Science.gov

Sample records for calendula officinalis extract

  1. Final report on the safety assessment of Calendula officinalis extract and Calendula officinalis.

    PubMed

    2001-01-01

    Calendula Officinalis Extract is an extract of the flowers of Calendula officinalis, the common marigold, whereas Calendula Officinalis is described as plant material derived from the flowers of C. officinalis. Techniques for preparing Calendula Officinalis Extract include gentle disintegration in soybean oil. Propylene glycol and butylene glycol extractions were also reported. Components of these ingredients are variously reported to include sugars, carotenoids, phenolic acids, sterols, saponins, flavonoids, resins, sterins, quinones, mucilages, vitamins, polyprenylquinones, and essential oils. Calendula Officinalis Extract is reported to be used in almost 200 cosmetic formulations, over a wide range of product categories. There are no reported uses of Calendula Officinalis. Acute toxicity studies in rats and mice indicate that the extract is relatively nontoxic. Animal tests showed at most minimal skin irritation, and no sensitization or phototoxicity. Minimal ocular irritation was seen with one formulation and no irritation with others. Six saponins isolated from C. officinalis flowers were not mutagenic in an Ames test, and a tea derived from C. officinalis was not genotoxic in Drosophila melanogaster. No carcinogenicity or reproductive and developmental toxicity data were available. Clinical testing of cosmetic formulations containing the extract elicited little irritation or sensitization. Absent any basis for concluding that data on one member of a botanical ingredient group can be extrapolated to another in a group, or to the same ingredient extracted differently, these data were not considered sufficient to assess the safety of these ingredients. Additional data needs include current concentration of use data; function in cosmetics; ultraviolet (UV) absorption data; if absorption occurs in the UVA or UVB range, photosensitization data are needed; gross pathology and histopathology in skin and other major organ systems associated with repeated dermal

  2. Solid lipid nanoparticles for delivery of Calendula officinalis extract.

    PubMed

    Arana, Lide; Salado, Clarisa; Vega, Sandra; Aizpurua-Olaizola, Oier; de la Arada, Igor; Suarez, Tatiana; Usobiaga, Aresatz; Arrondo, José Luis R; Alonso, Alicia; Goñi, Félix M; Alkorta, Itziar

    2015-11-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) composed of long-chain fatty acids (palmitic acid, stearic acid or arachidic acid), Epikuron 200 (purified phosphatidylcholine), and bile salts (cholate, taurocholate or taurodeoxycholate) have been prepared by dilution of a microemulsion. A total of five different systems were prepared, and characterized by photon correlation spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and infrared spectroscopy. The SLN formulation showing optimal properties (lowest size and polydispersity index and highest zeta potential) was obtained with stearic acid and taurodeoxycholate as cosurfactant. This formulation was loaded with Calendula officinalis extract, a natural compound used on ophthalmic formulations given its anti-inflammatory, emollient, and wound repairing activity. Calendula-loaded SLN preparations were characterized in order to determine loading capacity and entrapment efficiency. In vitro cytotoxicity and wound healing efficacy of Calendula-loaded SLN compared to that of a free plant extract were evaluated on a conjunctival epithelium cell line WKD. Our results suggest that this SLN formulation is a safe and solvent-free Calendula extract delivery system which could provide a controlled therapeutic alternative for reducing disease-related symptoms and improving epithelium repair in ocular surface. PMID:26231862

  3. The effects of extraction method on recovery rutin from Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Frederico Severino; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Bandeira, Elane Sousa; Silva, José Otávio Carréra; Costa, Roseane Maria Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Background: Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) is a Mediterranean specie, but in Europe and America it is cultivated for ornamental or medicinal purposes. This species is widely used for presenting activities, antiinflammatory antibacterial and antioxidant. However the therapeutic action is linked to the amount of assets of the extracted raw material. The extraction method of bioactive compounds is an important step in the manufacturing of herbal medicines, because secondary metabolites with therapeutic potential are usually found in small quantities in plant materials. Objective: Due the medical and commercial importance of C. officinalis, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of the extraction method on the quality of herbal extract and optimize the extraction of rutin from C. officinalis. Materials and Methods: The extraction of rutin was performed by ultrasound and shaker and the optimized conditions were determined by response surface methodology. Results: The results of ultrasound extraction assisted (UEA) and maceration dynamic (MD) showed that rutin yield ranged from 0.218 to 2.28% (w/w) when extract by ultrasound and 0.1-1.44% by MD. The optimal extraction condition for rutin (2.48% to UEA or 1.46% to MD) from C. officinalis by UEA or MD were a 19-22 min extraction, ethanol: water ratio of 35-40% and 0.05-0.056 mg/mL to raw material: solvent ratio. Conclusion: The UEA is more efficient to extraction rutin. PMID:25298676

  4. Production of Sterilizing Agents from Calendula officinalis Extracts Optimized by Response Surface Methodology.

    PubMed

    Goktas, Fatih Mehmet; Sahin, Bilgesu; Yigitarslan, Sibel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to produce hand sterilizing liquid and wet wipes with the extracts of Calendula officinalis. Since this plant has well known antimicrobial activity due to its phytochemical constituents, the increase in the extraction yield was chosen as the principle part of the production process. To achieve the maximum yield, parameters of solid-to-liquid ratio, extraction temperature, and time were studied. The optimum conditions were determined by response surface methodology as 41°C, 7 h, and 3.3 g/200 mL for temperature, time, and solid-to-liquid ratio, respectively. The yield achieved at those conditions was found to be 90 percent. The highest amounts of flavonoids were detected at optimum, whereas the highest triterpene and saponin constituents were determined at different design points. The microbial efficiencies of extracts were determined by the inhibition of the growth of selected microorganisms. Different dilution rates and interaction times were used as parameters of inhibition. Not any of the constituent but symbiotic relation in-between reached the highest inhibition of 90 percent. The pH values of the extracts were 5.1 to 5.4. As a result, the extraction of Calendula officinalis at the optimum conditions can be used effectively in the production of wet wipes and hand sterilizing liquid. PMID:26064122

  5. Production of Sterilizing Agents from Calendula officinalis Extracts Optimized by Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Goktas, Fatih Mehmet; Sahin, Bilgesu; Yigitarslan, Sibel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to produce hand sterilizing liquid and wet wipes with the extracts of Calendula officinalis. Since this plant has well known antimicrobial activity due to its phytochemical constituents, the increase in the extraction yield was chosen as the principle part of the production process. To achieve the maximum yield, parameters of solid-to-liquid ratio, extraction temperature, and time were studied. The optimum conditions were determined by response surface methodology as 41°C, 7 h, and 3.3 g/200 mL for temperature, time, and solid-to-liquid ratio, respectively. The yield achieved at those conditions was found to be 90 percent. The highest amounts of flavonoids were detected at optimum, whereas the highest triterpene and saponin constituents were determined at different design points. The microbial efficiencies of extracts were determined by the inhibition of the growth of selected microorganisms. Different dilution rates and interaction times were used as parameters of inhibition. Not any of the constituent but symbiotic relation in-between reached the highest inhibition of 90 percent. The pH values of the extracts were 5.1 to 5.4. As a result, the extraction of Calendula officinalis at the optimum conditions can be used effectively in the production of wet wipes and hand sterilizing liquid. PMID:26064122

  6. Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer for the selective extraction of quercetagetin from Calendula officinalis extract.

    PubMed

    Ma, Run-Tian; Shi, Yan-Ping

    2015-03-01

    A new magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) for quercetagetin was prepared by surface molecular imprinting method using super paramagnetic core-shell nanoparticle as the supporter. Acrylamide as the functional monomer, ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate as the crosslinker and acetonitrile as the porogen were applied in the preparation process. Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) were applied to characterize the MMIPs, and High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was utilized to analyze the target analytes. The selectivity of quercetagetin MMIPs was evaluated according to their recognition to template and its analogues. Excellent binding for quercetagetin was observed in MMIPs adsorption experiment, and the adsorption isotherm models analysis showed that the homogeneous binding sites were distributed on the surface of the MMIPs. The MMIPs were employed as adsorbents in solid phase extraction for the determination of quercetagetin in Calendula officinalis extracts. Furthermore, this method is fast, simple and could fulfill the determination and extraction of quercetagetin from herbal extract. PMID:25618718

  7. Potential of extracts from Saponaria officinalis and Calendula officinalis to modulate in vitro rumen fermentation with respect to their content in saponins.

    PubMed

    Budan, Alexandre; Bellenot, Denis; Freuze, Ingrid; Gillmann, Louisa; Chicoteau, Pierre; Richomme, Pascal; Guilet, David

    2014-01-01

    Saponins have the potential to favorably modulate rumen fermentation, but there is generally a lack of the chemical structures associated with the described effects. The activity of extracts from Calendula officinalis and Saponaria officinalis in the rumen was evaluated in vitro. The S. officinalis root extract, reduced CH₄ production by 8.5% and increased total VFA concentration by 25.2%. C. officinalis and S. officinalis root extracts and the S. officinalis aerial part extract decreased the acetate to propionate ratio from 8.6 to 17.4%, according to the extract. An HPLC-ELSD analysis indicated that the saponin content ranged from 43.6 to 57.6 mg/g of dry matter (DM) in the C. officinalis extracts and from 224.0 to 693.8 mg/g of DM in the S. officinalis extracts, expressed as the hederacoside C equivalent. Identification of the saponin compounds present in the extracts by HPLC-MS(n) suggested that the saponin profile modulated the biological activities, showing the importance of determining the structure of saponins when evaluating extracts. PMID:25036683

  8. Extracts from Calendula officinalis offer in vitro protection against H2 O2 induced oxidative stress cell killing of human skin cells.

    PubMed

    Alnuqaydan, Abdullah M; Lenehan, Claire E; Hughes, Rachel R; Sanderson, Barbara J

    2015-01-01

    The in vitro safety and antioxidant potential of Calendula officinalis flower head extracts was investigated. The effect of different concentrations (0.125, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 5.0% (v/v)) of Calendula extracts on human skin cells HaCaT in vitro was explored. Doses of 1.0% (v/v) (0.88 mg dry weight/mL) or less showed no toxicity. Cells were also exposed to the Calendula extracts for either 4, 24 or 48 h before being exposed to an oxidative insult (hydrogen peroxide H2 O2 ) for 1 h. Using the MTT cytotoxicity assay, it was observed that two independent extracts of C. officinalis gave time-dependent and concentration-dependent H2 O2 protection against induced oxidative stress in vitro using human skin cells. Pre-incubation with the Calendula extracts for 24 and 48 h increased survival relative to the population without extract by 20% and 40% respectively following oxidative challenge. The antioxidant potential of the Calendula extracts was confirmed using a complimentary chemical technique, the DPPH(●) assay. Calendula extracts exhibited free radical scavenging abilities. This study demonstrates that Calendula flower extracts contain bioactive and free radical scavenging compounds that significantly protect against oxidative stress in a human skin cell culture model. PMID:25266574

  9. Application of the threshold of toxicological concern approach for the safety evaluation of calendula flower (Calendula officinalis) petals and extracts used in cosmetic and personal care products.

    PubMed

    Re, T A; Mooney, D; Antignac, E; Dufour, E; Bark, I; Srinivasan, V; Nohynek, G

    2009-06-01

    Calendula flower (Calendula officinalis) (CF) has been used in herbal medicine because of its anti-inflammatory activity. CF and C. officinalis extracts (CFE) are used as skin conditioning agents in cosmetics. Although data on dermal irritation and sensitization of CF and CFE's are available, the risk of subchronic systemic toxicity following dermal application has not been evaluated. The threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) is a pragmatic, risk assessment based approach that has gained regulatory acceptance for food and has been recently adapted to address cosmetic ingredient safety. The purpose of this paper is to determine if the safe use of CF and CFE can be established based upon the TTC class for each of its known constituents. For each constituent, the concentration in the plant, the molecular weight, and the estimated skin penetration potential were used to calculate a maximal daily systemic exposure which was then compared to its corresponding TTC class value. Since the composition of plant extracts are variable, back calculation was used to determine the maximum acceptable concentration of a given constituent in an extract of CF. This paper demonstrates the utility and practical application of the TTC concept when used as a tool in the safety evaluation of botanical extracts. PMID:19249334

  10. Antimicrobial activity of Calendula officinalis petal extracts against fungi, as well as Gram-negative and Gram-positive clinical pathogens.

    PubMed

    Efstratiou, Efstratios; Hussain, Abdullah I; Nigam, Poonam S; Moore, John E; Ayub, Muhammad A; Rao, Juluri R

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the antimicrobial activity of methanol and ethanol extracts of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis) petals against clinical pathogens. The antimicrobial potential of C. officinalis extracts was evaluated against a panel of microorganisms isolated from patients at the Belfast City Hospital (BCH), including bacteria and fungi, using disc diffusion assay. Methanol extract of C. officinalis exhibited better antibacterial activity against most of the bacteria tested, than ethanol extract. Both methanol and ethanol extracts showed excellent antifungal activity against tested strains of fungi, while comparing with Fluconazole. PMID:22789794

  11. In vitro acaricidal activity of ethanolic and aqueous floral extracts of Calendula officinalis against synthetic pyrethroid resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Godara, R; Katoch, R; Yadav, A; Ahanger, R R; Bhutyal, A D S; Verma, P K; Katoch, M; Dutta, S; Nisa, F; Singh, N K

    2015-09-01

    Detection of resistance levels against deltamethrin and cypermethrin in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from Jammu (India) was carried out using larval packet test (LPT). The results showed the presence of resistance level II and I against deltamethrin and cypermethrin, respectively. Adult immersion test (AIT) and LPT were used to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of ethanolic and aqueous floral extracts of Calendula officinalis against synthetic pyrethroid resistant adults and larvae of R. (B.) microplus. Four concentrations (1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10 %) of each extract with four replications for each concentration were used in both the bioassays. A concentration dependent mortality was observed and it was more marked with ethanolic extract. In AIT, the LC50 values for ethanolic and aqueous extracts were calculated as 9.9 and 12.9 %, respectively. The egg weight of the live ticks treated with different concentrations of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts was significantly lower than that of control ticks; consequently, the reproductive index and the percent inhibition of oviposition values of the treated ticks were reduced. The complete inhibition of hatching was recorded at 10 % of ethanolic extract. The 10 % extracts caused 100 % mortality of larvae after 24 h. In LPT, the LC50 values for ethanolic and aqueous extracts were determined to be 2.6 and 3.2 %, respectively. It can be concluded that the ethanolic extract of C. officinalis had better acaricidal properties against adults and larvae of R. (B.) microplus than the aqueous extract. PMID:26071101

  12. Subacute effect of cigarette smoke exposure in rats: protection by pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) extract.

    PubMed

    Ozkol, Halil; Tülüce, Yasin; Koyuncu, Ismail

    2012-02-01

    This study was carried out to determine the preventive effect of Calendula officinalis L. (pot marigold) on rats exposed to cigarette smoke (CS). Rats were divided into three groups as control, CS and CS + pot marigold (PM). The rats in the CS and CS + PM groups were subjected to CS for 1 h twice a day for 23 days. PM (100 mg/kg body weight) was given to rats in the CS + PM group by gavage, 1 h before each administration period. While malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl contents and reduced glutathione level of the CS group increased, their levels diminished by PM administration. In addition, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase activities and β-carotene, vitamins A and C levels decreased in the CS group compared to control, however activities of these enzymes and concentration of vitamins were elevated by PM supplementation. This investigation showed that administration of PM supplied relative protection against subacute CS-induced cell injury. PMID:21505008

  13. Seed germination of Calendula officinalis 'Carola' in response to temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calendula (Calendula officinalis 'Carola') is a potential agronomic oilseed crop with application in the paint, coating, and cosmetic industry. Calendula has historically been used for herbal medicinal purposes and an ornamental plant. With the discovery that calendula seeds contain high concentrati...

  14. Effect of Calendula officinalis hydroalcoholic extract on passive avoidance learning and memory in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Moradkhani, Shirin; Salehi, Iraj; Abdolmaleki, Somayeh; Komaki, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Medicinal plants, owing to their different mechanisms such as antioxidants effects, may improve learning and memory impairments in diabetic rats. Calendula officinalis (CO), has a significant antioxidant activity. Aims: To examine the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of CO on passive avoidance learning (PAL) and memory in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male rats. Settings and Design: A total of 32 adult male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to four groups: Control, diabetic, control + extract of CO and diabetic control + extract of CO groups with free access to regular rat diet. Subjects and Methods: Diabetes in diabetic rats was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg STZ. After confirmation of diabetes, oral administration of 300 mg/kg CO extract to extract-treated groups have been done. PAL was tested 8 weeks after onset of treatment, and blood glucose and body weight were measured in all groups at the beginning and end of the experiment. Statistical Analysis Used: The statistical analysis of data was performed by ANOVA followed by least significant difference post-hoc analysis. Results: Diabetes decreased learning and memory. Effect of CO extract in retention test (after 24 and 48 h) has been shown a significant decrease in step-through latency and increase in time spent in the dark compartment part. Also the extract partially improved hyperglycemia and reduced body weight. Conclusion: Taken together, CO extract can improve PAL and memory impairments in STZ-diabetic rats. This improvement may be due to its antioxidant, anticholinergic activities or its power to reduce hyperglycemia. PMID:26120230

  15. Optimization of chemometric approaches for the extraction of isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside from Calendula officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Maria Lourdes Leite; da Silva, Heron Dominguez Torres; Blanes, Lucas; Doble, Philip; Tavares, Marina Franco Maggi

    2016-06-01

    The application of Design of Experiments (DoE) to the determination of optimum conditions for an extraction process relies on the correct selection of mathematical models. The linear model is the one typically used; however, in some cases it does not always have superior performance, ignoring the real nature of the data and its appropriate descriptive model. In order to evaluate the extraction efficiency of isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside from flowers of Calendula officinalis L. a multivariate factorial analysis was used. Simulations were conducted using linear, quadratic, full cubic and special cubic models. A Simplex-Centroid design was chosen as it delivered greater precision with only minor errors versus other models tested. Analyses were performed by capillary zone electrophoresis using sodium tetraborate buffer (40mmolL(-1), pH 9.4) containing 10% methanol. The detection was linear over a range of 8.0-50.0mgL(-1) (r(2)=0.996), and the limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) for isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside were 3.44mgL(-1) and 11.47mgL(-1), respectively. The full cubic model showed the best extraction results, with an error of 3.40% compared to analysis of variance, and a determination coefficient of 0.974. The difference between the responses at the reference point, calculated by the model, and the experimental response, varies around 2.72% for full cubic model. Comparison of the four models showed the full cubic model was the most appropriate one, allowing greater efficiency in the extraction of isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside. Selection of the model made it possible to obtain a 60% increase in sensitivity compared to the linear model. PMID:27131151

  16. Antioxidant capacity of calendula officinalis flowers extract and prevention of radiation induced oropharyngeal mucositis in patients with head and neck cancers: a randomized controlled clinical study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of Calendula officinalis flowers extract mouthwash as oral gel on radiation-induced oropharyngeal mucositis (OM) in patients with head-and-neck cancer. Forty patients with neck and head cancers under radiotherapy or concurrent chemoradiotherapy protocols were randomly assigned to receive either 2% calendula extract mouthwash or placebo (20 patients in each group). Patients were treated with telecobalt radiotherapy at conventional fractionation (200 cGy/fraction, five fractions weekly, 30–35 fractions within 4–7 weeks). The oropharyngeal mucositis was evaluated by two clinical investigators (a radiation oncologist and a dentist), using the oral mucositis assessment scale (OMAS). Trying to find out the possible mechanism of action of the treatment, total antioxidant, polyphenol and flavonoid contents, and quercetin concentration of the mouth wash were measured. Calendula mouthwash significantly decreased the intensity of OM compared to placebo at week 2 (score: 5.5 vs. 6.8, p = 0.019), week 3 (score: 8.25 vs. 10.95, p < 0.0001) and week 6 (score: 11.4 vs. 13.35, p = 0.031). Total antioxidant, polyphenol and flavonoid contents and quercetin concentration of the 2% extract were 2353.4 ± 56.5 μM, 313.40 ± 6.52 mg/g, 76.66 ± 23.24 mg/g, and 19.41 ± 4.34 mg/l, respectively. Calendula extract gel could be effective on decreasing the intensity of radiotherapy- induced OM during the treatment and antioxidant capacity may be partly responsible for the effect. PMID:23497687

  17. Antioxidant capacity of calendula officinalis flowers extract and prevention of radiation induced oropharyngeal mucositis in patients with head and neck cancers: a randomized controlled clinical study.

    PubMed

    Babaee, Neda; Moslemi, Dariush; Khalilpour, Mohammad; Vejdani, Fatemeh; Moghadamnia, Yasaman; Bijani, Ali; Baradaran, Mahmoud; Kazemi, Mohammad Taghi; Khalilpour, Asieh; Pouramir, Mahdi; Moghadamnia, Ali Akbar

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of Calendula officinalis flowers extract mouthwash as oral gel on radiation-induced oropharyngeal mucositis (OM) in patients with head-and-neck cancer. Forty patients with neck and head cancers under radiotherapy or concurrent chemoradiotherapy protocols were randomly assigned to receive either 2% calendula extract mouthwash or placebo (20 patients in each group). Patients were treated with telecobalt radiotherapy at conventional fractionation (200 cGy/fraction, five fractions weekly, 30-35 fractions within 4-7 weeks). The oropharyngeal mucositis was evaluated by two clinical investigators (a radiation oncologist and a dentist), using the oral mucositis assessment scale (OMAS). Trying to find out the possible mechanism of action of the treatment, total antioxidant, polyphenol and flavonoid contents, and quercetin concentration of the mouth wash were measured. Calendula mouthwash significantly decreased the intensity of OM compared to placebo at week 2 (score: 5.5 vs. 6.8, p = 0.019), week 3 (score: 8.25 vs. 10.95, p < 0.0001) and week 6 (score: 11.4 vs. 13.35, p = 0.031). Total antioxidant, polyphenol and flavonoid contents and quercetin concentration of the 2% extract were 2353.4 ± 56.5 μM, 313.40 ± 6.52 mg/g, 76.66 ± 23.24 mg/g, and 19.41 ± 4.34 mg/l, respectively. Calendula extract gel could be effective on decreasing the intensity of radiotherapy- induced OM during the treatment and antioxidant capacity may be partly responsible for the effect. PMID:23497687

  18. Total antioxidant and oxidant status of plasma and renal tissue of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxic rats: protection by floral extracts of Calendula officinalis Linn.

    PubMed

    Verma, Pawan Kumar; Raina, Rajinder; Sultana, Mudasir; Singh, Maninder; Kumar, Pawan

    2016-01-01

    The present study was aimed to determine the total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) of plasma and renal tissue in cisplatin (cDDP) induced nephrotoxic rats and its protection by treatments with floral extracts of Calendula officinalis Linn. Treatment with cDDP elevated (p < 0.05) the levels of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine (CR), TOS, OSI and malondialdehyde (MDA) but lowered (p < 0.05) total plasma proteins, TAS, total thiols (TTH), blood glutathione (GSH) and antioxidant enzymes compared to the control group. Pre- and post-treatments of ethanolic floral extract of C. officinalis along with cDDP restored (p > 0.05) CR, albumin, TOS, GSH and activities of antioxidant enzymes in blood and renal tissue. Ethanolic extract treatments reduced (p < 0.05) MDA level in renal tissue without restoring the erythrocyte MDA level following cDDP treatment. These observations were further supported by the histopathological findings in renal tissue. Observations of the present study have shown that treatments with ethanolic floral extract of C. officinalis protect cDDP induced nephrotoxicity by restoring antioxidant system of the renal tissue. PMID:26513373

  19. Effect of Calendula officinalis cream on achilles tendon healing.

    PubMed

    Aro, A A; Perez, M O; Vieira, C P; Esquisatto, M A M; Rodrigues, R A F; Gomes, L; Pimentel, E R

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, the scientific community has undertaken research on plant extracts, searching for compounds with pharmacological activities that can be used in diverse fields of medicine. Calendula officinalis L. is known to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and wound healing properties when used to treat skin burns. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of C. officinalis on the initial phase of Achilles tendon healing. Wistar rats were separated in three groups: Calendula (Cal)-rats with a transected tendon were treated with topical applications of C. officinalis cream and then euthanized 7 days after injury; Control (C)-rats were treated with only vehicle after transection; and Normal (N)-rats without tenotomy. Higher concentrations of hydroxyproline (an indicator of total collagen) and non-collagenous proteins were observed in the Cal group in relation to the C group. Zymography showed no difference in the amount of the isoforms of metalloproteinase-2 and of metalloproteinase-9, between C and Cal groups. Polarization microscopy images analysis showed that the Cal group presented a slightly higher birefringence compared with the C group. In sections of tendons stained with toluidine blue, the transected groups presented higher metachromasy as compared with the N group. Immunocytochemistry analysis for chondroitin-6-sulfate showed no difference between the C and Cal groups. In conclusion, the topical application of C. officinalis after tendon transection increases the concentrations of collagen and non-collagenous proteins, as well as the collagen organization in the initial phase of healing. PMID:25266273

  20. Growth and yield response of calendula (Calendula officinalis) to sowing date in the northern U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calendula (Calendula officinalis L.) seed is a rich source of the conjugated C18:3 fatty acid calendic acid and can serve as a replacement for VOCs in many industrial chemicals such as paints, coatings and adhesives. Calendula is widely adapted to temperate climates and may be a beneficial rotationa...

  1. Calendula

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tagets genus, which are commonly grown in vegetable gardens. ... Caléndula, Calendula officinalis, Calendule, English Garden Marigold, Fleur de Calendule, Fleur de Tous les Mois, Garden Marigold, Gold-Bloom, Holligold, Marigold, Marybud, Pot Marigold, Souci des Champs, ...

  2. A Prospective, Descriptive Study to Assess the Clinical Benefits of Using Calendula officinalis Hydroglycolic Extract for the Topical Treatment of Diabetic Foot Ulcers.

    PubMed

    Buzzi, Marcelo; de Freitas, Franciele; Winter, Marcos

    2016-03-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) have a significant impact on patient quality of life. A prospective, descriptive pilot study was conducted between May 2012 and December 2013 through the dermatology outpatient unit in a Brazilian hospital to evaluate the clinical benefits of using Calendula officinalis hydroglycolic extract in the treatment of DFUs. Patients diagnosed with a stable neuropathic ulcer of >3 months' duration; ranging in size from 0.5-40 cm(2); without osteomyelitis, gangrene, bone exposure, cancer, or deep tissue infection; ages 18-90 years; with adequate glycemic control and no history of an allergy to C. officinalis were enrolled. Patients provided demographic and diabetes-related information and were evaluated biweekly for 30 weeks or until healing (ie, full epithelialization with no wound drainage). DFUs were measured and clinically examined for microbiological flora and presence of odor, tissue type (eg, granulation, fibrin sloth, necrosis), exudate, and retraction rate using planimetry images. Patients' blood tests and neuropathic pain assessment (the latter by clinician-directed questionnaire) were performed at baseline and the end of treatment; pain also was assessed during dressing changes using a 10-point rating scale. Patients' ulcers were treated twice daily with C. officinalis hydroglycolic extract spray solution and covered with saline-moistened, sterile, nonadherent gauze and bandages followed by foot offloading with adequate protective footwear. Patients received their first treatment in the clinic then performed care at home. From a potential population of 109 patients, 25 did not meet the inclusion criteria. Of the remaining 84 participants enrolled, 43 withdrew before study completion; cited reasons included lost to follow-up (16), medical judgment (2), failure to attend >3 scheduled visits (17), protocol violation (5), and death (3). Forty-one (41) - 17 women, average age 62 years (range 44-82 years), average glycemic level 153 mg

  3. DNA-based identification of Calendula officinalis (Asteraceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Schmiderer, Corinna; Lukas, Brigitte; Ruzicka, Joana; Novak, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: For the economically important species Calendula officinalis, a fast identification assay based on high-resolution melting curve analysis was designed. This assay was developed to distinguish C. officinalis from other species of the genus and other Asteraceae genera, and to detect C. officinalis as an adulterant of saffron samples. Methods and Results: For this study, five markers (ITS, rbcL, 5′ trnK-matK, psbA-trnH, trnL-trnF) of 10 Calendula species were sequenced and analyzed for species-specific mutations. With the application of two developed primer pairs located in the trnK 5′ intron and trnL-trnF, C. officinalis could be distinguished from other species of the genus and all outgroup samples tested. Adulterations of Calendula DNA in saffron could be detected down to 0.01%. Conclusions: With the developed assay, C. officinalis can be reliably identified and admixtures of this species as adulterant of saffron can be revealed at low levels. PMID:26649268

  4. Amelioration of myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury with Calendula officinalis.

    PubMed

    Ray, Diptarka; Mukherjee, Subhendu; Falchi, Mario; Bertelli, Aldo; Das, Dipak K

    2010-12-01

    Calendula officinalis of family Asteraceae, also known as marigold, has been widely used from time immemorial in Indian and Arabic cultures as an anti-inflammatory agent to treat minor skin wound and infections, burns, bee stings, sunburn and cancer. At a relatively high dose, calendula can lower blood pressure and cholesterol. Since inflammatory responses are behind many cardiac diseases, we sought to evaluate if calendula could be cardioprotective against ischemic heart disease Two groups of hearts were used: the treated rat hearts were perfused with calendula solution at 50 mM in KHB buffer (in mM: sodium chloride 118, potassium chloride 4.7, calcium chloride 1.7, sodium bicarbonate 25, potassium biphosphate 0.36, magnesium sulfate 1.2, and glucose 10) for 15 min prior to subjecting the heart to ischemia, while the control group was perfused with the buffer only. Calendula achieved cardioprotection by stimulating left ventricular developed pressure and aortic flow as well as by reducing myocardial infarct size and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Cardioprotection appears to be achieved by changing ischemia reperfusion-mediated death signal into a survival signal by modulating antioxidant and anti-inflammatory pathways as evidenced by the activation of Akt and Bcl2 and depression of TNFα. The results further strengthen the concept of using natural products in degeneration diseases like ischemic heart disease. PMID:20874690

  5. Dietary Supplementation of Calendula officinalis Counteracts the Oxidative Stress and Liver Damage Resulted from Aflatoxin

    PubMed Central

    Hamzawy, Mohamed A.; El-Denshary, Ezzeldein S. M.; Hassan, Nabila S.; Mannaa, Fathia A.; Abdel-Wahhab, Mosaad A.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the total phenolic compounds, the antioxidant properties, and the hepatorenoprotective potential of Calendula officinalis extract against aflatoxins (AFs-) induced liver damage. Six groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated for 6 weeks included the control; the group fed AFs-contaminated diet (2.5 mg/kg diet); the groups treated orally with Calendula extract at low (CA1) and high (CA2) doses (500 and 1000 mg/kg b.w); the groups treated orally with CA1 and CA2 one week before and during AFs treatment for other five weeks. The results showed that the ethanol extract contained higher phenolic compounds and posses higher 1,1-diphenyl 1-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity than the aqueous extract. Animals fed AFs-contaminated diet showed significant disturbances in serum biochemical parameters, inflammatory cytokines, and the histological and histochemical pictures of the liver accompanied by a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) and a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in liver. Calendula extract succeeded to improve the biochemical parameters, inflammatory cytokines, decreased the oxidative stress, and improved the histological pictures in the liver of rats fed AFs-contaminated diet in a dose-dependent manner. It could be concluded that Calendula extract has potential hepatoprotective effects against AFs due to its antioxidant properties and radical scavenging activity. PMID:24959547

  6. Dietary Supplementation of Calendula officinalis Counteracts the Oxidative Stress and Liver Damage Resulted from Aflatoxin.

    PubMed

    Hamzawy, Mohamed A; El-Denshary, Ezzeldein S M; Hassan, Nabila S; Mannaa, Fathia A; Abdel-Wahhab, Mosaad A

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the total phenolic compounds, the antioxidant properties, and the hepatorenoprotective potential of Calendula officinalis extract against aflatoxins (AFs-) induced liver damage. Six groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated for 6 weeks included the control; the group fed AFs-contaminated diet (2.5 mg/kg diet); the groups treated orally with Calendula extract at low (CA1) and high (CA2) doses (500 and 1000 mg/kg b.w); the groups treated orally with CA1 and CA2 one week before and during AFs treatment for other five weeks. The results showed that the ethanol extract contained higher phenolic compounds and posses higher 1,1-diphenyl 1-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity than the aqueous extract. Animals fed AFs-contaminated diet showed significant disturbances in serum biochemical parameters, inflammatory cytokines, and the histological and histochemical pictures of the liver accompanied by a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) and a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in liver. Calendula extract succeeded to improve the biochemical parameters, inflammatory cytokines, decreased the oxidative stress, and improved the histological pictures in the liver of rats fed AFs-contaminated diet in a dose-dependent manner. It could be concluded that Calendula extract has potential hepatoprotective effects against AFs due to its antioxidant properties and radical scavenging activity. PMID:24959547

  7. Controlled release of an extract of Calendula officinalis flowers from a system based on the incorporation of gelatin-collagen microparticles into collagen I scaffolds: design and in vitro performance.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Ronald A; Millán, Diana; Suesca, Edward; Sosnik, Alejandro; Fontanilla, Marta R

    2015-06-01

    Aiming to develop biological skin dresses with improved performance in the treatment of skin wounds, acellular collagen I scaffolds were modified with polymeric microparticles and the subsequent loading of a hydroglycolic extract of Calendula officinalis flowers. Microparticles made of gelatin-collagen were produced by a water-in-oil emulsion/cross-linking method. Thereafter, these microparticles were mixed with collagen suspensions at three increasing concentrations and the resulting mixtures lyophilized to make microparticle-loaded porous collagen scaffolds. Resistance to enzymatic degradation, ability to associate with the C. officinalis extract, and the extract release profile of the three gelatin-collagen microparticle-scaffold prototypes were assessed in vitro and compared to collagen scaffolds without microparticles used as control. Data indicated that the incorporation of gelatin-collagen microparticles increased the resistance of the scaffolds to in vitro enzymatic degradation, as well as their association with the C. officinalis flower extract. In addition, a sharp decrease in cytotoxicity, as well as more prolonged release of the extract, was attained. Overall results support the potential of these systems to develop innovative dermal substitutes with improved features. Furthermore, the gelatin-collagen mixture represents a low-cost and scalable alternative with high clinical transferability, especially appealing in developing countries. PMID:25787728

  8. Preclinical evaluation of collagen type I scaffolds, including gelatin-collagen microparticles and loaded with a hydroglycolic Calendula officinalis extract in a lagomorph model of full-thickness skin wound.

