of the L-glutamate/L-aspartate transporter (GLAST) in the retina of a chronic ocular hypertension (COH) rat model. COH models were established via the cauterization of three episcleral veins. Measurements of the intraocular pressure of the right eye (COH eye) were taken weekly by a handheld digital tonometer. A total of 10 µM adenosine or 10 µM adenosine + 100 nM SCH442416 solution (2 µl) was injected into the rat vitreous space. The reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and immunohistochemistry were used to detect GLAST expression. Compared with the COH group, GLAST mRNA expression was decreased by 33.6% in the group treated with adenosine (n=6, P=0.020) and was increased by 159.6% in the group treated with SCH442416 (n=6, P=0.001). Administration of adenosine decreased GLAST protein expression by 34.7% (n=6, P<0.001), while treatment with the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist SCH442416 increased GLAST protein expression by 48.3% compared with the control COH group (n=6, P<0.001). Immunohistochemical experiments showed that administration of adenosine decreased GLAST protein expression, as compared with expression in the control COH rat retina. Administration of SCH442416 markedly increased GLAST protein expression. The results of the present study may provide a novel method for retinal neuron protection. PMID:26622427

  15. Role of adenosine deaminase, ecto-(5'-nucleotidase) and ecto-(non-specific phosphatase) in cyanide-induced adenosine monophosphate catabolism in rat polymorphonuclear leucocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Newby, A C

    1980-01-01

    1. The role of adenosine deaminase (EC 3.5.4.4), ecto-(5'-nucleotidase) (EC 3.1.3.5) and ecto-(non-specific phosphatase) in the CN-induced catabolism of adenine nucleotides in intact rat polymorphonuclear leucocytes was investigated by inhibiting the enzymes in situ. 2. KCN (10mM for 90 min) induced a 20-30% fall in ATP concentration accompanied by an approximately equimolar increase in hypoxanthine, ADP, AMP and adenosine concentrations were unchanged, and IMP and inosine remained undetectable ( less than 0.05 nmol/10(7) cells). 3. Cells remained 98% intact, as judged by loss of the cytoplasmic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.27). 4. Pentostatin (30 microM), a specific inhibitor of adenosine deaminase, completely inhibited hypoxanthine production from exogenous adenosine (55 microM), but did not black CN-induced hypoxanthine production or cause adenosine accumulation in intact cells. This implied that IMP rather than adenosine was an intermediate in AMP breakdown in response to cyanide. 5. Antibodies raised against purified plasma-membrane 5'-nucleotidase inhibited the ecto-(5'-nucleotidase) by 95-98%. Non-specific phosphatases were blocked by 10 mM-sodium beta-glycerophosphate. 6. These two agents together blocked hypoxanthine production from exogenous AMP and IMP (200 microM) by more than 90%, but had no effect on production from endogenous substrates. 7. These data suggest that ectophosphatases do not participate in CN-induced catabolism of intracellular AMP in rat polymorphonuclear leucocytes. 8. A minor IMPase, not inhibited by antiserum, was detected in the soluble fraction of disrupted cells. PMID:6249264

  16. LDL-cholesterol reduction in patients with hypercholesterolemia by modulation of adenosine triphosphate-citrate lyase and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase

    PubMed Central

    Filippov, Sergey; Pinkosky, Stephen L.; Newton, Roger S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review To review the profile of ETC-1002, as shown in preclinical and clinical studies, including LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C)-lowering activity and beneficial effects on other cardiometabolic risk markers as they relate to the inhibition of adenosine triphosphate-citrate lyase and the activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase. Recent findings ETC-1002 is an adenosine triphosphate-citrate lyase inhibitor/adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase activator currently in Phase 2b clinical development. In seven Phase 1 and Phase 2a clinical studies, ETC-1002 dosed once daily for 2–12 weeks has lowered LDL-C and reduced high-sensitivity C-reactive protein by up to 40%, with neutral to positive effects on glucose levels, blood pressure, and body weight. Importantly, use of ETC-1002 in statin-intolerant patients has shown statin-like lowering of LDL-C without the muscle pain and weakness responsible for discontinuation of statin use by many patients. ETC-1002 has also been shown to produce an incremental benefit, lowering LDL-C as an add-on therapy to a low-dose statin. In over 300 individuals in studies of up to 12 weeks, ETC-1002 has been well tolerated with no serious adverse effects. Summary Because adenosine triphosphate-citrate lyase and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase play central roles in regulating lipid and glucose metabolism, pharmacological modulation of these two enzymes could provide an important therapeutic alternative for statin-intolerant patients with hypercholesterolemia. PMID:24978142

  17. Adenosine deaminase deficiency: metabolic basis of immune deficiency and pulmonary inflammation.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Michael R; Kellems, Rodney E

    2005-01-01

    Genetic deficiencies in the purine catabolic enzyme adenosine deaminase (ADA) in humans results primarily in a severe lymphopenia and immunodeficiency that can lead to the death of affected individuals early in life. The metabolic basis of the immunodeficiency is likely related to the sensitivity of lymphocytes to the accumulation of the ADA substrates adenosine and 2'-deoxyadenosine. Investigations using ADA-deficient mice have provided compelling evidence to support the hypothesis that T and B cells are sensitive to increased concentrations of 2'-deoxyadenosine that kill cells through mechanisms that involve the accumulation of dATP and the induction of apoptosis. In addition to effects on the developing immune system, ADA-deficient humans exhibit phenotypes in other physiological systems including the renal, neural, skeletal, and pulmonary systems. ADA-deficient mice develop similar abnormalities that are dependent on the accumulation of adenosine and 2'-deoxyadenosine. Detailed analysis of the pulmonary insufficiency seen in ADA-deficient mice suggests that the accumulation of adenosine in the lung can directly access cellular signaling pathways that lead to the development and exacerbation of chronic lung disease. The ability of adenosine to regulate aspects of chronic lung disease is likely mediated by specific interactions with adenosine receptor subtypes on key regulatory cells. Thus, the examination of ADA deficiency has identified the importance of purinergic signaling during lymphoid development and in the regulation of aspects of chronic lung disease. PMID:15705418

  18. A2B Adenosine Receptor–Mediated Induction of IL-6 Promotes CKD

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Yingbo; Zhang, Weiru; Wen, Jiaming; Zhang, Yujin; Kellems, Rodney E.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic elevation of adenosine, which occurs in the setting of repeated or prolonged tissue injury, can exacerbate cellular dysfunction, suggesting that it may contribute to the pathogenesis of CKD. Here, mice with chronically elevated levels of adenosine, resulting from a deficiency in adenosine deaminase (ADA), developed renal dysfunction and fibrosis. Both the administration of polyethylene glycol–modified ADA to reduce adenosine levels and the inhibition of the A2B adenosine receptor (A2BR) attenuated renal fibrosis and dysfunction. Furthermore, activation of A2BR promoted renal fibrosis in both mice infused with angiotensin II (Ang II) and mice subjected to unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). These three mouse models shared a similar profile of profibrotic gene expression in kidney tissue, suggesting that they share similar signaling pathways that lead to renal fibrosis. Finally, both genetic and pharmacologic approaches showed that the inflammatory cytokine IL-6 mediates adenosine-induced renal fibrosis downstream of A2BR. Taken together, these data suggest that A2BR-mediated induction of IL-6 contributes to renal fibrogenesis and shows potential therapeutic targets for CKD. PMID:21511827

  19. A2B adenosine receptor-mediated induction of IL-6 promotes CKD.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yingbo; Zhang, Weiru; Wen, Jiaming; Zhang, Yujin; Kellems, Rodney E; Xia, Yang

    2011-05-01

    Chronic elevation of adenosine, which occurs in the setting of repeated or prolonged tissue injury, can exacerbate cellular dysfunction, suggesting that it may contribute to the pathogenesis of CKD. Here, mice with chronically elevated levels of adenosine, resulting from a deficiency in adenosine deaminase (ADA), developed renal dysfunction and fibrosis. Both the administration of polyethylene glycol-modified ADA to reduce adenosine levels and the inhibition of the A(2B) adenosine receptor (A(2B)R) attenuated renal fibrosis and dysfunction. Furthermore, activation of A(2B)R promoted renal fibrosis in both mice infused with angiotensin II (Ang II) and mice subjected to unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). These three mouse models shared a similar profile of profibrotic gene expression in kidney tissue, suggesting that they share similar signaling pathways that lead to renal fibrosis. Finally, both genetic and pharmacologic approaches showed that the inflammatory cytokine IL-6 mediates adenosine-induced renal fibrosis downstream of A(2B)R. Taken together, these data suggest that A(2B)R-mediated induction of IL-6 contributes to renal fibrogenesis and shows potential therapeutic targets for CKD. PMID:21511827

  20. Methotrexate inhibits neutrophil function by stimulating adenosine release from connective tissue cells

    SciTech Connect

    Cronstein, B.N.; Eberle, M.A.; Levin, R.I. ); Gruber, H.E. )

    1991-03-15

    Although commonly used to control a variety of inflammatory diseases, the mechanism of action of a low dose of methotrexate remains a mystery. Methotrexate accumulates intracellularly where it may interfere with purine metabolism. Therefore, the authors determined whether a 48-hr pretreatment with methotrexate affected adenosine release from ({sup 14}C)adenine-labeled human fibroblasts and umbilical vein endothelial cells. Methotrexate significantly increased adenosine release by fibroblasts. The effect of methotrexate on adenosine release was not due to cytotoxicity since cells treated with maximal concentrations of methotrexate took up ({sup 14}C)adenine and released {sup 14}C-labeled purine (a measure of cell injury) in a manner identical to control cells. Methotrexate treatment of fibroblasts dramatically inhibited adherence to fibroblasts by both unstimulated neutrophils and stimulated neutrophils. One hypothesis that explains the effect of methotrexate on adenosine release is that, by inhibition of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) transformylase, methotrexate induces the accumulation of AICAR, the nucleoside precursor of which has previously been shown to cause adenosine release from ischemic cardiac tissue. The observation that the antiinflammatory actions of methotrexate are due to the capacity of methotrexate to induce adenosine release may form the basis for the development of an additional class of antiinflammatory drugs.

  1. Label-Free Sensing of Adenosine Based on Force Variations Induced by Molecular Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingfeng; Li, Qing; Colombi Ciacchi, Lucio; Wei, Gang

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a simple force-based label-free strategy for the highly sensitive sensing of adenosine. An adenosine ssDNA aptamer was bound onto an atomic force microscopy (AFM) probe by covalent modification, and the molecular-interface adsorption force between the aptamer and a flat graphite surface was measured by single-molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS). In the presence of adenosine, the molecular recognition between adenosine and the aptamer resulted in the formation of a folded, hairpin-like DNA structure and hence caused a variation of the adsorption force at the graphite/water interface. The sensitive force response to molecular recognition provided an adenosine detection limit in the range of 0.1 to 1 nM. The addition of guanosine, cytidine, and uridine had no significant interference with the sensing of adenosine, indicating a strong selectivity of this sensor architecture. In addition, operational parameters that may affect the sensor, such as loading rate and solution ionic strength, were investigated. PMID:25808841

  2. Comonitoring of adenosine and dopamine using the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System: proof of principle

    PubMed Central

    Shon, Young-Min; Chang, Su-Youne; Tye, Susannah J.; Kimble, Christopher J.; Bennet, Kevin E.; Blaha, Charles D.; Lee, Kendall H.

    2010-01-01

    Object The authors of previous studies have demonstrated that local adenosine efflux may contribute to the therapeutic mechanism of action of thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) for essential tremor. Real-time monitoring of the neurochemical output of DBS-targeted regions may thus advance functional neurosurgical procedures by identifying candidate neurotransmitters and neuromodulators involved in the physiological effects of DBS. This would in turn permit the development of a method of chemically guided placement of DBS electrodes in vivo. Designed in compliance with FDA-recognized standards for medical electrical device safety, the authors report on the utility of the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System (WINCS) for real-time comonitoring of electrical stimulation–evoked adenosine and dopamine efflux in vivo, utilizing fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) at a polyacrylonitrile-based (T-650) carbon fiber microelectrode (CFM). Methods The WINCS was used for FSCV, which consisted of a triangle wave scanned between ?0.4 and +1.5 V at a rate of 400 V/second and applied at 10 Hz. All voltages applied to the CFM were with respect to an Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The CFM was constructed by aspirating a single T-650 carbon fiber (r = 2.5 ?m) into a glass capillary and pulling to a microscopic tip using a pipette puller. The exposed carbon fiber (the sensing region) extended beyond the glass insulation by ? 50 ?m. Proof of principle tests included in vitro measurements of adenosine and dopamine, as well as in vivo measurements in urethane-anesthetized rats by monitoring adenosine and dopamine efflux in the dorsomedial caudate putamen evoked by high-frequency electrical stimulation of the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra. Results The WINCS provided reliable, high-fidelity measurements of adenosine efflux. Peak oxidative currents appeared at +1.5 V and at +1.0 V for adenosine, separate from the peak oxidative current at +0.6 V for dopamine. The WINCS detected subsecond adenosine and dopamine efflux in the caudate putamen at an implanted CFM during high-frequency stimulation of the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra. Both in vitro and in vivo testing demonstrated that WINCS can detect adenosine in the presence of other easily oxidizable neurochemicals such as dopamine comparable to the detection abilities of a conventional hardwired electrochemical system for FSCV. Conclusions Altogether, these results demonstrate that WINCS is well suited for wireless monitoring of high-frequency stimulation-evoked changes in brain extracellular concentrations of adenosine. Clinical applications of selective adenosine measurements may prove important to the future development of DBS technology. PMID:19731995

  3. Efficacy of Adenosine in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction Undergoing Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Qijun; Yang, Bo; Guo, Yi; Zheng, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Whether adenosine offers cardioprotective effects when used as an adjunctive therapy for patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remains controversial. To evaluate, via meta-analysis, the efficacy of adenosine in patients with AMI undergoing PCI. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. RCTs of patients with AMI undergoing primary PCI, comparing adenosine treatment and placebo groups and reporting mortality, thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) flow grade, myocardial blush grade (MBG), re-infarction, left-ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), ST-segment elevation resolution (STR), recurrent angina, or heart failure (HF). Risk of bias was assessed by the Cochrane guidelines and publication bias by Egger's test. For studies reported in multiple publications, the most complete publication was used. Arms using different dosing schedules were merged. Mean differences (MDs) or risk ratios (RRs) were determined. Data were extracted from 15 RCTs involving 1736 patients. Compared with placebo, adenosine therapy was associated with fewer occurrences of heart failure (RR: 0.65, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.43-0.97, P?=?0.03) and no-reflow (TIMI flow grade <3, RR: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.45-0.85, P?=?0.003; MBG?=?0-1, RR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.67-0.98, P?=?0.03), more occurrences of STR (RR: 1.19, 95% CI: 1.07-1.31, P?Adenosine improved LVEF in the intravenous subgroup and the regular-dose intracoronary (IC) subgroup (0.24-2.25?mg) compared with placebo (MD: 2.68, 95% CI: 0.66-4.70, P?=?0.009). Adenosine was associated with a poorer LVEF in the high-dose (4-6?mg) IC subgroup (MD: ?2.40; 95% CI: ?4.72 to ?0.09, P?=?0.04). There was no significant evidence that adenosine reduced rates of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality or re-infarction after PCI. Adenosine dosage and administration routes, baseline profiles, and endpoints differed among included RCTs. Performance, publication, and reporting biases remain possible. Adenosine therapy appears to improve several outcomes in patients with AMI after PCI, but there is no evidence that adenosine can reduce mortality rates. PMID:26266362

  4. ADA (adenosine deaminase) gene therapy enters the competition

    SciTech Connect

    Culliton, B.J.

    1990-08-31

    Around the world, some 70 children are members of a select and deadly club. Born with an immune deficiency so severe that they will die of infection unless their immune systems can be repaired, they have captured the attention of would-be gene therapists who believe that a handful of these kids--the 15 or 20 who lack functioning levels of the enzyme adenosine deaminase (ADA)--could be saved by a healthy ADA gene. A team of gene therapists is ready to put the theory to the test. In April 1987, a team of NIH researchers headed by R. Michael Blaese and W. French Anderson came up with the first formal protocol to introduce a healthy ADA gene into an unhealthy human. After 3 years of line-by-line scrutiny by five review committees, they have permission to go ahead. Two or three children will be treated in the next year, and will be infused with T lymphocytes carrying the gene for ADA. If the experiment works, the ADA gene will begin producing normal amounts of ADA. An interesting feature of ADA deficiency, that makes it ideal for initial gene studies, is that the amount of ADA one needs for a healthy immune system is quite variable. Hence, once inside a patient's T cells, the new ADA gene needs only to express the enzyme in moderate amounts. No precise gene regulation is necessary.

  5. Altered adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing in human cancer

    PubMed Central

    Paz, Nurit; Levanon, Erez Y.; Amariglio, Ninette; Heimberger, Amy B.; Ram, Zvi; Constantini, Shlomi; Barbash, Zohar S.; Adamsky, Konstantin; Safran, Michal; Hirschberg, Avi; Krupsky, Meir; Ben-Dov, Issachar; Cazacu, Simona; Mikkelsen, Tom; Brodie, Chaya; Eisenberg, Eli; Rechavi, Gideon

    2007-01-01

    Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing was recently shown to be abundant in the human transcriptome, affecting thousands of genes. Employing a bioinformatic approach, we identified significant global hypoediting of Alu repetitive elements in brain, prostate, lung, kidney, and testis tumors. Experimental validation confirmed this finding, showing significantly reduced editing in Alu sequences within MED13 transcripts in brain tissues. Looking at editing of specific recoding and noncoding sites, including in cancer-related genes, a more complex picture emerged, with a gene-specific editing pattern in tumors vs. normal tissues. Additionally, we found reduced RNA levels of all three editing mediating enzymes, ADAR, ADARB1, and ADARB2, in brain tumors. The reduction of ADARB2 correlated with the grade of malignancy of glioblastoma multiforme, the most aggressive of brain tumors, displaying a 99% decrease in ADARB2 RNA levels. Consistently, overexpression of ADAR and ADARB1 in the U87 glioblastoma multiforme cell line resulted in decreased proliferation rate, suggesting that reduced A-to-I editing in brain tumors is involved in the pathogenesis of cancer. Altered epigenetic control was recently shown to play a central role in oncogenesis. We suggest that A-to-I RNA editing may serve as an additional epigenetic mechanism relevant to cancer development and progression. PMID:17908822

  6. Fluorometric Determination of Adenosine Nucleotide Derivatives as Measures of the Microfouling, Detrital, and Sedimentary Microbial Biomass and Physiological Status

    PubMed Central

    Davis, William M.; White, David C.

    1980-01-01

    Adenosine, adenine, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP), AMP, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, adenosine diphosphate, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were recovered quantitatively from aqueous portions of lipid extracts of microfouling, detrital, and sedimentary microbial communities. These could be detected quantitatively in the picomolar range by forming their 1-N6-etheno derivatives and analyzing by high-pressure liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Lipid extraction and subsequent analysis allowed the simultaneous measurement of the microbial community structure, total microbial biomass with the quantitative recovery of the adenine-containing cellular components, which were protected from enzymatic destruction. This extraction and fluorescent derivatization method showed equivalency with the luciferin-luciferase method for bacterial ATP measurements. Quick-freezing samples in the field with dry ice-acetone preserved the ATP and energy charge (a ratio of adenosine nucleotides) for analysis at remote laboratories. The metabolic lability of ATP in estuarine detrital and microfouling communities, as well as bacterial monocultures of constant biomass, showed ATP to be a precarious measure of biomass under some conditions. Combinations of adenosine and adenine nucleotides gave better correlations with microbial biomass measured as extractable lipid phosphate in the detrital and microfouling microbial communities than did ATP alone. Stresses such as anoxia or filtration are reflected in the rapid accumulation of intracellular adenosine and the excretion of adenosine and AMP into the surrounding milieu. Increases in AMP and adenosine may prove to be more sensitive indicators of metabolic status than the energy charge. PMID:16345633

  7. Protective effect of adenosine receptors against lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Gorshkov, Boris; Varn, Matthew N.; Zemskova, Marina A.; Zemskov, Evgeny A.; Sridhar, Supriya; Lucas, Rudolf; Verin, Alexander D.

    2014-01-01

    Acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) affect 200,000 people a year in the USA. Pulmonary vascular and specifically endothelial cell (EC) barrier compromise is a hallmark of these diseases. We have recently shown that extracellular adenosine enhances human pulmonary (EC) barrier via activation of adenosine receptors (ARs) in cell cultures. On the basis of these data, we hypothesized that activation of ARs might exert barrier-protective effects in a model of ALI/ARDS in mice. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of pre- and posttreatment of adenosine and 5?-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA), a nonselective stable AR agonist, on LPS-induced lung injury. Mice were given vehicle or LPS intratracheally followed by adenosine, NECA, or vehicle instilled via the internal jugular vein. Postexperiment cell counts, Evans Blue Dye albumin (EBDA) extravasation, levels of proteins, and inflammatory cytokines were analyzed. Harvested lungs were used for histology and myeloperoxidase studies. Mice challenged with LPS alone demonstrated an inflammatory response typical of ALI. Cell counts, EBDA extravasation, as well as levels of proteins and inflammatory cytokines were decreased in adenosine-treated mice. Histology displayed reduced infiltration of neutrophils. NECA had a similar effect on LPS-induced vascular barrier compromise. Importantly, posttreatment with adenosine or NECA recovers lung vascular barrier and reduces inflammation induced by LPS challenge. Furthermore, adenosine significantly attenuated protein degradation of A2A and A3 receptors induced by LPS. Collectively, our results demonstrate that activation of ARs protects and restores vascular barrier functions and reduces inflammation in LPS-induced ALI. PMID:24414256

  8. Adenosine Modulates NR4A Orphan Nuclear Receptors To Attenuate Hyperinflammatory Responses in Monocytic Cells.

    PubMed

    Crean, Daniel; Cummins, Eoin P; Bahar, Bojlul; Mohan, Helen; McMorrow, Jason P; Murphy, Evelyn P

    2015-08-15

    Adenosine receptor-mediated regulation of monocyte/macrophage inflammatory responses is critical in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. In this study, we reveal that adenosine potently modulates the expression of NR4A1, 2, and 3 orphan nuclear receptors in myeloid cells, and this modulation is primarily through the adenosine A2a receptor subtype. We demonstrate that A2a receptor activation of NR4A1-3 receptor synthesis is further enhanced in TLR4-stimulated monocytes. After TLR4 stimulation, NR4A receptor-depleted monocyte/macrophage cells display significantly altered expression of cell-surface markers and produce increased inflammatory cytokine and chemokine secretion rendering the cells an enhanced proinflammatory phenotype. Exposure of TLR4 or TNF-?-stimulated monocytes to adenosine analogs directs changes in the expression of MIP-3? and IL-23p19, with NR4A2 depletion leading to significantly enhanced expression of these factors. Furthermore, we establish that nuclear levels of NF-?B/p65 are increased in TLR/adenosine-stimulated NR4A2-depleted cells. We show that, after TLR/adenosine receptor stimulation, NR4A2 depletion promotes significant binding of NF-?B/p65 to a ?B consensus binding motif within the MIP-3? proximal promoter leading to increased protein secretion, confirming a pivotal role for NF-?B activity in controlling cellular responses and gene expression outcomes in response to these mediators. Thus, these data demonstrate that during an inflammatory response, adenosine modulation of NR4A receptor activity acts to limit NF-?B-mediated effects and that loss of NR4A2 expression leads to enhanced NF-?B activity and hyperinflammatory responses in myeloid cells. PMID:26150530

  9. Structural basis of the substrate specificity of Bacillus cereus adenosine phosphorylase

    SciTech Connect

    Dessanti, Paola; Zhang, Yang; Allegrini, Simone; Tozzi, Maria Grazia; Sgarrella, Francesco; Ealick, Steven E.

    2012-03-01

    Adenosine phosphorylase from B. cereus shows a strong preference for adenosine over other 6-oxopurine nucleosides. Mutation of Asp204 to asparagine reduces the efficiency of adenosine cleavage but does not affect inosine cleavage, effectively reversing the substrate specificity. The structures of D204N complexes explain these observations. Purine nucleoside phosphorylases catalyze the phosphorolytic cleavage of the glycosidic bond of purine (2?-deoxy)nucleosides, generating the corresponding free base and (2?-deoxy)ribose 1-phosphate. Two classes of PNPs have been identified: homotrimers specific for 6-oxopurines and homohexamers that accept both 6-oxopurines and 6-aminopurines. Bacillus cereus adenosine phosphorylase (AdoP) is a hexameric PNP; however, it is highly specific for 6-aminopurines. To investigate the structural basis for the unique substrate specificity of AdoP, the active-site mutant D204N was prepared and kinetically characterized and the structures of the wild-type protein and the D204N mutant complexed with adenosine and sulfate or with inosine and sulfate were determined at high resolution (1.2–1.4 Å). AdoP interacts directly with the preferred substrate through a hydrogen-bond donation from the catalytically important residue Asp204 to N7 of the purine base. Comparison with Escherichia coli PNP revealed a more optimal orientation of Asp204 towards N7 of adenosine and a more closed active site. When inosine is bound, two water molecules are interposed between Asp204 and the N7 and O6 atoms of the nucleoside, thus allowing the enzyme to find alternative but less efficient ways to stabilize the transition state. The mutation of Asp204 to asparagine led to a significant decrease in catalytic efficiency for adenosine without affecting the efficiency of inosine cleavage.

  10. Stimulation of gastric acid secretion by rabbit parietal cell A2B adenosine receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Arin, Rosa María; Vallejo, Ana Isabel; Rueda, Yuri; Fresnedo, Olatz; Ochoa, Begoña

    2015-12-15

    Adenosine modulates different functional activities in many cells of the gastrointestinal tract; some of them are believed to be mediated by interaction with its four G protein-coupled receptors. The renewed interest in the adenosine A2B receptor (A2BR) subtype can be traced by studies in which the introduction of new genetic and chemical tools has widened the pharmacological and structural knowledge of this receptor as well as its potential therapeutic use in cancer and inflammation- or hypoxia-related pathologies. In the acid-secreting parietal cells of the gastric mucosa, the use of various radioligands for adenosine receptors suggested the presence of the A2 adenosine receptor subtype(s) on the cell surface. Recently, we confirmed A2BR expression in native, nontransformed parietal cells at rest by using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. In this study, we show that A2BR is functional in primary rabbit gastric parietal cells, as indicated by the fact that agonist binding to A2BR increased adenylate cyclase activity and acid production. In addition, both acid production and radioligand binding of adenosine analogs to isolated cell membranes were potently blocked by selective A2BR antagonists, whereas ligands for A1, A2A, and A3 adenosine receptors failed to abolish activation. We conclude that rabbit gastric parietal cells possess functional A2BR proteins that are coupled to Gs and stimulate HCl production upon activation. Whether adenosine- and A2BR-mediated functional responses play a role in human gastric pathophysiology is yet to be elucidated. PMID:26468208

  11. Dual Effect of Adenosine A1 Receptor Activation on Renal O2 Consumption.

    PubMed

    Babich, Victor; Vadnagara, Komal; Di Sole, Francesca

    2015-12-01

    The high requirement of O2 in the renal proximal tubule stems from a high rate of Na(+) transport. Adenosine A1 receptor (A1R) activation regulates Na(+) transport in this nephron segment. Thus, the effect of the acute activation and the mechanisms of A1R on the rate of O2 consumption were evaluated. The A1R-antagonist, 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (CPX) and adenosine deaminase (ADA), which metabolize endogenous adenosine, reduced O2 consumption (40-50%). Replacing Na(+) in the buffer reversed the ADA- or CPX-mediated reduction of O2 consumption. Blocking the Na/H-exchanger activity, which decreases O2 usage per se, did not enhance the ADA- or CPX-induced inhibition of O2 consumption. These data indicate that endogenous adenosine increases O2 usage via the activation of Na(+) transport. In the presence of endogenous adenosine, A1R was further activated by the A1R-agonist N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA); CPA inhibited O2 usage (30%) and this effect also depended on Na(+) transport. Moreover, a low concentration of CPA activated O2 usage in tissue pretreated with ADA, whereas a high concentration of CPA inhibited O2 usage; both effects depended on Na(+). Protein kinase C signaling mediated the inhibitory effect of A1R, while adenylyl cyclase mediated its stimulatory effect on O2 consumption. In summary, increasing the local concentrations of adenosine can either activate or inhibit O2 consumption via A1R, and this mechanism depends on Na(+) transport. The inhibition of O2 usage by A1R activation might restore the compromised balance between energy supply and demand under pathophysiological conditions, such as renal ischemia, which results in high adenosine production. PMID:26010290

  12. Adenosine: an endogenous inhibitor of neutrophil-mediated injury to endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Cronstein, B N; Levin, R I; Belanoff, J; Weissmann, G; Hirschhorn, R

    1986-01-01

    Since adenosine and its analogue 2-chloroadenosine prevent neutrophils from generating superoxide anion in response to chemoattractants, we sought to determine whether these agents could inhibit neutrophil-mediated injury of endothelial cells. The chemoattractant N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP, 0.1 microM) enhanced the adherence of neutrophils to endothelial cells twofold (18 +/- 2% vs. 39 +/- 3% adherence, P less than 0.001) and caused substantial neutrophil-mediated injury to endothelial cells (2 +/- 2% vs. 39 +/- 4% cytotoxicity, P less than 0.001). 2-Chloroadenosine (10 microM) not only inhibited the adherence of stimulated neutrophils by 60% (24 +/- 2% adherence, P less than 0.001) but also diminished the cytotoxicity by 51% (20 +/- 4% cytotoxicity, P less than 0.002). Furthermore, depletion of endogenously released adenosine from the medium by adenosine deaminase-enhanced injury to endothelial cells by stimulated neutrophils (from 39 +/- 4% to 69 +/- 3% cytotoxicity, P less than 0.001). Indeed, in the presence of adenosine deaminase, even unstimulated neutrophils injured endothelial cells (19 +/- 4% vs. 2 +/- 2% cytotoxicity, P less than 0.001). These data indicate that engagement of adenosine receptors prevents both the adhesion of neutrophils and the injury they cause to endothelial cells. Adenosine inhibits injury provoked not only by cells that have been stimulated by chemoattractants but also by unstimulated cells. Based on this model of acute vascular damage we suggest that adenosine is not only a potent vasodilator, but plays the additional role of protecting vascular endothelium from damage by neutrophils. Images PMID:3745437

  13. Interactions between adenosine and dopamine receptor antagonists with different selectivity profiles: Effects on locomotor activity.

    PubMed

    Collins, Lyndsey E; Galtieri, Daniel J; Collins, Patricia; Jones, Shawnet K; Port, Russell G; Paul, Nicholas E; Hockemeyer, Jörg; Müller, Christa E; Salamone, John D

    2010-08-25

    Forebrain dopamine (DA) is a critical component of the brain circuitry regulating behavioral activation. Adenosine A(2A) antagonists reverse many of the behavioral effects of DA antagonists, and A(2A) receptors are co-localized with D(2) receptors on striatal medium spiny neurons. The present work was undertaken to determine if the ability of an A(2A) antagonist, a non-selective adenosine antagonist, or an A(1) antagonist to reverse the locomotor effects of DA blockade in rats differed depending upon whether D(1) or D(2) family receptors were being antagonized. The adenosine antagonists MSX-3, caffeine, DPCPX and CPT were studied for their ability to reverse the locomotor suppression induced by the D(1) antagonist SCH 39166 (ecopipam) and the D(2) antagonist eticlopride. The D(1) and D(2) antagonists suppressed locomotion in all experiments. The adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist MSX-3 (0.5-2.0 mg/kg IP) significantly reversed the suppression of locomotion induced by eticlopride. The non-selective adenosine antagonist caffeine (5.0-20.0 mg/kg IP) also reversed the effect of eticlopride, though the effect was not as robust as that seen with MSX-3. The adenosine A(1) antagonists DPCPX (0.375-1.5 mg/kg) and CPT (3.0-12.0 mg/kg IP) were unable to reverse the locomotor impairment elicited by eticlopride. Furthermore, the attenuation of locomotion induced by the D(1) antagonist could only be reversed by the highest dose of MSX-3, but not by caffeine, DPCPX or CPT. DA and adenosine receptor antagonists interact in the regulation of locomotor activation, but the nature of this interaction appears to depend upon the receptor selectivity profiles of the specific drugs being tested. PMID:20211657

  14. Intracellular adenosine formation and release by freshly-isolated vascular endothelial cells from rat skeletal muscle: effects of hypoxia and/or acidosis.

    PubMed

    Le, G Y; Essackjee, H C; Ballard, H J

    2014-07-18

    Previous studies suggested indirectly that vascular endothelial cells (VECs) might be able to release intracellularly-formed adenosine. We isolated VECs from the rat soleus muscle using collagenase digestion and magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS). The VEC preparation had >90% purity based on cell morphology, fluorescence immunostaining, and RT-PCR of endothelial markers. The kinetic properties of endothelial cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase suggested it was the AMP-preferring N-I isoform: its catalytic activity was 4 times higher than ecto-5'nucleotidase. Adenosine kinase had 50 times greater catalytic activity than adenosine deaminase, suggesting that adenosine removal in VECs is mainly through incorporation into adenine nucleotides. The maximal activities of cytosolic 5'-nucleotidase and adenosine kinase were similar. Adenosine and ATP accumulated in the medium surrounding VECs in primary culture. Hypoxia doubled the adenosine, but ATP was unchanged; AOPCP did not alter medium adenosine, suggesting that hypoxic VECs had released intracellularly-formed adenosine. Acidosis increased medium ATP, but extracellular conversion of ATP to AMP was inhibited, and adenosine remained unchanged. Acidosis in the buffer-perfused rat gracilis muscle elevated AMP and adenosine in the venous effluent, but AOPCP abolished the increase in adenosine, suggesting that adenosine is formed extracellularly by non-endothelial tissues during acidosis in vivo. Hypoxia plus acidosis increased medium ATP by a similar amount to acidosis alone and adenosine 6-fold; AOPCP returned the medium adenosine to the level seen with hypoxia alone. These data suggest that VECs release intracellularly formed adenosine in hypoxia, ATP during acidosis, and both under simulated ischaemic conditions, with further extracellular conversion of ATP to adenosine. PMID:24866246

  15. Engineering human mesenchymal stem cells to release adenosine using miRNA technology.

    PubMed

    Ren, Gaoying; Boison, Detlev

    2010-01-01

    Adenosine is an important modulator of metabolic activity with powerful tissue- and cell-protective functions. Adenosine kinase (ADK), the major adenosine-regulating enzyme, is critical to adapt its intra- and extra-cellular levels in response to environmental changes. Lentiviral RNAi-mediated down-regulation of ADK in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) has therefore been considered an effective tool for engineering therapeutically effective adenosine-releasing cell grafts that could constitute patient-identical autologous implants for clinical application. We constructed lentiviral vectors that coexpress miRNA directed against ADK and an emerald green fluorescent protein (EmGFP) reporter gene. Following lentiviral transduction of hMSCs, we demonstrated up to 80% down-regulation of ADK and 98% transduction efficiency. Transduced hMSCs continued to express EmGFP after 4-6 consecutive passages and EmGFP-positive hMSC grafts survived in the hippocampal fissure of mouse brains and provided efficient adenosine-dependent neuroprotection in a mouse model of seizure-induced cell loss. PMID:20686955

  16. DELETION OF PRESYNAPTIC ADENOSINE A1 RECEPTORS IMPAIRS THE RECOVERY OF SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION AFTER HYPOXIA

    PubMed Central

    ARRIGONI, E.; CROCKER, A. J.; SAPER, C. B.; GREENE, R. W.; SCAMMELL, T. E.

    2008-01-01

    Adenosine protects neurons during hypoxia by inhibiting excitatory synaptic transmission and preventing NMDA receptor activation. Using an adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector containing Cre recombinase, we have focally deleted adenosine A1 receptors in specific hippocampal regions of adult mice. Recently, we found that deletion of A1 receptors in the CA1 area blocks the postsynaptic responses to adenosine in CA1 pyramidal neurons, and deletion of A1 receptors in CA3 neurons abolishes the presynaptic effects of adenosine on the Schaffer collateral input [J Neurosci 23 (2003) 5762]. In the current study, we used this technique to delete A1 receptors focally from CA3 neurons to investigate whether presynaptic A1 receptors protect synaptic transmission from hypoxia. We studied the effects of prolonged (1 h) hypoxia on the evoked field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) in the CA1 region using in vitro slices. Focal deletion of the presynaptic A1 receptors on the Schaffer collateral input slowed the depression of the fEPSPs in response to hypoxia and impaired the recovery of the fEPSPs after hypoxia. Delayed responses to hypoxia linearly correlated with impaired recovery. These findings provide direct evidence that the neuroprotective role of adenosine during hypoxia depends on the rapid inhibition of synaptic transmission by the activation of presynaptic A1 receptors. PMID:15837119

  17. Sulfur-Containing 1,3-Dialkylxanthine Derivatives as Selective Antagonists at A1-Adenosine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Kiriasis, Leonidas; Barone, Suzanne; Bradbury, Barton J.; Kammula, Udai; Campagne, Jean Michel; Secunda, Sherrie; Daly, John W.; Neumeyer, John L.; Pfleiderer, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Sulfur-containing analogues of 8-substituted xanthines were prepared in an effort to increase selectivity or potency as antagonists at adenosine receptors. Either cyclopentyl or various aryl substituents were utilized at the 8-position, because of the association of these groups with high potency at A1-adenosine receptors. Sulfur was incorporated on the purine ring at positions 2 and/or 6, in the 8-position substituent in the form of 2- or 3-thienyl groups, or via thienyl groups separated from an 8-aryl substituent through an amide-containing chain. The feasibility of using the thienyl group as a prosthetic group for selective iodination via its Hg2+ derivative was explored. Receptor selectivity was determined in binding assays using membrane homogenates from rat cortex [[3H]-N6-(phenylisopropyl) adenosine as radioligand] or striatum [[3H]-5?-(N-ethylcarbamoyl)adenosine as radioligand] for A1- and A2-adenosine receptors, respectively. Generally, 2-thio-8-cycloalkylxanthines were at least as A1 selective as the corresponding oxygen analogue. 2-Thio-8-aryl derivatives tended to be more potent at A2 receptors than the oxygen analogue. 8-[4-[(Carboxymethyl)oxy]phenyl]-1,3-dipropyl-2-thioxanthine ethyl ester was >740-fold A1 selective. PMID:2754711

  18. Neurochemical Measurement of Adenosine in Discrete Brain Regions of Five Strains of Inbred Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pani, Amar K.; Jiao, Yun; Sample, Kenneth J.; Smeyne, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine (ADO), a non-classical neurotransmitter and neuromodulator, and its metabolites adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine monophosphate (AMP), have been shown to play an important role in a number of biochemical processes. Although their signaling is well described, it has been difficult to directly, accurately and simultaneously quantitate these purines in tissue or fluids. Here, we describe a novel method for measuring adenosine (ADO) and its metabolites using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD). Using this chromatographic technique, we examined baseline levels of ADO and ATP, ADP and AMP in 6 different brain regions of the C57BL/6J mouse: stratum, cortex, hippocampus, olfactory bulb, substantia nigra and cerebellum and compared ADO levels in 5 different strains of mice (C57BL/6J, Swiss-Webster, FVB/NJ, 129P/J, and BALB/c). These studies demonstrate that baseline levels of purines vary significantly among the brain regions as well as between different mouse strains. These dissimilarities in purine concentrations may explain the variable phenotypes among background strains described in neurological disease models. PMID:24642754

  19. Phosphorylation potential and adenosine release during norepinephrine infusion in guinea pig heart

    SciTech Connect

    He, Miao-Xiang; Wangler, R.D.; Dillon, P.F.; Romig, G.D.; Sparks, H.V. )

    1987-11-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that adenosine released from isolated guinea pig hearts in response to norepinephrine is related to the cellular phosphorylation potential (PP;(ATP)/(ADP)(P{sub i})), where P{sub i} is inorganic phosphate. {sup 31}P-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was used to measure the relative concentrations of P{sub i}, phosphocreatine (PCr), and ATP. After a control period, norepinephrine was infused for 20 min during which {sup 31}P-NMR spectra and samples of venous effluent were collected every minute. With norepinephrine infusion, PCr decreased rapidly to 72% of control by 8 min and then recovered to 80% of control for the remaining 12 min. ATP fell slowly to 70% of control over 20 min. P{sub i} increased to a peak at 2 min, then declined slowly to a steady state from 8 to 20 min. Adenosine release increased at 7 min and then slowly fell to a steady state from 10 to 20 min. There is hyperbolic relationship between adenosine release and PP; when the PP declines, a level is reached below which there is a rapid increase in adenosine release. These data support the hypothesis that adenosine release is regulated by the cellular PP as a closely related variable.

  20. Pulmonary Vascular Capacitance as a Predictor of Vasoreactivity in Idiopathic Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Tested by Adenosine

    PubMed Central

    Shafie, Davood; Dohaei, Abolfazl; Amin, Ahmad; Taghavi, Sepideh; Naderi, Nasim

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acute pulmonary vasoreactivity testing has been recommended in the diagnostic work-up of patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). Pulmonary arteriolar capacitance (Cp) approximated by stroke volume divided by pulmonary pulse pressure (SV/PP) is considered as an independent predictor of mortality in patients with IPAH. Objectives: We sought to evaluate any differences in baseline and adenosine Cp between vasoreactive and non-vasoreactive IPAH patients tested with adenosine. Patients and Methods: Fourteen patients with IPAH and a vasoreactive adenosine vasoreactivity testing according to the ESC guidelines were compared with 24 IPAH patients with nonreactive adenosine test results. Results: There were no statistical significant differences between the two groups regarding NYHA class, body surface area, heart rate, and systemic blood pressure during right heart catheterization. Hemodynamic study showed no statistical significant differences in cardiac output/Index, mean pulmonary artery pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance, and baseline Cp between the two groups. There was a statistical significant but weak increase in adenosine Cp in vasoreactive group compared to non-reactive group (P = 0.04). Multivariable analysis showed an association between Cp and vasoreactivity (Beta = 2, P = 0.04, OR = 0.05 (95%CI = 0.003 - 0.9). Conclusions: Cp could be considered as an index for the prediction of vasoreactivity in patients with IPAH. Prediction of long-term response to calcium channel blockers in patients with IPAH and a positive vasoreactive test by this index should be addressed in further studies. PMID:26528452

  1. Lumenal adenosine and AMP rapidly increase glucose transport by intact small intestine.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yasuhiro; Turner, Jerrold R; Braasch, Dwaine A; Buddington, Randal K

    2005-12-01

    Adenosine modulates the intestinal functions of secretion, motility, and immunity, yet little is known about the regulation of nutrient absorption. Therefore, we measured the carrier-mediated uptake of tracer D-[(14)C]glucose (2 microM) by everted sleeves of the mouse intestine after a lumenal exposure to adenosine and a disodium salt of AMP. Rates of glucose uptake by intact tissues increased almost twofold after a 7-min exposure to 5 mM adenosine (a physiological dose). The response was slightly more pronounced for AMP and could be induced by forskolin. The response to adenosine was blocked by theophylline and the A(2) receptor antagonist 3,7-dimethyl-1-proparglyxanthine but not by the A(1) receptor antagonist 8-phenyltheophylline. Glucose uptake by control and AMP-stimulated tissues was inhibited by phloridzin, implying that sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) is the responsive transporter, but the involvement of glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) cannot be excluded. Of clinical relevance, AMP accelerated the systemic availability of 3-O-methylglucose after an oral administration to mice. Our results indicate that adenosine causes a rapid increase in carrier-mediated glucose uptake that is of clinical relevance and acts via receptors linked to a signaling pathway that involves intracellular cAMP production. PMID:16020657

  2. Squalenoyl adenosine nanoparticles provide neuroprotection after stroke and spinal cord injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudin, Alice; Yemisci, Müge; Eroglu, Hakan; Lepetre-Mouelhi, Sinda; Turkoglu, Omer Faruk; Dönmez-Demir, Buket; Caban, Seçil; Sargon, Mustafa Fevzi; Garcia-Argote, Sébastien; Pieters, Grégory; Loreau, Olivier; Rousseau, Bernard; Tagit, Oya; Hildebrandt, Niko; Le Dantec, Yannick; Mougin, Julie; Valetti, Sabrina; Chacun, Hélène; Nicolas, Valérie; Desmaële, Didier; Andrieux, Karine; Capan, Yilmaz; Dalkara, Turgay; Couvreur, Patrick

    2014-12-01

    There is an urgent need to develop new therapeutic approaches for the treatment of severe neurological trauma, such as stroke and spinal cord injuries. However, many drugs with potential neuropharmacological activity, such as adenosine, are inefficient upon systemic administration because of their fast metabolization and rapid clearance from the bloodstream. Here, we show that conjugation of adenosine to the lipid squalene and the subsequent formation of nanoassemblies allows prolonged circulation of this nucleoside, providing neuroprotection in mouse stroke and rat spinal cord injury models. The animals receiving systemic administration of squalenoyl adenosine nanoassemblies showed a significant improvement of their neurologic deficit score in the case of cerebral ischaemia, and an early motor recovery of the hindlimbs in the case of spinal cord injury. Moreover, in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that the nanoassemblies were able to extend adenosine circulation and its interaction with the neurovascular unit. This Article shows, for the first time, that a hydrophilic and rapidly metabolized molecule such as adenosine may become pharmacologically efficient owing to a single conjugation with the lipid squalene.

  3. Endogenous adenosine release is involved in the control of heart rate in rats.

    PubMed

    Jammes, Yves; Joulia, Fabrice; Steinberg, Jean Guillaume; Ravailhe, Sylvie; Delpierre, Stéphane; Condo, Jocelyne; Guieu, Regis; Delliaux, Stéphane

    2015-08-01

    Intravenous (i.v.) injections of adenosine exert marked effects on heart rate (HR) and arterial blood pressure (BP), but the role of an endogenous adenosine release by vagal stimulation has not been evaluated. In anaesthetized rats, we examined HR and BP changes induced by 1 min electrical vagal stimulation in the control condition, and then after i.v. injections of (i) atropine, (ii) propranolol, (iii) caffeine, (iv) 8 cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX), or (v) dipyridamole to increase the plasma concentration of adenosine (APC). APC was measured by chromatography in the arterial blood before and at the end of vagal stimulation. The decrease in HR in the controls during vagal stimulation was markedly attenuated, but persisted after i.v. injections of atropine and propranolol. When first administered, DPCPX modestly but significantly reduced the HR response to vagal stimulation, but this disappeared after i.v. caffeine administration. Both the HR and BP responses were significantly accentuated after i.v. injection of dipyridamole. Vagal stimulation induced a significant increase in APC, proportional to the magnitude of HR decrease. Our data suggest that the inhibitory effects of electrical vagal stimulations on HR and BP were partly mediated through the activation of A1 and A2 receptors by an endogenous adenosine release. Our experimental data could help to understand the effects of ischemic preconditioning, which are partially mediated by adenosine. PMID:26222197

  4. Cerebral adenosine A? receptors are upregulated in rodent encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Paul, Soumen; Khanapur, Shivashankar; Boersma, Wytske; Sijbesma, Jurgen W; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Elsinga, Philip H; Meerlo, Peter; Doorduin, Janine; Dierckx, Rudi A; van Waarde, Aren

    2014-05-15

    Adenosine A1 receptors (A1Rs) are implied in the modulation of neuroinflammation. Activation of cerebral A1Rs acts as a brake on the microglial response after traumatic brain injury and has neuroprotective properties in animal models of Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis. Neuroinflammatory processes in turn may affect the expression of A1Rs, but the available data is limited and inconsistent. Here, we applied an animal model of encephalitis to assess how neuroinflammation affects the expression of A1Rs. Two groups of animals were studied: Infected rats (n=7) were intranasally inoculated with herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1, 1 × 10(7) plaque forming units), sham-infected rats (n=6) received only phosphate-buffered saline. Six or seven days later, microPET scans (60 min with arterial blood sampling) were made using the tracer 8-dicyclopropyl-1-(11)C-methyl-3-propyl-xanthine ((11)C-MPDX). Tracer clearance from plasma and partition coefficient (K?/k? estimated from a 2-tissue compartment model fit) were not significantly altered after virus infection. PET tracer distribution volume calculated from a Logan plot was significantly increased in the hippocampus (+37%) and medulla (+27%) of virus infected rats. Tracer binding potential (k?/k? estimated from the model fit) was significantly increased in the cerebellum (+87%) and the medulla (+148%) which may indicate increased A1R expression. This was confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis showing a strong increase of A1R immunoreactivity in the cerebellum of HSV-1-infected rats. Both the quantitative PET data and immunohistochemical analysis indicate that A1Rs are upregulated in brain areas where active virus is present. PMID:24513151

  5. Targeting Na?/K? -translocating adenosine triphosphatase in cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Durlacher, Cameron T; Chow, Kevin; Chen, Xiao-Wu; He, Zhi-Xu; Zhang, Xueji; Yang, Tianxin; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-05-01

    The Na(+) /K(+) -translocating adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) transports sodium and potassium across the plasma membrane and represents a potential target in cancer chemotherapy. Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase belongs to the P-type ATPase family (also known as E1-E2 ATPase), which is involved in transporting certain ions, metals, and lipids across the plasma membrane of mammalian cells. In humans, the Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase is a binary complex of an ?-subunit that has four isoforms (?1 -?4 ) and a ?-subunit that has three isoforms (?1 -?3 ). This review aims to update our knowledge on the role of Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase in cancer development and metastasis, as well as on how Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase inhibitors kill tumour cells. The Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase has been found to be associated with cancer initiation, growth, development, and metastasis. Cardiac glycosides have exhibited anticancer effects in cell-based and mouse studies via inhibition of the Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase and other mechanisms. Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase inhibitors may kill cancer cells via induction of apoptosis and autophagy, radical oxygen species production, and cell cycle arrest. They also modulate multiple signalling pathways that regulate cancer cell survival and death, which contributes to their antiproliferative activities in cancer cells. The clinical evidence supporting the use of Na(+) /K(+) -ATPase inhibitors as anticancer drugs is weak. Several phase I and phase II clinical trials with digoxin, Anvirzel, and huachansu (an intravenous formulated extract of the venom of the wild toad), either alone or more often in combination with other anticancer agents, have shown acceptable safety profiles but limited efficacy in cancer patients. Well-designed randomized clinical trials with reasonable sample sizes are certainly warranted to confirm the efficacy and safety of cardiac glycosides for the treatment of cancer. PMID:25739707

  6. Autoimmune Dysregulation and Purine Metabolism in Adenosine Deaminase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Sauer, Aisha Vanessa; Brigida, Immacolata; Carriglio, Nicola; Aiuti, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Genetic defects in the adenosine deaminase (ADA) gene are among the most common causes for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). ADA-SCID patients suffer from lymphopenia, severely impaired cellular and humoral immunity, failure to thrive, and recurrent infections. Currently available therapeutic options for this otherwise fatal disorder include bone marrow transplantation (BMT), enzyme replacement therapy with bovine ADA (PEG-ADA), or hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy (HSC-GT). Although varying degrees of immune reconstitution can be achieved by these treatments, breakdown of tolerance is a major concern in ADA-SCID. Immune dysregulation such as autoimmune hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus, hemolytic anemia, and immune thrombocytopenia are frequently observed in milder forms of the disease. However, several reports document similar complications also in patients on long-term PEG-ADA and after BMT or GT treatment. A skewed repertoire and decreased immune functions have been implicated in autoimmunity observed in certain B-cell and/or T-cell immunodeficiencies, but it remains unclear to what extent specific mechanisms of tolerance are affected in ADA deficiency. Herein we provide an overview about ADA-SCID and the autoimmune manifestations reported in these patients before and after treatment. We also assess the value of the ADA-deficient mouse model as a useful tool to study both immune and metabolic disease mechanisms. With focus on regulatory T- and B-cells we discuss the lymphocyte subpopulations particularly prone to contribute to the loss of self-tolerance and onset of autoimmunity in ADA deficiency. Moreover we address which aspects of immune dysregulation are specifically related to alterations in purine metabolism caused by the lack of ADA and the subsequent accumulation of metabolites with immunomodulatory properties. PMID:22969765

  7. INTERACTION OF A BACTERIAL ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATASE WITH PHOSPHOLIPID BILAYERS*

    PubMed Central

    Redwood, W. R.; Müldner, H.; Thompson, T. E.

    1969-01-01

    A solubilized nonparticulate adenosine triphosphatase from Streptococcus fecalis spheroplast membranes (Abrams, A., and C. Baron, Biochemistry, 7,501 (1968)) interacts at pH 7.5 with lipid bilayer membranes to produce a 102- to 104-fold increase in the electric conductance of the bilayer. In addition, a small decrease in the electrical capacitance of the interactant system is also observed. Interaction is obtained with bilayers formed from a solution in n-decane of either purified egg phosphatidyl-choline, synthetic diphytanoyl phosphatidyl-choline, or a total extract of the membrane lipid of S. fecalis. The magnitude of the increase in conductance is dependent on the presence of Mg++ and upon the concentrations of both Na+ and K+ in the range of 10-2 to 10-1M. An additional tenfold increase in conductance is obtained when ATP is added to the ambient aqueous phase surrounding the bilayer ATPase interactant system. No conductance change is obtained with ATPase which has been treated with pronase. ATPase activity is dependent upon Mg++ and upon the concentrations of Na+ and K+ in the region of 10-1M. The function of the ATPase in the intact bacterial membrane is apparently associated with the active transport of cations. The increased conductance in the bilayer which results from its interaction with the ATPase, together with the similarity between the dependence of this interaction and the dependence of ATPase activity on Mg++, ATP, and the Na+, K+ concentrations suggests that the bilayer-ATPase interactant complex may be similar in structure and properties to the membrane-ATPase complex in the intact organism. PMID:4244391

  8. Impairment of ATP hydrolysis decreases adenosine A1 receptor tonus favoring cholinergic nerve hyperactivity in the obstructed human urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Silva-Ramos, M; Silva, I; Faria, M; Magalhães-Cardoso, M T; Correia, J; Ferreirinha, F; Correia-de-Sá, P

    2015-12-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether reduced adenosine formation linked to deficits in extracellular ATP hydrolysis by NTPDases contributes to detrusor neuromodulatory changes associated with bladder outlet obstruction in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The kinetics of ATP catabolism and adenosine formation as well as the role of P1 receptor agonists on muscle tension and nerve-evoked [(3)H]ACh release were evaluated in mucosal-denuded detrusor strips from BPH patients (n?=?31) and control organ donors (n?=?23). The neurogenic release of ATP and [(3)H]ACh was higher (P?adenosine formation was slower (t 1/2 73 vs. 36 min, P?adenosine (100 ?M), NECA (1 ?M), and R-PIA (0.3 ?M) was enhanced in BPH bladders. Relaxation of detrusor contractions induced by acetylcholine required 30-fold higher concentrations of adenosine. Despite VAChT-positive cholinergic nerves exhibiting higher A1 immunoreactivity in BPH bladders, the endogenous adenosine tonus revealed by adenosine deaminase is missing. Restoration of A1 inhibition was achieved by favoring (1) ATP hydrolysis with apyrase (2 U mL(-1)) or (2) extracellular adenosine accumulation with dipyridamole or EHNA, as these drugs inhibit adenosine uptake and deamination, respectively. In conclusion, reduced ATP hydrolysis leads to deficient adenosine formation and A1 receptor-mediated inhibition of cholinergic nerve activity in the obstructed human bladder. Thus, we propose that pharmacological manipulation of endogenous adenosine levels and/or A1 receptor activation might be useful to control bladder overactivity in BPH patients. PMID:26521170

  9. Predictors and Diagnostic Significance of the Adenosine Related Side Effects on Myocardial Perfusion SPECT/CT Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Y?ld?r?m Poyraz, Nilüfer; Özdemir, Elif; Poyraz, Bar?? Mustafa; Kandemir, Zuhal; Keskin, Mutlay; Türkölmez, ?eyda

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between patient characteristics and adenosine-related side-effects during stress myocard perfusion imaging (MPI). The effect of presence of adenosine-related side-effects on the diagnostic value of MPI with integrated SPECT/CT system for coronary artery disease (CAD), was also assessed in this study. Methods: Total of 281 patients (109 M, 172 F; mean age:62.6±10) who underwent standard adenosine stress protocol for MPI, were included in this study. All symptoms during adenosine infusion were scored according to the severity and duration. For the estimation of diagnostic value of adenosine MPI with integrated SPECT/CT system, coronary angiography (CAG) or clinical follow-up were used as gold standard. Results: Total of 173 patients (61.6%) experienced adenosine-related side-effects (group 1); flushing, dyspnea, and chest pain were the most common. Other 108 patients completed pharmacologic stress (PS) test without any side-effects (group 2). Test tolerability were similar in the patients with cardiovascular or airway disease to others, however dyspnea were observed significantly more common in patients with mild airway disease. Body mass index (BMI) ?30 kg/m2 and age ?45 years were independent predictors of side-effects. The diagnostic value of MPI was similar in both groups. Sensitivity of adenosine MPI SPECT/CT was calculated to be 86%, specificity was 94% and diagnostic accuracy was 92% for diagnosis of CAD. Conclusion: Adenosine MPI is a feasible and well tolerated method in patients who are not suitable for exercise stress test as well as patients with cardiopulmonary disease. However age ?45 years and BMI ?30 kg/m2 are the positive predictors of adenosine-related side-effects, the diagnostic value of adenosine MPI SPECT/CT is not affected by the presence of adenosine related side-effects. PMID:25541932

  10. Paradoxical expression of adenosine deaminase in T cells cultured from a patient with adenosine deaminase deficiency and combine immunodeficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Arredondo-Vega, F X; Kurtzberg, J; Chaffee, S; Santisteban, I; Reisner, E; Povey, M S; Hershfield, M S

    1990-01-01

    T lymphocytes cultured from a patient (T.D.) with adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency expressed ADA activity in the normal range, inconsistent with her severe immunodeficiency, metabolic abnormalities, and with the absence of ADA activity in her B lymphocytes and other nucleated hematopoietic cells. ADA from T.D. T cells had normal Km, heat stability, and sensitivity to ADA inhibitors. Examination of HLA phenotype and polymorphic DNA loci indicated that T.D. was neither chimeric nor a genetic mosaic. Amplified and subcloned ADA cDNA from ADA+ T.D. T cells was shown by allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization to possess the same mutations (Arg101----Trp, Arg211----His) previously found in the ADA-T.D. B cell line GM 2606 (Akeson, A. L., D. A. Wiginton, M. R. Dusing, J. C. States, and J. J. Hutton. 1988. J. Biol. Chem. 263:16291-16296). Our findings suggest that one of these mutant alleles can be expressed selectively in IL-2-dependent T cells as stable, active enzyme. Cultured T cells from other patients with the Arg211----His mutation did not express significant ADA activity, while some B cell lines from a patient with an Arg101----Gln mutation have been found to express normal ADA activity. We speculate that Arg101 may be at a site that determines degradation of ADA by a protease that is under negative control by IL-2 in T cells, and is variably expressed in B cells. Il-2 might increase ADA expression in T cells of patients who possess mutations of Arg101. Images PMID:1974554

  11. An ultraviolet-inducible adenosine-adenosine cross-link reflects the catalytic structure of the Tetrahymena ribozyme

    SciTech Connect

    Downs, W.D.; Cech, T.R. )

    1990-06-12

    When a shortened enzymatic version of the Tetrahymena self-splicing intervening sequence (IVS) RNA is placed under catalytic conditions and irradiated at 254 nm, a covalent cross-link forms with high efficiency. The position of the cross-link was mapped by using three independent methods: RNase H digestion, primer extension with reverse transcriptase, and partial hydrolysis of end-labeled RNA. The cross-link is chemically unusual in that it joins two adenosines, A57 and A95. Formation of this cross-link depends upon the identity and concentration of divalent cations present and upon heat-cool renaturation of the IVS in a manner that parallels conditions required for optimal catalytic activity. Furthermore, cross-linking requires the presence of sequences within the core structure, which is conserved among group I intervening sequences and necessary for catalytic activity. Together these correlations suggest that a common folded structure permits cross-linking and catalytic activity. The core can form this structure independent of the presence of P1 and elements at the 3' end of the IVS. The cross-linked RNA loses catalytic activity under destabilizing conditions, presumably due to disruption of the folded structure by the cross-link. One of the nucleotides participating in this cross-link is highly conserved (86%) within the secondary structure of group I intervening sequences. We conclude that A57 and A95 are precisely aligned in a catalytically active conformation of the RNA. A model is presented for the tertiary arrangement in the vicinity of the cross-link.

  12. Computational study of the molecular mechanisms of caffeine action: Caffeine complexes with adenosine receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poltev, V. I.; Rodríguez, E.; Grokhlina, T. I.; Deriabina, A.; Gonzalez, E.

    To understand the molecular basis of the principal biological action of the caffeine (CAF), the molecular mechanics calculations of possible complexes between CAF and the fragments of human A1 adenosine receptor were performed. The fragments were selected after considerations of the CAF molecular structure and its possible interactions, as well as after an analysis of the extensive bibliography on the structure, biological role, site-directed mutagenesis, and the modeling of the adenosine receptors. The minimum energy configurations of these complexes were obtained using two different computer programs with different force fields. The most favorable configurations correspond to the formation of two hydrogen bonds between the CAF molecule and hydrophilic amino acid residues of the fragments of transmembrane domains of the receptor. These configurations are supposed to contribute to CAF blocking of the adenosine receptors. They will be used later for the construction of model CAF complexes with two transmembrane domains simultaneously.

  13. Circadian rhythm in adenosine A1 receptor of mouse cerebral cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Florio, C.; Rosati, A.M.; Traversa, U.; Vertua, R. )

    1991-01-01

    In order to investigate diurnal variation in adenosine A1 receptors binding parameters, Bmax and Kd values of specifically bound N6-cyclohexyl-({sup 3}H)adenosine were determined in the cerebral cortex of mice that had been housed under controlled light-dark cycles for 4 weeks. Significant differences were found for Bmax values measured at 3-hr intervals across a 24-h period, with low Bmax values during the light period and high Bmax values during the dark period. The amplitude between 03.00 and 18.00 hr was 33%. No substantial rhythm was found in the Kd values. It is suggested that the changes in the density of A1 receptors could reflect a physiologically-relevant mechanism by which adenosine exerts its modulatory role in the central nervous system.

  14. Role of adenosine in the antiepileptic effects of deep brain stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Maisa F.; Hamani, Clement; de Almeida, Antônio-Carlos G.; Amorim, Beatriz O.; Macedo, Carlos E.; Fernandes, Maria José S.; Nobrega, José N.; Aarão, Mayra C.; Madureira, Ana Paula; Rodrigues, Antônio M.; Andersen, Monica L.; Tufik, Sergio; Mello, Luiz E.; Covolan, Luciene

    2014-01-01

    Despite the effectiveness of anterior thalamic nucleus (AN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) for the treatment of epilepsy, mechanisms responsible for the antiepileptic effects of this therapy remain elusive. As adenosine modulates neuronal excitability and seizure activity in animal models, we hypothesized that this nucleoside could be one of the substrates involved in the effects of AN DBS. We applied 5 days of stimulation to rats rendered chronically epileptic by pilocarpine injections and recorded epileptiform activity in hippocampal slices. We found that slices from animals given DBS had reduced hippocampal excitability and were less susceptible to develop ictal activity. In live animals, AN DBS significantly increased adenosine levels in the hippocampus as measured by microdialysis. The reduced excitability of DBS in vitro was completely abolished in animals pre-treated with A1 receptor antagonists and was strongly potentiated by A1 receptor agonists. We conclude that some of the antiepileptic effects of DBS may be mediated by adenosine. PMID:25324724

  15. Dopamine/adenosine interactions involved in effort-related aspects of food motivation

    PubMed Central

    Salamone, John D.; Correa, Merce

    2010-01-01

    Nucleus accumbens dopamine (DA) is involved in effort-related aspects of food motivation. Accumbens DA depletions reduce the tendency of rats to work for food, and alter effort-related choice, but leave other aspects of food motivation and appetite intact. DA and adenosine receptors interact to regulate effort-related processes. Adenosine A2A antagonists can reverse the effects of DA D2 antagonists on effort-related choice, and intra-accumbens injections of a adenosine A2A agonist produce effects that are similar to those produced by accumbens DA depletion or antagonism. These studies have implications for understanding the neurochemical interactions that underlie activational aspects of motivation. PMID:19635514

  16. A novel mechanism of renal blood flow autoregulation and the autoregulatory role of A1 adenosine receptors in mice

    E-print Network

    Just, Armin

    A novel mechanism of renal blood flow autoregulation and the autoregulatory role of A1 adenosine in final form 27 August 2007 Just A, Arendshorst WJ. A novel mechanism of renal blood flow autoregulation), and potentially additional mechanisms. A1 adenosine receptors (A1AR) mediate TGF in superficial nephrons

  17. Binary Drugs: Conjugates of Purines and a Peptide That Bind to Both Adenosine and Substance P Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Lipkowski, Andrzej W.; Moody, Terry W.; Padgett, William; Pijl, Evelyn; Kirk, Kenneth L.; Daly, John W.

    2012-01-01

    A “functionalized congener” approach to adenosine receptor antagonists has provided a means to synthesize highly potent peptide conjugates of 1,3-dialkylxanthines. The antagonist XAC, such a functionalized xanthine amine congener, has been attached to a segment derived from the neurotransmitter peptide substance P (SP) to form a binary drug that binds to both receptors with Ki values of 35 nM (central A1-adenosine) and 300 nM (striatal SP). Coupling of the functionalized adenosine agonist N6-[p-(carboxymethyl)phenyl]adenosine to an SP C-terminal peptide also resulted in a binary drug that binds to both receptors. The demonstration that the biochemical properties of two unrelated drugs, both of which act through binding at extracellular receptors, may be combined in the same molecule suggests a novel strategy for drug design. In principle, a combined effect of the two different substances that produce the same final effect (e.g., hypotension by adenosine agonists and by SP analogues) might occur in vivo. Adenosine analogues have analgesic properties, and the binary drug derived from substance P and adenosine agonists or antagonists might provide useful tools for probing interrelationships of SP pathways and sites for the antinociceptive action of adenosine. PMID:2441057

  18. Interactions between adenosine, angiotensin II and nitric oxide on the afferent arteriole influence sensitivity of the tubuloglomerular feedback

    PubMed Central

    Persson, A. E. G.; Lai, En Yin; Gao, Xiang; Carlström, Mattias; Patzak, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Adenosine, via activation of A1 receptors on the afferent arteriole (AA), mediates the tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) mechanism. Angiotensin II and nitric oxide (NO) can modulate the sensitivity of the TGF mechanism. However, the interaction among these substances in regulating the TGF resetting phenomenon has been debated. Studies in isolated perfused AA have shown a biphasic response to accumulating doses of adenosine alone. In the nanomolar range adenosine has a weak contractile effect (7%), whereas vasodilatation is observed at high concentrations. However, a synergistic interaction between the contractile response by adenosine and that of angiotensin II has been demonstrated. Adenosine in low concentrations strongly enhances the response to angiotensin II. At the same time, angiotensin II in physiological concentrations increases significantly the contractile response to adenosine. Moreover, addition of a NO donor (spermine NONOate) to increase NO bioavailability abolished the contractile response from combined application of angiotensin II and adenosine. These mutual modulating effects of adenosine and angiotensin II, and the effect of NO on the response of AA can contribute to the resetting of the TGF sensitivity. PMID:23882224

  19. Immunoregulation of IL-6 secretion by endogenous and exogenous adenosine and by exogenous purinergic agonists in splenic tissue slices.

    PubMed

    Straub, Rainer H; Pongratz, Georg; Günzler, Christian; Michna, Andreas; Baier, Simone; Kees, Frieder; Falk, Werner; Schölmerich, Jürgen

    2002-04-01

    In recent years, the role of norepinephrine, opioids, and neuropeptide Y for sympathetic regulation of murine spleen cells has been characterised. In this study, we describe the role of exogenous and endogenous adenosine and exogenous P2X(1) and P2Y(1) agonists for spontaneous splenic IL-6 secretion from spleen slices. The P2X(1) agonist beta,gamma-methylene ATP inhibited IL-6 secretion at 10(-5) M, whereas the P2Y(1) agonist 2-methylthio ATP increased IL-6 secretion at 10(-6) to 10(-8) M. Furthermore, adenosine (at 5 x 10(-8), 10(-7), 5 x 10(-7) M) inhibited IL-6 secretion via A1 adenosine receptors, whereas an A2(A) adenosine receptor agonist increased IL-6 secretion in the presence of 10(-7) M cortisol. To determine the effects of endogenous adenosine, electrical field stimulation was applied in order to release endogenous ATP, which yields adenosine after conversion from ATP. Electrical field stimulation markedly reduced IL-6 secretion, which was attenuated by the A1 antagonist DPCPX but not by the A2 antagonist 8-(3-Chlorostyryl)caffeine. Thus, via A1 adenosine receptors, adenosine was found to be a strong inhibitor of splenic IL-6 secretion. This study further expands our earlier description of the complexity of the local dialogue of sympathetic nerves and macrophages in lymphoid organs. PMID:11960643

  20. Effect of adenosine system in the action of oseltamivir on behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Hidemori; Hiromura, Makoto; Shiratani, Tomonori; Kuroki, Hiroaki; Honda, Sinichiro; Kosako, Kazuhiro; Soeda, Shinji; Inoue, Kazuhide; Toda, Akihisa

    2015-07-10

    Abnormal behaviors and death associated with the use of oseltamivir (Tamiflu(®)) have emerged as a major issue in influenza patients. We have previously reported that the mechanisms underlying the effects of caffeine, a non-selective adenosine A1/A2 receptor antagonist, combined with oseltamivir. Oseltamivir is rapidly hydrolyzed to its active form (oseltamivir carboxylate, OCB). In this study, we investigated the effects of an adenosine system and OCB on the action of oseltamivir on mice behavior. Oseltamivir for 1 day (150 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)) alone did not affect ambulation at 2 h post-injection. However, caffeine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) in combination with oseltamivir for 1 day increased ambulation. Moreover, caffeine (30 mg/kg, i.p.) in combination with oseltamivir for 3 days increased ambulation, but caffeine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) in combination with oseltamivir for 3 days did not increase. These enhancements were inhibited by an adenosine A2 receptor agonist, CGS21680 (0.2 mg/kg, subcutaneously (s.c.)). Furthermore, an adenosine A2 receptor antagonist, SCH58261 (1 and 3 mg/kg, i.p.) in combination with oseltamivir for 1 day increased ambulation. Moreover, SCH58261 (3 mg/kg, i.p.) in combination with oseltamivir for 3 days increased ambulation, but SCH58261 (1 mg/kg, i.p.) in combination with oseltamivir for 3 days did not. Conversely, in phenobarbital (PB)-treated mice, caffeine (3 mg/kg, i.p.) in combination with oseltamivir for 1 day increased ambulation. Moreover, OCB for 1 day (0.3 ?g/mouse intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.)) alone increased ambulation. These findings suggest that the actions of oseltamivir may involve the adenosine systems and its metabolism. Our findings suggest an interaction between the central blockade of adenosine A2 receptors by caffeine and OCB-induced behavioral changes. PMID:25980995

  1. The Adenosine System Selectively Inhibits TLR-Mediated TNF-? Production in the Human Newborn1

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Ofer; Coughlin, Melissa; Cronstein, Bruce N.; Roy, Rene M.; Desai, Avani; Wessels, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    Human newborns are susceptible to microbial infection and mount poor vaccine responses, yet the mechanisms underlying their susceptibility are incompletely defined. We have previously reported that despite normal basal expression of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and associated signaling intermediates, human neonatal cord blood monocytes demonstrate severe impairment in TNF-? production in response to triacylated (TLR 2/1) and diacylated (TLR 2/6) bacterial lipopeptides (BLPs) {Levy et al J Immunol 173: 4627}. We now demonstrate that in marked contrast, BLP-induced synthesis of IL-6, a cytokine with anti-inflammatory and Th2-polarizing properties, is actually greater in neonates than adults. Remarkably, newborn blood plasma confers substantially reduced BLP-induced monocyte synthesis of TNF–?, while preserving IL-6 synthesis, reflecting the presence in neonatal blood plasma of a soluble, low-molecular weight inhibitory factor (< 10 kDa) that we identify as adenosine, an endogenous purine metabolite with immunomodulatory properties. The neonatal adenosine system also inhibits TNF-? production in response to whole microbial particles known to express TLR2 agonist activity, including Listeria monocytogenes, E. coli (that express BLPs), and zymosan particles. Selective inhibition of neonatal TNF-? production is due to the distinct neonatal adenosine system, including relatively high adenosine concentrations in neonatal blood plasma and heightened sensitivity of neonatal mononuclear cells to adenosine A3 receptor-mediated accumulation of cAMP, a second messenger that inhibits TLR-mediated TNF–? synthesis but preserves IL-6 production. We conclude that the distinct adenosine system of newborns polarizes TLR-mediated cytokine production during the perinatal period and may thereby modulate their innate and adaptive immune responses. PMID:16849509

  2. Extracellular adenosine concentrations during in vitro ischaemia in rat hippocampal slices

    PubMed Central

    Latini, Serena; Bordoni, Francesca; Pedata, Felicita; Corradetti, Renato

    1999-01-01

    The application of an ischaemic insult in hippocampal slices results in the depression of synaptic transmission, mainly attributed to the activation of A1 adenosine receptors by adenosine released in the extracellular space. To estimate the concentration of endogenous adenosine acting at the receptor level during an ischaemic episode, we recorded field e.p.s.ps (fe.p.s.ps) from hippocampal slices, and evaluated the ability of the selective A1 receptor antagonist, 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX), to reverse the fe.p.s.p. depression induced by in vitro ischaemia. A relationship between the IC50 of an antagonist and the endogenous concentration of a neurotransmitter has been used for pharmacological analysis. The complete and reversible depression of fe.p.s.p. in the CA1 region induced by 5?min ischaemia was decreased in the presence of DPCPX (50–500?nM). 8-Phenyltheophylline (10??M) abolished the depression of fe.p.s.ps during the ischaemic period, while a small (peak effect 12±4%) decrease in fe.p.s.ps was observed during the initial phase of reperfusion. In the time-interval of maximal depression of fe.p.s.ps., IC50 and adenosine concentration changed as function of time with a good degree of correlation. The maximal value of adenosine concentration was 30??M. Our data provide an estimation of the adenosine concentration reached at the receptor level during an ischaemic episode, with a higher time discrimination (15?s) than that achieved with any biochemical approach. This estimation may be useful in order to establish appropriate concentrations of purinergic compounds to be tested for their pharmacological effects during an ischaemic episode. PMID:10401564

  3. Adenosine transport systems on dissociated brain cells from mouse, guinea-pig, and rat

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, M.E.; Geiger, J.D. )

    1990-09-01

    The kinetics and sodium dependence of adenosine transport were determined using an inhibitor-stop method on dissociated cell body preparations obtained from mouse, guinea-pig and rat brain. Transport affinity (KT) values for the high affinity adenosine transport systems KT(H) were significantly different between these three species; mean +/- SEM values were 0.34 +/- 0.1 in mouse, 0.9 +/- 0.2 in rat, and 1.5 +/- 0.5 microM in guinea-pig. The KT values for the low affinity transport system KT(L) were not different between the three species. Brain cells from rat displayed a significantly greater maximal capacity to accumulate (3H)adenosine (Vmax) than did mouse or guinea-pig for the high affinity system, or than did mouse for the low affinity system. When sodium chloride was replaced in the transport medium with choline chloride, the KT(H) values for guinea-pig and rat were both increased by approximately 100%; only in rat did the change reach statistical significance. The sodium-dependence of adenosine transport in mouse brain was clearly absent. The differences between KT(H) values in mouse and those in guinea-pig or rat were accentuated in the absence of sodium. The differences in kinetic values, ionic requirements, and pharmacological characteristics between adenosine transporters in CNS tissues of mouse, guinea-pig and rat may help account for some of the variability noted among species in terms of their physiological responses to adenosine.

  4. Would calcium or potassium channels be responsible for cardiac arrest produced by adenosine and ATP in the right atria of Wistar rats?

    PubMed

    Camara, Henrique; Rodrigues, Juliano Quintella Dantas; Alves, Gabriel Andrade; Silva Junior, Edilson Dantas da; Caricati-Neto, Afonso; Garcia, Antônio G; Jurkiewicz, Aron

    2015-12-01

    Autonomic nerves release ATP, which is processed into adenosine in the synaptic cleft. Adenosine and ATP exert a negative chronotropic effect in the heart. This study aims to evaluate adenosine and P2 receptors and cellular signalling in cardiac arrest produced by purines in the heart. Right atria of adult Wistar rats were used to evaluate the effects of adenosine, ATP and CPA (an adenosine A1 receptor agonist), in the presence and absence of DPCPX, an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist. Effects of adenosine A2 and A3 receptors agonists and antagonists were also investigated. Finally, involvement of calcium and potassium channels in these responses was assessed using BayK 8644 and 4-Aminopyridine. Cumulative concentration-effect curves of adenosine and CPA resulted in a negative chronotropic effect culminating in cardiac arrest at 1000?M (adenosine) and 1µM (CPA). Furthermore, ATP produced a negative chronotropic effect at 1-300µM and cardiac arrest at 1000?M in the right atrium. ATP?S (a non-hydrolysable analogue of ATP) reduced chronotropism only. The effects of adenosine, CPA and ATP were inhibited by DPCPX, a selective adenosine A1 receptor antagonist. The selective adenosine A2 and A3 receptors antagonists did not alter the chronotropic response of adenosine. 4-Aminopyridine, a blocker of potassium channels at 10mM, prevented the cardiac arrest produced by adenosine and ATP, while BayK 8644, activator of calcium channels, did not prevent cardiac arrest. Adenosine A1 receptor activation by adenosine and ATP produces cardiac arrest in the right atrium of Wistar rats predominantly through activation of potassium channels. PMID:26528795

  5. “REVERSE” CARBOCYCLIC FLEXIMERS: SYNTHESIS OF A NEW CLASS OF ADENOSINE DEAMINASE INHIBITORS

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Sarah C.; Sadler, Joshua M.; O’Daniel, Peter I.; Kim, Nathaniel T.; Seley-Radtke, Katherine L.

    2013-01-01

    A series of flexible carbocyclic pyrimidine nucleosides has been designed and synthesized. In contrast to previously reported “fleximers” from our laboratory, these analogues have the connectivity of the heterocyclic base system “reversed”, where the pyrimidine ring is attached to the sugar moiety, rather than the five membered imidazole ring. As was previously seen with the ribose fleximers, their inherent flexibility should allow them to adjust to enzyme binding site mutations, as well as increase the affinity for atypical enzymes. Preliminary biological screening has revealed surprising inhibition of adenosine deaminase, despite their lack of resemblance to adenosine. PMID:23473101

  6. Impaired Erectile Function in CD73-deficient Mice with Reduced Endogenous Penile Adenosine Production

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Jiaming; Dai, Yingbo; Zhang, Yujin; Zhang, Weiru; Kellems, Rodney E.; Xia, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Adenosine has been implicated in normal and abnormal penile erection. However, a direct role of endogenous adenosine in erectile physiology and pathology has not been established. Aim To determine the functional role of endogenous adenosine production in erectile function. Methods CD73-deficient mice (CD73?/?) and age-matched wild-type (WT) mice were used. Some WT mice were treated with alpha, beta-methylene adenosine diphosphate (ADP) (APCP), a CD73-specific inhibitor. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to measure adenosine levels in mouse penile tissues. In vivo assessment of intracorporal pressure (ICP) normalized to mean arterial pressure (MAP) in response to electrical stimulation (ES) of the cavernous nerve was used. Main Outcome Measurement The main outcome measures of this study were the in vivo assessment of initiation and maintenance of penile erection in WT mice and mice with deficiency in CD73 (ecto-5?-nucleotidase), a key cell-surface enzyme to produce extracellular adenosine. Results Endogenous adenosine levels were elevated in the erected state induced by ES of cavernous nerve compared to the flaccid state in WT mice but not in CD73?/? mice. At cellular levels, we identified that CD73 was highly expressed in the neuronal, endothelial cells, and vascular smooth muscle cells in mouse penis. Functionally, we found that the ratio of ES-induced ICP to MAP in CD73?/? mice was reduced from 0.48 ± 0.03 to 0.33 ± 0.05 and ES-induced slope was reduced from 0.30 ± 0.13 mm Hg/s to 0.15 ± 0.05 mm Hg/s (both P < 0.05). The ratio of ES-induced ICP to MAP in APCP-treated WT mice was reduced from 0.49 ± 0.03 to 0.38 ± 0.06 and ES-induced slope was reduced from 0.29 ± 0.11 mm Hg/s to 0.19 ± 0.04 mm Hg/s (both P < 0.05). Conclusion Overall, our findings demonstrate that CD73-dependent production of endogenous adenosine plays a direct role in initiation and maintenance of penile erection. PMID:21595838

  7. New QSAR combined strategy for the design of A1 adenosine receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    González, Maykel Pérez; Besada, Pedro; González Moa, Maria José; Teijeira, Marta; Terán, Carmen

    2008-02-15

    Combined discriminant and regression analysis was carried out on a series of 167 A1 adenosine receptor agonists to identify the best linear and nonlinear models for the design of new compounds with a better biological profile. On the basis of the best linear discriminant analysis and both linear and nonlinear Multi Layer Perceptron neural networks regression, we have designed and synthesized 14 carbonucleoside analogues of adenosine. Their biological activities were predicted and experimentally measured to demonstrate the capability of our model to avoid the prediction of false positives. A good agreement was found between the calculated and observed biological activity. PMID:18068994

  8. Regulation of photoreceptor gap junction phosphorylation by adenosine in zebrafish retina.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongyan; Chuang, Alice Z; O'Brien, John

    2014-05-01

    Electrical coupling of photoreceptors through gap junctions suppresses voltage noise, routes rod signals into cone pathways, expands the dynamic range of rod photoreceptors in high scotopic and mesopic illumination, and improves detection of contrast and small stimuli. In essentially all vertebrates, connexin 35/36 (gene homologs Cx36 in mammals, Cx35 in other vertebrates) is the major gap junction protein observed in photoreceptors, mediating rod-cone, cone-cone, and possibly rod-rod communication. Photoreceptor coupling is dynamically controlled by the day/night cycle and light/dark adaptation, and is directly correlated with phosphorylation of Cx35/36 at two sites, serine110 and serine 276/293 (homologous sites in teleost fish and mammals, respectively). Activity of protein kinase A (PKA) plays a key role during this process. Previous studies have shown that activation of dopamine D4 receptors on photoreceptors inhibits adenylyl cyclase, down-regulates cAMP and PKA activity, and leads to photoreceptor uncoupling, imposing the daytime/light condition. In this study, we explored the role of adenosine, a nighttime signal with a high extracellular concentration at night and a low concentration in the day, in regulating photoreceptor coupling by examining photoreceptor Cx35 phosphorylation in zebrafish retina. Adenosine enhanced photoreceptor Cx35 phosphorylation in daytime, but with a complex dose-response curve. Selective pharmacological manipulations revealed that adenosine A2a receptors provide a potent positive drive to phosphorylate photoreceptor Cx35 under the influence of endogenous adenosine at night. A2a receptors can be activated in the daytime as well by micromolar exogenous adenosine. However, the higher affinity adenosine A1 receptors are also present and have an antagonistic though less potent effect. Thus, the nighttime/darkness signal adenosine provides a net positive drive on Cx35 phosphorylation at night, working in opposition to dopamine to regulate photoreceptor coupling via a push-pull mechanism. However, the lower concentration of adenosine present in the daytime actually reinforces the dopamine signal through action on the A1 receptor. PMID:24844306

  9. Postirradiation administration of adenosine monophosphate combined with dipyridamole reduces early cellular damage in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Bohacek, J.; Hosek, B.; Pospisil, M. )

    1993-01-01

    The administration of dipyridamole and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) to mice 5 to 25 min after 1 Gy of total-body gamma irradiation was found to decrease cellular damage, as indicated by the thymidine level in plasma and the amount of saline soluble polynucleotides in the thymus. The drug combination used did not influence similar cytotoxic effects of hydrocortisone. Furthermore, it was shown that the addition of dipyridamole and AMP to in vitro irradiated suspensions of thymocytes enhanced the rejoining processes of DNA strand breaks. Receptor-mediated action of extracellular adenosine may be responsible for the therapeutic effects observed.

  10. Dietary adenine controls adult lifespan via adenosine nucleotide biosynthesis and AMPK, and regulates the longevity benefit of caloric restriction

    PubMed Central

    Stenesen, Drew; Suh, Jae Myoung; Seo, Jin; Yu, Kweon; Lee, Kyu-Sun; Kim, Jong-Seok; Min, Kyung-Jin; Graff, Jonathan M.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY A common thread among conserved lifespan regulators lies within intertwined roles in metabolism and energy homeostasis. We show that heterozygous mutations of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) biosynthetic enzymes extend Drosophila lifespan. The lifespan benefit of these mutations depends upon increased AMP to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to ATP ratios and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Transgenic expression of AMPK in adult fat body or adult muscle, key metabolic tissues, extended lifespan, while AMPK RNAi reduced lifespan. Supplementing adenine, a substrate for AMP biosynthesis, to the diet of long-lived AMP biosynthesis mutants reversed lifespan extension. Remarkably, this simple change in diet also blocked the pro-longevity effects of dietary restriction. These data establish AMP biosynthesis, adenosine nucleotide ratios, and AMPK as determinants of adult lifespan, provide a mechanistic link between cellular anabolism and energy sensing pathways, and indicate that dietary adenine manipulations might alter metabolism to influence animal lifespan. PMID:23312286

  11. Serum Adenosine Deaminase as Inflammatory Marker in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Vinapamula, Kiranmayi S.; Bhattaram, Siddartha Kumar; Bitla, Aparna R.; Manohar, Suchitra M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a prototypical inflammatory joint disease. The degree of inflammation is reflected in the extent of joint damage, which further has influence on the quality of life of patients with RA, including risk of atherosclerosis. Hence, besides clinical indices, estimation of degree of inflammation using biochemical markers helps in effecting optimum treatment strategies. C-reactive protein (CRP) is established as an inflammatory marker in patients with RA. Adenosine deaminase (ADA), an enzyme of purine metabolism is considered as a marker of cell mediated immunity and has also been suggested as a marker of inflammatory process in RA. The present study attempts to study the efficacy of serum ADA activity as an inflammatory marker in RA. Materials and Methods Forty six RA patients and forty six age and sex matched healthy controls were included in the study. ADA activity and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels in serum were measured in all the subjects. Statistical analyses were done using Medcalc statistical software version 12.2.2. Results ADA activity and hsCRP levels were increased in RA patients compared to controls (p<0.0001 and 0.0001 respectively). Significant positive correlation was obtained between hsCRP and ADA in patients (r=0.316, p=0.033). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed statistically significant area under curve (AUC) for ADA that is comparable to that obtained for hsCRP (0.776, p<0.0001 for ADA, 0.726, p<0.0001 for hsCRP). Similar diagnostic utility was obtained with ROC generated cut-off value of 25.3 IU/L (82.6% sensitivity and 65.2% specificity) and with control mean value of 23.48 IU/L (86.96% sensitivity and 54.35% specificity) for ADA. Conclusion Findings of the present study indicate the importance of ADA as a marker of inflammation. Considering the higher sensitivity obtained, we propose control mean (23.48 IU/L) as a cut-off for serum ADA activity as an inflammatory marker. Owing to the simplicity and also the cost effectiveness of ADA assay, ADA may be recommended as a marker of inflammation in patients with RA. However, further larger and well controlled studies are needed to establish its role as inflammatory marker. PMID:26500897

  12. Adenosine A3 receptor activation is neuroprotective against retinal neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Galvao, Joana; Elvas, Filipe; Martins, Tiago; Cordeiro, M Francesca; Ambrósio, António Francisco; Santiago, Ana Raquel

    2015-11-01

    Death of retinal neural cells, namely retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), is a characteristic of several retinal neurodegenerative diseases. Although the role of adenosine A3 receptor (A3R) in neuroprotection is controversial, A3R activation has been reported to afford protection against several brain insults, with few studies in the retina. In vitro models (retinal neural and organotypic cultures) and animal models [ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) and partial optic nerve transection (pONT)] were used to study the neuroprotective properties of A3R activation against retinal neurodegeneration. The A3R selective agonist (2-Cl-IB-MECA, 1 ?M) prevented apoptosis (TUNEL(+)-cells) induced by kainate and cyclothiazide (KA + CTZ) in retinal neural cultures (86.5 ± 7.4 and 37.2 ± 6.1 TUNEL(+)-cells/field, in KA + CTZ and KA + CTZ + 2-Cl-IB-MECA, respectively). In retinal organotypic cultures, 2-Cl-IB-MECA attenuated NMDA-induced cell death, assessed by TUNEL (17.3 ± 2.3 and 8.3 ± 1.2 TUNEL(+)-cells/mm(2) in NMDA and NMDA+2-Cl-IB-MECA, respectively) and PI incorporation (ratio DIV4/DIV2 3.3 ± 0.3 and 1.3 ± 0.1 in NMDA and NMDA+2-Cl-IB-MECA, respectively) assays. Intravitreal 2-Cl-IB-MECA administration afforded protection against I-R injury decreasing the number of TUNEL(+) cells by 72%, and increased RGC survival by 57%. Also, intravitreal administration of 2-Cl-IB-MECA inhibited apoptosis (from 449.4 ± 37.8 to 207.6 ± 48.9 annexin-V(+)-cells) and RGC loss (from 1.2 ± 0.6 to 8.1 ± 1.7 cells/mm) induced by pONT. This study demonstrates that 2-Cl-IB-MECA is neuroprotective to the retina, both in vitro and in vivo. Activation of A3R may have great potential in the management of retinal neurodegenerative diseases characterized by RGC death, as glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy, and ischemic diseases. PMID:26297614

  13. Failure of CGS15943A to block the hypotensive action of agonists acting at the adenosine A3 receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Patel, M; Sheehan, M J; Strong, P

    1994-01-01

    1. Adenosine receptor agonists were evaluated for their activity at the putative adenosine A3 receptor which mediates a 'xanthine-resistant' hypotensive response in the anaesthetized rat. The compounds tested were: the A1/A3 receptor agonist, N-[2-(4-aminophenyl)ethyl]adenosine (APNEA), the non-selective adenosine receptor agonist, 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA), the adenosine A1 receptor-selective agonists, N-[(1S,trans)-2-hydroxycyclopentyl]adenosine (GR79236) and N6-cyclopentyl adenosine (CPA), the A2a receptor-selective agonists, 2-[[2-[4-(2-carboxyethyl) phenyl] ethyl] amino]-N- ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (CGS21680) and 2-phenylaminoadenosine (CV1808), and the moderately A2b selective agonist, N-[(2-methylphenyl)methyl]adenosine (metrifudil). 2. In confirmation of literature findings, APNEA (1-1000 nmol kg-1) induced hypotension and bradycardia; the hypotension was not blocked by pretreatment with the xanthine antagonist, 8-P-sulphophenyltheophylline (8-sPT; 40 mg kg-1, i.v.), whereas the bradycardia was attenuated. The non-xanthine antagonist, 9-fluoro-2-(2-furyl)-5,6-dihydro [1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]- quinazin-5-imine (CGS15943A; 3 mg kg-1 i.v.), also attenuated the bradycardia without affecting the hypotension. 3. The adenosine A1 receptor-selective agonists, GR79236 and CPA, both produced dose-dependent falls in blood pressure and heart rate which were antagonized by 8-sPT (40 mg kg-1) and CGS15943A (3 mg kg-1). 4. The adenosine A2a receptor-selective agonists, CGS21680 and CV1808, produced only a hypotensive response which was antagonized by 8-sPT (40 mg kg-1) and to a much greater extent by CGS15943A (3 mg kg-1), consistent with the response being mediated solely by A2a receptors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7858863

  14. Occupancy of adenosine receptors raises cyclic AMP alone and in synergy with occupancy of chemoattractant receptors and inhibits membrane depolarization.

    PubMed Central

    Cronstein, B N; Kramer, S B; Rosenstein, E D; Korchak, H M; Weissmann, G; Hirschhorn, R

    1988-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that adenosine, acting via adenosine A2 receptors, inhibits generation of superoxide anions (O2-) by stimulated neutrophils. To determine the mechanism(s) by which adenosine inhibits O2- generation stimulated by the chemoattractant N-formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine (FMLP), we examined cyclic AMP (cAMP) concentrations, stimulated membrane depolarization and Ca2+ movements. Neither adenosine nor 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA), the most potent agonist at adenosine A2 receptors, increases neutrophil cAMP content. However in the presence of the non-methylxanthine phosphodiesterase inhibitor, Ro-20-1724, both adenosine and NECA elicit a reversible increase in intracellular cAMP concentration. The chemoattractant FMLP also elicits an increment in the neutrophil cAMP content. NECA, in the presence of Ro-20-1724, synergistically enhances the increment in cAMP following stimulation by FMLP. However Ro-20-1724 does not potentiate the inhibition of O2- generation by NECA. Unlike other agents which increase neutrophil cAMP concentrations, NECA, even in the presence of a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, only trivially inhibits degranulation. We also found that adenosine markedly inhibits stimulated membrane depolarization but does not affect the stimulated increment in free ionized intracellular calcium. Moreover, inhibition by adenosine of O2- generation does not vary with the concentration of extracellular calcium. These results fulfil the last criterion for the demonstration of an A2 receptor on human neutrophils, and indicate that adenosine occupies an A2 receptor on neutrophils to raise intracellular cAMP in synergy with occupancy of the FMLP receptor. The results reported here also indicate that cAMP is not the second messenger for inhibition of O2- generation by adenosine and its analogues. PMID:2844154

  15. Exploring distal regions of the A3 adenosine receptor binding site: sterically constrained N6-(2-phenylethyl)adenosine derivatives as potent ligands

    PubMed Central

    Tchilibon, Susanna; Kim, Soo-Kyung; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Harris, Brian A.; Blaustein, Joshua B.; Gross, Ariel S.; Duong, Heng T.; Melman, Neli; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2015-01-01

    We synthesized phenyl ring-substituted analogues of N6-(1S,2R)-(2-phenyl-1-cyclopropyl)adenosine, which is highly potent in binding to the human A3AR with a Ki value of 0.63 nM. The effects of these structural changes on affinity at human and rat adenosine receptors and on intrinsic efficacy at the hA3AR were measured. A 3-nitrophenyl analogue was resolved chromatographically into pure diastereomers, which displayed 10-fold stereoselectivity in A3AR binding in favor of the 1S,2R isomer. A molecular model defined a hydrophobic region (Phe168) in the putative A3AR binding site around the phenyl moiety. A heteroaromatic group (3-thienyl) could substitute for the phenyl moiety with retention of high affinity of A3AR binding. Other related N6-substituted adenosine derivatives were included for comparison. Although the N6-(2-phenyl-1-cyclopropyl) derivatives were full A3AR agonists, several other derivatives had greatly reduced efficacy. N6-Cyclopropyladenosine was an A3AR antagonist, and adding either one or two phenyl rings at the 2-position of the cyclopropyl moiety restored efficacy. N6-(2,2-Diphenylethyl)adenosine was an A3AR antagonist, and either adding a bond between the two phenyl rings (N6-9-fluorenylmethyl) or shortening the ethyl moiety (N6-diphenylmethyl) restored efficacy. A QSAR study of the N6 region provided a model that was complementary to the putative A3AR binding site in a rhodopsin-based homology model. Thus, a new series of high-affinity A3AR agonists and related nucleoside antagonists was explored through both empirical and theoretical approaches. PMID:15080906

  16. Adenosine Analogues as Selective Inhibitors of Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate Dehydrogenase of Trypanosomatidae via Structure-Based Drug Design

    PubMed Central

    Bressi, Jerome C.; Verlinde, Christophe L. M. J.; Aronov, Alex M.; Shaw, My Le; Shin, Sam S.; Nguyen, Lisa N.; Suresh, Stephen; Buckner, Frederick S.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Kuntz, Irwin D.; Hol, Wim G. J.; Gelb, Michael H.

    2010-01-01

    In our continuation of the structure-based design of anti-trypanosomatid drugs, parasite-selective adenosine analogues were identified as low micromolar inhibitors of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Crystal structures of Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania mexicana, and human GAPDH’s provided details of how the adenosyl moiety of NAD+ interacts with the proteins, and this facilitated the understanding of the relative affinities of a series of adenosine analogues for the various GAPDH’s. From exploration of modifications of the naphthalenemethyl and benzamide substituents of a lead compound, N6-(1-naphthalenemethyl)-2?-deoxy-2?-(3-methoxybenzamido)adenosine (6e), N6-(substituted-naphthalenemethyl)-2?-deoxy-2?-(substituted-benzamido)adenosine analogues were investigated. N6-(1-Naphthalenemethyl)-2?-deoxy-2?-(3,5-dimethoxybenzamido)adenosine (6m), N6-[1-(3-hydroxy-naphthalene)methyl]-2?-deoxy-2?-(3,5-dimethoxybenzamido)adenosine (7m), N6-[1-(3-methoxy-naphthalene)methyl]-2?-deoxy-2?-(3,5-dimethoxybenzamido)adenosine (9m), N6-(2-naphthalene-methyl)-2?-deoxy-2?-(3-methoxybenzamido)adenosine (11e), and N6-(2-naphthalenemethyl)-2?-deoxy-2?-(3,5-dimethoxybenzamido)adenosine (11m) demonstrated a 2- to 3-fold improvement over 6e and a 7100- to 25000-fold improvement over the adenosine template. IC50’s of these compounds were in the range 2–12 ?M for T. brucei, T. cruzi, and L. mexicana GAPDH’s, and these compounds did not inhibit mammalian GAPDH when tested at their solubility limit. To explore more thoroughly the structure–activity relationships of this class of compounds, a library of 240 N6-(substituted)-2?-deoxy-2?-(amido)adenosine analogues was generated using parallel solution-phase synthesis with N6 and C2? substituents chosen on the basis of computational docking scores. This resulted in the identification of 40 additional compounds that inhibit parasite GAPDH’s in the low micromolar range. We also explored adenosine analogues containing 5?-amido substituents and found that 2?,5?-dideoxy-2?-(3,5-dimethoxy-benzamido)-5?-(diphenylacetamido)adenosine (49) displays an IC50 of 60–100 ?M against the three parasite GAPDH’s. PMID:11405646

  17. SELECTIVE IMMUNOTOXIC EFFECTS IN MICE TREATED WITH THE ADENOSINE DEAMINASE INHIBITOR 2-DEOXYCOFORMYCIN (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mice given the adenosine deaminase inhibitor 2-deoxycoformycin, for five days were evaluated 24 h, 72 h and 6 days after the final dose. Spleen weight was decreased for up to 6 days after treatment. The number and relative percentage of circulating lymphocytes were decreased 24 a...