    PubMed

    Millán, D; Jiménez, R A; Nieto, L E; Linero, I; Laverde, M; Fontanilla, M R

    2016-02-01

    Previously, we have developed collagen type I scaffolds including microparticles of gelatin-collagen type I (SGC) that are able to control the release of a hydroglycolic extract of the Calendula officinalis flower. The main goal of the present work was to carry out the preclinical evaluation of SGC alone or loaded with the C. officinalis extract (SGC-E) in a lagomorph model of full-thickness skin wound. A total of 39 rabbits were distributed in three groups, of 13 animals each. The first group was used to compare wound healing by secondary intention (control) with wound healing observed when wounds were grafted with SGC alone. Comparison of control wounds with wounds grafted with SGC-E was performed in the second group, and comparison of wounds grafted with SGC with wounds grafted with SGC-E was performed in the third group. Clinical follow-ups were carried in all animals after surgery, and histological and histomorphometric analyses were performed on tissues taken from the healed area and healthy surrounding tissue. Histological and histomorphometric results indicate that grafting of SGC alone favors wound healing and brings a better clinical outcome than grafting SGC-E. In vitro collagenase digestion data suggested that the association of the C. officinalis extract to SGC increased the SGC-E cross-linking, making it difficult to degrade and affecting its biocompatibility. PMID:26597789

  9. Componential profile and amylase inhibiting activity of phenolic compounds from Calendula officinalis L. leaves.

    PubMed

    Olennikov, Daniil N; Kashchenko, Nina I

    2014-01-01

    An ethanolic extract and its ethyl acetate-soluble fraction from leaves of Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) were found to show an inhibitory effect on amylase. From the crude extract fractions, one new phenolic acid glucoside, 6'-O-vanilloyl-β-D-glucopyranose, was isolated, together with twenty-four known compounds including five phenolic acid glucosides, five phenylpropanoids, five coumarins, and nine flavonoids. Their structures were elucidated based on chemical and spectral data. The main components, isoquercitrin, isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, and quercetin-3-O-(6''-acetyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside, exhibited potent inhibitory effects on amylase. PMID:24683352

  10. Assessment of In vitro Sun Protection Factor of Calendula Officinalis L. (Asteraceae) Essential Oil Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, AK; Mishra, A; Chattopadhyay, P

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to study the sunscreen activity of herbal formulation. There is no evidence of the sun protection factor (SPF) studies on essential oil of Calendula flowers (Calendula officinalis L., Asteraceae). The study investigates the in vitro SPF by ultraviolet specrtophotometry method of Calendula flower oil in a cream formulation. Calendula oil was isolated by Clavenger's apparatus, compositions were identified by GC–MS and the cream of calendula flower oil was prepared by homogenization method followed by evaluation for physical parameters. The sun protection factor of cream was evaluated by in vitro method employing UV–visible spectrophotometer (Shimazdu-1600). The SPF of Calendula oil in cream formulation exhibited good activity (SPF = 14.84 ± 0.16). Finding of this study suggested that calendula oil cream can be used to protect the skin from UV radiations in form of sunscreen cream and to maintain the natural pigmentation of the skin. PMID:22523455

  11. Healing Acceleration of Acetic Acid-induced Colitis by Marigold (Calendula officinalis) in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tanideh, Nader; Jamshidzadeh, Akram; Sepehrimanesh, Masood; Hosseinzadeh, Masood; Koohi-Hosseinabadi, Omid; Najibi, Asma; Raam, Mozhdeh; Daneshi, Sajad; Asadi-Yousefabad, Seyedeh-Leili

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a type of chronic inflammatory bowel disease with unknown etiology. Several therapeutic strategies such as consumption of medicinal plants have been used for its treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate healing effects of Calendula officinalis hydroalcoholic extract in experimentally induced UC in rat. Materials and Methods: Ninety-six rats, weighing 200 ± 20 g, were randomly divided into eight equal groups. UC induced by 3% acetic acid and oral doses of C. officinalis extract, 1500 and 3000 mg/kg, and enema (gel 10% and 20%) were given. Two groups as positive controls were given asacol (enema) and oral mesalamine. Negative control groups were given normal saline and base gel. On days 3 and 7, intestinal histopathology and weight changes, plus oxidative stress indices including malondialdehyde (MDA) level and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were assayed. Results: A significant increase in the body weight of rats was seen in the group given C. officinalis extract 3000 mg/kg orally, oral mesalamine, and 20% intracolonic gel form of marigold extract compared with negative control and base gel groups during the experimental period. Acute inflammation and granular atrophy after UC induction were resolved completely completely by both 20% intracolonic gel and 3000 mg/kg orally. An increase in MPO activity and a decrease in MDA level in response to oral and intracolonic gel form of C. officinalis were observed 3 and and 7 days after treatment (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Our results indicate that oral and enema forms of hydroalcoholic extract of C. officinalis can be offered as are potential therapeutic agents for UC induced in rats. PMID:26831607

  12. Chemical characterization and bioactive properties of two aromatic plants: Calendula officinalis L. (flowers) and Mentha cervina L. (leaves).

    PubMed

    Miguel, María; Barros, Lillian; Pereira, Carla; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Garcia, Pablo A; Castro, MaÁngeles; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-05-18

    The chemical composition and bioactive properties of two plants (Calendula officinalis L. and Mentha cervina L.) were studied. Their nutritional value revealed a high content of carbohydrates and low fat levels, and very similar energy values. However, they presented different profiles in phenolic compounds and fatty acids; C. officinalis presented mainly glycosylated flavonols and saturated fatty acids, while M. cervina presented mainly caffeoyl derivatives and polyunsaturated fatty acids. M. cervina showed the highest concentration of phenolic compounds while C. officinalis presented higher amounts of sugars, organic acids and tocopherols. The highest antioxidant and cytotoxic activities were obtained for the hydromethanolic extract of M. cervina, which presented the lowest values of EC50 and exhibited cytotoxicity against the four tumor cell lines tested. Infusions showed no cytotoxicity for the tumor cell lines, and none of the extracts showed toxicity against non-tumor cells. This study contributes to expand the knowledge on both natural sources and therefore their use. PMID:27110832

  13. Biological Activities of Oleanolic Acid Derivatives from Calendula officinalis Seeds.

    PubMed

    Zaki, Ahmed; Ashour, Ahmed; Mira, Amira; Kishikawa, Asuka; Nakagawa, Toshinori; Zhu, Qinchang; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2016-05-01

    Phytochemical examination of butanol fraction of Calendula officinalis seeds led to the isolation of two compounds identified as 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-oleanolic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (CS1) and oleanolic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (CS2). Biological evaluation was carried out for these two compounds such as melanin biosynthesis inhibitory, hyaluronic acid production activities, anti obesity using lipase inhibition and adipocyte differentiation as well as evaluation of the protective effect against hydrogen peroxide induced neurotoxicity in neuro-2A cells. The results showed that, compound CS2 has a melanin biosynthesis stimulatory activity; however, compound CS1 has a potent stimulatory effect for the production of hyaluronic acid on normal human dermal fibroblast from adult (NHDF-Ad). Both compounds did not show any inhibitory effect on both lipase and adipocyte differentiation. Compound CS2 could protect neuro-2A cells and increased cell viability against H2 O2 . These activities (melanin biosynthesis stimulatory and protective effect against H2 O2 of CS2 and hyaluronic acid productive activities of these triterpene derivatives) have been reported for the first time. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26887328

  14. Antifungal activity of the essential oil from Calendula officinalis L. (asteraceae) growing in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gazim, Zilda Cristiane; Rezende, Claudia Moraes; Fraga, Sandra Regina; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivaleti; Cortez, Diógenes Aparicio Garcia

    2008-01-01

    This study tested in vitro activity of the essential oil from flowers of Calendula officinalis using disk-diffusion techniques. The antifungal assay results showed for the first time that the essential oil has good potential antifungal activity: it was effective against all 23 clinical fungi strains tested. PMID:24031180

  15. Calendula

    MedlinePlus

    Calendula is a plant. The flower is used to make medicine. Calendula flower is used to prevent muscle spasms, start ... menstrual cramps, cancer, and stomach and duodenal ulcers. Calendula is applied to the skin to reduce pain ...

  16. Carotenoid isomerase is key determinant of petal color of Calendula officinalis.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Sanae; Ohmiya, Akemi

    2012-01-01

    Orange petals of calendula (Calendula officinalis) accumulate red carotenoids with the cis-configuration at the C-5 or C-5' position (5-cis-carotenoids). We speculated that the orange-flowered calendula is a carotenoid isomerase (crtiso) loss-of-function mutant that impairs the cis-to-trans conversion of 5-cis-carotenoids. We compared the sequences and enzyme activities of CRTISO from orange- and yellow-flowered calendulas. Four types of CRTISO were expressed in calendula petals. The deduced amino acid sequence of one of these genes (CoCRTISO1) was different between orange- and yellow-flowered calendulas, whereas the sequences of the other three CRTISOs were identical between these plants. Analysis of the enzymatic activities of the CoCRTISO homologs showed that CoCRTISO1-Y, which was expressed in yellow petals, converted carotenoids from the cis-to-trans-configuration, whereas both CoCRTISO1-ORa and 1-ORb, which were expressed in orange petals, showed no activity with any of the cis-carotenoids we tested. Moreover, the CoCRTISO1 genotypes of the F2 progeny obtained by crossing orange and yellow lines linked closely to petal color. These data indicate that CoCRTISO1 is a key regulator of the accumulation of 5-cis-carotenoids in calendula petals. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that the deletion of Cys-His-His at positions 462-464 in CoCRTISO1-ORa and a Gly-to-Glu amino acid substitution at position 450 in CoCRTISO1-ORb abolished enzyme activity completely, indicating that these amino acid residues are important for the enzymatic activity of CRTISO. PMID:22069331

  17. Structure and cytotoxic activity of sesquiterpene glycoside esters from Calendula officinalis L.: Studies on the conformation of viridiflorol.

    PubMed

    D'Ambrosio, Michele; Ciocarlan, Alexandru; Colombo, Elisa; Guerriero, Antonio; Pizza, Cosimo; Sangiovanni, Enrico; Dell'Agli, Mario

    2015-09-01

    Topic applications of Calendula officinalis L. lipophilic extracts are used in phytotherapy to relieve skin inflammatory conditions whereas infusions are used as a remedy for gastric complaints. Such a different usage might be explained by some cytotoxicity of lipophilic extracts at gastric level but little is known about this. Therefore, we screened the CH2Cl2 extract from the flowers of C. officinalis by MTT and LDH assays in human epithelial gastric cells AGS. This bioassay-oriented approach led to the isolation of several sesquiterpene glycosides which were structurally characterized by spectroscopic measurements, chemical reactions and MM calculations. The conformational preferences of viridiflorol fucoside were established and a previously assigned stereochemistry was revised. The compounds 1a, 2a and 3f showed comparably high cytotoxicity in the MTT assays, whereas the effect on LDH release was lower. Our study provides new insights on the composition of C. officinalis extracts of medium polarity and identifies the main compounds that could be responsible for cytotoxic effects at gastric level. PMID:26057223

  18. Usage of Calendula officinalis in the prevention and treatment of radiodermatitis: a randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Franciane; Danski, Mitzy Tannia Reichembach; Vayego, Stela Adami

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy of Calendula officinalis in relation to Essential Fatty Acids for the prevention and treatment of radiodermatitis. METHOD This is a randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial with 51 patients with head and neck cancer in radiotherapy treatment divided into two groups: control (27) and experimental (24). RESULTS There is statistically significant evidence (p-value = 0.0120) that the proportion of radiodermatitis grade 2 in Essential Fatty Acids group is higher than Calendula group. Through the Kaplan-Meier survival curve we observed that Essential Fatty Acids group has always remained below the Calendula group survival curve, due to the lower risk of developing radiodermatitis grade 1, which makes the usage of Calendula more effective, with statistical significance (p-value = 0.00402). CONCLUSION Calendula showed better therapeutic response than the Essential Fatty Acids in the prevention and treatment of radiodermatitis. Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials: RBR-237v4b. PMID:25992820

  19. Qualitative and quantitative high performance thin layer chromatography analysis of Calendula officinalis using high resolution plate imaging and artificial neural network data modelling.

    PubMed

    Agatonovic-Kustrin, S; Loescher, Christine M

    2013-10-10

    Calendula officinalis, commonly known Marigold, has been traditionally used for its anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of an artificial neural network (ANN) to analyse thin layer chromatography (TLC) chromatograms as fingerprint patterns for quantitative estimation of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and rutin in Calendula plant extracts. By applying samples with different weight ratios of marker compounds to the system, a database of chromatograms was constructed. A hundred and one signal intensities in each of the HPTLC chromatograms were correlated to the amounts of applied chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and rutin using an ANN. The developed ANN correlation was used to quantify the amounts of 3 marker compounds in calendula plant extracts. The minimum quantifiable level (MQL) of 610, 190 and 940 ng and the limit of detection (LD) of 183, 57 and 282 ng were established for chlorogenic, caffeic acid and rutin, respectively. A novel method for quality control of herbal products, based on HPTLC separation, high resolution digital plate imaging and ANN data analysis has been developed. The proposed method can be adopted for routine evaluation of the phytochemical variability in calendula extracts. PMID:24070490

  20. A Bio-Guided Fractionation to Assess the Inhibitory Activity of Calendula officinalis L. on the NF-κB Driven Transcription in Human Gastric Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Elisa; Sangiovanni, Enrico; D'Ambrosio, Michele; Bosisio, Enrica; Ciocarlan, Alexandru; Fumagalli, Marco; Guerriero, Antonio; Harghel, Petru; Dell'Agli, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Calendula officinalis L. has been largely known for its topical anti-inflammatory properties; however, there are no experimental evidences about its antiphlogistic effect at the gastric level. To investigate whether marigold might exert an activity against gastric inflammation, a CH2Cl2 extract obtained from C. officinalis flowers was evaluated in vitro on the NF-κB pathway. The lipophilic extract demonstrated a significant inhibitory effect on the NF-κB driven transcription. The identification of active compounds was conducted by a bio-guided fractionation of the extract that afforded 16 fractions. Fraction J exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibitory activity on the NF-κB driven transcription and significantly contributed to the antiphlogistic effect showed by CH2Cl2 extract. The main components of fraction J were loliolide and the fucoside acetates of β-eudesmol and viridiflorol. HPLC analysis of fractions D and E led to the identification and isolation of triterpene esters that showed a concentration-dependent inhibition of the NF-κB driven transcription, with faradiol-3-myristate and the corresponding aglycone being the most active compounds. The present study provides some experimental evidences that Calendula officinalis L. may exert an anti-inflammatory activity on the gastric district by the inhibition of the NF-κB system, identifying the compounds responsible, at least in part, for the observed effect. PMID:26491463

  1. A Bio-Guided Fractionation to Assess the Inhibitory Activity of Calendula officinalis L. on the NF-κB Driven Transcription in Human Gastric Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Elisa; Sangiovanni, Enrico; D'Ambrosio, Michele; Bosisio, Enrica; Ciocarlan, Alexandru; Fumagalli, Marco; Guerriero, Antonio; Harghel, Petru; Dell'Agli, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Calendula officinalis L. has been largely known for its topical anti-inflammatory properties; however, there are no experimental evidences about its antiphlogistic effect at the gastric level. To investigate whether marigold might exert an activity against gastric inflammation, a CH2Cl2 extract obtained from C. officinalis flowers was evaluated in vitro on the NF-κB pathway. The lipophilic extract demonstrated a significant inhibitory effect on the NF-κB driven transcription. The identification of active compounds was conducted by a bio-guided fractionation of the extract that afforded 16 fractions. Fraction J exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibitory activity on the NF-κB driven transcription and significantly contributed to the antiphlogistic effect showed by CH2Cl2 extract. The main components of fraction J were loliolide and the fucoside acetates of β-eudesmol and viridiflorol. HPLC analysis of fractions D and E led to the identification and isolation of triterpene esters that showed a concentration-dependent inhibition of the NF-κB driven transcription, with faradiol-3-myristate and the corresponding aglycone being the most active compounds. The present study provides some experimental evidences that Calendula officinalis L. may exert an anti-inflammatory activity on the gastric district by the inhibition of the NF-κB system, identifying the compounds responsible, at least in part, for the observed effect. PMID:26491463

  2. High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of Calendula officinalis-advantages and limitations.

    PubMed

    Loescher, Christine M; Morton, David W; Razic, Slavica; Agatonovic-Kustrin, Snezana

    2014-09-01

    Chromatography techniques such as HPTLC and HPLC are commonly used to produce a chemical fingerprint of a plant to allow identification and quantify the main constituents within the plant. The aims of this study were to compare HPTLC and HPLC, for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major constituents of Calendula officinalis and to investigate the effect of different extraction techniques on the C. officinalis extract composition from different parts of the plant. The results found HPTLC to be effective for qualitative analysis, however, HPLC was found to be more accurate for quantitative analysis. A combination of the two methods may be useful in a quality control setting as it would allow rapid qualitative analysis of herbal material while maintaining accurate quantification of extract composition. PMID:24880991

  3. Evaluation of chemical enhancement on phytoremediation effect of Cd-contaminated soils with Calendula officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianv; Zhou, Qixing; Wang, Song

    2010-07-01

    The popular ornamental plant Calendula officinalis L was studied for its potential application in the phytoremediation of cadmium (Cd)-contaminated soils. Enhancements to the Cd accumulation by the application of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (EDTA) and ethylenegluatarotriacetic acid (EGTA) to the soil were investigated. Under these chemically enhanced treatments, EDTA was observed to be toxic to the plants leading to retarded growth. However, the application of SDS and/or EGTA was shown to result in significantly increased plant biomass (p < 0.05). Most of the chemical treatments resulted in increases to the shoot and root Cd concentrations, with the root Cd concentration being consistently higher than that shoot Cd concentration. Almost all of the investigated chemical treatments containing SDS or and EGTA were shown to lead to an increase in the total Cd content in the plants (p < 0.05). The application of EGTA alone led to an observed total Cd increase of up to 217%. This investigation revealed considerable efficiency of chemical enhancement and correspondingly increased potential of Calendula officinalis L. for applications of phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated sites. PMID:21166291

  4. Phenotypic and biochemical profile changes in calendula (Calendula officinalis L.) plants treated with two chemical mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    El-Nashar, Y I; Asrar, A A

    2016-01-01

    Chemical mutagenesis is an efficient tool used in mutation-breeding programs to improve the vital characters of the floricultural crops. This study aimed to estimate the effects of different concentrations of two chemical mutagens; sodium azide (SA) and diethyl sulfate (DES). The vegetative growth and flowering characteristics in two generations (M1 and M2) of calendula plants were investigated. Seeds were treated with five different concentrations of SA and DES (at the same rates) of 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, and 5000 ppm, in addition to a control treatment of 0 ppm. Results showed that lower concentrations of SA mutagen had significant effects on seed germination percentage, plant height, leaf area, plant fresh weight, flowering date, inflorescence diameter, and gas-exchange measurements in plants of both generations. Calendula plants tended to flower earlier under low mutagen concentrations (1000 ppm), whereas higher concentrations delayed flowering significantly. Positive results on seed germination, plant height, number of branches, plant fresh weight, and leaf area were observed in the M2-generation at lower concentrations of SA (1000 ppm), as well as at 4000 ppm DES on number of leaves and inflorescences. The highest total soluble protein was detected at the concentrations of 1000 ppm SA and 2000 ppm DES. DES showed higher average of acid phosphatase activity than SA. Results indicated that lower concentrations of SA and DES mutagens had positive effects on seed germination percentage, plant height, leaf area, plant fresh weight, flowering date, inflorescence diameter, and gas-exchange measurements. Thus, lower mutagen concentrations could be recommended for better floral and physio-chemical performance. PMID:27173326

  5. PI3K-mediated proliferation of fibroblasts by Calendula officinalis tincture: implication in wound healing.

    PubMed

    Dinda, Manikarna; Dasgupta, Uma; Singh, Namrata; Bhattacharyya, Debasish; Karmakar, Parimal

    2015-04-01

    Calendula officinalis, a member of the Asteraceae family, is a flowering plant and has been used for its antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiinflammatory, anticancer and wound healing activity. The mode of action of C. officinalis tincture on wound healing is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of C. officinalis tincture (CDOT) on cell viability and wound closure. C. officinalis tincture stimulated both proliferation and migration of fibroblasts in a statistically significant manner in a PI3K-dependent pathway. The increase in phosphorylation of FAK (Tyr 397) and Akt (Ser 473) was detected after treatment of CDOT. Inhibition of the PI3K pathway by wortmannin and LY294002 decreased both cell proliferation and cell migration. HPLC-ESI MS revealed the presence of flavonol glycosides as the major compounds of CDOT. Altogether, our results showed that CDOT potentiated wound healing by stimulating proliferation and migration of fibroblast in a PI3K-dependent pathway, and the identified compounds are likely to be responsible for wound healing activity. PMID:25641010

  6. Evaluation of Calendula officinalis as an anti-plaque and anti-gingivitis agent

    PubMed Central

    Khairnar, Mayur Sudhakar; Pawar, Babita; Marawar, Pramod Parashram; Mani, Ameet

    2013-01-01

    Background: Calendula officinalis (C. officinalis), commonly known as pot marigold, is a medicinal herb with excellent antimicrobial, wound healing, and anti-inflammatory activity. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of C. officinalis in reducing dental plaque and gingival inflammation. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and forty patients within the age group of 20-40 years were enrolled in this study with their informed consent. Patients having gingivitis (probing depth (PD) ≤3 mm), with a complaint of bleeding gums were included in this study. Patients with periodontitis PD ≥ 4 mm, desquamative gingivitis, acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG), smokers under antibiotic coverage, and any other history of systemic diseases or conditions, including pregnancy, were excluded from the study. The subjects were randomly assigned into two groups – test group (n = 120) and control group (n = 120). All the test group patients were advised to dilute 2 ml of tincture of calendula with 6 ml of distilled water and rinse their mouths once in the morning and once in the evening for six months. Similarly, the control group patients were advised to use 8 ml distilled water (placebo) as control mouthwash and rinse mouth twice daily for six months. Clinical parameters like the plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), sulcus bleeding index (SBI), and oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S) were recorded at baseline (first visit), third month (second visit), and sixth month (third visit) by the same operator, to rule out variable results. During the second visit, after recording the clinical parameters, each patient was subjected to undergo a thorough scaling procedure. Patients were instructed to carry out regular routine oral hygiene maintenance without any reinforcement in it. Results: In the absence of scaling (that is, between the first and second visit), the test group showed a statistically significant reduction in the scores of PI, GI, SBI (except OHI-S) (P < 0

  7. [Pharmacology of calenduloside B, a new triterpene glycoside from the roots of Calendula officinalis].

    PubMed

    Iatsyno, A I; Belova, L F; Lipkina, G S; Sokolov, S I; Trutneva, E A

    1978-01-01

    Calendulozide B--trioside of oleanolic acid, isolated from rhizomes of Calendula officinalis, Fam. Compositae, used perorally in doses of 5, 10, 20 and 50 mg/kg exerted an antiulcerous action in 3 experimental ulcer models of different genesis (caffein-arsenic, butadion and induced by ligation of pylorus) and also displayed a certain antiphlogistic and sedative action. It did not have any effect on the cardiovascular system, the tone of intestinal smooth muscles, diuretic renal function and electrolytes excretion with urine or on the biligenic function of the liver. The drug is devoid of locally irritation properties, manifests a relatively low hemolytic activity (15000 after Kofler) and an insignificant toxicity both with its one-time and chronic administration. PMID:700077

  8. Fatty acid composition of lipids in pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) seed genotypes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Calendula officinalis L. (pot marigold) is an annual aromatic herb with yellow or golden-orange flowers, native to the Mediterranean climate areas. Their seeds contain significant amounts of oil (around 20%), of which about 60% is calendic acid. For these reasons, in Europe concentrated research efforts have been directed towards the development of pot marigold as an oilseed crop for industrial purposes. Results The oil content and fatty acid composition of major lipid fractions in seeds from eleven genotypes of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) were determined. The lipid content of seeds varied between 13.6 and 21.7 g oil/100 g seeds. The calendic and linoleic acids were the two dominant fatty acids in total lipid (51.4 to 57.6% and 28.5 to 31.9%) and triacylglycerol (45.7 to 54.7% and 22.6 to 29.2%) fractions. Polar lipids were also characterised by higher unsaturation ratios (with the PUFAs content between 60.4 and 66.4%), while saturates (consisted mainly of palmitic and very long-chain saturated fatty acids) were found in higher amounts in sterol esters (ranging between 49.3 and 55.7% of total fatty acids). Conclusions All the pot marigold seed oils investigated contain high levels of calendic acid (more than 50% of total fatty acids), making them favorable for industrial use. The compositional differences between the genotypes should be considered when breeding and exploiting the pot marigold seeds for nutraceutical and pharmacological purposes. PMID:23327299

  9. Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi On Yield and Phytoremediation Performance of Pot Marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) Under Heavy Metals Stress.

    PubMed

    Tabrizi, Leila; Mohammadi, Siavash; Delshad, Mojtaba; Moteshare Zadeh, Babak

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the effect of mycorrhizal fungi (inoculated and non-inoculated) and heavy metals stress [0, Pb (150 and 300 mg/kg) and Cd (40 and 80 mg/kg)] on pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.), a factorial experiment was conducted based on a randomized complete block design with 4 replications in Research Greenhouse of Department of Horticultural Sciences, University of Tehran, Iran, during 2012-2013. Plant height, herbal and flower fresh and dry weight, root fresh and dry weight and root volume, colonization percentage, total petal extract, total petal flavonoids, root and shoot P and K uptakes, and Pb and Cd accumulations in root and shoot were measured. Results indicated that with increasing soil Pb and Cd concentration, growth and yield of pot marigold was reduced significantly; Cd had greater negative impacts than Pb. However, mycorrhizal fungi alleviated these impacts by improving plant growth and yield. Pot marigold concentrated high amounts of Pb and especially Cd in its roots and shoots; mycorrhizal plants had a greater accumulation of these metals, so that those under 80 mg/kg Cd soil(-1) accumulated 833.3 and 1585.8 mg Cd in their shoots and roots, respectively. In conclusion, mycorrhizal fungi can improve not only growth and yield of pot marigold in heavy metal stressed condition, but also phytoremediation performance by increasing heavy metals accumulation in the plant organs. PMID:26237494

  10. Protective Effect of Calendula officinalis L. Flowers Against Monosodium Glutamate Induced Oxidative Stress and Excitotoxic Brain Damage in Rats.

    PubMed

    Shivasharan, B D; Nagakannan, P; Thippeswamy, B S; Veerapur, V P

    2013-07-01

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a popular flavour enhancer used in food industries; however, excess MSG is neurotoxic. Oxidative stress is well documented in MSG induced neurotoxicity. The compounds having antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties reportedly possess beneficial effects against various neurotoxic insults. Calendula officinalis Linn. flower extract (COE) is known for its potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Hence, this present study has been designed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of COE on MSG-induced neurotoxicity in rats. Adult Wistar rats were administered systemically for 7 days with MSG and after one h of MSG injection, rats were treated with COE (100 and 200 mg/kg) orally. At the end the treatment period, animals were assessed for locomotor activity and were sacrificed; brains were isolated for estimation of LPO, GSH, CAT, TT, GST, Nitrite and histopathological studies. MSG caused a significant alteration in animal behavior, oxidative defense (raised levels of LPO, nitrite concentration, depletion of antioxidant levels) and hippocampal neuronal histology. Treatment with COE significantly attenuated behavioral alterations, oxidative stress, and hippocampal damage in MSG-treated animals. Hence, this study demonstrates that COE protects against MSG-induced neurotoxicity in rats. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of COE may be responsible for its observed neuroprotective action. PMID:24426226

  11. Rapid evaluation and comparison of natural products and antioxidant activity in calendula, feverfew, and German chamomile extracts.

    PubMed

    Agatonovic-Kustrin, Snezana; Babazadeh Ortakand, Davoud; Morton, David W; Yusof, Ahmad P

    2015-03-13

    The present study describes a simple high performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for the simultaneous quantification of apigenin, chamazulene, bisabolol and the use of DPPH free radical as a post-chromatographic derivatization agent to compare the free radical scavenging activities of these components in leaf and flower head extracts from feverfew, German chamomile and marigold from the Asteraceae family. Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) leaves have been traditionally used in the treatment of migraine with parthenolide being the main bioactive compound. However, due to similar flowers, feverfew is sometimes mistaken for the German chamomile (Matricaria recutita). Bisabolol and chamazulene are the main components in chamomile essential oil. Marigold (Calendula officinalis) was included in the study for comparison, as it belongs to the same family. Parthenolide was found to be present in all leaf extracts but was not detected in calendula flower extract. Chamazulene and bisabolol were found to be present in higher concentrations in chamomile and Calendula flowers. Apigenin was detected and quantified only in chamomile extracts (highest concentration in flower head extracts). Antioxidant activity in sample extracts was compared by superimposing the chromatograms obtained after post-chromatographic derivatization with DPPH and post-chromatographic derivatization with anisaldehyde. It was found that extracts from chamomile flower heads and leaves have the most prominent antioxidant activity, with bisabolol and chamazulene being the most effective antioxidants. PMID:25666499

  12. Biocontrol and Plant Growth Promotion Characterization of Bacillus Species Isolated from Calendula officinalis Rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Ait Kaki, Asma; Kacem Chaouche, Noreddine; Dehimat, Laid; Milet, Asma; Youcef-Ali, Mounia; Ongena, Marc; Thonart, Philippe

    2013-12-01

    The phenotypic and genotypic diversity of the plant growth promoting Bacillus genus have been widely investigated in the rhizosphere of various agricultural crops. However, to our knowledge this is the first report on the Bacillus species isolated from the rhizosphere of Calendula officinalis. 15 % of the isolated bacteria were screened for their important antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium cucumerinium and Alternaria alternata. The bacteria identification based on 16S r-RNA and gyrase-A genes analysis, revealed strains closely related to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, B. velezensis, B. subtilis sub sp spizezenii and Paenibacillus polymyxa species. The electro-spray mass spectrometry coupled to liquid chromatography (ESI-LC MS) analysis showed that most of the Bacillus isolates produced the three lipopeptides families. However, the P. polymyxa (18SRTS) didn't produce any type of lipopeptides. All the tested Bacillus isolates produced cellulase but the protease activity was observed only in the B. amyloliquefaciens species (9SRTS). The Salkowsky colorimetric test showed that the screened bacteria synthesized 6-52 μg/ml of indole 3 acetic acid. These bacteria produced siderophores with more than 10 mm wide orange zones on chromazurol S. The greenhouse experiment using a naturally infested soil with Sclerotonia sclerotiorum showed that the B. amyloliquefaciens (9SRTS) had no significant (P > 0.05) effect on the pre-germination of the chickpea seeds. However, it increased the size of the chickpea plants and reduced the stem rot disease (P < 0.05).These results suggested that the Bacillus strains isolated in this work may be further used as bioinoculants to improve the production of C. officinalis and other crop systems. PMID:24426149

  13. Production of oleanolic acid glycosides by hairy root established cultures of Calendula officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Długosz, Marek; Wiktorowska, Ewa; Wiśniewska, Anita; Pączkowski, Cezary

    2013-01-01

    In order to initiate hairy root culture initiation cotyledons and hypocotyls of Calendula officinalis L. were infected with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain ATCC 15834 or the same strain containing pCAMBIA 1381Z vector with β-glucuronidase reporter gene under control of promoter of NIK (Nematode Induced Kinase) gene. The efficiency of induction of hairy roots reached 33.8% for cotyledons and 66.6% for hypocotyls together for both transformation experiments. Finally, eight control and nine modified lines were established as a long-term culture. The hairy root cultures showed the ability to synthesize oleanolic acid mainly (97%) as glycosides; control lines contained it at the average 8.42 mg · g(-1) dry weight in tissue and 0.23 mg · dm(-3) in medium; modified lines: 4.59 mg · g(-1) for the tissue, and 0.48 mg · dm(-3) for the medium. Additionally lines showed high positive correlation between dry/fresh weight and oleanolic acid concentration in tissue. Using the Killiani mixture in acidic hydrolysis of oleanolic acid glycosides released free aglycones that were partially acetylated in such conditions. PMID:24040627

  14. The Effects of Age on the Yield and Composition of the Essential Oils of Calendula officinalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okoh, O. O.; Sadimenko, A. A.; Afolayan, A. J.

    The variations in the yield and composition of the essential oils from Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) cultivated in Alice, Eastern Cape of South Africa are reported. Essential oils of this plant were obtained by hydrodistillation using the Clevenger apparatus and analysis was performed by GC-MS. The yield in essential oil showed a maximum at the full flowering stage (0.97%) and a minimum during the pre-flowering stage (0.13%). The compositions also showed different patterns at different phases of the vegetative cycle. Sesquiterpenes (α-cadinene, α-cadinol, T-muurolol and epi-bicyclosesquiphellandrene) and monoterpenes (limonene, 1, 8-cineole and trans-β-ocimene) showed the highest correlations with the age of the plant. Aiming the use of essential oil as a food ingredient, the most interesting stage is the post-flowering period, the essential oil at this time being rich in α-cadinene, α-cadinol, t-muurolol, limonene, 1,8-cineole, with P-cymene present at lower levels. α-cadinene is an important flavouring agent in baked foods, candy and chewing gum and also used as a fragrance in cosmetics and detergents. T-muurolol and α-cadinol are important antimicrobial agents.

  15. Protective effect of Calendula officinalis Linn. flowers against 3-nitropropionic acid induced experimental Huntington's disease in rats.

    PubMed

    Shivasharan, B D; Nagakannan, Pandian; Thippeswamy, Boreddy Shivanandappa; Veerapur, Veeresh Prabakar; Bansal, Punit; Unnikrishnan, Mazhuvancherry K

    2013-10-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) and nitric oxide mechanisms have been recently proposed in 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP)-induced neurotoxicity. The compounds, having antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and estrogenic effects, have been suggested for neuroprotection in different experimental models. Calendula officinalis Linn. flower extract (COE) is known for its potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, estrogenic and neuroprotective activities. Hence, the present study was designed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of COE on 3-NP-induced neurotoxicity in rats by observing behavioral changes, OS and striatal damage in rat brain. Adult female Wistar rats were pretreated with vehicle or COE (100 and 200 mg/kg) for 7 days, followed by cotreatment with 3-NP (15 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) for the next 7 days. At the end of the treatment schedule, rats were evaluated for alterations in sensory motor functions and short-term memory. Animals were sacrificed and brain homogenates were used for the estimation of lipid peroxidation (LPO), glutathione, total thiols, glutathione S-transferase, catalase and nitrite. A set of brain slices was used for the evaluation of neuronal damage in the striatal region of the brain. 3-NP caused significant alterations in animal behavior, oxidative defense system evidenced by raised levels of LPO and nitrite concentration, and depletion of antioxidant levels. It also produced a loss of neuronal cells in the striatal region. Treatment with COE significantly attenuated behavioral alterations, oxidative damage and striatal neuronal loss in 3-NP-treated animals. The present study shows that COE is protective against 3-NP-induced neurotoxicity in rats. The antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and estrogenic properties of COE may be responsible for its neuroprotective action. PMID:23590827

  16. D-Glucose as a modifying agent in gelatin/collagen matrix and reservoir nanoparticles for Calendula officinalis delivery.

    PubMed

    Lam, P-L; Kok, S H-L; Bian, Z-X; Lam, K-H; Tang, J C-O; Lee, K K-H; Gambari, R; Chui, C-H

    2014-05-01

    Gelatin/Collagen-based matrix and reservoir nanoparticles require crosslinkers to stabilize the formed nanosuspensions, considering that physical instability is the main challenge of nanoparticulate systems. The use of crosslinkers improves the physical integrity of nanoformulations under the-host environment. Aldehyde-based fixatives, such as formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde, have been widely applied to the crosslinking process of polymeric nanoparticles. However, their potential toxicity towards human beings has been demonstrated in many previous studies. In order to tackle this problem, D-glucose was used during nanoparticle formation to stabilize the gelatin/collagen-based matrix wall and reservoir wall for the deliveries of Calendula officinalis powder and oil, respectively. In addition, therapeutic selectivity between malignant and normal cells could be observed. The C. officinalis powder loaded nanoparticles significantly strengthened the anti-cancer effect towards human breast adenocarcinoma MCF7 cells and human hepatoma SKHep1 cells when compared with the free powder. On the contrary, the nanoparticles did not show significant cytotoxicity towards normal esophageal epithelial NE3 cells and human skin keratinocyte HaCaT cells. On the basis of these evidences, D-glucose modified gelatin/collagen matrix nanoparticles containing C. officinalis powder might be proposed as a safer alternative vehicle for anti-cancer treatments. PMID:24657927

  17. Evaluation of In Vitro Anticancer Activity of Ocimum Basilicum, Alhagi Maurorum, Calendula Officinalis and Their Parasite Cuscuta Campestris

    PubMed Central

    Behbahani, Mandana

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to study the relationship between presence of cytotoxic compounds in Ocimum basilicum, Alhagi maurorum, Calendula officinalis and their parasite Cuscuta campestris. The cytotoxic activity of the pure compounds was performed by MTT assay against breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and normal breast cell line (MCF 10A). The induction of apoptosis was measured by the expression levels of p53, bcl-2, bax and caspase-3 genes using quantitative Real Time PCR. Three active fractions were detected by nuclear magnetic resonance as lutein, lupeol and eugenol, respectively, in C. officinalis, A. maurorum and O. basilicum. These compounds and their epoxidized forms were also detected in their parasite C. campestris. The cytotoxic activity of lutein epoxide, lupeol epoxide and eugenol epoxide was significantly more than lutein, lupeol and eugenol. The mRNA expression level of p53, caspase-3 and bax genes were increased in both cancer cells treated with all pure compounds. However, bcl-2 gene expression decreased in treated breast cancer cells. In conclusion, all the data indicated that the epoxide forms of lupeol, lutein and eugenol are potential drug candidates for inducing apoptosis in human breast cancer cells. PMID:25548920

  18. Evaluation of in vitro anticancer activity of Ocimum basilicum, Alhagi maurorum, Calendula officinalis and their parasite Cuscuta campestris.

    PubMed

    Behbahani, Mandana

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to study the relationship between presence of cytotoxic compounds in Ocimum basilicum, Alhagi maurorum, Calendula officinalis and their parasite Cuscuta campestris. The cytotoxic activity of the pure compounds was performed by MTT assay against breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and normal breast cell line (MCF 10A). The induction of apoptosis was measured by the expression levels of p53, bcl-2, bax and caspase-3 genes using quantitative Real Time PCR. Three active fractions were detected by nuclear magnetic resonance as lutein, lupeol and eugenol, respectively, in C. officinalis, A. maurorum and O. basilicum. These compounds and their epoxidized forms were also detected in their parasite C. campestris. The cytotoxic activity of lutein epoxide, lupeol epoxide and eugenol epoxide was significantly more than lutein, lupeol and eugenol. The mRNA expression level of p53, caspase-3 and bax genes were increased in both cancer cells treated with all pure compounds. However, bcl-2 gene expression decreased in treated breast cancer cells. In conclusion, all the data indicated that the epoxide forms of lupeol, lutein and eugenol are potential drug candidates for inducing apoptosis in human breast cancer cells. PMID:25548920

  19. Mutagenic influences of colchicine on phenological and molecular diversity of Calendula officinalis L.

    PubMed

    El-Nashar, Y I; Ammar, M H

    2016-01-01

    Six different colchicine concentrations: 0, 400, 800, 1200, 1600, and 2000 ppm, in combination with four soaking time treatments (1, 2, 3, and 4 h), were selected to assess the effects on germination, vegetative growth, and flower yield components in calendula plants. The molecular diversity among the treatments was assessed using ten SRAP marker combinations. Seed soaking in colchicine significantly enhanced both the fresh and the dry shoot and root masses, flowering date, number of flowers per plant, and flower diameter. At 1200-ppm colchicine combined with a 4-h soaking time, a superior effect on seed germination was observed, whereas 800 ppm for 4 h produced the highest number of flowers and the largest flower diameter. The earliest flowering time was found at 800 ppm combined with a short soaking time (1 h), while the 4-h soaking time with 800 ppm, is recommended for growing calendula outdoors, since it enhances flower development. At the molecular level, 752 fragments were successfully amplified using the SRAP primers, with 280 genetic loci found throughout the calendula genome. The polymorphism percentage ranged from 79 to 100% and the polymorphic information content (PIC) values ranged between 0.85 and 0.97. The high number of detected loci and PIC values suggests a great power of SRAP markers in detecting mutant molecular diversity. Our results clearly show the existence of genetic variation among colchicine treated calendula plants and the clustering of the studied mutants was concordant with the colchicine concentration used. PMID:27173261

  20. Development of lamellar gel phase emulsion containing marigold oil (Calendula officinalis) as a potential modern wound dressing.

    PubMed

    Okuma, C H; Andrade, T A M; Caetano, G F; Finci, L I; Maciel, N R; Topan, J F; Cefali, L C; Polizello, A C M; Carlo, T; Rogerio, A P; Spadaro, A C C; Isaac, V L B; Frade, M A C; Rocha-Filho, P A

    2015-04-25

    Appropriate therapeutics for wound treatments can be achieved by studying the pathophysiology of tissue repair. Here we develop formulations of lamellar gel phase (LGP) emulsions containing marigold (Calendula officinalis) oil, evaluating their stability and activity on experimental wound healing in rats. LGP emulsions were developed and evaluated based on a phase ternary diagram to select the best LGP emulsion, having a good amount of anisotropic structure and stability. The selected LGP formulation was analyzed according to the intrinsic and accelerated physical stability at different temperatures. In addition, in vitro and in vivo studies were carried out on wound healing rats as a model. The LGP emulsion (15.0% marigold oil; 10.0% of blend surfactants and 75.0% of purified water [w/w/w]) demonstrated good stability and high viscosity, suggesting longer contact of the formulation with the wound. No cytotoxic activity (50-1000 μg/mL) was observed in marigold oil. In the wound healing rat model, the LGP (15 mg/mL) showed an increase in the leukocyte recruitment to the wound at least on days 2 and 7, but reduced leukocyte recruitment after 14 and 21 days, as compared to the control. Additionally, collagen production was reduced in the LGP emulsion on days 2 and 7 and further accelerated the process of re-epithelialization of the wound itself. The methodology utilized in the present study has produced a potentially useful formulation for a stable LGP emulsion-containing marigold, which was able to improve the wound healing process. PMID:25684193

  1. Planting depth for oilseed calendula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calendula (Calendula officinalis L.) is not only a popular ornamental plant in temperate climates, but also a potential oilseed crop. Its seed oil has high levels of calendic acid, which makes it a highly valued drying oil with important industrial applications. Much basic agronomic information on c...

  2. Inhibiton of photodynamic haemolysis by Gratiola officinalis L. extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkachenko, Natalie; Pravdin, Alexander; Terentyuk, George; Navolokin, Nikita; Kurchatova, Maria; Polukonova, Natalia

    2015-03-01

    On the model of photodynamic haemolysis, the membranoprotective properties of a plant origin antioxidant, Gratiola officinalis L. extract, have been studied based on its ability to inhibit photodamage of sensitized erythrocyte membranes. The effect of different concentrations of the antioxidant on the photodynamic hemolysis has been studied; and the influence of incubation time on the membranoprotective properties of Gratiola officinalis L. extract has also been revealed.

  3. Mastering analytical challenges for the characterization of pentacyclic triterpene mono- and diesters of Calendula officinalis flowers by non-aqueous C30 HPLC and hyphenation with APCI-QTOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Nicolaus, Christoph; Sievers-Engler, Adrian; Murillo, Renato; D'Ambrosio, Michele; Lämmerhofer, Michael; Merfort, Irmgard

    2016-01-25

    Pentacyclic triterpene mono- and diesters have been isolated from Calendula officinalis flowers. GC-MS, APCI-Exactive Orbitrap HR-MS and NMR allowed to identify the triterpene skeleton in various samples (different triterpene mixtures from Calendula n-hexane extract). NMR provided evidence that triterpene diesters are present in the samples as well. However, the corresponding quasi-molecular ions could not be detected by APCI-Exactive Orbitrap HR-MS. Instability of triterpene diesters and loss of a fatty acid residue, respectively, in the ion-source made their MS detection challenging. Thus, a set of new APCI-QTOF-MS methods (using the TripleTOF 5600+ mass spectrometer) were developed which made it eventually possible to solve this problem and confirm the diester structures by MS via quasi-molecular ion [M+H](+) detection. Direct infusion APCI-QTOF MS experiments in MS/MS high sensitivity scan mode with low collision energy and multi-channel averaging acquisition (MCA) allowed the detection of quasi-molecular ions of triterpene diesters for the first time and unequivocally confirmed the presence of faradiol 3,16-dimyristate and -dipalmitate, as well as the corresponding mixed diesters faradiol 3-myristate,16-palmitate and faradiol 3-palmitate,16-myristate. Preferential loss of the fatty acid in 16-position made it possible to distinguish the mixed diesters by MS/MS spectra. Their chromatographic separations turned out to be challenging due to their bulkiness and extended molecular dimensions. However, separation could be achieved by an uncommon non-aqueous RPLC mode with an in-house synthesized C30 phase. Finally, two (U)HPLC-APCI-QTOF-MS methods with C18- and C30-based non-aqueous RPLC provided suitable, sensitive assays to monitor the presence of monoesters and diesters of various triterpenes (faradiol, maniladiol, arnidiol, arnitriol A and lupane-3β,16β,20-triol esters) in the n-hexane extract of C. officinalis with high mass resolution and good mass accuracy

  4. Seed germination of calendula in response to temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calendula (Calendula officinalis L.) has been used historically for herbal medicinal purposes and as an ornamental plant. With the discovery that calendula seeds contain high concentrations of calendic acid (C18:3) in the 1980s it began to be investigated as an oilseed crop for use in paint, coating...

  5. Calendula and camelina response to nitrogen fertility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The emerging oil-seed crops calendula (Calendula officinalis) and camelina (Camelina sativa L.) can provide a domestic, renewable, non-food alternative to imported oil sources for bioenergy and industrial purposes. However, very little information exists concerning nitrogen (N) fertilizer guidelines...

  6. Post-emergence herbicides useful in calendula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Easy and effective weed control is required by growers who are considering new industrial crops. Post-emergence herbicides typically are the products of choice by today’s growers. Unfortunately, post-emergence herbicides with proven safety margins are not known for calendula (Calendula officinalis),...

  7. Repellency Effects of Essential Oils of Myrtle (Myrtus communis), Marigold (Calendula officinalis) Compared with DEET against Anopheles stephensi on Human Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Tavassoli, M; Shayeghi, M; Abai, MR; Vatandoost, H; Khoobdel, M; Salari, M; Ghaderi, A; Rafi, F

    2011-01-01

    Background: Malaria and leishmaniasis are two most significant parasitic diseases which are endemic in Iran. Over the past decades, interest in botanical repellents has increased as a result of safety to human. The comparative efficacy of essential oils of two native plants, myrtle (Myrtus communis) and marigold (Calendula officinalis) collected from natural habitats at southern Iran was compared with DEET as synthetic repellent against Anopheles stephensi on human subjects under laboratory condition. Methods: Essential oils from two species of native plants were obtained by Clevenger-type water distillation. The protection time of DEET, marigold and myrtle was assessed on human subject using screened cage method against An. stephensi. The effective dose of 50% essential oils of two latter species and DEET were determined by modified ASTM method. ED50 and ED90 values and related statistical parameters were calculated by probit analysis. Results: The protection time of 50% essential oils of marigold and myrtle were respectively 2.15 and 4.36 hours compared to 6.23 hours for DEET 25%. The median effective dose (ED50) of 50% essential oils was 0.1105 and 0.6034 mg/cm2 respectively in myrtle and marigold. The figure for DEET was 0.0023 mg/cm2. Conclusion: This study exhibited that the repellency of both botanical repellents was generally lower than DEET as a synthetic repellent. However the 50% essential oil of myrtle showed a moderate repellency effects compared to marigold against An. stephensi. PMID:22808414

  8. Calendula: A Potential New Oilseed Crop for the Northern U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seeds of calendula (Calendula officinalis) are a rich source of calendic acid (conjugated C18:3), a highly oxidative fatty acid that can be used to replace volatile organic compounds (VOC) as a drying agent in many industrial chemicals including paints and adhesives. Calendula flourishes in temperat...

  9. Promotion of hair growth by Rosmarinus officinalis leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Murata, Kazuya; Noguchi, Kazuma; Kondo, Masato; Onishi, Mariko; Watanabe, Naoko; Okamura, Katsumasa; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2013-02-01

    Topical administration of Rosmarinus officinalis leaf extract (RO-ext, 2 mg/day/mouse) improved hair regrowth in C57BL/6NCrSlc mice that experienced hair regrowth interruption induced by testosterone treatment. In addition, RO-ext promoted hair growth in C3H/He mice that had their dorsal areas shaved. To investigate the antiandrogenic activity mechanism of RO-ext, we focused on inhibition of testosterone 5α-reductase, which is well recognized as one of the most effective strategies for the treatment of androgenic alopecia. RO-ext showed inhibitory activity of 82.4% and 94.6% at 200 and 500 µg/mL, respectively. As an active constituent of 5α-reductase inhibition, 12-methoxycarnosic acid was identified with activity-guided fractionation. In addition, the extract of R. officinalis and 12-methoxycarnosic acid inhibited androgen-dependent proliferation of LNCaP cells as 64.5% and 66.7% at 5 µg/mL and 5 μM, respectively. These results suggest that they inhibit the binding of dihydrotestosterone to androgen receptors. Consequently, RO-ext is a promising crude drug for hair growth. PMID:22517595

  10. Induction of apoptosis of human primary osteoclasts treated with extracts from the medicinal plant Emblica officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Penolazzi, Letizia; Lampronti, Ilaria; Borgatti, Monica; Khan, Mahmud Tareq Hassan; Zennaro, Margherita; Piva, Roberta; Gambari, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Background Osteoclasts (OCs) are involved in rheumatoid arthritis and in several pathologies associated with bone loss. Recent results support the concept that some medicinal plants and derived natural products are of great interest for developing therapeutic strategies against bone disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis. In this study we determined whether extracts of Emblica officinalis fruits display activity of possible interest for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis by activating programmed cell death of human primary osteoclasts. Methods The effects of extracts from Emblica officinalis on differentiation and survival of human primary OCs cultures obtained from peripheral blood were determined by tartrate-acid resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positivity and colorimetric MTT assay. The effects of Emblica officinalis extracts on induction of OCs apoptosis were studied using TUNEL and immunocytochemical analysis of FAS receptor expression. Finally, in vitro effects of Emblica officinalis extracts on NF-kB transcription factor activity were determined by gel shift experiments. Results Extracts of Emblica officinalis were able to induce programmed cell death of mature OCs, without altering, at the concentrations employed in our study, the process of osteoclastogenesis. Emblica officinalis increased the expression levels of Fas, a critical member of the apoptotic pathway. Gel shift experiments demonstrated that Emblica officinalis extracts act by interfering with NF-kB activity, a transcription factor involved in osteoclast biology. The data obtained demonstrate that Emblica officinalis extracts selectively compete with the binding of transcription factor NF-kB to its specific target DNA sequences. This effect might explain the observed effects of Emblica officinalis on the expression levels of interleukin-6, a NF-kB specific target gene. Conclusion Induction of apoptosis of osteoclasts could be an important strategy both in

  11. Antioxidant activity and sensory evaluation of a rosmarinic acid-enriched extract of Salvia officinalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An extract of S. officinalis (garden sage) was developed using supercritical fluid extraction, followed by hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. The extract contained RA at a conc...

  12. Variation in seed lipids in Calendula germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calendula officinalis (pot marigold) has considerable promise as an industrial crop, with a long history as an ornamental and medicinal plant. It is also marketed as an ingredient in cosmetics and a colorant. It produces unusual seed lipids, which can provide an additional market for commercial Ca...

  13. Antioxidant activity and sensory assessment of a rosmarinic acid-enriched extract of Salvia officinalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An extract of S. officinalis (garden sage) was prepared using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction, followed by a Soxhlet hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. The ext...

  14. Identification of Magnolia officinalis L. bark extract as the most potent anti-inflammatory of four plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Walker, Joel M; Maitra, Amarnath; Walker, Jessica; Ehrnhoefer-Ressler, Miriam M; Inui, Taichi; Somoza, Veronika

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the anti-inflammatory potential of a Magnolia officinalis L. bark extract solely or in combination with extracts prepared from either Polygonum aviculare L., Sambucus nigra L., or Isodon japonicus L. in bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated human gingival fibroblasts (HGF-1) and human U-937 monocytes, as cell models of periodontal disease. HGF-1 and U-937 cells were incubated with LPS from either Porphyromonas gingivalis or Escherichia coli together with the four plant extracts alone or in combination. Secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines from HGF-1 and U-937 cells was measured by means of a multiplexed bead assay system. Magnolia officinalis L. bark extract, at concentrations of 1 μg/mL and 10 μg/mL, reduced interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion from HGF-1 cells to 72.5 ± 28.6% and reduced matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) secretion from U-937 cells to 8.87 ± 7.97% compared to LPS-treated cells (100%). The other three extracts also reduced secretion of these inflammatory markers but were not as effective. Combination of 9 μg/mL Magnolia officinalis L. extract with 1 μg/mL of each of the other extracts maintained the anti-inflammatory effect of Magnolia officinalis L. extract. Combination of 5 μg/mL Magnolia officinalis L. extract with 5 μg/mL Isodon japonicus L. extract also maintained the anti-inflammatory potential of the Magnolia officinalis L. extract, whereas increasing concentrations of any of the other plant extracts in the combination experiments reduced the Magnolia officinalis L. extract efficacy in U-937 cells. PMID:23711140

  15. Rosmarinus officinalis Extract Suppresses Propionibacterium acnes–Induced Inflammatory Responses

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Tsung-Hsien; Chuang, Lu-Te; Lien, Tsung-Jung; Liing, Yau-Rong; Chen, Wei-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Propionibacterium acnes is a key pathogen involved in the progression of acne inflammation. The development of a new agent possessing antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity against P. acnes is therefore of interest. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extract on P. acnes–induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that ethanolic rosemary extract (ERE) significantly suppressed the secretion and mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α in P. acnes–stimulated monocytic THP-1 cells. In an in vivo mouse model, concomitant intradermal injection of ERE attenuated the P. acnes–induced ear swelling and granulomatous inflammation. Since ERE suppressed the P. acnes–induced nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activation and mRNA expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, the suppressive effect of ERE might be due, at least partially, to diminished NF-κB activation and TLR2-mediated signaling pathways. Furthermore, three major constituents of ERE, carnosol, carnosic acid, and rosmarinic acid, exerted different immumodulatory activities in vitro. In brief, rosmarinic acid significantly suppressed IL-8 production, while the other two compounds inhibited IL-1β production. Further study is needed to explore the role of bioactive compounds of rosemary in mitigation of P. acnes–induced inflammation. PMID:23514231

  16. Rosmarinus officinalis extract suppresses Propionibacterium acnes-induced inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tsung-Hsien; Chuang, Lu-Te; Lien, Tsung-Jung; Liing, Yau-Rong; Chen, Wei-Yu; Tsai, Po-Jung

    2013-04-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is a key pathogen involved in the progression of acne inflammation. The development of a new agent possessing antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity against P. acnes is therefore of interest. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extract on P. acnes-induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that ethanolic rosemary extract (ERE) significantly suppressed the secretion and mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α in P. acnes-stimulated monocytic THP-1 cells. In an in vivo mouse model, concomitant intradermal injection of ERE attenuated the P. acnes-induced ear swelling and granulomatous inflammation. Since ERE suppressed the P. acnes-induced nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activation and mRNA expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, the suppressive effect of ERE might be due, at least partially, to diminished NF-κB activation and TLR2-mediated signaling pathways. Furthermore, three major constituents of ERE, carnosol, carnosic acid, and rosmarinic acid, exerted different immumodulatory activities in vitro. In brief, rosmarinic acid significantly suppressed IL-8 production, while the other two compounds inhibited IL-1β production. Further study is needed to explore the role of bioactive compounds of rosemary in mitigation of P. acnes-induced inflammation. PMID:23514231

  17. Valeriana officinalis Dry Plant Extract for Direct Compression: Preparation and Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Loreana; Ramírez-Rigo, María Veronica; Piña, Juliana; Palma, Santiago; Allemandi, Daniel; Bucalá, Verónica

    2012-01-01

    Valeriana officinalis L. (Valerianaceae) is one of the most widely used plants for the treatment of anxiety and insomnia. Usually dry plant extracts, including V. officinalis, are hygroscopic materials with poor physico-mechanical properties that can be directly compressed. A V. officinalis dry extract with moderate hygroscocity is suitable for direct compression, and was obtained by using a simple and economical technique. The V. officinalis fluid extract was oven-dried with colloidal silicon dioxide as a drying adjuvant. The addition of colloidal silicon dioxide resulted in a dry plant extract with good physico-mechanical properties for direct compression and lower hygroscopicity than the dry extract without the carrier. The dry plant extract glass transition temperature was considerably above room temperature (about 72 °C). The colloidal silicon dioxide also produced an antiplasticizing effect, improving the powder’s physical stability. The pharmaceutical performance of the prepared V. officinalis dry extract was studied through the design of tablets. The manufactured tablets showed good compactability, friability, hardness, and disintegration time. Those containing a disintegrant (Avicel PH 101) exhibited the best pharmaceutical performance, having the lowest disintegration time of around 40 seconds. PMID:23264947

  18. [Determination of antioxidation of the extract from Chinese medicine Morinda officinalis How by flow injection chemiluminescence and spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yong-Jun; Shi, Jie; Qu, Ling-Bo; Li, Fei-Fei; Li, Xiao-Jing; Wu, Yi-Ming

    2006-09-01

    Flow injection chemiluminescence analysis was used to determine the antioxidation activity of extract from Morinda officinalis How. The determination was based on the inhibition effect of Morinda officinalis How extraction in the chemiluminescence reaction of luminol - H2O2-CuSO4 system, and vitamin C was used as positive control. It was showed that Morinda officinalis How original liquid has obvious anti-radical activity. Spectroscopy was applied to determine the inhibition ratio of Morinda officinalis How extraction for the superoxide anion and hydroxy radicals in the special system. It was shown that the extraction from Morinda officinalis How could obviously scavenge superoxide anion and hydroxy radicals. It is suggested that the Chinese Medicine Morinda Officinalis How is a potential antioxidation activity medicine. PMID:17112048

  19. Phytochemical profile of Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia officinalis extracts and correlation to their antioxidant and anti-proliferative activity.

    PubMed

    Kontogianni, Vassiliki G; Tomic, Goran; Nikolic, Ivana; Nerantzaki, Alexandra A; Sayyad, Nisar; Stosic-Grujicic, Stanislava; Stojanovic, Ivana; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P; Tzakos, Andreas G

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to monitor the anti-proliferative activity of Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia officinalis extracts against cancer cells and to correlate this activity with their phytochemical profiles using liquid chromatography/diode array detection/electrospray ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (LC/DAD/ESI-MS(n)). For the quantitative estimation of triterpenic acids in the crude extracts an NMR based methodology was used and compared with the HPLC measurements, both applied for the first time, for the case of betulinic acid. Both extracts exerted cytotoxic activity through dose-dependent impairment of viability and mitochondrial activity of rat insulinoma m5F (RINm5F) cells. Decrease of RINm5F viability was mediated by nitric oxide (NO)-induced apoptosis. Importantly, these extracts potentiated NO and TNF-α release from macrophages therefore enhancing their cytocidal action. The rosemary extract developed more pronounced antioxidant, cytotoxic and immunomodifying activities, probably due to the presence of betulinic acid and a higher concentration of carnosic acid in its phytochemical profile. PMID:23017402

  20. Study on in-vivo anti-tumor activity of Verbena officinalis extract.

    PubMed

    Kou, Wei-Zheng; Yang, Jun; Yang, Qing-Hui; Wang, Ying; Wang, Zhi-Fen; Xu, Su-Ling; Liu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the anti-tumor effects of Verbena officinalis extract on H22 tumor-bearing mice and its effect on immune function. Mice model of H22 solid tumor was established, the mice were divided into five groups and administered the extract, later, tumors were removed and inhibition rates were calculated; spleens were removed and spleen indices were calculated, and the sheep red blood cell-delayed-type hypersensitivity (SRBC-DTH) and the serum hemolysin level were determined. The Verbena officinalis extract had anti-tumor effect, with the inhibition rate reaching 38.78%, it also increased the spleen index to a certain extent, in addition, the changes in DTA and HA were not obvious compared with the model group. The Verbena officinalis extract had in vivo anti-tumor effect, while causing no damage on the immune function. PMID:24146482

  1. Antidermatophytic activity of hydroalcoholic extracts from Rosmarinus officinalis and Tetradenia riparia.

    PubMed

    Endo, E H; Costa, G M; Nakamura, T U; Nakamura, C V; Dias Filho, B P

    2015-12-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis and Tetradenia riparia are used in folk medicine for the treatment of disease, including infectious diseases and skin disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antifungal activity of hydroalcoholic extracts from R. officinalis and T. riparia against strains of Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes and Microsporum gypseum. Hydroalcoholic extracts prepared with dried leaves from R. officinalis, Psidium guajava and T. riparia were assayed against dermatophyte species by the microdilution technique and by microscopy. R. officinalis and T. riparia were the most active against dermatophytes, as determined from the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC), and were investigated further. Fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to investigate inhibition of hyphal growth by the two extracts, and showed a strong inhibition and an irregular growth pattern. Both extracts showed good action against dermatophytes, inhibiting fungal growth and causing alterations in their hyphae. Therefore, R. officinalis and T. riparia are potential sources of new compounds for the development of antifungal drugs. PMID:26603099

  2. A Review of the Use of Topical Calendula in the Prevention and Treatment of Radiotherapy-Induced Skin Reactions.

    PubMed

    Kodiyan, Joyson; Amber, Kyle T

    2015-01-01

    Calendula is a topical agent derived from a plant of the marigold family Calendula Officinalis. Containing numerous polyphenolic antioxidants, calendula has been studied in both the laboratory and clinical setting for the use in treating and preventing radiation induced skin toxicity. Despite strong evidence in the laboratory supporting calendula's mechanism of action in preventing radiation induced skin toxicity, clinical studies have demonstrated mixed results. In light of the controversy surrounding the efficacy of calendula in treating and preventing radiodermatitis, the topic warrants further discussion. PMID:26783706

  3. Hypnotic effect of Coriandrum sativum, Ziziphus jujuba, Lavandula angustifolia and Melissa officinalis extracts in mice.

    PubMed

    Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Safaei, Azadeh

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate hypnotic effect of Coriandrum sativum, Ziziphus jujuba, Lavandula angustifolia and Melissa officinalis hydroalcoholic extracts in mice to select the most effective ones for a combination formula. Three doses of the extracts (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg of C. sativum and Z. jujuba and 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg of L. angustifolia and M. officinalis) were orally administered to male Swiss mice (20-25 g) and one hour later pentobarbital (50 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected to induce sleep. Onset of sleep and its duration were measured and compared. Control animals and reference group received vehicle (10 ml/kg, p.o.) and diazepam (3 mg/kg, i.p.), respectively. C. sativum and Z. jujuba failed to change sleep parameters. L. angustifolia at doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg shortened sleep onset by 7.6%, 50% and 51.5% and prolonged sleep duration by 9.9%, 43.1% and 80.2%, respectively. Compared with control group the same doses of M. officinalis also decreased sleep onset by 24.7%, 27.5% and 51.2% and prolonged sleep duration by 37.9%, 68.7% and 131.7% respectively. Combinations of L. angustifolia and M. officinalis extracts showed additive effect and it is suggested that a preparation containing both extracts may be useful for insomnia. PMID:26779267

  4. Hypnotic effect of Coriandrum sativum, Ziziphus jujuba, Lavandula angustifolia and Melissa officinalis extracts in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Safaei, Azadeh

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate hypnotic effect of Coriandrum sativum, Ziziphus jujuba, Lavandula angustifolia and Melissa officinalis hydroalcoholic extracts in mice to select the most effective ones for a combination formula. Three doses of the extracts (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg of C. sativum and Z. jujuba and 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg of L. angustifolia and M. officinalis) were orally administered to male Swiss mice (20-25 g) and one hour later pentobarbital (50 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected to induce sleep. Onset of sleep and its duration were measured and compared. Control animals and reference group received vehicle (10 ml/kg, p.o.) and diazepam (3 mg/kg, i.p.), respectively. C. sativum and Z. jujuba failed to change sleep parameters. L. angustifolia at doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg shortened sleep onset by 7.6%, 50% and 51.5% and prolonged sleep duration by 9.9%, 43.1% and 80.2%, respectively. Compared with control group the same doses of M. officinalis also decreased sleep onset by 24.7%, 27.5% and 51.2% and prolonged sleep duration by 37.9%, 68.7% and 131.7% respectively. Combinations of L. angustifolia and M. officinalis extracts showed additive effect and it is suggested that a preparation containing both extracts may be useful for insomnia. PMID:26779267

  5. Novel neuroprotective effects of the aqueous extracts from Verbena officinalis Linn.

    PubMed

    Lai, Sau-Wan; Yu, Man-Shan; Yuen, Wai-Hung; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung

    2006-05-01

    Verbena officinialis Linn. (Verbenaceae) is a perennial plant which has been used as herbal medicine or health supplement in both Western and Eastern countries for centuries. It has been used to treat acute dysentery, enteritis, amenorrhea and depression. In view of its wide array of biological effects, we hypothesized that V. officinalis can exert cytoprotective effects on cells of the central nervous system. Pre-treatment of aqueous extracts of V. officinalis significantly attenuated the toxicity of beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptide and reducing agent dithiothreitol in primary cultures of cortical neurons. As extracellular accumulation of Abeta peptide is an important cytotoxic factor involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD), we have further explored its neuroprotective effect against Abeta. Treatment of V. officinalis attenuated Abeta-triggered DEVD- and VDVAD-cleavage activities in a dose-dependent manner. Further studies elucidated that phosphorylation of both interferon-inducing protein kinase (PKR) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) was attenuated in Abeta-treated neurons. Taken together, we have proved our hypothesis by showing the novel neuroprotective effects of V. officinalis. As V. officinalis has long been used for many years to be a folk medicine, our study may provide a lead for its potential to be a neuroprotective agent against neuronal loss in AD. PMID:16406021

  6. Antifungal activity of extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris against Aspergillus flavus and A. ochraceus.

    PubMed

    Centeno, S; Calvo, M A; Adelantado, C; Figueroa, S

    2010-05-01

    The antifungal activity of ethanolic extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris were tested against strains of Aspergillus flavus and A. ochraceus, since these two species are common contaminants of cereals and grains and are able to produce and accumulate mycotoxins. The methodology used is based on measuring the inhibition halos produced by discs impregnated with the extracts and establishing their Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) as well as the Minimum Fungicide Concentration (MFC). The results obtained suggest that the assayed extracts affect the proper development of A. flavus and A. ochraceus; leading to a lower MIC (1200 ppm) and MFC (2400 ppm) for T. vulgaris extract against A. ochraceus than against A. flavus. The results show, that the extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris used at low concentrations could have significant potential for the biological control of fungi in foodstuffs. PMID:20973400

  7. Plant mediated green synthesis and antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles using Emblica officinalis fruit extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, P. S.; Kokila, T.; Geetha, D.

    2015-05-01

    A green straight forward method of synthesizing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in an aqueous medium was designed using Emblica officinalis (EO) fruit extract as stabilizer and reducer. The formation of AgNPs depends on the effect of extract concentration and pH were studied. The AgNPs was synthesized using E.officinalis (fruit extract) and nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, the presence of biomolecules of E.officinalis capped in AgNPs was found by FT-IR analysis, shape and size were examined by SEM and XRD. The XRD analysis respects the Bragg's law and confirmed the crystalline nature of silver nanoparticles. From XRD the average size of AgNPs was found to be around 15 nm. AFM has proved to be very helpful in the determination and verification of various morphological features and parameters. EO fruit extract mediated AgNPs was synthesized and confirmed through kinetic behavior of nanoparticles. The shape of the bio-synthesized AgNPs was spherical. Potent biomolecules of E.officinalis such as polyphenols, glucose, and fructose was capped with AgNPs which reduces the toxicity. The synthesized AgNPs were tested for its antibacterial activity against the isolates by disc diffusion method. The obtained results confirmed that the E.officinalis fruit extract is a very good bioreductant for the synthesis of AgNPs. It was investigated that the synthesized AgNPs showed inhibition and had significant antibacterial against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains.

  8. Melissa officinalis Extract Inhibits Laser-Induced Choroidal Neovascularization in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Young Joo; Kim, Jin Young; Song, Hyun Beom; Yu, Hyeong Gon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the effect of Melissa officinalis extract on laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in a rat model. The mechanism by which M. officinalis extract acted was also investigated. Methods Experimental CNV was induced by laser photocoagulation in Brown Norway rats. An active fraction of the Melissa leaf extract was orally administered (50 or 100 mg/kg/day) beginning 3 days before laser photocoagulation and ending 14 days after laser photocoagulation. Optical coherence tomography and fluorescein angiography were performed in vivo to evaluate the thickness and leakage of CNV. Choroidal flat mount and histological analysis were conducted to observe the CNV in vitro. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and MMP-9 expression were measured in retinal and choroidal-scleral lysates 7 days after laser injury. Moreover, the effect of M. officinalis extract on tertiary-butylhydroperoxide (t-BH)-induced VEGF secretion and mRNA levels of VEGF, MMP-2, and MMP-9 were evaluated in human retinal epithelial cells (ARPE-19) as well as in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Results The CNV thickness in M. officinalis-treated rats was significantly lower than in vehicle-treated rats by histological analysis. The CNV thickness was 33.93±7.64 µm in the high-dose group (P<0.001), 44.09±12.01 µm in the low-dose group (P = 0.016), and 51.00±12.37 µm in the control group. The proportion of CNV lesions with clinically significant fluorescein leakage was 9.2% in rats treated with high-dose M. officinalis, which was significantly lower than in control rats (53.4%, P<0.001). The levels of VEGF, MMP-2, and MMP-9 were significantly lower in the high-dose group than in the control group. Meanwhile, M. officinalis extract suppressed t-BH-induced transcription of VEGF and MMP-9 in ARPE-19 cells and HUVECs. Conclusions Systemic administration of M. officinalis extract suppressed laser-induced CNV

  9. Effects of Asparagus officinalis extracts on liver cell toxicity and ethanol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kim, B-Y; Cui, Z-G; Lee, S-R; Kim, S-J; Kang, H-K; Lee, Y-K; Park, D-B

    2009-09-01

    Asparagus officinalis is a vegetable that is widely consumed worldwide and has also long been used as a herbal medicine for the treatment of several diseases. Although A. officinalis is generally regarded as a supplement for the alleviation of alcohol hangover, little is known about its effects on cell metabolism. Therefore, this study was conducted to analyze the constituents of the young shoots and the leaves of asparagus and to compare their biochemical properties. The amino acid and inorganic mineral contents were found to be much higher in the leaves than the shoots. In addition, treatment of HepG2 human hepatoma cells with the leaf extract suppressed more than 70% of the intensity of hydrogen peroxide (1 mM)-stimulated DCF fluorescence, a marker of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Cellular toxicities induced by treatment with hydrogen peroxide, ethanol, or tetrachloride carbon (CCl(4)) were also significantly alleviated in response to treatment with the extracts of A. officinalis leaves and shoots. Additionally, the activities of 2 key enzymes that metabolize ethanol, alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase, were upregulated by more than 2-fold in response to treatment with the leaf- and shoot extracts. Taken together, these results provide biochemical evidence of the method by which A. officinalis exerts its biological functions, including the alleviation of alcohol hangover and the protection of liver cells against toxic insults. Moreover, the results of this study indicate that portions of asparagus that are typically discarded, such as the leaves, have therapeutic use. PMID:19895471

  10. Antioxidant effects of different extracts from Melissa officinalis, Matricaria recutita and Cymbopogon citratus.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Romaiana Picada; Fachinetto, Roselei; de Souza Prestes, Alessandro; Puntel, Robson Luiz; Santos da Silva, Gloria Narjara; Heinzmann, Berta Maria; Boschetti, Ticiane Krapf; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Bürger, Marilise Escobar; Morel, Ademir Farias; Morsch, Vera Maria; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira

    2009-05-01

    Considering the important role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of several neurological diseases, and the growing evidence of the presence of compounds with antioxidant properties in the plant extracts, the aim of the present study was to investigate the antioxidant capacity of three plants used in Brazil to treat neurological disorders: Melissa officinalis, Matricaria recutita and Cymbopogon citratus. The antioxidant effect of phenolic compounds commonly found in plant extracts, namely, quercetin, gallic acid, quercitrin and rutin was also examined for comparative purposes. Cerebral lipid peroxidation (assessed by TBARS) was induced by iron sulfate (10 microM), sodium nitroprusside (5 microM) or 3-nitropropionic acid (2 mM). Free radical scavenger properties and the chemical composition of plant extracts were assessed by 1'-1' Diphenyl-2' picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), respectively. M. officinalis aqueous extract caused the highest decrease in TBARS production induced by all tested pro-oxidants. In the DPPH assay, M. officinalis presented also the best antioxidant effect, but, in this case, the antioxidant potencies were similar for the aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts. Among the purified compounds, quercetin had the highest antioxidant activity followed by gallic acid, quercitrin and rutin. In this work, we have demonstrated that the plant extracts could protect against oxidative damage induced by various pro-oxidant agents that induce lipid peroxidation by different process. Thus, plant extracts could inhibit the generation of early chemical reactive species that subsequently initiate lipid peroxidation or, alternatively, they could block a common final pathway in the process of polyunsaturated fatty acids peroxidation. Our study indicates that M. officinalis could be considered an effective agent in the prevention of various neurological diseases associated with oxidative stress. PMID:18853256

  11. Sedative and Hypnotic Activities of the Methanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Lavandula officinalis from Morocco.