  18. Cardiac myocyte–secreted cAMP exerts paracrine action via adenosine receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Sassi, Yassine; Ahles, Andrea; Truong, Dong-Jiunn Jeffery; Baqi, Younis; Lee, Sang-Yong; Husse, Britta; Hulot, Jean-Sébastien; Foinquinos, Ariana; Thum, Thomas; Müller, Christa E.; Dendorfer, Andreas; Laggerbauer, Bernhard; Engelhardt, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Acute stimulation of cardiac ?-adrenoceptors is crucial to increasing cardiac function under stress; however, sustained ?-adrenergic stimulation has been implicated in pathological myocardial remodeling and heart failure. Here, we have demonstrated that export of cAMP from cardiac myocytes is an intrinsic cardioprotective mechanism in response to cardiac stress. We report that infusion of cAMP into mice averted myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis in a disease model of cardiac pressure overload. The protective effect of exogenous cAMP required adenosine receptor signaling. This observation led to the identification of a potent paracrine mechanism that is dependent on secreted cAMP. Specifically, FRET-based imaging of cAMP formation in primary cells and in myocardial tissue from murine hearts revealed that cardiomyocytes depend on the transporter ABCC4 to export cAMP as an extracellular signal. Extracellular cAMP, through its metabolite adenosine, reduced cardiomyocyte cAMP formation and hypertrophy by activating A1 adenosine receptors while delivering an antifibrotic signal to cardiac fibroblasts by A2 adenosine receptor activation. Together, our data reveal a paracrine role for secreted cAMP in intercellular signaling in the myocardium, and we postulate that secreted cAMP may also constitute an important signal in other tissues. PMID:25401477

  19. Activation of Cl secretion during chemical hypoxia by endogenous release of adenosine in intestinal epithelial monolayers.

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, J B; Tally, K J; Smith, J A; Zeind, A J; Hrnjez, B J

    1995-01-01

    Intestinal ischemia is characterized by rapid early inhibition of absorptive function and the appearance of net secretion, although why active secretion persists in the setting of a mucosal energy deficit is unknown. The cryptlike epithelial line T84, a well-characterized model of intestinal Cl- secretion, develops a prominent increase in short-circuit current (Isc, indicative of active Cl- transport) in response to "hypoxia" induced by metabolic inhibitors. The increased Isc is associated with the initial decrease in monolayer ATP content. The Isc is transient and disappears with progressive energy depletion, although graded degrees of ATP depletion induce a more sustained Isc response. Chromatographic analysis and secretory bioassays show that the Isc response to metabolic inhibitors is related to the endogenous release of adenosine into the extracellular space in quantities sufficient to interact locally with stimulatory adenosine receptors. Unlike its classical role as a metabolic feedback inhibitor, adenosine appears to function as an autocrine "feed-forward" activator of active intestinal Cl- secretion. These studies suggest a novel role for adenosine in the conversion of the gut from an absorptive to a secretory organ during ischemic stress, thus contributing to the initial diarrheal manifestation of intestinal ischemia. PMID:7615780

  20. Investigation of adenosine base ionization in the hairpin ribozyme by nucleotide analog interference mapping.

    PubMed Central

    Ryder, S P; Oyelere, A K; Padilla, J L; Klostermeier, D; Millar, D P; Strobel, S A

    2001-01-01

    Tertiary structure in globular RNA folds can create local environments that lead to pKa perturbation of specific nucleotide functional groups. To assess the prevalence of functionally relevant adenosine-specific pKa perturbation in RNA structure, we have altered the nucleotide analog interference mapping (NAIM) approach to include a series of a phosphorothioate-tagged adenosine analogs with shifted N1 pKa values. We have used these analogs to analyze the hairpin ribozyme, a small self-cleaving/ligating RNA catalyst that is proposed to employ a general acid-base reaction mechanism. A single adenosine (A10) within the ribozyme active site displayed an interference pattern consistent with a functionally significant base ionization. The exocyclic amino group of a second adenosine (A38) contributes substantially to hairpin catalysis, but ionization of the nucleotide does not appear to be important for activity. Within the hairpin ribozyme crystal structure, A10 and A38 line opposite edges of a solvent-excluded cavity adjacent to the 5'-OH nucleophile. The results are inconsistent with the model of ribozyme chemistry in which A38 acts as a general acid-base catalyst, and suggest that the hairpin ribozyme uses an alternative mechanism to achieve catalytic rate enhancement that utilizes functional groups within a solvent-excluded cleft in the ribozyme active site. PMID:11680850

  1. A Functionalized Congener Approach to Adenosine Receptor Antagonists: Amino Acid Conjugates of 1,3-Dipropylxanthine

    PubMed Central

    JACOBSON, KENNETH A.; KIRK, KENNETH L.; PADGETT, WILLIAM L.; DALY, JOHN W.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY 1,3-Dipropyl-8-phenylxanthine, a synthetic analog of theophylline and a potent antagonist of adenosine at A1 and A2-adenosine receptors, has been attached covalently through a functionalized chain to amino acids and oligopeptides. The xanthine conjugates have been studied as competitive inhibitors of the specific binding of [3H]N6-cyclohexyladenosine to A1-receptors of rat cerebral cortical membranes and for inhibition of cyclic AMP accumulation elicited by 2-chloroadenosine in guinea pig brain slices through A2-receptors. A free amino group on the extended chain generally resulted in high potency at A1-receptors. The potency (in some cases extending into the subnanomolar range) and selectivity for A1-receptors (up to 200-fold) suggest that this approach can yield a versatile class of “functionalized congeners” of adenosine receptor antagonists in which distal modifications of the attached moiety (“carrier”) can serve also to improve pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic parameters. The water solubility in many of the more potent analogs has been enhanced by two orders of magnitude over that of simple, uncharged 8-phenyl xanthine derivatives. Analogs in which the carrier contains d-tyrosine have potential for development of iodinated radioligands for adenosine receptors. The functionalized congener approach is potentially applicable to other drugs and for development of prodrugs. PMID:3005825

  2. Structural basis of the substrate specificity of Bacillus cereus adenosine phosphorylase

    SciTech Connect

    Dessanti, Paola; Zhang, Yang; Allegrini, Simone; Tozzi, Maria Grazia; Sgarrella, Francesco; Ealick, Steven E.

    2012-10-08

    Purine nucleoside phosphorylases catalyze the phosphorolytic cleavage of the glycosidic bond of purine (2{prime}-deoxy)nucleosides, generating the corresponding free base and (2{prime}-deoxy)ribose 1-phosphate. Two classes of PNPs have been identified: homotrimers specific for 6-oxopurines and homohexamers that accept both 6-oxopurines and 6-aminopurines. Bacillus cereus adenosine phosphorylase (AdoP) is a hexameric PNP; however, it is highly specific for 6-aminopurines. To investigate the structural basis for the unique substrate specificity of AdoP, the active-site mutant D204N was prepared and kinetically characterized and the structures of the wild-type protein and the D204N mutant complexed with adenosine and sulfate or with inosine and sulfate were determined at high resolution (1.2-1.4 {angstrom}). AdoP interacts directly with the preferred substrate through a hydrogen-bond donation from the catalytically important residue Asp204 to N7 of the purine base. Comparison with Escherichia coli PNP revealed a more optimal orientation of Asp204 towards N7 of adenosine and a more closed active site. When inosine is bound, two water molecules are interposed between Asp204 and the N7 and O6 atoms of the nucleoside, thus allowing the enzyme to find alternative but less efficient ways to stabilize the transition state. The mutation of Asp204 to asparagine led to a significant decrease in catalytic efficiency for adenosine without affecting the efficiency of inosine cleavage.

  3. Structural features of the adenosine conjugate in means of vibrational spectroscopy and DFT.

    PubMed

    Malek, Kamilla; Podstawka, Edyta; Milecki, Jan; Schroeder, Grzegorz; Proniewicz, Leonard M

    2009-06-01

    Vibrational spectra of adenosine bearing benzo-15-crown ether moiety [N(6)-4'-(benzo-15-crown-5)-adenosine, AC] have been recorded in solid phase (FT-IR, FT-Raman) and in aqueous solution on the silver colloid surface (SERS). To interpret a very complex vibrational pattern of experimental data, geometrical parameters (molecular structure) as well as harmonic frequencies of the isolated molecule were calculated at the density functional theory level [B3LYP/6-31G(d)]. Assignment of the observed vibrational modes is discussed on the basis of the theoretical results obtained for N(6)-4'-(benzo-15-crown-5)-adenosine as well as its molecular isolated fragments, i.e. adenosine and benzo-15-crown ether. Our analysis of SERS spectrum indicates that adenine and benzo-15-crown ether take tilted orientation while the imino group and ribose adopt almost vertical position in respect to the metal surface. Moreover, calculated atomic charge distribution gives interesting insights into changes of electron density allocation in investigated fragments. PMID:19344993

  4. ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE (ATP) AND DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID (DNA) CONTENT OF MARINE MICROALGAE AND BACTERIA WITH

    E-print Network

    Qiu, Bo

    ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE (ATP) AND DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID (DNA) CONTENT OF MARINE MICROALGAE the relationship between DNA and ATP content of marine bacteria and microalgae. This relationship was used. Laboratory-derived DNA:ATP ratios ranged from 8.5 to 33 (wt:wt) for cultures of marine microalgae, and from

  5. A2BR adenosine receptor modulates sweet taste in circumvallate taste buds.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Shinji; Baquero, Arian; Yang, Dan; Shultz, Nicole; Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Ravid, Katya; Kinnamon, Sue C; Finger, Thomas E

    2012-01-01

    In response to taste stimulation, taste buds release ATP, which activates ionotropic ATP receptors (P2X2/P2X3) on taste nerves as well as metabotropic (P2Y) purinergic receptors on taste bud cells. The action of the extracellular ATP is terminated by ectonucleotidases, ultimately generating adenosine, which itself can activate one or more G-protein coupled adenosine receptors: A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. Here we investigated the expression of adenosine receptors in mouse taste buds at both the nucleotide and protein expression levels. Of the adenosine receptors, only A2B receptor (A2BR) is expressed specifically in taste epithelia. Further, A2BR is expressed abundantly only in a subset of taste bud cells of posterior (circumvallate, foliate), but not anterior (fungiform, palate) taste fields in mice. Analysis of double-labeled tissue indicates that A2BR occurs on Type II taste bud cells that also express G?14, which is present only in sweet-sensitive taste cells of the foliate and circumvallate papillae. Glossopharyngeal nerve recordings from A2BR knockout mice show significantly reduced responses to both sucrose and synthetic sweeteners, but normal responses to tastants representing other qualities. Thus, our study identified a novel regulator of sweet taste, the A2BR, which functions to potentiate sweet responses in posterior lingual taste fields. PMID:22253866

  6. Ligand Interactions in the Adenosine Nucleotide-binding Domain of the Hsp90 Chaperone, GRP94

    E-print Network

    Nicchitta, Chris

    Hip , p60Hop , p23, and FKBP52 (23­30). These co-chaperones and accessory molecules participate binding is pro- posed. A hypothesis on the regulation of GRP94 confor- mation and activity by adenosine-based, 39, 40­47). Beginning with earlier, sequence-based analyses, it was reported that Hsp90 contained

  7. Label-free aptasensor for adenosine deaminase sensing based on fluorescence turn-on.

    PubMed

    Zeng, X; Wang, C; Li, Y X; Li, X X; Su, Y Y; An, J; Tang, Y L

    2015-02-21

    A label-free and fluorescence turn-on aptamer biosensor has been developed for the detection of adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity with simplicity and selectivity. Adenosine aptamer will form a tight stem-loop structure upon binding with adenosine. In the absence of ADA, only a small quantity of picagreen intercalates into the stem section of aptamer, resulting in a low fluorescence of picagreen when excited at 490 nm. Interestingly, after the addition of ADA, adenosine is hydrolyzed to inosine, and the released aptamer forms double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) with its complementary single-stranded DNAc, followed by the intercalation of picagreen to dsDNA. When the solution is excited, picagreen emits strong green fluorescence. The increased fluorescence intensity of picagreen is dependent on the concentration of ADA. The detection limit of the ADA is determined to be 2 U L(-1), which is lower than ADA cutoff value (4 U L(-1)) in the clinical requirement and more sensitive than most of the reported methods. Compared to other previous ADA sensors, the assay is not only label-free but also a turn-on signal, and possesses properties of lower cost and simpler detection system. Furthermore, this label-free strategy is also applicable to the assay of other enzymes and screening of corresponding inhibitors. PMID:25521724

  8. Stimulation of Glia Reveals Modulation of Mammalian Spinal Motor Networks by Adenosine

    PubMed Central

    Acton, David; Miles, Gareth B.

    2015-01-01

    Despite considerable evidence that glia can release modulators to influence the excitability of neighbouring neurons, the importance of gliotransmission for the operation of neural networks and in shaping behaviour remains controversial. Here we characterise the contribution of glia to the modulation of the mammalian spinal central pattern generator for locomotion, the output of which is directly relatable to a defined behaviour. Glia were stimulated by specific activation of protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1), an endogenous G-protein coupled receptor preferentially expressed by spinal glia during ongoing activity of the spinal central pattern generator for locomotion. Selective activation of PAR1 by the agonist TFLLR resulted in a reversible reduction in the frequency of locomotor-related bursting recorded from ventral roots of spinal cord preparations isolated from neonatal mice. In the presence of the gliotoxins methionine sulfoximine or fluoroacetate, TFLLR had no effect, confirming the specificity of PAR1 activation to glia. The modulation of burst frequency upon PAR1 activation was blocked by the non-selective adenosine-receptor antagonist theophylline and by the A1-receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine, but not by the A2A-receptor antagonist SCH5826, indicating production of extracellular adenosine upon glial stimulation, followed by A1-receptor mediated inhibition of neuronal activity. Modulation of network output following glial stimulation was also blocked by the ectonucleotidase inhibitor ARL67156, indicating glial release of ATP and its subsequent degradation to adenosine rather than direct release of adenosine. Glial stimulation had no effect on rhythmic activity recorded following blockade of inhibitory transmission, suggesting that glial cell-derived adenosine acts via inhibitory circuit components to modulate locomotor-related output. Finally, the modulation of network output by endogenous adenosine was found to scale with the frequency of network activity, implying activity-dependent release of adenosine. Together, these data indicate that glia play an active role in the modulation of mammalian locomotor networks, providing negative feedback control that may stabilise network activity. PMID:26252389

  9. Differences in adenosine A-1 and A-2 receptor density revealed by autoradiography in methylxanthine-sensitive and insensitive mice

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvis, M.F.; Williams, M.

    1988-07-01

    Two strains of inbred mice, CBA/J and SWR/J, have been identified which are, respectively, sensitive and insensitive to the behavioral and toxic effects of methylxanthines. Autoradiographic analyses of brain adenosine receptors were conducted with (/sup 3/H)CHA to label adenosine A-1 receptors and (/sup 3/H)NECA, in the presence of 50 nM CPA, to label adenosine A-2 receptors. For both mouse strains, adenosine A-1 receptors were most highly concentrated in the hippocampus and cerebellum whereas adenosine A-2 receptors were selectively localized in the striatum. CBA/J mice displayed a 30% greater density of adenosine A-1 receptors in the hippocampal CA-1 and CA-3 regions and in the cerebellum as compared to the SWR/J mice. The number of A-2 receptors (Bmax) was 40% greater in the striatum and olfactory tubercle of CBA/J as compared to SWR/J mice. No significant regional differences in A-1 or A-2 receptor affinities were observed between these inbred strains of mice. These results indicate that the differential sensitivity to methylxanthines between these mouse strains may reflect a genetically mediated difference in regional adenosine receptor densities.

  10. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. LXXXI. Nomenclature and Classification of Adenosine Receptors—An Update

    PubMed Central

    IJzerman, Adriaan P.; Jacobson, Kenneth A.; Linden, Joel; Müller, Christa E.

    2011-01-01

    In the 10 years since our previous International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology report on the nomenclature and classification of adenosine receptors, no developments have led to major changes in the recommendations. However, there have been so many other developments that an update is needed. The fact that the structure of one of the adenosine receptors has recently been solved has already led to new ways of in silico screening of ligands. The evidence that adenosine receptors can form homo- and heteromultimers has accumulated, but the functional significance of such complexes remains unclear. The availability of mice with genetic modification of all the adenosine receptors has led to a clarification of the functional roles of adenosine, and to excellent means to study the specificity of drugs. There are also interesting associations between disease and structural variants in one or more of the adenosine receptors. Several new selective agonists and antagonists have become available. They provide improved possibilities for receptor classification. There are also developments hinting at the usefulness of allosteric modulators. Many drugs targeting adenosine receptors are in clinical trials, but the established therapeutic use is still very limited. PMID:21303899

  11. Electrochemical aptasensor for the detection of adenosine by using PdCu@MWCNTs-supported bienzymes as labels.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dan; Ren, Xiang; Hu, Lihua; Fan, Dawei; Zheng, Yang; Wei, Qin

    2015-12-15

    A highly sensitive electrochemical adenosine aptasensor was fabricated by covalently immobilizing 3'-NH2-terminated capture probe (SSDNA1) and thionine (TH) on Au-GS modified glassy carbon electrode. 3'-SH-terminated adenosine aptamer (SSDNA2) was adsorbed onto palladium/copper alloyed supported on MWCNTs (PdCu@MWCNTs)-conjugated multiple bienzymes, glucose oxidase (GOx), and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) (SSDNA2/PdCu@MWCNTs/HRP/GOx). Then, it was immobilized onto the electrode surface through the hybridization between the adenosine aptamer and the capture probe. The signal was amplified based on the gradual electrocatalytic reduction of GOx-generated hydrogen peroxide by the multiple HRP through the mediating ability of the loaded multiple TH. However, the peak current of TH decreased in the presence of adenosine because the interaction between adenosine and its aptamer made SSDNA2/PdCu@MWCNTs/HRP/GOx release from the modified electrode. Various experimental parameters have been optimized for the detection of adenosine and tests for selectivity, reproducibility and stability have also been performed. Under the optimal condition, the proposed aptasensor displayed a wide linear range (10-400 nM) with the low detection limit (2.5 nM), which has been applied in human serum samples with satisfactory results. Thus, the combination of Au-GS as a sensor platform and PdCu@MWCNTs/HRP/GOx as labels can be a promising amplification strategy for highly sensitive adenosine detection. PMID:26164010

  12. A1 Adenosine Receptor-Mediated Inhibition of Parasympathetic Neuromuscular Transmission in Human and Murine Urinary Bladder.

    PubMed

    Searl, Timothy J; Dynda, Danuta I; Alanee, Shaheen R; El-Zawahry, Ahmed M; McVary, Kevin T; Silinsky, Eugene M

    2016-01-01

    The potential role of A1 adenosine receptors in modulating neuromuscular transmission in the detrusor muscle of the urinary bladder has been tested in human and murine preparations with the intent to determine the viability of using adenosine receptor agonists as adjuncts to treat overactive bladder. In human detrusor muscle preparations, contractile responses to electrical field stimulation were inhibited by the selective A1 adenosine receptor agonists 2-chloro-N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine, N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), and adenosine (rank order of potency: 2-chloro-N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine > CPA > adenosine). Pretreatment with 8-cyclopentyl-3-[3-[[4(fluorosulphonyl)benzoyl]oxy]propyl]-1-propylxanthine, an irreversible A1 antagonist, blocked the effects of CPA, thus confirming the role of A1 receptors in human detrusor preparations. In murine detrusor muscle preparations, contractions evoked by electrical field stimulation were reduced by CPA or adenosine. Amplitudes of the P2X purinoceptor-mediated excitatory junctional potentials (EJPs) recorded with intracellular microelectrodes were reduced in amplitude by CPA and adenosine with no effect on the spontaneous EJP amplitudes, confirming the prejunctional action of these agents. 8-Cyclopentyltheophylline, a selective A1 receptor antagonist, reversed the effects of CPA on EJP amplitudes with no effect of spontaneous EJPs, confirming the role of A1 receptors in mediating these effects. PMID:26534943

  13. Adenosine accelerates the healing of diabetic ischemic ulcers by improving autophagy of endothelial progenitor cells grown on a biomaterial

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wen; Wu, Yangxiao; Li, Li; Yang, Mingcan; Shen, Lei; Liu, Ge; Tan, Ju; Zeng, Wen; Zhu, Chuhong

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) seeded on biomaterials can effectively promote diabetic ischemic wound healing. However, the function of transplanted EPCs is negatively affected by a high-glucose and ischemic microenvironment. Our experiments showed that EPC autophagy was inhibited and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was increased in diabetic patients, while adenosine treatment decreased the energy requirements and increased the autophagy levels of EPCs. In animal experiments, we transplanted a biomaterial seeded with EPCs onto the surface of diabetic wounds and found that adenosine-stimulated EPCs effectively promoted wound healing. Increased microvascular genesis and survival of the transplanted cells were also observed in the adenosine-stimulated groups. Interestingly, our study showed that adenosine increased the autophagy of the transplanted EPCs seeded onto the biomaterial and maintained EPC survival at 48 and 96?hours. Moreover, we observed that adenosine induced EPC differentiation through increasing the level of autophagy. In conclusion, our study indicated that adenosine-stimulated EPCs seeded onto a biomaterial significantly improved wound healing in diabetic mice; mechanistically, adenosine might maintain EPC survival and differentiation by increasing high glucose-inhibited EPC autophagy and maintaining cellular energy metabolism. PMID:26108983

  14. Whole-body recruitment of glycocalyx volume during intravenous adenosine infusion

    PubMed Central

    Brands, Judith; van Haare, Judith; Vink, Hans; VanTeeffelen, Jurgen W G E

    2013-01-01

    Adenosine-mediated recruitment of microvascular volume in heart and muscle has been suggested to include, in addition to vasodilation of resistance vessels, an increased accessibility of the endothelial glycocalyx for flowing plasma as a result of an impairment of its barrier properties. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of systemic intravenous administration of adenosine on the glycocalyx-dependent exclusion of circulating blood at a whole-body level. In anesthetized goats (N = 6), systemic blood-excluded glycocalyx volume was measured by comparing the intravascular distribution volume of the suggested glycocalyx accessible tracer dextrans with a molecular weight of 40 kDa (Dex-40) to that of circulating plasma, derived from the dilution of labeled red blood cells and large vessel hematocrit. Systemic glycocalyx volume was determined at baseline and during intravenous infusion of adenosine (157 ± 11.6 ?g/kg min?1). Blood-inaccessible glycocalyx volume decreased from 458.1 ± 95.5 to 18.1 ± 62.2 mL (P < 0.01) during adenosine administration. While circulating plasma volume did not change significantly (617.1 ± 48.5 vs. 759.2 ± 47.9 mL, NS), the decrease in blood-excluded glycocalyx volume was associated with a decrease in Dex-40 distribution volume (from 1075.2 ± 71.0 to 777.3 ± 60.0 mL, P < 0.01). Intravenous administration of adenosine is associated with a robust impairment of whole-body glycocalyx barrier properties, reflected by a greatly reduced exclusion of circulating blood compared to small dextrans. The observed decrease in Dex-40 distribution volume suggests that the reduction in glycocalyx volume coincides with a reduction in tracer-accessible vascular volume. PMID:24303174

  15. Role of nitric oxide in adenosine-induced vasodilation in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costa, F.; Biaggioni, I.; Robertson, D. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Vasodilation is one of the most prominent effects of adenosine and one of the first to be recognized, but its mechanism of action is not completely understood. In particular, there is conflicting information about the potential contribution of endothelial factors. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of nitric oxide in the vasodilatory effect of adenosine. Forearm blood flow responses to intrabrachial adenosine infusion (125 microg/min) were assessed with venous occlusion plethysmography during intrabrachial infusion of saline or the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) (12.5 mg/min). Intrabrachial infusions of acetylcholine (50 microg/min) and nitroprusside (3 microg/min) were used as a positive and negative control, respectively. These doses were chosen to produce comparable levels of vasodilation. In a separate study, a second saline infusion was administered instead of L-NMMA to rule out time-related effects. As expected, pretreatment with L-NMMA reduced acetylcholine-induced vasodilation; 50 microg/min acetylcholine increased forearm blood flow by 150+/-43% and 51+/-12% during saline and L-NMMA infusion, respectively (P<.01, n=6). In contrast, L-NMMA did not affect the increase in forearm blood flow produced by 3 microg/min nitroprusside (165+/-30% and 248+/-41% during saline and L-NMMA, respectively) or adenosine (173+/-48% and 270+/-75% during saline and L-NMMA, respectively). On the basis of our observations, we conclude that adenosine-induced vasodilation is not mediated by nitric oxide in the human forearm.

  16. Extracellular Adenosine Formation by Ecto-5’-Nucleotidase (CD73) Is No Essential Trigger for Early Phase Ischemic Preconditioning

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Adenosine is a powerful trigger for ischemic preconditioning (IPC). Myocardial ischemia induces intracellular and extracellular ATP degradation to adenosine, which then activates adenosine receptors and elicits cardioprotection. Conventionally extracellular adenosine formation by ecto-5’-nucleotidase (CD73) during ischemia was thought to be negligible compared to the massive intracellular production, but controversial reports in the past demand further evaluation. In this study we evaluated the relevance of ecto-5’-nucleotidase (CD73) for infarct size reduction by ischemic preconditioning in in vitro and in vivo mouse models of myocardial infarction, comparing CD73-/- and wild type (WT) mice. Methods and Results 3x5 minutes of IPC induced equal cardioprotection in isolated saline perfused hearts of wild type (WT) and CD73-/- mice, reducing control infarct sizes after 20 minutes of ischemia and 90 minutes of reperfusion from 46 ± 6.3% (WT) and 56.1 ± 7.6% (CD73-/-) to 26.8 ± 4.7% (WT) and 25.6 ± 4.7% (CD73-/-). Coronary venous adenosine levels measured after IPC stimuli by high-pressure liquid chromatography showed no differences between WT and CD73-/- hearts. Pharmacological preconditioning of WT hearts with adenosine, given at the measured venous concentration, was evenly cardioprotective as conventional IPC. In vivo, 4x5 minutes of IPC reduced control infarct sizes of 45.3 ± 8.9% (WT) and 40.5 ± 8% (CD73-/-) to 26.3 ± 8% (WT) and 22.6 ± 6.6% (CD73-/-) respectively, eliciting again equal cardioprotection. The extent of IPC-induced cardioprotection in male and female mice was identical. Conclusion The infarct size limiting effects of IPC in the mouse heart in vitro and in vivo are not significantly affected by genetic inactivation of CD73. The ecto-5’-nucleotidase derived extracellular formation of adenosine does not contribute substantially to adenosine’s well known cardioprotective effect in early phase ischemic preconditioning. PMID:26261991

  17. Adenosine receptor-induced cAMP changes in D384 astrocytoma cells and the effect of bradykinin thereon.

    PubMed

    Altiok, N; Balmforth, A J; Fredholm, B B

    1992-01-01

    In human D384 astrocytoma cells, cyclic AMP accumulation can be conveniently studied after labelling of the adenosine triphosphate pool (15 fmol cell-1) with [3H]adenine. In this study, adenosine had a biphasic effect on cyclic AMP accumulation, which was scarcely altered by blocking adenosine uptake and metabolism. Low concentrations of adenosine led to an inhibition of cyclic AMP accumulation, and higher concentrations led to stimulation. No effect of adenosine on cyclic AMP was observed unless phosphodiesterase was inhibited by rolipram. The A1 receptor antagonist DPCPX attenuated the inhibitory phase of adenosine response, and enhanced the cyclic AMP accumulation induced by adenosine analogues. The cyclic AMP accumulation was stimulated by NECA greater than ADO greater than CGS 21680 greater than CV 1808 greater than CPA greater than or equal to CHA, indicating mediation by A2 receptors. The stimulatory effect of NECA was much more effectively blocked by the combined A1 and A2 receptor antagonist CGS 15943 (KB 4 nmol l-1) than by the A1 antagonist DPCPX (KB 110 nmol l-1). Treatment of the cells with pertussis toxin (0.2 microgram ml-1 for 2.5 h) potentiated the cyclic AMP response to adenosine analogues significantly. The cyclic AMP response to NECA was enhanced by the protein kinase C activator phorbol dibutyrate even after pertussis toxin treatment. By contrast, nanomolar concentrations of bradykinin, which increases Ca(2+)-levels and protein kinase C activity in D384 cells, reduced NECA-induced cyclic AMP accumulation in control and pertussis toxin-treated cells. Thus, D384 cells possess both A1 and A2 adenosine receptors influencing cyclic AMP in opposite directions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1317654

  18. Adenosine inhibits a non-inactivating K+ current in bovine adrenal cortical cells by activation of multiple P1 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lin; Enyeart, John J

    1999-01-01

    Bovine adrenal zona fasciculata (AZF) cells express a non-inactivating K+ current (IAC) that sets the resting potential while it is activated by intracellular ATP. In whole-cell patch clamp recordings from bovine AZF cells, we found that adenosine selectively inhibited IAC by a maximum of 78·4 ± 4·6% (n = 8) with an IC50 of 71 nM. The non-selective adenosine receptor agonist NECA effectively inhibited IAC by 79·3 ± 2·9% (n = 24) at a concentration of 100 nM. Inhibition of IAC was mediated through multiple P1 adenosine receptor subtypes. The A1-selective agonist CCPA (10 nM), the A2A-selective agonist CGS 21680 (100 nM) and the A3-selective agonist IB-MECA (10 nM) inhibited IAC by 64·8 ± 8·4, 78·4 ± 4·6 and 69·3 ± 6·9%, respectively. Specific adenosine receptor subtype antagonists including DPCPX (A1), ZM 241385 (A2A) and MRS 1191 (A3) effectively blocked inhibition of IAC by adenosine receptor-selective agonists. A mixture of the three adenosine receptor antagonists completely suppressed inhibition of IAC by adenosine, but failed to alter inhibition by external ATP which acts through a separate P2 nucleotide receptor. Inhibition of IAC by adenosine or NECA was eliminated by substituting GDP-?-S for GTP in the pipette, or by replacing ATP with AMP-PNP or UTP. In addition to inhibiting IAC, adenosine (10 ?M) depolarized AZF cells by 46·2 ± 5·8 mV (n = 6). These results show that bovine AZF cells express at least three adenosine receptor subtypes (A1, A2A, A3), each of which is coupled to the inhibition of IAC K+ channels through a G-protein-dependent mechanism requiring ATP hydrolysis. Adenosine-mediated inhibition of IAC is associated with membrane depolarization. Adenosine and other purines may co-ordinate the stress-induced secretion of corticosteroids and catecholamines from the adrenal gland. PMID:10562336

  19. Role of Cyclic Adenosine 3?,5?-Monophosphate in the In Vivo Expression of the Galactose Operon of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Rothman-Denes, Lucia B.; Hesse, Joanne E.; Epstein, Wolfgang

    1973-01-01

    Studies of levels of galactokinase in Escherichia coli with mutations affecting synthesis of, or response to, cyclic adenosine 3?,5?-monophosphate show that this nucleotide does not play a major role in expression of the galactose operon, causing at most a twofold stimulation. The discrepancy between our in vivo results and the marked stimulation by cyclic adenosine 3?,5?-monophosphate in in vitro systems indicates that current cell-free systems lack a factor which allows efficient expression of the galactose operon even in the absence of cyclic adenosine 3?,5?-monophosphate or of the binding protein for this nucleotide. PMID:4351384

  20. A1 and A2 adenosine receptor modulation of contractility in the cauda epididymis of the guinea-pig

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, John M; Alexander, S P H; Hill, Stephen J

    1998-01-01

    The effects of adenosine receptor agonists upon phenylephrine-stimulated contractility and [3H]-cyclic adenosine monophosphate ([3H]-cyclic?AMP) accumulation in the cauda epididymis of the guinea-pig were investigated. The ?1-adrenoceptor agonist, phenylephrine elicited concentration dependent contractile responses from preparations of epididymis. In the absence or presence of the L-type Ca2+ channel blocker, nifedipine (10??M) the non-selective adenosine receptor agonist, 5?-N-ethylcarboxamido-adenosine (NECA, 1??M) shifted phenylephrine concentration-response curves to the left (4 and 5 fold respectively). Following the incubation of preparations with pertussis toxin (200?ng?ml?1 24?h) NECA shifted phenylephrine concentration-response curves to the right (5.7±0.9 fold).In the presence of phenylephrine (1??M), NECA and the A1 adenosine receptor selective agonists, N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) and (2S)-N6-[2-endo-norbornyl]adenosine ((S)-ENBA) elicited concentration-responses dependent contractions from preparations of epididymis (pEC50 values 8.18±0.19, 7.79±0.29 and 8.15±0.43 respectively). The A3 adenosine receptor agonists N6-iodobenzyl-5?-N-methyl-carboxamido adenosine (IBMECA) and N6-2-(4-aminophenyl) ethyladenosine (APNEA) mimicked this effect (but only at concentrations greater than 10??M). In the presence of 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX, 30?nM) CPA concentration-response curves were shifted, in parallel to the right (apparent pKB 8.75±0.88) and the maximal response to NECA was reduced.In the presence of DPCPX (100?nM) the adenosine agonist NECA and the A2A adenosine receptor selective agonist, CGS 21680 (2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)-phenethylamino-N-ethylcarboxamido adenosine), but not CPA, inhibited phenylephrine (20??M) stimulated contractions (pIC50 7.15±0.48). This effect of NECA was blocked by xanthine amine congener (XAC, 1??M) and the A2A adenosine receptor-selective antagonist 4-(2-[7-amino-2-(2-furyl)[1,2,4]triazolo[2,3-a][1,3,5]triazin-5-ylamino]ethyl)phenol (ZM 241385; 30?nM).(S)-ENBA (in the absence and presence of ZM 241385, 100?nM), but not NECA or CPA inhibited the forskolin (30??M)-stimulated accumulation of [3H]-cyclic?AMP in preparations of the epididymis of the guinea-pig (by 17±6% of control). In the presence of DPCPX (100?nM) NECA and CGS 21680, but not (S)-ENBA, increased the accumulation of [3H]-cyclic?AMP in preparations of epididymis (pEC50 values 5.35±0.35 and 6.42±0.40 respectively), the NECA-induced elevation of [3H]-cyclic?AMP was antagonised by XAC (apparent pKB 6.88±0.88) and also by the A2A adenosine receptor antagonist, ZM 241385 (apparent pKB 8.60± 0.76).These studies are consistent with the action of stable adenosine analogues at post-junctional A1 and A2 adenosine receptors in the epididymis of the guinea-pig. A1 Adenosine receptors potentiate ?1-adrenoceptor contractility, an effect blocked by pertussis toxin, but which may not be dependent upon an inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. The epididymis of the guinea-pig also contains A2 adenosine receptors, possibly of the A2A subtype, which both inhibit contractility and also stimulate adenylyl cyclase. PMID:9806342

  1. The Association between the Risk of Premenstrual Syndrome and Vitamin D, Calcium, and Magnesium Status among University Students: A Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Saeedian Kia, Afsaneh; Amani, Reza; Cheraghian, Bahman

    2015-01-01

    Background: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is one of major health problems in childbearing age women. Herein, we compared the nutritional status of vitamin D, calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) in young students affected by PMS with those of normal participants. Methods: This study was conducted on 62 students aged 20?25 yr in the city of Abadan (31 PMS cases and 31 controls). All participants completed four or more criteria according to the Utah PMS Calendar 3. Age, height, body mass index (BMI), serum Ca, Mg and vitamin D levels and a 24-hour food recall questionnaire were recorded. Results: Vitamin D serum levels were lower than the normal range in the two groups. The odds ratios (CI 95%) of having PMS based on serum Ca and Mg concentrations were 0.81(0.67 – 0.89) and 0.86 (0.72 – 0.93), respectively. Based on serum levels, 855 of all participants showed vitamin D deficiency and more than one-third of the PMS cases were Mg deficient (P<0.05). In addition, there were signifi­cant differences in dietary intake of Ca and Mg, and potassium but not vitamin D in the two groups. Dietary intakes of Ca and Mg were quite below the recommendation in all participants. Conclusion: Vitamin D, Ca and Mg nutritional status are compromised in PMS subjects. Because PMS is a prevalent health problem among young women, it merits more attention regarding improvement of their health and nutritional status. PMID:26634201

  2. Strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from sour doughs degrade phytic acid and improve calcium and magnesium solubility from whole wheat flour.

    PubMed

    Lopez, H W; Ouvry, A; Bervas, E; Guy, C; Messager, A; Demigne, C; Remesy, C

    2000-06-01

    Five strains of lactic bacteria have been isolated from sour doughs and examined for their ability to degrade phytic acid. In white flour medium in which phytic acid was the only source of phosphorus, the disappearance of phytate and an elevation of inorganic phosphate were observed after only 2 h of incubation in all strains tested (-30 and +60%, respectively). Both phenomena correspond to phytate breakdown. No difference was observed in the levels of phytic acid hydrolysis among strains, suggesting that phytase enzymes are similar among these bacteria. Using whole wheat flour medium naturally rich in phytic acid in the presence of Leuconostoc mesenteroides strain 38, a 9 h fermentation established that the degradation of PA and the production of lactic acid lead to greater Ca and Mg solubility than in control medium. PMID:10888537

  3. Shoot Calcium and Magnesium Concentrations Differ between Subtaxa, Are Highly Heritable, and Associate with Potentially Pleiotropic Loci in Brassica oleracea1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Broadley, Martin R.; Hammond, John P.; King, Graham J.; Astley, Dave; Bowen, Helen C.; Meacham, Mark C.; Mead, Andrew; Pink, David A.C.; Teakle, Graham R.; Hayden, Rory M.; Spracklen, William P.; White, Philip J.

    2008-01-01

    Calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) are the most abundant group II elements in both plants and animals. Genetic variation in shoot Ca and shoot Mg concentration (shoot Ca and Mg) in plants can be exploited to biofortify food crops and thereby increase dietary Ca and Mg intake for humans and livestock. We present a comprehensive analysis of within-species genetic variation for shoot Ca and Mg, demonstrating that shoot mineral concentration differs significantly between subtaxa (varietas). We established a structured diversity foundation set of 376 accessions to capture a high proportion of species-wide allelic diversity within domesticated Brassica oleracea, including representation of wild relatives (C genome, 1n = 9) from natural populations. These accessions and 74 modern F1 hybrid cultivars were grown in glasshouse and field environments. Shoot Ca and Mg varied 2- and 2.3-fold, respectively, and was typically not inversely correlated with shoot biomass, within most subtaxa. The closely related capitata (cabbage) and sabauda (Savoy cabbage) subtaxa consistently had the highest mean shoot Ca and Mg. Shoot Ca and Mg in glasshouse-grown plants was highly correlated with data from the field. To understand and dissect the genetic basis of variation in shoot Ca and Mg, we studied homozygous lines from a segregating B. oleracea mapping population. Shoot Ca and Mg was highly heritable (up to 40%). Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for shoot Ca and Mg were detected on chromosomes C2, C6, C7, C8, and, in particular, C9, where QTL accounted for 14% to 55% of the total genetic variance. The presence of QTL on C9 was substantiated by scoring recurrent backcross substitution lines, derived from the same parents. This also greatly increased the map resolution, with strong evidence that a 4-cM region on C9 influences shoot Ca. This region corresponds to a 0.41-Mb region on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) chromosome 5 that includes 106 genes. There is also evidence that pleiotropic loci on C8 and C9 affect shoot Ca and Mg. Map-based cloning of these loci will reveal how shoot-level phenotypes relate to Ca2+ and Mg2+ uptake and homeostasis at the molecular level. PMID:18281414

  4. Calcium and magnesium physiology and nutrition in relation to the prevention of milk fever and tetany (dietary management of macrominerals in preventing disease).

    PubMed

    Martín-Tereso, Javier; Martens, Holger

    2014-11-01

    Dairy cows may suffer events of hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia, commonly known as milk fever and tetany. Milk fever is characterized by hypocalcemia at parturition as a consequence of a sudden increase in Ca demand and an unavoidable delay in Ca metabolism adaptation. Tetany is due to impaired Mg absorption from the rumen that cannot be compensated by absorptive or excretory adaptation, resulting in a net nutritional shortage of Mg and culminating in hypomagnesemia. Prevention strategies require triggering the activation of Ca gastrointestinal absorption and avoiding factors limiting ruminal Mg absorption. PMID:25245611

  5. Evaluation of postmortem calcium and magnesium levels in the pericardial fluid with regard to the cause of death in medicolegal autopsy.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong-Ri; Quan, Li; Zhu, Bao-Li; Ishikawa, Takaki; Michiue, Tomomi; Zhao, Dong; Yoshida, Chiemi; Chen, Jian-Hua; Wang, Qi; Komatsu, Ayumi; Azuma, Yoko; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2009-04-01

    Previous studies have suggested the usefulness of postmortem serum calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) for investigating cause of death. The present study investigated their levels in the pericardial fluid of serial autopsy cases of adults within 48 h postmortem (n=385), including fatalities from blunt injury (n=57), sharp instrument injury (n=9), mechanical asphyxiation (n=28), salt- and freshwater drowning (n=14 and n=61, respectively), fire fatality (n=35), intoxication (n=23), hypothermia (cold exposure, n=12), hyperthermia (heat stroke, n=7), acute cardiac death (ACD, n=86), pneumonia (n=9) and spontaneous cerebral hemorrhage (n=11). The pericardial Ca level was independent of the postmortem interval, showing a value similar to that of the clinical reference range in cases other than saltwater drowning, while the Mg level was higher than the clinical reference range and showed a mild postmortem time-dependent increase. Pericardial Ca was significantly higher for saltwater drowning than other groups, and a lower level was seen for hyperthermia, and some cases of blunt injury and intoxication. The Mg level was also significantly higher for saltwater drowning than the other groups, and showed a higher level for sharp instrument injury, but a lower level for hypothermia. The Mg/Ca ratio was higher for sharp instrument injury and saltwater drowning, but was lower for hypothermia. These findings suggest that postmortem pericardial Ca and Mg can be used to investigate the cause of death, especially for saltwater drowning, hypothermia and hyperthermia. PMID:19251451

  6. Effects of fructans-containing yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius Poepp and Endl.) flour on caecum mucosal morphometry, calcium and magnesium balance, and bone calcium retention in growing rats.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Alexandre R; Colli, Célia; Alvares, Eliana P; Filisetti, Tullia M C C

    2007-04-01

    Yacon roots have been considered a functional food due to the high levels of fructans they contains. In the present study, Ca and Mg balance, bone mass and strength, and caecum mucosal morphometry were evaluated. Growing male Wistar rats (n 24) were fed ad libitum control diets or diets supplemented with yacon flour (5 or 7.5 % fructooligosaccharides) for 27 d. Mineral balance was evaluated in three periods of 5 d (starting on the 4th, 10th and 16th days). After the rats were killled, the bones were removed and bone mineral density was measured. Ca analyses were performed on left femurs and tibias and biomechanical testing on right femurs. The caecum was removed and tissue samples were collected for histological analysis. Caecal histology changed noticeably in rats fed yacon flour: there was an increase in the depth and number of total and bifurcated crypts as well. Yacon flour consumption significantly (P < 0.05) resulted in a positive Ca and Mg balance, leading to higher values of bone mineral retention and biomechanical properties (peak load and stiffness) when compared to the control group. The positive effects on mineral intestinal absorption, bone mass and biomechanical properties showed an important role of yacon roots in the maintenance of healthy bones. The increased number of bifurcating crypts might be related to the higher mineral absorption caused by the enlargement of the absorbing surface in the large intestine of the animals. PMID:17349092

  7. Differential Impact of Adenosine Nucleotides Released by Osteocytes on Breast Cancer Growth and Bone Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jade Z.; Riquelme, Manuel A.; Gao, Xiaoli; Ellies, Lesley G.; Sun, Lu-Zhe; Jiang, Jean X.

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular ATP has been shown to either inhibit or promote cancer growth and migration; however the mechanism underlying this discrepancy remained elusive. Here, we demonstrate the divergent roles of ATP and adenosine released by bone osteocytes in breast cancers. We showed that conditioned media (CM) collected from osteocytes treated with alendronate (AD), a bisphosphonate drug, inhibited the migration of human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. Removal of the extracellular ATP by apyrase in CM abolished this effect, suggesting the involvement of ATP. ATP exerted its inhibitory effect through the activation of purinergic P2X receptor signaling in breast cancer cells evidenced by the attenuation of the inhibition by an antagonist, oxidized ATP, as well as knocking down P2X07 with siRNA, and the inhibition by an agonist, BzATP. Intriguingly, ATP had a biphasic effect on breast cancer cell behavior–lower dosage inhibited, but higher dosage promoted its migration. The stimulatory effect on migration was blocked by an adenosine receptor antagonist, MRS1754, ARL67156, an ecto-ATPase inhibitor, and A2A receptor siRNA, suggesting that in contrast to the action of ATP, adenosine, a metabolic product of ATP, promoted migration of breast cancer cells. Consistently, non-hydrolyzable ATP, ATP?S, only inhibited, but did not promote cancer cell migration. ATP also had a similar inhibitory effect on the Py8119 mouse mammary carcinoma cells; however, adenosine had no effect due to the absence of the A2A receptor. Consistent with the results of cancer cell migration, ATP?S inhibited, while adenosine promoted anchorage-independent growth of breast cancer cells. Our in vivo xenograft study showed a significant delay of tumor growth with the treatment of ATP?S. Moreover, the extent of bone metastasis in a mouse intratibial model was significantly reduced with the treatment of ATP?S. Together, our results suggest the distinct roles of ATP and adenosine released by osteocytes, and the activation of corresponding receptors P2X7 and A2A signaling on breast cancer cell growth, migration and bone metastasis. PMID:24837364

  8. 28 kDa adenosine-binding proteins of brain and other tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Ravid, K; Rosenthal, R A; Doctrow, S R; Lowenstein, J M

    1989-01-01

    Membranes prepared from calf brain were solubilized and chromatographed on a column containing 5'-amino-5'-deoxyadenosine covalently linked to agarose through the 5'-amino group. When the column was eluted with adenosine, a pure protein emerged with subunit molecular mass of 28 kDa. The protein was extracted from the membranes with sodium cholate, but not with 100 microM-adenosine or 0.5 M-NaCl. A similar 28 kDa protein was isolated from the soluble fraction of calf brain. The yield of membrane-bound and soluble 28 kDa protein per gram of tissue was about the same. The 28 kDa protein was also found in membrane and soluble fractions of rabbit heart, rat liver and vascular smooth muscle from calf aorta. The yield per gram of tissue fell into the order brain greater than heart approximately vascular smooth muscle greater than liver for the 28 kDa protein from the membrane fraction, and brain approximately heart greater than vascular smooth muscle greater than liver for the 28 kDa protein from the soluble fraction. Polyclonal antibodies to pure 28 kDa protein from calf brain membranes cross-reacted with the 28 kDa protein from calf brain soluble fraction and with 28 kDa proteins isolated from other tissues. The 28 kDa protein from calf brain membranes was also eluted from the affinity column by AMP and 2',5'-dideoxyadenosine, but at a concentration higher than that at which adenosine eluted the protein, but N6-(R-phenylisopropyl)adenosine, 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine, ADP, ATP, GTP, NAD+, cyclic AMP and inosine failed to elute the protein at concentrations up to 1 mM. The 28 kDa protein from the soluble fraction was not eluted by 3 mM-AMP or 1 mM-N6-(R-phenylisopropyl)adenosine,-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine or -cyclic AMP. Unexpectedly, the soluble 28 kDa protein was eluted by AMP in the presence of sodium cholate. Soluble 28 kDa protein from calf brain had a KD for adenosine of 12 microM. Membrane 28 kDa protein from calf brain had a KD of 14 microM in the presence of 0.1% sodium cholate. Amino acid compositions of the 28 kDa proteins were similar, but not identical. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 4. PMID:2730563

  9. Interactions between caffeine and cocaine in tests of motor activity: role of the adenosine A2 receptor 

    E-print Network

    Snow, Steven Wayne

    1993-01-01

    The interaction between cocaine and caffeine as well as the role of adenosine A2 receptors in this interaction were assessed in three experiments. In the first experiment horizontal activity was measured in rats that were treated with an acute...

  10. Acyl Coenzyme A Synthetase from Pseudomonas fragi Catalyzes the Synthesis of Adenosine 5?-Polyphosphates and Dinucleoside Polyphosphates†

    PubMed Central

    Fontes, Rui; Günther Sillero, Maria A.; Sillero, Antonio

    1998-01-01

    Acyl coenzyme A (CoA) synthetase (EC 6.2.1.8) from Pseudomonas fragi catalyzes the synthesis of adenosine 5?-tetraphosphate (p4A) and adenosine 5?-pentaphosphate (p5A) from ATP and tri- or tetrapolyphosphate, respectively. dATP, adenosine-5?-O-[?-thiotriphosphate] (ATP?S), adenosine(5?)tetraphospho(5?)adenosine (Ap4A), and adenosine(5?)pentaphospho(5?)adenosine (Ap5A) are also substrates of the reaction yielding p4(d)A in the presence of tripolyphosphate (P3). UTP, CTP, and AMP are not substrates of the reaction. The Km values for ATP and P3 are 0.015 and 1.3 mM, respectively. Maximum velocity was obtained in the presence of MgCl2 or CoCl2 equimolecular with the sum of ATP and P3. The relative rates of synthesis of p4A with divalent cations were Mg = Co > Mn = Zn >> Ca. In the pH range used, maximum and minimum activities were measured at pH values of 5.5 and 8.2, respectively; the opposite was observed for the synthesis of palmitoyl-CoA, with maximum activity in the alkaline range. The relative rates of synthesis of palmitoyl-CoA and p4A are around 10 (at pH 5.5) and around 200 (at pH 8.2). The synthesis of p4A is inhibited by CoA, and the inhibitory effect of CoA can be counteracted by fatty acids. To a lesser extent, the enzyme catalyzes the synthesis also of Ap4A (from ATP), Ap5A (from p4A), and adenosine(5?)tetraphospho(5?)nucleoside (Ap4N) from adequate adenylyl donors (ATP, ATP?S, or octanoyl-AMP) and adequate adenylyl acceptors (nucleoside triphosphates). PMID:9620965

  11. Impaired Function of Prejunctional Adenosine A1 Receptors Expressed by Perivascular Sympathetic Nerves in DOCA-Salt Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Hua; Swain, Gregory M.; Galligan, James J.; Xu, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Increased sympathetic nervous system activity contributes to deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension in rats. ATP and norepinephrine (NE) are coreleased from perivascular sympathetic nerves. NE acts at prejunctional ?2-adrenergic receptors (?2ARs) to inhibit NE release, and ?2AR function is impaired in DOCA-salt rats. Adenosine, an enzymatic ATP degradation product, acts at prejunctional A1 adenosine receptors (A1Rs) to inhibit NE release. We tested the hypothesis that prejunctional A1R function is impaired in sympathetic nerves supplying mesenteric arteries (MAs) and veins (MVs) of DOCA-salt rats. Electrically evoked NE release and constrictions of blood vessels were studied in vitro with use of amperometry to measure NE oxidation currents and video microscopy, respectively. Immunohistochemical methods were used to localize tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and A1Rs in perivascular sympathetic nerves. TH and A1Rs colocalized to perivascular sympathetic nerves. Adenosine and N6-cyclopentyl-adenosine (CPA, A1R agonist) constricted MVs but not MAs. Adenosine and CPA (0.001–10 µM) inhibited neurogenic constrictions and NE release in MAs and MVs. DOCA-salt arteries were resistant to adenosine and CPA-mediated inhibition of NE release and constriction. The A2A adenosine receptor agonist CGS21680 (C23H29N7O6.HCl.xH2O) (0.001–0.1 ?M) did not alter NE oxidation currents. We conclude that there are prejunctional A1Rs in arteries and both pre- and postjunctional A1Rs in veins; thus, adenosine selectively constricts the veins. Prejunctional A1R function is impaired in arteries, but not veins, from DOCA-salt rats. Sympathetic autoreceptor dysfunction is not specific to ?2ARs, but there is a more general disruption of prejunctional mechanisms controlling sympathetic neurotransmitter release in DOCA-salt hypertension. PMID:23397055

  12. Activation of NTS A(1) adenosine receptors inhibits regional sympathetic responses evoked by activation of cardiopulmonary chemoreflex.