    PubMed

    Alnamer, Rachad; Alaoui, Katim; Bouidida, El Houcine; Benjouad, Abdelaziz; Cherrah, Yahia

    2012-01-01

    We evaluate the sedative and hypnotic activities of the methanolic and aqueous extract of Lavandula officinalis L. on central nervous system (CNS). In this study, the effect of the methanolic and aqueous extracts of this plant was investigated in a battery of behavioural models in mice. Stems and flowers of Lavandula officinalis L. have several therapeutic applications in folk medicine in curing or managing a wide range of diseases, including insomnia. The methanolic extract produced significant sedative effect at the doses of 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg (by oral route), compared to reference substance diazepam (DZP), and an hypnotic effect at the doses of 800 and 1000 mg/kg while the treatment of mice with the aqueous extract at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg via oral pathway significantly reduced in both the reestablishment time and number of head dips during the traction and hole-board tests. In conclusion, these results suggest that the methanolic and aqueous extracts of Lavandula officinalis possess potent sedative and hypnotic activities, which supported its therapeutic use for insomnia. PMID:22162677

  12. Effect of Dietary Ethanolic Extract of Lavandula officinalis on Serum Lipids Profile in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rabiei, Zahra; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Mokhtari, Shiva; Shahrani, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidants are effective in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Lavandula officinalis possesses antioxidant activity, therefore, in this study; the effects of Lavandula officinalis extract were investigated on serum lipids levels of rats. Experimental mature male Wistar rats were treated with 100, 200 or 400 mg/Kg/day of lavender ethanolic extract or distilled water for 25 days via gastric gavage (n=8 each group). At the end of 25th day, the serum cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL and VLDL levels, as well as atherogenic indices were determined in rats’ serum. The ethanolic extract of lavender decreased serum cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and VLDL levels in 100 mg/Kg group (p=0.03, p=0.001, p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Serum HDL level increased in 100 mg/Kg/day group (p=0.01). Lavender extract decreased LDL/HDL level at doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). The TG/HDL levels decreased in experimental groups with doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Lavandula officinalis extract exerts hypolipidemic effect in rats and might be beneficial in hyperlipidemic patients. PMID:25587318

  13. Effect of Dietary Ethanolic Extract of Lavandula officinalis on Serum Lipids Profile in Rats.

    PubMed

    Rabiei, Zahra; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Mokhtari, Shiva; Shahrani, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidants are effective in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Lavandula officinalis possesses antioxidant activity, therefore, in this study; the effects of Lavandula officinalis extract were investigated on serum lipids levels of rats. Experimental mature male Wistar rats were treated with 100, 200 or 400 mg/Kg/day of lavender ethanolic extract or distilled water for 25 days via gastric gavage (n=8 each group). At the end of 25(th) day, the serum cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL and VLDL levels, as well as atherogenic indices were determined in rats' serum. The ethanolic extract of lavender decreased serum cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and VLDL levels in 100 mg/Kg group (p=0.03, p=0.001, p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Serum HDL level increased in 100 mg/Kg/day group (p=0.01). Lavender extract decreased LDL/HDL level at doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). The TG/HDL levels decreased in experimental groups with doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Lavandula officinalis extract exerts hypolipidemic effect in rats and might be beneficial in hyperlipidemic patients. PMID:25587318

  14. In vitro amoebicidal activity of borage (Borago officinalis) extract on Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Leos-Rivas, Catalina; Verde-Star, M Julia; Torres, Lidia Osuna; Oranday-Cardenas, Azucena; Rivas-Morales, Catalina; Barron-Gonzalez, M Porfiria; Morales-Vallarta, Mario R; Cruz-Vega, Delia E

    2011-01-01

    Borage (Borago officinalis) is a plant with nutritional value that is also used in traditional medicine to treat gastrointestinal disease. This study investigated the amoebicidal activity of a methanol extract of borage. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀) of the extract for Entamoeba histolytica was 33 μg/mL. The 50% lethal dose of the extract for brine shrimp was greater than 1,000 μg/mL. The IC₅₀ of the extract for Vero cells was 203.9 μg/mL. These results support the use of borage to prevent diseases associated with E. histolytica infection. PMID:21476887

  15. Effect of extraction method on the yield of furanocoumarins from fruits of Archangelica officinalis Hoffm.

    PubMed

    Waksmundzka-Hajnos, M; Petruczynik, A; Dragan, A; Wianowska, D; Dawidowicz, A L

    2004-01-01

    Optimal conditions for the extraction and analysis of furanocoumarins from fruits of Archangelica officinalis Hoffm. have been determined. The following extraction methods were used: exhaustive extraction in a Soxhlet apparatus, ultrasonication at 25 and 60 degrees C, microwave-assisted solvent extraction in open and closed systems, and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). In most cases the yields of furanocoumarins were highest using the ASE method. The effects of extracting solvent, temperature and time of extraction using this method were investigated. The highest yield of furanocoumarins by ASE was obtained with methanol at 100-130 degrees C for 10 min. The extraction yields of furanocoumarins from plant material by ultrasonication at 60 degrees C and microwave-assisted solvent extraction in an open system were comparable to the extraction yields obtained in the time- and solvent-consuming exhaustive process involving the Soxhlet apparatus. PMID:15508836

  16. Larvicidal activity of essential extract of Rosmarinus officinalis against Culex quinquefasciatus.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing; Liu, Xiang-Yi; Yang, Bin; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Fu-Qiang; Feng, Zi-Liang; Wang, Chen-Zhu; Fan, Quan-Shui

    2013-03-01

    Constituents in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) have been shown to have larvicidal activity against invertebrates. In order to explore the properties of crude extract of rosemary further, we studied the chemical composition and its activity against dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)-susceptible, DDT-resistant, and field strains of Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. The major components of R. officinalis were found to be eucalyptol and camphor, with relative percentages of 10.93% and 5.51%, respectively. Minor constituents included limonene, (+)-4-carene, isoborneol, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethylidene)-cyclohexene, and pinene. The median lethal concentration (LC50) values of the essential oil of R. officinalis against DDT-susceptible, DDT-resistant, and field strains of larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were 30.6, 26.4, and 38.3 mg/liter, respectively. The single median lethal dose (LD50) in Kunming mice was 4752 mg/kg. Essential oils from R. officinalis may, therefore, provide an effective natural plant product for use in mosquito prevention and control. PMID:23687854

  17. A review on phytochemistry and ethnopharmacological aspects of genus Calendula.

    PubMed

    Arora, Disha; Rani, Anita; Sharma, Anupam

    2013-07-01

    This review includes 84 references on the genus Calendula (Asteraceae) and comprises ethnopharmacology, morphology and microscopy, phytoconstituents, pharmacological reports, clinical studies and toxicology of the prominent species of Calendula. Triterpene alcohols, triterpene saponins, flavonoids, carotenoids and polysaccharides constitute major classes of phytoconstituents of the genus. A few species of this genus have medicinal value, among these Calendula officinalis Linn., has been traditionally used in the treatment of various skin tumors, dermatological lesions, ulcers, swellings and nervous disorders as well as almost 200 cosmetic formulations, i.e., creams, lotions, shampoos. Despite a long tradition of use of some species, the genus has not been explored properly. In the concluding part, the future scope of Calendula species has been emphasized with a view to establish their multifarious biological activities and mode of action. PMID:24347926

  18. A review on phytochemistry and ethnopharmacological aspects of genus Calendula

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Disha; Rani, Anita; Sharma, Anupam

    2013-01-01

    This review includes 84 references on the genus Calendula (Asteraceae) and comprises ethnopharmacology, morphology and microscopy, phytoconstituents, pharmacological reports, clinical studies and toxicology of the prominent species of Calendula. Triterpene alcohols, triterpene saponins, flavonoids, carotenoids and polysaccharides constitute major classes of phytoconstituents of the genus. A few species of this genus have medicinal value, among these Calendula officinalis Linn., has been traditionally used in the treatment of various skin tumors, dermatological lesions, ulcers, swellings and nervous disorders as well as almost 200 cosmetic formulations, i.e., creams, lotions, shampoos. Despite a long tradition of use of some species, the genus has not been explored properly. In the concluding part, the future scope of Calendula species has been emphasized with a view to establish their multifarious biological activities and mode of action. PMID:24347926

  19. The Antinociceptive Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Borago Officinalis Flower in Male Rats Using Formalin Test

    PubMed Central

    Shahraki, Mohammad Reza; Ahmadimoghadm, Mahdieh; Shahraki, Ahmad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Borago officinalis flower (borage) is a known sedative in herbal medicine; the aim of the present study was to evaluate the antinociceptive effect of borage hydroalcoholic extract in formalin test male rats. Methods: Fifty-six adult male albino Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups: Control groups of A (intact), B (saline), and C (Positive control) plus test groups of D, E, F, and G (n=8). The groups D, E, and F received 6.25, 12.5, and 25 mg/kg, Borago officinalis flower hydroalcholic extract before the test, respectively but group G received 25 mg/kg borage extract and aspirin before the test. A biphasic pain was induced by injection of formalin 1%. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS software ver. 17 employing statistical tests of Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney. The results were expressed as mean±SD. Statistical differences were considered significant at P<0.05. Results: The results revealed that the acute and chronic pain behavior score in test groups of D, E, F, and G significantly decreased compared to groups A and B, but this score did not show any difference compared to group C. Moreover, chronic pain behavior score in group G was significantly lower than all other groups. Discussion: The results indicated that Borago officinalis hydroalcoholic extract affects the acute and chronic pain behavior response in formaline test male rats. PMID:26649166

  20. Optimization for ultrasonic-microwave synergistic extraction of polysaccharides from Cornus officinalis and characterization of polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiulian; You, Qinghong; Jiang, Zhonghai; Zhou, Xinghai

    2016-02-01

    Ultrasonic-microwave synergistic extraction (UMSE) of polysaccharides from Cornus officinalis was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). The effect of four different factors on the yield of C. officinalis polysaccharides (COP) was studied. RSM results showed that the optimal conditions were extraction time of 31.49823 min, microwave power of 99.39769 W, and water-to-raw material ratio of 28.16273. The COP yield was 11.38±0.31% using the modified optimal conditions, which was consistent with the value predicted by the model. The crude COP was purified by DEAE-Cellulose 52 chromatography and Sephadex G-100 chromatography. Five fractions, namely, crude COP, COP-1, COP-2, COP-3, and COP-4, were obtained. Monosaccharide composition analysis revealed that the COP was composed of glucose, arabinose, fucose, xylose, mannose, and rhamnose. Preliminary structural characterizations of COP were conducted by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. PMID:26627604

  1. Antioxidant activity and sensory analysis of a rosmarinic acid-enriched extract of garden sage (Salvia officinalis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel extract of S. officinalis (garden sage) was prepared using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction, followed by a Soxhlet hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. Th...

  2. Improved neuroprotective effects by combining Bacopa monnieri and Rosmarinus officinalis supercritical CO2 extracts.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Cheppail; Quirin, Karl-Werner; Escalon, Enrique; Melnick, Steven J

    2014-04-01

    Ethnobotanical evidence suggests that herbs such as brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) may possess antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. We compared the antioxidant and neuroprotective effects of supercritical extract of Bacopa monnieri and rosemary antioxidant extract obtained from Rosmarinus officinalis as well as their combination to examine the effects on human glial (U-87 MG) and embryonic mouse hypothalamus cells. Bacopa monnieri extract, rosemary antioxidant extract, and their combination (1:1) are not cytotoxic in both glial and embryonic mouse hypothalamus cell lines up to 200 μg/mL concentration. The combination of extracts of Bacopa monnieri + rosemary antioxidant has better antioxidant potential and antilipid peroxidation activity than either agent alone. Although the extract of Bacopa monnieri + rosemary antioxidant showed almost similar inhibition of phospho tau expression as Bacopa monnieri or rosemary antioxidant extract alone, the combination has better inhibitory effect on amyloid precursor protein synthesis and higher brain-derived neurotrophic factor production in hypothalamus cells than single agents. These results suggest that the extract of Bacopa monnieri + rosemary antioxidant is more neuroprotective than Bacopa monnieri or rosemary antioxidant extract. PMID:24647092

  3. Polyethylene glycol-based ultrasound-assisted extraction of magnolol and honokiol from Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis.

    PubMed

    He, Lei; Fan, Tao; Hu, Jianguo; Zhang, Lijin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a kind of green solvent named polyethylene glycol (PEG) was developed for the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of magnolol and honokiol from Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis. The effects of PEG molecular weight, PEG concentration, sample size, pH, ultrasonic power and extraction time on the extraction of magnolol and honokiol were investigated to optimise the extraction conditions. Under the optimal extraction conditions, the PEG-based UAE supplied higher extraction efficiencies of magnolol and honokiol than the ethanol-based UAE and traditional ethanol-reflux extraction. Furthermore, the correlation coefficient (R(2)), repeatability (relative standard deviation, n = 6) and recovery confirmed the validation of the proposed extraction method, which were 0.9993-0.9996, 3.1-4.6% and 92.3-106.8%, respectively. PMID:25204856

  4. Optimization of ultrasonic circulating extraction of polysaccharides from Asparagus officinalis using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qingsheng; Kennedy, John F; Wang, Xiaodong; Yuan, Xiaofan; Zhao, Bing; Peng, Youshun; Huang, Yunxiang

    2011-08-01

    Polysaccharides were extracted from Asparagus officinalis. A novel ultrasonic circulating extraction (UCE) technology was applied for the polysaccharide extraction. Three-factor-three-level Box-Behnken design was employed to optimize ultrasonic power, extraction time and the liquid-solid ratio to obtain a high polysaccharide yield. The optimal extraction conditions were as follows: ultrasonic power was 600 W, extraction time was 46 min, the liquid-solid ratio was 35 mL/g. Under these conditions, the experimental yield of polysaccharides was 3.134%, which was agreed closely to the predicted value. The average molecular weight of A. officinalis polysaccharide was about 6.18×10(4) Da. The polysaccharides were composed of glucose, fucose, arabinose, galactose and rhamnose in a ratio of 2.18:1.86:1.50:0.98:1.53. Compared with hot water extraction (HWE), UCE showed time-saving, higher yield and no influence on the structure of asparagus polysaccharides. The results indicated that ultrasonic circulating extraction technology could be an effective and advisable technique for the large scale production of plant polysaccharides. PMID:21549748

  5. A Review of the Use of Topical Calendula in the Prevention and Treatment of Radiotherapy-Induced Skin Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Kodiyan, Joyson; Amber, Kyle T.

    2015-01-01

    Calendula is a topical agent derived from a plant of the marigold family Calendula Officinalis. Containing numerous polyphenolic antioxidants, calendula has been studied in both the laboratory and clinical setting for the use in treating and preventing radiation induced skin toxicity. Despite strong evidence in the laboratory supporting calendula’s mechanism of action in preventing radiation induced skin toxicity, clinical studies have demonstrated mixed results. In light of the controversy surrounding the efficacy of calendula in treating and preventing radiodermatitis, the topic warrants further discussion. PMID:26783706

  6. Effects of differential extraction of Verbena officinalis on rat models of inflammation, cicatrization and gastric damage.

    PubMed

    Speroni, E; Cervellati, R; Costa, S; Guerra, M C; Utan, A; Govoni, P; Berger, A; Müller, A; Stuppner, H

    2007-03-01

    Verbena officinalis L. is used in folk medicine for the treatment of inflammatory disorders, skin burns, abrasions, and gastric diseases. Extracts obtained with different solvents (methanol, VoME; enriched flavonoids, VoEF; supercritical CO2, VoCO2) were evaluated for anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective and cicatrizing activities. Additionally, the antioxidant capacity was determined in vitro. In order to confirm the activities investigated, histological observations were performed. All extracts induce a remarkable anti-inflammatory activity. The gastric damage is significantly reduced by all extracts administered, whereby the most pronounced protection is observed for the VoCO2 and VoEF extracts. Finally, a wound healing effect is obtained particularly by the CO2 extract, suggesting the presence of some lipophilic active principles. Histological evidence confirms the results evaluated with the animal procedures. The results obtained after oral administration of V. officinalis extracts are also in agreement with the antioxidant capacity evaluated in vitro, confirming the relationship between pharmacological activities and antiradical efficacy. PMID:17354166

  7. Evaluation of two natural extracts (Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Melissa officinalis L.) as antioxidants in cooked pork patties packed in MAP.

    PubMed

    Lara, M S; Gutierrez, J I; Timón, M; Andrés, A I

    2011-07-01

    Two natural extracts, from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.; Nutrox) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.; Meliox) showing a potential antioxidant activity, have been evaluated and compared with a synthetic antioxidant (Butylated hydroxytoluene; BHT) and a control batch. Pork meat patties were made by addition of the mentioned compounds, cooked and packed in modified atmosphere and stored under illumination for 6 days. A descriptive sensory analysis was also conducted. The patties with natural extracts showed higher a*-values (P<0.001) than control and BHT samples. Cooked pork hardness was the lowest for Meliox batch after 0 and 3 days of storage in comparison with the rest of the batches. Nutrox batch showed the lowest TBARS values and hexanal content (P<0.05) throughout the storage period. The batches with natural antioxidants produced the highest concentrations of free thiol groups after 0 and 3 days. Differences in sensory attributes among batches were not detected by the judge panel. PMID:21345605

  8. Degradation of malathion, in aqueous extracts of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis).

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Yasuko; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2004-09-22

    Malathion was incubated in water extracts of vegetables at various temperatures and pH, and the amount of malathion present over time was analyzed by a gas chromatograph with a flame photometric detector. Malathion was degraded to a nondetectable level in a 1% asparagus extract incubated at pH 7.4 and 37 degrees C for 4 h. Carrot extract showed the second highest rate of malathion degradation (76%), followed by kale extract (23.7%), spinach extract (9.7%), and broccoli extract (1.5%) under the same conditions. The highest degradation rates of malathion were observed at 37 degrees C, when three different temperatures were tested (5, 25, and 37 degrees C) at pH 7.4. Rate constants were 0.134 min(-)(1) from a 1% asparagus solution and 0.095 min(-)(1) from a 0.5% asparagus solution. The highest degradation rate of malathion was achieved at pH 9 among the pHs tested (pH 4, 7.4, and 9) in a 0.5% asparagus solution. The 0.5% asparagus solution degraded dicarboxylic acid esters by almost 100% for dimethyl succinate and diethyl adipate, by 64% for diethyl acetyl succinate, and 30% for diethyl benzyl malonate when incubated at pH 9 for 20 min. The results support the hypothesis that the enzyme that degrades malathion in the asparagus solutions is a carboxylesterase. PMID:15366843

  9. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Carnosic Acid and Rosmarinic Acid Using Ionic Liquid Solution from Rosmarinus officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Zu, Ge; Zhang, Rongrui; Yang, Lei; Ma, Chunhui; Zu, Yuangang; Wang, Wenjie; Zhao, Chunjian

    2012-01-01

    Ionic liquid based, ultrasound-assisted extraction was successfully applied to the extraction of phenolcarboxylic acids, carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid, from Rosmarinus officinalis. Eight ionic liquids, with different cations and anions, were investigated in this work and [C8mim]Br was selected as the optimal solvent. Ultrasound extraction parameters, including soaking time, solid–liquid ratio, ultrasound power and time, and the number of extraction cycles, were discussed by single factor experiments and the main influence factors were optimized by response surface methodology. The proposed approach was demonstrated as having higher efficiency, shorter extraction time and as a new alternative for the extraction of carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid from R. officinalis compared with traditional reference extraction methods. Ionic liquids are considered to be green solvents, in the ultrasound-assisted extraction of key chemicals from medicinal plants, and show great potential. PMID:23109836

  10. Inhibitory effects of morinda officinalis extract on bone loss in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Qin, Lu-Ping; Han, Ting; Wu, Yan-Bin; Zhang, Qiao-Yan; Zhang, Hong

    2009-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the protective effects of ethanol extract from the root of Morinda Officinalis (RMO) on ovariectomy-induced bone loss. Administration of RMO extract increased trabecular bone mineral content and bone mineral density of tibia, improved the levels of phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca) and OPG, decreased the levels of DPD/Cr, TRAP, ACTH and corticosterone, but did not reverse the levels of ALP, TNF-alpha and IL-6 in serum of ovariectomized rats. These findings demonstrated that RMO extract reduced bone loss in ovariectomized rats, probably via the inhibition of bone resorption, but was not involved with bone formation. Anthraquinones and polysaccharides from Morinda officinals could be responsible for their antiosteoporotic activity, and the action mechanism of these constituents needs to be further studied. Therefore, RMO has the potential to develop a clinically useful antiosteoporotic agent. PMID:19513005

  11. Hypoglycemic and hepatoprotective activity of Rosmarinus officinalis extract in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Kholoud S; Khalil, Olfat A; Danial, Enas N; Alnahdi, Hanan S; Ayaz, Najla O

    2013-12-01

    The present study examined the effect of water extract (200 mg/kg body weight) of Rosmarinus officinalis L. in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats for 21 days. The hepatoprotective effects were investigated in the liver tissues sections. There was a significant increase in serum liver biochemical parameters (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase), accompanied by a significant decrease in the level of total protein and albumin in the STZ-induced rats when compared with that of the normal group. The high-dose treatment group (200 mg/kg body wt) significantly restored the elevated liver function enzymes near to normal. This study revealed that rosemary extracts exerted a hepatoprotective effect. The results indicate that the extract exhibits the protective effect on tissues and prove its potentials as an antidiabetic agent. PMID:23625639

  12. Cytotoxicity of aqueous extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Labiatae) in plant test system.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, G H S; Dantas, E B S; Sousa, F R C; Peron, A P

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the cytotoxic activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) aqueous extract on the cell cycle of Allium cepa. To this end, crude aqueous leaf extracts at four concentrations, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08 mg/mL, were tested on A. cepa meristematic root cells, at exposure times of 24 and 48 h. Slides were prepared by the crushing technique, and cells analyzed throughout the cell cycle, totaling 5,000 for each control group and concentration. The four concentrations tested, including the lowest and considered ideal for use, at all exposure times, showed a significant antiproliferative effect on the cell cycle of this test system and presented a high number of cells in prophase. Our results evidenced the cytotoxicity of rosemary extracts, under the studied conditions. PMID:25627599

  13. Postemergence herbicides for calendula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calendula is an alternative oilseed crop whose seed oil is valued as a substitute for tung oil and a replacement for petroleum-based volatile organic compounds in paints and other coatings. Calendula is not yet grown extensively as an agronomic crop, and its tolerances to most herbicides are unknown...

  14. Assessment of Eyebright (Euphrasia Officinalis L.) Extract Activity in Relation to Human Corneal Cells Using In Vitro Tests

    PubMed Central

    Paduch, Roman; Woźniak, Anna; Niedziela, Piotr; Rejdak, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background: Euphrasia officinalis L. is an herb traditionally used in folk medicine, mainly in the treatment of eye disorders. Aims: The present study analyzed the activity of three extracts of E. officinalis L. (ethanol, ethyl acetate and heptane) on cultured human corneal epithelial cells (10.014 pRSV-T). Study Design: In vitro study. Methods: Toxicity, free radical scavenging activity and the immunomodulatory effects of the extracts were tested using the thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) or Neutral Red, 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ELISA tests, respectively. Moreover, nitric oxide levels and cytoskeleton architecture were analyzed after corneal cell incubation with the plant extracts. Results: We show that the biological effect depended on both the concentration and the extraction solvent used. Heptane extracts, distinct from those in ethanol and ethyl acetate, were toxic to 10.014 pRSV-T cells at low concentrations (25 μg/mL) and did not demonstrate free radical scavenging effects. All tested extracts decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine expression (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) and also anti-inflammatory IL-10 expression by human corneal cells when the extracts were added to the cell culture medium for 24 h. Conclusion: In conclusion, we show that the promising effects of the application of E. officinalis L. preparations as a supplementary therapy for eye disorders are associated with the ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts, not the heptane extract. PMID:25207164

  15. Effect of different format-solvent rosemary extracts (Rosmarinus officinalis) on frozen chicken nuggets quality.

    PubMed

    Rocío Teruel, M; Garrido, M Dolores; Espinosa, Miriam C; Linares, M Belén

    2015-04-01

    Three kinds of Rosmarinus officinalis extract (powder-acetone, liquid-methanol, liquid-acetone) were used to examine the effects of format-solvent on the active compounds extracted (total phenolic, carnosol and carnosic acid content) and antioxidant activity (FRAP, ABTS). The results showed that both, as the format but also the solvent used, had significant effect on the parameters analyzed (p < 0.05). The highest antioxidant activity was found for the powder-acetone extract followed by the liquid methanol and liquid acetone extracts (p < 0.05). The effect of the three different extracts on the physical-chemical and sensory quality of frozen chicken nuggets was evaluated. At the dose proposed by the European Union Directive 2010/69/EU for the carnosic and carnosol compounds [150 ppm (mg/kg fat basic)], the format-solvent combination of the rosemary extracts used did not modify the chicken nuggets quality characteristics (pH, colour, sensory quality) and still underlines the effectiveness of these extracts. PMID:25442521

  16. Cornus officinalis Methanol Extract Upregulates Melanogenesis in Melan-a Cells.

    PubMed

    An, Yun Ah; Hwang, Ji Yeon; Lee, Jae Soon; Kim, Young Chul

    2015-06-01

    Cornus officinalis is widely distributed in Korea, and its fruit has been used to make as herbal drug for traditional medicine in Korea, Japan, and China because of its tonic, analgesic, and diuretic properties. However, the effects of C. officinalis methanol extract (COME) on melanogenesis remain poorly understood. We evaluated the melanogenic capability of COME in melan-a cells, which are immortalized mouse melanocytes. COME increased melanin synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with 12.5 μg/mL of COME significantly increased melanin content by 36.1% (p < 0.001) to a level even higher than that (31.6%) of 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine, a well-known pigmentation agent. COME also upregulated tyrosinase activity and its messenger RNA and protein expression. In addition, COME upregulated the expression of tyrosinase-related proteins 1 and 2 and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor-M messenger RNA expression. These results imply that COME may be appropriate for development as a natural product to treat hair graying. PMID:26191383

  17. Cornus officinalis Methanol Extract Upregulates Melanogenesis in Melan-a Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ji Yeon; Lee, Jae Soon; Kim, Young Chul

    2015-01-01

    Cornus officinalis is widely distributed in Korea, and its fruit has been used to make as herbal drug for traditional medicine in Korea, Japan, and China because of its tonic, analgesic, and diuretic properties. However, the effects of C. officinalis methanol extract (COME) on melanogenesis remain poorly understood. We evaluated the melanogenic capability of COME in melan-a cells, which are immortalized mouse melanocytes. COME increased melanin synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with 12.5 μg/mL of COME significantly increased melanin content by 36.1% (p < 0.001) to a level even higher than that (31.6%) of 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine, a well-known pigmentation agent. COME also upregulated tyrosinase activity and its messenger RNA and protein expression. In addition, COME upregulated the expression of tyrosinase-related proteins 1 and 2 and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor-M messenger RNA expression. These results imply that COME may be appropriate for development as a natural product to treat hair graying. PMID:26191383

  18. Ethanol extract of Sanguisorba officinalis L. inhibits biofilm formation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in an ica-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaolin; Shang, Fei; Meng, Yajing; Li, Long; Cui, Yunmei; Zhang, Ming; Qi, Kezong; Xue, Ting

    2015-12-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important nosocomial pathogen that shows resistance to many antibiotics and is usually associated with serious infections. Having the ability for biofilm formation increases resistance to antibiotics. Sanguisorba officinalis L. is a perennial plant that is distributed in the northern districts of China and has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, the effect of S. officinalis on MRSA strain SA3 isolated from a dairy cow with mastitis was evaluated by testing the growth and biofilm formation ability of MRSA cultured with or without ethanol extracts of S. officinalis. The results showed that the ethanol extract of S. officinalis strongly inhibited the biofilm formation of MRSA. With a confocal laser scanning microscope system, we observed that the biofilm structure of the test group with the addition of S. officinalis appeared looser and had less biomass compared with the control group without S. officinalis. Furthermore, we found that the transcript levels of the icaADBC operon remarkably decreased upon addition of the ethanol extract of S. officinalis, indicating that S. officinalis inhibits biofilm formation of MRSA in an ica-dependent manner. PMID:26454299

  19. Inhibitory effects of hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis) extracts on intestinal alpha-glucosidase activity and postprandial hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Hiroyuki; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Yanagiya, Chikako; Mizutani, Junya; Tsuji, Masayoshi; Ishihara, Chiaki

    2003-10-01

    It has been known that Hyssopus officinalis (hyssop) is a herb that grows in the wild and is a source of natural antioxidants. We previously reported that a-glucosidase inhibitors, (2S, 3S)1-O-beta-D-6'-O-cinnamoylglucopyranosyl-3-(3", 5"-dimethoxy-4"-hydroxyphenyl)-1,2,3-propanetriol and (2S, 3S)1-O-beta-D-glucopranosyl-3-(3", 5"-dimethoxy-4"-hydroxyphenyl)-1,2,3-propanetriol, from the dry leaves of hyssop, were isolated. This study examined the alpha-glucosidase inhibitory effects of hyssop extracts on intestinal carbohydrate absorption in rat everted gut sac and carbohydrate-loaded hyperglycemia in mice. In the everted gut sac experiment, 10 mM sucrose- and 5 mM maltose-treated increases in glucose concentration in the serosal compartment were inhibited in the presence of 0.5 and 1.0 mg/ mL hyssop extracts, although a 10 mM glucose-induced increase in serosal glucose was not inhibited by the extracts. Additionally, hyperglycemia in sucrose- and maltose-loaded mice was significantly suppressed at an early stage, within 30 to 60 min by oral pre-administration of 300 and 100 mg/kg hyssop extracts, respectively. These findings suggest that hyssop extracts inhibited the digestion of complex carbohydrates, but not that of absorbable monosaccharide, and might be a useful supplemental food for hyperglycemia. PMID:14703310

  20. Antibacterial effects of biosynthesized MgO nanoparticles using ethanolic fruit extract of Emblica officinalis.

    PubMed

    Ramanujam, Kalimuthan; Sundrarajan, Mahalingam

    2014-12-01

    Magnesium oxides nanoparticles were successfully synthesized from Mg(NO3)(2)·6H2O through a simple greener route using fruit extract (Emblica officinalis). The synthesized samples were characterized by different techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. The XRD pattern shows the face centered cubic structure with 27 nm of crystalline size of MgO nanoparticles was confirmed by the Debye-Scherrer's Formula. The spherical in shape of MgO nanoparticles is confirmed by SEM analysis. MgO nanoparticles treated cotton fabric produced stronger antibacterial activity. These types of treated fabrics are used in medical application. PMID:25463681

  1. Comparison of membrane-protective activity of antioxidants quercetine and Gratiola Officinalis L. extract under conditions of photodynamic haemolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkachenko, N. V.; Bykova, E. V.; Pravdin, A. B.; Navolokin, N. A.; Polukonova, N. V.; Bucharskaya, A. B.; Mudrak, D. A.; Prilepskii, A. Y.

    2016-04-01

    In the present work the effectiveness of antioxidants quercetine (a pure chemical) and Gratiola officinalis extract, which is obtained by a new method of extraction from plant material, is investigated on the model of photodynamic haemolysis that is a rather convenient method to monitor the rate of cell membranes oxidative destruction. The effect of these antioxidants on the rate of photodynamic haemolysis is considered as a measure of membranoprotective efficiency.

  2. Determination of phenolic content and antioxidant activity of extracts obtained from Rosmarinus officinalis' calli.

    PubMed

    Yesil-Celiktas, Ozlem; Nartop, Pinar; Gurel, Aynur; Bedir, Erdal; Vardar-Sukan, Fazilet

    2007-11-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis is widely found in the lands of Aegean and Mediterranean regions of Turkey. Stem explants of very young shoots were cultured in both woody plant medium (WPM) and Murashige and Skoog (MS) media supplemented with 7g/L agar, 30g/L sucrose, and 1 and 3mg/L naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) for callus initiation. Induced calli were subcultured 4 times with intervals of 7-10 days. MS medium supplemented with 1mg/L NAA proved to be the best medium for the production of callus (65.0%) among the samples tested. The lyophilized calli were subjected to solvent extraction. Active constituents of 8 calli extracts were analyzed by HPLC, and rosmarinic acid (RA) was determined to be the primary compound. Calli cultivated in WPM supplemented with 1mg/L NAA and extracted at 50 degrees C, yielded the highest amount of RA (34.4mg/g dry weight). Moreover, antioxidant activity of calli extracts was determined using a number of in vitro assays, including total phenol assay, DPPH radical scavenging activity (RSA), and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). On the basis of the current findings, we conclude that WPM supplemented with 1mg/L NAA yields higher phenolic content as well as higher antioxidant activity. PMID:17913287

  3. Inhibitory activity of Melissa officinalis L. extract on Herpes simplex virus type 2 replication.

    PubMed

    Mazzanti, G; Battinelli, L; Pompeo, C; Serrilli, A M; Rossi, R; Sauzullo, I; Mengoni, F; Vullo, V

    2008-01-01

    Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (lemon balm) is used in folk medicine for nervous complaints, lower abdominal disorders and, more recently, for treating Herpes simplex lesions. In this work the antiviral activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of lemon balm leaves against the Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was assessed by the cytopathic effect inhibition assay on Vero cells (ATCC CCL-81), in comparison with acyclovir. The cytotoxicity of the extract on Vero cells was previously tested by evaluating the cellular death and was confirmed by the Trypan blue test. Lemon balm showed to reduce the cytopathic effect of HSV-2 on Vero cells, in the range of non-toxic concentrations of 0.025-1 mg mL(-1) (with reference to the starting crude herbal material). The maximum inhibiting effect (60%) was obtained with 0.5 mg mL(-1). The viral binding assay showed that the extract does not prevent the entry of HSV-2 in the cells, thus suggesting a mechanism of action subsequent to the penetration of the virus in the cell. The extract was also chemically characterised by NMR and HPLC analysis; it showed to contain cinnamic acid-like compounds, mainly rosmarinic acid (4.1% w/w). Our experiments support the use of lemon balm for treating Herpes simplex lesions and encourage clinical trials on this medicinal plant. PMID:19023806

  4. Anti-Proliferative Effect of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Extract on Human Melanoma A375 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cattaneo, Lucia; Cicconi, Rosella; Mignogna, Giuseppina; Giorgi, Alessandra; Mattei, Maurizio; Graziani, Giulia; Ferracane, Rosalia; Grosso, Alessandro; Aducci, Patrizia; Schininà, M. Eugenia; Marra, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) has been used since ancient times in traditional medicine, while nowadays various rosemary formulations are increasingly exploited by alternative medicine to cure or prevent a wide range of health disorders. Rosemary’s bioproperties have prompted scientific investigation, which allowed us to ascertain antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cytostatic, and cytotoxic activities of crude extracts or of pure components. Although there is a growing body of experimental work, information about rosemary’s anticancer properties, such as chemoprotective or anti-proliferative effects on cancer cells, is very poor, especially concerning the mechanism of action. Melanoma is a skin tumor whose diffusion is rapidly increasing in the world and whose malignancy is reinforced by its high resistance to cytotoxic agents; hence the availability of new cytotoxic drugs would be very helpful to improve melanoma prognosis. Here we report on the effect of a rosemary hydroalcoholic extract on the viability of the human melanoma A375 cell line. Main components of rosemary extract were identified by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) and the effect of the crude extract or of pure components on the proliferation of cancer cells was tested by MTT and Trypan blue assays. The effect on cell cycle was investigated by using flow cytometry, and the alteration of the cellular redox state was evaluated by intracellular ROS levels and protein carbonylation analysis. Furthermore, in order to get information about the molecular mechanisms of cytotoxicity, a comparative proteomic investigation was performed. PMID:26176704

  5. Anti-Proliferative Effect of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Extract on Human Melanoma A375 Cells.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Lucia; Cicconi, Rosella; Mignogna, Giuseppina; Giorgi, Alessandra; Mattei, Maurizio; Graziani, Giulia; Ferracane, Rosalia; Grosso, Alessandro; Aducci, Patrizia; Schininà, M Eugenia; Marra, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) has been used since ancient times in traditional medicine, while nowadays various rosemary formulations are increasingly exploited by alternative medicine to cure or prevent a wide range of health disorders. Rosemary's bioproperties have prompted scientific investigation, which allowed us to ascertain antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cytostatic, and cytotoxic activities of crude extracts or of pure components. Although there is a growing body of experimental work, information about rosemary's anticancer properties, such as chemoprotective or anti-proliferative effects on cancer cells, is very poor, especially concerning the mechanism of action. Melanoma is a skin tumor whose diffusion is rapidly increasing in the world and whose malignancy is reinforced by its high resistance to cytotoxic agents; hence the availability of new cytotoxic drugs would be very helpful to improve melanoma prognosis. Here we report on the effect of a rosemary hydroalcoholic extract on the viability of the human melanoma A375 cell line. Main components of rosemary extract were identified by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) and the effect of the crude extract or of pure components on the proliferation of cancer cells was tested by MTT and Trypan blue assays. The effect on cell cycle was investigated by using flow cytometry, and the alteration of the cellular redox state was evaluated by intracellular ROS levels and protein carbonylation analysis. Furthermore, in order to get information about the molecular mechanisms of cytotoxicity, a comparative proteomic investigation was performed. PMID:26176704

  6. The effects of Valeriana officinalis L. hydro-alcoholic extract on depression like behavior in ovalbumin sensitized rats

    PubMed Central

    Neamati, Ali; Chaman, Fariba; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Neuroimmune factors have been considered as contributors to the pathogenesis of depression. Beside other therapeutic effects, Valeriana officinalis L., have been suggested to have anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, the effects of V. officinalis L. hydro alcoholic extract was investigated on depression like behavior in ovalbumin sensitized rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 Wistar rats were divided into five groups: Group 1 (control group) received saline instead of Valeriana officinalis L. extract. The animals in group 2 (sensitized) were treated by saline instead of the extract and were sensitized using the ovalbumin. Groups 3-5 (Sent - Ext 50), (Sent - Ext 100) and (Sent - Ext 200) were treated by 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of V. officinalis L. hydro-alcoholic extract respectively, during the sensitization protocol. Forced swimming test was performed for all groups and immobility time was recorded. Finally, the animals were placed in the open-field apparatus and the crossing number on peripheral and central areas was observed. Results: The immobility time in the sensitized group was higher than that in the control group (P < 0.01). The animals in Sent-Ext 100 and Sent-Ext 200 groups had lower immobility times in comparison with sensitized group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). In the open field test, the crossed number in peripheral by the sensitized group was higher than that of the control one (P < 0.01) while, the animals of Sent-Ext 50, Sent-Ext 100 and Sent-Ext 200 groups had lower crossing number in peripheral compared with the sensitized group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 respectively). Furthermore, in the sensitized group, the central crossing number was lower than that of the control group (P < 0.001). In the animals treated by 200 mg/kg of the extract, the central crossing number was higher than that of the sensitized group (P < 0. 05). Conclusions: The results of the present study showed that the hydro-alcoholic extract of V. officinalis

  7. Inhibitory and Cytotoxic Activities of Salvia Officinalis L. Extract on Human Lymphoma and Leukemia Cells by Induction of Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    zare shahneh, fatemeh; Valiyari, Samira; Baradaran, Behzad; Abdolalizadeh, Jalal; Bandehagh, Ali; Azadmehr, Abass; Hajiaghaee, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Salvia officinalis L., also known as Maryam Goli, is one of the native plants used to Persian medicinal herbs. Hence, the objective of this study was to examine the in vitro cytotoxic activities of a standardized crude methanol extracts prepared from Salvia officinalis L., on a non-Hodgkin’s B-cell lymphoma (Raji) and human leukemic monocyte lymphoma (U937), Human acute myelocytic leukemia (KG-1A) and Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial (HUVEC) cell lines. Methods: The effect of methanolic extract on the inhibition of cell proliferation and cytotoxic activity was evaluated by Dye exclusion and Micro culture tetrazolium test (MTT) cytotoxicity assay. Cell death ELISA was employed to quantify the nucleosome production result from nuclear DNA fragmentation during apoptosis and determined whether the mechanism involves induction of apoptosis or necrosis. Results: The present results demonstrated that methanolic extract at 50 to 800 μg/ml dose and time-dependently suppressed the proliferation of KG-1A, U937 and Raji cells by more than 80% (p<0.01), with ascending order of IC50 values in 24: KG-1A (214.377 μg/ml), U937 (229.312 μg/ml) and Raji (239.692 μg/ml) when compared with a chemotherapeutic anticancer drug, paclitaxel (Toxol), confirming the tumour-selective cytotoxicity. The crude extract however did not exert any significant cytotoxic effect on normal cell line HUVEC (IC50>800 Ag/ml). Nucleosome productions in KG-1A, Raji and U937 cells were significantly increased respectively upon the treatment of Salvia officinalis L. extract. Conclusion: The Salvia officinalis L. extract was found dose and time-dependently inhibits the proliferation of lymphoma and leukemic cells possibly via an apoptosis-dependent pathway. PMID:24312812

  8. Enrichment of antioxidant compounds from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) by pressurized liquid extraction and enzyme-assisted extraction.