    PubMed

    Ichinose, Tomoko K; Minic, Zeljka; Li, Cailian; O'Leary, Donal S; Scislo, Tadeusz J

    2012-09-01

    Previously we have shown that adenosine operating via the A(1) receptor subtype may inhibit glutamatergic transmission in the baroreflex arc within the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and differentially increase renal (RSNA), preganglionic adrenal (pre-ASNA), and lumbar (LSNA) sympathetic nerve activity (ASNA>RSNA?LSNA). Since the cardiopulmonary chemoreflex and the arterial baroreflex are mediated via similar medullary pathways, and glutamate is a primary transmitter in both pathways, it is likely that adenosine operating via A(1) receptors in the NTS may differentially inhibit regional sympathetic responses evoked by activation of cardiopulmonary chemoreceptors. Therefore, in urethane-chloralose-anesthetized rats (n = 37) we compared regional sympathoinhibition evoked by the cardiopulmonary chemoreflex (activated with right atrial injections of serotonin 5HT(3) receptor agonist phenylbiguanide, PBG, 1-8 ?g/kg) before and after selective stimulation of NTS A(1) adenosine receptors [microinjections of N(6)-cyclopentyl adenosine (CPA), 0.033-330 pmol/50 nl]. Activation of cardiopulmonary chemoreceptors evoked differential, dose-dependent sympathoinhibition (RSNA>ASNA>LSNA), and decreases in arterial pressure and heart rate. These differential sympathetic responses were uniformly attenuated in dose-dependent manner by microinjections of CPA into the NTS. Volume control (n = 11) and blockade of adenosine receptor subtypes in the NTS via 8-(p-sulfophenyl)theophylline (8-SPT, 1 nmol in 100 nl) (n = 9) did not affect the reflex responses. We conclude that activation of NTS A(1) adenosine receptors uniformly inhibits neural and cardiovascular cardiopulmonary chemoreflex responses. A(1) adenosine receptors have no tonic modulatory effect on this reflex under normal conditions. However, when adenosine is released into the NTS (i.e., during stress or severe hypotension/ischemia), it may serve as negative feedback regulator for depressor and sympathoinhibitory reflexes integrated in the NTS. PMID:22814665

  13. Excess adenosine A2B receptor signaling contributes to priapism through HIF-1? mediated reduction of PDE5 gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Chen; Wen, Jiaming; Zhang, Yujin; Dai, Yingbo; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Weiru; Qi, Lin; Grenz, Almut; Eltzschig, Holger K.; Blackburn, Michael R.; Kellems, Rodney E.; Xia, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Priapism is featured with prolonged and painful penile erection and is prevalent among males with sickle cell disease (SCD). The disorder is a dangerous urological and hematological emergency since it is associated with ischemic tissue damage and erectile disability. Here we report that phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) gene expression and PDE activity is significantly reduced in penile tissues of two independent priapic models: SCD mice and adenosine deaminase (ADA)-deficient mice. Moreover, using ADA enzyme therapy to reduce adenosine or a specific antagonist to block A2B adenosine receptor (ADORA2B) signaling, we successfully attenuated priapism in both ADA?/? and SCD mice by restoring penile PDE5 gene expression to normal levels. This finding led us to further discover that excess adenosine signaling via ADORA2B activation directly reduces PDE5 gene expression in a hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?)-dependent manner. Overall, we reveal that excess adenosine-mediated ADORA2B signaling underlies reduced penile PDE activity by decreasing PDE5 gene expression in a HIF-1?-dependent manner and provide new insight for the pathogenesis of priapism and novel therapies for the disease.—Ning, C., Wen, J., Zhang, Y., Dai, Y., Wang, W., Zhang, W., Qi, L., Grenz, A., Eltzschig, H. K., Blackburn, M. R., Kellems, R. E., Xia, Y. Excess adenosine A2B receptor signaling contributes to priapism through HIF-1? mediated reduction of PDE5 gene expression. PMID:24614760

  14. An enzyme-free strategy for ultrasensitive detection of adenosine using a multipurpose aptamer probe and malachite green.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Wang, Yong-Sheng; Tang, Xian; Zhou, Bin; Xue, Jin-Hua; Liu, Hui; Liu, Shan-Du; Cao, Jin-Xiu; Li, Ming-Hui; Chen, Si-Han

    2015-08-01

    We report on an enzyme-free and label-free strategy for the ultrasensitive determination of adenosine. A novel multipurpose adenosine aptamer (MAAP) is designed, which serves as an effective target recognition probe and a capture probe for malachite green. In the presence of adenosine, the conformation of the MAAP is converted from a hairpin structure to a G-quadruplex. Upon addition of malachite green into this solution, a noticeable enhancement of resonance light scattering was observed. The signal response is directly proportional to the concentration of adenosine ranging from 75 pM to 2.2 nM with a detection limit of 23 pM, which was 100-10,000 folds lower than those obtained by previous reported methods. Moreover, this strategy has been applied successfully for detecting adenosine in human urine and blood samples, further proving its reliability. The mechanism of adenosine inducing MAAP to form a G-quadruplex was demonstrated by a series of control experiments. Such a MAAP probe can also be used to other strategies such as fluorescence or spectrophotometric ones. We suppose that this strategy can be expanded to develop a universal analytical platform for various target molecules in the biomedical field and clinical diagnosis. PMID:26320800

  15. The Many Faces of the A2b Adenosine Receptor in Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Eisenstein, Anna; Patterson, Shenia; Ravid, Katya

    2015-12-01

    Modulation of the low affinity adenosine receptor subtype, the A2b adenosine receptor (A2bAR), has gained interest as a therapeutic target in various pathologic areas associated with cardiovascular disease. The actions of the A2bAR are diverse and at times conflicting depending on cell and tissue type and the timing of activation or inhibition of the receptor. The A2bAR is a promising and exciting pharmacologic target, however, a thorough understanding of A2bAR action is necessary to reach the therapeutic potential of this receptor. This review will focus on the role of the A2bAR in various cardiovascular and metabolic pathologies in which the receptor is currently being studied. We will illustrate the complexities of A2bAR signaling and highlight areas of research with potential for therapeutic development. PMID:25975415

  16. Adenosine receptor inhibition attenuates the suppression of postexercise cutaneous blood flow

    PubMed Central

    McGinn, Ryan; Fujii, Naoto; Swift, Brendan; Lamarche, Dallon T; Kenny, Glen P

    2014-01-01

    The time-dependent contributions of active vasodilation (e.g. nitric oxide) and noradrenergic vasoconstriction to the postexercise suppression of cutaneous perfusion despite persistent hyperthermia remain unknown. Moreover, adenosine receptors have been shown to mediate the decrease in cutaneous perfusion following passive heating. We examined the time-dependent modulation of nitric oxide synthase, noradrenergic vasoconstriction and adenosine receptors on postexercise cutaneous perfusion. Eight males performed 15 min of high-intensity (85% ) cycling followed by 60 min of recovery in temperate ambient conditions (25°C). Four microdialysis probes were inserted into the forearm skin and continuously infused with: (1) lactated Ringer solution (Control); (2) 10 mm NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME; nitric oxide synthase inhibitor); (3) 10 mm bretylium tosylate (BT; inhibitor of noradrenergic vasoconstriction); or (4) 4 mm theophylline (THEO; adenosine receptor inhibitor). Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was expressed as a percentage of maximum and was calculated as perfusion units (laser Doppler) divided by mean arterial pressure. End-exercise CVC was similar in Control, THEO and BT (P > 0.1), but CVC with l-NAME (39 ± 4%) was lower than Control (59 ± 4%, P < 0.01). At 20 min of recovery, Control CVC (22 ± 3%) returned to baseline levels (19 ± 2%, P = 0.11). Relative to Control, CVC was reduced by l-NAME for the first 10 min of recovery whereas CVC was increased with BT for the first 30 min of recovery (P < 0.03). In contrast, CVC with THEO was elevated throughout the 60 min recovery period (P ? 0.01) compared to Control. We show that adenosine receptors appear to have a major role in postexercise cutaneous perfusion whereas nitric oxide synthase and noradrenergic vasoconstriction are involved only earlier during recovery. PMID:24687586

  17. Ligand Binding and Subtype Selectivity of the Human A2A Adenosine Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Jaakola, Veli-Pekka; Lane, J. Robert; Lin, Judy Y.; Katritch, Vsevolod; IJzerman, Adriaan P.; Stevens, Raymond C.

    2010-01-01

    The crystal structure of the human A2A adenosine receptor bound to the A2A receptor-specific antagonist, ZM241385, was recently determined at 2.6-? resolution. Surprisingly, the antagonist binds in an extended conformation, perpendicular to the plane of the membrane, and indicates a number of interactions unidentified before in ZM241385 recognition. To further understand the selectivity of ZM241385 for the human A2A adenosine receptor, we examined the effect of mutating amino acid residues within the binding cavity likely to have key interactions and that have not been previously examined. Mutation of Phe-168 to Ala abolishes both agonist and antagonist binding as well as receptor activity, whereas mutation of this residue to Trp or Tyr had only moderate effects. The Met-177 ? Ala mutation impeded antagonist but not agonist binding. Finally, the Leu-249 ? Ala mutant showed neither agonist nor antagonist binding affinity. From our results and previously published mutagenesis data, we conclude that conserved residues Phe-168(5.29), Glu-169(5.30), Asn-253(6.55), and Leu-249(6.51) play a central role in coordinating the bicyclic core present in both agonists and antagonists. By combining the analysis of the mutagenesis data with a comparison of the sequences of different adenosine receptor subtypes from different species, we predict that the interactions that determine subtype selectivity reside in the more divergent “upper” region of the binding cavity while the “lower” part of the binding cavity is conserved across adenosine receptor subtypes. PMID:20147292

  18. The role of divalent cations in structure and function of murine adenosine deaminase.

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, B. F.; Sideraki, V.; Wilson, D. K.; Dominguez, D. Y.; Clark, S. W.; Quiocho, F. A.; Rudolph, F. B.

    1997-01-01

    For murine adenosine deaminase, we have determined that a single zinc or cobalt cofactor bound in a high affinity site is required for catalytic function while metal ions bound at an additional site(s) inhibit the enzyme. A catalytically inactive apoenzyme of murine adenosine deaminase was produced by dialysis in the presence of specific zinc chelators in an acidic buffer. This represents the first production of the apoenzyme and demonstrates a rigorous method for removing the occult cofactor. Restoration to the holoenzyme is achieved with stoichiometric amounts of either Zn2+ or Co2+ yielding at least 95% of initial activity. Far UV CD and fluorescence spectra are the same for both the apo- and holoenzyme, providing evidence that removal of the cofactor does not alter secondary or tertiary structure. The substrate binding site remains functional as determined by similar quenching measured by tryptophan fluorescence of apo- or holoenzyme upon mixing with the transition state analog, deoxycoformycin. Excess levels of adenosine or N6- methyladenosine incubated with the apoenzyme prior to the addition of metal prevent restoration, suggesting that the cofactor adds through the substrate binding cleft. The cations Ca2+, Cd2+, Cr2+, Cu+, Cu2+, Mn2+, Fe2+, Fe3+, Pb2+, or Mg2+ did not restore adenosine deaminase activity to the apoenzyme. Mn2+, Cu2+, and Zn2+ were found to be competitive inhibitors of the holoenzyme with respect to substrate and Cd2+ and Co2+ were noncompetitive inhibitors. Weak inhibition (Ki > or = 1000 microM) was noted for Ca2+, Fe2+, and Fe3+. PMID:9144774

  19. High salt diet exacerbates vascular contraction in the absence of adenosine A2A receptor

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Isha; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Ledent, Catherine; Mustafa, S. Jamal; Falck, John R.; Nayeem, Mohammed A

    2014-01-01

    High salt (4%NaCl, HS) diet modulates adenosine-induced vascular response through adenosine A2A-receptor (A2AAR). Evidence suggests A2AAR stimulates cyp450-epoxygenases, leading to epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) generation. The aim of this study was to understand the vascular reactivity to HS and underlying signaling mechanism in the presence or absence of A2AAR. Therefore, we hypothesized that HS enhances adenosine-induced relaxation through EETs in A2AAR+/+, but exaggerates contraction in A2AAR?/?. Organ-bath and Western-blot experiments were conducted in HS and normal salt (NS, 0.18% NaCl)-fed A2AAR+/+ and A2AAR?/? mice aortae. HS produced concentration-dependent relaxation to non-selective adenosine analog, NECA in A2AAR+/+, whereas contraction was observed in A2AAR?/? mice and this was attenuated by A1AR antagonist (DPCPX). CGS-21680 (selective A2AAR-agonist) enhanced relaxation in HS-A2AAR+/+ vs. NS-A2AAR+/+, that was blocked by EETs antagonist (14,15-EEZE). Compared to NS, HS significantly upregulated expression of vasodilators A2AAR and cyp2c29, while vasoconstrictors A1AR and cyp4a in A2AAR+/+ were downregulated. In A2AAR?/? mice, however, HS significantly downregulated the expression of cyp2c29, while A1AR and cyp4a were upregulated compared to A2AAR+/+ mice. Hence, our data suggest that in A2AAR+/+, HS enhances A2AAR-induced relaxation through increased cyp-expoxygenases-derived EETs and decreased A1AR levels, whereas in A2AAR?/?, HS exaggerates contraction through decreased cyp-epoxygenases and increased A1AR levels. PMID:24390173

  20. Nonenzymatic template-directed synthesis on hairpin oligonucleotides. III - Incorporation of adenosine and uridine residues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Taifeng; Orgel, Leslie E.

    1992-01-01

    Nonenzymatic template-directed incorporation of adenosine and uridine residues into template sequences was obtained using nucleoside-5-prime phosphoro (2-methyl)imidazolides as substrates and hairpin oligonucleotides as templates. The reactions are regiospecific, producing mainly 3-prime-5-prime phosphodiester bonds. Limited synthesis of CA and AC sequences was observed along with some synthesis of the AA sequences on templates containing TG and GT sequences, along wilth some synthesis of the AA sequences on templates containing TT sequences.

  1. Effects of an induced adenosine deaminase deficiency on T-cell differentiation in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, R.W.

    1985-10-15

    Inherited deficiency of the enzyme adenosine deaminase (ADA) has been found in a significant proportion of patients with severe combined immunodeficiency disease and inherited defect generally characterized by a deficiency of both B and T cells. Two questions are central to understanding the pathophysiology of this disease: (1) at what stage or stages in lymphocyte development are the effects of the enzyme deficiency manifested; (2) what are the biochemical mechanisms responsible for the selective pathogenicity of the lymphoid system. We have examined the stage or stages of rat T-cell development in vivo which are affected by an induced adenosine deaminase deficiency using the ADA inhibitors, erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)adenine (EHNA) and 2'-deoxycoformycin (DCF). In normal rats given daily administration of an ADA inhibitor, cortical thymocytes were markedly depleted; peripheral lymphocytes and pluripotent hemopoietic stem cells (CFU-S) all were relatively unaffected. Since a deficiency of ADA affects lymphocyte development, the regeneration of cortical and medullary thymocytes and their precursors after sublethal irradiation was used as a model of lymphoid development. By Day 5 after irradiation the thymus was reduced to 0.10-0.5% of its normal size; whereas at Days 9 and 14 the thymus was 20-40% and 60-80% regenerated, respectively. When irradiated rats were given daily parenteral injections of the ADA inhibitor plus adenosine or deoxyadenosine, thymus regeneration at Days 9 and 14 was markedly inhibited, whereas the regeneration of thymocyte precursors was essentially unaffected. Thymus regeneration was at least 40-fold lower than in rats given adenosine or deoxyadenosine alone. Virtually identical results were obtained with both ADA inhibitors, EHNA and DCF.

  2. The interaction of adenosine and morphine on pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure threshold in mice.

    PubMed

    Moezi, Leila; Akbarian, Reyhane; Niknahad, Hossein; Shafaroodi, Hamed

    2013-09-01

    Adenosine agonists or low doses of morphine exert anti-convulsant effects in different models of seizures. On the other hand, a tight interaction has been reported between morphine and adenosine in various paradigms. This study investigated the effect of the interaction of adenosine and morphine on seizure susceptibility in the intravenous mouse model of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced clonic seizures. The researchers used acute systemic administration of morphine, N(6)-cyclohexyladenosine (CHA) (a selective A1 receptor agonist), naltrexone (an opioid receptor antagonist) and 8-Cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine (8-CPT) (a selective A1 receptor antagonist). Acute administration of morphine (0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg) or CHA (0.25, 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 mg/kg) raised the threshold of seizures induced by PTZ. Non-effective dose of 8-CPT (2 mg/kg) inhibited the anticonvulsant effects of CHA (0.5 and 1 mg/kg). Combination of sub-effective doses of morphine (0.125 mg/kg) and CHA (0.125 mg/kg) increased clonic seizure latency showing the additive effect of morphine and CHA. The enhanced latency induced by combination of low doses of morphine and CHA completely reversed by 8-CPT (2 mg/kg) or naltrexone (1 mg/kg). Moreover, 8-CPT (2 mg/kg) inhibited anticonvulsant effects of morphine (0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg) and naltrexone (1 mg/kg) inhibited anticonvulsant effects of CHA (0.25, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg). Combination of low doses of 8-CPT (1 mg/kg) and naltrexone (0.5 mg/kg) inhibited the anticonvulsant effect of CHA (0.5 and 1 mg/kg). In conclusion, adenosine and morphine exhibit an additive effect on the enhancement of the pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure threshold in mice, probably through A1 or ? receptors. PMID:23624288

  3. The in vivo respiratory phenotype of the adenosine A1 receptor knockout mouse.

    PubMed

    Heitzmann, Dirk; Buehler, Philipp; Schweda, Frank; Georgieff, Michael; Warth, Richard; Thomas, Joerg

    2016-02-01

    The nucleoside adenosine has been implicated in the regulation of respiration, especially during hypoxia in the newborn. In this study the role of adenosine A1 receptors for the control of respiration was investigated in vivo. To this end, respiration of unrestrained adult and neonatal adenosine A1 receptor knockout mice (A1R(-/-)) was measured in a plethysmographic device. Under control conditions (21% O2) and mild hypoxia (12-15% O2) no difference of respiratory parameters was observed between adult wildtype (A1R(+/+)) and A1R(-/-) mice. Under more severe hypoxia (6-10% O2) A1R(+/+) mice showed, after a transient increase of respiration, a decrease of respiration frequency (fR) and tidal volume (VT) leading to a decrease of minute volume (MV). This depression of respiration during severe hypoxia was absent in A1R(-/-) mice which displayed a stimulated respiration as indicated by the enhancement of MV by some 50-60%. During hypercapnia-hyperoxia (3-10% CO2/97-90 % O2), no obvious differences in respiration of A1R(-/-) and A1R(+/+) was observed. In neonatal mice, the respiratory response to hypoxia was surprisingly similar in both genotypes. However, neonatal A1R(-/-) mice appeared to have more frequently periods of apnea during hypoxia and in the post-hypoxic control period. In conclusion, these data indicate that the adenosine A1 receptor is an important molecular component mediating hypoxic depression in adult mice and it appears to stabilize respiration of neonatal mice. PMID:26593641

  4. Activation of adenosine receptors improves renal antioxidant status in diabetic Wistar but not SHR rats

    PubMed Central

    Patinha, Daniela; Afonso, Joana; Sousa, Teresa; Albino-Teixeira, António

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes and hypertension independently contribute to renal injury, and the major mechanisms involved are increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) bioavailability and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activation. We investigated the role of adenosine in controlling ROS production and RAS activation associated with renal dysfunction in hypertension and diabetes. Methods Fourteen days after induction of diabetes with streptozotocin in 12-week-old male Wistar and spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats, animals were treated during 7 days with 2-chloroadenosine (CADO group, 5 mg/kg/d), a stable analogue of adenosine, or underwent a sham operation procedure. At the end of the study (day 21), intra-arterial systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured, and 24-h urine and plasma samples and renal tissue were collected. Results CADO treatment decreased the plasma glucose concentration and glucose and protein excretion by more than 30% in both strains. CADO treatment decreased SBP in diabetic SHR rats (143 ± 8 versus 114 ± 4 mmHg, p < 0.05), but not in diabetic Wistar rats. The hypotensive effect of CADO was associated to a ?70% increase in plasma angiotensinogen (AGT) concentration and a ?50% decrease in urinary AGT excretion. CADO also caused a decrease in medullary and cortical hydrogen peroxide production of about 40%, which was associated with a proportional increase in glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in diabetic Wistar but not in diabetic SHR animals. Conclusions These results suggest that activation of adenosine receptors improves renal antioxidant capacity in diabetic Wistar but not SHR rats, although it improves glucose metabolism in both strains. Furthermore, activation of adenosine receptors does not seem to be directly influencing AGT production. PMID:24195577

  5. Enhanced Production of Adenosine Triphosphate by Pharmacological Activation of Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Protein Kinase Ameliorates Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jung Hwan; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Noh, Jung-Ran; Choi, Dong-Hee; Kim, Kyoung-Shim; Lee, Chul-Ho

    2015-10-31

    The hepatic cell death induced by acetaminophen (APAP) is closely related to cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion, which is mainly caused by mitochondrial dysfunction. Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key sensor of low energy status. AMPK regulates metabolic homeostasis by stimulating catabolic metabolism and suppressing anabolic pathways to increase cellular energy levels. We found that the decrease in active phosphorylation of AMPK in response to APAP correlates with decreased ATP levels, in vivo. Therefore, we hypothesized that the enhanced production of ATP via AMPK stimulation can lead to amelioration of APAP-induced liver failure. A769662, an allosteric activator of AMPK, produced a strong synergistic effect on AMPK Thr172 phosphorylation with APAP in primary hepatocytes and liver tissue. Interestingly, activation of AMPK by A769662 ameliorated the APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in C57BL/6N mice treated with APAP at a dose of 400 mg/kg intraperitoneally. However, mice treated with APAP alone developed massive centrilobular necrosis, and APAP increased their serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels. Furthermore, A769662 administration prevented the loss of intracellular ATP without interfering with the APAP-mediated reduction of mitochondrial dysfunction. In contrast, inhibition of glycolysis by 2-deoxy-glucose eliminated the beneficial effects of A769662 on APAP-mediated liver injury. In conclusion, A769662 can effectively protect mice against APAP-induced liver injury through ATP synthesis by anaerobic glycolysis. Furthermore, stimulation of AMPK may have potential therapeutic application for APAP overdose. PMID:26434492

  6. Efficient retrovirus-mediated transfer and expression of a human adenosine deaminase gene in diploid skin fibroblasts from an adenosine deaminase-deficient human

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, T.D.; Hock, R.A.; Osborne, W.R.A.; Miller, A.D.

    1987-02-01

    Skin fibroblasts might be considered suitable recipients for therapeutic genes to cure several human genetic diseases; however, these cells are resistant to gene transfer by most methods. The authors studied the ability of retroviral vectors to transfer genes into normal human diploid skin fibroblasts. Retroviruses carrying genes for neomycin or hygromycin B resistance conferred drug resistance to greater than 50% of the human fibroblasts after a single exposure to virus-containing medium. This represents at least a 500-fold increase in efficiency over other methods. Transfer was achieved in the absence of helper virus by using amphotropic retrovirus-packaging cells. A retrovirus vector containing a human adenosine deaminase (ADA) cDNA was constructed and used to infect ADA/sup -/ fibroblasts from a patient with ADA deficiency. The infected cells produced 12-fold more ADA enzyme than fibroblasts from normal individuals and were able to rapidly metabolize exogenous deoxyadenosine and adenosine, metabolites that accumulate in plasma in ADA-deficient patients and are responsible for the severe combined immunodeficiency in these patients. These experiments indicate the potential of retrovirus-mediated gene transfer into human fibroblasts for gene therapy.

  7. Enhanced Production of Adenosine Triphosphate by Pharmacological Activation of Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Protein Kinase Ameliorates Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jung Hwan; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Noh, Jung-Ran; Choi, Dong-Hee; Kim, Kyoung-Shim; Lee, Chul-Ho

    2015-01-01

    The hepatic cell death induced by acetaminophen (APAP) is closely related to cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) depletion, which is mainly caused by mitochondrial dysfunction. Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key sensor of low energy status. AMPK regulates metabolic homeostasis by stimulating catabolic metabolism and suppressing anabolic pathways to increase cellular energy levels. We found that the decrease in active phosphorylation of AMPK in response to APAP correlates with decreased ATP levels, in vivo. Therefore, we hypothesized that the enhanced production of ATP via AMPK stimulation can lead to amelioration of APAP-induced liver failure. A769662, an allosteric activator of AMPK, produced a strong synergistic effect on AMPK Thr172 phosphorylation with APAP in primary hepatocytes and liver tissue. Interestingly, activation of AMPK by A769662 ameliorated the APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in C57BL/6N mice treated with APAP at a dose of 400 mg/kg intraperitoneally. However, mice treated with APAP alone developed massive centrilobular necrosis, and APAP increased their serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels. Furthermore, A769662 administration prevented the loss of intracellular ATP without interfering with the APAP-mediated reduction of mitochondrial dysfunction. In contrast, inhibition of glycolysis by 2-deoxy-glucose eliminated the beneficial effects of A769662 on APAP-mediated liver injury. In conclusion, A769662 can effectively protect mice against APAP-induced liver injury through ATP synthesis by anaerobic glycolysis. Furthermore, stimulation of AMPK may have potential therapeutic application for APAP overdose. PMID:26434492

  8. Identification and function of adenosine A3 receptor in afferent arterioles.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yan; Zhang, Rui; Ge, Ying; Carlstrom, Mattias; Wang, Shaohui; Fu, Yiling; Cheng, Liang; Wei, Jin; Roman, Richard J; Wang, Lei; Gao, Xichun; Liu, Ruisheng

    2015-05-01

    Adenosine plays an important role in regulation of renal microcirculation. All receptors of adenosine, A1, A2A, A2B, and A3, have been found in the kidney. However, little is known about the location and function of the A3 receptor in the kidney. The present study determined the expression and role of A3 receptors in mediating the afferent arteriole (Af-Art) response and studied the interaction of A3 receptors with angiotensin II (ANG II), A1 and A2 receptors on the Af-Art. We found that the A3 receptor expressed in microdissected isolated Af-Art and the mRNA levels of A3 receptor were 59% of A1. In the isolated microperfused Af-Art, A3 receptor agonist IB-MECA did not have a constrictive effect. Activation of A3 receptor dilated the preconstricted Af-Art by norepinephrine and blunted the vasoconstrictive effect of both adenosine A1 receptor activation and ANG II on the Af-Art, respectively. Selective A2 receptor antagonist (both A2A and A2B) had no effect on A3 receptor agonist-induced vasodilation, indicating that the dilatory effect of A3 receptor activation is not mediated by activation of A2 receptor. We conclude that the A3 receptor is expressed in the Af-Art, and activation of the A3 receptor dilates the Af-Art. PMID:25608966

  9. Functionalized Congeners of 1,3-Dialkylxanthines: Preparation of Analogues with High Affinity for Adenosine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Kenneth L.; Padgett, William L.; Daly, John W.

    2012-01-01

    A series of functionalized congeners of 1,3-dialkylxanthines has been prepared as adenosine receptor antagonists. On the basis of the high potency of 8-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-1,3-dialkylxanthines, the parent compounds were 8-[4-[(carboxymethyl)oxy]phenyl] derivatives of theophylline and 1,3-dipropylxanthine. A series of analogues including esters of ethanol and N-hydroxysuccinimide, amides, a hydrazide, an acylurea, and anilides were prepared. The potency in blocking A1-adenosine receptors (inhibition of binding of N6-[3H]cyclohexyladenosine to brain membranes) and A2-adenosine receptors (inhibition of 2-chloroadenosine-elicited accumulations of cyclic AMP in brain slices) was markedly affected by structural changes distal to the primary pharmacophore (8-phenyl-1,3-dialkylxanthine). Potencies in the dipropyl series at the A1 receptor ranged from K1 values of 1.2 nM for a congener with a terminal amidoethyleneamine moiety to a K1 value of 58 nM for the parent carboxylic acid to a K1 of 96 nM for the bulky ureido congener. Certain congeners were up to 145-fold more active at A1 receptors than at A2 receptors. Various derivatives of the congeners should be useful as receptor probes and for radioidodination, avidin binding, and preparation of affinity columns. PMID:2993622

  10. A Phenotypic Screen for Functional Mutants of Human Adenosine Deaminase Acting on RNA 1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuru; Havel, Jocelyn; Beal, Peter A

    2015-11-20

    Adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs) are RNA-editing enzymes responsible for the conversion of adenosine to inosine at specific locations in cellular RNAs. ADAR1 and ADAR2 are two members of the family that have been shown to be catalytically active. Earlier, we reported a phenotypic screen for the study of human ADAR2 using budding yeast S. cerevisiae as the host system. While this screen has been successfully applied to the study of ADAR2, it failed with ADAR1. Here, we report a new reporter that uses a novel editing substrate and is suitable for the study of ADAR1. We screened plasmid libraries with randomized codons for two important residues in human ADAR1 (G1007 and E1008). The screening results combined with in vitro deamination assays led to the identification of mutants that are more active than the wild type protein. Furthermore, a screen of the ADAR1 E1008X library with a reporter construct bearing an A•G mismatch at the editing site suggests one role for the residue at position 1008 is to sense the identity of the base pairing partner for the editing site adenosine. This work has provided a starting point for future in vitro evolution studies of ADAR1 and led to new insight into ADAR's editing site selectivity. PMID:26372505

  11. Extracellular nucleotide catabolism in human B and T lymphocytes. The source of adenosine production

    SciTech Connect

    Barankiewicz, J.; Dosch, H.M.; Cohen, A.

    1988-05-25

    Extracellular nucleotide degradation was studied in intact human B and T lymphocyte subpopulations and in lymphoblastoid cell lines. Cells of B lymphocyte lineage showed high nucleotide degrading activity, whereas T lymphocytes were unable to degrade extracellular nucleotides. The external surface of B cells contained active sites of ecto-triphosphonucleotidase (ecto-ATPase), ecto-diphosphonucleotidase (ecto-ADPase), and ecto-monophosphonucleotidase (ecto-AMPase). The expression of all three ectoenzyme activities seemed closely associated with B cell development. ATPase and ADPase activities increase continuously during B cell maturation, ecto-AMPase activity, on the other hand, reaches maximal activity in late pre-B cells. These results combined with our previous studies of intracellular ATP catabolism provide evidence that extracellular ATP catabolism may represent exclusive source for adenosine in lymphocytes. It is suggested that adenosine may serve as a means of communication between B and T cells in lymphoid organs, B lymphocytes being the sole producers of adenosine and T lymphocytes being the recipients of this signal.

  12. Adenosine A1 Receptor Gene Variants Associated with Post-traumatic Seizures after Severe TBI

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Megan A.; Scanlon, Joelle; Ren, Dianxu; Kochanek, Patrick M.; Conley, Yvette P.

    2010-01-01

    Post traumatic seizures (PTS) are a significant complication from traumatic brain injury (TBI). Adenosine, a major neuroprotective and neuroinhibitory molecule, is important in experimental epilepsy models. Thus, we investigated the adenosine A1 receptor (A1AR) gene and linked it with clinical data extracted for 206 subjects with severe TBI. Tagging SNPs rs3766553, rs903361, rs10920573, rs6701725, and rs17511192 were genotyped, and variant and haplotype associations with PTS were explored. We investigated further genotype, grouped genotype, and allelic associations with PTS for rs3766553 and rs10920573. Multivariate analysis of rs3766553 demonstrated an association between the AA genotype and increased early PTS incidence. In contrast, the GG genotype was associated with increased late and delayed onset PTS rates. Multivariate analysis of rs10920573 revealed an association between the CT genotype and increased late PTS. Multiple risk genotype analysis shows subjects with both risk genotypes have a 46.7% chance of late PTS. To our knowledge, this is the first report implicating genetic variability in the A1AR with PTS, or any type of seizure disorder. These results provide a rationale for further studies investigating how adenosine neurotransmission impacts PTS, evaluating anticonvulsant in preventing and treating PTS, and developing and testing targeted adenosinergic therapies aimed at reducing PTS. PMID:20609566

  13. Action of adenosine receptor antagonists on the cardiovascular response to defence area stimulation in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    St Lambert, J H; Dawid-Milner, M S; Silva-Carvalho, L; Spyer, K M

    1994-01-01

    1. The action of adenosine in the mediation of the cardiovascular changes associated with the defence reaction has been investigated in the rat using two A1 receptor antagonists. 2. Cumulative doses of 1,3 dipropyl-cyclopentylxanthine (DPCPX) (0.3-3 mg kg-1) and ethanol (0.03-0.25 ml) and bolus doses of DPCPX (3 mg kg-1) and 8-sulphophenyltheophylline (8-SPT) (20 mg kg-1) were given into alpha-chloralose, paralysed and artificially ventilated rats. Recordings were made of arterial blood pressure and heart rate. 3. Ethanol, the vehicle for DPCPX, failed to modify the magnitude of the defence response; however, cumulative doses of DPCPX produced a dose-dependent decrease in the HDA (hypothalamic defence area)-evoked increase in arterial blood pressure, accompanied by a similar fall in the magnitude of the evoked heart rate response. 4. The evoked rise in arterial blood pressure was reduced significantly by intravenous injection of DPCPX (3 mg kg-1) but not 8-SPT (20 mg kg-1), a purely peripherally acting adenosine antagonist. 5. These results suggest that adenosine acting at A1 receptors located in the central nervous system, is involved in the HDA-evoked pressor response. Whilst the site of action of the A1 receptors is not known, possible locations are discussed. PMID:7812606

  14. Neuroadaptations in Adenosine Receptor Signaling Following Long-Term Ethanol Exposure and Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Tracy R.; Prendergast, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Ethanol affects the function of neurotransmitter systems, resulting in neuroadaptations that alter neural excitability. Adenosine is one such receptor system that is changed by ethanol exposure. The current review is focused on the A1 and the A2A receptor subtypes in the context of ethanol-related neuroadaptations and ethanol withdrawal because these subtypes (i) are activated by basal levels of adenosine, (ii) have been most well-studied for their role in neuroprotection and ethanol-related phenomena, and (iii) are the primary site of action for caffeine in the brain, a substance commonly ingested with ethanol. It is clear that alterations in adenosinergic signaling mediate many of the effects of acute ethanol administration, particularly with regard to motor function and sedation. Further, prolonged ethanol exposure has been shown to produce adaptations in the cell surface expression or function of both A1 and the A2A receptor subtypes, effects that likely promote neuronal excitability during ethanol withdrawal. As a whole, these findings demonstrate a significant role for ethanol-induced adaptations in adenosine receptor signaling that likely influence neuronal function, viability, and relapse to ethanol intake following abstinence. PMID:21762181

  15. Interactions of PPAR-alpha and adenosine receptors in hypoxia-induced angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rizvi, Yasmeen Q; Mehta, Chander S; Oyekan, Adebayo

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia and adenosine are known to upregulate angiogenesis; however, the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?) in angiogenesis is controversial. Using transgenic Tg(fli-1 :EGFP) zebrafish embryos, interaction of PPAR? and adenosine receptors in angiogenesis were evaluated under hypoxic conditions. Epifluorescent microscopy was used to assess angiogenesis by counting the number of intersegmental (ISV) and dorsal longitudinal anastomotic vessels (DLAV) at 28 hours post-fertilization (hpf). Hypoxia (6h) stimulated angiogenesis as the number of ISV and DLAV increased by 18-fold (p<0.01) and 100±8 % (p<0.001), respectively, at 28 hpf. Under normoxic and hypoxic conditions, WY-14643 (10 µM), a PPAR? activator, stimulated angiogenesis at 28 hpf, while MK-886 (0.5 µM), an antagonist of PPAR?, attenuated these effects. Compared to normoxic condition, adenosine receptor activation with NECA (10 µM) promoted angiogenesis more effectively under hypoxic conditions. Involvement of A2B receptor was implied in hypoxia-induced angiogenesis as MRS-1706 (10 nM), a selective A2B antagonist attenuated NECA (10 µM)-induced angiogenesis. NECA- or WY-14643-induced angiogenesis was also inhibited by miconazole (0.1 µM), an inhibitor of epoxygenase dependent production of eicosatrienoic acid (EET) epoxide. Thus, we conclude that: activation of PPAR? promoted angiogenesis just as activation of A2B receptors through an epoxide dependent mechanism. PMID:24050945

  16. Cyclic AMP efflux, via MRPs and A1 adenosine receptors, is critical for bovine sperm capacitation.

    PubMed

    Osycka-Salut, Claudia; Diez, Federico; Burdet, Juliana; Gervasi, María Gracia; Franchi, Ana; Bianciotti, Liliana G; Davio, Carlos; Perez-Martinez, Silvina

    2014-01-01

    Sperm capacitation has been largely associated with an increase in cAMP, although its relevance in the underlying mechanisms of this maturation process remains elusive. Increasing evidence shows that the extrusion of cAMP through multidrug resistance associated protein 4 (MRP4) regulates cell homeostasis not only in physiological but also in pathophysiological situations and studies from our laboratory strongly support this assumption. In the present work we sought to establish the role of cAMP efflux in the regulation of sperm capacitation. Sperm capacitation was performed in vitro by exposing bovine spermatozoa to bicarbonate 40 and 70 mM; cAMP; probenecid (a MRPs general inhibitor) and an adenosine type 1 receptor (A1 adenosine receptor) selective antagonist (DPCPX). Capacitation was assessed by chlortetracycline assay and lysophosphatidylcholine-induced acrosome reaction assessed by PSA-FITC staining. Intracellular and extracellular cAMP was measured by radiobinding the regulatory subunit of PKA under the same experimental conditions. MRP4 was detected by western blot and immunohistochemistry assays. Results showed that the inhibition of soluble adenylyl cyclase significantly inhibited bicarbonate-induced sperm capacitation. Furthermore, in the presence of 40 and 70 mM bicarbonate bovine spermatozoa synthesized and extruded cAMP. Interestingly, in the absence of IBMX (a PDEs inhibitor) cAMP efflux still operated in sperm cells, suggesting that cAMP extrusion would be a physiological process in the spermatozoa complementary to the action of PDE. Blockade of MRPs by probenecid abolished the efflux of the cyclic nucleotide resulting not only in the accumulation of intracellular cAMP but also in the inhibition of bicarbonate-induced sperm capacitation. The effect of probenecid was abolished by exposing sperm cells to cAMP. The high-affinity efflux pump for cAMP, MRP4 was expressed in bovine spermatozoa and localized to the midpiece of the tail as previously reported for soluble adenylyl cyclase and A1 adenosine receptor. Additionally, blockade of A1 adenosine receptor abolished not only bicarbonate-induced sperm capacitation but also that stimulated by cAMP. Present findings strongly support that cAMP efflux, presumably through MRP4, and the activation of A1 adenosine receptor regulate some events associated with bicarbonate-induced sperm capacitation, and further suggest a paracrine and/or autocrine role for cAMP. PMID:23907162

  17. Ethanol-induced increase in portal blood flow: Role of acetate and A sub 1 - and A sub 2 -adenosine receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Carmichael, F.J.; Saldivia, V.; Varghese, G.A.; Israel, Y.; Orrego, H. Univ. of Toronto, Ontario )

    1988-10-01

    The increase in portal blood flow induced by ethanol appears to be adenosine mediated. Acetate, which is released by the liver during ethanol metabolism, is known to increase adenosine levels in tissues and in blood. The effects of acetate on portal blood flow were investigated in rats using the microsphere technique. The intravenous infusion of acetate resulted in vasodilation of the preportal vasculature and in a dose-dependent increase in portal blood flow. This acetate-induced increase in portal blood flow was suppressed by the adenosine receptor blocker, 8-phenyltheophylline. Using the A{sub 1}-adenosine receptor agonist N-6-cyclohexyl adenosine and the A{sub 2}-agonist 5{prime}-N-ethylcarboxamido adenosine, we demonstrate that the effect of adenosine on the preportal vasculature is mediated by the A{sub 2}-subtype of adenosine receptors. In conclusion, these data support the hypothesis that the increase in portal blood flow after ethanol administration results from a preportal vasodilatory effect of adenosine formed from acetate metabolism in extrahepatic tissues.

  18. Chronic sleep restriction disrupts sleep homeostasis and behavioral sensitivity to alcohol by reducing the extracellular accumulation of adenosine.

    PubMed

    Clasadonte, Jerome; McIver, Sally R; Schmitt, Luke I; Halassa, Michael M; Haydon, Philip G

    2014-01-29

    Sleep impairments are comorbid with a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders including depression, epilepsy, and alcohol abuse. Despite the prevalence of these disorders, the cellular mechanisms underlying the interaction between sleep disruption and behavior remain poorly understood. In this study, the impact of chronic sleep loss on sleep homeostasis was examined in C57BL/6J mice following 3 d of sleep restriction. The electroencephalographic power of slow-wave activity (SWA; 0.5-4 Hz) in nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and adenosine tone were measured during and after sleep restriction, and following subsequent acute sleep deprivation. During the first day of sleep restriction, SWA and adenosine tone increased, indicating a homeostatic response to sleep loss. On subsequent days, SWA declined, and this was accompanied by a corresponding reduction in adenosine tone caused by a loss of one source of extracellular adenosine. Furthermore, the response to acute sleep deprivation (6 h) was significantly attenuated in sleep-restricted mice. These effects were long-lasting with reduced SWA and adenosine tone persisting for at least 2 weeks. To investigate the behavioral consequences of chronic sleep restriction, sensitivity to the motor-impairing effects of alcohol was also examined. Sleep-restricted mice were significantly less sensitive to alcohol when tested 24 h after sleep restriction, an effect that persisted for 4 weeks. Intracerebroventricular infusion of an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist produced a similar decrease in sensitivity to alcohol. These results suggest that chronic sleep restriction induces a sustained impairment in adenosine-regulated sleep homeostasis and consequentially impacts the response to alcohol. PMID:24478367

  19. A novel mechanism of B-cell mediated immune suppression through CD73-expression and adenosine production

    PubMed Central

    Kaku, Hiroaki; Cheng, Kai Fan; Al-Abed, Yousef; Rothstein, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    Immune suppression by regulatory T (Treg) cells and regulatory B (Breg) cells is a critical mechanism to limit excess inflammation and autoimmunity. IL-10 is considered to be the major mediator of B cell-induced immune suppression. Here, we report a novel mechanism for immune suppression through adenosine generation by B cells. We identified a novel population of B cells that expresses CD73 as well as CD39, two ecto-enzymes that together catalyze the extracellular dephosphorylation of adenine nucleotides to adenosine. Whereas CD39 expression is common among B cells, CD73 expression is not. Approximately 30–50% of B-1 cells (B220+CD23?) and IL-10 producing B (B10) cells (B220+CD5+CD1dhi) are CD73hi, depending on mouse strain, whereas few conventional B-2 cells (B220+CD23+AA4.1?) express CD73. In keeping with expression of both CD73 and CD39, we found that CD73+ B cells produce adenosine in the presence of substrate whereas B-2 cells don’t. CD73?/? mice were more susceptible to dextran sulfate sodium salt (DSS)-induced colitis than wild type (WT) mice, and transfer of CD73+ B cells ameliorated the severity of colitis, suggesting that B cell CD73/CD39/adenosine can modulate DSS-induced colitis. IL-10 production by B cells is not affected by CD73-deficiency. Interestingly, adenosine generation by IL-10?/? B cells is impaired due to reduced expression of CD73, indicating an unexpected connection between IL-10 and adenosine and suggesting caution in interpreting the results of studies with IL-10?/? cells. Together our findings demonstrate a novel regulatory role of B cells on colitis through adenosine generation in an IL-10-independent manner. PMID:25392527

  20. Chronic Sleep Restriction Disrupts Sleep Homeostasis and Behavioral Sensitivity to Alcohol by Reducing the Extracellular Accumulation of Adenosine

    PubMed Central

    Clasadonte, Jerome; McIver, Sally R.; Schmitt, Luke I.; Halassa, Michael M.

    2014-01-01

    Sleep impairments are comorbid with a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders including depression, epilepsy, and alcohol abuse. Despite the prevalence of these disorders, the cellular mechanisms underlying the interaction between sleep disruption and behavior remain poorly understood. In this study, the impact of chronic sleep loss on sleep homeostasis was examined in C57BL/6J mice following 3 d of sleep restriction. The electroencephalographic power of slow-wave activity (SWA; 0.5–4 Hz) in nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and adenosine tone were measured during and after sleep restriction, and following subsequent acute sleep deprivation. During the first day of sleep restriction, SWA and adenosine tone increased, indicating a homeostatic response to sleep loss. On subsequent days, SWA declined, and this was accompanied by a corresponding reduction in adenosine tone caused by a loss of one source of extracellular adenosine. Furthermore, the response to acute sleep deprivation (6 h) was significantly attenuated in sleep-restricted mice. These effects were long-lasting with reduced SWA and adenosine tone persisting for at least 2 weeks. To investigate the behavioral consequences of chronic sleep restriction, sensitivity to the motor-impairing effects of alcohol was also examined. Sleep-restricted mice were significantly less sensitive to alcohol when tested 24 h after sleep restriction, an effect that persisted for 4 weeks. Intracerebroventricular infusion of an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist produced a similar decrease in sensitivity to alcohol. These results suggest that chronic sleep restriction induces a sustained impairment in adenosine-regulated sleep homeostasis and consequentially impacts the response to alcohol. PMID:24478367

  1. Characterization of ERK1/2 signalling pathways induced by adenosine receptor subtypes in newborn rat cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Germack, Renée; Dickenson, John M

    2004-01-01

    Adenosine A1, A2A, and A3 receptors (ARs) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) play a major role in myocardium protection from ischaemic injury. In this study, we have characterized the adenosine receptor subtypes involved in ERK1/2 activation in newborn rat cardiomyocytes. Adenosine (nonselective agonist), CPA (A1), CGS 21680 (A2A) or Cl-IB-MECA (A3), all increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The combined maximal response of the selective agonists was similar to adenosine alone. Theophylline (nonselective antagonist) inhibited completely adenosine-mediated ERK1/2 activation, whereas a partial inhibition was obtained with DPCPX (A1), ZM 241385 (A2A), and MRS 1220 (A3). PD 98059 (MEK1; ERK kinase inhibitor) abolished all agonist-mediated ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Pertussis toxin (PTX, Gi/o blocker) inhibited completely CPA- and partially adenosine- and Cl-IB-MECA-induced ERK1/2 activation. Genistein (tyrosine kinase inhibitor) and Ro 318220 (protein kinase C, PKC inhibitor) partially reduced adenosine, CPA and Cl-IB-MECA responses, without any effect on CGS 21680-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation. H89 (protein kinase A, PKA inhibitor) abolished completely CGS 21680 and partially adenosine and Cl-IB-MECA responses, without any effect on CPA response. Cl-IB-MECA-mediated increases in cAMP accumulation suggest that A3AR-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation involves adenylyl cyclase activation via phospholipase C (PLC) and PKC stimulation. In summary, we have shown that ERK1/2 activation by adenosine in cardiomyocytes results from an additive stimulation of A1, A2A, and A3ARs, which involves Gi/o proteins, PKC, and tyrosine kinase for A1 and A3ARs, and Gs and PKA for A2AARs. Moreover, the A3AR response also involves a cAMP/PKA pathway via PKC activation. PMID:14751870

  2. Excess adenosine A2B receptor signaling contributes to priapism through HIF-1? mediated reduction of PDE5 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Ning, Chen; Wen, Jiaming; Zhang, Yujin; Dai, Yingbo; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Weiru; Qi, Lin; Grenz, Almut; Eltzschig, Holger K; Blackburn, Michael R; Kellems, Rodney E; Xia, Yang

    2014-06-01

    Priapism is featured with prolonged and painful penile erection and is prevalent among males with sickle cell disease (SCD). The disorder is a dangerous urological and hematological emergency since it is associated with ischemic tissue damage and erectile disability. Here we report that phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE5) gene expression and PDE activity is significantly reduced in penile tissues of two independent priapic models: SCD mice and adenosine deaminase (ADA)-deficient mice. Moreover, using ADA enzyme therapy to reduce adenosine or a specific antagonist to block A(2B) adenosine receptor (ADORA2B) signaling, we successfully attenuated priapism in both ADA(-/-) and SCD mice by restoring penile PDE5 gene expression to normal levels. This finding led us to further discover that excess adenosine signaling via ADORA2B activation directly reduces PDE5 gene expression in a hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?)-dependent manner. Overall, we reveal that excess adenosine-mediated ADORA2B signaling underlies reduced penile PDE activity by decreasing PDE5 gene expression in a HIF-1?-dependent manner and provide new insight for the pathogenesis of priapism and novel therapies for the disease. PMID:24614760

  3. Increased levels of adenosine and ecto 5'-nucleotidase (CD73) activity precede renal alterations in experimental diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Oyarzún, C; Salinas, C; Gómez, D; Jaramillo, K; Pérez, G; Alarcón, S; Podestá, L; Flores, C; Quezada, C; San Martín, R

    2015-12-01

    The pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN) has not been clearly established, making diagnosis and patient management difficult. Recent studies using experimental diabetic models have implicated adenosine signaling with renal cells dysfunction. Therefore, the study of the biochemical mechanisms that regulate extracellular adenosine availability during DN is of emerging interest. Using streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats we demonstrated that urinary levels of adenosine were early increased. Further analyses showed an increased expression of the ecto 5'-nucleotidase (CD73), which hydrolyzes AMP to adenosine, at the renal proximal tubules and a higher enzymatic activity in tubule extracts. These changes precede the signs of diabetic kidney injury recognized by significant proteinuria, morphological alterations and the presence of the renal fibrosis markers alpha smooth muscle actin and fibronectin, collagen deposits and thickening of the glomerular basement membrane. In the proximal tubule cell line HK2 we identified TGF-? as a key modulator of CD73 activity. Importantly, the increased activity of CD73 could be screened in urinary sediments from diabetic rats. In conclusion, the increase of CD73 activity is a key component in the production of high levels of adenosine and emerges as a new tool for the early diagnosis of tubular injury in diabetic kidney disease. PMID:26499073

  4. Basal and adenosine receptor-stimulated levels of cAMP are reduced in lymphocytes from alcoholic patients

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, I.; Wrubel, B.; Estrin, W.; Gordon, A.