    PubMed

    Miron, T L; Herrero, M; Ibáñez, E

    2013-05-01

    In this work enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) are applied for extraction of natural compounds from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis). Cellulase, endo-β-1,4 xylanase and pectinase were studied in order to degrade cell wall of lemon balm leaves and to release phenolic compounds. On the other hand, in order to compare the performance obtained with EAE, PLE using water and ethanol was employed maintaining 150°C as extraction temperature. The obtained extracts were characterized in terms of antioxidant capacity by using DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) in vitro assays, whereas the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure was employed to estimate the total phenols content. On the other hand, extracts were chemically characterized by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The results showed that EAE enhanced the total phenolic content and the antioxidant capacity compared to a non-enzymatic control. PLE extracts presented higher amount of phenols and antioxidant capacity than enzyme-assisted extracts, reaching the highest values on water extracts (193.18mggallicacid/gextract and EC50=6.81μg/mL). Among the bioactive phenolic compounds identified in lemon balm, rosmarinic acid was the main component, although other important compounds were also identified, such as caffeic acid derivatives (salvianolic acids, lithospermic acid) and rosmarinic acid derivatives (rosmarinic acid hexoside, sagerinic acid, sulfated rosmarinic acid). The present study confirms that EAE and PLE can be considered alternative methods for the extraction of natural compounds with biological activity from natural sources. PMID:23528869

  9. Effects of Rosmarinus officinalis extract on human primary omental preadipocytes and adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Stefanon, Bruno; Pomari, Elena; Colitti, Monica

    2015-07-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing all over the world. Although it has been shown that natural substances influence fat metabolism, little is known about the effect on cellular and molecular mechanisms in human. In this in vitro study, the activity of Rosmarinus officinalis (RO) standardized extract in modulating human primary visceral preadipocytes differentiation, lipolysis, and apoptosis was investigated. Moreover, gene expression of key adipogenesis modulators and microRNAs-seq were evaluated. Preadipocytes treated with RO extract significantly reduced triglyceride incorporation during maturation in a dose-dependent manner without affecting cell viability. In addition, RO extract stimulated lipolytic activity in differentiating preadipocytes and mature adipocytes in treated cells compared to controls. Differentiating preadipocytes incubated in the presence of RO extract showed a decreased expression of cell cycle genes such as cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase 4, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21, Cip1) and an increased expression of GATA binding protein 3, wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 3A mRNA levels. Recent studies have demonstrated that some phytochemicals alter the expression of specific genes and microRNAs that play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of obesity and related diseases. Interestingly, genes modulated in RO-treated cells were found to be validated miRNAs targets, such as let-7f-1, miR-17, and miR-143. The results indicated that RO extract modulates human adipocyte differentiation and significantly interferes with adipogenesis and lipid metabolism, supporting its interest as dietary supplement. PMID:25710930

  10. Pharmacokinetics, Safety and Tolerability of Melissa officinalis Extract which Contained Rosmarinic Acid in Healthy Individuals: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi-Shinohara, Moeko; Ono, Kenjiro; Hamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Iwasa, Kazuo; Nagai, Toshitada; Kobayashi, Shoko; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Masahito

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of single dose of Melissa officinalis extract which contained rosmarinic acid, including food-effects in healthy individuals. A total of eleven healthy individuals were randomly assigned to treatment arms in the two studies [Study 1 (fasted state) and Study 2 (fed state)]. Rosmarinic acid in serum was measured by a coulometric detection method using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography electrochemical detector. The serum concentration of total rosmarinic acid peaked at 1 hour after administration of Melissa officinalis extract containing 500mg rosmarinic acid in fasted state, with a maximum serum concentration 162.20 nmol/ L. The area under the curve for intact rosmarinic acid was calculated from the serum concentration-time profile to be 832.13 nmol • hour/ L. Food intake increases area under the curve and delayed time at which the maximum serum concentration. Rosmarinic acid supplementation did not affect liver, kidney, or blood cell function parameters. No adverse event was reported by any of the participants due to the study treatment. Single dose of Melissa officinalis extract containing 500 mg rosmarinic acid appears to be safe and tolerable in healthy individuals. Food intake increased the exposure of rosmarinic acid and delayed absorption of rosmarinic acid in healthy individuals. Trial Registration Trial Registration: UMIN-CTR UMIN000004997 PMID:25978046

  11. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) Extract as a Potential Complementary Agent in Anticancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    González-Vallinas, Margarita; Reglero, Guillermo; Ramírez de Molina, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Cancer remains an important cause of mortality nowadays and, therefore, new therapeutic approaches are still needed. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) has been reported to possess antitumor activities both in vitro and in animal studies. Some of these activities were attributed to its major components, such as carnosic acid, carnosol, ursolic acid, and rosmarinic acid. Initially, the antitumor effects of rosemary were attributed to its antioxidant activity. However, in recent years, a lack of correlation between antioxidant and antitumor effects exerted by rosemary was reported, and different molecular mechanisms were related to its tumor inhibitory properties. Moreover, supported by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the European Food and Safety Authority, specific compositions of rosemary extract were demonstrated to be safe for human health and used as antioxidant additive in foods, suggesting the potential easy application of this agent as a complementary approach in cancer therapy. In this review, we aim to summarize the reported anticancer effects of rosemary, the demonstrated molecular mechanisms related to these effects and the interactions between rosemary and currently used anticancer agents. The possibility of using rosemary extract as a complementary agent in cancer therapy in comparison with its isolated components is discussed. PMID:26452641

  12. Evaluation of an Aqueous-Ethanolic Extract from Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) for its Activity on the Hormonal and Cellular Function of Testes in Adult Male Rat.

    PubMed

    Heidari-Vala, Hamed; Ebrahimi Hariry, Reza; Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Ghaffari Novin, Marefat; Heidari, Mahnaz

    2013-01-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis has been used in traditional medicine extensively. This study evaluated the hormonal and cellular effects of Rosmarinus officinalis extract on testes of adult rats. Thirty male Wistar rats (in three groups) received 50 or 100 mg/Kg b.w of Rosmarinus officinalis extract (made from the plant's leaves, flower and stem) (treatment groups) and 10 mL/Kg b.w normal saline (control group) respectively, on a daily bases by gavage route for 60 days. Then, spermatological properties, histometric parameters and sperm dynamics, testis and body weight, testicular cell population and serum testosterone level were analyzed by an acceptable method. Results showed that the mean serum testosterone level was decreased significantly in both treatment groups (50 and 100 mg/Kg b.w) during the experiment time, compared with control group (p < 0.05). However, Rosmarinus officinalis did not change the total count, motility and viability of sperm. In addition, Rosmarinus officinalis at both doses did not change body and testes weight and their ratio. Furthermore, Rosmarinus officinalis increased the number of Spermatogonia at both doses, Spermatocyte at doses of 50 mg/Kg b.w, Leydig cell and Spermatid at dose of 100 mg/Kg b.w significantly (p < 0.05). Rosmarinus officinalis did not significantly affect the number of Spermatozoid and Sertoli cells. In conclusion, it seems that Rosmarinus officinalis may have some hormonal and cellular effects on the testes which can contribute the spermatogenesis process in rat. Rosmarinus officinalis may have antiandrogenic effect potentially indicating the possibility of developing herbal male contraceptive. PMID:24250620

  13. Melissa Officinalis L. Extracts Protect Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells against Oxidative Stress-Induced Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Jeung, In Cheul; Jee, Donghyun; Rho, Chang-Rae; Kang, Seungbum

    2016-01-01

    Background: We evaluated the protective effect of ALS-L1023, an extract of Melissa officinalis L. (Labiatae; lemon balm) against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19 cells). Methods: ARPE-19 cells were incubated with ALS-L1023 for 24 h and then treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were assessed by flow cytometry. Caspase-3/7 activation and cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) were measured to investigate the protective role of ALS-L1023 against apoptosis. The protective effect of ALS-L1023 against oxidative stress through activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) was evaluated by Western blot analysis. Results: ALS-L1023 clearly reduced H2O2-induced cell apoptosis and intracellular production of ROS. H2O2-induced oxidative stress increased caspase-3/7 activity and apoptotic PARP cleavage, which were significantly inhibited by ALS-L1023. Activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway was associated with the protective effect of ALS-L1023 on ARPE-19 cells. Conclusions: ALS-L1023 protected human RPE cells against oxidative damage. This suggests that ALS-L1023 has therapeutic potential for the prevention of dry age-related macular degeneration. PMID:26941573

  14. Permeability of Rosmarinic acid in Prunella vulgaris and Ursolic acid in Salvia officinalis Extracts across Caco-2 Cell Monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Qiang, Zhiyi; Ye, Zhong; Hauck, Cathy; Murphy, Patricia A.; McCoy, Joe-Ann; Widrlechner, Mark P.; Reddy, Manju B.; Hendrich, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Rosmarinic acid (RA), a caffeic acid-related compound found in high concentrations in Prunella vulgaris (self-heal), and ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpene acid concentrated in Salvia officinalis (sage), have been traditionally used to treat inflammation in the mouth, and may also be beneficial for gastrointestinal health in general. Aim of the study To investigate the permeabilities of RA and UA as pure compounds and in P. vulgaris and S. officinalis ethanol extracts across human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell monolayers. Materials and methods The permeabilities and Phase II biotransformation of RA and UA as pure compounds and in herbal extracts were compared using Caco-2 cells with HPLC detection. Results The apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) for RA and RA in P. vulgaris extracts was 0.2 ± 0.05 × 10−6 cm/s, significantly increased to 0.9 ± 0.2 × 10−6 cm/s after β-glucuronidase/sulfatase treatment. Papp for UA and UA in S. officinalis extract was 2.7 ± 0.3 × 10−6 cm/s and 2.3 ± 0.5 × 10−6 cm/s before and after β-glucuronidase/sulfatase treatment, respectively. Neither compound was affected in permeability by the herbal extract matrix. Conclusion RA and UA in herbal extracts had similar uptake as that found using the pure compounds, which may simplify the prediction of compound efficacy, but the apparent lack of intestinal glucuronidation/sulfation of UA is likely to further enhance the bioavailability of that compound compared with RA. PMID:21798330

  15. Asparagus officinalis extract controls blood glucose by improving insulin secretion and β-cell function in streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Hafizur, Rahman Md; Kabir, Nurul; Chishti, Sidra

    2012-11-14

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-diabetic mechanism of Asparagus officinalis, a dietary agent used for the management of diabetes. Streptozotocin (90 mg/kg) was injected in 2-d-old Wistar rat pups to induce non-obese type 2 diabetes. After confirmation of diabetes on the 13th week, diabetic rats were treated with a methanolic extract of A. officinalis seeds (250 and 500 mg/kg per d) or glibenclamide for 28 d. After the treatment, fasting blood glucose, serum insulin and total antioxidant status were measured. The pancreas was examined by haematoxylin-eosin staining and immunostained β- and α-cells were observed using a fluorescence microscope. Treatment of the diabetic rats with the A. officinalis extract at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg suppressed the elevated blood glucose in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The 500 mg/kg, but not 250 mg/kg, dose significantly improved serum insulin levels in the diabetic rats. The insulin:glucose ratio was significantly increased at both doses in the A. officinalis-treated rats. Both qualitative and quantitative improvements in β-cell function were found in the islets of the A. officinalis-treated rats. The extract showed potent antioxidant activity in an in vitro assay and also improved the total antioxidant status in vivo. In most cases, the efficacy of A. officinalis (500 mg/kg) was very similar to a standard anti-diabetic drug, glibenclamide. Thus, the present study suggests that A. officinalis extract exerts anti-diabetic effects by improving insulin secretion and β-cell function, as well as the antioxidant status. PMID:22221560

  16. Kinetin applications alleviate salt stress and improve the antioxidant composition of leaf extracts in Salvia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Tounekti, Taïeb; Hernández, Iker; Müller, Maren; Khemira, Habib; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2011-10-01

    A pot experiment was carried out under glasshouse conditions with common sage (Salvia officinalis L.) to investigate the interactive effects of salt stress and kinetin on growth attributes and the abundance of pigments, ions, phenolic diterpenes and α-tocopherol in leaf extracts of this species. The plants were subjected to the following four treatments: (i) control (nutrient solution), (ii) control + 10 μM kinetin, (iii) salt stress (nutrient solution + 100 mM NaCl), and (iv) salt stress + 10 μM kinetin. Kinetin was applied as a foliar fertilizer. Salt stress reduced water contents, photosynthetic activity and pigment contents of sage leaves. In addition, it increased Na(+) contents, and reduced those of Ca(2+) and K(+) in leaves. Salt stress reduced carnosic acid and 12-O-methyl carnosic acid contents in leaves, while it did not affect carnosol and α-tocopherol contents. Foliar applications of kinetin seemed to counterbalance or alleviate the stress symptoms induced by salinity, improving ion and pigment contents, while leaf phenolic diterpene (mainly carnosol) and α-tocopherol contents also increased in both control and NaCl-treated plants; still this effect was much more obvious in salt-treated plants. A similar effect was also obtained when plants were sprayed with KNO(3) or Ca(NO(3))(2), thus suggesting that kinetin effects were at least partly due to an improvement of ion homeostasis. Kinetin applications resulted in increased transcript levels of the isoprenoid and tocopherol biosynthetic genes, DXPRI and VTE2 and VTE4 in control plants, but not in NaCl-treated plants. We conclude that kinetin can alleviate the negative impact of salt on sage plants cultivated under arid environments with salinity problems. PMID:21856165

  17. Salvia officinalis L.: composition and antioxidant-related activities of a crude extract and selected sub-fractions.

    PubMed

    Koşar, Müberra; Dorman, H J Damien; Başer, K Hüsnü Can; Hiltunen, Raimo

    2010-09-01

    The composition and antioxidant properties of a methanol: acetic acid (99:1, v/v) soluble crude extract isolated from S. officinalis L. leaves through maceration and selected fractions isolated thereof are presented in this study. The total phenol content was estimated as gallic acid equivalents, whilst qualitative-quantitative phenolic content was determined using high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. Antioxidant evaluation consisted of ferric reductive capacity and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and hydroxyl free radical scavenging determinations. The crude extract contained hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonoids and diterpenoids, whilst caffeic acid, carnosic acid, luteolin, luteolin-7-O-glucoside and rosmarinic acid were identified from their chromatographic and spectral characteristics and quantified from their respective calibration curves. The crude extract and sub-fractions demonstrated varying degrees of efficacy in the antioxidant-related assays used, except the n-hexane fraction, which was unable to reduce iron(III) at reasonable concentrations. Although the positive controls, ascorbic acid, BHA and BHT, were more potent than the S. officinalis samples, two fractions were significantly (p < 0.05) more potent iron(III) reducing agents than pycnogenol, a proanthocyanidin-rich commercial preparation. PMID:20923007

  18. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of antioxidants from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) leaves for use in edible vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Vicente, Gonzalo; Martín, Diana; García-Risco, Mónica R; Fornari, Tiziana; Reglero, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    Supercritical extraction was employed to produce rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extracts with different composition and antioxidant activity. CO₂ was utilized as supercritical solvent and diverse extraction conditions (temperature, pressure, amount of cosolvent and fractionation scheme) were applied. The extracts with higher antioxidant content were selected to study their capability as natural antioxidant of several commercial edible vegetable oils. Linseed oil (LO), grape seed oil (GO) and sesame oil (SO) were oxidized under Rancimat conditions in presence of 0, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg of selected extracts. Antioxidant activity index (AAI) was estimated as the ratio of induction time in presence of extracts to induction time in absence of extract. Induction time in absence of extracts was 3.3, 7.9 and 23.4 h for LO, GO and SO, respectively. Regardless of these different susceptibilities, the highest AAI for the three oils was obtained for the extract with the highest antioxidant-enrichment (33.25% carnosic acid plus carnosol) and added at the highest level (300 mg/kg). However, at such conditions, the AAI was significantly higher (p<0.001) for LO (3.5), followed by SO (2.2) and the poorest value was for GO (1.1). Therefore, the magnitude of the AAI depended on the antioxidant-enrichment of the extracts, the level of addition within the oils, but also on the own individual oils. PMID:23196869

  19. Testing and enhancing the in vitro bioaccessibility and bioavailability of Rosmarinus officinalis extracts with a high level of antioxidant abietanes.

    PubMed

    Soler-Rivas, Cristina; Marín, Francisco R; Santoyo, Susana; García-Risco, Mónica R; Señoráns, F Javier; Reglero, Guillermo

    2010-01-27

    An antioxidant-enriched extract (RE) was obtained from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) by supercritical fluid extraction to be used as an ingredient to design functional foods. The optimized mixture (42 mg RE g(-1) sunflower oil) was submitted to in vitro digestion and absorption tests (using Caco2 cells) to investigate the effect of these processes on its DPPH scavenging activity and also whether its major abietanes (tricyclic diterpenes) might be bioaccessible and bioavailable. Results indicated that supplementation of the rosemary extract with sunflower oil and lecithin (37 mg g(-1)) enhanced abietanes micellation (almost 2-fold). In vitro digestion of the mixture including RE, sunflower oil, and lecithin reduced 50% the bioaccesibility in terms of antioxidant activity. Bioavailability was 31%. It was evidenced that this activity was not due to the original levels of carnosol, carnosic acid, and methyl carnosate (which only 47% remained after digestion) but due to their derivatives and digestion products. PMID:20038145

  20. Enriching the drinking water of rats with extracts of Salvia officinalis and Thymus vulgaris increases their resistance to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Horváthová, Eva; Srančíková, Annamária; Regendová-Sedláčková, Eva; Melušová, Martina; Meluš, Vladimír; Netriová, Jana; Krajčovičová, Zdenka; Slameňová, Darina; Pastorek, Michal; Kozics, Katarína

    2016-01-01

    Nature is an attractive source of therapeutic compounds. In comparison to the artificial drugs, natural compounds cause less adverse side effects and are suitable for current molecularly oriented approaches to drug development and their mutual combining. Medicinal plants represent one of the most available remedy against various diseases. Proper examples are Salvia officinalis L. and Thymus vulgaris L. which are known aromatic medicinal plants. They are very popular and frequently used in many countries. The molecular mechanism of their biological activity has not yet been fully understood. The aim of this study was to ascertain if liver cells of experimental animals drinking extracts of sage or thyme will manifest increased resistance against oxidative stress. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into seven groups. They drank sage or thyme extracts for 2 weeks. At the end of the drinking period, blood samples were collected for determination of liver biochemical parameters and hepatocytes were isolated to analyze (i) oxidatively generated DNA damage (conventional and modified comet assay), (ii) activities of antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx)] and (iii) content of glutathione. Intake of sage and thyme had no effect either on the basal level of DNA damage or on the activity of SOD in rat hepatocytes and did not change the biochemical parameters of blood plasma. Simultaneously, the activity of GPx was significantly increased and the level of DNA damage induced by oxidants was decreased. Moreover, sage extract was able to start up the antioxidant protection expressed by increased content of glutathione. Our results indicate that the consumption of S.officinalis and T.vulgaris extracts positively affects resistency of rat liver cells against oxidative stress and may have hepatoprotective potential. PMID:26297740

  1. Evaluation of antioxidant interactions in combined extracts of green tea (Camellia sinensis), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and oak fruit (Quercus branti).

    PubMed

    Ranjbar Nedamani, Elham; Sadeghi Mahoonak, Alireza; Ghorbani, Mohammad; Kashaninejad, Mehdi

    2015-07-01

    Green tea (Camellia sinensis), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and oak fruit (Quercus branti) are of known medicinal plants used in traditional medicine. They provide substantial antioxidant activities but the possible antioxidant interaction between them has not been studied. In the present study first the bioactive compounds from these three plants were first extracted and thereafter assayed for total phenols, 2, 2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) and reducing power. In addition, the antioxidant properties of the extracts individually and in combinations were evaluated in soy bean oil as food system. There was a direct relation between total phenolics and antioxidant activities of extracts. Green tea and oak fruit extracts had the highest and least activity, respectively. All three kinds of interactions (synergistic, antagonistic and additive) were observed. In soy bean oil, the only effect was antagonism but even with this effect, combined extract was significantly (P < 0.05) better than butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and control sample. Results showed that these three natural extracts and their combination can be effectively used as a substituent of synthetic antioxidant BHT. PMID:26139926

  2. Hydroalcoholic extract of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and its constituent carnosol inhibit formalin-induced pain and inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Emami, F; Ali-Beig, H; Farahbakhsh, S; Mojabi, N; Rastegar-Moghadam, B; Arbabian, S; Kazemi, M; Tekieh, E; Golmanesh, L; Ranjbaran, M; Jalili, C; Noroozzadeh, A; Sahraei, H

    2013-04-01

    The anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive properties of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (ROL) extract and its major constituent, carnosol in male NMRI mice (W:25-30 g) have been evaluated in the present study. Formalin (2%, 20 microL) was injected into the plantar portion of the hind paw and resulting pain and inflammation was studied for 60 min. The plant extract, carnosol and other drugs were administered intraperitoneally or subcutaneously 30 min before formalin injection. In a separate experiment, the effects of the extract and carnosol on plasma corticosterone levels and activity of the enzymes cyclooxygenase type 1 and 2 (COX1 and COX2) were investigated. Injection of different doses of ROL and carnosol reduced pain in the phase 2 of the formalin test, which was not inhibited by naloxone and/or memantine. In addition, pretreatment of the animals with ROL and/or carnosol reduces the formalin-induced inflammation. Furthermore, the extract and carnosol did not affect plasma corticosterone levels compared with the control group. Interestingly, both the extract and carnosol inhibited COX1 and COX2 activity. It could be concluded that ROL extract and carnosol suppressed pain and inflammation induced by formalin injection, which may be due to inhibition of COX1 and COX2 enzymes activity. PMID:24498797

  3. Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of the Althaea officinalis L. leaf extract and its wound healing potency in the rat model of excision wound creation

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei, Maryam; Dadgar, Zeynab; Noori-Zadeh, Ali; Mesbah-Namin, Seyed Alireza; Pakzad, Iraj; Davodian, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Wound is defined simply as the disruption of the biochemical, cellular, and anatomic continuity of a tissue. Plants and their extracts known as phytomedicine have immense potential for the management and treatment of wounds. Materials and Methods: Due to the undesirable side effects, in the control and treatment of the wound infections, it is recommended to use natural materials such as phytochemicals instead of chemically synthesized drugs. Thus, the aim of this research was to study the anti-microbial and wound healing potential of Althaea officinalis L. hydroalchoholic extract in comparison with ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and penicillin antibiotics on clinical strains as well as pathogenic bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes under in vitro conditions using micro broth dilution and disc diffusion methods. Moreover, MIC and MBC of its hydroalchoholic extract was also evaluated. Results: The results showed that although Althaea officinalis L. extract was not effective on gram-negative bacteria but it was efficacious on gram-positive bacteria. The extract was also tested in the form of topical administration on excision wound model in rats. In the extract-treated wounds, the wound healing percent was significantly increased in comparison with controls. Conclusions: Based on this research, herbal extract of officinalis L. can be a great candidate for the treatment of gram-positive infections and merits further studies. PMID:25949951

  4. Comparison of Neuroprotective Effects of Melissa officinalis Total Extract and Its Acidic and Non-Acidic Fractions against A β-Induced Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Sepand, Mohammad Reza; Soodi, Maliheh; Hajimehdipoor, Homa; Soleimani, Masoud; Sahraei, Ehsan

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that was characterized with deposit of beta amyloid (Aβ) aggregate in senile plaque. Oxidative damage to neurons and loss of cholinergic neurons in forebrain region are observed in this disease. Melissa officinalis is a medicinal plant from Lamiaceae family, used traditionally in the treatment of cognitive disorders. It has cholinomimetic and potent antioxidant activity. In the present study, we investigated the possible neuroprotective effects of total ethanolic extract, acidic and nonacidic fraction of Melissa officinalis on Aβ-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in PC12 cells and also measured their in-vitro anticholinesterase activity. PC12 cells were incubated with the extract and fractions prior to the incubation with Aβ and cell toxicity was assessed by MTT assay. In addition, productions of reactive oxygen species (ROS), Malondialdehyde (MDA) as a biomarker of lipid peroxidation and glutathione peroxidase activity were measured. Pretreatment of cells with total extract and acidic fraction (not non-acidic fraction) had protective effect against Aβ-induced oxidative changes and cell death. In concentrations in which both total extracts of an acidic fraction showed neuroprotective effects, inhibition of cholinesterase activity was not significant. Then, the protective effects of Melissa officinalis total extract and acidic fraction were not attributed to their anticholinesterase activity. Acidic fraction showed more potent protective effect compared to the total extract, leading to the fact that polyphenolic compounds and terpenoic acids are the most effective components in the total extract concentrated in this fraction. PMID:24250617

  5. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of marigold at high pressures: comparison of analytical and pilot-scale extraction.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Dietmar; Adler, Sven; Griiner, Sabine; Otto, Frank; Weinreich, Bernd; Hamburger, Matthias

    2004-01-01

    The effects of pressure and co-solvent on the extraction of anti-inflammatory faradiol esters in marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) were investigated by supercritical fluid extraction at laboratory and pilot scales. Pressures higher than 300 bar and modifier (ethanol) concentrations ranging from 0 to 20% (v/v) were used at an extraction temperature of 50 degrees C. With an analytical extractor, exhaustive extraction of the drug and highest concentrations in the extracts were achieved with 0.5% ethanol at the maximum pressure of 689 bar. Increased modifier concentrations improved the extractability at lower pressure, but the higher amount of total extractables led to a lower concentration of faradiol esters in the extracts. The HPLC fingerprints of the extracts, the yields of total extract and the concentration of faradiol esters obtained with analytical and pilot scale extractors under the same conditions were comparable. PMID:15311841

  6. Healthy reduced-fat Bologna sausages enriched in ALA and DHA and stabilized with Melissa officinalis extract.

    PubMed

    Berasategi, Izaskun; Navarro-Blasco, Iñigo; Calvo, Maria Isabel; Cavero, Rita Yolanda; Astiasarán, Iciar; Ansorena, Diana

    2014-03-01

    Reduced-energy and reduced-fat Bologna products enriched with ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were formulated by replacing the pork back-fat by an oil-in-water emulsion containing a mixture of linseed-algae oil stabilized with a lyophilized Melissa officinalis extract. Healthier composition and lipid profile was obtained: 85 kcal/100 g, 3.6% fat, 0.6 g ALA and 0.44 g DHA per 100 g of product and ω-6/ω-3 ratio of 0.4. Technological and sensory problems were not detected in the new formulations. Reformulation did not cause oxidation problems during 32 days of storage under refrigeration. The results suggest that it is possible to obtain reduced-fat Bologna-type sausages rich in ALA and DHA and stabilized with natural antioxidants, applying the appropriate technology without significant effects on the sensory quality, yielding interesting products from a nutritional point of view. PMID:24334039

  7. GC-MS analysis of essential oils from Salvia officinalis L.: comparison of extraction methods of the volatile components.

    PubMed

    Baj, Tomasz; Ludwiczuk, Agnieszka; Sieniawska, Elwira; Skalicka-Woźniak, Krystyna; Widelski, Jarosław; Zieba, Krzysztof; Głowniak, Kazimierz

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, comparison of the volatile components composition in the samples obtained by hydrodistillation and solid-phase microextraction of Salvia officinalis was described. Different sample preparation techniques showed considerable differences in volatiles composition, especially with respect to sesqui- and diterpenoids. The comparison of the sage essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation in the Deryng and Clevenger type apparatus, according to the pharmacopoeial methods (FP VI and VII), showed the presence of the same terpenoids in both essential oils, however, the relative percentage composition of the components were different. These differences are caused by the different extraction times used in both methods. Since each essential oil to be admitted to medicinal use should meet requirements regarding the composition of major chemical components, the minimum time for the hydrodistillation of the essential oils from sage should be 1 h. PMID:23610957

  8. Protective action of ethanolic extract of Rosmarinus officinalis L. in gastric ulcer prevention induced by ethanol in rats.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Guilherme Pires; de Carvalho, Nelson Rodrigues; Barcelos, Rômulo Pillon; Dobrachinski, Fernando; Portella, Rafael de Lima; da Silva, Michele Hinerasky; Lugokenski, Thiago Henrique; Dias, Glaecir Roseni Mundstock; da Luz, Sônia Cristina Almeida; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Villetti, Marcos Antonio; Antunes Soares, Félix Alexandre; Fachinetto, Roselei

    2013-05-01

    The pathology of a gastric ulcer is complex and multifactorial. Gastric ulcers affect many people around the world and its development is a result of the imbalance between aggressive and protective factors in the gastric mucosa. In this study, we evaluated the ethanolic extract of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (eeRo); this plant, more commonly known as rosemary, has attracted the interest of the scientific community due to its numerous pharmacological properties and their potential therapeutic applications. Here, we tested the preventive effects of eeRo against gastric ulcer induced by 70% ethanol in male Wistar rats. In addition, we aimed to clarify the mechanism involved in the preventive action of the eeRo in gastric ulcers. Based on the analysis of markers of oxidative damage and enzymatic antioxidant defense systems, the measurement of nitrite and nitrate levels and the assessment of the inflammatory response, the eeRo exhibited significant antioxidant, vasodilator and antiinflammatory properties. PMID:23279841

  9. Toxicological Evaluation of Emblica officinalis Fruit Extract and its Anti-inflammatory and Free Radical Scavenging Properties

    PubMed Central

    Middha, Sushil Kumar; Goyal, Arvind Kumar; Lokesh, Prakash; Yardi, Varsha; Mojamdar, Lavanya; Keni, Deepthi Sudhir; Babu, Dinesh; Usha, Talambedu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Emblica officinalis (Euphorbiaceae), popularly known as Indian gooseberry or “Amla” in India, is used in Ayurveda as “rejuvenating herb” since ancient times. Objective: This study was carried out to estimate toxicity, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative activities of the methanolic extract of Emblica officinalis fruit (MEO) in an animal model. Materials and Methods: Antioxidative property of MEO was assessed by in vitro assays such as phosphomolybdenum assay (total antioxidant capacity), free radical scavenging assays 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2’-azino-bis and 3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (DPPH and ABTS method) and lipid peroxidation assay (LPO). The anti-inflammatory property was evaluated by carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in rats by measuring rat paw volume at different time intervals and toxicological analysis using mice. Results and Discussion: High performance liquid chromatography studies revealed the presence of gallic acid (2.10%), mucic acid (4.90%), ellagic acid (2.10%), quercetin (28.00%), rutin (3.89%), and β-glucogallin (1.46%). MEO showed highest antioxidant activities by using DPPH (17.33–89.00%), ABTS (23.03–94.16%), nitric oxide scavenging activity (12.94–70.16%), LPO (56.54%), and phosphomolybdenum assay (142 ± 6.09 μg/ml). The LD50 was found to be approximately 1125 mg/kg (p.o). High dose of MEO showed significant reduction (72.71%) in the inflammation after 4 h of treatment, which was comparable to diclofenac (10 mg/kg) (61.57%) treated group. Significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the inflammatory cytokine (interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α) markers were also observed (57.25% and 35.41%, respectively) in serum of MEO treated animals as compared to control. Conclusion: Taken together, phenolic compounds of MEO may serve as a potential herbal drug for amelioration of acute inflammation due to their modulatory action on free radicals. SUMMARY The methanolic extract of Emblica

  10. Dietary chemoprevention of clastogenic effects of 3,4-benzo(a)pyrene by Emblica officinalis Gaertn. fruit extract.

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, P.; Talukder, G.; Sharma, A.

    1997-01-01

    Dietary supplementation with extract of fruit of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (a rich source of vitamin C) to mice in vivo significantly reduced the cytotoxic effects of a known carcinogen, 3,4-benzo(a)pyrene. Age-matched Swiss albino mice were fed by gavaging the fruit extract daily for 28 days. From day 9, one dose of the carcinogen was given on alternate days up to a total of eight doses. On day 29, all mice were transferred to normal diet. Control sets received the extract alone, the carcinogen alone and olive oil alone. All mice were sacrificed at 12 weeks and 14 weeks after the end of the experiment. Chromosome preparations were made from bone marrow after the usual colchicine-hypotonic-fixative-air drying-Giemsa staining schedule. Cytogenetic end points screened were the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations and of damaged cells induced. The cytotoxic effects were significantly lower in the mice given the fruit extract with the carcinogen than in those given the carcinogen alone. PMID:9374371

  11. In vitro trematocidal effects of crude alcoholic extracts of Artemisia annua, A. absinthium, Asimina triloba, and Fumaria officinalis: trematocidal plant alcoholic extracts.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Jorge F S; Peaden, Paul; Keiser, Jennifer

    2011-12-01

    Trematode infections negatively affect human and livestock health, and threaten global food safety. The only approved human anthelmintics for trematodiasis are triclabendazole and praziquantel with no alternative drugs in sight. We tested six crude plant extracts against adult Schistosoma mansoni, Fasciola hepatica, and Echinostoma caproni in vitro. Mortality was best achieved by ethanolic extracts of Artemisia annua (sweet Annie), Asimina triloba (paw-paw), and Artemisia absinthium (wormwood) which, at 2 mg/mL, killed S. mansoni and E. caproni in 20 h or less (except for wormwood), F. hepatica between 16 and 23 h (sweet Annie), or 40 h (paw-paw). Some extracts were active at 0.2 mg/mL and 20 μg/mL, although more time was required to kill trematodes. However, aqueous A. annua and methanol extracts of Fumaria officinalis had no activity. Chromatographic analysis of the three best extracts established that A. annua and A. triloba extracts contained bioactive artemisinin and acetogenins (asimicin and bullatacin), respectively. The anthelmintic activity of our extracts at such low doses indicates that their anthelmintic activity deserves further testing as natural alternative controls for parasites of both animals and humans. Our results also support recent evidence that synergistic effects of multiple bioactive compounds present in crude plant extracts is worth exploring. PMID:21562762

  12. A clinical study: Melaleuca, Manuka, Calendula and green tea mouth rinse.

    PubMed

    Lauten, Jeffrey D; Boyd, Linda; Hanson, M Blair; Lillie, Dana; Gullion, Christina; Madden, Theresa E

    2005-11-01

    A novel mouthrinse (IND 61,164) containing essential oils and extracts from four plant species (Melaleuca alternifolia, Leptospermum scoparium, Calendula officinalis and Camellia sinensis) were tested. This study aimed to evaluate the safety, palatability and preliminary efficacy of the rinse. Fifteen subjects completed the Phase I safety study. Seventeen subjects completed the Phase II randomized placebo-controlled study. Plaque was collected, gingival and plaque indices were recorded (baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks). The relative abundance of two periodontal pathogens (Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Tanerella forsythensis) was determined utilizing digoxigenin-labeled DNA probes. ANCOVA was used at the p = 0.05 level of significance. Two subjects reported a minor adverse event. One subject withdrew from the study. Several subjects objected to the taste of the test rinse but continued treatment. Differences between gingival index, plaque index or relative abundance of either bacterial species did not reach statistical significance when comparing nine placebo subjects with eight test rinse subjects. Subjects exposed to the test rinse experienced no abnormal oral lesions, altered vital signs, changes in liver, kidney, or bone marrow function. Larger scale studies would be necessary to determine the efficacy and oral health benefits of the test rinse. PMID:16317652

  13. Protective effect of supercritical fluid rosemary extract, Rosmarinus officinalis, on antioxidants of major organs of aged rats.

    PubMed

    Posadas, S J; Caz, V; Largo, C; De la Gándara, B; Matallanas, B; Reglero, G; De Miguel, E

    2009-01-01

    Rosemary leaves, "Rosmarinus officinalis", possess a variety of antioxidant, anti-tumoral and anti-inflammatory bioactivities. We hypothesized that rosemary extract could enhance antioxidant defenses and improve antioxidant status in aged rats. This work evaluates whether supplementing their diet with supercritical fluid (SFE) rosemary extract containing 20% antioxidant carnosic acid (CA) reduces oxidative stress in aged rats. Aged Wistar rats (20 months old) were included in the study. Rats were fed for 12 weeks with a standard kibble (80%) supplemented with turkey breast (20%) containing none or one of two different SFE rosemary concentrations (0.2% and 0.02%). After sacrifice, tissue samples were collected from heart and brain (cortex and hippocampus). Enzyme activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) were quantitatively analyzed. Lipid peroxidation and levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were also determined. Rosemary decreased lipid peroxidation in both brain tissues. The levels of catalase activities in heart and cortex were decreased in the rosemary-treated groups. The SFE rosemary-treated rats presented lower NOS levels in heart and lower ROS levels in hippocampus than the control rats. Supplementing the diet of aged rats with SFE rosemary extract produced a decrease in antioxidant enzyme activity, lipid peroxidation and ROS levels that was significant for catalase activity in heart and brain, NOS in heart, and LPO and ROS levels in different brain tissues. These observations suggest that the rosemary supplement improved the oxidative stress status in old rats. PMID:19289162

  14. Anti-inflammatory effects of supercritical carbon dioxide extract and its isolated carnosic acid from Rosmarinus officinalis leaves.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chia-Feng; Su, Jeng-De; Chiu, Chun-Hung; Peng, Chiung-Chi; Chang, Chi-Huang; Sung, Tzu-Ying; Huang, Shiau-Huei; Lee, Wen-Chin; Chyau, Charng-Cherng

    2011-04-27

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) leaves possess a variety of bioactivities. Previous studies have shown that the extract of rosemary leaves from supercritical fluid extraction inhibits the expression of inflammatory mediators with apparent dose-dependent responses. In this study, three different extraction conditions (5000 psi at 40, 60, and 80 °C) of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) toward the extraction of antioxidants from rosemary were investigated. Furthermore, simultaneous comparison of the anti-inflammatory properties between rosemary extract prepared from SC-CO(2) under optimal conditions (5,000 psi and 80 °C) and its purified carnosic acid (CA) using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated murine RAW 264.7 macrophage cells was also presented. Results showed that the yield of 3.92% and total phenolics of 213.5 mg/g extract obtained from the most effective extraction conditions showed a high inhibitory effect on lipid peroxidation (IC(50) 33.4 μg/mL). Both the SC-CO(2) extract and CA markedly suppressed the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), as well as the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), phosphorylated inhibitor-kappaB (P-IκB), and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB)/p65 in a dose-dependent manner. The five major compounds of verbenone, cirsimaritin, salvigenin, carnosol, and CA existing in the SC-CO(2) extract were isolated by semipreparative HPLC and identified by HPLC-MS/MS analysis. CA was the most abundant recorded compound and the most important photochemical with an anti-inflammatory effect with an IC(50) of 22.5 μM or 7.47 μg/mL presented to the best inhibitory activity on NO production better than that of the 14.50 μg/mL dosage prepared from the SC-CO(2) extract. Nevertheless, the effective inhibition of LPS-induced NF-κB signaling in RAW 264.7 cells from the SC-CO(2) extract extends the potential application of nutraceutical formulation for the

  15. Rosmarinus officinalis L. leaf extract improves memory impairment and affects acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Ozarowski, Marcin; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L; Bogacz, Anna; Gryszczynska, Agnieszka; Kujawska, Malgorzata; Jodynis-Liebert, Jadwiga; Piasecka, Anna; Napieczynska, Hanna; Szulc, Michał; Kujawski, Radoslaw; Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Joanna; Cichocka, Joanna; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, Teresa; Czerny, Boguslaw; Mrozikiewicz, Przemyslaw M

    2013-12-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis L. leaf as part of a diet and medication can be a valuable proposal for the prevention and treatment of dementia. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of subchronic (28-fold) administration of a plant extract (RE) (200 mg/kg, p.o.) on behavioral and cognitive responses of rats linked with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activity and their mRNA expression level in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. The passive avoidance test results showed that RE improved long-term memory in scopolamine-induced rats. The extract inhibited the AChE activity and showed a stimulatory effect on BuChE in both parts of rat brain. Moreover, RE produced a lower mRNA BuChE expression in the cortex and simultaneously an increase in the hippocampus. The study suggests that RE led to improved long-term memory in rats, which can be partially explained by its inhibition of AChE activity in rat brain. PMID:24080468

  16. Enzyme-treated Asparagus officinalis extract shows neuroprotective effects and attenuates cognitive impairment in senescence-accelerated mice.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Takuya; Ito, Tomohiro; Wakame, Koji; Kitadate, Kentaro; Arai, Takashi; Ogasawara, Junetsu; Kizaki, Takako; Sato, Shogo; Ishibashi, Yoshinaga; Fujiwara, Tomonori; Akagawa, Kimio; Ishida, Hitoshi; Ohno, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Increases in the number of patients with dementia involving Alzheimer's disease (AD) are seen as a grave public health problem. In neurodegenerative disorders involving AD, biological stresses, such as oxidative and inflammatory stress, induce neural cell damage. Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is a popular vegetable, and an extract prepared from this reportedly possesses various beneficial biological activities. In the present study, we investigated the effects of enzyme-treated asparagus extract (ETAS) on neuronal cells and early cognitive impairment of senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice. The expression of mRNAs for factors that exert cytoprotective and anti-apoptotic functions, such as heat-shock protein 70 and heme oxygenase-1, was upregulated in NG108-15 neuronal cells by treatment with ETAS. Moreover, when release of lactate dehydrogenase from damaged NG108-15 cells was increased for cells cultured in medium containing either the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside or the hypoxia mimic reagent cobalt chloride, ETAS significantly attenuated this cell damage. Also, when contextual fear memory, which is considered to be a hippocampus-dependent memory, was significantly impaired in SAMP8 mice, ETAS attenuated the cognitive impairment. These results suggest that ETAS produces cytoprotective effects in neuronal cells and attenuates the effects on the cognitive impairment of SAMP8 mice. PMID:24660475

  17. Mechanisms involved in the antinociception caused by ethanolic extract obtained from the leaves of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) in mice.

    PubMed

    Guginski, Giselle; Luiz, Ana Paula; Silva, Morgana Duarte; Massaro, Murilo; Martins, Daniel Fernandes; Chaves, Juliana; Mattos, Robson Willain; Silveira, Damaris; Ferreira, Vânia M M; Calixto, João Batista; Santos, Adair R S

    2009-07-01

    The present study examined the antinociceptive effect of the ethanolic extract from Melissa officinalis L. and of the rosmarinic acid in chemical behavioral models of nociception and investigates some of the mechanisms underlying this effect. The extract (3-1000 mg/kg), given orally (p.o.) 1 h prior to testing, produced dose-dependent inhibition of acetic acid-induced visceral pain, with ID50 value of 241.9 mg/kg. In the formalin test, the extract (30-1000 mg/kg, p.o.) also caused significant inhibition of both, the early (neurogenic pain) and the late (inflammatory pain), phases of formalin-induced licking. The extract (10-1000 mg/kg, p.o.) also caused significant and dose-dependent inhibition of glutamate-induced pain, with ID50 value of 198.5 mg/kg. Furthermore, the rosmarinic acid (0.3-3 mg/kg), given p.o. 1 h prior, produced dose-related inhibition of glutamate-induced pain, with ID50 value of 2.64 mg/kg. The antinociception caused by the extract (100 mg/kg, p.o.) in the glutamate test was significantly attenuated by intraperitoneal (i.p.) treatment of mice with atropine (1 mg/kg), mecamylamine (2 mg/kg) or l-arginine (40 mg/kg). In contrast, the extract (100 mg/kg, p.o.) antinociception was not affected by i.p. treatment with naloxone (1 mg/kg) or D-arginine (40 mg/kg). It was also not associated with non-specific effects, such as muscle relaxation or sedation. Collectively, the present results suggest that the extract produced dose-related antinociception in several models of chemical pain through mechanisms that involved cholinergic systems (i.e. through muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors) and the L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway. In addition, the rosmarinic acid contained in this plant appears to contribute for the antinociceptive property of the extract. Moreover, the antinociceptive action demonstrated in the present study supports, at least partly, the ethnomedical uses of this plant. PMID:19358864

  18. Extraction and analysis of antioxidant compounds from the residues of Asparagus officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Fan, Rui; Yuan, Fang; Wang, Ning; Gao, Yanxiang; Huang, Yunxiang

    2015-05-01

    Asparagus residues were used as materials to obtain antioxidant compounds by solid-liquid extraction in this study. The effects of different extraction parameters including extraction solvents, time, temperature and liquid-solid ratio on the contents of total flavonoids, total phenolics and total antioxidant activity were investigated. Antioxidant activity of the extract from asparagus residues was evaluated by HPLC- ABTS · (+) and the bioactive components were identified by HPLC- MS/MS. The results showed that the extraction yield was significantly influenced (P < 0.05) by solvent composition, extraction time and temperature. The appropriate parameters were preferred as extraction solvent of 50 % ethanol with liquid-solid ratio of 30:1, extraction temperature of 80 °C and time of 2 h. Antioxidant activity evaluation of the extract indicated flavonoids and phenolics were dominant bioactive compounds. Five antioxidant compounds were identified as ferulic acid, kaempferol, quercetin, rutin and isorhamnetin. PMID:25892766

  19. The antibacterial effect of sage extract (Salvia officinalis) mouthwash against Streptococcus mutans in dental plaque: a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Beheshti-Rouy, Maryam; Azarsina, Mohadese; Rezaie-Soufi, Loghman; Alikhani, Mohammad Yousef; Roshanaie, Ghodratollah; Komaki, Samira

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical effects of a mouthwash containing Sage (Salvia officinalis) extracts on Streptococcus mutans (SM) causing dental plaque in school-aged children. Material and Methods: A double blind clinical trial study was conducted in a dormitory on 70 girls aged 11–14 years having the same socioeconomic and oral hygiene conditions. These students were randomly divided into 2 groups; the first group (N=35) using Sage mouthwash, and the second group (N=35) using placebo mouthwash without active any ingredients. At the baseline, plaque samples obtained from the buccal surfaces of teeth were sent to laboratory to achieve SM colony count. These tests were reevaluated after 21 days of using the mouthwashes. Statistical data analysis was performed using t-student tests with p<0.05 as the level of significance. Results: Sage mouthwash significantly reduced the colony count (P=0.001). Average number of colonies in test group was 3900 per plaque sample at the baseline, and 300 after mouthwash application. In the control group, pre-test colony count was 4400 that was reduced to 4000; although this reduction wasn't significant. Conclusion: The Sage mouthwash effectively reduced the number of Streptococcus mutans in dental plaque. PMID:26668706

  20. Valeriana officinalis Extracts Ameliorate Neuronal Damage by Suppressing Lipid Peroxidation in the Gerbil Hippocampus Following Transient Cerebral Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Dae Young; Jung, Hyo Young; Nam, Sung Min; Kim, Jong Whi; Choi, Jung Hoon; Kwak, Youn-Gil; Yoo, Miyoung; Lee, Sanghee; Yoon, Yeo Sung; Hwang, In Koo

    2015-06-01

    As a medicinal plant, the roots of Valeriana officinalis have been used as a sedative and tranquilizer. In the present study, we evaluated the neuroprotective effects of valerian root extracts (VE) on the hippocampal CA1 region of gerbils after 5 min of transient cerebral ischemia. Gerbils were administered VE orally once a day for 3 weeks, subjected to ischemia/reperfusion injury, and continued on VE for 3 weeks. The administration of 100 mg/kg VE (VE100 group) significantly reduced the ischemia-induced spontaneous motor hyperactivity 1 day after ischemia/reperfusion. Four days after ischemia/reperfusion, animals treated with VE showed abundant cresyl violet-positive neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region when compared to the vehicle or 25 mg/kg VE-treated groups. In addition, the VE treatment markedly decreased microglial activation in the hippocampal CA1 region 4 days after ischemia. Compared to the other groups, the VE100 group showed the lowest level of lipid peroxidation during the first 24 h after ischemia/reperfusion. In summary, the findings in this study suggest that pretreatment with VE has protective effects against ischemic injury in the hippocampal pyramidal neurons by decreasing microglial activation and lipid peroxidation. PMID:25785762

  1. Hypolipidemic effect of n-butanol Extract from Asparagus officinalis L. in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xinglei; Zhang, Wen; Pang, Xiufeng; Wang, Jiesi; Zhao, Jingjing; Qu, Weijing

    2011-08-01

    During industrial processing of Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.), around half of each spear is discarded. However, these discarded asparagus (by-products) might be used as food supplements for their potential therapeutic effects. This study evaluated the hypolipidemic effect of n-butanol extract (BEA) from asparagus by-products in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Continuous HFD feeding caused hyperlipidemia, oxidative stress and liver damage in mice. Interestingly, while BEA significantly decreased the levels of body weight gain, serum total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, it dramatically increased the high density lipoprotein level when administered at three different doses (40, 80 or 160 mg/kg body weight) for 8 weeks in hyperlipidemic mice. In addition, BEA decreased the levels of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase in serum. Finally, superoxide dismutase activity and the total antioxidation capacity were evidently increased, while the malondialdehyde level and the distribution of lipid droplets were reduced in liver cells of BEA-treated mice. Taken together, the findings of this study suggested that BEA had a strong hypolipidemic function and could be used as a supplement in healthcare foods and drugs or in combination with other hypolipidemic drugs. PMID:21280112

  2. Experimental study on effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Emblica officinalis fruits on glucose homeostasis and metabolic parameters.

    PubMed

    Patel, Snehal S; Goyal, Ramesh K; Shah, Rajendra S; Tirgar, Pravin R; Jadav, Pinakin D

    2013-10-01

    Polyphenols from natural source are potential therapeutics that act alone or supplement anti-diabetic drugs in the prevention and treatment of diabetes. The present investigation was undertaken to study the effect of hydroalcoholic extract (HE) of fruits of Emblica officinalis on type 1 diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) (45 mg/kg i.v.). HE (100 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered for 4 weeks and at the end of treatment, blood samples were collected and analyzed for various biochemical parameters. STZ produced a diabetic state exhibiting all the cardinal symptoms such as loss of body weight, polydipsia, polyuria, glucosuria, polyphagia, hypoinsulinemia, and hyperglycemia associated with hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. Treatment with HE prevented cardinal symptoms and caused significant decrease in fasting serum glucose, AUCglucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and very LDL in diabetic rats. However, insulin, AUCinsulin, and serum high-density lipoprotein level were not significantly altered by treatment. Treatment also reduced lipid peroxidation and increased anti-oxidant parameters in the liver homogenates of diabetic rats. Polyphenol enriched fraction of HE significantly improved disarranged carbohydrate and lipid metabolism of chemically induced diabetes in rats. The mechanism of its anti-diabetic activity appears to be either improvement in peripheral glucose utilization, increased insulin sensitivity, or anti-oxidant property. PMID:24696584

  3. Negative Chronotropic and Antidysrhythmic Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Lemon Balm (Melissa Officinalis L.) on CaCl2-Induced Arrhythmias in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Akhondali, Zahra; Dianat*, Mahin; Radan, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background: In many cases, myocardial infarction leads to arrhythmia. Since antioxidant agents have an important protective role in heart disease, these compounds in medicinal plants are used in traditional medicine. Lemon balm extract, compared to other plants of the lamiaceae family, has been proven to have significant amounts of antioxidant compounds. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) on CaCl2-induced arrhythmias in rats. Methods: This research is an experimental study; male adult Sprague Dawley rats that weighed 200-250 g were divided randomly into three groups, i.e., 1) control (normal saline, 1 ml/kg/day), 2) extract (100 mg/kg), and 3) extract (200 mg/kg). The normal saline and the extracts were gavaged for 14 consecutive days. After anesthesia, lead II electrocardiograms were recorded for calculating the rats’ heart rates (HRs). Arrhythmia was induced by intravenous injection of CaCl2 solution (140 mg/kg), and the percentages of incidence of ventricular tachycardia (VT), ventricular fibrillation (VF), and ventricular premature beats (VPB) were recorded. The results were analyzed by using Fisher’s exact test and one-way ANOVA. P-values less than 0.05 were considered as significant level. Results: Heart rates and percentages of incidence of VPB, VT, and VF were reduced significantly in extract groups (with the highest activity at 200 mg/kg) in comparison with the control group. Conclusion: Melissa officinalis was considered to be an antiarrhythmic agent because it reduced the percentage of incidence of VPB, VT, and VF in the groups that received it. The results indicated that Melissa officinalis had a protective effect on the heart. PMID:26052407

  4. Anti-neoplastic activities of sepia officinalis ink and coelatura aegyptiaca extracts against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Amel M; Fahmy, Sohair R; El-Abied, Salma A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: With the development of sophisticated instruments for the isolation and elucidation of natural products structures from marine and freshwater organisms, major advances have been made in the discovery of aquatic derived therapeutics. Present investigations were carried out to evaluate cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) ink extract (IE) and freshwater clam (Coelatura aegyptiaca) extract (CE) for their anticancer and antioxidant activities as compared to 5-flurouracil (5-Fu), in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC). Methods: Sixty female Swiss albino mice were divided into five groups (n = 12). All groups except group I received EAC cells (5 × 106 cells/mouse i.p.) and this was taken as the 0th day. Group I served as saline control (5 ml/kg 0.9% NaCl w/v p.o). Group II served as EAC control. Rats of groups III, IV and V received IE, CE (200 mg/kg body weight i.p.), and reference drug (5-Fu, 20 mg/kg body weight i.p.), respectively. Results: The reduction in tumor volume, packed cell volume, tumor cell counts and increase in median survival time and percentage increase in life span in treated animals were observed. There was a significant increase in RBC count; Hb content in treated animals and reduction in total WBC count. There was a significant decrease in AST, ALT, ALP and liver MDA levels and increase in GSH, SOD and NO levels were observed in all treated animals. Conclusion: Both IE and CE were effective in inhibiting the tumor growth in ascitic tumor models. The biochemical, antioxidants and histopathological studies were also supported their antitumor properties. PMID:26097537

  5. LC/MS/MS determination and pharmacokinetic study of iridoid glycosides monotropein and deacetylasperulosidic acid isomers in rat plasma after oral administration of Morinda officinalis extract.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunmin; Dong, Jian; Tian, Jingchang; Deng, Zhipeng; Song, Xiujing

    2016-02-01

    Morinda officinalis is a famous traditional Chinese medicine containing iridoid glycoside compounds, such as monotropein and deacetylasperulosidic acid. The aim of the study was to develop a novel and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method for the simultaneous determination of the two isomeric iridoid glycosides and then evaluate their pharmacokinetic properties in rats. Selected-reaction monitoring mode was employed for quantification of two analytes in rat plasma. The calibration curves were linear over their respective concentration range with correlation coefficient >0.995 for both analytes. Precision for monotropein and deacetylasperulosidic acid ranged from 2.5 to 11.9% relative standard deviation, and the accuracy of two analytes was -2.0-3.7 and -6.4-10.7% relative error, respectively. This method was successfully applied in pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of M. officinalis extract in rats. The results provided a basis for further research on the bioactivity of M. officinalis. PMID:26053360

  6. [CONTENT OF OXIDATIVE STRESS MARKERS IN BLOOD PLASMA UNDER THE ACTION OF EXTRACTS OF GRATIOLA OFFICINALIS L., HELICHRYSUM ARENARIUM (L.) MOENCH, AND ANTHOCYANIN FORMS OF ZEA MAYS L].

    PubMed

    Durnova, N A; Afanas'eva, G A; Kurchatova, M N; Zaraeva, N V; Golikov, A G; Bucharskaya, A B; Golikov, A G; Bucharskaya, A B; Plastun, V O; Andreeva, N V

    2015-01-01

    The effect of aqueous solutions of dry ethanol extracts of Gratiola officinalis L., Helichrysum arenarium (L.) Moench, and anthocyanin forms of Zea mays L. on the dioxidin-induced lipid peroxidation in blood has been studied on rats. It is established that all these extracts are capable of reducing the amount of avera- ge-mass (AM) molecules and malonic dialdehyde (MDA) in rat blood plasma. The extract of Gratiola officinalis L. reduces the concentration of AM and MDA moleules by 43%. The extract of Helichrysum arenarium (L.) Moench reduces the concentration of AM molecules on the average by 18.66% (within 9.22 -34.81%) and MDA by 49.36% (within 34.12-79.75%). The Extract of anthocyanin forms of Zea mays L. does not reduce the concentration of AM mo- lecules, but reduces the amount of MDA in the blood of rats on average by 27.88% (within 21.58-37.82%) (p < 0.01). PMID:26591206

  7. Magnolia officinalis Extract Contains Potent Inhibitors against PTP1B and Attenuates Hyperglycemia in db/db Mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Wang, Yongsen; Fu, Xueqi; Chen, Yingli; Wang, Deli; Li, Wannan; Xing, Shu; Li, Guodong

    2015-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is an established therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory activity of Magnolia officinalis extract (ME) on PTP1B and its anti-T2DM effects. Inhibition assays and inhibition kinetics of ME were performed in vitro. 3T3-L1 adipocytes and C2C12 myotubes were stimulated with ME to explore its bioavailability in cell level. The in vivo studies were performed on db/db mice to probe its anti-T2DM effects. In the present study, ME inhibited PTP1B in a reversible competitive manner and displayed good selectivity against PTPs in vitro. Furthermore, ME enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation levels of cellular proteins, especially the insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylations of insulin receptor β-subunit (IRβ) and ERK1/2 in a dose-dependent manner in stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes and C2C12 myotubes. Meanwhile, ME enhanced insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation. More importantly, there was a significant decrease in fasting plasma glucose level of db/db diabetic mice treated orally with 0.5 g/kg ME for 4 weeks. These findings indicated that improvement of insulin sensitivity and hypoglycemic effects of ME may be attributed to the inhibition of PTP1B. Thereby, we pioneered the inhibitory potential of ME targeted on PTP1B as anti-T2DM drug discovery. PMID:26064877

  8. Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) extracts reduce oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Rao, T P; Sakaguchi, N; Juneja, L R; Wada, E; Yokozawa, T

    2005-01-01

    The antioxidant properties of amla extracts and their effects on the oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetes were examined in rats. Amla in the form of either the commercial enzymatic extract SunAmla (Taiyo Kagaku Co. Ltd., Yokkaichi, Japan) (20 or 40 mg/kg of body weight/day) or a polyphenol-rich fraction of ethyl acetate extract (10 or 20 mg/kg of body weight/day) was given orally for 20 days to the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Amla extracts showed strong free radical scavenging activity. Amla also showed strong inhibition of the production of advanced glycosylated end products. The oral administration of amla extracts to the diabetic rats slightly improved body weight gain and also significantly alleviated various oxidative stress indices of the serum of the diabetic rats. The elevated serum levels of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, which is a glycosylated protein that is an indicator of oxidative stress, were significantly reduced dose-dependently in the diabetic rats fed amla. Similarly, the serum level of creatinine, yet another oxidative stress parameter, was also reduced. Furthermore, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances levels were significantly reduced with amla, indicating a reduction in lipid peroxidation. In addition, the decreased albumin levels in the diabetic rats were significantly improved with amla. Amla also significantly improved the serum adiponectin levels. These results form the scientific basis supporting the efficacy of amla for relieving the oxidative stress and improving glucose metabolism in diabetes. PMID:16176148

  9. Quantitative HPLC Analysis of Rosmarinic Acid in Extracts of "Melissa officinalis" and Spectrophotometric Measurement of Their Antioxidant Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canelas, Vera; da Costa, Cristina Teixeira

    2007-01-01

    The students prepare tea samples using different quantities of lemon balm leaves ("Melissa officinalis") and measure the rosmarinic acid contents by an HPLC-DAD method. The antioxidant properties of the tea samples are evaluated by a spectrophotometric method using a radical-scavenging assay with DPPH. (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl). Finally the…

  10. Permeability of rosmarinic acid in Prunella vulgaris and ursolic acid in Salvia officinalis extracts across Caco-2 cell monolayers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rosmarinic acid (RA), a caffeic acid derivative found in high concentrations in Prunella vulgaris (self-heal), and ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpene acid concentrated in Salvia officinalis (sage), have been traditionally used to treat inflammation in the mouth, and may also be of benefit t...

  11. Evaluation of Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive and controlled release component in buccal tablets

    PubMed Central

    Sabale, V.; Patel, V.; Paranjape, A.

    2014-01-01

    Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems were developed to sustain drug delivery via various mucus membranes for either local or systemic delivery of poorly absorbed drugs such as peptides and proteins as well as drugs that are subjected to high first-pass metabolism. The present study was undertaken to use isolated Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive agent and to formulate controlled release buccoadhesive tablets with an intention to avoid hepatic first-pass metabolism as well as to enhance residence time of drug in the buccal cavity. The mucilage was isolated from the Calendula petals by aqueous extraction method and characterized for various physiochemical parameters as well as for its adhesive properties. By using direct compression technique, tablets were prepared containing dried mucilage and chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) as a model drug. Three batches of tablets were prepared and evaluated containing three mucoadhesive components namely Methocel K4M, Carbopol 974P and isolated Calendula mucilage in 16.66%, 33.33 % and 50 % (1:2:3 ratio) resulting in 9 different formulations. FTIR studies between mucilage and CPM suggested the absence of a chemical interaction between CPM and Calendula mucilage. The results of the study showed that the isolated mucilage had good physicochemical and morphological characteristics and tablets conformed to the pharmacopoeial specifications. Also in vitro release studies showed controlled action of drug with increasing the concentration of the isolated Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive agent in the formulations. Permeability studies indicated that permeability behavior was not statistically different (P>0.05) by changing the mucoadhesive component. The formulated mucoadhesive tablets for buccal administration containing 75 mg Calendula mucilage showed controlled drug release. Thus, mucoadhesive natural Calendula mucilage based buccal tablets for controlled release were successfully formulated. PMID:25598798

  12. Evaluation of Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive and controlled release component in buccal tablets.

    PubMed

    Sabale, V; Patel, V; Paranjape, A

    2014-01-01

    Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems were developed to sustain drug delivery via various mucus membranes for either local or systemic delivery of poorly absorbed drugs such as peptides and proteins as well as drugs that are subjected to high first-pass metabolism. The present study was undertaken to use isolated Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive agent and to formulate controlled release buccoadhesive tablets with an intention to avoid hepatic first-pass metabolism as well as to enhance residence time of drug in the buccal cavity. The mucilage was isolated from the Calendula petals by aqueous extraction method and characterized for various physiochemical parameters as well as for its adhesive properties. By using direct compression technique, tablets were prepared containing dried mucilage and chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) as a model drug. Three batches of tablets were prepared and evaluated containing three mucoadhesive components namely Methocel K4M, Carbopol 974P and isolated Calendula mucilage in 16.66%, 33.33 % and 50 % (1:2:3 ratio) resulting in 9 different formulations. FTIR studies between mucilage and CPM suggested the absence of a chemical interaction between CPM and Calendula mucilage. The results of the study showed that the isolated mucilage had good physicochemical and morphological characteristics and tablets conformed to the pharmacopoeial specifications. Also in vitro release studies showed controlled action of drug with increasing the concentration of the isolated Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive agent in the formulations. Permeability studies indicated that permeability behavior was not statistically different (P>0.05) by changing the mucoadhesive component. The formulated mucoadhesive tablets for buccal administration containing 75 mg Calendula mucilage showed controlled drug release. Thus, mucoadhesive natural Calendula mucilage based buccal tablets for controlled release were successfully formulated. PMID:25598798

  13. The influence of standardized Valeriana officinalis extract on the CYP3A1 gene expression by nuclear receptors in in vivo model.

    PubMed

    Bogacz, Anna; Mrozikiewicz, Przemyslaw M; Karasiewicz, Monika; Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Joanna; Majchrzycki, Marian; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L; Ozarowski, Marcin; Grzeskowiak, Edmund

    2014-01-01

    Valeriana officinalis is one of the most popular medicinal plants commonly used as a sedative and sleep aid. It is suggested that its pharmacologically active compounds derived from the root may modulate the CYP3A4 gene expression by activation of pregnane X receptor (PXR) or constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and lead to pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of valerian on the expression level of CYP3A1 (homologue to human CYP3A4) as well as nuclear receptors PXR, CAR, RXR, GR, and HNF-4α. Male Wistar rats were given standardized valerian extract (300 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 3 and 10 days. The expression in liver tissue was analyzed by using real-time PCR. Our result showed a decrease of CYP3A1 expression level by 35% (P = 0.248) and 37% (P < 0.001), respectively. Moreover, Valeriana exhibited statistically significant reduction in RXR (approximately 28%) only after 3-day treatment. We also demonstrated a decrease in the amount HNF-4α by 22% (P = 0.005) and 32% (P = 0.012), respectively. In case of CAR, the increase of expression level by 46% (P = 0.023) was noted. These findings suggest that Valeriana officinalis extract can decrease the CYP3A4 expression and therefore may lead to interactions with synthetic drugs metabolized by this enzyme. PMID:25302309

  14. The Influence of Standardized Valeriana officinalis Extract on the CYP3A1 Gene Expression by Nuclear Receptors in In Vivo Model

    PubMed Central

    Mrozikiewicz, Przemyslaw M.; Karasiewicz, Monika; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L.; Ozarowski, Marcin; Grzeskowiak, Edmund

    2014-01-01

    Valeriana officinalis is one of the most popular medicinal plants commonly used as a sedative and sleep aid. It is suggested that its pharmacologically active compounds derived from the root may modulate the CYP3A4 gene expression by activation of pregnane X receptor (PXR) or constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and lead to pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of valerian on the expression level of CYP3A1 (homologue to human CYP3A4) as well as nuclear receptors PXR, CAR, RXR, GR, and HNF-4α. Male Wistar rats were given standardized valerian extract (300 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 3 and 10 days. The expression in liver tissue was analyzed by using real-time PCR. Our result showed a decrease of CYP3A1 expression level by 35% (P = 0.248) and 37% (P < 0.001), respectively. Moreover, Valeriana exhibited statistically significant reduction in RXR (approximately 28%) only after 3-day treatment. We also demonstrated a decrease in the amount HNF-4α by 22% (P = 0.005) and 32% (P = 0.012), respectively. In case of CAR, the increase of expression level by 46% (P = 0.023) was noted. These findings suggest that Valeriana officinalis extract can decrease the CYP3A4 expression and therefore may lead to interactions with synthetic drugs metabolized by this enzyme. PMID:25302309

  15. Effects of Calendula Essential Oil-Based Cream on Biochemical Parameters of Skin of Albino Rats against Ultraviolet B Radiation.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Arun K; Mishra, Amrita; Verma, Anurag; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh

    2012-09-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from UV-B radiation have the capacity to cause oxidative decomposition which leads to the formation of toxic components as well as lipid peroxidation. Considering this fact, the present study was performed to evaluate the effect of a cream (O/W) containing the essential oil of Calendula officinalis on biochemical parameters of the skin of albino rats against UV-B radiation. The fingerprint analysis of Calendula essential oil was performed by HPLC with special reference to 1,8-cineole and α-pinene. The results indicated that the treatment with creams containing 4% and 5% of Calendula essential oil caused a significant decrease in the malonyldialdehyde level, whereas the levels of catalase, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, ascorbic acid, and the total protein level were significantly increased after 1 month of daily irradiation and treatment when compared to untreated control groups. The results suggest that the cutaneous application of the essential oil of Calendula prevents UV-B-induced alterations in the level of antioxidants in skin tissue. PMID:23008814

  16. In vitro growth-inhibitory effect of Brazilian plants extracts against Paenibacillus larvae and toxicity in bees.

    PubMed

    Piana, Mariana; de Brum, Thiele F; Boligon, Aline A; Alves, Camilla F S; de Freitas, Robson B; Nunes, Letícia T; Mossmann, Natalia J; Janovik, Vanessa; Jesus, Roberta S; Vaucher, Rodrigo A; Santos, Roberto C V; Athayde, Margareth L

    2015-01-01

    American foulbrood (AFB) is a serious worldwide spreading disease in bees caused by Paenibacillus larvae. Plants extracts are known to decrease or inhibit the growth of these bacteria. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Calendula. officinalis, Cariniana domestica, and Nasturtium officinale extracts against the P. larvae and to evaluate the toxicity of the extracts in bees. In vitro activity against P. larvae of the extracts was evaluated by micro dilution method and the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were also determined. The concentrations used in the toxicity test were established based on the MIC values and by the spraying application method. The P. larvae was susceptible to the evaluated crude extract of C. officinalis and N. officinale. To C. domestica, only the ethyl acetate (EtAc) fraction and n-butanol (BuOH) fractions had activity against P. larvae. Toxicity analysis in bees showed no toxicity for N. officinale crude extract and for C. domestica BuOH fraction during 15 days of treatment, however, some deaths of bees occurred during the first three days of treatment with C. officinalis and C. domestica EtAc fraction. The results with these species were firstly described and showed that N. officinale crude extract and C. domestica BuOH fraction both presented not toxic effects in the concentration tested by the spraying application method, and can be a useful alternative for treatment or prevention of AFB. PMID:26062113

  17. The detection of radical scavenging compounds in crude extract of borage (Borago officinalis L.) by using an on-line HPLC-DPPH method.

    PubMed

    Bandoniene, Donata; Murkovic, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The rapid evaluation of antioxidant activity of crude borage (Borago officinalis L.) extract was determined by using DPPH free radical method. This borage extract resulted in a rapid decrease of the absorbance and showed very high hydrogen-donating capacity towards the 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. A new HPLC-DPPH on-line method was applied for a screening of several radical scavenging components in this borage extract as well as for quantitative analysis. This on-line HPLC-DPPH method was developed using a methanolic solution of DPPH-stable radical. The HPLC-separated analytes reacted post-column with the DPPH solution in methanol. The induced bleaching was detected as a negative peak photometrically at 515 nm. The separation of antioxidative components was carried out by gradient HPLC with mobile-phase composition ranging from 2% to 80% acetonitrile with 2% acetic acid in water, UV detection was carried out at 280 nm. The HPLC analysis of borage extract revealed the presence of several radical scavenging components in the borage extract. The results obtained from the chromatograms suggest that some compounds present in the extract possess high radical quenching ability. The dominant antioxidative compound in the crude extract of borage leaves was identified as rosmarinic acid. PMID:12406585

  18. Effect of Aqueous Extract from Morinda officinalis F. C. How on Microwave-Induced Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Testis Axis Impairment in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Song, Bin; Wang, Fengjuan; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the protective effects of aqueous extract from Morinda officinalis F. C. How on microwave-induced reproductive impairment in male rats. Microwave exposure injury was induced by exposure of 900 MHz microwaves at 218 μm/cm2radiation densities, 24 hours/day for 10 days. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to: normal control, microwave exposure model, or water layer or ethyl acetate layer of aqueous extract 40 g/kg treatment groups. After 2 weeks of treatment, sexual performance, serum levels of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) or testosterone, morphological analysis of testis and epididymis, and GnRH protein expression in the hypothalamus were measured. Pretreatment with water layer of aqueous extract 40 g/kg significantly improved sexual performance, increased serum testosterone level, and decreased LH and GnRH level compared with microwave exposed model rats (all P < 0.05). Water layer of aqueous extract treatment significantly increased seminiferous cell or sperm number in testis and epididymis. Protein expression of GnRH in the hypothalamus significantly decreased in the water layer of aqueous extract treated group (P < 0.05). Ethyl acetate layer of aqueous extract did not show obvious effects on the measured parameters. These findings suggest that water layer of aqueous extract 40 g/kg ameliorates microwave-reduced reproductive impairment. PMID:26435724

  19. Effect of Aqueous Extract from Morinda officinalis F. C. How on Microwave-Induced Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Testis Axis Impairment in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Song, Bin; Wang, Fengjuan; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the protective effects of aqueous extract from Morinda officinalis F. C. How on microwave-induced reproductive impairment in male rats. Microwave exposure injury was induced by exposure of 900 MHz microwaves at 218 μm/cm(2)radiation densities, 24 hours/day for 10 days. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to: normal control, microwave exposure model, or water layer or ethyl acetate layer of aqueous extract 40 g/kg treatment groups. After 2 weeks of treatment, sexual performance, serum levels of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) or testosterone, morphological analysis of testis and epididymis, and GnRH protein expression in the hypothalamus were measured. Pretreatment with water layer of aqueous extract 40 g/kg significantly improved sexual performance, increased serum testosterone level, and decreased LH and GnRH level compared with microwave exposed model rats (all P < 0.05). Water layer of aqueous extract treatment significantly increased seminiferous cell or sperm number in testis and epididymis. Protein expression of GnRH in the hypothalamus significantly decreased in the water layer of aqueous extract treated group (P < 0.05). Ethyl acetate layer of aqueous extract did not show obvious effects on the measured parameters. These findings suggest that water layer of aqueous extract 40 g/kg ameliorates microwave-reduced reproductive impairment. PMID:26435724

  20. Preliminary insights into the incorporation of rosemary extract (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) in fish feed: influence on performance and physiology of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata).