    1987-03-01

    Alcoholism causes serious neurologic disease that may be due, in part, to the ability of ethanol to interact with neural cell membranes and change neuronal function. Adenosine receptors are membrane-bound proteins that appear to mediate some of the effects of ethanol in the brain. Human lymphocytes also have adenosine receptors, and their activation causes increases in cAMP levels. To test the hypothesis that basal and adenosine receptor-stimulated cAMP levels in lymphocytes might be abnormal in alcoholism, the authors studied lymphocytes from 10 alcoholic subjects, 10 age- and sex-matched normal individuals, and 10 patients with nonalcoholic liver disease. Basal and adenosine receptor-stimulated cAMP levels were reduced 75% in lymphocytes from alcoholic subjects. Also, there was a 76% reduction in ethanol stimulation of cAMP accumulation in lymphocytes from alcoholics. Similar results were demonstrable in isolated T cells. Unlike other laboratory tests examined, these measurements appeared to distinguish alcoholics from normal subjects and from patients with nonalcoholic liver disease. Reduced basal and adenosine receptor-stimulated levels of cAMP in lymphocytes from alcoholics may reflect a change in cell membranes due either to chronic alcohol abuse or to a genetic predisposition unique to alcoholic subjects.

  5. Determination of the impurity profile of adenosine by means of ion-pair reversed-phase chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kopec, S; Almeling, S; Holzgrabe, U

    2006-12-01

    Production processes of adenosine include condensation of ribose and adenine by means of chemical or biochemical processes, as well as fermentation. Nowadays, adenosine is commonly produced by alkaline hydrolysis of yeast ribonucleic acid, often in the presence of calcium or lead ions, followed by chromatographic separation of the obtained nucleosides adenosine, cytidine, guanosine and uridine. The current Ph. Eur. monograph for adenosine describes a TLC method for determination of related substances that limits the impurities to 1 per cent. To ensure the quality of adenosine, it is proposed to replace the TLC method by a more sensitive and selective HPLC method, in accordance with the current policy for control of impurities as defined by the Ph. Eur. Commission. An HPLC separation system, originally proposed by the USP, using ion-pair reversed-phase chromatography in combination with tetrabutylammonium hydrogen sulphate as an ion-pair reagent, has been examined for its suitability to limit guanosine, inosine, uridine and adenine. This article describes the experiments as regards the choice of the most suitable commercial column to obtain an appropriate separation, the column temperature, the establishment of a relevant system suitability criterion, and the determination of correction factors for the individual impurities. PMID:17691210

  6. Probing the functional role of two conserved active site aspartates in mouse adenosine deaminase.

    PubMed

    Sideraki, V; Mohamedali, K A; Wilson, D K; Chang, Z; Kellems, R E; Quiocho, F A; Rudolph, F B

    1996-06-18

    Two adjacent aspartates, Asp 295 and Asp 296, playing major roles in the reaction catalyzed by mouse adenosine deaminase (mADA) were altered using site-directed mutagenesis. These mutants were expressed and purified from an ADA-deficient bacterial strain and characterized. Circular dichroism spectroscopy shows the mutants to have unperturbed secondary structure. Their zinc content compares well to that of wild-type enzyme. Changing Asp 295 to a glutamate decreases the kcat but does not alter the Km for adenosine, confirming the importance of this residue in the catalytic process and its minimal role in substrate binding. The crystal structure of the D295E mutant reveals a displacement of the catalytic water from the active site due to the longer glutamate side chain, resulting in the mutant's inability to turn over the substrate. In contrast, Asp 296 mutants exhibit markedly increased Km values, establishing this residue's critical role in substrate binding. The Asp 296->Ala mutation causes a 70-fold increase in the Km for adenosine and retains 0.001% of the wild-type kcat/Km value, whereas the ASP 296->Asn mutant has a 10-fold higher Km and retains 1% of the wild-type kcat/Km value. The structure of the D296A mutant shows that the impaired binding of substrate is caused by the loss of a single hydrogen bond between a carboxylate oxygen and N7 of the purine ring. These results and others discussed below are in agreement with the postulated role of the adjacent aspartates in the catalytic mechanism for mADA. PMID:8672487

  7. KW-3902, a selective high affinity antagonist for adenosine A1 receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Nonaka, H.; Ichimura, M.; Takeda, M.; Kanda, T.; Shimada, J.; Suzuki, F.; Kase, H.

    1996-01-01

    1. We demonstrate that 8-(noradamantan-3-yl)-1,3-dipropylxanthine (KW-3902) is a very potent and selective adenosine A1 receptor antagonist, assessed by radioligand binding and cyclic AMP response in cells. 2. In rat forebrain adenosine A1 receptors labelled with [3H]-cyclohexyladenosine (CHA), KW-3902 had a Ki value of 0.19 nM, whereas it showed a Ki value of 170 nM in rat striatal A2A receptors labelled with [3H]-2-[p-(2-carboxyethyl)-phenethylamino]-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoad enosine (CGS21680), indicating 890 fold A1 receptor selectivity versus the A2A receptor. KW-3902 at 10 microM showed no effect on recombinant rat A3 receptors expressed on CHO cells. 3. Saturation studies with [3H]-KW-3902 revealed that it bound with high affinity (Kd = 77 pM) and limited capacity (Bmax = 470 fmol mg-1 of protein) to a single class of recognition sites. A high positive correlation was observed between the pharmacological profile of adenosine ligands inhibiting the binding of [3H]-KW-3902 and that of [3H]-CHA. 4. KW-3902 showed potent A1 antagonism against the inhibition of forskolin-induced cyclic AMP accumulation in DDT1 MF-2 cells by the A1-selective agonist, cyclopentyladenosine with a dissociation constant (KB value) of 0.34 nM. KW-3902 antagonized 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine-elicited cyclic AMP accumulation via A2B receptors with a KB value of 52 nM. 5. KW-3902 exhibited marked species-dependent differences in the binding affinities. The highest affinity was for the rat A1 receptor (ki = 0.19 nM) and these values for guinea-pig and dog A1 receptors were 1.3 and 10 nM, respectively. PMID:8732272

  8. Extracellular adenosine regulates colitis through effects on lymphoid and nonlymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, Courtney C; Drygiannakis, Ioannis; Naganuma, Makoto; Feldman, Sanford; Bekiaris, Vasileios; Linden, Joel; Ware, Carl F; Ernst, Peter B

    2014-08-01

    Adenosine is a purine metabolite that can mediate anti-inflammatory responses in the digestive tract through the A(2A) adenosine receptor (A(2A)AR). We examined the role of this receptor in the control of inflammation in the adoptive transfer model of colitis. Infection of A(2A)AR(-/-) mice with Helicobacter hepaticus increased colonic inflammation scores compared with uninfected A(2A)AR controls. Comparison of T cell subsets in wild-type and A(2A)AR(-/-) mice revealed differences in markers associated with activated helper T (Th) cells and regulatory T (Treg) cells. Previous studies showed that expression of A(2A)AR on CD45RB(HI) and CD45RB(LO) Th cells is essential for the proper regulation of colonic inflammation. Adoptive transfer of CD45RB(HI) with CD45RB(LO) from wild-type mice into RAG1(-/-)/A(2A)AR(-/-) mice induced severe disease within 3 wk, although transfer of the same subsets into RAG1(-/-) mice does not induce colitis. This suggests that the presence of A(2A)AR on recipient cells is also important for controlling colitis. To investigate the role of A(2A)AR in myeloid cells, chimeric recipients were generated by injection of bone marrow from RAG1(-/-) or RAG1(-/-)/A(2A)AR(-/-) mice into irradiated RAG1(-/-) mice. After adoptive transfer, these recipients did not develop colitis, regardless of A(2A)AR expression by the donor. Together, our results suggest that the control of inflammation in vivo is dependent on A(2A)AR signaling through multiple cell types that collaborate in the regulation of colitis by responding to extracellular adenosine. PMID:24875104

  9. Renal afferent arteriolar and tubuloglomerular feedback reactivity in mice with conditional deletions of adenosine 1 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lingli; Lai, En Yin; Huang, Yuning; Eisner, Christoph; Mizel, Diane; Wilcox, Christopher S.

    2012-01-01

    Adenosine 1 receptors (A1AR) have been shown in previous experiments to play a major role in the tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) constrictor response of afferent arterioles (AA) to increased loop of Henle flow. Overexpression studies have pointed to a critical role of vascular A1AR, but it has remained unclear whether selective deletion of A1AR from smooth muscle cells is sufficient to abolish TGF responsiveness. To address this question, we have determined TGF response magnitude in mice in which vascular A1AR deletion was achieved using the loxP recombination approach with cre recombinase being controlled by a smooth muscle actin promoter (SmCre/A1ARff). Effective vascular deletion of A1AR was affirmed by absence of vasoconstrictor responses to adenosine or cyclohexyl adenosine (CHA) in microperfused AA. Elevation of loop of Henle flow from 0 to 30 nl/min caused a 22.1 ± 3.1% reduction of stop flow pressure in control mice and of 7.2 ± 1.5% in SmCre/A1ARff mice (P < 0.001). Maintenance of residual TGF activity despite absence of A1AR-mediated responses in AA suggests participation of extravascular A1AR in TGF. Support for this notion comes from the observation that deletion of A1ARff by nestin-driven cre causes an identical TGF response reduction (7.3 ± 2.4% in NestinCre/A1ARff vs. 20.3 ± 2.7% in controls), whereas AA responsiveness was reduced but not abolished. A1AR on AA smooth muscle cells are primarily responsible for TGF activation, but A1AR on extravascular cells, perhaps mesangial cells, appear to contribute to the TGF response. PMID:22896040

  10. Presynaptic adenosine A1 receptors modulate excitatory transmission in the rat basolateral amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Rau, Andrew R.; Ariwodola, Olusegun J.; Weiner, Jeff L.

    2013-01-01

    The basolateral amygdala (BLA) plays an integral role in the etiology of anxiety disorders and alcoholism. Although much is known about the intrinsic circuitry that governs BLA excitability, our understanding of the neuromodulators that control BLA excitation is incomplete. In many brain regions, adenosine (ADO) regulates neuronal excitability, primarily via A1 receptor inhibition of glutamate release, and basal adenosinergic tone is high enough to tonically inhibit neuronal excitation. Although ADO signaling modulates many anxiety- and alcohol-related behaviors, little is known about ADO regulation of BLA neurotransmission. To that end, we used patch clamp methods in rodent brain slices to characterize adenosinergic modulation of excitatory neurotransmission onto BLA pyramidal cells. ADO significantly inhibited EPSCs evoked by stimulation of either medial or external glutamatergic inputs into the BLA. This effect was mimicked by an A1, but not by an A2a, agonist. Paired-pulse ratio and miniature EPSC experiments revealed that A1 receptors reside at a presynaptic locus on BLA glutamatergic synapses. Moreover, bath application of an A1 receptor antagonist significantly enhanced EPSCs, providing evidence of tonic adenosinergic tone at BLA glutamatergic synapses. In addition, tonic ADO was regulated by adenosine kinase, but not adenosine deaminase. Finally, activation of A1 receptors had no direct effects on the intrinsic excitability of BLA pyramidal cells. Collectively, these data suggest that tonic A1 receptor signaling may play an important role in regulating BLA excitability and suggest a possible neurobiological substrate through which ADO may contribute to the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders and alcohol addiction. PMID:24212058

  11. Investigation into effects of antipsychotics on ectonucleotidase and adenosine deaminase in zebrafish brain.

    PubMed

    Seibt, Kelly Juliana; da Luz Oliveira, Renata; Bogo, Mauricio Reis; Senger, Mario Roberto; Bonan, Carla Denise

    2015-12-01

    Antipsychotic agents are used for the treatment of psychotic symptoms in patients with several brain disorders, such as schizophrenia. Atypical and typical antipsychotics differ regarding their clinical and side-effects profile. Haloperidol is a representative typical antipsychotic drug and has potent dopamine receptor antagonistic functions; however, atypical antipsychotics have been developed and characterized an important advance in the treatment of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Purine nucleotides and nucleosides, such as ATP and adenosine, constitute a ubiquitous class of extracellular signaling molecules crucial for normal functioning of the nervous system. Indirect findings suggest that changes in the purinergic system, more specifically in adenosinergic activity, could be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. We investigated the effects of typical and atypical antipsychotics on ectonucleotidase and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities, followed by an analysis of gene expression patterns in zebrafish brain. Haloperidol treatment (9 µM) was able to decrease ATP hydrolysis (35 %), whereas there were no changes in hydrolysis of ADP and AMP in brain membranes after antipsychotic exposure. Adenosine deamination in membrane fractions was inhibited (38 %) after haloperidol treatment when compared to the control; however, no changes were observed in ADA soluble fractions after haloperidol exposure. Sulpiride (250 µM) and olanzapine (100 µM) did not alter ectonucleotidase and ADA activities. Haloperidol also led to a decrease in entpd2_mq, entpd3 and adal mRNA transcripts. These findings demonstrate that haloperidol is an inhibitor of NTPDase and ADA activities in zebrafish brain, suggesting that purinergic signaling may also be a target of pharmacological effects promoted by this drug. PMID:26156500

  12. Adenosine A2B receptor activation stimulates glucose uptake in the mouse forebrain.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Cristina; Pinheiro, Bárbara S; Beleza, Rui O; Marques, Joana M; Rodrigues, Ricardo J; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Rial, Daniel; Köfalvi, Attila

    2015-12-01

    ATP consumption during intense neuronal activity leads to peaks of both extracellular adenosine levels and increased glucose uptake in the brain. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that the activation of the low-affinity adenosine receptor, the A2B receptor (A2BR), promotes glucose uptake in neurons and astrocytes, thereby linking brain activity with energy metabolism. To this end, we mapped the spatiotemporal accumulation of the fluorescent-labelled deoxyglucose, 2-(N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino)-2-deoxyglucose (2-NBDG), in superfused acute hippocampal slices of C57Bl/6j mice. Bath application of the A2BR agonist BAY606583 (300 nM) triggered an immediate and stable (>10 min) increase of the velocity of 2-NBDG accumulation throughout hippocampal slices. This was abolished with the pretreatment with the selective A2BR antagonist, MRS1754 (200 nM), and was also absent in A2BR null-mutant mice. In mouse primary astrocytic or neuronal cultures, BAY606583 similarly increased (3)H-deoxyglucose uptake in the following 20 min incubation period, which was again abolished by a pretreatment with MRS1754. Finally, incubation of hippocampal, frontocortical, or striatal slices of C57Bl/6j mice at 37 °C, with either MRS1754 (200 nM) or adenosine deaminase (3 U/mL) significantly reduced glucose uptake. Furthermore, A2BR blockade diminished newly synthesized glycogen content and at least in the striatum, increased lactate release. In conclusion, we report here that A2BR activation is associated with an instant and tonic increase of glucose transport into neurons and astrocytes in the mouse brain. These prompt further investigations to evaluate the clinical potential of this novel glucoregulator mechanism. PMID:26446689

  13. Extracellular Adenosine Protects against Streptococcus pneumoniae Lung Infection by Regulating Pulmonary Neutrophil Recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Bou Ghanem, Elsa N.; Clark, Stacie; Roggensack, Sara E.; McIver, Sally R.; Alcaide, Pilar; Haydon, Philip G.; Leong, John M.

    2015-01-01

    An important determinant of disease following Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) lung infection is pulmonary inflammation mediated by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). We found that upon intratracheal challenge of mice, recruitment of PMNs into the lungs within the first 3 hours coincided with decreased pulmonary pneumococci, whereas large numbers of pulmonary PMNs beyond 12 hours correlated with a greater bacterial burden. Indeed, mice that survived infection largely resolved inflammation by 72 hours, and PMN depletion at peak infiltration, i.e. 18 hours post-infection, lowered bacterial numbers and enhanced survival. We investigated host signaling pathways that influence both pneumococcus clearance and pulmonary inflammation. Pharmacologic inhibition and/or genetic ablation of enzymes that generate extracellular adenosine (EAD) (e.g. the ectoenzyme CD73) or degrade EAD (e.g. adenosine deaminase) revealed that EAD dramatically increases murine resistance to S. pneumoniae lung infection. Moreover, adenosine diminished PMN movement across endothelial monolayers in vitro, and although inhibition or deficiency of CD73 had no discernible impact on PMN recruitment within the first 6 hours after intratracheal inoculation of mice, these measures enhanced PMN numbers in the pulmonary interstitium after 18 hours of infection, culminating in dramatically elevated numbers of pulmonary PMNs at three days post-infection. When assessed at this time point, CD73-/- mice displayed increased levels of cellular factors that promote leukocyte migration, such as CXCL2 chemokine in the murine lung, as well as CXCR2 and ?-2 integrin on the surface of pulmonary PMNs. The enhanced pneumococcal susceptibility of CD73-/- mice was significantly reversed by PMN depletion following infection, suggesting that EAD-mediated resistance is largely mediated by its effects on PMNs. Finally, CD73-inhibition diminished the ability of PMNs to kill pneumococci in vitro, suggesting that EAD alters both the recruitment and bacteriocidal function of PMNs. The EAD-pathway may provide a therapeutic target for regulating potentially harmful inflammatory host responses during Gram-positive bacterial pneumonia. PMID:26313746

  14. Localization of calcium stimulated adenosine triphosphatase activity in blood vessels of the skeleton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, S. B.

    1985-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase is an enzyme found in bone forming cells which decreases in certain bones as a result of hypogravity or non-weight bearing. This enzyme can also hydrolyze adenosine triphosphate. Therefore, an effort was made to localize calcium-stimulated ATPase by cytochemistry to determine whether altered bone cell activity might be related to changing calcium levels which occur during hypogravity. The results indicate that Ca(++)-ATPase is largely found along the endothelium and basal lamina of blood vessels, and not found in bone forming cells. This suggests that calcium regulation in the vicinity of bone formation may be modulated by the vasculature of the area.

  15. Disruption of the adenosine deaminase gene causes hepatocellular impairment and perinatal lethality in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Wakamiya, M; Blackburn, M R; Jurecic, R; McArthur, M J; Geske, R S; Cartwright, J; Mitani, K; Vaishnav, S; Belmont, J W; Kellems, R E

    1995-01-01

    We have generated mice with a null mutation at the Ada locus, which encodes the purine catabolic enzyme adenosine deaminase (ADA, EC 3.5.4.4). ADA-deficient fetuses exhibited hepatocellular impairment and died perinatally. Their lymphoid tissues were not largely affected. Accumulation of ADA substrates was detectable in ADA-deficient conceptuses as early as 12.5 days postcoitum, dramatically increasing during late in utero development, and is the likely cause of liver damage and fetal death. The results presented here demonstrate that ADA is important for the homeostatic maintenance of purines in mice. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7731963

  16. Disruption of the adenosine deaminase gene causes hepatocellular impairment and perinatal lethality in mice.

    PubMed

    Wakamiya, M; Blackburn, M R; Jurecic, R; McArthur, M J; Geske, R S; Cartwright, J; Mitani, K; Vaishnav, S; Belmont, J W; Kellems, R E

    1995-04-25

    We have generated mice with a null mutation at the Ada locus, which encodes the purine catabolic enzyme adenosine deaminase (ADA, EC 3.5.4.4). ADA-deficient fetuses exhibited hepatocellular impairment and died perinatally. Their lymphoid tissues were not largely affected. Accumulation of ADA substrates was detectable in ADA-deficient conceptuses as early as 12.5 days postcoitum, dramatically increasing during late in utero development, and is the likely cause of liver damage and fetal death. The results presented here demonstrate that ADA is important for the homeostatic maintenance of purines in mice. PMID:7731963

  17. Lifespan Extension Induced by Caffeine in Caenorhabditis elegans is Partially Dependent on Adenosine Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Bridi, Jessika Cristina; Barros, Alexandre Guimarães de Almeida; Sampaio, Letícia Reis; Ferreira, Júlia Castro Damásio; Antunes Soares, Felix Alexandre; Romano-Silva, Marco Aurélio

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine is a widely used psychoactive substance. Studies have shown that caffeine may play a protective role in aging-associated disorders. However, the mechanisms by which caffeine modulates aging are not yet clear. In this study, we have shown that caffeine increases Caenorhabditis elegans lifespan, delays its larval development, reduces reproduction and body length. These phenotypes were partly reversed by worm’s exposure to adenosine, which suggest a putative common target. Moreover, they were dependent on a functional insulin/IGF-1-like pathway. Our results may shed light on new genetic determinants of aging. PMID:26696878

  18. Adenosine receptor signaling: a key to opening the blood-brain door.

    PubMed

    Bynoe, Margaret S; Viret, Christophe; Yan, Angela; Kim, Do-Geun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to outline evidence that adenosine receptor (AR) activation can modulate blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and the implications for disease states and drug delivery. Barriers of the central nervous system (CNS) constitute a protective and regulatory interface between the CNS and the rest of the organism. Such barriers allow for the maintenance of the homeostasis of the CNS milieu. Among them, the BBB is a highly efficient permeability barrier that separates the brain micro-environment from the circulating blood. It is made up of tight junction-connected endothelial cells with specialized transporters to selectively control the passage of nutrients required for neural homeostasis and function, while preventing the entry of neurotoxic factors. The identification of cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the development and function of CNS barriers is required for a better understanding of CNS homeostasis in both physiological and pathological settings. It has long been recognized that the endogenous purine nucleoside adenosine is a potent modulator of a large number of neurological functions. More recently, experimental studies conducted with human/mouse brain primary endothelial cells as well as with mouse models, indicate that adenosine markedly regulates BBB permeability. Extracellular adenosine, which is efficiently generated through the catabolism of ATP via the CD39/CD73 ecto-nucleotidase axis, promotes BBB permeability by signaling through A1 and A2A ARs expressed on BBB cells. In line with this hypothesis, induction of AR signaling by selective agonists efficiently augments BBB permeability in a transient manner and promotes the entry of macromolecules into the CNS. Conversely, antagonism of AR signaling blocks the entry of inflammatory cells and soluble factors into the brain. Thus, AR modulation of the BBB appears as a system susceptible to tighten as well as to permeabilize the BBB. Collectively, these findings point to AR manipulation as a pertinent avenue of research for novel strategies aiming at efficiently delivering therapeutic drugs/cells into the CNS, or at restricting the entry of inflammatory immune cells into the brain in some diseases such as multiple sclerosis. PMID:26330053

  19. Adenosine/guanosine preferring nucleoside ribohydrolase is a distinct, druggable antitrichomonal target.

    PubMed

    Beck, Sierra; Muellers, Samantha N; Benzie, Annie Laurie; Parkin, David W; Stockman, Brian J

    2015-11-15

    Nucleoside salvage pathway enzymes used by Trichomonas vaginalis are distinct from the pathway involved in activation of existing 5-nitroimidazole drugs. They thus represent excellent targets for developing novel, mechanism-based antitrichomonal agents. The purine-specific adenosine/guanosine preferring ribohydrolase (AGNH) was screened against the NIH Clinical Collection to assess its druggability. Eight compounds, including five flavonoids, were identified with IC50 values ?10?M and confirmed in counter screens run in the presence of detergent. The inhibitors are structurally distinct from inhibitors of the pyrimidine-specific uridine ribohydrolase (UNH) thus indicating that AGNH is a distinct, druggable target from UNH. PMID:26592812

  20. Responses of Adenine Nucleotides in Germinating Soybean Embryonic Axes to Exogenously Applied Adenine and Adenosine

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, James D.

    1977-01-01

    The ATP content of soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv. Kent) axes incubated for 3 hours in 1 mm solutions of adenine and adenosine increased over 100% and 75%, respectively, over axes incubated in water. The increase in ATP was primarily due to the conversion of these purines to nucleotides via the nucleotide salvage pathway. The ATP formed was in a metabolically active pool because label from adenine was incorporated into acid-insoluble material. Adenine also increased the levels of GTP, UTP, and CTP, but not to the extent of the ATP level. PMID:16660165

  1. Non-linear quantitative structure-activity relationship for adenine derivatives as competitive inhibitors of adenosine deaminase

    SciTech Connect

    Sadat Hayatshahi, Sayyed Hamed; Khajeh, Khosro

    2005-12-16

    Logistic regression and artificial neural networks have been developed as two non-linear models to establish quantitative structure-activity relationships between structural descriptors and biochemical activity of adenosine based competitive inhibitors, toward adenosine deaminase. The training set included 24 compounds with known k {sub i} values. The models were trained to solve two-class problems. Unlike the previous work in which multiple linear regression was used, the highest of positive charge on the molecules was recognized to be in close relation with their inhibition activity, while the electric charge on atom N1 of adenosine was found to be a poor descriptor. Consequently, the previously developed equation was improved and the newly formed one could predict the class of 91.66% of compounds correctly. Also optimized 2-3-1 and 3-4-1 neural networks could increase this rate to 95.83%.

  2. Unique energetic properties of Adenosine Tri-Phosphate in comparison to similar compounds using density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muraszko, Kevin; Halloran, Thomas; Malinovskaya, Svetlana; Leopold, Philip

    2015-05-01

    Adenosine Tri-Phosphate (ATP) is arguably the most critical compound to all life known on Earth, serving as the main energy transport and storage in cellular biology. Why in particular did nature ``choose'' ATP instead of a similar compound? We are seeking to answer this question by comparing the energetic properties of ATP to similar compounds. We discuss 3-D models for ATP, variants of the molecule based on all of the separate nucleobases, and ATP's twin molecule Adenosine Di-Phosphate. All calculations were done using Density Functional Theory. The results showed that purine compounds like Adenosine and Guanosine produce similar bond angles, making these viable unlike the other nucleobases. We have analyzed the chiral properties of ATP by comparing the ground-state-energies of ATP-cis and ATP-trans and have shown that ATP-cis is the more energetically favorable of the two. This is consistent with observations in nature.

  3. High-frequency Electrocardiogram Analysis in the Ability to Predict Reversible Perfusion Defects during Adenosine Myocardial Perfusion Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tragardh, Elin; Schlegel, Todd T.; Carlsson, Marcus; Pettersson, Jonas; Nilsson, Klas; Pahlm, Olle

    2007-01-01

    Background: A previous study has shown that analysis of high-frequency QRS components (HF-QRS) is highly sensitive and reasonably specific for detecting reversible perfusion defects on myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) scans during adenosine. The purpose of the present study was to try to reproduce those findings. Methods: 12-lead high-resolution electrocardiogram recordings were obtained from 100 patients before (baseline) and during adenosine Tc-99m-tetrofosmin MPI tests. HF-QRS were analyzed regarding morphology and changes in root mean square (RMS) voltages from before the adenosine infusion to peak infusion. Results: The best area under the curve (AUC) was found in supine patients (AUC=0.736) in a combination of morphology and RMS changes. None of the measurements, however, were statistically better than tossing a coin (AUC=0.5). Conclusion: Analysis of HF-QRS was not significantly better than tossing a coin for determining reversible perfusion defects on MPI scans.

  4. Crystal Structure of Staphylococcus aureus tRNA Adenosine Deaminase TadA in Complex with RNA

    SciTech Connect

    Losey,H.; Ruthenburg, A.; Verdine, G.

    2006-01-01

    Bacterial tRNA adenosine deaminases (TadAs) catalyze the hydrolytic deamination of adenosine to inosine at the wobble position of tRNA(Arg2), a process that enables this single tRNA to recognize three different arginine codons in mRNA. In addition, inosine is also introduced at the wobble position of multiple eukaryotic tRNAs. The genes encoding these deaminases are essential in bacteria and yeast, demonstrating the importance of their biological activity. Here we report the crystallization and structure determination to 2.0 A of Staphylococcus aureus TadA bound to the anticodon stem-loop of tRNA(Arg2) bearing nebularine, a non-hydrolyzable adenosine analog, at the wobble position. The cocrystal structure reveals the basis for both sequence and structure specificity in the interactions of TadA with RNA, and it additionally provides insight into the active site architecture that promotes efficient hydrolytic deamination.

  5. Adenosine Nucleotides and the Regulation of GRP94-Client Protein Interactions Meredith F. N. Rosser, Brian M. Trotta, Megan R. Marshall, Brent Berwin, and Christopher V. Nicchitta*,

    E-print Network

    Nicchitta, Chris

    Adenosine Nucleotides and the Regulation of GRP94-Client Protein Interactions Meredith F. N. Rosser accessory factors nor adenosine nucleotides have been clearly implicated in the regulation of GRP94-client. To identify a role(s) for ATP or ADP in the regulation of GRP94-client protein interactions, immunoglobulin

  6. Measuring the dynamics of cyclic adenosine monophosphate level in living cells induced by low-level laser irradiation using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yimei; Zheng, Liqin; Yang, Hongqin; Chen, Jiangxu; Wang, Yuhua; Li, Hui; Xie, Shusen; Zeng, Haishan

    2015-05-01

    Several studies demonstrated that the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), an important second messenger, is involved in the mechanism of low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) treatment. However, most of these studies obtained the cAMP level in cell culture extracts or supernatant. In this study, the cAMP level in living cells was measured with bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET). The effect of LLLI on cAMP level in living cells with adenosine receptors blocked was explored to identify the role of adenosine receptors in LLLI. The results showed that LLLI increased the cAMP level. Moreover, the rise of cAMP level was light dose dependent but wavelength independent for 658-, 785-, and 830-nm laser light. The results also exhibited that the adenosine receptors, a class of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), modulated the increase of cAMP level induced by LLLI. The cAMP level increased more significantly when the A3 adenosine receptors (A3R) were blocked by A3R antagonist compared with A1 adenosine receptor or A2a adenosine receptor blocked in HEK293T cells after LLLI, which was in good agreement with the adenosine receptors' expressions. All these results suggested that measuring the cAMP level with BRET could be a useful technique to study the role of GPCRs in living cells under LLLI.

  7. Non-additive modulation of synaptic transmission by serotonin, adenosine, and cholinergic modulators in the sensory thalamus

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ya-Chin; Hu, Chun-Chang; Lai, Yi-Chen

    2015-01-01

    The thalamus relays sensory information to the cortex. Oscillatory activities of the thalamocortical network are modulated by monoamines, acetylcholine, and adenosine, and could be the key features characteristic of different vigilance states. Although the thalamus is almost always subject to the actions of more than just one neuromodulators, reports on the modulatory effect of coexisting neuromodulators on thalamic synaptic transmission are unexpectedly scarce. We found that, if present alone, monoamine or adenosine decreases retinothalamic synaptic strength and short-term depression, whereas cholinergic modulators generally enhance postsynaptic response to presynaptic activity. However, coexistence of different modulators tends to produce non-additive effect, not predictable based on the action of individual modulators. Acetylcholine, acting via nicotinic receptors, can interact with either serotonin or adenosine to abolish most short-term synaptic depression. Moreover, the coexistence of adenosine and monoamine, with or without acetylcholine, results in robustly decreased synaptic strength and transforms short-term synaptic depression to facilitation. These findings are consistent with a view that acetylcholine is essential for an “enriched” sensory flow through the thalamus, and the flow is trimmed down by concomitant monoamine or adenosine (presumably for the wakefulness and rapid-eye movement, or REM, sleep states, respectively). In contrast, concomitant adenosine and monoamine would lead to a markedly “deprived” (and high-pass filtered) sensory flow, and thus the dramatic decrease of monoamine may constitute the basic demarcation between non-REM and REM sleep. The collective actions of different neuromodulators on thalamic synaptic transmission thus could be indispensable for the understanding of network responsiveness in different vigilance states. PMID:25852468

  8. Local disruption of glial adenosine homeostasis in mice associates with focal electrographic seizures: a first step in epileptogenesis?

    PubMed

    Li, Tianfu; Lytle, Nikki; Lan, Jing-Quan; Sandau, Ursula S; Boison, Detlev

    2012-01-01

    Astrogliosis and associated dysfunction of adenosine homeostasis are pathological hallmarks of the epileptic brain and thought to contribute to seizure generation in epilepsy. The authors hypothesized that astrogliosis-an early component of the epileptogenic cascade-might be linked to focal seizure onset. To isolate the contribution of astrogliosis to ictogenesis from other pathological events involved in epilepsy, the authors used a minimalistic model of epileptogenesis in mice, based on a focal onset status epilepticus triggered by intra-amygdaloid injection of kainic acid. The authors demonstrate acute neuronal cell loss restricted to the injected amygdala and ipsilateral CA3, followed 3 weeks later by focal astrogliosis and overexpression of the adenosine-metabolizing enzyme adenosine kinase (ADK). Using synchronous electroencephalographic recordings from multiple depth electrodes, the authors identify the KA-injected amygdala and ipsilateral CA3 as two independent foci for the initiation of non-synchronized electrographic subclinical seizures. Importantly, seizures remained focal and restricted to areas of ADK overexpression. However, after systemic application of a non-convulsive dose of an adenosine A(1) -receptor antagonist, seizures in amygdala and CA3 immediately synchronized and spread throughout the cortex, leading to convulsive seizures. This focal seizure phenotype remained stable over at least several weeks. We conclude that astrogliosis via disruption of adenosine homeostasis per se and in the absence of any other overt pathology, is associated with the emergence of spontaneous recurrent subclinical seizures, which remain stable over space and time. A secondary event, here mimicked by brain-wide disruption of adenosine signaling, is likely required to turn pre-existing subclinical seizures into a clinical seizure phenotype. PMID:21964979

  9. Trifunctional Agents as a Design Strategy for Tailoring Ligand Properties: Irreversible Inhibitors of A1 Adenosine Receptors†

    PubMed Central

    Boring, Daniel L.; Ji, Xiao-Duo; Zimmet, Jeff; Taylor, Kirk E.; Stiles, Gary L.

    2012-01-01

    The 1,3-phenylene diisothiocyanate conjugate of XAC (8-[4-[[[[(2-aminoethyl)amino]carbonyl]methyl]-oxy]phenyl]-l,3-dipropylxanthine, a potent A1 selective adenosine antagonist) has been characterized as an irreversible inhibitor of A1 adenosine receptors. To further extend this work, a series of analogues were prepared containing a third substituent in the phenyl isothiocyanate ring, incorporated to modify the physiochemical or spectroscopic properties of the conjugate. Symmetrical trifunctional cross-linking reagents bearing two isothiocyanate groups were prepared as general intermediates for cross-linking functionalized congeners and receptors. Xanthine isothiocyanate derivatives containing hydrophilic, fluorescent, or reactive substituents, linked via an amide, thiourea, or methylene group in the 5-position, were synthesized and found to be irreversible inhibitors of A1 adenosine receptors. The effects of the 5-substituent on water solubility and on the A1/A2 selectivity ratio derived from binding assays in rat brain membranes were examined. Inhibition of binding of [3H]-N6-(2-phenylisopropyl)-adenosine and [3H]CGS21680 (2-[[2-[4-(2-carboxyethyl)phenyl]ethyl]amino]adenosine-5?-N-ethylcarboxamide) at central A1 and A2 adenosine receptors, respectively, was measured. A conjugate of XAC and 1,3,5-triisothiocyanatobenzene was 894-fold selective for A1 receptors. Reporter groups, such as fluorescent dyes and a spin-label, were included as chain substituents in the irreversibly binding analogues, which were designed for spectroscopic assays, histochemical characterization, and biochemical characterization of the receptor protein. PMID:1868116

  10. Using caffeine and other adenosine receptor antagonists and agonists as therapeutic tools against neurodegenerative diseases: a review.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Oliver, Marla; Díaz-Ríos, Manuel

    2014-04-17

    Caffeine is the most consumed pychostimulant in the world, and it is known to affect basic and fundamental human processes such as sleep, arousal, cognition and learning and memory. It works as a nonselective blocker of adenosine receptors (A1, A2a, A2b and A3) and has been related to the regulation of heart rate, the contraction/relaxation of cardiac and smooth muscles, and the neural signaling in the central nervous system (CNS). Since the late 1990s, studies using adenosine receptor antagonists, such as Caffeine, to block the A1 and A2a adenosine receptor subtypes have shown to reduce the physical, cellular and molecular damages caused by a spinal cord injury (SCI) or a stroke (cerebral infarction) and by other neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Interestingly, other studies using adenosine receptor agonists have also shown to provide a neuroprotective effect on various models of neurodegenerative diseases through the reduction of excitatory neurotransmitter release, apoptosis and inflammatory responses, among others. The seemingly paradoxical use of both adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists as neuroprotective agents has been attributed to differences in dosage levels, drug delivery method, extracellular concentration of excitatory neurotransmitters and stage of disease progression. We discuss and compare recent findings using both antagonists and agonists of adenosine receptors in animal models and patients that have suffered spinal cord injuries, brain strokes, and Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Additionally, we propose alternative interpretations on the seemingly paradoxical use of these drugs as potential pharmacological tools to treat these various types of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24530739

  11. Uneven distribution of nucleoside transporters and intracellular enzymatic degradation prevent transport of intact [14C] adenosine across the sheep choroid plexus epithelium as a monolayer in primary culture

    PubMed Central

    Redzic, Zoran B; Isakovic, Aleksandra J; Misirlic Dencic, Sonja T; Popadic, Dusan; Segal, Malcolm B

    2006-01-01

    Background Efflux transport of adenosine across the choroid plexus (CP) epithelium might contribute to the homeostasis of this neuromodulator in the extracellular fluids of the brain. The aim of this study was to explore adenosine transport across sheep CP epithelial cell monolayers in primary culture. Methods To explore transport of adenosine across the CP epithelium, we have developed a method for primary culture of the sheep choroid plexus epithelial cells (CPEC) on plastic permeable supports and analysed [14C] adenosine transport across this cellular layer, [14C] adenosine metabolism inside the cells, and cellular uptake of [14C] adenosine from either of the chambers. The primary cell culture consisted of an enriched epithelial cell fraction from the sheep fourth ventricle CP and was grown on laminin-precoated filter inserts. Results and conclusion CPEC grew as monolayers forming typical polygonal islands, reaching optical confluence on the third day after the seeding. Transepithelial electrical resistance increased over the time after seeding up to 85 ± 9 ? cm2 at day 8, while permeability towards [14C] sucrose, a marker of paracellular diffusion, simultaneously decreased. These cells expressed some features typical of the CPEC in situ, including three nucleoside transporters at the transcript level that normally mediate adenosine transport across cellular membranes. The estimated permeability of these monolayers towards [14C] adenosine was low and the same order of magnitude as for the markers of paracellular diffusion. However, inhibition of the intracellular enzymes, adenosine kinase and adenosine deaminase, led to a significant increase in transcellular permeability, indicating that intracellular phosphorylation into nucleotides might be a reason for the low transcellular permeability. HPLC analysis with simultaneous detection of radioactivity revealed that [14C] radioactivity which appeared in the acceptor chamber after the incubation of CPEC monolayers with [14C] adenosine in the donor chamber was mostly present as [14C] hypoxanthine, a product of adenosine metabolic degradation. Therefore, it appears that CPEC in primary cultures act as an enzymatic barrier towards adenosine. Cellular uptake studies revealed that concentrative uptake of [14C] adenosine was confined only to the side of these cells facing the upper or apical chamber, indicating uneven distribution of nucleoside transporters. PMID:16571111

  12. Evaluation of neuronal phosphoproteins as effectors of caffeine and mediators of striatal adenosine A2A receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Bogachan; Galdi, Stacey; Hendrick, Joseph; Greene, Robert W.; Snyder, Gretchen L.; Bibb, James A.

    2007-01-01

    Adenosine A2A receptors are predominantly expressed in the dendrites of enkephalin-positive ?-aminobutyric acidergic medium spiny neurons in the striatum. Evidence indicates that these receptors modulate striatal dopaminergic neurotransmission and regulate motor control, vigilance, alertness, and arousal. Although the physiological and behavioral correlates of adenosine A2A receptor signaling have been extensively studied using a combination of pharmacological and genetic tools, relatively little is known about the signal transduction pathways that mediate the diverse biological functions attributed to this adenosine receptor subtype. Using a candidate approach based on the coupling of these receptors to adenylate cyclase-activating G proteins, a number of membranal, cytosolic, and nuclear phosphoproteins regulated by PKA were evaluated as potential mediators of adenosine A2A receptor signaling in the striatum. Specifically, the adenosine A2A receptor agonist, CGS 21680, was used to determine whether the phosphorylation state of each of the following PKA targets is responsive to adenosine A2A receptor stimulation in this tissue: Ser40 of tyrosine hydroxylase, Ser9 of synapsin, Ser897 of the NR1 subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate-type glutamate receptor, Ser845 of the GluR1 subunit of the ?-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid-type glutamate receptor, Ser94 of spinophilin, Thr34 of the dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein, Mr32,000, Ser133 of the cAMP-response element-binding protein, Thr286 of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, and Thr202/Tyr204 and Thr183/Tyr185 of the p44 and p42 isoforms, respectively, of mitogen-activated protein kinase. Although the substrates studied differed considerably in their responsiveness to selective adenosine A2A receptor activation, the phosphorylation state of all postsynaptic PKA targets was up-regulated in a time- and dose-dependent manner by treatment with CGS 21680, whereas presynaptic PKA substrates were unresponsive to this agent, consistent with the postsynaptic localization of adenosine A2A receptors. Finally, the phosphorylation state of these proteins was further assessed in vivo by systemic administration of caffeine. Section: Cellular and Molecular Biology of Nervous Systems PMID:17157277

  13. Potentiation by levamisole, methisoprinol, and adenine or adenosine of the inhibitory activity of human interferon against encephalomyocarditis virus.

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, A; García, R A; Pérez-Aranda, A

    1986-01-01

    The antiviral action of different human interferons against encephalomyocarditis virus in HeLa cell cultures was analyzed. Cell treatment with levamisole (200 micrograms/ml), methisoprinol (1 mg/ml), or adenine or adenosine (33 or 100 micrograms/ml, respectively) potentiated the anti-encephalomyocarditis virus activity of human interferon by 8- to 32-fold. A higher level of potentiation (256-fold) was achieved either by combined treatments with levamisole plus methisoprinol or by treatment with one of these compounds plus adenine or adenosine. Images PMID:2428301

  14. An adenosine kinase in apoplastic location is involved in Magnaporthe oryzae cold acclimation.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Jia, Baolei; Liang, Xilong; Liu, Jinliang; Wang, Yanli; Liang, Xunna; Yan, Hai; Wang, Yuhan; Zhang, Shihong

    2014-04-01

    Cold acclimation is an important process to increase freezing tolerance for over-winter survival in many organisms. The apoplastic area is very important in cold acclimation. Two-dimensional electrophoresis was used to identify apoplastic proteins involved in the cold acclimation process of the filamentous fungus Magnaporthe oryzae, and nine protein spots showed at least 1.5-fold increase during cold treatment. These proteins were further analyzed by matrix-assisted laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. One of these proteins was identified to be an adenosine kinase (MoAK), an ortholog of the adenosine kinase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The MoAK gene showed significantly increased in transcription level. Microscopic analyses showed that an MoAK::GFP fusion protein was localized in the apoplastic region. The MoAk protein showed anti-freezing activity when expressed in yeast. These results indicated that cold acclimation is crucial for fungal freezing tolerance and MoAK played an important role in this process in M. oryzae. PMID:23681700

  15. Genetically engineered mice demonstrate that adenosine deaminase is essential for early postimplantation development.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, M R; Knudsen, T B; Kellems, R E

    1997-08-01

    Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is an essential enzyme of purine metabolism that is enriched at the maternal-fetal interface of mice throughout postimplantation development. During early postimplantation stages Ada is highly expressed in both maternally derived decidual cells and zygotically derived trophoblast cells. For the current study we utilized genetically modified mice to delineate the relative contribution and importance of decidual and trophoblast ADA at the maternal-fetal interface. In females genetically engineered to lack decidual ADA a striking pattern of expression was revealed in giant trophoblast cells that surround the early postimplantation embryo. Embryos within gestation sites lacking both decidual and trophoblast ADA died during the early postimplantation period, whereas expression in trophoblast cells alone was sufficient for survival through this period. Severe disturbances in purine metabolism were observed in gestation sites lacking decidual ADA, including the accumulation of the potentially toxic ADA substrates adenosine and 2'-deoxyadenosine. These experiments provide genetic evidence that Ada expression at the maternal-fetal interface is essential for early postimplantation development in mice. PMID:9272950

  16. Adenosine deaminase deficiency increases thymic apoptosis and causes defective T cell receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Apasov, Sergey G.; Blackburn, Michael R.; Kellems, Rodney E.; Smith, Patrick T.; Sitkovsky, Michail V.

    2001-01-01

    Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency in humans results in a severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). This immunodeficiency is associated with severe disturbances in purine metabolism that are thought to mediate lymphotoxicity. The recent generation of ADA-deficient (ADA–/–) mice has enabled the in vivo examination of mechanisms that may underlie the SCID resulting from ADA deficiency. We demonstrate severe depletion of T and B lymphocytes and defects in T and B cell development in ADA–/– mice. T cell apoptosis was abundant in thymi of ADA–/– mice, but no increase in apoptosis was detected in the spleen and lymph nodes of these animals, suggesting that the defect is specific to developing thymocytes. Studies of mature T cells recovered from spleens of ADA–/– mice revealed that ADA deficiency is accompanied by TCR activation defects of T cells in vivo. Furthermore, ex vivo experiments on ADA–/– T cells demonstrated that elevated adenosine is responsible for this abnormal TCR signaling. These findings suggest that the metabolic disturbances seen in ADA–/– mice affect various signaling pathways that regulate thymocyte survival and function. Experiments with thymocytes ex vivo confirmed that ADA deficiency reduces tyrosine phosphorylation of TCR-associated signaling molecules and blocks TCR-triggered calcium increases. J. Clin. Invest. 108:131–141 (2001). DOI:10.1172/JCI200110360. PMID:11435465

  17. Adenosine deaminase deficiency increases thymic apoptosis and causes defective T cell receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Apasov, S G; Blackburn, M R; Kellems, R E; Smith, P T; Sitkovsky, M V

    2001-07-01

    Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency in humans results in a severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). This immunodeficiency is associated with severe disturbances in purine metabolism that are thought to mediate lymphotoxicity. The recent generation of ADA-deficient (ADA(-/-)) mice has enabled the in vivo examination of mechanisms that may underlie the SCID resulting from ADA deficiency. We demonstrate severe depletion of T and B lymphocytes and defects in T and B cell development in ADA(-/-) mice. T cell apoptosis was abundant in thymi of ADA(-/-) mice, but no increase in apoptosis was detected in the spleen and lymph nodes of these animals, suggesting that the defect is specific to developing thymocytes. Studies of mature T cells recovered from spleens of ADA(-/-) mice revealed that ADA deficiency is accompanied by TCR activation defects of T cells in vivo. Furthermore, ex vivo experiments on ADA(-/-) T cells demonstrated that elevated adenosine is responsible for this abnormal TCR signaling. These findings suggest that the metabolic disturbances seen in ADA(-/-) mice affect various signaling pathways that regulate thymocyte survival and function. Experiments with thymocytes ex vivo confirmed that ADA deficiency reduces tyrosine phosphorylation of TCR-associated signaling molecules and blocks TCR-triggered calcium increases. PMID:11435465

  18. The Binding Site of Human Adenosine Deaminase for Cd26/Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Eva; Arredondo-Vega, Francisco X.; Santisteban, Ines; Kelly, Susan J.; Patel, Dhavalkumar D.; Hershfield, Michael S.