    PubMed

    Hernández, A; García García, B; Caballero, M J; Hernández, M D

    2015-08-01

    Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) were fed a basal (control) diet and four experimental diets (R600, R1200, R1800 and R2400), containing 600, 1200, 1800 and 2400 mg kg(-1), respectively, of rosemary extract (Rosmarinus officinalis L.). At 4 and 12 weeks from the beginning of the ongrowing period, the fish were sacrificed, blood was drawn to obtain plasma and the liver and intestines were dissected. Growth and feed intake were unaffected by rosemary extract addition. A histological examination of the intestine revealed no differences among the dosages, while the liver showed a sharp decrease in hepatic steatosis in diets supplemented with rosemary extract. Furthermore, plasma alanine aminotransferase was lower with these diets at the end of the ongrowing period. Rosemary extract reduced the plasma levels of glucose and triglycerides on week 4 and glucose and HDL/LDL cholesterol ratio on week 12, suggesting better transport and energy metabolism of the lipids. Overall, the most evident effect of rosemary extract was observed with the 600 mg kg(-1) dose. PMID:25968936

  1. [Uterotonic action of extracts from a group of medicinal plants].

    PubMed

    Shipochliev, T

    1981-01-01

    Water extracts (infusions) from a group of medicinal plants were studied in terms of their activity enhancing the uterine tonus in a series of experiments with a preparation of an isolated rabbit and guinea pig uterine horn. In a final extract concentration of 1 to 2 mg crude drug per 1 cm3 the plants ranked in the following descending order with regard to their tonus-raising effect on the uterus: camomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), potmarigold calendula (Calendula officinalis L.) cockscomb (Celosia cristata L.), plantain (Plantago lanceolata L. et Plantago major L.), symphytum (Symphytum officinale L.), shepherdspurse (Capsella bursa pastoris L.), St.-John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.). No effect showed the infusions of flax seeds (Linum usitatissimum L.) and bearberry leaves (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi L.). The combined preparation 'Antiinflamin', consisting of a pooled freeze-dried extract from three plants and chemotherapeutic agents produced a good enhancing effect, in the form of 'comprets' for intrauterine application at the rate of one compret per 2500 cm3. PMID:7314446

  2. Extraction of Antioxidants from Borage (Borago officinalis L.) Leaves-Optimization by Response Surface Method and Application in Oil-in-Water Emulsions.

    PubMed

    Segovia, Francisco; Lupo, Bryshila; Peiró, Sara; Gordon, Michael H; Almajano, María Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Borage (Borago officinalis L.) is a typical Spanish plant. During processing, 60% are leaves. The aim of this work is to model and optimize the extraction of polyphenol from borage leaves using the response surface method (RSM) and to use this extract for application in emulsions. The responses were: total polyphenol content (TPC), antioxidant capacity by ORAC, and rosmarinic acid by HPLC. The ranges of the variables temperature, ethanol content and time were 50-90 °C, 0%-30%-60% ethanol (v/v), and 10-15 min. For ethanolic extraction, optimal conditions were at 75.9 °C, 52% ethanol and 14.8 min, yielding activity of 27.05 mg GAE/g DW TPC; 115.96 mg TE/g DW in ORAC and 11.02 mg/L rosmarinic acid. For water extraction, optimal activity was achieved with extraction at 98.3 °C and 22 min, with responses of 22.3 mg GAE/g DW TPC; 81.6 mg TE/g DW in ORAC and 3.9 mg/L rosmarinic acid. The significant variables were ethanol concentration and temperature. For emulsions, the peroxide value was inhibited by 60% for 3% extract concentration; and 80% with 3% extract concentration and 0.2% of BSA. The p-anisidine value between the control and the emulsion with 3% extract was reduced to 73.6% and with BSA 86.3%, and others concentrations had similar behavior. PMID:26784875

  3. Extraction of Antioxidants from Borage (Borago officinalis L.) Leaves—Optimization by Response Surface Method and Application in Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    PubMed Central

    Segovia, Francisco; Lupo, Bryshila; Peiró, Sara; Gordon, Michael H.; Almajano, María Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Borage (Borago officinalis L.) is a typical Spanish plant. During processing, 60% are leaves. The aim of this work is to model and optimize the extraction of polyphenol from borage leaves using the response surface method (RSM) and to use this extract for application in emulsions. The responses were: total polyphenol content (TPC), antioxidant capacity by ORAC, and rosmarinic acid by HPLC. The ranges of the variables temperature, ethanol content and time were 50–90 °C, 0%–30%–60% ethanol (v/v), and 10–15 min. For ethanolic extraction, optimal conditions were at 75.9 °C, 52% ethanol and 14.8 min, yielding activity of 27.05 mg GAE/g DW TPC; 115.96 mg TE/g DW in ORAC and 11.02 mg/L rosmarinic acid. For water extraction, optimal activity was achieved with extraction at 98.3 °C and 22 min, with responses of 22.3 mg GAE/g DW TPC; 81.6 mg TE/g DW in ORAC and 3.9 mg/L rosmarinic acid. The significant variables were ethanol concentration and temperature. For emulsions, the peroxide value was inhibited by 60% for 3% extract concentration; and 80% with 3% extract concentration and 0.2% of BSA. The p-anisidine value between the control and the emulsion with 3% extract was reduced to 73.6% and with BSA 86.3%, and others concentrations had similar behavior. PMID:26784875

  4. Lapacho tea (Tabebuia impetiginosa) extract inhibits pancreatic lipase and delays postprandial triglyceride increase in rats.

    PubMed

    Kiage-Mokua, Beatrice Nyanchama; Roos, Nils; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen

    2012-12-01

    Earlier work in our laboratory indicated that ethanolic extracts of Tabebuia impetiginosa, Arctium lappa L., Calendula officinalis, Helianthus annuus, Linum usitatissimum and L. propolis, inhibit pancreatic lipase in vitro. In a follow-up study we assessed their effects on plasma triglycerides in rats fed on a fatty meal. Extracts, orlistat or only ethanol were given orally to the rats together with the test meal and the rate of increase of postprandial triglycerides was assessed over 4 h. Clearing of the triglycerides from the blood compartment was abolished by inhibiting lipoprotein lipase with Triton WR-1339. Our results showed that out of all the extracts, the bark of Tabebuia impetiginosa led to a significant delay in the postprandial increase of plasma triglycerides. However, lapachol, which is contained in the bark of Tabebuia impetiginosa and soluble in ethanol, had no lipase inhibitory effect in vitro and hence this substance did not seem to mediate the pertinent effect. PMID:22431070

  5. Effects of Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) extract on neurogenesis associated with serum corticosterone and GABA in the mouse dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Dae Young; Choi, Jung Hoon; Kim, Woosuk; Yoo, Ki-Yeon; Lee, Choong Hyun; Yoon, Yeo Sung; Won, Moo-Ho; Hwang, In Koo

    2011-02-01

    Lemon balm, leaves of Melissa officinalis L., has been used for anti-anxiety and spasmolytics. We observed the extract of Melissa officinalis L. (MOE) on cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) of middle-aged mice (12 months of age) using Ki67 and doublecortin (DCX), respectively. We also observed changes in corticosterone, GAD67 and GABA-transaminase (GABA-T) to check their possible mechanisms related to neurogenesis. We administered 50 or 200 mg/kg MOE to the animals once a day for 3 weeks. For labeling of newly generated cells, we also administered 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) twice a day for 3 days from the day of the first MOE treatment. Administration of 50 or 200 mg/kg MOE dose-dependently increased Ki67 positive nuclei to 244.1 and 763.9% of the vehicle-treated group, respectively. In addition, 50 or 200 mg/kg MOE significantly increased DCX positive neuroblasts with well-developed (tertiary) dendrites. Furthermore, MOE administration significantly increased BrdU/calbindin D-28 k double labeled cells (integrated neurons into granule cells in the DG) to 245.2% of the vehicle-treated group. On the other hand, administration of MOE reduced corticosterone levels in serum and decreased GABA-T levels in the DG homogenates. These results suggest that MOE increases cell proliferation, neuroblast differentiation and integration into granule cells by decreasing serum corticosterone levels as well as by increasing GABA levels in the mouse DG. PMID:21076869

  6. The protective effect of Borago Officinalis extract on amyloid β (25-35)-induced long term potentiation disruption in the dentate gyrus of male rats.

    PubMed

    Zargooshnia, Somayeh; Shahidi, Siamak; Ghahremanitamadon, Fatemeh; Nikkhah, Ali; Mehdizadeh, Mehdi; Soleimani Asl, Sara

    2015-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) begins with impairment in synaptic functions before developing into later neurodegeneration and neural loss. In the present study we have examined the protective effects of Borago Officinalis (borage) extract on amyloid β (Aβ)--Induced long term potentiation (LTP) disruption in hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). Wistar male rats received intrahippocampal (IHP) injection of the Aβ (25-35) and borage extract throughout gestation (100 mg/kg). LTP in perforant path- DG synapses was assessed using electrophysiology method and field excitatory post- synaptic potential (fEPSP) slope and population spike (PS) amplitude were measured by 400 Hz tetanization. Finally, the total thiol content of hippocampus was measured using colorimetric reaction based on the Ellman's method. The results showed that Aβ (25-35) significantly decreased fEPSP slope and SP amplitude comparing with the control and sham group, whereas borage extract administration increased these parameters compared to the Aβ group. Aβ induced a remarkable decrease in total thiol content of hippocampus and borage prevented the decrease of the hippocampal total sulfhydryl (SH) groups. This data suggest that Aβ (25-35) can effectively inhibit LTP in the granular cells of the DG in hippocampus, and borage supplementation reverse the synaptic plasticity in DG following Aβ treatment and that borage consumption may lead to an improvement of AD-induced cognitive dysfunction. PMID:25060965

  7. Carnosic acid-rich rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) leaf extract limits weight gain and improves cholesterol levels and glycaemia in mice on a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Ibarra, Alvin; Cases, Julien; Roller, Marc; Chiralt-Boix, Amparo; Coussaert, Aurélie; Ripoll, Christophe

    2011-10-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extracts (RE) are natural antioxidants that are used in food, food supplements and cosmetic applications; exert anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperglycaemic effects; and promote weight loss, which can be exploited to develop new preventive strategies against metabolic disorders. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the preventive effects of rosemary leaf extract that was standardised to 20 % carnosic acid (RE) on weight gain, glucose levels and lipid homeostasis in mice that had begun a high-fat diet (HFD) as juveniles. The animals were given a low-fat diet, a HFD or a HFD that was supplemented with 500 mg RE/kg body weight per d (mpk). Physiological and biochemical parameters were monitored for 16 weeks. Body and epididymal fat weight in animals on the HFD that was supplemented with RE increased 69 and 79 % less than those in the HFD group. Treatment with RE was associated with increased faecal fat excretion but not with decreased food intake. The extract also reduced fasting glycaemia and plasma cholesterol levels. In addition, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of RE in vitro on pancreatic lipase and PPAR-γ agonist activity; the in vitro findings correlated with our observations in the animal experiments. Thus, the present results suggest that RE that is rich in carnosic acid can be used as a preventive treatment against metabolic disorders, which merits further examination at physiological doses in randomised controlled trials. PMID:21676274

  8. Salvia officinalis L. extract and its new food antioxidant formulations induce apoptosis through mitochondrial/caspase pathway in leukemia L1210 cells

    PubMed Central

    Jantová, Soňa; Sekretár, Stanislav; Kučerák, Juraj; Melušová, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Salvia officinalis, L. (Lamiaceae) is one of the most widespread herbal species used in the area of human health and in the food-processing industry. Salvia and its extracts are known to be a rich source of antioxidants. As shown previously, the crude ethanolic extract of salvia (SE) exerts lower anti-oxidative properties in lard compared to the new salvia food formulations No. 1 (SF1; 32% of SE + 68% of the emulsifier Dimodan S-T) and No. 2 (SF2; 32% of SE + 68% of the emulsifier Topcithin 50). The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the effects of the SE and its food formulations SF1 and SF2 on the toxicity and/or proliferation of L1210 leukemia cells. We found that SE and both SF1 and SF2 demonstrated different concentration- and time-dependent cytotoxic/antiproliferative cellular effects already within the first 24 h of the treatment. However, SE was nearly 10 times more effective than the new salvia food formulations SF1 and SF2. We investigated partially also the molecular mechanisms lying behind the action of SE, SF1 and SF2 induced apoptosis in our cell model. We found an apparent involvement of the mitochondrial/caspase-dependent pathway in the described processes. Nevertheless, further investigation is needed before salvia extract and its new antioxidant formulations can be included among the potential food antioxidants with protective properties against cancer. PMID:26109892

  9. Protective effects of Borago officinalis extract on amyloid β-peptide(25-35)-induced memory impairment in male rats: a behavioral study.

    PubMed

    Ghahremanitamadon, Fatemeh; Shahidi, Siamak; Zargooshnia, Somayeh; Nikkhah, Ali; Ranjbar, Akram; Soleimani Asl, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder and most common form of dementia that leads to memory impairment. In the present study we have examined the protective effects of Borago officinalis (borage) extract on Amyloid β (A β)-Induced memory impairment. Wistar male rats received intrahippocampal (IHP) injection of the A β (25-35) and borage extract throughout gestation (100 mg/kg). Learning and memory functions in the rats were examined by the passive avoidance and the Morris water maze (MWM) tasks. Finally, the antioxidant capacity of hippocampus was measured using ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The results showed that A β (25-35) impaired step-through latency and time in dark compartment in passive avoidance task. In the MWM, A β (25-35) significantly increased escape latency and traveled distance. Borage administration attenuated the A β-induced memory impairment in both the passive avoidance and the MWM tasks. A β induced a remarkable decrease in antioxidant power (FRAP value) of hippocampus and borage prevented the decrease of the hippocampal antioxidant status. This data suggests that borage could improve the learning impairment and oxidative damage in the hippocampal tissue following A β treatment and that borage consumption may lead to an improvement of AD-induced cognitive dysfunction. PMID:25013802

  10. Influence of the Melissa officinalis Leaf Extract on Long-Term Memory in Scopolamine Animal Model with Assessment of Mechanism of Action.

    PubMed

    Ozarowski, Marcin; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L; Piasecka, Anna; Kachlicki, Piotr; Kujawski, Radoslaw; Bogacz, Anna; Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Joanna; Szulc, Michal; Kaminska, Ewa; Kujawska, Malgorzata; Jodynis-Liebert, Jadwiga; Gryszczynska, Agnieszka; Opala, Bogna; Lowicki, Zdzislaw; Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, Agnieszka; Czerny, Boguslaw

    2016-01-01

    Melissa officinalis (MO, English: lemon balm, Lamiaceae), one of the oldest and still most popular aromatic medicinal plants, is used in phytomedicine for the prevention and treatment of nervous disturbances. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of subchronic (28-fold) administration of a 50% ethanol extract of MO leaves (200 mg/kg, p.o.) compared with rosmarinic acid (RA, 10 mg/kg, p.o.) and huperzine A (HU, 0.5 mg/kg, p.o.) on behavioral and cognitive responses in scopolamine-induced rats. The results were linked with acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), and beta-secretase (BACE-1) mRNA levels and AChE and BuChE activities in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of rats. In our study, MO and HU, but not RA, showed an improvement in long-term memory. The results were in line with mRNA levels, since MO produced a decrease of AChE mRNA level by 52% in the cortex and caused a strong significant inhibition of BACE1 mRNA transcription (64% in the frontal cortex; 50% in the hippocampus). However, the extract produced only an insignificant inhibition of AChE activity in the frontal cortex. The mechanisms of MO action are probably more complicated, since its role as a modulator of beta-secretase activity should be taken into consideration. PMID:27239217

  11. Influence of the Melissa officinalis Leaf Extract on Long-Term Memory in Scopolamine Animal Model with Assessment of Mechanism of Action

    PubMed Central

    Ozarowski, Marcin; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L.; Piasecka, Anna; Kachlicki, Piotr; Kujawski, Radoslaw; Bogacz, Anna; Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Joanna; Szulc, Michal; Kaminska, Ewa; Kujawska, Malgorzata; Jodynis-Liebert, Jadwiga; Gryszczynska, Agnieszka; Opala, Bogna; Lowicki, Zdzislaw; Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, Agnieszka; Czerny, Boguslaw

    2016-01-01

    Melissa officinalis (MO, English: lemon balm, Lamiaceae), one of the oldest and still most popular aromatic medicinal plants, is used in phytomedicine for the prevention and treatment of nervous disturbances. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of subchronic (28-fold) administration of a 50% ethanol extract of MO leaves (200 mg/kg, p.o.) compared with rosmarinic acid (RA, 10 mg/kg, p.o.) and huperzine A (HU, 0.5 mg/kg, p.o.) on behavioral and cognitive responses in scopolamine-induced rats. The results were linked with acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), and beta-secretase (BACE-1) mRNA levels and AChE and BuChE activities in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of rats. In our study, MO and HU, but not RA, showed an improvement in long-term memory. The results were in line with mRNA levels, since MO produced a decrease of AChE mRNA level by 52% in the cortex and caused a strong significant inhibition of BACE1 mRNA transcription (64% in the frontal cortex; 50% in the hippocampus). However, the extract produced only an insignificant inhibition of AChE activity in the frontal cortex. The mechanisms of MO action are probably more complicated, since its role as a modulator of beta-secretase activity should be taken into consideration. PMID:27239217

  12. Protective Effects of Borago officinalis Extract on Amyloid β-Peptide(25–35)-Induced Memory Impairment in Male Rats: A Behavioral Study

    PubMed Central

    Ghahremanitamadon, Fatemeh; Shahidi, Siamak; Zargooshnia, Somayeh; Nikkhah, Ali; Ranjbar, Akram; Soleimani Asl, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder and most common form of dementia that leads to memory impairment. In the present study we have examined the protective effects of Borago officinalis (borage) extract on Amyloid β (Aβ)-Induced memory impairment. Wistar male rats received intrahippocampal (IHP) injection of the Aβ(25–35) and borage extract throughout gestation (100 mg/kg). Learning and memory functions in the rats were examined by the passive avoidance and the Morris water maze (MWM) tasks. Finally, the antioxidant capacity of hippocampus was measured using ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The results showed that Aβ(25–35) impaired step-through latency and time in dark compartment in passive avoidance task. In the MWM, Aβ(25–35) significantly increased escape latency and traveled distance. Borage administration attenuated the Aβ-induced memory impairment in both the passive avoidance and the MWM tasks. Aβ induced a remarkable decrease in antioxidant power (FRAP value) of hippocampus and borage prevented the decrease of the hippocampal antioxidant status. This data suggests that borage could improve the learning impairment and oxidative damage in the hippocampal tissue following Aβ treatment and that borage consumption may lead to an improvement of AD-induced cognitive dysfunction. PMID:25013802

  13. Importance of extract standardization and in vitro/ex vivo assay selection for the evaluation of antioxidant activity of botanicals: a case study on three Rosmarinus officinalis L. extracts.

    PubMed

    Ibarra, Alvin; Cases, Julien; Bily, Antoine; He, Kan; Bai, Naisheng; Roller, Marc; Coussaert, Aurélie; Ripoll, Christophe

    2010-10-01

    The overproduction of free radicals and oxygen reactive species is suspected to be implicated in a wide range of metabolic reactions that can have pernicious consequences in the development of a variety of human diseases. Botanical extracts are sources of antioxidants that counteract both free radicals and oxygen reactive species. The processing conditions used in the botanical extraction may influence the antioxidant composition; therefore, different extracts from the same plant may have different antioxidant properties. To illustrate this fact, we conducted a study using three commercial rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) leaf extracts. The three extracts were standardized to contain, respectively, 20% carnosic acid, 40% ursolic acid, or 20% rosmarinic acid. They were evaluated for their total (hydrophilic + lipophilic) antioxidant effects on oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), their ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP), and their capacity to inhibit Cu(2+)-induced low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation ex vivo. The ursolic acid extract showed the lowest antioxidant capacity on all models. The rosmarinic acid extract had an antioxidant capacity 1.5 times higher on ORAC and four times higher on FRAP than the carnosic acid extract. However, the carnosic acid extract was better than the rosmarinic acid extract in inhibiting the oxidation of LDL ex vivo. These results encourage conducting further studies to evaluate the carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid extracts in vivo. Our study offers an example of the importance of the extraction procedures, on which depends the nature of the antioxidant composition, and highlights interest to proceed with in vitro/ex vivo assay selection for the evaluation of the antioxidant properties of botanical extracts. PMID:20626255

  14. The cytoprotective effect of inulin-type hexasaccharide extracted from Morinda officinalis on PC12 cells against the lesion induced by corticosterone.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun-Feng; Liu, Yan-Qin; Yang, Ming; Wang, Heng-Lin; Huang, Wen-Chao; Zhao, Yi-Min; Luo, Zhi-Pu

    2004-08-13

    High concentration of corticosterone (Cort) 0.2 mM was incubated with PC12 cells to simulate the lesion state of brain neurons in depressive illness, it was found that the inulin-type oligosaccharides extracted from Morinda officinalis, inulin-type hexasaccharide (IHS) at the doses of 0.625, 1.25 microM or desipramine (DIM) 0.25, 1 microM protected the PC12 cells from the lesion induced by Cort. With Fura-2/AM labeling assay, DIM 0.25, 1 microM or IHS 2.5, 10 microM attenuated the intracellular Ca2+ overloading induced by Cort 0.1 mM for 48 h in PC12 cells. Using RT-PCR, treatment with Cort 0.1 mM for 48 h decreased the nerve growth factor (NGF) mRNA level in PC12 cells, IHS 5, 10 microM reversed this change. In summary, IHS attenuate the intracellular Ca2+ overloading and thereby up-regulate the NGF mRNA expression in Cort-treated PC12 cells, which may be consisted at least part of the cytopretective effect of IHS. These results also extend evidence for our hypothesis that neuroprotective action is one of the common mechanisms for antidepressants. PMID:15261759

  15. Inhibition of the oligosaccharides extracted from Morinda officinalis, a Chinese traditional herbal medicine, on the corticosterone induced apoptosis in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun Feng; Gong, Zheng Hua; Yang, Ming; Zhao, Yi Min; Luo, Zhi Pu

    2003-01-10

    The mechanisms of the antidepressant action of the oligosaccharides (P(6)) extracted from Morinda Officinalis were studied. By flow cytometry analysis, treatment of PC12 cells with corticosterone (Cort) induced apoptosis in a concentration and time dependent manner. The highest percentage of apoptotic cells accumulated to 27.85 +/- 9.2% following pretreatment with Cort 10 microM for 5 d. In agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA, the sample obtained from PC12 cells pretreated with Cort 10 microM for 5 d showed a typical ladder pattern suggesting that Cort increased the DNA fragmentation significantly. Furthermore, the ultrastructure of Cort-treated cells displayed typical apoptosis-like morphological changes including fragmented chromatin accumulation to the inside of nucleolus membrane with a shape like crescent moon or ring, nuclear fragmentation or apoptotic body. In the presence of P(6), or tricyclic antidepressant desipramine (DIM), the apoptosis induced by Cort in the three measurements above was significantly inhibited. These results indicate that DIM or P(6) antagonize the apoptosis induced by Cort in PC12 cells, which may be one of the cellular mechanisms of their antidepressant effects. PMID:12493574

  16. Rosmarinus officinalis L. extract ameliorates intestinal inflammation through MAPKs/NF-κB signaling in a murine model of acute experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Medicherla, Kanakaraju; Ketkar, Avanee; Sahu, Bidya Dhar; Sudhakar, Godi; Sistla, Ramakrishna

    2016-07-13

    We investigated the anti-inflammatory and anti-colitis effects of Rosmarinus officinalis L. extract (RE) by using both in vitro LPS-activated mouse RAW 264.7 macrophages and in vivo dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced experimental murine colitis and suggested the underlying possible mechanisms. Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis was performed to identify the major components present in the RE. The clinical signs, biochemistry, immunoblot, ELISA and histology in colon tissues were assessed in order to elucidate the beneficial effect of RE. RE suppressed the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production and the expressions of inflammatory proteins in macrophages. Administration of RE (50 and 100 mg kg(-1)) also significantly reduced the severity of DSS-induced murine colitis, as assessed by the clinical symptoms, colon length and histology. RE administration prevented the DSS-induced activation of p38, ERK and JNK MAPKs, attenuated IκBα phosphorylation and subsequent nuclear translocation and DNA binding of NF-κB (p65). RE also suppressed the COX-2 and iNOS expressions, decreased the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 cytokines and the myeloperoxidase activity in the colon tissue. Histological observation revealed that RE administration alleviated mucosal damage and inflammatory cell infiltration induced by DSS in the colon tissue. Hence, RE could be used as a new preventive and therapeutic food ingredient or as a dietary supplement for inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:27349640

  17. Antioxidant activities of rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis L.) extract, blackseed (Nigella sativa L.) essential oil, carnosic acid, rosmarinic acid and sesamol.

    PubMed

    Erkan, Naciye; Ayranci, Guler; Ayranci, Erol

    2008-09-01

    Antioxidant activities of three pure compounds: carnosic acid, rosmarinic acid and sesamol, as well as two plant extracts: rosemary extract and blackseed essential oil, were examined by applying DPPH and ABTS(+) radical-scavenging assays and the ferric thiocyanate test. All three test methods proved that rosemary extract had a higher antioxidant activity than blackseed essential oil. The order of antioxidant activity of pure compounds showed variations in different tests. This was attributed to structural factors of individual compounds. Phenolic contents of blackseed essential oil and rosemary extract were also determined. Rosemary extract was found to have a higher phenolic content than blackseed essential oil. This fact was utilised in explaining the higher antioxidant activity of rosemary extract. PMID:26050168

  18. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) Extract Modulates CHOP/GADD153 to Promote Androgen Receptor Degradation and Decreases Xenograft Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Petiwala, Sakina M.; Berhe, Saba; Li, Gongbo; Puthenveetil, Angela G.; Rahman, Ozair; Nonn, Larisa; Johnson, Jeremy J.

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet has long been attributed to preventing or delaying the onset of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and various solid organ cancers. In this particular study, a rosemary extract standardized to carnosic acid was evaluated for its potential in disrupting the endoplasmic reticulum machinery to decrease the viability of prostate cancer cells and promote degradation of the androgen receptor. Two human prostate cancer cell lines, 22Rv1 and LNCaP, and prostate epithelial cells procured from two different patients undergoing radical prostatectomy were treated with standardized rosemary extract and evaluated by flow cytometry, MTT, BrdU, Western blot and fluorescent microscopy. A significant modulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress proteins was observed in cancer cells while normal prostate epithelial cells did not undergo endoplasmic reticulum stress. This biphasic response suggests that standardized rosemary extract may preferentially target cancer cells as opposed to “normal” cells. Furthermore, we observed standardized rosemary extract to decrease androgen receptor expression that appears to be regulated by the expression of CHOP/GADD153. Using a xenograft tumor model we observed standardized rosemary extract when given orally to significantly suppress tumor growth by 46% compared to mice not receiving standardized rosemary extract. In the last several years regulatory governing bodies (e.g. European Union) have approved standardized rosemary extracts as food preservatives. These results are especially significant as it is becoming more likely that individuals will be receiving standardized rosemary extracts that are a part of a natural preservative system in various food preparations. Taken a step further, it is possible that the potential benefits that are often associated with a “Mediterranean Diet” in the future may begin to extend beyond the Mediterranean diet as more of the population is consuming standardized rosemary extracts. PMID

  19. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extract modulates CHOP/GADD153 to promote androgen receptor degradation and decreases xenograft tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Petiwala, Sakina M; Berhe, Saba; Li, Gongbo; Puthenveetil, Angela G; Rahman, Ozair; Nonn, Larisa; Johnson, Jeremy J

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet has long been attributed to preventing or delaying the onset of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and various solid organ cancers. In this particular study, a rosemary extract standardized to carnosic acid was evaluated for its potential in disrupting the endoplasmic reticulum machinery to decrease the viability of prostate cancer cells and promote degradation of the androgen receptor. Two human prostate cancer cell lines, 22Rv1 and LNCaP, and prostate epithelial cells procured from two different patients undergoing radical prostatectomy were treated with standardized rosemary extract and evaluated by flow cytometry, MTT, BrdU, Western blot and fluorescent microscopy. A significant modulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress proteins was observed in cancer cells while normal prostate epithelial cells did not undergo endoplasmic reticulum stress. This biphasic response suggests that standardized rosemary extract may preferentially target cancer cells as opposed to "normal" cells. Furthermore, we observed standardized rosemary extract to decrease androgen receptor expression that appears to be regulated by the expression of CHOP/GADD153. Using a xenograft tumor model we observed standardized rosemary extract when given orally to significantly suppress tumor growth by 46% compared to mice not receiving standardized rosemary extract. In the last several years regulatory governing bodies (e.g. European Union) have approved standardized rosemary extracts as food preservatives. These results are especially significant as it is becoming more likely that individuals will be receiving standardized rosemary extracts that are a part of a natural preservative system in various food preparations. Taken a step further, it is possible that the potential benefits that are often associated with a "Mediterranean Diet" in the future may begin to extend beyond the Mediterranean diet as more of the population is consuming standardized rosemary extracts. PMID

  20. In vitro trematocidal effects of crude alcoholic extracts of Artemisia annua, A. absinthium, Asimina triloba, and Fumaria officinalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trematode infections negatively affect human and livestock health, and threaten global food safety. The only approved human anthelmintics for trematodiasis are triclabendazole and praziquantel with no alternative drugs in sight. We tested six crude plant extracts against adult Schistosoma mansoni,...

  1. Use of natural antioxidants from lyophilized water extracts of Borago officinalis in dry fermented sausages enriched in ω-3 PUFA.

    PubMed

    Ciriano, Mikel García-Iñiguez de; García-Herreros, Cecilia; Larequi, Eduardo; Valencia, Idoia; Ansorena, Diana; Astiasarán, Iciar

    2009-10-01

    An evaluation of the capacity of a lyophilized water extract of borage leaves to delay the lipid oxidation process in dry fermented sausages enriched with ω-3 PUFAs has been performed. Lyophilized extract (340ppm) showed an antioxidant capacity equivalent to 200ppm of a butylhydroxyanisol (BHA) and butylhydroxytoluene (BHT) mixture. Two batches of dry fermented sausages enriched in ω-3 PUFA were developed. One of them was supplemented with a synthetic antioxidants mixture (200ppm of BHA+BHT) and the other one with natural antioxidants (340ppm of lyophilized water extract of borage leaves). Furthermore, a traditional formulation of this type of dry fermented sausage (Control), was also manufactured. The natural extract gave rise to lower amount of volatile compounds (including hexanal), than the mixture of synthetic antioxidants (2202 and 2713ng dodecane/g dry matter, respectively). TBARS and Cholesterol Oxidation Products (COPs) did not show significant differences between products with different antioxidants. The sensorial analysis showed that lyophilized water extracts of borage leaves did not affect the sensorial properties of the products. From the economical and safety standpoints, the use of a by-product (borage leaves) and water as extracting solvent are valuable alternatives for obtaining natural antioxidants to be added to dry fermented sausages enriched in ω-3 PUFA. PMID:20416739

  2. Effect of lyophilized water extracts of Melissa officinalis on the stability of algae and linseed oil-in-water emulsion to be used as a functional ingredient in meat products.

    PubMed

    de Ciriano, Mikel García-Iñiguez; Rehecho, Sheyla; Calvo, Maria Isabel; Cavero, Rita Yolanda; Navarro, Iñigo; Astiasarán, Iciar; Ansorena, Diana

    2010-06-01

    Previous work pointed out the possibility to enhance the nutritional value of meat products using long chain omega-3 PUFA enriched emulsions. Oil-in-water emulsions elaborated with a mixture of algae and linseed oils (15:10) in order to be used as functional ingredient were stabilized with BHA (butylhydroxyanisol) or with a lyophilized water extract of Melissa officinalis L. (Lemon balm). The lipid profile of the oil mixture showed a high amount of DHA (31.7%), oleic (25.4%) and alpha-linolenic acid (12.7%) resulting in a very low omega-6/omega-3 ratio (0.12). The lyophilized extract of M. officinalis showed a high antioxidant activity (being 62ppm of the lyophilized water extract of Melissa equivalent to 200ppm of BHA, using the DPPH assay as reference), and high total phenolic content. Studying the oxidation process in the emulsions during 15days at room temperature, it could be concluded that this extract was as efficient as BHA in order to control the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formation. PMID:20374914

  3. In-vitro and in-vivo anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of the methanol extract of the roots of Morinda officinalis.

    PubMed

    Kim, In-Tae; Park, Hee-Juhn; Nam, Jung-Hwan; Park, Young-Mi; Won, Jong-Heon; Choi, Jongwon; Choe, Bong-Keun; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2005-05-01

    The anti-inflammatory effects of the methanol extract of the roots of Morinda officinalis (MEMO) (Rubiaceae) were evaluated in-vitro and in-vivo. The effects of MEMO on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)induced responses in the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 were examined. MEMO potently inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Consistent with these results, the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) at the protein level, and of iNOS, COX-2 and TNF-alpha at the mRNA level, was also inhibited by MEMO in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, MEMO inhibited the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) activation induced by LPS, and this was associated with the prevention of degradation of the inhibitor kappaB (IkappaB), and subsequently with attenuated p65 protein in the nucleus. The anti-inflammatory effect of MEMO was examined in rats using the carrageenan-induced oedema model. The antinociceptive effects of MEMO were assessed in mice using the acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction test and the hot-plate test. MEMO (100, 200 mg kg-1 per day, p.o.) exhibited anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects in these animal models. Taken together, the data demonstrate that MEMO has anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity, inhibiting iNOS, COX-2 and TNF-alpha expression by down-regulating NF-kappaB binding activity. PMID:15901350

  4. Two new secoiridoid glycosides from Verbena officinalis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Xin, Fei; Sha, Yi; Fang, Jin; Li, Yu-Shan

    2010-08-01

    Two new secoiridoid glycosides, verbenoside A (1) and verbenoside B (2), have been isolated from the ethanol extract of the aerial parts of Verbena officinalis L. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidences, especially 1D, 2D NMR, and MS experiments. PMID:20706899

  5. Comparison of some antioxidant properties of plant extracts from Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, Eleutherococcus senticosus and Stevia rebaudiana.