    2000-01-01

    Human, but not murine, adenosine deaminase (ADA) forms a complex with the cell membrane protein CD26/dipeptidyl peptidase IV. CD26-bound ADA has been postulated to regulate extracellular adenosine levels and to modulate the costimulatory function of CD26 on T lymphocytes. Absence of ADA–CD26 binding has been implicated in causing severe combined immunodeficiency due to ADA deficiency. Using human–mouse ADA hybrids and ADA point mutants, we have localized the amino acids critical for CD26 binding to the helical segment 126–143. Arg142 in human ADA and Gln142 in mouse ADA largely determine the capacity to bind CD26. Recombinant human ADA bearing the R142Q mutation had normal catalytic activity per molecule, but markedly impaired binding to a CD26+ ADA-deficient human T cell line. Reduced CD26 binding was also found with ADA from red cells and T cells of a healthy individual whose only expressed ADA has the R142Q mutation. Conversely, ADA with the E217K active site mutation, the only ADA expressed by a severely immunodeficient patient, showed normal CD26 binding. These findings argue that ADA binding to CD26 is not essential for immune function in humans. PMID:11067872

  19. The second extracellular loop of the adenosine A1 receptor mediates activity of allosteric enhancers.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Dylan P; McRobb, Fiona M; Leonhardt, Susan A; Purdy, Michael; Figler, Heidi; Marshall, Melissa A; Chordia, Mahendra; Figler, Robert; Linden, Joel; Abagyan, Ruben; Yeager, Mark

    2014-02-01

    Allosteric enhancers of the adenosine A1 receptor amplify signaling by orthosteric agonists. Allosteric enhancers are appealing drug candidates because their activity requires that the orthosteric site be occupied by an agonist, thereby conferring specificity to stressed or injured tissues that produce adenosine. To explore the mechanism of allosteric enhancer activity, we examined their action on several A1 receptor constructs, including (1) species variants, (2) species chimeras, (3) alanine scanning mutants, and (4) site-specific mutants. These findings were combined with homology modeling of the A1 receptor and in silico screening of an allosteric enhancer library. The binding modes of known docked allosteric enhancers correlated with the known structure-activity relationship, suggesting that these allosteric enhancers bind to a pocket formed by the second extracellular loop, flanked by residues S150 and M162. We propose a model in which this vestibule controls the entry and efflux of agonists from the orthosteric site and agonist binding elicits a conformational change that enables allosteric enhancer binding. This model provides a mechanism for the observations that allosteric enhancers slow the dissociation of orthosteric agonists but not antagonists. PMID:24217444

  20. Paeoniflorin Promotes Non-rapid Eye Movement Sleep via Adenosine A1 Receptors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chang-Rui; Sun, Yu; Luo, Yan-Jia; Zhao, Xin; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Qu, Wei-Min; Huang, Zhi-Li

    2016-01-01

    Paeoniflorin (PF, C23H28O11), one of the principal active ingredients of Paeonia Radix, exerts depressant effects on the central nervous system. We determined whether PF could modulate sleep behaviors and the mechanisms involved. Electroencephalogram and electromyogram recordings in mice showed that intraperitoneal PF administered at a dose of 25 or 50 mg/kg significantly shortened the sleep latency and increased the amount of non-rapid eye movement (NREM). Immunohistochemical study revealed that PF decreased c-fos expression in the histaminergic tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN). The sleep-promoting effects and changes in c-fos induced by PF were reversed by 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine (CPT), an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist, and PF-induced sleep was not observed in adenosine A1 receptor knockout mice. Whole-cell patch clamping in mouse brain slices showed that PF significantly decreased the firing frequency of histaminergic neurons in TMN, which could be completely blocked by CPT. These results indicate that PF increased NREM sleep by inhibiting the histaminergic system via A1 receptors. PMID:26491061

  1. Calcium Uptake and Associated Adenosine Triphosphatase Activity of Isolated Platelet Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Robblee, Lois S.; Shepro, David; Belamarich, Frank A.

    1973-01-01

    A platelet subcellular fraction, sedimenting between 14,000 and 40,000 g and consisting primarily of membrane vesicles, accumulates up to 200–400 nmoles calcium/mg protein in the presence of ATP and oxalate. Steady-state levels of calcium accumulation are attained in 40–60 min. Calcium uptake requires adenosine triphosphate (ATP), is enhanced by oxalate, and is accompanied by the release of inorganic phosphate. Calcium accumulation and phosphate release require magnesium and are inhibited by Salyrgan (10 µM) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) (1 mM), but not by ouabain (0.1 mM). The ATPase activity is stimulated by low concentrations of calcium (5–10 µM) and is inhibited by 2 mM EGTA. Electron microscopic histochemistry using lead nitrate to precipitate released phosphate results in lead precipitates localized primarily at the inner surface of membrane vesicles. These results provide evidence for a membrane ATPase that is stimulated by low concentrations of calcium and may be involved in the transport of calcium across the membrane. It is postulated that the observed calcium uptake activity is an in vitro manifestation of a calcium extrusion pump in the intact platelet. PMID:4266586

  2. Hybrid integrated biological-solid-state system powered with adenosine triphosphate.

    PubMed

    Roseman, Jared M; Lin, Jianxun; Ramakrishnan, Siddharth; Rosenstein, Jacob K; Shepard, Kenneth L

    2015-01-01

    There is enormous potential in combining the capabilities of the biological and the solid state to create hybrid engineered systems. While there have been recent efforts to harness power from naturally occurring potentials in living systems in plants and animals to power complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor integrated circuits, here we report the first successful effort to isolate the energetics of an electrogenic ion pump in an engineered in vitro environment to power such an artificial system. An integrated circuit is powered by adenosine triphosphate through the action of Na(+)/K(+) adenosine triphosphatases in an integrated in vitro lipid bilayer membrane. The ion pumps (active in the membrane at numbers exceeding 2 × 10(6)?mm(-2)) are able to sustain a short-circuit current of 32.6?pA?mm(-2) and an open-circuit voltage of 78?mV, providing for a maximum power transfer of 1.27?pW?mm(-2) from a single bilayer. Two series-stacked bilayers provide a voltage sufficient to operate an integrated circuit with a conversion efficiency of chemical to electrical energy of 14.9%. PMID:26638983

  3. Hybrid integrated biological–solid-state system powered with adenosine triphosphate

    PubMed Central

    Roseman, Jared M.; Lin, Jianxun; Ramakrishnan, Siddharth; Rosenstein, Jacob K.; Shepard, Kenneth L.

    2015-01-01

    There is enormous potential in combining the capabilities of the biological and the solid state to create hybrid engineered systems. While there have been recent efforts to harness power from naturally occurring potentials in living systems in plants and animals to power complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor integrated circuits, here we report the first successful effort to isolate the energetics of an electrogenic ion pump in an engineered in vitro environment to power such an artificial system. An integrated circuit is powered by adenosine triphosphate through the action of Na+/K+ adenosine triphosphatases in an integrated in vitro lipid bilayer membrane. The ion pumps (active in the membrane at numbers exceeding 2 × 106?mm?2) are able to sustain a short-circuit current of 32.6?pA?mm?2 and an open-circuit voltage of 78?mV, providing for a maximum power transfer of 1.27?pW?mm?2 from a single bilayer. Two series-stacked bilayers provide a voltage sufficient to operate an integrated circuit with a conversion efficiency of chemical to electrical energy of 14.9%. PMID:26638983

  4. A 24-Year Enzyme Replacement Therapy in an Adenosine-deaminase-Deficient Patient.

    PubMed

    Tartibi, Hana M; Hershfield, Michael S; Bahna, Sami L

    2016-01-01

    Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is a fatal childhood disease unless immune reconstitution is performed early in life, with either hematopoietic stem cell transplantation or gene therapy. One of its subtypes is caused by adenosine deaminase (ADA) enzyme deficiency, which leads to the accumulation of toxic metabolites that impair lymphocyte development and function. With the development of polyethylene glycol-conjugated adenosine deaminase (PEG-ADA) enzyme replacement therapy, many ADA-deficient children with SCID who could not receive a hematopoietic stem cell transplantation or gene therapy survived and had longer and healthier lives. We report a 24-year course of treatment in a patient who was diagnosed with ADA deficiency at 4 months of age. The patient was treated with PEG-ADA, which was the only therapy available for him. The patient's plasma ADA level was regularly monitored and the PEG-ADA dose adjusted accordingly. This treatment has resulted in near-normalization of lymphocyte counts, and his clinical course has been associated with only minor to moderate infections. Thus far, he has had no manifestations of autoimmune or lymphoproliferative disorders. This patient is among the longest to be maintained on PEG-ADA enzyme replacement therapy. PMID:26684479

  5. Human ADA2 belongs to a new family of growth factors with adenosine deaminase activity

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Two distinct isoenzymes of ADA (adenosine deaminase), ADA1 and ADA2, have been found in humans. Inherited mutations in ADA1 result in SCID (severe combined immunodeficiency). This observation has led to extensive studies of the structure and function of this enzyme that have revealed an important role for it in lymphocyte activation. In contrast, the physiological role of ADA2 is unknown. ADA2 is found in negligible quantities in serum and may be produced by monocytes/macrophages. ADA2 activity in the serum is increased in various diseases in which monocyte/macrophage cells are activated. In the present study, we report that ADA2 is a heparin-binding protein. This allowed us to obtain a highly purified enzyme and to study its biochemistry. ADA2 was identified as a member of a new class of ADGFs (ADA-related growth factors), which is present in almost all organisms from flies to humans. Our results suggest that ADA2 may be active in sites of inflammation during hypoxia and in areas of tumour growth where the adenosine concentration is significantly elevated and the extracellular pH is acidic. Our finding that ADA2 co-purified and concentrated together with IgG in commercially available preparations offers an intriguing explanation for the observation that treatment with such preparations leads to non-specific immune-system stimulation. PMID:15926889

  6. Low-temperature FTIR spectra and hydrogen bonds in polycrystalline adenosine and uridine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozenberg, M.; Jung, C.; Shoham, G.

    2005-02-01

    FTIR spectra of polycrystalline samples of adenosine and uridine, pure and containing small (<10%) quantity of N(O)H or N(O)D groups, were measured in KBr pellets from 4000 to 400 cm -1 at temperatures from 300 to 20 K. For the first time, the bands of narrow isotopically decoupled proton stretching vibration ?1 mode of NH sbnd and OH sbnd groups were found and assigned to ordered hydrogen bonds according to crystal structural data for both nucleosides. The FTIR adenosine spectra in the out-of-plane bending proton ?4 mode range (lower than 1000 cm -1) of N(O)H groups revealed at low temperature at least twice more bands, than in the ?1 range, which are influenced by isotopic exchange and (or) cooling. Almost all of them have their counterparts in the N(O)D substance spectrum with an isotopic frequency ratio of 1.30-1.40. These bands were assigned to the differently H-bound disordered NH and OH protons, which could not be seen with crystal structural methods. The energy and length of different H-bonds were estimated from peak positions of both mode bands (as the red shift of ?1 or blue shift of ?4 relatively free molecules) with well-established empirical correlations between spectral, thermodynamic and structural parameters of hydrogen bonds. The results were compared with independent experimental data.

  7. A Complex Containing SNF1-Related Kinase (SnRK1) and Adenosine Kinase in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Mohannath, Gireesha; Jackel, Jamie N.; Lee, Youn Hyung; Buchmann, R. Cody; Wang, Hui; Patil, Veena; Adams, Allie K.; Bisaro, David M.

    2014-01-01

    SNF1-related kinase (SnRK1) in plants belongs to a conserved family that includes sucrose non-fermenting 1 kinase (SNF1) in yeast and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in animals. These kinases play important roles in the regulation of cellular energy homeostasis and in response to stresses that deplete ATP, they inhibit energy consuming anabolic pathways and promote catabolism. Energy stress is sensed by increased AMP:ATP ratios and in plants, 5?-AMP inhibits inactivation of phosphorylated SnRK1 by phosphatase. In previous studies, we showed that geminivirus pathogenicity proteins interact with both SnRK1 and adenosine kinase (ADK), which phosphorylates adenosine to generate 5?-AMP. This suggested a relationship between SnRK1 and ADK, which we investigate in the studies described here. We demonstrate that SnRK1 and ADK physically associate in the cytoplasm, and that SnRK1 stimulates ADK in vitro by an unknown, non-enzymatic mechanism. Further, altering SnRK1 or ADK activity in transgenic plants altered the activity of the other kinase, providing evidence for in vivo linkage but also revealing that in vivo regulation of these activities is complex. This study establishes the existence of SnRK1-ADK complexes that may play important roles in energy homeostasis and cellular responses to biotic and abiotic stress. PMID:24498147

  8. Adenosine Signaling Mediates Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells on Mineralized Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Vikram; Shih, Yu-Ru V.; Kang, Heemin; Kabra, Harsha; Varghese, Shyni

    2015-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are attractive cell sources for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine due to their self-renewal and differentiation ability. Design of biomaterials with an intrinsic ability that promotes hESC differentiation to the targeted cell type boasts significant advantages for tissue regeneration. We have previously developed biomineralized calcium phosphate (CaP) matrices that inherently direct osteogenic differentiation of hESCs without the need of osteogenic-inducing chemicals or growth factors. Here, we show that CaP matrix-driven osteogenic differentiation of hESCs occurs through A2b adenosine receptor (A2bR). The inhibition of the receptor with an A2bR-specific antagonist attenuated mineralized matrix-mediated osteogenic differentiation of hESCs. In addition, when cultured on matrices in an environment deficient of CaP minerals, exogenous adenosine promoted osteogenic differentiation of hESCs, but was attenuated by the inhibition of A2bR. Such synthetic matrices that intrinsically support osteogenic commitment of hESCs are not only beneficial for bone tissue engineering but can also be used as a platform to study the effect of the physical and chemical cues to the extracellular milieu on stem cell commitment. Insights into the cell signaling during matrix-induced differentiation of stem cells will also help define the key processes and enable discovery of new targets that promote differentiation of pluripotent stem cells for bone tissue engineering. PMID:26618155

  9. Modulatory effect of iron chelators on adenosine deaminase activity and gene expression in Trichomonas vaginalis

    PubMed Central

    Primon-Barros, Muriel; Rigo, Graziela Vargas; Frasson, Amanda Piccoli; dos Santos, Odelta; Smiderle, Lisiane; Almeida, Silvana; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana

    2015-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellate protozoan that parasitises the urogenital human tract and causes trichomoniasis. During the infection, the acquisition of nutrients, such as iron and purine and pyrimidine nucleosides, is essential for the survival of the parasite. The enzymes for purinergic signalling, including adenosine deaminase (ADA), which degrades adenosine to inosine, have been characterised in T. vaginalis. In the evaluation of the ADA profile in different T. vaginalis isolates treated with different iron sources or with limited iron availability, a decrease in activity and an increase in ADA gene expression after iron limitation by 2,2-bipyridyl and ferrozine chelators were observed. This supported the hypothesis that iron can modulate the activity of the enzymes involved in purinergic signalling. Under bovine serum limitation conditions, no significant differences were observed. The results obtained in this study allow for the assessment of important aspects of ADA and contribute to a better understanding of the purinergic system in T. vaginalis and the role of iron in establishing infection and parasite survival. PMID:26517498

  10. Modulatory effect of iron chelators on adenosine deaminase activity and gene expression in Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Primon-Barros, Muriel; Rigo, Graziela Vargas; Frasson, Amanda Piccoli; Santos, Odelta Dos; Smiderle, Lisiane; Almeida, Silvana; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana

    2015-11-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellate protozoan that parasitises the urogenital human tract and causes trichomoniasis. During the infection, the acquisition of nutrients, such as iron and purine and pyrimidine nucleosides, is essential for the survival of the parasite. The enzymes for purinergic signalling, including adenosine deaminase (ADA), which degrades adenosine to inosine, have been characterised in T. vaginalis. In the evaluation of the ADA profile in different T. vaginalisisolates treated with different iron sources or with limited iron availability, a decrease in activity and an increase in ADA gene expression after iron limitation by 2,2-bipyridyl and ferrozine chelators were observed. This supported the hypothesis that iron can modulate the activity of the enzymes involved in purinergic signalling. Under bovine serum limitation conditions, no significant differences were observed. The results obtained in this study allow for the assessment of important aspects of ADA and contribute to a better understanding of the purinergic system in T. vaginalis and the role of iron in establishing infection and parasite survival. PMID:26517498

  11. The adenosine salvage pathway as an alternative to mitochondrial production of ATP in maturing mammalian oocytes.

    PubMed

    Scantland, Sara; Tessaro, Irene; Macabelli, Carolina H; Macaulay, Angus D; Cagnone, Gaël; Fournier, Éric; Luciano, Alberto M; Robert, Claude

    2014-09-01

    Although the oocyte is the largest cell in the body and an unavoidable phase in life, its physiology is still poorly understood, and other cell types provide little insight into its unique nature. Even basic cellular functions in the oocyte such as energy metabolism are not yet fully understood. It is known that the mitochondria of the female gamete exhibit an immature form characterized by limited energy production from glucose and oxidative phosphorylation. We show that the bovine oocyte uses alternative means to maintain ATP production during maturation, namely, the adenosine salvage pathway. Meiosis resumption is triggered by destruction of cyclic AMP by phosphodiesterases producing adenosine monophosphate that is converted into ATP by adenylate kinases and creatine kinases. Inhibition of these enzymes decreased ATP production, and addition of their substrates restored ATP production in denuded oocytes. Addition of phosphocreatine to the oocyte maturation medium influenced the phenotype of the resulting blastocysts. We propose a model in which adenylate kinases and creatine kinases act as drivers of ATP production from added AMP during oocyte maturation. PMID:25078684

  12. Regulatory factors governing adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing

    PubMed Central

    Hong, HuiQi; Lin, Jaymie Siqi; Chen, Leilei

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) RNA editing, the most prevalent mode of transcript modification in higher eukaryotes, is catalysed by the adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADARs). A-to-I editing imposes an additional layer of gene regulation as it dictates various aspects of RNA metabolism, including RNA folding, processing, localization and degradation. Furthermore, editing events in exonic regions contribute to proteome diversity as translational machinery decodes inosine as guanosine. Although it has been demonstrated that dysregulated A-to-I editing contributes to various diseases, the precise regulatory mechanisms governing this critical cellular process have yet to be fully elucidated. However, integration of previous studies revealed that regulation of A-to-I editing is multifaceted, weaving an intricate network of auto- and transregulations, including the involvement of virus-originated factors like adenovirus-associated RNA. Taken together, it is apparent that tipping of any regulatory components will have profound effects on A-to-I editing, which in turn contributes to both normal and aberrant physiological conditions. A complete understanding of this intricate regulatory network may ultimately be translated into new therapeutic strategies against diseases driven by perturbed RNA editing events. Herein, we review the current state of knowledge on the regulatory mechanisms governing A-to-I editing and propose the role of other co-factors that may be involved in this complex regulatory process. PMID:25662729

  13. A gold nanoparticle-based label free colorimetric aptasensor for adenosine deaminase detection and inhibition assay.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fen; He, Yue; Xing, Xiao-Jing; Tan, Dai-Di; Lin, Yi; Pang, Dai-Wen; Tang, Hong-Wu

    2015-03-01

    A novel strategy for the fabrication of a colorimetric aptasensor using label free gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) is proposed in this work, and the strategy has been employed for the assay of adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity. The aptasensor consists of adenosine (AD) aptamer, AD and AuNPs. The design of the biosensor takes advantage of the special optical properties of AuNPs and the interaction between AuNPs and single-strand DNA. In the absence of ADA, the AuNPs are aggregated and are blue in color under appropriate salt concentration because of the grid structure of an AD aptamer when binding to AD, while in the presence of the analyte, AuNPs remain dispersed with red color under the same concentration of salt owing to ADA converting AD into inosine which has no affinity with the AD aptamer, thus allowing quantitative investigation of ADA activity. The present strategy is simple, cost-effective, selective and sensitive for ADA with a detection limit of 1.526 U L(-1), which is about one order of magnitude lower than that previously reported. In addition, a very low concentration of the inhibitor erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl) adenine (EHNA) could generate a distinguishable response. Therefore, the AuNP-based colorimetric biosensor has great potential in the diagnosis of ADA-relevant diseases and drug screening. PMID:25597304

  14. Nucleotide Binding Site Communication in Arabidopsis thaliana Adenosine 5;-Phosphosulfate Kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Ravilious, Geoffrey E.; Jez, Joseph M.

    2012-08-31

    Adenosine 5{prime}-phosphosulfate kinase (APSK) catalyzes the ATP-dependent synthesis of adenosine 3{prime}-phosphate 5{prime}-phosphosulfate (PAPS), which is an essential metabolite for sulfur assimilation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Using APSK from Arabidopsis thaliana, we examine the energetics of nucleotide binary and ternary complex formation and probe active site features that coordinate the order of ligand addition. Calorimetric analysis shows that binding can occur first at either nucleotide site, but that initial interaction at the ATP/ADP site was favored and enhanced affinity for APS in the second site by 50-fold. The thermodynamics of the two possible binding models (i.e. ATP first versus APS first) differs and implies that active site structural changes guide the order of nucleotide addition. The ligand binding analysis also supports an earlier suggestion of intermolecular interactions in the dimeric APSK structure. Crystallographic, site-directed mutagenesis, and energetic analyses of oxyanion recognition by the P-loop in the ATP/ADP binding site and the role of Asp136, which bridges the ATP/ADP and APS/PAPS binding sites, suggest how the ordered nucleotide binding sequence and structural changes are dynamically coordinated for catalysis.

  15. Impairment of skeletal muscle adenosine triphosphate–sensitive K+ channels in patients with hypokalemic periodic paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Tricarico, Domenico; Servidei, Serenella; Tonali, Pietro; Jurkat-Rott, Karin; Camerino, Diana Conte

    1999-01-01

    The adenosine triphosphate (ATP)–sensitive K+ (KATP) channel is the most abundant K+ channel active in the skeletal muscle fibers of humans and animals. In the present work, we demonstrate the involvement of the muscular KATP channel in a skeletal muscle disorder known as hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HOPP), which is caused by mutations of the dihydropyridine receptor of the Ca2+ channel. Muscle biopsies excised from three patients with HOPP carrying the R528H mutation of the dihydropyridine receptor showed a reduced sarcolemma KATP current that was not stimulated by magnesium adenosine diphosphate (MgADP; 50–100 ?M) and was partially restored by cromakalim. In contrast, large KATP currents stimulated by MgADP were recorded in the healthy subjects. At channel level, an abnormal KATP channel showing several subconductance states was detected in the patients with HOPP. None of these were surveyed in the healthy subjects. Transitions of the KATP channel between subconductance states were also observed after in vitro incubation of the rat muscle with low-K+ solution. The lack of the sarcolemma KATP current observed in these patients explains the symptoms of the disease, i.e., hypokalemia, depolarization of the fibers, and possibly the paralysis following insulin administration. PMID:10074484

  16. ROLE OF STEROID HORMONES AND DECIDUAL INDUCTION IN THE REGULATION OF ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHORIBOSYL TRANSFERASE ACTIVITY IN RAT ENDOMETRIUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    To assess the effect of ovarian steroid hormones on enzyme activity, adenosine diphosphoribosyl transferase (ADPRT) was measured in endometrial nuclei isolated on estrus and on d 4 from rats ovariectomized on estrus (d 0) and treated d 0-3 with (a) vehicle, (b) 1 ug estrone/d (E)...

  17. The concept of purinergic neurotransmission was pro-posed in 1972 (REF. 1), after it was shown that adenosine

    E-print Network

    Burnstock, Geoffrey

    signalling and disorders of the central nervous system Geoffrey Burnstock Abstract | Purines have key roles the peripheral and central nervous systems4 . Separate membrane receptors for adenosine (ADO) and ATP were the central nervous system (CNS) (FIG. 1, TABLE 1) and they control local network behaviours by regulating

  18. SLEEP, Vol. 35, No. 7, 2012 967 Caffeine-Related Sleep Disturbance and Adenosine Receptor--Byrne et al INTRODUCTION

    E-print Network

    Nyholt, Dale R.

    SLEEP, Vol. 35, No. 7, 2012 967 Caffeine-Related Sleep Disturbance and Adenosine Receptor--Byrne et al INTRODUCTION Caffeine is the most widely used psychoactive drug in the world, being used- feine, and caffeine consumption and withdrawal is known to cause many side effects. One of the most

  19. N-H Stretching Modes of Adenosine Monomer in Solution Studied by Ultrafast Nonlinear Infrared Spectroscopy and Ab Initio

    E-print Network

    Mukamel, Shaul

    diagonal anharmonicity leads to a situation where strong mixing does not occur. We compare our findings) spectra has been possible by applying a comparison to theoretical spectra resulting from quantum chemical and couplings. The adenosine monomer contains an NH2 group with two local N- H stretching oscillators. We deduce

  20. Regulatory T cell-derived adenosine induces dendritic cell migration through the Epac-Rap1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Ring, Sabine; Pushkarevskaya, Anna; Schild, Hansjörg; Probst, Hans Christian; Jendrossek, Verena; Wirsdörfer, Florian; Ledent, Catherine; Robson, Simon Christopher; Enk, Alexander H; Mahnke, Karsten

    2015-04-15

    Dendritic cells (DC) are one target for immune suppression by regulatory T cells (Treg), because their interaction results in reduced T cell stimulatory capacity and secretion of inhibitory cytokines in DC. We show that DC in the presence of Treg are more mobile as compared with cocultures with conventional CD4(+) T cells and form DC-Treg aggregates within 2 h of culture. The migration of DC was specifically directed toward Treg, as Treg, but not CD4(+) T cells, attracted DC in Boyden chambers. Treg deficient for the ectonucleotidase CD39 were unable to attract DC. Likewise, addition of antagonists for A2A adenosine receptors abolished the formation of DC-Treg clusters, indicating a role for adenosine in guiding DC-Treg interactions. Analysis of the signal transduction events in DC after contact to Treg revealed increased levels of cAMP, followed by activation of Epac1 and the GTPase Rap1. Subsequently activated Rap1 localized to the subcortical actin cytoskeleton in DC, providing a means by which directed locomotion of DC toward Treg is facilitated. In aggregate, these data show that Treg degrade ATP to adenosine via CD39, attracting DC by activating Epac1-Rap1-dependent pathways. As a consequence, DC-Treg clusters are formed and DC are rendered less stimulatory. This adenosine-mediated attraction of DC may therefore act as one mechanism by which Treg regulate the induction of immune responses by DC. PMID:25780038

  1. [60]Fullerene derivative modulates adenosine and metabotropic glutamate receptors gene expression: a possible protective effect against hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Glutamate, the main excitatory neurotransmitter, is involved in learning and memory processes but at higher concentration results excitotoxic causing degeneration and neuronal death. Adenosine is a nucleoside that exhibit neuroprotective effects by modulating of glutamate release. Hypoxic and related oxidative conditions, in which adenosine and metabotropic glutamate receptors are involved, have been demonstrated to contribute to neurodegenerative processes occurring in certain human pathologies. Results Human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) were used to evaluate the long time (24, 48 and 72 hours) effects of a [60]fullerene hydrosoluble derivative (t3ss) as potential inhibitor of hypoxic insult. Low oxygen concentration (5% O2) caused cell death, which was avoided by t3ss exposure in a concentration dependent manner. In addition, gene expression analysis by real time PCR of adenosine A1, A2A and A2B and metabotropic glutamate 1 and 5 receptors revealed that t3ss significantly increased A1 and mGlu1 expression in hypoxic conditions. Moreover, t3ss prevented the hypoxia-induced increase in A2A mRNA expression. Conclusions As t3ss causes overexpression of adenosine A1 and metabotropic glutamate receptors which have been shown to be neuroprotective, our results point to a radical scavenger protective effect of t3ss through the enhancement of these neuroprotective receptors expression. Therefore, the utility of these nanoparticles as therapeutic target to avoid degeneration and cell death of neurodegenerative diseases is suggested. PMID:25123848

  2. Role of brainstem adenosine A1 receptors in the cardiovascular response to hypothalamic defence area stimulation in the anaesthetized rat.

    PubMed Central

    St Lambert, J. H.; Dashwood, M. R.; Spyer, K. M.

    1996-01-01

    1. The role of centrally located adenosine A1 receptors in the cardiovascular changes associated with the hypothalamic defence response has been investigated by in vitro autoradiography and the intraventricular application of an A1 receptor antagonist. 2. 8-Cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX), a highly selective adenosine A1 antagonist and its vehicle, ethanol, were administered directly into the posterior portion of the fourth ventricle of alpha-chloralose anaesthetized, paralysed and artificially ventilated rats. 3. DPCPX (0.01 to 0.3 mg kg-1) caused a dose-dependent decrease in the magnitude of the evoked pressor response (from -13 to -23 mmHg) elicited on hypothalamic defence area stimulation at a dose 10 fold lower than that required to produce an equivalent effect following systemic administration whilst ethanol, the vehicle, had no effect. 4. In vitro autoradiography revealed a heterogeneous distribution of adenosine A1 binding sites in the lower brainstem of rats. Image analysis showed the ventrolateral medulla to have the highest density of A1 receptors. Intermediate levels of binding were seen in caudal regions of the nucleus tractus solitarii and the hypoglossal nucleus. 5. These data imply that a proportion of the cardiovascular response to hypothalamic defence area stimulation are produced by the activation of adenosine A1 receptors localized close to the surface of, or adjacent to, the fourth ventricle in the immediate vicinity of the injection site. PMID:8789379

  3. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE ATP (ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE) CONTENT OF SUBSURFACE MATERIAL AND THE RATE OF BIODEGRADATION OF ALKYLBENZENES AND CHLOROBENZENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rate of biotransformation of toluene in unconsolidated subsurface material from sites at Lula, Oklahoma, USA and Conroe, Texas, USA was compared to the ATP (adenosine triphosphate) content of these materials. The rate of toluene degradation decreased with decreasing ATP conte...

  4. Adenosine 5 -O-(3-thio)triphosphate (ATP S) is a substrate for the nucleotide hydrolysis and RNA unwinding activities

    E-print Network

    Herschlag, Dan

    REPORT Adenosine 5 -O-(3-thio)triphosphate (ATP S) is a substrate for the nucleotide hydrolysis Whereas ATP S is often considered a nonhydrolyzable substrate for ATPases, we present evidence that ATP. In the presence of saturating single-stranded poly(U) RNA, eIF4A hydrolyzes ATP S·Mg and ATP·Mg with similar

  5. Adenosine receptors mediate synergistic stimulation of glucose uptake and transport by insulin and by contractions in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Vergauwen, L; Hespel, P; Richter, E A

    1994-01-01

    The role of adenosine receptors in the regulation of muscle glucose uptake by insulin and contractions was studied in isolated rat hindquarters that were perfused with a standard medium containing no insulin or a submaximal concentration of 100 microU/ml. Adenosine receptor antagonism was induced by caffeine or 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxantine (CPDPX). Glucose uptake and transport were measured before and during 30 min of electrically induced muscle contractions. Caffeine nor CPDPX affected glucose uptake in resting hindquarters. In contrast, the contraction-induced increase in muscle glucose uptake was inhibited by 30-50% by caffeine, as well as by CPDPX, resulting in a 20-25% decrease in the absolute rate of glucose uptake during contractions, compared with control values. This inhibition was independent of the rate of perfusate flow and only occurred in hindquarters perfused with insulin added to the medium. Thus, adenosine receptor antagonism inhibited glucose uptake during simultaneous exposure to insulin and contractions only. Accordingly, caffeine inhibited 3-O-methylglucose uptake during contractions only in oxidative muscle fibers that are characterized by a high sensitivity to insulin. In conclusion, the present data demonstrate A1 receptors to regulate insulin-mediated glucose transport in contracting skeletal muscle. The findings provide evidence that stimulation of sarcolemmic adenosine receptors during contractions is involved in the synergistic stimulation of muscle glucose transport by insulin and by contractions. PMID:8132783

  6. Regulation of adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels suppresses the toxic effects of amyloid-beta peptide (25–35)?

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Min; Ba, Maowen; Liang, Hui; Shao, Peng; Yu, Tianxia; Wang, Ying

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we treated PC12 cells with 0–20 ?M amyloid-? peptide (25–35) for 24 hours to induce cytotoxicity, and found that 5–20 ?M amyloid-? peptide (25–35) decreased PC12 cell viability, but adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel activator diazoxide suppressed the decrease in PC12 cell viability induced by amyloid-? peptide (25–35). Diazoxide protected PC12 cells against amyloid-? peptide (25–35)-induced increases in mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular reactive oxygen species levels. These protective effects were reversed by the selective mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel blocker 5-hydroxydecanoate. An inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, N?-nitro-L-arginine, also protected PC12 cells from amyloid-? peptide (25–35)-induced increases in both mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular reactive oxygen species levels. However, the H2O2-degrading enzyme catalase could not reverse the amyloid-? peptide (25–35)-induced increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species. A 24-hour exposure to amyloid-? peptide (25–35) did not result in apoptosis or necrosis, suggesting that the increases in both mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species levels preceded cell death. The data suggest that amyloid-? peptide (25–35) cytotoxicity is associated with adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels and nitric oxide. Regulation of adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels suppresses PC12 cell cytotoxicity induced by amyloid-? peptide (25–35). PMID:25206372

  7. A1 adenosine receptor allosteric enhancer PD-81723 protects against renal ischemia-reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Won; Kim, Joo Yun; Ham, Ahrom; Brown, Kevin M.; Kim, Mihwa; D'Agati, Vivette D.

    2012-01-01

    Activation of A1 adenosine receptors (ARs) protects against renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury by reducing necrosis, apoptosis, and inflammation. However, extrarenal side effects (bradycardia, hypotension, and sedation) may limit A1AR agonist therapy for ischemic acute kidney injury. Here, we hypothesized that an allosteric enhancer for A1AR (PD-81723) protects against renal I/R injury without the undesirable side effects of systemic A1AR activation by potentiating the cytoprotective effects of renal adenosine generated locally by ischemia. Pretreatment with PD-81723 produced dose-dependent protection against renal I/R injury in A1AR wild-type mice but not in A1AR-deficient mice. Significant reductions in renal tubular necrosis, neutrophil infiltration, and inflammation as well as tubular apoptosis were observed in A1AR wild-type mice treated with PD-81723. Furthermore, PD-81723 decreased apoptotic cell death in human proximal tubule (HK-2) cells in culture, which was attenuated by a specific A1AR antagonist (8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine). Mechanistically, PD-81723 induced sphingosine kinase (SK)1 mRNA and protein expression in HK-2 cells and in the mouse kidney. Supporting a critical role of SK1 in A1AR allosteric enhancer-mediated renal protection against renal I/R injury, PD-81723 failed to protect SK1-deficient mice against renal I/R injury. Finally, proximal tubule sphingosine-1-phosphate type 1 receptors (S1P1Rs) are critical for PD-81723-induced renal protection, as mice selectively deficient in renal proximal tubule S1P1Rs (S1P1Rflox/flox PEPCKCre/? mice) were not protected against renal I/R injury with PD-81723 treatment. Taken together, our experiments demonstrate potent renal protection with PD-81723 against I/R injury by reducing necrosis, inflammation, and apoptosis through the induction of renal tubular SK1 and activation of proximal tubule S1P1Rs. Our findings imply that selectively enhancing A1AR activation by locally produced renal adenosine may be a clinically useful therapeutic option to attenuate ischemic acute kidney injury without systemic side effects. PMID:22759398

  8. A Role for Adenosine A1 Receptors in GABA and NMDA-Receptor Mediated Modulation of Dopamine Release: Studies Using Fast Cyclic Voltammetry

    PubMed Central

    O?Connor, John J.; O?Neill, Carmel

    2008-01-01

    In the striatum many neurotransmitters including GABA, glutamate, acetylcholine, dopamine, nitric oxide and adenosine interact to regulate synaptic transmission. Dopamine release in the striatum is regulated by a number of pre- and post-synaptic receptors including adenosine. We have recently shown using isolated rat striatal slices, and the technique of fast cyclic voltammetry, that adenosine A1 receptor-mediated inhibition of dopamine release is modulated by dopamine D1 receptors. In the present study we have investigated the influence of NMDA and GABA receptor activation on the modulation of electrically stimulated dopamine release by adenosine. Application of the adenosine A1 receptor agonist, N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), concentration-dependently inhibited dopamine release to a maxiumum of 50%. Perfusion of the glutamate receptor agonist, NMDA, in low magnesium, caused a rapid and concentration-dependent inhibition of dopamine release. Prior perfusion with the adenosine A1 receptor antagonist, DPCPX, significantly reduced the effect of 5 ?M and 10 ?M NMDA on dopamine release. The GABAA receptor agonist, isoguvacine, had a significant concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on dopamine release which was reversed by prior application of the GABAA receptor antagonist, picrotoxin, but not DPCPX. Finally inhibition of dopamine release by CPA (1?M) was significantly enhanced by prior perfusion with picrotoxin. These data demonstrate an important role for GABA, NMDA and adenosine in the modulation of dopamine release.

  9. Performance of adenosine "stress-only" perfusion MRI in patients without a history of myocardial infarction: a clinical outcome study.

    PubMed

    Lubbers, Daniel D; Rijlaarsdam-Hermsen, Dorine; Kuijpers, Dirkjan; Kerkhof, Marjan; Sijens, Paul E; van Dijkman, Paul R M; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2012-01-01

    To assess the diagnostic value of adenosine "stress-only" myocardial perfusion MR for ischemia detection as an indicator for coronary angiography in patients without a prior myocardial infarction and a necessity to exclude ischemia. Adenosine perfusion MRI was performed at 1.5 T in 139 patients with a suspicion of ischemia and no prior myocardial infarction. After 3 min of adenosine infusion a perfusion sequence was started. Patients with a perfusion defect were referred to coronary angiography (CAG). Patients with a normal perfusion were enrolled in follow-up. Fourteen out of 139 patients (10.1%) had a perfusion defect indicative of ischemia. These patients underwent a coronary angiogram, which showed complete agreement with the perfusion images. 125 patients with a normal myocardial perfusion entered follow-up (median 672 days, range 333-1287 days). In the first year of follow-up one Major Adverse Coronary Event (MACE) occurred and one patient had new onset chest pain with a confirmed coronary stenosis. Reaching a negative predictive value for MACE of 99.2% and for any coronary event of 98.4%. At 2 year follow-up no additional MACE occurred. Sensitivity of adenosine perfusion MR for MACE is 93.3% and specificity and positive predictive value are 100%. Adenosine myocardial perfusion MR for the detection of myocardial ischemia in a "stress-only" protocol in patients without prior myocardial infarctions, has a high diagnostic accuracy. This fast examination can play an important role in the evaluation of patients without prior myocardial infarctions and a necessity to exclude ischemia. PMID:21279694

  10. Chronic sleep restriction induces long-lasting changes in adenosine and noradrenaline receptor density in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngsoo; Elmenhorst, David; Weisshaupt, Angela; Wedekind, Franziska; Kroll, Tina; Mccarley, Robert W; Strecker, Robert E; Bauer, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Although chronic sleep restriction frequently produces long-lasting behavioural and physiological impairments in humans, the underlying neural mechanisms are unknown. Here we used a rat model of chronic sleep restriction to investigate the role of brain adenosine and noradrenaline systems, known to regulate sleep and wakefulness, respectively. The density of adenosine A1 and A2a receptors and ?-adrenergic receptors before, during and following 5 days of sleep restriction was assessed with autoradiography. Rats (n = 48) were sleep-deprived for 18 h day(-1) for 5 consecutive days (SR1-SR5), followed by 3 unrestricted recovery sleep days (R1-R3). Brains were collected at the beginning of the light period, which was immediately after the end of sleep deprivation on sleep restriction days. Chronic sleep restriction increased adenosine A1 receptor density significantly in nine of the 13 brain areas analysed with elevations also observed on R3 (+18 to +32%). In contrast, chronic sleep restriction reduced adenosine A2a receptor density significantly in one of the three brain areas analysed (olfactory tubercle which declined 26-31% from SR1 to R1). A decrease in ?-adrenergic receptors density was seen in substantia innominata and ventral pallidum which remained reduced on R3, but no changes were found in the anterior cingulate cortex. These data suggest that chronic sleep restriction can induce long-term changes in the brain adenosine and noradrenaline receptors, which may underlie the long-lasting neurocognitive impairments observed in chronic sleep restriction. PMID:25900125

  11. Chronic sleep restriction induces long-lasting changes in adenosine and noradrenaline receptor density in the rat brain

    PubMed Central

    WEISSHAUPT, ANGELA; WEDEKIND, FRANZISKA; KROLL, TINA; MCCARLEY, ROBERT W.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Although chronic sleep restriction frequently produces long-lasting behavioural and physiological impairments in humans, the underlying neural mechanisms are unknown. Here we used a rat model of chronic sleep restriction to investigate the role of brain adenosine and noradrenaline systems, known to regulate sleep and wakefulness, respectively. The density of adenosine A1 and A2a receptors and ?-adrenergic receptors before, during and following 5 days of sleep restriction was assessed with autoradiography. Rats (n = 48) were sleep-deprived for 18 h day–1 for 5 consecutive days (SR1–SR5), followed by 3 unrestricted recovery sleep days (R1–R3). Brains were collected at the beginning of the light period, which was immediately after the end of sleep deprivation on sleep restriction days. Chronic sleep restriction increased adenosine A1 receptor density significantly in nine of the 13 brain areas analysed with elevations also observed on R3 (+18 to +32%). In contrast, chronic sleep restriction reduced adenosine A2a receptor density significantly in one of the three brain areas analysed (olfactory tubercle which declined 26–31% from SR1 to R1). A decrease in b-adrenergic receptors density was seen in substantia innominata and ventral pallidum which remained reduced on R3, but no changes were found in the anterior cingulate cortex. These data suggest that chronic sleep restriction can induce long-term changes in the brain adenosine and noradrenaline receptors, which may underlie the long-lasting neurocognitive impairments observed in chronic sleep restriction. PMID:25900125

  12. Postsynaptic Adenosine A2A Receptors Modulate Intrinsic Excitability of Pyramidal Cells in the Rat Basolateral Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Rau, Andrew R.; Ariwodola, Olusegun J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The basolateral amygdala plays a critical role in the etiology of anxiety disorders and addiction. Pyramidal neurons, the primary output cells of this region, display increased firing following exposure to stressors, and it is thought that this increase in excitability contributes to stress responsivity and the expression of anxiety-like behaviors. However, much remains unknown about the underlying mechanisms that regulate the intrinsic excitability of basolateral amygdala pyramidal neurons. Methods: Ex vivo gramicidin perforated patch recordings were conducted in current clamp mode where hyper- and depolarizing current steps were applied to basolateral amygdala pyramidal neurons to assess the effects of adenosine A2A receptor modulation on intrinsic excitability. Results: Activation of adenosine A2A receptors with the selective A2A receptor agonist CGS-21680 significantly increased the firing rate of basolateral amygdala pyramidal neurons in rat amygdala brain slices, likely via inhibition of the slow afterhyperpolarization potential. Both of these A2A receptor-mediated effects were blocked by preapplication of a selective A2A receptor antagonist (ZM-241385) or by intra-pipette infusion of a protein kinase A inhibitor, suggesting a postsynaptic locus of A2A receptors on basolateral amygdala pyramidal neurons. Interestingly, bath application of the A2A receptor antagonist alone significantly attenuated basolateral amygdala pyramidal cell firing, consistent with a role for tonic adenosine in the regulation of the intrinsic excitability of these neurons. Conclusions: Collectively, these data suggest that adenosine, via activation of A2A receptors, may directly facilitate basolateral amygdala pyramidal cell output, providing a possible balance for the recently described inhibitory effects of adenosine A1 receptor activation on glutamatergic excitation of basolateral amygdala pyramidal cells. PMID:25716780

  13. Role of 2?,3?-cyclic nucleotide 3?-phosphodiesterase in the renal 2?,3?-cAMP-adenosine pathway

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Delbert G.; Mi, Zaichuan; Cheng, Dongmei; Bansal, Rashmi; Janesko-Feldman, Keri; Kochanek, Patrick M.

    2014-01-01

    Energy depletion increases the renal production of 2?,3?-cAMP (a positional isomer of 3?,5?-cAMP that opens mitochondrial permeability transition pores) and 2?,3?-cAMP is converted to 2?-AMP and 3?-AMP, which in turn are metabolized to adenosine. Because the enzymes involved in this “2?,3?-cAMP-adenosine pathway” are unknown, we examined whether 2?,3?-cyclic nucleotide 3?-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) participates in the renal metabolism of 2?,3?-cAMP. Western blotting and real-time PCR demonstrated expression of CNPase in rat glomerular mesangial, preglomerular vascular smooth muscle and endothelial, proximal tubular, thick ascending limb and collecting duct cells. Real-time PCR established the expression of CNPase in human glomerular mesangial, proximal tubular and vascular smooth muscle cells; and the level of expression of CNPase was greater than that for phosphodiesterase 4 (major enzyme for the metabolism of 3?,5?-cAMP). Overexpression of CNPase in rat preglomerular vascular smooth muscle cells increased the metabolism of exogenous 2?,3?-cAMP to 2?-AMP. Infusions of 2?,3?-cAMP into isolated CNPase wild-type (+/+) kidneys increased renal venous 2?-AMP, and this response was diminished by 63% in CNPase knockout (?/?) kidneys, whereas the conversion of 3?,5?-cAMP to 5?-AMP was similar in CNPase +/+ vs. ?/? kidneys. In CNPase +/+ kidneys, energy depletion (metabolic poisons) increased kidney tissue levels of adenosine and its metabolites (inosine, hypoxanthine, xanthine, and uric acid) without accumulation of 2?,3?-cAMP. In contrast, in CNPase ?/? kidneys, energy depletion increased kidney tissue levels of 2?,3?-cAMP and abolished the increase in adenosine and its metabolites. In conclusion, kidneys express CNPase, and renal CNPase mediates in part the renal 2?,3?-cAMP-adenosine pathway. PMID:24808540

  14. Clinical benefit of adenosine as an adjunct to reperfusion in ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients: An updated meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Bulluck, Heerajnarain; Sirker, Alex; Loke, Yoon K.; Garcia-Dorado, David; Hausenloy, Derek J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Adenosine administered as an adjunct to reperfusion can reduce coronary no-reflow and limit myocardial infarct (MI) size in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. Whether adjunctive adenosine therapy can improve clinical outcomes in reperfused STEMI patients is not clear and is investigated in this meta-analysis of 13 randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Methods We performed an up-to-date search for all RCTs investigating adenosine as an adjunct to reperfusion in STEMI patients. We calculated pooled relative risks using a fixed-effect meta-analysis assessing the impact of adjunctive adenosine therapy on major clinical endpoint including all-cause mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and heart failure. Surrogate markers of reperfusion were also analyzed. Results 13 RCTs (4273 STEMI patients) were identified and divided into 2 subgroups: intracoronary adenosine versus control (8 RCTs) and intravenous adenosine versus control (5 RCTs). In patients administered intracoronary adenosine, the incidence of heart failure was significantly lower (risk ratio [RR] 0.44 [95% CI 0.25–0.78], P = 0.005) and the incidence of coronary no-reflow was reduced (RR for TIMI flow<3 postreperfusion 0.68 [95% CI 0.47–0.99], P = 0.04). There was no difference in heart failure incidence in the intravenous adenosine group but most RCTs in this subgroup were from the thrombolysis era. There was no difference in non-fatal MI or all-cause mortality in both subgroups. Conclusion We find evidence of improved clinical outcome in terms of less heart failure in STEMI patients administered intracoronary adenosine as an adjunct to reperfusion. This finding will need to be confirmed in a large adequately powered prospective RCT. PMID:26402450

  15. A2B adenosine receptor contributes to penile erection via PI3K/AKT signaling cascade-mediated eNOS activation.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jiaming; Grenz, Almut; Zhang, Yujin; Dai, Yingbo; Kellems, Rodney E; Blackburn, Michael R; Eltzschig, Holger K; Xia, Yang

    2011-08-01

    Normal penile erection is under the control of multiple factors and signaling pathways. Although adenosine signaling is implicated in normal and abnormal penile erection, the exact role and the underlying mechanism for adenosine signaling in penile physiology remain elusive. Here we report that shear stress leads to increased adenosine release from endothelial cells. Subsequently, we determined that ecto-5'-nucleotidase (CD73) is a key enzyme required for the production of elevated adenosine from ATP released by shear-stressed endothelial cells. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that shear stress-mediated elevated adenosine functions through the adenosine A(2B) receptor (A(2B)R) to activate the PI3K/AKT signaling cascade and subsequent increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation. These in vitro studies led us to discover further that adenosine was induced during sustained penile erection and contributes to PI3K/AKT activation and subsequent eNOS phosphorylation via A(2B)R signaling in intact animal. Finally, we demonstrate that lowering adenosine in wild-type mice or genetic deletion of A(2B)R in mutant mice significantly attenuated PI3K/AKT activation, eNOS phosphorylation, and subsequent impaired penile erection featured with the reduction of ratio of maximal intracavernosal pressure to systemic arterial pressure from 0.49 ± 0.03 to 0.41 ± 0.05 and 0.38 ± 0.04, respectively (both P<0.05). Overall, using biochemical, cellular, genetic, and physiological approaches, our findings reveal that adenosine is a novel molecule signaling via A(2B)R activation, contributing to penile erection via PI3K/AKT-dependent eNOS activation. These studies suggest that this signaling pathway may be a novel therapeutic target for erectile disorders. PMID:21566208

  16. The ADA*2 allele of the adenosine deaminase gene (20q13.11) and recurrent spontaneous abortions: an age-dependent association

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Daniela Prudente Teixeira; Spegiorin, Lígia Cosentino Junqueira Franco; de Mattos, Cinara Cássia Brandão; Oliani, Antonio Helio; Vaz-Oliani, Denise Cristina Mós; de Mattos, Luiz Carlos

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Adenosine deaminase acts on adenosine and deoxyadenosine metabolism and modulates the immune response. The adenosine deaminase G22A polymorphism (20q.11.33) influences the level of adenosine deaminase enzyme expression, which seems to play a key role in maintaining pregnancy. The adenosine deaminase 2 phenotype has been associated with a protective effect against recurrent spontaneous abortions in European Caucasian women. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the G22A polymorphism of the adenosine deaminase gene is associated with recurrent spontaneous abortions in Brazilian women. METHODS: A total of 311 women were recruited to form two groups: G1, with a history of recurrent spontaneous abortions (N?=?129), and G2, without a history of abortions (N?=?182). Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood with a commercial kit and PCR-RFLP analysis was used to identify the G22A genetic polymorphism. Fisher's exact test and odds ratio values were used to compare the proportions of adenosine deaminase genotypes and alleles between women with and without a history of recurrent spontaneous abortion (p<0.05). The differences between mean values for categorical data were calculated using unpaired t tests. The Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was assessed with a chi-square test. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were identified for the frequencies of adenosine deaminase genotypes and alleles between the G1 and G2 groups when adjusted for maternal age. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the adenosine deaminase *2 allele is associated with a low risk for recurrent spontaneous abortions, but this association is dependent on older age. PMID:22086524

  17. The Role of Cholinergic Basal Forebrain Neurons in Adenosine-Mediated Homeostatic Control of Sleep: Lessons from 192 IgG-Saporin Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Kalinchuk, Anna V.; McCarley, Robert W.; Stenberg, Dag; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Basheer, Radhika

    2013-01-01

    A topic of high current interest and controversy is the basis of the homeostatic sleep response, the increase in non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep and NREM-delta activity following sleep deprivation (SD). Adenosine, which accumulates in the cholinergic basal forebrain (BF) during SD, has been proposed as one of the important homeostatic sleep factors. It is suggested that sleep-inducing effects of adenosine are mediated by inhibiting the wake-active neurons of the BF, including cholinergic neurons. Here we examined the association between SD-induced adenosine release, the homeostatic sleep response and the survival of cholinergic neurons in the BF after injections of the immunotoxin 192 IgG-saporin (saporin) in rodents. We correlated SD-induced adenosine level in the BF and the homeostatic sleep response with the cholinergic cell loss 2 weeks after local saporin injections into the BF, as well as 2 and 3 weeks after intracerebroventricular (ICV) saporin injections. Two weeks after local saporin injection there was an 88% cholinergic cell loss, coupled with nearly complete abolition of the SD-induced adenosine increase in the BF, the homeostatic sleep response, and the sleep-inducing effects of BF adenosine infusion. Two weeks after ICV saporin injection there was a 59% cholinergic cell loss, correlated with significant increase in SD-induced adenosine level in the BF and an intact sleep response. Three weeks after ICV saporin injection there was an 87% cholinergic cell loss, nearly complete abolition of the SD-induced adenosine increase in the BF and the homeostatic response, implying that the time course of ICV saporin lesions is a key variable in interpreting experimental results. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that cholinergic neurons in the BF are important for the SD-induced increase in adenosine as well as for its sleep-inducing effects and play a major, although not exclusive, role in sleep homeostasis. PMID:18805464

  18. Antidepressant effects of sleep deprivation require astrocyte-dependent adenosine mediated signaling.

    PubMed

    Hines, D J; Schmitt, L I; Hines, R M; Moss, S J; Haydon, P G

    2013-01-01

    Major depressive disorder is a debilitating condition with a lifetime risk of ten percent. Most treatments take several weeks to achieve clinical efficacy, limiting the ability to bring instant relief needed in psychiatric emergencies. One intervention that rapidly alleviates depressive symptoms is sleep deprivation; however, its mechanism of action is unknown. Astrocytes regulate responses to sleep deprivation, raising the possibility that glial signaling mediates antidepressive-like actions of sleep deprivation. Here, we found that astrocytic signaling to adenosine (A1) receptors was required for the robust reduction of depressive-like behaviors following 12 hours of sleep deprivation. As sleep deprivation activates synaptic A1 receptors, we mimicked the effect of sleep deprivation on depression phenotypes by administration of the A1 agonist CCPA. These results provide the first mechanistic insight into how sleep deprivation impacts mood, and provide a novel pathway for rapid antidepressant development by modulation of glial signaling in the brain. PMID:23321809

  19. Tissue-specific rescue suggests that placental adenosine deaminase is important for fetal development in mice.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, M R; Wakamiya, M; Caskey, C T; Kellems, R E

    1995-10-13

    Adenosine deaminase (ADA, EC 3.5.4.4) is an essential enzyme of purine metabolism that is expressed at very high levels in the murine placenta where it accounts for over 95% of the ADA present at the fetal gestation site. We have recently shown that ADA-deficient fetuses, which also lack ADA in their adjoining placentas, die during late fetal development in association with profound purine metabolic disturbances and hepatocellular impairment. We have now investigated the potential importance of placental ADA by genetically restoring the enzyme to placentas of ADA-deficient fetuses. This genetic engineering strategy corrected most of the purine metabolic disturbances, prevented serious fetal liver damage, and rescued the fetuses from perinatal lethality. Our findings suggest that placental ADA is important for murine fetal development and illustrate a general strategy for the tissue specific correction of phenotypes associated with null mutations in mice. PMID:7592575

  20. Synthesis of ?-Phosphate-Labeled and Doubly Labeled Adenosine Triphosphate Analogs.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Stephan M; Welter, Moritz; Marx, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This unit describes the synthesis of ?-phosphate-labeled and doubly labeled adenosine triphosphate (ATP) analogs and their characterization using the phosphodiesterase I from Crotalus adamanteus (snake venom phosphodiesterase; SVPD). In the key step of the synthesis, ATP or an ATP analog, bearing a linker containing a trifluoroacetamide group attached to the nucleoside, are modified with an azide-containing linker at the terminal phosphate using an alkylation reaction. Subsequently, different labels are introduced to the linkers by transformation of one functional group to an amine and coupling to an N-hydroxysuccinimide ester. Specifically, the Staudinger reaction of the azide is employed as a straightforward means to obtain an amine in the presence of various labels. Furthermore, the fluorescence characteristics of a fluorogenic, doubly labeled ATP analog are investigated following enzymatic cleavage by SVPD. © 2015 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:25754889

  1. Adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate waves in dictyostelium discoideum: a demonstration by isotope dilution-fluorography

    SciTech Connect

    Tomchik, K.J.; Devreotes, P.N.

    1981-04-24

    The distribution of adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP) in fields of aggregating amoebae of Dictyostelium discoidenum was examined by a novel isotope dilution-fluorographic technique. Cellular cyclic AMP was visualized by its competition with exogenous /sup 3/H-labeled cyclic AMP for high-affinity binding sites on protein kinase immobilized on a Millipore filter used to blot the monolayer. The cyclic AMP was distributed in spiral or concentric circular wave patterns which centered on the foci of the aggregations. These patterns were correlated with those of cell shape change that propagate through the monolayers. These observations support the hypothesis that the aggregation process in Dictyostelium is mediated by the periodic relay of cyclic AMP signals and suggest a simple scheme for the dynamics of the aggregation process.

  2. Structure of an agonist-bound human A2A adenosine receptor.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fei; Wu, Huixian; Katritch, Vsevolod; Han, Gye Won; Jacobson, Kenneth A; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Cherezov, Vadim; Stevens, Raymond C

    2011-04-15

    Activation of G protein-coupled receptors upon agonist binding is a critical step in the signaling cascade for this family of cell surface proteins. We report the crystal structure of the A(2A) adenosine receptor (A(2A)AR) bound to an agonist UK-432097 at 2.7 angstrom resolution. Relative to inactive, antagonist-bound A(2A)AR, the agonist-bound structure displays an outward tilt and rotation of the cytoplasmic half of helix VI, a movement of helix V, and an axial shift of helix III, resembling the changes associated with the active-state opsin structure. Additionally, a seesaw movement of helix VII and a shift of extracellular loop 3 are likely specific to A(2A)AR and its ligand. The results define the molecule UK-432097 as a "conformationally selective agonist" capable of receptor stabilization in a specific active-state configuration. PMID:21393508

  3. Role of Microglia Adenosine A2A Receptors in Retinal and Brain Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Ana R.; Baptista, Filipa I.; Santos, Paulo F.; Cristóvão, Gonçalo; Ambrósio, António F.; Cunha, Rodrigo A.; Gomes, Catarina A.

    2014-01-01

    Neuroinflammation mediated by microglial cells in the brain has been commonly associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Whether this microglia-mediated neuroinflammation is cause or consequence of neurodegeneration is still a matter of controversy. However, it is unequivocal that chronic neuroinflammation plays a role in disease progression and halting that process represents a potential therapeutic strategy. The neuromodulator adenosine emerges as a promising targeting candidate based on its ability to regulate microglial proliferation, chemotaxis, and reactivity through the activation of its G protein coupled A2A receptor (A2AR). This is in striking agreement with the ability of A2AR blockade to control several brain diseases. Retinal degenerative diseases have been also associated with microglia-mediated neuroinflammation, but the role of A2AR has been scarcely explored. This review aims to compare inflammatory features of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases with glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy, discussing the therapeutic potential of A2AR in these degenerative conditions. PMID:25132733

  4. Antagonism by dibutyryl adenosine cyclic 3',5'-monophosphate and testololactone of concanavalin A capping

    PubMed Central

    1975-01-01

    Exposure of CHO-K1 cells in vitro to dibutyryl adenosine cyclic 3',5'- monophosphate (DBcAMP) plus testololactone produces a rapid, reversible antagonism of ligand-induced collection of initially dispersed concanavalin A (Con A) binding sites into a caplike mass. Morphologically, as Con A capping occurs, the cells become less spread and then round completely. With prolonged Con A exposure, cells cultured in either the absence or the presence of DBcAMP plus testololactone cap and round. Capping is blocked by cold treatment and respiratory inhibitors. Colcemid at concentrations greater than 1 muM promotes both Con A capping and cell rounding. Cytochalasin B at similar concentrations inhibits both capping and cell rounding. Treatment of cells with Con A has little effect on intracellular cAMP concentration. Possible mechanisms by which cAMP may modulate the movement of Con A binding sites are discussed. PMID:167034

  5. Vitamins and monothiols efficacy in the restoration of adenosine nucleotide degradation enzymes altered during methylmercury intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Sood, P.P.; Bapu, C.; Vijayalakshmi, K.

    1995-12-31

    Male albino mice were intoxicated with a daily dose of 1 mg/kg of methylmercury chloride (MMC) for 7 days, and were treated thereafter with glutathione, N-acetyl-DL-homocysteine thiolactone, vitamin B complex, and vitamin E, either alone or in combinations for the next 7 days. The animals were sacrificed on the eighth day, with the exception of one group that was kept without toxic exposure for an additional 7 days and sacrificed on the fifteenth day. Brain, spinal cord, kidney, and liver of the animals were examined for changes in adenosine deaminase and 5{prime} nucleotidase. We found a severe inhibition of these enzymes during MMC intoxication and significant recovery during monothiols and vitamins administration, indicating the effectiveness of these agents in methylmercury detoxication. 26 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Effect of cadmium on lake water bacteria as determined by the luciferase assay of adenosine triphosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Seyfried, P.L.; Horgan, C.B.L.

    1981-10-01

    A firefly luciferase assay of bacterial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was developed to measure the toxic effects of cadmium ions on aquatic organisms. Toxicity was monitored using intracellular (I/C) ATP (in micrograms per litre) as well as plate counts (colony-forming units per millilitre). The bacteria, which belonged mainly to the families Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonadaceae, exhibited varying degrees of resistance to up to 100 ppm cadmium when grown in a glucose-salts medium at pH 6.8. Among the organisms tested, cadmium resistance decreased in the following order: Pseudomonas vesicularis > P. aeruginosa > Enterobacter sp. > P. fluorescens > Chromobacter sp. > Serratia sp. A rise in the pH of the growth medium from 5 to 7 resulted in increased toxicity of cadmium.

  7. Diagnostic Value of Serum Adenosine Deaminase (ADA) Level for Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Salmanzadeh, Shokrollah; Tavakkol, Heshmatollah; Bavieh, Khalid; Alavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) is not always easy, thus employing methods with a short duration and acceptable sensitivity and specificity is necessary to diagnose TB. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic value of serum adenosine deaminase (ADA) level for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. Patients and Methods: A total of 160 sex and age-matched subjects were included in this study, and were divided to four groups; forty patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) diagnosed based on the national TB program (NTP), forty patients with non-tuberculosis bacterial pneumonia, forty patients with lung cancer and forty people who were healthy in every respect. Serum adenosine deaminase activity in patients of each group was measured by the Giusti and Galanti calorimetry method using a commercial kit (Diazyme, USA). The ANOVA analysis was used to compare groups for quantitative variables. Results: Mean serum ADA level in the PTB group was clearly higher than the mean serum ADA in the other three groups. Mean serum ADA was 26 IU/L in PTB patients, 19.48 IU/L in patients with pneumonia, 15.8 IU/L in patients with lung cancer, and 10.7 IU/L in the control group (P < 0.05). In regard to the cut off value of 26 IU/L for ADA in patients with PTB sensitivity and specificity was defined as 35% and 91%, respectively. Conclusions: Serum ADA activity with high specificity percentage may be a useful alternative test in restricted resource areas to rule out diagnosis of PTB. However, serum ADA activity is not a useful tool for TB diagnosis. PMID:25861440

  8. Overexpression of Adenosine A2A Receptors in Rats: Effects on Depression, Locomotion, and Anxiety.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Joana E; Alves, Pedro; Canas, Paula M; Valadas, Jorge S; Shmidt, Tatiana; Batalha, Vânia L; Ferreira, Diana G; Ribeiro, Joaquim A; Bader, Michael; Cunha, Rodrigo A; do Couto, Frederico Simões; Lopes, Luísa V

    2014-01-01

    Adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR) are a sub-type of receptors enriched in basal ganglia, activated by the neuromodulator adenosine, which interact with dopamine D2 receptors. Although this reciprocal antagonistic interaction is well-established in motor function, the outcome in dopamine-related behaviors remains uncertain, in particular in depression and anxiety. We have demonstrated an upsurge of A2AR associated to aging and chronic stress. Furthermore, Alzheimer's disease patients present A2AR accumulation in cortical areas together with depressive signs. We now tested the impact of overexpressing A2AR in forebrain neurons on dopamine-related behavior, namely depression. Adult male rats overexpressing human A2AR under the control of CaMKII promoter [Tg(CaMKII-hA2AR)] and aged-matched wild-types (WT) of the same strain (Sprague-Dawley) were studied. The forced swimming test (FST), sucrose preference test (SPT), and the open-field test (OFT) were performed to evaluate behavioral despair, anhedonia, locomotion, and anxiety. Tg(CaMKII-hA2AR) animals spent more time floating and less time swimming in the FST and presented a decreased sucrose preference at 48?h in the SPT. They also covered higher distances in the OFT and spent more time in the central zone than the WT. The results indicate that Tg(CaMKII-hA2AR) rats exhibit depressive-like behavior, hyperlocomotion, and altered exploratory behavior. This A2AR overexpression may explain the depressive signs found in aging, chronic stress, and Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24982640

  9. Reduced striatal adenosine A2A receptor levels define a molecular subgroup in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Villar-Menéndez, Izaskun; Díaz-Sánchez, Sara; Blanch, Marta; Albasanz, José Luis; Pereira-Veiga, Thais; Monje, Alfonso; Planchat, Luis Maria; Ferrer, Isidre; Martín, Mairena; Barrachina, Marta

    2014-04-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is a mental disorder of unknown origin. Some scientific evidence seems to indicate that SZ is not a single disease entity, since there are patient groups with clear symptomatic, course and biomarker differences. SZ is characterized by a hyperdopaminergic state related to high dopamine D2 receptor activity. It has also been proposed that there is a hypoadenosynergic state. Adenosine is a nucleoside widely distributed in the organism with neuromodulative and neuroprotective activity in the central nervous system. In the brain, the most abundant adenosine receptors are A1R and A2AR. In the present report, we characterize the presence of both receptors in human postmortem putamens of patients suffering SZ with real time TaqMan PCR, western blotting and radioligand binding assay. We show that A1R levels remain unchanged with respect to age-matched controls, whereas nearly fifty percent of patients have reduced A2AR, at the transcriptional and translational levels. Moreover, we describe how DNA methylation plays a role in the pathological A2AR levels with the bisulfite-sequencing technique. In fact, an increase in 5-methylcytosine percentage in the 5' UTR region of ADORA2A was found in those SZ patients with reduced A2AR levels. Interestingly, there was a relationship between the A2A/?-actin ratio and motor disturbances as assessed with some items of the PANSS, AIMS and SAS scales. Therefore, there may be a subgroup of SZ patients with reduced striatal A2AR levels accompanied by an altered motor phenotype. PMID:24433848

  10. Measurement of cardiac index and stroke volume using electrical cardiometry before and after administration of adenosine in a 6-year-old patient with supraventricular tachycardia.

    PubMed

    Vanderhoek, Samuel M; Coté, Charles J

    2015-12-01

    We report the case of a 6-year-old boy who developed a supraventricular tachycardia during an upper endoscopy while under general anesthesia. A noninvasive electrical cardiometry device was applied to the patient, and cardiac index and stroke volume were measured before and after the administration of adenosine. Cardiac index fell 41% (P < .0001) after adenosine was given, highlighting the known interdependence between cardiac output and heart rate in the pediatric patient. Stroke volume decreased 9% (P = .0002) after adenosine arrested the tachycardia, lending support to an increasing body of data that suggests that heart rate itself can augment contractility. PMID:26427304

  11. Characterization of Dahl salt-sensitive rats with genetic disruption of the A2B adenosine receptor gene: implications for A2B adenosine receptor signaling during hypertension.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Shraddha; Khan, Md Abdul H; Wan, Tina C; Pei, Hong; Linden, Joel; Dwinell, Melinda R; Geurts, Aron M; Imig, John D; Auchampach, John A

    2015-12-01

    The A2B adenosine receptor (AR) has emerged as a unique member of the AR family with contrasting roles during acute and chronic disease states. We utilized zinc-finger nuclease technology to create A2BAR gene (Adora2b)-disrupted rats on the Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) genetic background. This strategy yielded a rat strain (SS-Adora2b mutant rats) with a 162-base pair in-frame deletion of Adora2b that included the start codon. Disruption of A2BAR function in SS-Adora2b mutant rats was confirmed by loss of agonist (BAY 60-6583 or NECA)-induced cAMP accumulation and loss of interleukin-6 release from isolated fibroblasts. In addition, BAY 60-6583 produced a dose-dependent increase in glucose mobilization that was absent in SS-Adora2b mutants. Upon initial characterization, SS-Adora2b mutant rats were found to exhibit increased body weight, a transient delay in glucose clearance, and reduced proinflammatory cytokine production following challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In addition, blood pressure was elevated to a greater extent (?15-20 mmHg) in SS-Adora2b mutants as they aged from 7 to 21 weeks. In contrast, hypertension augmented by Ang II infusion was attenuated in SS-Adora2b mutant rats. Despite differences in blood pressure, indices of renal and cardiac injury were similar in SS-Adora2b mutants during Ang II-augmented hypertension. We have successfully created and validated a new animal model that will be valuable for investigating the biology of the A2BAR. Our data indicate varying roles for A2BAR signaling in regulating blood pressure in SS rats, playing both anti- and prohypertensive roles depending on the pathogenic mechanisms that contribute to blood pressure elevation. PMID:26385692

  12. Effects of dexamethasone on airway hyper-responsiveness to the adenosine A1 receptor agonist cyclo-pentyl adenosine in an allergic rabbit model

    PubMed Central

    El-Hashim, Ahmed Z; Banner, Katharine H; Paul, William; Page, Clive P

    1999-01-01

    New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits were immunized within 24?h of birth with Alternaria tenuis in aluminium hydroxide (Al (OH)3) (i.p.) or sham immunized (saline plus Al (OH)3 i.p.) and subsequently injected with the allergen (i.p.) or sham-immunized for the next 3 months. At 3 months of age, baseline airway responsiveness was assessed using cyclo-pentyl adenosine (CPA). Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed in all animals and samples of peripheral blood were collected from some animals for estimation of dexamethasone levels. In some animals, blood was collected at the end of the experiment and cellular function was assessed by measurement of ex vivo proliferation of mononuclear cells in response to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA). Allergen immunization significantly increased baseline airway responsiveness to inhaled CPA (P<0.05) in comparison with sham-immunized animals, at 3 months after immunization. Dexamethasone (0.5?mg?kg?1?day?1) treatment for 1 month did not modify this established airway hyper-responsiveness to CPA. Dexamethasone treatment did not affect either total or differential cell numbers in BAL fluid during the 4 week period, although significant plasma levels of dexamethasone were achieved in dexamethasone treated animals. Treatment of rabbits with dexamethasone (0.1?mg?kg?1 i.p.), 6?h prior to each allergen injection from the neonatal stage, significantly reduced baseline airway hyper-responsiveness to CPA measured at 3 months (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in either total or differential cell numbers in BAL fluid, or any difference in mitogen-induced proliferation of mononuclear cells between dexamethasone and vehicle treated rabbits. These results suggest that introduction of glucocorticosteroids in early life can prevent baseline airway hyper-responsiveness to inhaled CPA in allergic rabbits. However, once established, such underlying airway hyper-responsiveness is difficult to resolve, even with prolonged treatment with glucocorticosteroids. PMID:10217547

  13. Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System–based amperometric detection of dopamine, adenosine, and glutamate for intraoperative neurochemical monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Agnesi, Filippo; Tye, Susannah J.; Bledsoe, Jonathan M.; Griessenauer, Christoph J.; Kimble, Christopher J.; Sieck, Gary C.; Bennet, Kevin E.; Garris, Paul A.; Blaha, Charles D.; Lee, Kendall H.

    2009-01-01

    Object In a companion study, the authors describe the development of a new instrument named the Wireless Instantaneous Neurotransmitter Concentration System (WINCS), which couples digital telemetry with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) to measure extracellular concentrations of dopamine. In the present study, the authors describe the extended capability of the WINCS to use fixed potential amperometry (FPA) to measure extracellular concentrations of dopamine, as well as glutamate and adenosine. Compared with other electrochemical techniques such as FSCV or high-speed chronoamperometry, FPA offers superior temporal resolution and, in combination with enzyme-linked biosensors, the potential to monitor nonelectroactive analytes in real time. Methods The WINCS design incorporated a transimpedance amplifier with associated analog circuitry for FPA; a microprocessor; a Bluetooth transceiver; and a single, battery-powered, multilayer, printed circuit board. The WINCS was tested with 3 distinct recording electrodes: 1) a carbon-fiber microelectrode (CFM) to measure dopamine; 2) a glutamate oxidase enzyme-linked electrode to measure glutamate; and 3) a multiple enzyme-linked electrode (adenosine deaminase, nucleoside phosphorylase, and xanthine oxidase) to measure adenosine. Proof-of-principle analyses included noise assessments and in vitro and in vivo measurements that were compared with similar analyses by using a commercial hardwired electrochemical system (EA161 Picostat, eDAQ; Pty Ltd). In urethane-anesthetized rats, dopamine release was monitored in the striatum following deep brain stimulation (DBS) of ascending dopaminergic fibers in the medial forebrain bundle (MFB). In separate rat experiments, DBS-evoked adenosine release was monitored in the ventrolateral thalamus. To test the WINCS in an operating room setting resembling human neurosurgery, cortical glutamate release in response to motor cortex stimulation (MCS) was monitored using a large-mammal animal model, the pig. Results The WINCS, which is designed in compliance with FDA-recognized consensus standards for medical electrical device safety, successfully measured dopamine, glutamate, and adenosine, both in vitro and in vivo. The WINCS detected striatal dopamine release at the implanted CFM during DBS of the MFB. The DBS-evoked adenosine release in the rat thalamus and MCS-evoked glutamate release in the pig cortex were also successfully measured. Overall, in vitro and in vivo testing demonstrated signals comparable to a commercial hardwired electrochemical system for FPA. Conclusions By incorporating FPA, the chemical repertoire of WINCS-measurable neurotransmitters is expanded to include glutamate and other nonelectroactive species for which the evolving field of enzyme-linked biosensors exists. Because many neurotransmitters are not electrochemically active, FPA in combination with enzyme-linked microelectrodes represents a powerful intraoperative tool for rapid and selective neurochemical sampling in important anatomical targets during functional neurosurgery. PMID:19425899

  14. Inhibition of adenosine metabolism induces changes in post-ictal depression, respiration, and mortality in genetically epilepsy prone rats.

    PubMed

    Kommajosyula, Srinivasa P; Randall, Marcus E; Faingold, Carl L

    2016-01-01

    A major cause of mortality in epilepsy patients is sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP). Post-ictal respiratory dysfunction following generalized convulsive seizures is most commonly observed in witnessed cases of human SUDEP. DBA mouse models of SUDEP are induced by audiogenic seizures (AGSz) and show high incidences of seizure-induced death due to respiratory depression. The relatively low incidence of human SUDEP suggests that it may be useful to examine seizure-associated death in an AGSz model that rarely exhibits sudden death, such as genetically epilepsy-prone rats (GEPR-9s). Adenosine is released extensively during seizures and depresses respiration, which may contribute to seizure-induced death. The present study examined the effects of inhibiting adenosine metabolism on the durations of post-ictal depression (PID) and respiratory distress (RD), changes in blood oxygen saturation (% SpO2), and the incidence of post-seizure mortality in GEPR-9s. Systemic administration of adenosine metabolism inhibitors, erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl) adenine (EHNA, 30mg/kg) with 5-Iodotubericidin (5-ITU, 3mg/kg) in GEPR-9s resulted in significant changes in the duration of AGSz-induced PID as compared to vehicle in both genders. These agents also significantly increased the duration of post-seizure RD and significantly decreased the mean% SpO2 after AGSz, as compared to vehicle but only in females. Subsequently, we observed that the incidences of death in both genders 12-48h post-seizure were significantly greater in drug vs. vehicle treatment. The incidence of death in females was also significantly higher than in males, which is consistent with the elevated seizure sensitivity of female GEPR-9s developmentally. These results support a potentially important role of elevated adenosine levels following generalized seizures in the increased incidence of death in GEPR-9s induced by adenosine metabolism inhibitors. These findings may also be relevant to human SUDEP, in light of the elevated adenosine levels that occur post-ictally in humans and its respiratory depressant actions. PMID:26656779

  15. Dopamine-functionalized InP/ZnS quantum dots as fluorescence probes for the detection of adenosine in microfluidic chip

    PubMed Central

    Ankireddy, Seshadri Reddy; Kim, Jongsung

    2015-01-01

    Microbeads are frequently used as solid supports for biomolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids in heterogeneous microfluidic assays. Chip-based, quantum dot (QD)-bead-biomolecule probes have been used for the detection of various types of DNA. In this study, we developed dopamine (DA)-functionalized InP/ZnS QDs (QDs-DA) as fluorescence probes for the detection of adenosine in microfluidic chips. The photoluminescence (PL) intensity of the QDs-DA is quenched by Zn2+ because of the strong coordination interactions. In the presence of adenosine, Zn2+ cations preferentially bind to adenosine, and the PL intensity of the QDs-DA is recovered. A polydimethylsiloxane-based microfluidic chip was fabricated, and adenosine detection was confirmed using QDs-DA probes. PMID:26347351

  16. Astrocyte-Derived Adenosine and A1 Receptor Activity Contribute to Sleep Loss-Induced Deficits in Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity and Memory in Mice

    E-print Network

    Florian, Cedrick

    Sleep deprivation (SD) can have a negative impact on cognitive function, but the mechanism(s) by which SD modulates memory remains unclear. We have previously shown that astrocyte-derived adenosine is a candidate molecule ...

  17. Differential actions of adenosine A1 and A2A antagonists on the effort-related effects of dopamine D2 antagonism

    PubMed Central

    Salamone, John D.; Farrar, Andrew M.; Font, Laura; Patel, Vatsal; Schlar, Devra E.; Nunes, Eric J.; Collins, Lyndsey E.; Sager, Thomas N.

    2009-01-01

    Adenosine and dopamine receptors in striatal areas interact to regulate a number of different functions, including aspects of motor control and motivation. Recent studies indicate that adenosine A2A receptor antagonists can reverse the effects of dopamine (DA) D2 antagonists on instrumental tasks that provide measures of effort-related choice behavior. The present experiments compared the ability of the adenosine A2A antagonist KW6002, the nonselective adenosine antagonist caffeine, and the adenosine A1 receptor selective antagonist DPCPX, to reverse the behavioral effects of the DA D2 antagonist haloperidol. For these studies, a concurrent choice procedure was used in which rats could select between lever pressing on a fixed ratio 5 schedule for a preferred food or approaching and consuming a less preferred lab chow that was concurrently available in the chamber. Under baseline or control conditions, rats show a strong preference for lever pressing, and eat little of the chow; IP injections of 0.1 mg/kg haloperidol significantly reduced lever pressing and substantially increased chow intake. The adenosine A2A antagonist KW6002 (0.125–0.5 mg/kg IP) and the nonselective adenosine antagonist caffeine (5.0–20.0 mg/kg) significantly reversed the effects of haloperidol. However, the adenosine A1 antagonist DPCPX (0.1875–0.75 mg/kg IP) failed to reverse the effects of the D2 antagonist. The rank order of effect sizes in the reversal experiments was KW6002 > caffeine > DPCPX. None of these drugs had any effect on behavior when they were injected in the absence of haloperidol. These results indicate that the ability of an adenosine antagonist to reverse the effort-related effects of a D2 antagonist depends upon the subtype of adenosine receptor being blocked. Together with other recent results, these experiments indicate that there is a specific interaction between DA D2 and adenosine A2A receptors, which could be related to the co-localization of these receptors on the same population of striatal neurons. PMID:19428636

  18. Reciprocal modulation of anti-IgE induced histamine release from human mast cells by A1 and A2B adenosine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Yip, KH; Lau, HYA; Wise, H

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Adenosine is believed to participate in the pathological development of asthma through a mast cell-dependent mechanism. Our study aimed to pharmacologically characterize the functions of adenosine receptor (AR) subtypes (A1, A2A, A2B and A3) in primary human cultured mast cells (HCMC). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH HCMC were derived from progenitor stem cells in buffy coat and the effects of adenosine receptor ligands on basal and IgE-dependent histamine release were evaluated. KEY RESULTS Adenosine and analogues alone did not induce HCMC degranulation. When HCMC were activated by anti-IgE after 10 min pre-incubation with adenosine, a biphasic effect on histamine release was observed with enhancement of HCMC activation at low concentrations of adenosine (10?9–10?7 mol·L?1) and inhibition at higher concentrations (10?6–10?4 mol·L?1). The potentiating action was mimicked by A1 AR agonists CCPA and 2'MeCCPA, and inhibited by the A1 AR antagonist PSB36. In contrast, the inhibitory action of adenosine was mimicked by the non-specific A2 AR agonist CV1808 and attenuated by A2B AR antagonists PSB1115 and MRS1760. The non-selective AR antagonist CGS15943 attenuated both the potentiating and inhibitory actions. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS We have defined for the first time the contribution of A1 and A2B ARs, respectively, to the potentiating and inhibitory action of adenosine on human mast cell activation. With reference to the current trend of developing novel anti-asthmatic agents from AR ligands, our results suggest that inhibition of human mast cell activation would be a mechanism for A1 AR antagonists, but not A2B AR antagonists. PMID:21506953

  19. Ecto-AMP deaminase blunts the ATP-derived adenosine A2A receptor facilitation of acetylcholine release at rat motor nerve endings

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães-Cardoso, M Teresa; Pereira, M Fátima; Oliveira, Laura; Ribeiro, J A; Cunha, Rodrigo A; Correia-de-Sá, Paulo

    2003-01-01

    At synapses, ATP is released and metabolised through ecto-nucleotidases forming adenosine, which modulates neurotransmitter release through inhibitory A1 or facilitatory A2A receptors, according to the amounts of extracellular adenosine. Neuromuscular junctions possess an ecto-AMP deaminase that can dissociate extracellular ATP catabolism from adenosine formation. In this study we have investigated the pattern of ATP release and its conversion into adenosine, to probe the role of ecto-AMP deaminase in controlling acetylcholine release from rat phrenic nerve terminals. Nerve-evoked ATP release was 28 ± 12 pmol (mg tissue)?1 at 1 Hz, 54 ± 3 pmol (mg tissue)?1 at 5 Hz and disproportionally higher at 50 Hz (324 ± 23 pmol (mg tissue)?1). Extracellular ATP (30 ?m) was metabolised with a half time of 8 ± 2 min, being converted into ADP then into AMP. AMP was either dephosphorylated into adenosine by ecto-5?-nucleotidase (inhibited by ATP and blocked by 200 ?m?,?-methylene ADP) or deaminated into IMP by ecto-AMP deaminase (inhibited by 200 ?m deoxycoformycin, which increased adenosine formation). Dephosphorylation and deamination pathways also catabolised endogenously released adenine nucleotides, since the nerve-evoked extracellular AMP accumulation was increased by either ?,?-methylene ADP (200 ?m) or deoxycoformycin (200 ?m). In the presence of nitrobenzylthioinosine (30 ?m) to inhibit adenosine transport, deoxycoformycin (200 ?m) facilitated nerve-evoked [3H]acetylcholine release by 77 ± 9 %, an effect prevented by the A2A receptor antagonist, ZM 241385 (10 nm). It is concluded that, while ecto-5?-nucleotidase is inhibited by released ATP, ecto-AMP deaminase activity transiently blunts adenosine formation, which would otherwise reach levels high enough to activate facilitatory A2A receptors on motor nerve terminals. PMID:12679375

  20. Basal adenosine modulates the functional properties of AMPA receptors in mouse hippocampal neurons through the activation of A1R A2AR and A3R

    PubMed Central

    Di Angelantonio, Silvia; Bertollini, Cristina; Piccinin, Sonia; Rosito, Maria; Trettel, Flavia; Pagani, Francesca; Limatola, Cristina; Ragozzino, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine is a widespread neuromodulator within the CNS and its extracellular level is increased during hypoxia or intense synaptic activity, modulating pre- and postsynaptic sites. We studied the neuromodulatory action of adenosine on glutamatergic currents in the hippocampus, showing that activation of multiple adenosine receptors (ARs) by basal adenosine impacts postsynaptic site. Specifically, the stimulation of both A1R and A3R reduces AMPA currents, while A2AR has an opposite potentiating effect. The effect of ARs stimulation on glutamatergic currents in hippocampal cultures was investigated using pharmacological and genetic approaches. A3R inhibition by MRS1523 increased GluR1-Ser845 phosphorylation and potentiated AMPA current amplitude, increasing the apparent affinity for the agonist. A similar effect was observed blocking A1R with DPCPX or by genetic deletion of either A3R or A1R. Conversely, impairment of A2AR reduced AMPA currents, and decreased agonist sensitivity. Consistently, in hippocampal slices, ARs activation by AR agonist NECA modulated glutamatergic current amplitude evoked by AMPA application or afferent fiber stimulation. Opposite effects of AR subtypes stimulation are likely associated to changes in GluR1 phosphorylation and represent a novel mechanism of physiological modulation of glutamatergic transmission by adenosine, likely acting in normal conditions in the brain, depending on the level of extracellular adenosine and the distribution of AR subtypes. PMID:26528137

  1. The antiinflammatory mechanism of methotrexate. Increased adenosine release at inflamed sites diminishes leukocyte accumulation in an in vivo model of inflammation.

    PubMed Central

    Cronstein, B N; Naime, D; Ostad, E

    1993-01-01

    Methotrexate, a folate antagonist, is a potent antiinflammatory agent when used weekly in low concentrations. We examined the hypothesis that the antiphlogistic effects of methotrexate result from its capacity to promote intracellular accumulation of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) that, under conditions of cell injury, increases local adenosine release. We now present the first evidence to establish this mechanism of action in an in vivo model of inflammation, the murine air pouch model. Mice were injected intraperitoneally with either methotrexate or saline for 3-4 wk during induction of air pouches. Pharmacologically relevant doses of methotrexate increased splenocyte AICAR content, raised adenosine concentrations in exudates from carrageenan-inflamed air pouches, and markedly inhibited leukocyte accumulation in inflamed air pouches. The methotrexate-mediated reduction in leukocyte accumulation was partially reversed by injection of adenosine deaminase (ADA) into the air pouch, completely reversed by a specific adenosine A2 receptor antagonist, 3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine (DMPX), but not affected by an adenosine A1 receptor antagonist, 8-cyclopentyl-dipropylxanthine. Neither ADA nor DMPX affected leukocyte accumulation in the inflamed pouches of animals treated with either saline or the potent antiinflammatory steroid dexamethasone. These results indicate that methotrexate is a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agent, the antiphlogistic action of which is due to increased adenosine release at inflamed sites. Images PMID:8254024

  2. Interpretation of DNA vibration modes. II--The adenosine and thymidine residues involved in oligonucleotides and polynucleotides.

    PubMed

    Letellier, R; Ghomi, M; Taillandier, E

    1987-02-01

    Normal coordinate analysis of the adenosine and thymidine residues involved in the right- and left-handed conformations of oligonucleotides and polynucleotides has been performed. The valence force field, employed in this work, allowed recently to reproduce the vibrational spectra of 2'-deoxythymidine and 2'-deoxyadenosine. The calculated wavenumbers based on a non-redundant set of internal coordinates have been compared to the Raman and infrared peak positions arising from A, B, C, D and Z conformations, in the 1550-1250 cm-1 and 800-600 cm-1 spectral regions: i.e. characteristic of adenosine and thymidine residues. Moreover, a systematic study has been performed on the evolution of the vibrational wavenumbers as a function of the glycosidic angle (chi) and the sugar pucker conformation. PMID:3271459

  3. Adenosine deaminase-deficient mice generated using a two-stage genetic engineering strategy exhibit a combined immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, M R; Datta, S K; Kellems, R E

    1998-02-27

    Adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency in humans leads to a combined immunodeficiency. The mechanisms involved in the lymphoid specificity of the disease are not fully understood due to the inaccessibility of human tissues for detailed analysis and the absence of an adequate animal model for the disease. We report the use of a two-stage genetic engineering strategy to generate ADA-deficient mice that retain many features associated with ADA deficiency in humans, including a combined immunodeficiency. Severe T and B cell lymphopenia was accompanied by a pronounced accumulation of 2'-deoxyadenosine and dATP in the thymus and spleen, and a marked inhibition of S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase in these organs. Accumulation of adenosine was widespread among all tissues examined. ADA-deficient mice also exhibited severe pulmonary insufficiency, bone abnormalities, and kidney pathogenesis. These mice have provided in vivo information into the metabolic basis for the immune phenotype associated with ADA deficiency. PMID:9478961

  4. Radioactive-electrophoretic assay of adenosine 5'-triphosphate sulfurylase activity in crude extracts with sulfate or selenate as a substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, M.L.; Taylor, R.T.

    1989-02-01

    An assay method for ATP sulfurylase is presented which employs Na/sub 2/(35)SO/sub 4/ as a substrate and measures the production of labeled adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate and 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate by low-voltage, hanging paper strip electrophoresis. The method is applicable to crude bacterial or mammalian extracts and accurately measures picomole amounts of product(s). Na/sub 2/(/sup 75/)SeO/sub 4/ can also be employed as a substrate, if the unstable radioactive product, adenosine 5'-phosphoselenate, is converted to elemental /sup 75/Se degrees by inclusion of reduced glutathione in the reaction mixture. The same paper strip electrophoretic technique can then be used to separate /sup 75/Se degrees from the radiolabeled substrate. The method also has utility for measuring any direct reduction by crude microbial extracts of radioactive selenate to selenite, independent of ATP sulfurylase.

  5. Role of the rel gene product in the control of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate accumulation.

    PubMed Central

    Braedt, G; Gallant, J

    1977-01-01

    The presence of a relA mutant allele affects the kinetics of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate accumulation during downshift from glucose to succinate. The nucleotide accumulates at the normal rate early in the downshift transition but continues to accumulate for a longer time in the relA mutant, leading to a two- to threefold excess by the end of the diauxic lag. Evidence is presented that this effect occurs independently of the accumulation of ppGpp. PMID:187574

  6. Single bolus intravenous regadenoson injection versus central venous infusion of adenosine for maximum coronary hyperaemia in fractional flow reserve measurement.

    PubMed

    van Nunen, Lokien X; Lenders, Guy D; Schampaert, Stéphanie; van 't Veer, Marcel; Wijnbergen, Inge; Brueren, Guus R G; Tonino, Pim A L; Pijls, Nico H J

    2014-08-20

    Aims: The aim of this study was to compare the hyperaemic effect of a single bolus regadenoson injection to a central venous adenosine infusion for inducing hyperaemia in the measurement of fractional flow reserve (FFR). Methods and results: One hundred patients scheduled for FFR measurement were enrolled. FFR was first measured by IV adenosine (140 µg/kg/min), thereafter by IV bolus regadenoson injection (400 µg), followed by another measurement by IV adenosine and bolus injection of regadenoson. The regadenoson injections were randomised to central or peripheral intravenous. Hyperaemic response and duration of steady state maximum hyperaemia were studied, central versus peripheral venous regadenoson injections were compared, and safety and reproducibility of repeated injections were investigated. Mean age was 66±8 years, 75% of the patients were male. The target stenosis was located in the LM, LAD, LCX, and RCA in 7%, 54%, 20% and 19%, respectively. There was no difference in FFR measured by adenosine or by regadenoson (?FFR=0.00±0.01, r=0.994, p<0.001). Duration of maximum hyperaemia after regadenoson was variable (10-600 s). No serious side effects of either drug were observed. Conclusions: Maximum coronary hyperaemia can be achieved easily, rapidly, and safely by one single intravenous bolus of regadenoson administered either centrally or peripherally. Repeated regadenoson injections are safe. The hyperaemic plateau is variable. Clinical Trial Registration: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT01809743?term=NCT01809743&rank=1 (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01809743). PMID:25136887

  7. Venlafaxine Attenuates Heat Hyperalgesia Independent of Adenosine or Opioid System in a Rat Model of Peripheral Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Abed, Alireza; Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Banafshe, Hamid Reza; Minaiyan, Mohsen; Mesdaghinia, Azam

    2015-01-01

    Primarily opioidergic and adenosine mechanisms are considered to be involved in the antinociceptive effects of antidepressants. This study was designed to determine the efficacy of acute venlafaxine administration in alleviating symptoms of neuropathic pain and the role of endogenous adenosine and opioid systems in this effect of venlafaxine. We have evaluated the effect of caffeine, a non-selective adenosine A1 and A2 receptor antagonist and naloxone as an antagonist of opioid receptors on the antinociceptive effects of venlafaxine. Chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve resulted in thermal hyperalgesia, mechanical and cold allodynia in the rats. Animals were received on the 7(th) day after surgery, when the model had been fully established, venlafaxine (20 and 40 mg/Kg i.p.), or venlafaxine (40 mg/Kg) in combination with caffeine (5 mg/Kg i.p.) or naloxone (1 mg/Kg s.c.). Rats were tested for thermal reaction latencies, mechanical and cold allodynia 45 min after drug injection. Acute venlafaxine (40 mg/Kg i.p.) administration consistently decreased the thermal hyperalgesia and this effect was not blocked by concomitant caffeine or naloxone administration. There was no effect by either drug or the drug combination on the tactile and cold allodynia. The results of this study indicate that venlafaxine (40 mg/Kg i.p.) is effective in alleviating thermal hyperalgesia and this effect is independent through manipulation of adenosine or opioid system. This observation demonstrates that venlafaxine, which is a mixed inhibitor of norepinephrine and serotonin reuptake, differs from the other antidepressants in the mechanism of its antinociception action. PMID:26330872

  8. Adenosine A2A receptors play an active role in mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell development

    PubMed Central

    Katebi, Majid; Soleimani, Mansooreh; Cronstein, Bruce N.

    2009-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) play a role in wound healing and tissue repair and may also be useful for organ regeneration. As we have demonstrated previously that A2A adenosine receptors (A2AR) promote tissue repair and wound healing by stimulating local repair mechanisms and enhancing accumulation of endothelial progenitor cells, we investigated whether A2AR activation modulates BM-MSC proliferation and differentiation. BM-MSCs were isolated and cultured from A2A-deficient and ecto-5?nucleotidase (CD73)-deficient female mice; the MSCs were identified and quantified by a CFU-fibroblast (CFU-F) assay. Procollagen ?2 type I expression was determined by Western blotting and immunocytochemistry. MSC-specific markers were examined in primary cells and third-passage cells by cytofluorography. PCR and real time-PCR were used to quantitate adenosine receptor and CD73 expression. There were significantly fewer CFU-Fs in cultures of BM-MSCs from A2AR knockout (KO) mice or BM-MSCs treated with the A2AR antagonist ZM241385, 1 ?M. Similarly, there were significantly fewer procollagen ?2 type I-positive MSCs in cultures from A2AR KO and antagonist-treated cultures as well. In late passage cells, there were significantly fewer MSCs from A2A KO mice expressing CD90, CD105, and procollagen type I (P<0.05 for all; n=3). These findings indicate that adenosine and adenosine A2AR play a critical role in promoting the proliferation and differentiation of mouse BM-MSCs. PMID:19056861

  9. Promotion of Wound Healing by an Agonist of Adenosine A2A Receptor Is Dependent on Tissue Plasminogen Activator.

    PubMed

    Montesinos, M Carmen; Desai-Merchant, Avani; Cronstein, Bruce N

    2015-12-01

    Impaired wound healing, as it occurs in diabetes mellitus or long-term corticoid treatment, is commonly associated with disability, diminished quality of life, and high economic costs. Selective agonists of the A2A receptor subtype of adenosine, an endogenous regulator of inflammation, promote tissue repair in animal models, both healthy and with impaired healing. Plasmin-mediated proteolysis of fibrin and other matrix proteins is essential for cell migration at sites of injury. Since adenosine A2A receptor activation increases plasminogen activator release from macrophages and mast cells, we studied the effect of a selective agonist, CGS-21680, on full-thickness excisional wound closure in wild-type, urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA)-deficient, and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)-deficient mice. Wound closure was impaired in tPA- and uPA-deficient mice as compared with wild-type mice, and topical application of CGS-21680 significantly increased the rate at which wounds closed in wild-type mice and uPA-deficient mice, but not in tPA-deficient mice. Immunostaining of tissue sections showed that tPA was present in endothelial cells and histiocytes by day 3 post-wound and also by day 6. In contrast, uPA was more prominent in these cell types only by day 6 post-wound. Our results confirm that plasminogen activation contributes to wound repair and are consistent with the hypothesis that adenosine A2A receptor activation promotes wound closure by a mechanism that depends upon tPA, but not uPA. Moreover, our results suggest that topical adenosine A2A receptor agonists may be useful in promotion of wound closure in patients with impaired wound healing. PMID:25991438

  10. Detection of adenosine triphosphate through polymerization-induced aggregation of actin-conjugated gold/silver nanorods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Yu-Ju; Shiang, Yen-Chun; Chen, Li-Yi; Hsu, Chia-Lun; Huang, Chih-Ching; Chang, Huan-Tsung

    2013-11-01

    We have developed a simple and selective nanosensor for the optical detection of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) using globular actin-conjugated gold/silver nanorods (G-actin-Au/Ag NRs). By simply mixing G-actin and Au/Ag NRs (length ˜56 nm and diameter ˜12 nm), G-actin-Au/Ag NRs were prepared which were stable in physiological solutions (25 mM Tris-HCl, 150 mM NaCl, 5.0 mM KCl, 3.0 mM MgCl2 and 1.0 mM CaCl2; pH 7.4). Introduction of ATP into the G-actin-Au/Ag NR solutions in the presence of excess G-actin induced the formation of filamentous actin-conjugated Au/Ag NR aggregates through ATP-induced polymerization of G-actin. When compared to G-actin-modified spherical Au nanoparticles having a size of 13 nm or 56 nm, G-actin-Au/Ag NRs provided better sensitivity for ATP, mainly because the longitudinal surface plasmon absorbance of the Au/Ag NR has a more sensitive response to aggregation. This G-actin-Au/Ag NR probe provided high sensitivity (limit of detection 25 nM) for ATP with remarkable selectivity (>10-fold) over other adenine nucleotides (adenosine, adenosine monophosphate and adenosine diphosphate) and nucleoside triphosphates (guanosine triphosphate, cytidine triphosphate and uridine triphosphate). It also allowed the determination of ATP concentrations in plasma samples without conducting tedious sample pretreatments; the only necessary step was simple dilution. Our experimental results are in good agreement with those obtained from a commercial luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence assay. Our simple, sensitive and selective approach appears to have a practical potential for the clinical diagnosis of diseases (e.g. cystic fibrosis) associated with changes in ATP concentrations.

  11. Adenosine A2A receptors in ventral striatum, hypothalamus and nociceptive circuitry. Implications for drug addiction, sleep and pain

    PubMed Central

    Ferré, S.; Diamond, I.; Goldberg, S.R.; Yao, L.; Hourani, S.M.O.; Huang, Z.L.; Urade, Y.; Kitchen, I.

    2007-01-01

    Adenosine A2A receptors localized in the dorsal striatum are considered as a new target for the development of antiparkinsonian drugs. Co-administration of A2A receptor antagonists has shown a significant improvement of the effects of L-DOPA. The present review emphasizes the possible application of A2A receptor antagonists in pathological conditions other than parkinsonism, including drug addiction, sleep disorders and pain. In addition to the dorsal striatum, the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens) contains a high density of A2A receptors, which presynaptically and postsynaptically regulate glutamatergic transmission in the cortical glutamatergic projections to the nucleus accumbens. It is currently believed that molecular adaptations of the cortico-accumbens glutamatergic synapses are involved in compulsive drug seeking and relapse. Here we review recent experimental evidence suggesting that A2A antagonists could become new therapeutic agents for drug addiction. Morphological and functional studies have identified lower levels of A2A receptors in brain areas other than the striatum, such as the ventrolateral preoptic area of the hypothalamus, where adenosine plays an important role in sleep regulation. Although initially believed to be mostly dependent on A1 receptors, here we review recent studies that demonstrate that the somnogenic effects of adenosine are largely mediated by hypothalamic A2A receptors. A2A receptor antagonists could therefore be considered as a possible treatment for narcolepsy and other sleep-related disorders. Finally, nociception is another adenosine-regulated neural function previously thought to mostly involve A1 receptors. Although there is some conflicting literature on the effects of agonists and antagonists, which may partly be due to the lack of selectivity of available drugs, the studies in A2A receptor knockout mice suggest that A2A receptor antagonists might have some therapeutic potential in pain states, in particular where high intensity stimuli are prevalent. PMID:17532111

  12. Adenosine, lidocaine, and Mg2+ (ALM): From cardiac surgery to combat casualty care-Teaching old drugs new tricks.

    PubMed

    Dobson, Geoffrey Phillip; Letson, Hayley Louise

    2016-01-01

    New frontline drugs and therapies are urgently required to protect the body from primary and secondary injuries. We review more than 10 years of work on adenosine, lidocaine, and magnesium (ALM) and its possible significance to civilian and military medicine. Adenosine is an endogenous nucleoside involved in nucleotide production, adenosine triphosphate turnover, and restoration of supply and demand imbalances. Lidocaine is a local anesthetic and Class 1B antiarrhythmic, and magnesium is essential for ionic regulation and cellular bioenergetics. Individually, each plays important roles in metabolism, immunomodulation, inflammation, and coagulation. The original idea to combine all three was as a "polarizing" cardioplegia, an idea borrowed from natural hibernators. Two recent prospective, randomized human trials have demonstrated its safety and superiority in myocardial protection over high-potassium "depolarizing" solutions. The next idea came from witnessing how the human heart spontaneously reanimated after complex operations with little inotropic support. At high doses, ALM arrests the heart, and at lower doses, it resuscitates the heart. In rat and pig models, we have shown that ALM intravenous bolus and infusion "drip" protects against acute regional myocardial ischemia, lethal arrhythmias, cardiac arrest, compressible and noncompressible blood loss and shock, endotoxemia, and sepsis. Individually, adenosine, lidocaine, or magnesium fails to protect. Protection is afforded in part by reducing inflammation, correcting coagulopathy, and lowering energy demand. We propose a unifying hypothesis involving improved central, cardiovascular and endothelium coupling to maintain sufficient tissue oxygenation and reduce primary and secondary "hit" complications. As with any new drug innovation, translation into humans is challenging. PMID:26683400

  13. Adenosine triphosphate-evoked currents in cultured neurones dissociated from rat parasympathetic cardiac ganglia.

    PubMed

    Fieber, L A; Adams, D J

    1991-03-01

    1. The excitatory response of cultured neurones of rat parasympathetic cardiac ganglia to extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) was examined using the whole-cell isolated membrane patch recording configurations of the patch clamp technique. The short latency between ATP application and activation of the membrane current (less than 20 ms) suggests a direct coupling between purinergic receptor and ion channel. The response was maintained during exposure to ATP suggesting that receptor desensitization is not a factor in current decay. 2. The current-voltage (I-V) relationship for macroscopic ATP-evoked currents showed strong inward rectification in the presence and absence of external divalent cations and a reversal potential of +10 mV (NaCl outside, CsCl inside). Unitary ATP-activated currents in cell-attached membrane patches exhibited a linear (ohmic) I-V relationship with a slope conductance of approximately 60 pS. 3. The order of agonist potency for the purinergic receptor-mediated response was 2-methylthioATP = ATP greater than ADP greater than AMP greater than adenosine = alpha,beta-methylene ATP greater than beta,gamma-methylene ATP, a sequence consistent with a P2y receptor subtype. ATP-evoked currents were attenuated by alpha,beta-methylene ATP (IC50 approximately 10 microM) and reversibly inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by Reactive Blue 2 (Kd = 1 microM). 4. The amplitude of the ATP-evoked current was dependent on the extracellular Na+ concentration. The direction of the shift in reversal potential when NaCl was replaced with mannitol indicated that the purinergic receptor channel is cation selective. The cation permeability relative to Na+ followed the ionic selectivity sequence Ca2+ (1.48) greater than Na+ (1.0) greater than Cs+ (0.67). Anions were not measurably permeant. 5. ATP and ACh-evoked responses in rat intracardiac neurones are mediated by distinct receptor channels. The ATP-activated channels in cardiac neurones may contribute to non-cholinergic, non-adrenergic neurotransmission and mediate, in part, the vagal innervation of the mammalian heart. PMID:1708820

  14. Metabolic Consequences of Adenosine Deaminase Deficiency in Mice Are Associated with Defects in Alveogenesis, Pulmonary Inflammation, and Airway Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Blackburn, Michael R.; Volmer, Jonathan B.; Thrasher, Janci L.; Zhong, Hongyan; Crosby, Jeff R.; Lee, James J.; Kellems, Rodney E.

    2000-01-01

    Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is a purine catabolic enzyme that manages levels of the biologically active purines adenosine and 2?-deoxyadenosine in tissues and cells. ADA-deficient mice die at 3 wk of age from severe respiratory distress. This phenotype is progressive and is linked to perturbations in pulmonary purine metabolism. The inflammatory changes found in the lungs of ADA-deficient mice included an accumulation of activated alveolar macrophages and eosinophils. These changes were accompanied by a pronounced enlargement of alveolar spaces and increases in mucus production in the bronchial airways. The alveolar enlargement was found to be due in part to abnormal alveogenesis. Lowering adenosine and 2?-deoxyadenosine levels using ADA enzyme therapy decreased the pulmonary eosinophilia and resolved many of the lung histopathologies. In addition, genetically restoring ADA to the forestomach of otherwise ADA-deficient mice prevented adenine metabolic disturbances as well as lung inflammation and damage. These data suggest that disturbances in purinergic signaling mediate the lung inflammation and damage seen in ADA-deficient mice. PMID:10899903

  15. Metabolic consequences of adenosine deaminase deficiency in mice are associated with defects in alveogenesis, pulmonary inflammation, and airway obstruction.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, M R; Volmer, J B; Thrasher, J L; Zhong, H; Crosby, J R; Lee, J J; Kellems, R E

    2000-07-17

    Adenosine deaminase (ADA) is a purine catabolic enzyme that manages levels of the biologically active purines adenosine and 2'-deoxyadenosine in tissues and cells. ADA-deficient mice die at 3 wk of age from severe respiratory distress. This phenotype is progressive and is linked to perturbations in pulmonary purine metabolism. The inflammatory changes found in the lungs of ADA-deficient mice included an accumulation of activated alveolar macrophages and eosinophils. These changes were accompanied by a pronounced enlargement of alveolar spaces and increases in mucus production in the bronchial airways. The alveolar enlargement was found to be due in part to abnormal alveogenesis. Lowering adenosine and 2'-deoxyadenosine levels using ADA enzyme therapy decreased the pulmonary eosinophilia and resolved many of the lung histopathologies. In addition, genetically restoring ADA to the forestomach of otherwise ADA-deficient mice prevented adenine metabolic disturbances as well as lung inflammation and damage. These data suggest that disturbances in purinergic signaling mediate the lung inflammation and damage seen in ADA-deficient mice. PMID:10899903

  16. NADH oxidase-dependent CD39 expression by CD8+ T cells modulates interferon gamma responses via generation of adenosine

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Aiping; Moss, Alan; Rothweiler, Sonja; Serena Longhi, Maria; Wu, Yan; Junger, Wolfgang G.; Robson, Simon C.

    2015-01-01

    Interferon gamma (IFN?)-producing CD8+ T cells (Tc1) play important roles in immunological disease. We now report that CD3/CD28-mediated stimulation of CD8+ T cells to generate Tc1 cells, not only increases IFN? production but also boosts the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and augments expression of CD39. Inhibition of NADPH oxidases or knockdown of gp91phox in CD8+ T cells abrogates ROS generation, which in turn modulates JNK and NF?B signalling with decreases in both IFN? levels and CD39 expression. CD39+CD8+ T cells substantially inhibit IFN? production by CD39?CD8+ T cells via the paracrine generation of adenosine, which is operational via adenosine type 2A receptors. Increases in numbers of CD39+CD8+ T cells and associated enhancements in ROS signal transduction are noted in cells from patients with Crohn's disease. Our findings provide insights into Tc1-mediated IFN? responses and ROS generation and link these pathways to CD39/adenosine-mediated effects in immunological disease. PMID:26549640

  17. Association of heart rate response with scan and left ventricular function on adenosine stress myocardial perfusion imaging.

    PubMed

    Ebna Al Baker, S M; Haque, K S; Siddique, M A; Banerjee, S K; Rahman, M F; Rahman, M M; Parvin, T; Debnath, R C; Nessa, L; Nasreen, F

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the association of heart rate (HR) response with abnormal scan and/or left ventricular (LV) function in patients undergoing adenosine myocardial perfusion imaging, we prospectively studied 164 consecutive patients who underwent a standard adenosine stress test (without exercise) and myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) using technetium-99m sestamibi radioisotope. Change in HR was calculated by subtracting HR at rest from peak HR. The percentage change in HR was calculated. All patients underwent stress and resting single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging. Left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) was calculated using gated SPECT. Mean age was 54 ± 11.7 years and 126 of the patients (72%) were men. We divided the patients into 2 groups: group 1(42 patients, 25%) had normal scans and group 2(122 patients, 74.3%) had abnormal scans; abnormal scans were defined as presence of either fixed defects, reversible defects, or both. Average HR increased by 35 beats/min in the normal scan group compared with 23 beats/min in the abnormal scan group (p=0.002). Sixty four (64) patients (39%) had reduced EF (<45%). This group had an average HR and percentage HR increase of 23 beats/min (27%) compared with an increase of 35 beats/min (38%) in patients with normal EF (p=0.002 and p=0.02, respectively). Thus, a diminished HR response had a significant association with both an abnormal scan and reduced EF on adenosine MPI. PMID:26007258

  18. Epithelial-specific A2B adenosine receptor signaling protects the colonic epithelial barrier during acute colitis

    PubMed Central

    Aherne, CM; Saeedi, B; Collins, CB; Masterson, JC; McNamee, EN; Perrenoud, L; Rapp, CR; Curtis, VF; Bayless, A; Fletcher, A; Glover, LE; Evans, CM; Jedlicka, P; Furuta, GT; de Zoeten, EF; Colgan, SP; Eltzschig, HK

    2015-01-01

    Central to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) pathogenesis is loss of mucosal barrier function. Emerging evidence implicates extracellular adenosine signaling in attenuating mucosal inflammation. We hypothesized that adenosine-mediated protection from intestinal barrier dysfunction involves tissue-specific signaling through the A2B adenosine receptor (Adora2b) at the intestinal mucosal surface. To address this hypothesis, we combined pharmacologic studies and studies in mice with global or tissue-specific deletion of the Adora2b receptor. Adora2b?/? mice experienced a significantly heightened severity of colitis, associated with a more acute onset of disease and loss of intestinal epithelial barrier function. Comparison of mice with Adora2b deletion on vascular endothelial cells (Adora2bfl/flVeCadCre+) or intestinal epithelia (Adora2bfl/flVillinCre+) revealed a selective role for epithelial Adora2b signaling in attenuating colonic inflammation. In vitro studies with Adora2b knockdown in intestinal epithelial cultures or pharmacologic studies highlighted Adora2b-driven phosphorylation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) as a specific barrier repair response. Similarly, in vivo studies in genetic mouse models or treatment studies with an Adora2b agonist (BAY 60-6583) recapitulate these findings. Taken together, our results suggest that intestinal epithelial Adora2b signaling provides protection during intestinal inflammation via enhancing mucosal barrier responses. PMID:25850656

  19. Hydrolysis of by-product adenosine diphosphate from 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate preparation using Nudix hydrolase NudJ.

    PubMed

    Bao, Feifei; Yan, Huihui; Sun, Hanju; Yang, Peizhou; Liu, Guoqing; Zhou, Xianxuan

    2015-12-01

    3'-Phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) is the obligate cosubstrate and source of the sulfonate group in the chemoenzymatic synthesis of heparin, a clinically used anticoagulant drug. Previously, we have developed a method to synthesize PAPS with Escherichia coli crude extracts, which include three overexpressed enzymes and a fourth unidentified protein. The unknown protein degrades adenosine diphosphate (ADP), the by-product of PAPS synthesis reaction. To further understand and control the process of in vitro enzymatic PAPS synthesis, we decide to identify the fourth protein and develop a defined method to synthesize PAPS using purified enzymes. Here, we show that the purified Nudix hydrolase NudJ degrades ADP at high efficiency and serves as the fourth enzyme in PAPS synthesis. Under the defined condition of PAPS synthesis, all of the 10-mM ADP is hydrolyzed to form adenosine monophosphate (AMP) in a 15-min reaction. ADP is a better substrate for NudJ than adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Most importantly, the purified NudJ does not cleave the product PAPS. The removal of ADP makes the PAPS peak more separable from other components in the chromatographic purification process. This developed enzymatic approach of PAPS production will contribute to the chemoenzymatic synthesis of heparin. PMID:26293337

  20. The 2.6 angstrom crystal structure of a human A2A adenosine receptor bound to an antagonist.

    PubMed

    Jaakola, Veli-Pekka; Griffith, Mark T; Hanson, Michael A; Cherezov, Vadim; Chien, Ellen Y T; Lane, J Robert; Ijzerman, Adriaan P; Stevens, Raymond C

    2008-11-21

    The adenosine class of heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptors (GPCRs) mediates the important role of extracellular adenosine in many physiological processes and is antagonized by caffeine. We have determined the crystal structure of the human A2A adenosine receptor, in complex with a high-affinity subtype-selective antagonist, ZM241385, to 2.6 angstrom resolution. Four disulfide bridges in the extracellular domain, combined with a subtle repacking of the transmembrane helices relative to the adrenergic and rhodopsin receptor structures, define a pocket distinct from that of other structurally determined GPCRs. The arrangement allows for the binding of the antagonist in an extended conformation, perpendicular to the membrane plane. The binding site highlights an integral role for the extracellular loops, together with the helical core, in ligand recognition by this class of GPCRs and suggests a role for ZM241385 in restricting the movement of a tryptophan residue important in the activation mechanism of the class A receptors. PMID:18832607

  1. A2B adenosine receptor contributes to penile erection via PI3K/AKT signaling cascade-mediated eNOS activation

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Jiaming; Grenz, Almut; Zhang, Yujin; Dai, Yingbo; Kellems, Rodney E.; Blackburn, Michael R.; Eltzschig, Holger K.; Xia, Yang

    2011-01-01

    Normal penile erection is under the control of multiple factors and signaling pathways. Although adenosine signaling is implicated in normal and abnormal penile erection, the exact role and the underlying mechanism for adenosine signaling in penile physiology remain elusive. Here we report that shear stress leads to increased adenosine release from endothelial cells. Subsequently, we determined that ecto-5?-nucleotidase (CD73) is a key enzyme required for the production of elevated adenosine from ATP released by shear-stressed endothelial cells. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that shear stress-mediated elevated adenosine functions through the adenosine A2B receptor (A2BR) to activate the PI3K/AKT signaling cascade and subsequent increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation. These in vitro studies led us to discover further that adenosine was induced during sustained penile erection and contributes to PI3K/AKT activation and subsequent eNOS phosphorylation via A2BR signaling in intact animal. Finally, we demonstrate that lowering adenosine in wild-type mice or genetic deletion of A2BR in mutant mice significantly attenuated PI3K/AKT activation, eNOS phosphorylation, and subsequent impaired penile erection featured with the reduction of ratio of maximal intracavernosal pressure to systemic arterial pressure from 0.49 ± 0.03 to 0.41 ± 0.05 and 0.38 ± 0.04, respectively (both P<0.05). Overall, using biochemical, cellular, genetic, and physiological approaches, our findings reveal that adenosine is a novel molecule signaling via A2BR activation, contributing to penile erection via PI3K/AKT-dependent eNOS activation. These studies suggest that this signaling pathway may be a novel therapeutic target for erectile disorders.—Wen, J., Grenz, A., Zhang, Y., Dai, Y., Kellems, R. E., Blackburn, M. R., Eltzschig, H. K., Xia, Y. A2B adenosine receptor contributes to penile erection via PI3K/AKT signaling cascade-mediated eNOS activation. PMID:21566208

  2. Proof-of-principle investigation of an algorithmic model of adenosine-mediated angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We investigated an algorithmic approach to modelling angiogenesis controlled by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), the anti-angiogenic soluble VEGF receptor 1 (sVEGFR-1) and adenosine (Ado). We explored its feasibility to test angiogenesis-relevant hypotheses. We illustrated its potential to investigate the role of Ado as an angiogenesis modulator by enhancing VEGF activity and antagonizing sVEGFR-1. Results We implemented an algorithmic model of angiogenesis consisting of the dynamic interaction of endothelial cells, VEGF, sVEGFR-1 and Ado entities. The model is based on a logic rule-based methodology in which the local behaviour of the cells and molecules is encoded using if-then rules. The model shows how Ado may enhance angiogenesis through activating and inhibiting effects on VEGF and sVEGFR-1 respectively. Despite the relative simplicity of the model, it recapitulated basic features observed in in vitro models. However, observed disagreements between our models and in vitro data suggest possible knowledge gaps and may guide future experimental directions. Conclusions The proposed model can support the exploration of hypotheses about the role of different molecular entities and experimental conditions in angiogenesis. Future expansions can also be applied to assist research planning in this and other biomedical domains. PMID:21477269

  3. Sequence requirements for transcriptional arrest in exon 1 of the human adenosine deaminase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Zhi Chen; Kellems, R.E.; Innis, J.W. ); Sun, Minghua; Wright, D.A. )

    1991-12-01

    The authors have previously demonstrated that a transcriptional arrest site exists in exon 1 of the human adenosine deaminase (ADA) gene and that this site may play a role in ADA gene expression. Sequences involved in this process are not known precisely. To further define the template requirements for transcriptional arrest within exon 1 of the human ADA gene, various ADA templates were constructed and their abilities to confer transcriptional arrest were determined following injection into Xenopus oocytes. The exon 1 transcriptional arrest signal functioned downstream of several RNA polymerase II promoters and an RNA polymerase II promoter, implying that the transcriptional arrest site in exon 1 of the ADA gene is promoter independent. They identified a 43-bp DNA fragment which functions as a transcriptional arrest signal. Additional studies showed that the transcriptional arrest site functioned only in the naturally occurring orientation. Therefore, they have identified a 43-bp DNA fragment which functions as a transcriptional arrest signal in an orientation-dependent and promoter-independent manner. On the basis of the authors findings, they hypothesize that tissue-specific expression of the ADA gene is governed by factors that function as antiterminators to promote transcriptional readthrough of the exon 1 transcriptional arrest site.

  4. ESR and ENDOR study of adenosine single crystals X-irradiated at 10 K.

    PubMed

    Close, D M; Nelson, W H

    1989-03-01

    Single crystals of adenosine were X-irradiated at 10 K and investigated between 10 and 300 K using K-band ESR and ENDOR spectroscopy. Two free radicals were analyzed. Radical I exhibits small hyperfine couplings to the C8-H, C2-H, and a N3-H protons, and was identified as the N3 protonated base anion radical. Radical II exhibits small hyperfine couplings to a C8-H and an exocyclic -N10-H proton. It is suggested that this is therefore the N10 deprotonated base cation radical. Enough data were not available to analyze a third primary radical believed to be located on the ribose moiety. Upon warming Radical I decays at ca. 40 K with no apparent successor. Likewise, no successor was identified for Radical II, which decays at ca. 100 K. At ca. 200 K there is ESR evidence for the C2 and C8 H-addition radicals. Their precursors have not been identified. PMID:2538857

  5. ADENOSINE DEAMINASE ACTIVITY AND SERUM C-REACTIVE PROTEIN AS PROGNOSTIC MARKERS OF CHAGAS DISEASE SEVERITY

    PubMed Central

    BRAVO-TOBAR, Iván Darío; NELLO-PÉREZ, Carlota; FERNÁNDEZ, Alí; MOGOLLÓN, Nora; PÉREZ, Mary Carmen; VERDE, Juan; CONCEPCIÓN, Juan Luis; RODRIGUEZ-BONFANTE, Claudina; BONFANTE-CABARCAS, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Chagas disease is a public health problem worldwide. The availability of diagnostic tools to predict the development of chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy is crucial to reduce morbidity and mortality. Here we analyze the prognostic value of adenosine deaminase serum activity (ADA) and C-reactive protein serum levels (CRP) in chagasic individuals. One hundred and ten individuals, 28 healthy and 82 chagasic patients were divided according to disease severity in phase I (n = 35), II (n = 29), and III (n = 18). A complete medical history, 12-lead electrocardiogram, chest X-ray, and M-mode echocardiogram were performed on each individual. Diagnosis of Chagas disease was confirmed by ELISA and MABA using recombinant antigens; ADA was determined spectrophotometrically and CRP by ELISA. The results have shown that CRP and ADA increased linearly in relation to disease phase, CRP being significantly higher in phase III and ADA at all phases. Also, CRP and ADA were positively correlated with echocardiographic parameters of cardiac remodeling and with electrocardiographic abnormalities, and negatively with ejection fraction. CRP and ADA were higher in patients with cardiothoracic index ? 50%, while ADA was higher in patients with ventricular repolarization disturbances. Finally, CRP was positively correlated with ADA. In conclusion, ADA and CRP are prognostic markers of cardiac dysfunction and remodeling in Chagas disease. PMID:26603224

  6. Digoxin and adenosine triphosphate enhance the functional properties of tissue-engineered cartilage.

    PubMed

    Makris, Eleftherios A; Huang, Brian J; Hu, Jerry C; Chen-Izu, Ye; Athanasiou, Kyriacos A

    2015-03-01

    Toward developing engineered cartilage for the treatment of cartilage defects, achieving relevant functional properties before implantation remains a significant challenge. Various chemical and mechanical stimuli have been used to enhance the functional properties of engineered musculoskeletal tissues. Recently, Ca(2+)-modulating agents have been used to enhance matrix synthesis and biomechanical properties of engineered cartilage. The objective of this study was to determine whether other known Ca(2+) modulators, digoxin and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), can be employed as novel stimuli to increase collagen synthesis and functional properties of engineered cartilage. Neocartilage constructs were formed by scaffold-free self-assembling of primary bovine articular chondrocytes. Digoxin, ATP, or both agents were added to the culture medium for 1?h/day on days 10-14. After 4 weeks of culture, neocartilage properties were assessed for gross morphology, biochemical composition, and biomechanical properties. Digoxin and ATP were found to increase neocartilage collagen content by 52-110% over untreated controls, while maintaining proteoglycan content near native tissue values. Furthermore, digoxin and ATP increased the tensile modulus by 280% and 180%, respectively, while the application of both agents increased the modulus by 380%. The trends in tensile properties were found to correlate with the amount of collagen cross-linking. Live Ca(2+) imaging experiments revealed that both digoxin and ATP were able to increase Ca(2+) oscillations in monolayer-cultured chondrocytes. This study provides a novel approach toward directing neocartilage maturation and enhancing its functional properties using novel Ca(2+) modulators. PMID:25473799

  7. Control of transcription arrest in intron 1 of the murine adenosine deaminase gene.

    PubMed

    Kash, S F; Kellems, R E

    1994-09-01

    Transcription arrest plays a key role in the regulation of the murine adenosine deaminase (ADA) gene, as well as a number of other cellular and viral genes. We have previously characterized the ADA intron 1 arrest site, located 145 nucleotides downstream of the transcription start site, with respect to sequence and elongation factor requirements. Here, we show that the optimal conditions for both intron 1 arrest and overall ADA transcription involve the addition of high concentrations of KCl soon after initiation. As we have further delineated the sequence requirements for intron 1 arrest, we have found that sequences downstream of the arrest site are unnecessary for arrest. Also, a 24-bp fragment containing sequences upstream of the arrest site is sufficient to generate arrest downstream of the adenovirus major late promoter only in the native orientation. Surprisingly, we found that deletion of sequences encompassing the ADA transcription start site substantially reduced intron 1 arrest, with no effect on overall levels of transcription. At the same time, deletion of sequences upstream of the TATA box had no significant effect on either process. We believe the start site mutations have disrupted either the assembly or the composition of the transcription complex such that intron 1 site read-through is now favored. This finding, coupled with the increase in overall transcription after high-concentration KCl treatment, allows us to further refine our model of ADA gene regulation. PMID:8065352

  8. Regulation of forestomach-specific expression of the murine adenosine deaminase gene.

    PubMed

    Xu, P A; Winston, J H; Datta, S K; Kellems, R E

    1999-04-01

    The maturation of stratified squamous epithelium of the upper gastrointestinal tract is a highly ordered process of development and differentiation. Information on the molecular basis of this process is, however, limited. Here we report the identification of the first murine forestomach regulatory element using the murine adenosine deaminase (Ada) gene as a model. In the adult mouse, Ada is highly expressed in the terminally differentiated epithelial layer of upper gastrointestinal tract tissues. The data reported here represent the identification and detailed analysis of a 1. 1-kilobase (kb) sequence located 3.4-kb upstream of the transcription initiation site of the murine Ada gene, which is sufficient to target cat reporter gene expression to the forestomach in transgenic mice. This 1.1-kb fragment is capable of directing cat reporter gene expression mainly to the forestomach of transgenic mice, with a level comparable to the endogenous Ada gene. This expression is localized to the appropriate cell types, confers copy number dependence, and shows the same developmental regulation. Mutational analysis revealed the functional importance of multiple transcription factor-binding sites. PMID:10187819

  9. Metabolic and immunologic consequences of limited adenosine deaminase expression in mice.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, M R; Datta, S K; Wakamiya, M; Vartabedian, B S; Kellems, R E

    1996-06-21

    Adenosine deaminase (ADA; EC 3.5.4.4) deficiency in humans is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder that results in severe combined immunodeficiency disease. ADA-deficient mice generated by targeted gene disruption die perinatally, preventing postnatal analysis of ADA deficiency. We have recently rescued ADA-deficient fetuses from perinatal lethality by expression of an ADA minigene in the placentas of ADA-deficient fetuses, thus generating postnatal mice admissible to analysis of ADA deficiency. The minigene used also directed ADA expression to the forestomach postnatally, producing adult animals that lacked ADA enzymatic activity in all tissues outside the gastrointestinal tract. Mice with limited ADA expression exhibited profound disturbances in purine metabolism, including thymus-specific accumulations of deoxyadenosine and dATP, and inhibition of S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase in the thymus, spleen, and, to a lesser extent, the liver. Lymphopenia and mild immunodeficiency were associated with these tissue-specific metabolic disturbances. These mice represent the first genetic animal model for ADA deficiency and provide insight into the tissue-specific requirements of ADA. PMID:8663040

  10. Control of transcription arrest in intron 1 of the murine adenosine deaminase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Kash, S F; Kellems, R E

    1994-01-01

    Transcription arrest plays a key role in the regulation of the murine adenosine deaminase (ADA) gene, as well as a number of other cellular and viral genes. We have previously characterized the ADA intron 1 arrest site, located 145 nucleotides downstream of the transcription start site, with respect to sequence and elongation factor requirements. Here, we show that the optimal conditions for both intron 1 arrest and overall ADA transcription involve the addition of high concentrations of KCl soon after initiation. As we have further delineated the sequence requirements for intron 1 arrest, we have found that sequences downstream of the arrest site are unnecessary for arrest. Also, a 24-bp fragment containing sequences upstream of the arrest site is sufficient to generate arrest downstream of the adenovirus major late promoter only in the native orientation. Surprisingly, we found that deletion of sequences encompassing the ADA transcription start site substantially reduced intron 1 arrest, with no effect on overall levels of transcription. At the same time, deletion of sequences upstream of the TATA box had no significant effect on either process. We believe the start site mutations have disrupted either the assembly or the composition of the transcription complex such that intron 1 site read-through is now favored. This finding, coupled with the increase in overall transcription after high-concentration KCl treatment, allows us to further refine our model of ADA gene regulation. Images PMID:8065352

  11. Transcription factor AP-2gamma regulates murine adenosine deaminase gene expression during placental development.

    PubMed

    Shi, D; Kellems, R E

    1998-10-16

    Trophoblast cells are specialized extra-embryonic cells present only in eutherian mammals. They play a major role in the implantation and placentation processes. To understand better the molecular mechanisms that control the development and function of trophoblast cells, we sought to identify the transcription factors that regulate murine adenosine deaminase (ADA) gene expression in the placenta. Here we report a detailed characterization of a placenta-specific footprinting region (FP1) in the Ada placental regulatory element. The sequence of FP1 was mapped by DNase I footprinting and was found to match a consensus AP-2 transcription factor-binding site. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that FP1 interacted with AP-2-like proteins. Further analysis using AP-2 antibody confirmed that AP-2 protein was indeed present in the placenta and bound to FP1. Mutation at the AP-2 site in FP1 abolished the ability of the Ada placental regulatory element to bind AP-2 proteins and failed to target chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene expression to placentas in transgenic mice, indicating that AP-2 is required for Ada expression in the placenta. In addition, RNase protection assays demonstrated that AP-2gamma was the predominant AP-2 family member expressed in the placenta. In situ hybridization analysis revealed that AP-2gamma expression was enriched in the trophoblast lineage throughout development, suggesting that AP-2gamma may be critical for trophoblast development and differentiation. PMID:9765260

  12. Metabolites from apoptotic thymocytes inhibit thymopoiesis in adenosine deaminase–deficient fetal thymic organ cultures

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Linda F.; Van De Wiele, C. Justin; Laurent, Aletha B.; Hooker, Scott W.; Vaughn, James G.; Jiang, Hong; Khare, Kamayani; Kellems, Rodney E.; Blackburn, Michael R.; Hershfield, Michael S.; Resta, Regina

    2000-01-01

    Murine fetal thymic organ culture was used to investigate the mechanism by which adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency causes T-cell immunodeficiency. C57BL/6 fetal thymuses treated with the specific ADA inhibitor 2?-deoxycoformycin exhibited features of the human disease, including accumulation of dATP and inhibition of S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase enzyme activity. Although T-cell receptor (TCR) V? gene rearrangements and pre–TCR-? expression were normal in ADA-deficient cultures, the production of ?? TCR+ thymocytes was inhibited by 95%, and differentiation was blocked beginning at the time of ? selection. In contrast, the production of ?? TCR+ thymocytes was unaffected. Similar results were obtained using fetal thymuses from ADA gene-targeted mice. Differentiation and proliferation were preserved by the introduction of a bcl-2 transgene or disruption of the gene encoding apoptotic protease activating factor–1. The pan-caspase inhibitor carbobenzoxy-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethyl ketone also significantly lessened the effects of ADA deficiency and prevented the accumulation of dATP. Thus, ADA substrates accumulate and disrupt thymocyte development in ADA deficiency. These substrates derive from thymocytes that undergo apoptosis as a consequence of failing to pass developmental checkpoints, such as ? selection. PMID:11067867

  13. Metabolites from apoptotic thymocytes inhibit thymopoiesis in adenosine deaminase-deficient fetal thymic organ cultures.

    PubMed

    Thompson, L F; Van de Wiele, C J; Laurent, A B; Hooker, S W; Vaughn, J G; Jiang, H; Khare, K; Kellems, R E; Blackburn, M R; Hershfield, M S; Resta, R

    2000-11-01

    Murine fetal thymic organ culture was used to investigate the mechanism by which adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficiency causes T-cell immunodeficiency. C57BL/6 fetal thymuses treated with the specific ADA inhibitor 2'-deoxycoformycin exhibited features of the human disease, including accumulation of dATP and inhibition of S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase enzyme activity. Although T-cell receptor (TCR) Vbeta gene rearrangements and pre-TCR-alpha expression were normal in ADA-deficient cultures, the production of alphabeta TCR(+) thymocytes was inhibited by 95%, and differentiation was blocked beginning at the time of beta selection. In contrast, the production of gammadelta TCR(+) thymocytes was unaffected. Similar results were obtained using fetal thymuses from ADA gene-targeted mice. Differentiation and proliferation were preserved by the introduction of a bcl-2 transgene or disruption of the gene encoding apoptotic protease activating factor-1. The pan-caspase inhibitor carbobenzoxy-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethyl ketone also significantly lessened the effects of ADA deficiency and prevented the accumulation of dATP. Thus, ADA substrates accumulate and disrupt thymocyte development in ADA deficiency. These substrates derive from thymocytes that undergo apoptosis as a consequence of failing to pass developmental checkpoints, such as beta selection. PMID:11067867

  14. Diverse genetic regulatory motifs required for murine adenosine deaminase gene expression in the placenta.

    PubMed

    Shi, D; Winston, J H; Blackburn, M R; Datta, S K; Hanten, G; Kellems, R E

    1997-01-24

    Murine adenosine deaminase (ADA) is a ubiquitous purine catabolic enzyme whose expression is subject to developmental and tissue-specific regulation. ADA is enriched in trophoblast cells of the chorioallantoic placenta and is essential for embryonic and fetal development. To begin to understand the genetic pathway controlling Ada gene expression in the placenta, we have identified and characterized a 770-base pair fragment located 5.4 kilobase pairs upstream of the Ada transcription initiation site, which directs reporter gene expression to the placenta of transgenic mice. The expression pattern of the reporter gene reflected that of the endogenous Ada gene in the placenta. Sequence analysis revealed potential binding sites for bHLH and GATA transcription factors. DNase I footprinting defined three protein binding regions, one of which was placenta-specific. Mutations in the potential protein binding sites and footprinting regions resulted in loss of placental expression in transgenic mice. These findings indicate that multiple protein binding motifs are necessary for Ada expression in the placenta. PMID:8999942

  15. Pharmacological Preconditioning by Adenosine A2a Receptor Stimulation: Features of the Protected Liver Cell Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Alchera, Elisa; Imarisio, Chiara; Mandili, Giorgia; Merlin, Simone; Chandrashekar, Bangalore R.; Novelli, Francesco; Follenzi, Antonia; Carini, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Ischemic preconditioning (IP) of the liver by a brief interruption of the blood flow protects the damage induced by a subsequent ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) preventing parenchymal and nonparenchymal liver cell damage. The discovery of IP has shown the existence of intrinsic systems of cytoprotection whose activation can stave off the progression of irreversible tissue damage. Deciphering the molecular mediators that underlie the cytoprotective effects of preconditioning can pave the way to important therapeutic possibilities. Pharmacological activation of critical mediators of IP would be expected to emulate or even to intensify its salubrious effects. In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated the role of the adenosine A2a receptor (A2aR) as a trigger of liver IP. This review will provide insight into the phenotypic changes that underline the resistance to death of liver cells preconditioned by pharmacological activation of A2aR and their implications to develop innovative strategies against liver IR damage. PMID:26539478

  16. A2A adenosine receptor regulates the human blood brain barrier permeability

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Do-Geun; Bynoe, Margaret S.

    2015-01-01

    The blood brain barrier (BBB) symbolically represents the gateway to the central nervous system. It is a single layer of specialized endothelial cells that coats the central nervous system (CNS) vasculature and physically separates the brain environment from the blood constituents, to maintain the homeostasis of the CNS. However, this protective measure is a hindrance to the delivery of therapeutics to treat neurological diseases. Here, we show that activation of A2A adenosine receptor (AR) with an FDA-approved agonist potently permeabilizes an in vitro primary human brain endothelial barrier (hBBB) to the passage of chemotherapeutic drugs and T cells. T cell migration under AR signaling occurs primarily by paracellular transendothelial route. Permeabilization of the hBBB is rapid, time-dependent and reversible and is mediated by morphological changes in actin-cytoskeletal reorganization induced by RhoA signaling and a potent down-regulation of Claudin-5 and VE-Cadherin. Moreover, the kinetics of BBB permeability in mice closely overlaps with the permeability kinetics of the hBBB. These data suggest that activation of A2A AR is an endogenous mechanism that may be used for CNS drug delivery in human. PMID:25262373

  17. Astrocytic adenosine receptor A2A and Gs-coupled signaling regulate memory

    PubMed Central

    Orr, Anna G.; Hsiao, Edward C.; Wang, Max M.; Ho, Kaitlyn; Kim, Daniel H.; Wang, Xin; Guo, Weikun; Kang, Jing; Yu, Gui-Qiu; Adame, Anthony; Devidze, Nino; Dubal, Dena B.; Masliah, Eliezer; Conklin, Bruce R.; Mucke, Lennart

    2014-01-01

    Astrocytes express a variety of G protein-coupled receptors and might influence cognitive functions, such as learning and memory. However, the roles of astrocytic Gs-coupled receptors in cognitive function are not known. We found that humans with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) had increased levels of the Gs-coupled adenosine receptor A2A in astrocytes. Conditional genetic removal of these receptors enhanced long-term memory in young and aging mice, and increased the levels of Arc/Arg3.1, an immediate-early gene required for long-term memory. Chemogenetic activation of astrocytic Gs-coupled signaling reduced long-term memory in mice without affecting learning. Similar to humans with AD, aging mice expressing human amyloid precursor protein (hAPP) showed increased levels of astrocytic A2A receptors. Conditional genetic removal of these receptors enhanced memory in aging hAPP mice. Together, these findings establish a regulatory role for astrocytic Gs-coupled receptors in memory and suggest that AD-linked increases in astrocytic A2A receptor levels contribute to memory loss. PMID:25622143

  18. Fragment-Based Discovery of Subtype-Selective Adenosine Receptor Ligands from Homology Models.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Anirudh; Stoddart, Leigh A; Hill, Stephen J; Carlsson, Jens

    2015-12-24

    Fragment-based lead discovery (FBLD) holds great promise for drug discovery, but applications to G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been limited by a lack of sensitive screening techniques and scarce structural information. If virtual screening against homology models of GPCRs could be used to identify fragment ligands, FBLD could be extended to numerous important drug targets and contribute to efficient lead generation. Access to models of multiple receptors may further enable the discovery of fragments that bind specifically to the desired target. To investigate these questions, we used molecular docking to screen >500?000 fragments against homology models of the A3 and A1 adenosine receptors (ARs) with the goal to discover A3AR-selective ligands. Twenty-one fragments with predicted A3AR-specific binding were evaluated in live-cell fluorescence-based assays; of eight verified ligands, six displayed A3/A1 selectivity, and three of these had high affinities ranging from 0.1 to 1.3 ?M. Subsequently, structure-guided fragment-to-lead optimization led to the identification of a >100-fold-selective antagonist with nanomolar affinity from commercial libraries. These results highlight that molecular docking screening can guide fragment-based discovery of selective ligands even if the structures of both the target and antitarget receptors are unknown. The same approach can be readily extended to a large number of pharmaceutically important targets. PMID:26592528

  19. Recapitulating the Structural Evolution of Redox Regulation in Adenosine 5'-Phosphosulfate Kinase from Cyanobacteria to Plants.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Jonathan; Nathin, David; Lee, Soon Goo; Sun, Tony; Jez, Joseph M

    2015-10-01

    In plants, adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (APS) kinase (APSK) is required for reproductive viability and the production of 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) as a sulfur donor in specialized metabolism. Previous studies of the APSK from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtAPSK) identified a regulatory disulfide bond formed between the N-terminal domain (NTD) and a cysteine on the core scaffold. This thiol switch is unique to mosses, gymnosperms, and angiosperms. To understand the structural evolution of redox control of APSK, we investigated the redox-insensitive APSK from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (SynAPSK). Crystallographic analysis of SynAPSK in complex with either APS and a non-hydrolyzable ATP analog or APS and sulfate revealed the overall structure of the enzyme, which lacks the NTD found in homologs from mosses and plants. A series of engineered SynAPSK variants reconstructed the structural evolution of the plant APSK. Biochemical analyses of SynAPSK, SynAPSK H23C mutant, SynAPSK fused to the AtAPSK NTD, and the fusion protein with the H23C mutation showed that the addition of the NTD and cysteines recapitulated thiol-based regulation. These results reveal the molecular basis for structural changes leading to the evolution of redox control of APSK in the green lineage from cyanobacteria to plants. PMID:26294763

  20. An adenosine triphosphate-independent proteasome activator contributes to the virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Jastrab, Jordan B.; Wang, Tong; Murphy, J. Patrick; Bai, Lin; Hu, Kuan; Merkx, Remco; Huang, Jessica; Chatterjee, Champak; Ovaa, Huib; Gygi, Steven P.; Li, Huilin; Darwin, K. Heran

    2015-03-23

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis encodes a proteasome that is highly similar to eukaryotic proteasomes and is required to cause lethal infections in animals. The only pathway known to target proteins for proteasomal degradation in bacteria is pupylation, which is functionally analogous to eukaryotic ubiquitylation. However, evidence suggests that the M. tuberculosis proteasome contributes to pupylation-independent pathways as well. To identify new proteasome cofactors that might contribute to such pathways, we isolated proteins that bound to proteasomes overproduced in M. tuberculosis and found a previously uncharacterized protein, Rv3780, which formed rings and capped M. tuberculosis proteasome core particles. Rv3780 enhanced peptide and protein degradation by proteasomes in an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-independent manner. We identified putative Rv3780-dependent proteasome substrates and found that Rv3780 promoted robust degradation of the heat shock protein repressor, HspR. Importantly, an M. tuberculosis Rv3780 mutant had a general growth defect, was sensitive to heat stress, and was attenuated for growth in mice. Collectively, these data demonstrate that ATP-independent proteasome activators are not confined to eukaryotes and can contribute to the virulence of one the world’s most devastating pathogens.

  1. Uncovering Caffeine’s Adenosine A2A Receptor Inverse Agonism in Experimental Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine, the most consumed psychoactive substance worldwide, may have beneficial effects on Parkinson’s disease (PD) therapy. The mechanism by which caffeine contributes to its antiparkinsonian effects by acting as either an adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) neutral antagonist or an inverse agonist is unresolved. Here we show that caffeine is an A2AR inverse agonist in cell-based functional studies and in experimental parkinsonism. Thus, we observed that caffeine triggers a distinct mode, opposite to A2AR agonist, of the receptor’s activation switch leading to suppression of its spontaneous activity. These inverse agonist-related effects were also determined in the striatum of a mouse model of PD, correlating well with increased caffeine-mediated motor effects. Overall, caffeine A2AR inverse agonism may be behind some of the well-known physiological effects of this substance both in health and disease. This information might have a critical mechanistic impact for PD pharmacotherapeutic design. PMID:25268872

  2. Relating Surfactant Properties to Activity and Solubilization of the Human Adenosine A3 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Bryan W.; García, Roxana Y.; Lenhoff, Abraham M.; Kaler, Eric W.; Robinson, Clifford R.

    2005-01-01

    The effects of various surfactants on the activity and stability of the human adenosine A3 receptor (A3) were investigated. The receptor was expressed using stably transfected HEK293 cells at a concentration of 44 pmol functional receptor per milligram membrane protein and purified using over 50 different nonionic surfactants. A strong correlation was observed between a surfactant's ability to remove A3 from the membrane and the ability of the surfactant to remove A3 selectively relative to other membrane proteins. The activity of A3 once purified also correlates well with the selectivity of the surfactant used. The effects of varying the surfactant were much stronger than those achieved by including A3 ligands in the purification scheme. Notably, all surfactants that gave high efficiency, selectivity and activity fall within a narrow range of hydrophile-lipophile balance values. This effect may reflect the ability of the surfactant to pack effectively at the hydrophobic transmembrane interface. These findings emphasize the importance of identifying appropriate surfactants for a particular membrane protein, and offer promise for the development of rapid, efficient, and systematic methods to facilitate membrane protein purification. PMID:15849244

  3. Hereditary overexpression of adenosine deaminase in erythrocytes: Evidence for a cis-acting mutation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, E.H. ); Tartaglia, A.P. ); Mitchell, B.S. )

    1993-10-01

    Overexpression of adenosine deaminase (ADA) in red blood cells is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and causes hemolytic anemia. The increased ADA activity in erythrocytes is due to an increase in steady-state levels of ADA mRNA of normal sequence. Increased ADA mRNA may be due to a cis-acting mutation which results in increased transcription or a loss of down-regulation during erythroid differentiation. Alternatively, it is possible that the mutation is in a trans-acting factor which interacts with normal ADA transcriptional elements to cause overexpression in red blood cells. To discriminate between a cis-acting and a trans-acting mutation, the authors took advantage of a highly polymorphic TAAA repeat located at the tail end of an Alu repeat approximately 1.1 kb upstream of the ADA gene. Using PCR to amplify this region, the authors identified five different alleles in 19 members of the family. All 11 affected individuals had an ADA allele with 12 TAAA repeats, whereas none of the 8 normal individuals did. The authors conclude that this disorder results from a cis-acting mutation in the vicinity of the ADA gene. 24 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Adenosine A2A receptor deficiency alleviates blast-induced cognitive dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Ya-Lei; Yang, Nan; Chen, Xing; Xiong, Ren-Ping; Zhang, Xiu-Zhu; Li, Ping; Zhao, Yan; Chen, Xing-Yun; Liu, Ping; Peng, Yan; Wang, Zheng-Guo; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Zhou, Yuan-Guo

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI), particularly explosive blast-induced TBI (bTBI), has become the most prevalent injury among military personnel. The disruption of cognitive function is one of the most serious consequences of bTBI because its long-lasting effects prevent survivors fulfilling their active duty and resuming normal civilian life. However, the mechanisms are poorly understood and there is no treatment available. This study investigated the effects of adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) on bTBI-induced cognitive deficit, and explored the underlying mechanisms. After being subjected to moderate whole-body blast injury, mice lacking the A2AR (A2AR knockout (KO)) showed less severity and shorter duration of impaired spatial reference memory and working memory than wild-type mice did. In addition, bTBI-induced cortical and hippocampal lesions, as well as proinflammatory cytokine expression, glutamate release, edema, cell loss, and gliosis in both early and prolonged phases of the injury, were significantly attenuated in A2AR KO mice. The results suggest that early injury and chronic neuropathological damages are important mechanisms of bTBI-induced cognitive impairment, and that the impairment can be attenuated by preventing A2AR activation. These findings suggest that A2AR antagonism is a potential therapeutic strategy for mild-to-moderate bTBI and consequent cognitive impairment. PMID:23921902

  5. Application of firefly luciferase assay for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to antimicrobial drug sensitivity testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Picciolo, G. L.; Tuttle, S. A.; Schrock, C. G.; Deming, J. W.; Barza, M. J.; Wienstein, L.; Chappelle, E. W.

    1977-01-01

    The development of a rapid method for determining microbial susceptibilities to antibiotics using the firefly luciferase assay for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is documented. The reduction of bacterial ATP by an antimicrobial agent was determined to be a valid measure of drug effect in most cases. The effect of 12 antibiotics on 8 different bacterial species gave a 94 percent correlation with the standard Kirby-Buer-Agar disc diffusion method. A 93 percent correlation was obtained when the ATP assay method was applied directly to 50 urine specimens from patients with urinary tract infections. Urine samples were centrifuged first to that bacterial pellets could be suspended in broth. No primary isolation or subculturing was required. Mixed cultures in which one species was predominant gave accurate results for the most abundant organism. Since the method is based on an increase in bacterial ATP with time, the presence of leukocytes did not interfere with the interpretation of results. Both the incubation procedure and the ATP assays are compatible with automation.

  6. An adenosine triphosphate-independent proteasome activator contributes to the virulence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Jastrab, Jordan B.; Wang, Tong; Murphy, J. Patrick; Bai, Lin; Hu, Kuan; Merkx, Remco; Huang, Jessica; Chatterjee, Champak; Ovaa, Huib; Gygi, Steven P.; Li, Huilin; Darwin, K. Heran

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis encodes a proteasome that is highly similar to eukaryotic proteasomes and is required to cause lethal infections in animals. The only pathway known to target proteins for proteasomal degradation in bacteria is pupylation, which is functionally analogous to eukaryotic ubiquitylation. However, evidence suggests that the M. tuberculosis proteasome contributes to pupylation-independent pathways as well. To identify new proteasome cofactors that might contribute to such pathways, we isolated proteins that bound to proteasomes overproduced in M. tuberculosis and found a previously uncharacterized protein, Rv3780, which formed rings and capped M. tuberculosis proteasome core particles. Rv3780 enhanced peptide and protein degradation by proteasomes in an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-independent manner. We identified putative Rv3780-dependent proteasome substrates and found that Rv3780 promoted robust degradation of the heat shock protein repressor, HspR. Importantly, an M. tuberculosis Rv3780 mutant had a general growth defect, was sensitive to heat stress, and was attenuated for growth in mice. Collectively, these data demonstrate that ATP-independent proteasome activators are not confined to eukaryotes and can contribute to the virulence of one the world's most devastating pathogens. PMID:25831519

  7. Sensitivity and specificity of adenosine deaminase in diagnosis of juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Doudkani-Fard, Mina; Ziaee, Vahid; Moradinejad, Mohamad-Hassan; Sedaghat, Mojtaba; Haghi-Ashtiani, Mohammad-Taghi; Ahmadinejad, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) is one of the most common chronic rheumatic diseases inchildren with unknown etiology and pathogenesis. It also has no diagnostic test and its clinical diagnosis ismade through ruling out other types of arthritis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of ADA (AdenosineDeaminase) in the serum of JIA patients and to compare it with that of patients with Reactive Arthritis(RA). Evaluation of sensitivity and specificity of serum ADA level in JIA was another objective. Methods: The study included 120 children with JIA (mean age= 7.6 ± 4.3 years) and 40 children with RA(mean age= 5.5 ± 3.1 years). The ADA was measured in the active phase of both diseases. Results: The mean ADA serum level was obtained as 15.8 ± 11.8 U/l in JIA patients and 14.3 ± 7.5 U/l in RApatients. The difference was statistically insignificant (p= 0.4). Another finding of this study was the significantspecificity (77.5%) of this laboratory parameter for JIA in comparison with its low sensitivity (36.7%). Positivepredictive value was 83% and negative predictive value 29%. Conclusion: Determination of ADA serum levels is a noninvasive reliable and easy biomarker for diagnosis ofJIA and it can be used as alternative parameters representing disease activity. PMID:25678992

  8. [Involvement of cyclic adenosine monophosphate in the control of motile behavior of Physarum polycephalum plasmodium].

    PubMed

    Matveeva, N B; Teplov, V A; Nezvetski?, A R; Orlova, T G; Be?lina, S I

    2012-01-01

    Possible involvement of autocrine factors into the control of motile behavior via a receptor-mediated mechanism was investigated in Physarum polycephalum plasmodium, a multinuclear amoeboid cell with the auto-oscillatory mode of motility. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and extracellular cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase, its involvement into the control of plasmodium motile behavior was proved by action of its strong inhibitor, were regarded as putative autocrine factors. It was shown that the plasmodium secreted cAMP. When it was introduced into agar support, 0,1-1 mM cAMP induced a delay of the plasmodium spreading and its transition to migration. When locally applied, cAMP at the same concentrations induced typical for attractant action the increase in oscillation frequency and the decrease of ectoplasm elasticity. The ability to exhibit positive chemotaxis in cAMP gradient and the dependence of its realization were shown to depend on the plasmodium state. Chemotaxis test specimens obtained from the migrating plasmodium, unlike those obtained from growing culture, generate alternative fronts which compete effectively with fronts oriented towards the attractant increment. The results obtained support our supposition stated earlier that advance of th