    PubMed

    Vaško, Ladislav; Vašková, Janka; Fejerčáková, Andrea; Mojžišová, Gabriela; Poráčová, Janka

    2014-08-01

    Phenolic compounds from plants are known for their antioxidant properties and have been proposed as therapeutic agents to counteract oxidative stress. However, under normal circumstances, the body only receives a very small amount of these substances in the diet. We have investigated the effect of extracts from known and frequently used plants as part of diet, food seasoning, medicinal tea, and sweetener at different concentrations on the ability to scavenge free radicals, to affect antioxidant enzymes, and finally in the survival of cancer cell lines. We found extract concentrations of about 100 μg.ml(-1) more indicative in the assessment of all parameters investigated. Ginseng possessed a very good ability to scavenge superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, while stevia also manifested significant effects against hydroxyl radicals. Both extracts also showed NO decomposition ability. The antioxidant defense system against the excessive production of radicals in mitochondria was sufficient. In contrast, the range of operating concentrations for sage and oregano mainly presented no significant effects against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Taken together with the significantly reduced activity of glutathione peroxidase, this led to the depletion of glutathione. The demonstrated modulation of redox state capability was sufficient to affect the viability of all tested cancer cell lines, but especially A-549, CEM and HeLa by oregano extract. Results support the promising role of the tested extracts as a source of compounds for further in vivo studies with the ability to powerfully interfere with or modify the redox state of cells according to the type of disease, which is expected to be associated with oxidative stress. PMID:24737278

  6. Mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of aqueous extract of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) on meristematic cells of Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Felicidade, I; Lima, J D; Pesarini, J R; Monreal, A C D; Mantovani, M S; Ribeiro, L R; Oliveira, R J

    2014-01-01

    Polyphenolic compounds present in rosemary were found to have antioxidant properties, anticarcinogenic activity, and to increase the detoxification of pro-carcinogens. The aim of the study was to determine the effect the aqueous extract of rosemary (AER) on mutagenicity induced by methylmethane sulfonate in meristematic cells of Allium cepa, as well as to describe its mode of action. Anti-mutagenicity experiments were carried out with 3 different concentrations of AER, which alone showed no mutagenic effects. In antimutagenicity experiments, AER showed chemopreventive activity in cultured meristematic cells of A. cepa against exposure to methylmethane sulfonate. Additionally, post-treatment and simultaneous treatment using pre-incubation protocols were the most effective. Evaluation of different protocols and the percent reduction in DNA indicated bioantimutagenic as well desmutagenic modes of action for AER. AER may be chemopreventive and antimutagenic. PMID:25501210

  7. Emblica officinalis Extract Induces Autophagy and Inhibits Human Ovarian Cancer Cell Proliferation, Angiogenesis, Growth of Mouse Xenograft Tumors

    PubMed Central

    De, Alok; De, Archana; Papasian, Chris; Hentges, Shane; Banerjee, Snigdha; Haque, Inamul; Banerjee, Sushanta K.

    2013-01-01

    Patients with ovarian cancer (OC) may be treated with surgery, chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy, although none of these strategies are very effective. Several plant-based natural products/dietary supplements, including extracts from Emblicaofficinalis (Amla), have demonstrated potent anti-neoplastic properties. In this study we determined that Amla extract (AE) has anti-proliferative effects on OC cells under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. We also determined the anti-proliferative effects one of the components of AE, quercetin, on OC cells under in vitro conditions. AE did not induce apoptotic cell death, but did significantly increase the expression of the autophagic proteins beclin1 and LC3B-II under in vitro conditions. Quercetin also increased the expression of the autophagic proteins beclin1 and LC3B-II under in vitro conditions. AE also significantly reduced the expression of several angiogenic genes, including hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) in OVCAR3 cells. AE acted synergistically with cisplatin to reduce cell proliferation and increase expression of the autophagic proteins beclin1 and LC3B-II under in vitro conditions. AE also had anti-proliferative effects and induced the expression of the autophagic proteins beclin1 and LC3B-II in mouse xenograft tumors. Additionally, AE reduced endothelial cell antigen – CD31 positive blood vessels and HIF-1α expression in mouse xenograft tumors. Together, these studies indicate that AE inhibits OC cell growth both in vitro and in vivo possibly via inhibition of angiogenesis and activation of autophagy in OC. Thus AE may prove useful as an alternative or adjunct therapeutic approach in helping to fight OC. PMID:24133573

  8. Degradation study of carnosic acid, carnosol, rosmarinic acid, and rosemary extract (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) assessed using HPLC.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Smuts, Jonathan P; Dodbiba, Edra; Rangarajan, Rekha; Lang, John C; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2012-09-12

    Rosemary, whose major caffeoyl-derived and diterpenoid ingredients are rosmarinic acid, carnosol, and carnosic acid, is an important source of natural antioxidants and is being recognized increasingly as a useful preservative, protectant, and even as a potential medicinal agent. Understanding the stability of these components and their mode of interaction in mixtures is important if they are to be utilized to greatest effect. A study of the degradation of rosmarinic acid, carnosol, carnosic acid, and a mixture of the three was conducted in ethanolic solutions at different temperatures and light exposure. As expected, degradation increased with temperature. Some unique degradation products were formed with exposure to light. Several degradation products were reported for the first time. The degradation products were identified by HPLC/MS/MS, UV, and NMR. The degradation of rosemary extract in fish oil also was investigated, and much slower rates of degradation were observed for carnosic acid. In the mixture of the three antioxidants, carnosic acid serves to maintain levels of carnosol, though it does so at least in part at the cost of its own degradation. PMID:22881034

  9. Comparison of antimicrobial activity of essential oils, plant extracts and methylparaben in cosmetic emulsions: 2 months study.

    PubMed

    Herman, Anna

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the preservative effectiveness of plant extracts (Matricaria chamomilla, Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis) and essential oils (Lavandulla officinalis, Melaleuca alternifolia, Cinnamomum zeylanicum) with methylparaben in cosmetic emulsions against skin microflora during 2 months of application by volunteers. Cosmetic emulsions with extracts (2.5 %), essential oils (2.5 %), methylparaben (0.4 %) or placebo were tested by 40 volunteers during 2 months of treatment. In order to determine microbial purity of the emulsions, the samples were taken after 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks of application. Throughout the trial period it was revealed that only cinnamon oil completely inhibited the growth of bacteria, yeast and mould, as compared to all other essential oils, plant extracts and methylparaben in the tested emulsions. This result shows that cinnamon oil could successfully replace the use of methylparaben in cosmetics, at the same time ensuring microbiological purity of a cosmetic product under its in-use and storage conditions. PMID:24891745

  10. Valeriana officinalis attenuates the rotenone-induced toxicity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Sudati, Jéssie Haigert; Vieira, Francielli Araújo; Pavin, Sandra Sartoretto; Dias, Glaecir Roseni Mundstock; Seeger, Rodrigo Lopes; Golombieski, Ronaldo; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Soares, Félix Antunes; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Barbosa, Nilda Vargas

    2013-07-01

    In this study, we investigated the potential protective effects of Valeriana officinalis (V. officinalis) against the toxicity induced by rotenone in Drosophila melanogaster (D. melanogaster). Adult wild-type flies were concomitantly exposed to rotenone (500 μM) and V. officinalis aqueous extract (10mg/mL) in the food during 7 days. Rotenone-fed flies had a worse performance in the negative geotaxis assay (i.e. climbing capability) and open-field test (i.e. mobility time) as well as a higher incidence of mortality when compared to control group. V. officinalis treatment offered protection against these detrimental effects of rotenone. In contrast, the decreased number of crossings observed in the flies exposed to rotenone was not modified by V. officinalis. Rotenone toxicity was also associated with a marked decrease on the total-thiol content in the homogenates and cell viability of flies, which were reduced by V. officinalis treatment. Indeed, rotenone exposure caused a significant increase in the mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and also in the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene. The expression of SOD and CAT mRNAs was normalized by V. officinalis treatment. Our results suggest that V. officinalis extract was effective in reducing the toxicity induced by rotenone in D. melanogaster as well as confirm the utility of this model to investigate potential therapeutic strategies on movement disorders, including Parkinson disease (PD). PMID:23639798

  11. Essential oils and herbal extracts as antimicrobial agents in cosmetic emulsion.

    PubMed

    Herman, Anna; Herman, Andrzej Przemysław; Domagalska, Beata Wanda; Młynarczyk, Andrzej

    2013-06-01

    The cosmetic industry adapts to the needs of consumers seeking to limit the use of preservatives and develop of preservative-free or self-preserving cosmetics, where preservatives are replaced by raw materials of plant origin. The aim of study was a comparison of the antimicrobial activity of extracts (Matricaria chamomilla, Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis) and essential oils (Lavandulla officinallis, Melaleuca alternifolia, Cinnamomum zeylanicum) with methylparaben. Extracts (2.5 %), essential oils (2.5 %) and methylparaben (0.4 %) were tested against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Candida albicans ATCC 14053. Essentials oils showed higher inhibitory activity against tested microorganism strain than extracts and methylparaben. Depending on tested microorganism strain, all tested extracts and essential oils show antimicrobial activity 0.8-1.7 and 1-3.5 times stronger than methylparaben, respectively. This shows that tested extracts and essential oils could replace use of methylparaben, at the same time giving a guarantee of microbiological purity of the cosmetic under its use and storage. PMID:24426114

  12. Thesinine-4'-O-beta-D-glucoside the first glycosylated plant pyrrolizidine alkaloid from Borago officinalis.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Martina; Joppe, Holger; Schmaus, Gerhard

    2002-06-01

    The glycosylated pyrrolizidine alkaloid, thesinine-4'-O-beta-D-glucoside, has been isolated from the aqueous methanol extract of dried, defatted seeds of Borago officinalis (Boraginaceae). The structure was established by means of spectroscopic and chemical analysis. PMID:12031432

  13. Antioxidant and antifungal activity of Verbena officinalis L. leaves.

    PubMed

    Casanova, E; García-Mina, J M; Calvo, M I

    2008-09-01

    The scavenging activity against DPPH (1,1-diphenil-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical and the antifungal effect against chloroform, ethyl acetate and 50% methanolic extracts of Verbena officinalis leaves were investigated. The activity of different fractions of 50% methanolic extract and some isolated compounds were also investigated. The results suggest that 50% methanolic extract and caffeoyl derivatives could potentially be considered as excellent and readily available sources of natural antifungal and antioxidant compounds. PMID:18498054

  14. Rapid analysis of multi-pesticides in Morinda officinalis by GC-ECD with accelerated solvent extraction assisted matrix solid phase dispersion and positive confirmation by GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongmei; Kong, Weijun; Gong, Bao; Miao, Qing; Qi, Yun; Yang, Meihua

    2015-01-01

    In this work, 33 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 9 pyrethroid pesticides (PYPs) in Morinda officinalis were effectively and selectively extracted and cleaned up by accelerated solvent extraction assisted matrix solid phase dispersion (ASE/MSPD) method, followed by gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD). Carbophenothion was selected as the internal standard and added into the final extracts to improve the precision and accuracy of the method. Parameters for ASE/MSPD procedure including ratio of acetone to n-hexane, temperature and amount of Florisil were optimized to improve the performance of the method through orthogonal experimental design. Under the optimized conditions, the average recoveries (six replicates) for all pesticides (spiked at 0.05, 0.5 and 1.0 mg kg(-1)) ranged from 69.3% to 112% with RSD less than 14.14%. A wide linear range of 10-1000 ng mL(-1) was observed with r values of 0.9963-0.9999. Meanwhile, the method gave high selectivity and sensitivity (LODs<3 μg kg(-1) and LOQs<8.0 μg kg (-1)), good repeatability (RSD of 9.64%, on average) and precision (RSD of 5.48%, averagely) and excellent stability (RSD <9.47%). The feasibility of the proposed method was demonstrated by applying it for preconcentration and determination of OCPs and PYPs in 40 batches of real samples. Four kinds of pesticides (beta-endosulfan, tecnazene, hexachlorobenzene and alpha-BHC) were detected in three batches of samples, which were successfully confirmed by GC-MS. The results indicated that ASE/MSPD is a reliable and half-automated extraction and purification technique, with many advantages over traditional techniques. The combination of ASE/MSPD and GC-ECD could be especially useful for trace analysis of pesticide residues in complex matrices. PMID:25463199

  15. Comparative pharmacokinetics and brain distribution of magnolol and honokiol after oral administration of Magnolia officinalis cortex extract and its compatibility with other herbal medicines in Zhi-Zi-Hou-Po Decoction to rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan; Wang, Dan; Yang, Gongjun; Shi, Qingshui; Feng, Fang

    2016-03-01

    Zhi-Zi-Hou-Po decoction (ZZHPD) is one of the famous antidepressant Chinese formulas and is composed of Magnolia officinalis cortex (HP), Gardenia jasminoides Ellis (ZZ) and Citrus aurantium L. (ZS). Magnolol (MN) and honokiol (HN) from HP are the major active ingredients responsible for the therapeutic effects of ZZHPD. The aim of this study is to compare the pharmacokinetics and rat brain distribution of MN and HN after oral administration of HP extract and its compatibility with other herbal medicines in ZZHPD by HPLC-FLD. Compared with the HP group, Tmax (time to reach peak drug concentration in plasma) and AUC(0-τ) significantly increased in the ZZHPD and HP-ZZ groups. There was little change in the HP-ZS group in comparison with the HP group, which indicated that ZZ promotes absorption extent and defers the absorption rate of MN. The different compatibility of ZZHPD had a different degree of impact on the concentration of MN and HN in brain. The concentration of MN significantly increased in the HP-ZZ group while it decreased in the HP-ZS group compared with the HP group, which explained the concentration of compounds being slightly greater in the ZZHPD group than in the HP group. HP mixed with other medicines resulted in a decrease in HN concentration in the brain, particularly HP compatible with ZS. The results could be helpful for revealing the compatibility mechanism and providing clinical medication guidance for ZZHPD. PMID:26173910

  16. [Determination of polysaccharide from Chinese medicine Morinda officinalis how and its trace elements analysis].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yong-Jun; Liu, Jie; Wu, Yu-Ming; Liu, Li-E; Zhang, Hong-Quan

    2005-12-01

    Polysaccharide was extracted from morinda officinalis how by back-flowing with 80% ethanol for 1 h, and the method of improved phenol-sulfuric acid spectroscopy was adopted to determine the content of morinda officinalis how polysaccharide. As for its trace elements, the atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to detect the content of Zn, Fe and Cu, which were compared with its fake; and cold atomic fluorometry was applied to determine the trace mercury. The results were satisfactory, which can give reference about the effective components of morinda officinalis how, and will help to exploit it. PMID:16544510

  17. A study on genetic variability of pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila strains and the varied responses of the strains towards phyto-extracts.

    PubMed

    Balasundaram, A; Kumari, P Rathna; Kolanchinathan, P; Masilamani, V; John, George

    2013-11-01

    The present study evaluated genetic variation in Aeromonas hydrophila strains using PCR-RAPD and their varied susceptibility to phyto-extract. Four strains of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from skin infections of common freshwater fish, Cyprinus carpio were characterized by various biochemical methods, physiological tests and PCR- RAPD. Antimicrobial activity of the leaf extracts of three medicinal plants, Ocimum sanctum, Adathoda vasica and Calendula officinalis were tested against the four strains of A. hydrophila by disc diffusion (Kirby-Bauer) method. Antagonistic effects of leaf extracts against A. hydrophila strains were assessed by co-culture method. RAPD analysis showed that all the microbes isolated from skin infection belong to the same species but there was no 100% genetic similarity among them Dendrogram constructed by UPGMA clearly supported the PCR pattern of genetic variability among the strains. This study revealed that Aeromonas hydophila exhibits genetic variability and varied susceptibility towards phyto-extracts. Results indicated that phyto-extracts offers a promising alternative to the use of antibiotics in controlling Aeromonas hydrophila. PMID:24511738

  18. Bio-active nanoemulsions enriched with gold nanoparticle, marigold extracts and lipoic acid: In vitro investigations.

    PubMed

    Guler, Emine; Barlas, F Baris; Yavuz, Murat; Demir, Bilal; Gumus, Z Pinar; Baspinar, Yucel; Coskunol, Hakan; Timur, Suna

    2014-09-01

    A novel and efficient approach for the preparation of enriched herbal formulations was described and their potential applications including wound healing and antioxidant activity (cell based and cell free) were investigated via in vitro cell culture studies. Nigella sativa oil was enriched with Calendula officinalis extract and lipoic acid capped gold nanoparticles (AuNP-LA) using nanoemulsion systems. The combination of these bio-active compounds was used to design oil in water (O/W) and water in oil (W/O) emulsions. The resulted emulsions were characterized by particle size measurements. The phenolic content of each nanoemulsion was examined by using both colorimetric assay and chromatographic analyses. Two different methods containing cell free chemical assay (1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method) and cell based antioxidant activity test were used to evaluate the antioxidant capacities. In order to investigate the bio-activities of the herbal formulations, in vitro cell culture experiments, including cytotoxicity, scratch assay, antioxidant activity and cell proliferation were carried out using Vero cell line as a model cell line. Furthermore, to monitor localization of the nanoemulsions after application of the cell culture, the cell images were monitored via fluorescence microscope after FITC labeling. All data confirmed that the enriched N. sativa formulations exhibited better antioxidant and wound healing activity than N. sativa emulsion without any enrichment. In conclusion, the incorporation of AuNP-LA and C. officinalis extract into the N. sativa emulsions significantly increased the bio-activities. The present work may support further studies about using the other bio-active agents for the enrichment of herbal preparations to strengthen their activities. PMID:25009101

  19. Effects of aqueous extract from Asparagus officinalis L. roots on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis hormone levels and the number of ovarian follicles in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Karimi Jashni, Hojatollah; Kargar Jahromi, Hossein; Ghorbani Ranjbary, Ali; Kargar Jahromi, Zahra; Khabbaz Kherameh, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Asparagus is a plant with high nutritional, pharmaceutical, and industrial values. Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of asparagus roots on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis hormones and oogenesis in female rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 adult female Wistar rats were divided into five groups, which consist 8 rats. Groups included control, sham and three experimental groups receiving different doses (100, 200, 400 mg/kg/bw) of aqueous extract of asparagus roots. All dosages were administered orally for 28 days. Blood samples were taken from rats to evaluate serum levels of Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), follicular stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinal hormone (LH), estrogen, and progesterone hormones. The ovaries were removed, weighted, sectioned, and studied by light microscope. Results: Dose-dependent aqueous extract of asparagus roots significantly increased serum levels of GnRH, FSH, LH, estrogen, and progestin hormones compared to control and sham groups. Increase in number of ovarian follicles and corpus luteum in groups treated with asparagus root extract was also observed (p<0.05). Conclusion: Asparagus roots extract stimulates secretion of hypothalamic- pituitary- gonadal axis hormones. This also positively affects oogenesis in female rats. PMID:27200420

  20. Ameliorative effects of Rosmarinus officinalis leaf extract and Vitamin C on cadmium-induced oxidative stress in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Al-Anazi, Marim Saleh; Virk, Promy; Elobeid, Mai; Siddiqui, Muzammil Iqbal

    2015-11-01

    The present studywas undertaken to assess the bioaccumulation potential of cadmium in liver, kidney, gills and muscles of freshwater fish, Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and the changes in oxidative stress indices in liver and kidney with or without simultaneous treatment with waterborne vitamin C and rosemary leaf extract. Adult tilapia were divided into seven groups. Six groups were exposed to sublethal concentrations of Cd, three groups to 5 ppm, while other three to 10 ppm. Two groups from each of the Cd exposed groups were treated with Vitamin C (5ppm) and rosemary leaf extract (2.5 ppm) for a period of 21 days. Cadmium concentration in liver, kidneys and gills was significantly higher in the cadmium exposed groups being invariably high in the groups exposed to 10 ppm CdCl2.H2O.Treatment with Vitamin C and rosemary leaf extract significantly reduced cadmium concentration in comparison to non-treated Cd exposed groups. Treatment with Vitamin C and rosemary leaf extract significantly reduced oxidative stress in Cd exposed fish as evidenced from lower concentration of lipid peroxides and reduced activity of catalase and higher activity of superoxide dismutase in liver and kidney as compared to control fish. Reduction in Cd induced oxidative stress and bioaccumulation was comparable between the two antioxidant treatments, Vitamin C and rosemary leaf extract. The key findings suggest that both the antioxidants used showed ameliorative potential to reduce tissue accumulation of Cd and associated oxidative stress in fresh water fish, Nile tilapia. PMID:26688980

  1. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis and some other medicinal plants commonly used in South-East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Lai Wah; Cheah, Emily LC; Saw, Constance LL; Weng, Wanyu; Heng, Paul WS

    2008-01-01

    Background Eight medicinal plants were tested for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Different extraction methods were also tested for their effects on the bioactivities of the medicinal plants. Methods Eight plants, namely Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis (Laliaocao), Folium Murraya Koenigii (Jialiye), Rhizoma Arachis Hypogea (Huashenggen), Herba Houttuyniae (Yuxingcao), Epipremnum pinnatum (Pashulong), Rhizoma Typhonium Flagelliforme (Laoshuyu), Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis (Houpo) and Rhizoma Imperatae (Baimaogen) were investigated for their potential antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Results Extracts of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis had the strongest activities against M. Smegmatis, C. albicans, B. subtilis and S. aureus. Boiled extracts of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis, Folium Murraya Koenigii, Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis and Herba Houttuyniae demonstrated greater antioxidant activities than other tested medicinal plants. Conclusion Among the eight tested medicinal plants, Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis showed the highest antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Different methods of extraction yield different spectra of bioactivities. PMID:19038060

  2. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extract regulates glucose and lipid metabolism by activating AMPK and PPAR pathways in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Tu, Zheng; Moss-Pierce, Tijuana; Ford, Paul; Jiang, T Alan

    2013-03-20

    An epidemic of metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes is rising dramatically. Using natural products as potential preventive and therapeutic interventions for these disorders has drawn worldwide attention. Rosemary has been shown to lower blood glucose and cholesterol levels and mitigate weight gain in several in vivo studies. However, the mechanisms are essentially unknown. We investigated the effects of rosemary extract on metabolism and demonstrated that rosemary extract significantly increased glucose consumption in HepG2 cells. The phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its substrate, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), was increased by rosemary extract. Rosemary extract also transcriptionally regulated the genes involved in metabolism, including SIRT1, PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC1α), glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), ACC, and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR). Furthermore, the PPARγ-specific antagonist GW9662 diminished rosemary's effects on glucose consumption. Overall, our study suggested that rosemary potentially increases liver glycolysis and fatty acid oxidation by activating AMPK and PPAR pathways. PMID:23432097

  3. Antioxidant effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extract in soybean lecithin-based semen extender following freeze-thawing process of ram sperm.

    PubMed

    Motlagh, Mahdi Khodaei; Sharafi, Mohsen; Zhandi, Mahdi; Mohammadi-Sangcheshmeh, Abdollah; Shakeri, Malak; Soleimani, Masoud; Zeinoaldini, Saeed

    2014-10-01

    The aim of current study was to evaluate effect of rosemary aqueous extract on post-thawed ram sperm quality in a soybean lecithin-based (SL) extender. Ram semen samples were obtained, extended with SL extender and supplemented with 0% (SL-R0), 2% (SL-R2), 4% (SL-R4), 6% (SL-R6), and 8% (SL-R8) rosemary aqueous extract. Following equilibration, the straws were frozen, and then plunged into the liquid nitrogen. After thawing, sperm motility and velocity parameters, plasma membrane functionality, viability, acrosomal and capacitation status were evaluated. Membrane lipid peroxidation was also analyzed through the malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration. Our results showed that SL-R4 and SL-R6 groups resulted in higher (p < 0.05) percentages of total motility, progressive motility, and plasma membrane functionality, as compared with other groups. Highest (p < 0.05) viable and lowest (p < 0.05) dead spermatozoa were observed in SL-R6 group compared to the other groups. The acrosomal and capacitation status were not affected (p > 0.05) by different levels of rosemary aqueous extract. Lower (p < 0.05) MDA concentration has been observed in SL-R4 and SL-R6 groups. The results of this study demonstrate that supplementation of SL extender with rosemary aqueous extract influences post-thawed ram sperm quality in a dose dependent manner. PMID:25050864

  4. Antiviral activity of the volatile oils of Melissa officinalis L. against Herpes simplex virus type-2.

    PubMed

    Allahverdiyev, A; Duran, N; Ozguven, M; Koltas, S

    2004-11-01

    Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) has been used in a variety of practical applications in medical science. Our objective in the current study was to determine the effects of the volatile oil components of M. officinalis on Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) replication in HEp-2 cells. Four different concentrations (25, 50, 100, 150 and 200 microg/ml) of volatile oils were examined. Experiments were carried out using HEp-2 cells. M. officinalis volatile oil was found to be non-toxic to HEp-2 cells up to a concentration of 100 micro/ml. It was, however, found to be slightly toxic at a concentration over of 100 microg/ml. The antiviral activity of non-toxic concentrations against HSV-2 was tested. The replication of HSV-2 was inhibited, indicating that the M. officinalis L. extract contains an anti-HSV-2 substance. PMID:15636181

  5. Rosmarinus officinalis L. extract and some of its active ingredients as potential emulsion stabilizers: a new approach to the formation of multiple (W/O/W) emulsion.

    PubMed

    Cizauskaite, Ugne; Ivanauskas, Liudas; Jakštas, Valdas; Marksiene, Ruta; Jonaitiene, Laimute; Bernatoniene, Jurga

    2016-09-01

    Nowadays, novel topical formulations loaded with natural functional actives are under intense investigations. Therefore, the aim of our study was to evaluate how the rosemary extract and some of its active ingredients [rosmarinic acid (RA), ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA)] affect technological characteristics of multiple emulsion. Formulation has been prepared by adding investigated solutions (10%) in water/oil/water (W/O/W) multiple emulsion consisting of different lipophilic phases: olive oil and liquid paraffin, with 0.5% emulsifying agent (complex of sodium polyacrylate and polysorbate 20) under constant stirring with mechanical stirrer at room temperature. The emulsion parameters were evaluated using centrifugation test, freeze-thaw cycle test, microscopical and texture analyses. Rosemary's triterpenic saponins UA and OA showed the highest emulsion stabilizing properties: they decreased CI from 3.26% to 10.23% (p < 0.05). According to obtained interfacial tension data, the effect of rosemary active ingredients is not surfactant-like. Even though emulsifier itself at low concentration intends to form directly the multiple emulsion, the obtained results indicate that rosemary extract containing active ingredients does not only serve as functional cosmetic agent due to a number of biological activities, but also offer potential advantages as a stabilizer and an enhancer of W/O/W emulsions formation for dermopharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations. PMID:26000558

  6. Matrix solid-phase dispersion for the liquid chromatographic determination of phenolic acids in Melissa officinalis.

    PubMed

    Ziaková, Alica; Brandsteterová, Eva; Blahová, Eva

    2003-01-01

    Matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) was used for sample preparation of plant material (Melissa officinalis, Lemon Balm) prior to liquid chromatography of rosmarinic, caffeic and protocatechuic acids, phenolic compounds present in this herb. Different MSPD sorbents and various elution agents were tested and the optimal extraction conditions determined with the aim to obtain extraction recoveries greater than 90% for all analytes. PMID:12568390

  7. Evaluation of Melissa officinalis (Lemon Balm) Effects on Heart Electrical System

    PubMed Central

    Joukar, Siyavash; Asadipour, Haleh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Melissa officinalis, an herbal drug, is well known and frequently applied in traditional and modern medicine. Yet, there is inadequate information regarding its effects on electrical properties of the heart. The present study attempted to elucidate the effects of Melissa officinalis aqueous extract on electrocardiogram (ECG) in rat. Objectives: ECG is an easy, fast and valuable tool to evaluate the safety of used materials and drugs on heart electrical and conductivity properties. Many drugs with no cardiovascular indication or any overt cardiovascular effects of therapeutic dosing become cardiotoxic when overdosed (16). On the other hand, there are numerous substances and drugs that can cause ECG changes, even in patients without a history of cardiac disease. Therefore, this study was conducted to elucidate safety and outcome of one-week administration of M. officinalis aqueous extract on blood pressure and ECG parameters of rats. Materials and Methods: Four animal groups received tap water (control group), aqueous extracts of Melissa officinalis 50 (M50), 100 (M100) and 200 (M200) mg/kg/day, respectively and orally for a week. ECG and blood pressure were recorded on the eighth day of experiment. Results: Consumption of Melissa officinalis extract associated with prolonged QRS interval (P < 0.05 for M50 and M100 groups and P < 0.01 for M200 group versus the control group, respectively), prolonged QTc and JT intervals (P < 0.01 for different M groups versus the control group) and prolonged TpTe interval (P < 0.001 when M groups compared with the control group) of ECG. However, different doses of the extract had no significant effect on RR interval, PR interval, amplitudes of ECG waves, heart rate and blood pressure. Conclusions: For the first time, this study revealed that consumption of Melissa officinalis extract is associated with significant ECG alterations in rat. Future studies are necessary to determine potential clinical outcomes. PMID:26396973

  8. The Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinalis) and Artichoke (Cynara cardunculus) Extract Supplementation on Functional Dyspepsia: A Randomised, Double-Blind, and Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Giacosa, Attilio; Guido, Davide; Grassi, Mario; Riva, Antonella; Morazzoni, Paolo; Bombardelli, Ezio; Perna, Simone; Faliva, Milena A; Rondanelli, Mariangela

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a frequent clinical finding in western world. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of a ginger and artichoke supplementation versus placebo in the treatment of FD. Methods. A prospective multicentre, double blind, randomized, placebo controlled, parallel-group comparison of the supplement and placebo over a period of 4 weeks was performed. Two capsules/day were supplied (before lunch and dinner) to 126 FD patients (supplementation/placebo: 65/61). Results. After 14 days of treatment, only supplementation group (SG) showed a significant amelioration (SG: α S = +1.195 MCA score units (u), P = 0.017; placebo: α P = +0.347 u, P = 0.513). The intercept (α) resulted to be significantly higher in SG than in placebo (α S - α P = +0.848 u, P < 0.001). At the end of the study, the advantage of SG versus placebo persists without variation (β S - β P = +0.077 u, P = 0.542). In SG, a significant advantage is observed for nausea (β S - β P = -0.398 u, P < 0.001), epigastric fullness (β S - β P = -0.241, P < 0.001), epigastric pain (β S - β P = -0.173 u, P = 0.002), and bloating (β S - β P = -0.167 u, P = 0.017). Conclusions. The association between ginger and artichoke leaf extracts appears safe and efficacious in the treatment of FD and could represent a promising treatment for this disease. PMID:25954317

  9. The Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinalis) and Artichoke (Cynara cardunculus) Extract Supplementation on Functional Dyspepsia: A Randomised, Double-Blind, and Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Giacosa, Attilio; Guido, Davide; Grassi, Mario; Riva, Antonella; Morazzoni, Paolo; Bombardelli, Ezio; Faliva, Milena A.; Rondanelli, Mariangela

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a frequent clinical finding in western world. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of a ginger and artichoke supplementation versus placebo in the treatment of FD. Methods. A prospective multicentre, double blind, randomized, placebo controlled, parallel-group comparison of the supplement and placebo over a period of 4 weeks was performed. Two capsules/day were supplied (before lunch and dinner) to 126 FD patients (supplementation/placebo: 65/61). Results. After 14 days of treatment, only supplementation group (SG) showed a significant amelioration (SG: αS = +1.195 MCA score units (u), P = 0.017; placebo: αP = +0.347 u, P = 0.513). The intercept (α) resulted to be significantly higher in SG than in placebo (αS − αP = +0.848 u, P < 0.001). At the end of the study, the advantage of SG versus placebo persists without variation (βS − βP = +0.077 u, P = 0.542). In SG, a significant advantage is observed for nausea (βS − βP = −0.398 u, P < 0.001), epigastric fullness (βS − βP = −0.241, P < 0.001), epigastric pain (βS − βP = −0.173 u, P = 0.002), and bloating (βS − βP = −0.167 u, P = 0.017). Conclusions. The association between ginger and artichoke leaf extracts appears safe and efficacious in the treatment of FD and could represent a promising treatment for this disease. PMID:25954317

  10. Does Melissa Officinalis Cause Withdrawal or Dependence?

    PubMed Central

    Demirci, Kadir; Akgönül, Mehmet; Demirdaş, Arif; Akpınar, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Melissa officinalis is a medical and aromatic plant that is used for its hypnotic, sedative, and spasmolytic effects. This report presents a case study of30-year-old patient who was admitted to an emergency department with restlessness, tremor, distractibility, and sweating following a discontinuation of Melissa officinalis consumption. Case report: In this case, withdrawal symptoms may be related to the dependence effect caused by long-term use of Melissa officinalis. Although Melissa officinalis, a plant, is preferred by many patients as an alternative to pharmaceutical drugs, patients should be made aware that it may have a risk of dependency and can lead to withdrawal symptoms. PMID:25870482

  11. Capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of volatile and semi-volatile compounds of Salvia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Radulescu, Valeria; Chiliment, Silvia; Oprea, Eliza

    2004-02-20

    The essential oil and infusion of Salvia officinalis leaves have been widely applied in traditional medicine since ancient times and nowadays subjected to extensive research of their antibacterial, antiviral and cytotoxic properties. This paper shows chemical composition data of S. officinalis leaves essential oil isolated by steam distillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus. Also, the paper presents the chemical content of volatile and semi-volatile compounds of S. officinalis leaves infusion. The volatile and semi-volatile compounds of S. officinalis leaves infusion were isolated by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid-liquid extraction with hexane and dichloromethane. SPE was carried out on 500 mg octadecylsilane (C18) cartridges and elution with dichloromethane. Liquid-liquid extraction was performed with hexane and dichloromethane. The essential oil in dichloromethane and infusion extracts in hexane and dichloromethane were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The quantitative results obtained by solid-phase extraction and liquid-liquid extraction showed that SPE on C18 performed the highest recovery of the volatile compounds from infusion sample. PMID:14971492

  12. Identification of sex pheromone of calendula plume mothPlatyptilia williamsii.

    PubMed

    Haynes, K F

    1987-04-01

    The sex pheromone of the calendula plume moth,Platyptilia williamsii was identified as (Z)-11-hexadecenal (Z11-16∶Aid). Extracts of female sex pheromone glands contained several compounds when analyzed by capillary and packed-column GLC. However, airborne collections of volatiles from glands contained only one of these compounds, having the same retention time asZ11-16∶Ald. GC-MS and microozonolysis analyses of the natural product were consistent with those of syntheticZ11-16∶Ald. In a flight tunnel, males oriented upwind and touched sources ofZ11-16∶Ald and gland extract with equal frequency. Field tests of syntheticZ11-16∶Ald already have shown it to be a potent sex attractant for males of this species. This study further supports the hypothesis thatP. williamsii and a sympatric species,Platyptilia carduidactyla, are not reproductively isolated by chemical differences in the composition of the sex pheromone, but rather by temporal differences in sexual activities. PMID:24302055

  13. Antiosteoporotic activity of anthraquinones from Morinda officinalis on osteoblasts and osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan-Bin; Zheng, Cheng-Jian; Qin, Lu-Ping; Sun, Lian-Na; Han, Ting; Jiao, Lei; Zhang, Qiao-Yan; Wu, Jin-Zhong

    2009-01-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation led to the successful isolation of antiosteoporotic components, i.e. physicion (1), rubiadin-1-methyl ether (2), 2-hydroxy-1-methoxy- anthraquinone (3), 1,2-dihydroxy-3-methylanthraquinone (4), 1,3,8-trihydroxy-2-methoxy- anthraquinone (5), 2-hydroxymethyl-3-hydroxyanthraquinone (6), 2-methoxyanthraquinone (7) and scopoletin (8) from an ethanolic extract of the roots of Morinda officinalis. Compounds 4-8 are isolated for the first time from M. officinalis. Among them, compounds 2 and 3 promoted osteoblast proliferation, while compounds 4, 5 increased osteoblast ALP activity. All of the isolated compounds inhibited osteoclast TRAP activity and bone resorption, and the inhibitory effects on osteoclastic bone resorption of compounds 1 and 5 were stronger than that of other compounds. Taken together, antiosteoporotic activity of M. officinalis and its anthraquinones suggest therapeutic potential against osteoporosis. PMID:19169204

  14. Detection of kestoses and kestose-related oligosaccharides in extracts of Festuca arundinacea, Dactylis glomerate L. , and Asparagus officinalis L. root cultures and invertase by sup 13 C and sup 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Forsythe, K.L.; Feather, M.S.; Gracz, H.; Wong, T.C. )

    1990-04-01

    Previous studies show that {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy can be used to detect and identify mixtures of 1-kestose and neokestose after conversion to the acetate derivatives. In this study, unequivocal assignments are made for the anomeric carbon and proton signals for the above two trisaccharide acetates as well as for 6-kestose hendecaacetate and for nystose tetradecaacetate (a 1-kestose-derived tetrasaccharide). A number of oligosaccharide fractions were isolated from several plant species, converted to the acetates, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra obtained. Using the above reference data, the following information was obtained. The trisaccharide fraction from Dactylis gomerata L. stem tissue and Asparagus officinalis L. roots contain both 1-kestose and neokestose, and the tetrasaccharide fractions contain three components, one of which is nystose. Penta- and hexasaccharide acetates were also isolated from A. officinalis L. roots and were found to contain, respectively, four and at least five components. All components of both of the above species appear to contain a kestose residue and to be produced by the sequential addition of fructofuranosyl units to these. The trisaccharide fraction from Festuca arundinacea is complex, and contains at least five different components, two of which appear to be 1-kestose and neokestose.

  15. Indole Alkaloids from the Leaves of Nauclea officinalis.

    PubMed

    Fan, Long; Liao, Cheng-Hui; Kang, Qiang-Rong; Zheng, Kai; Jiang, Ying-Chun; He, Zhen-Dan

    2016-01-01

    Three new indole alkaloids, named naucleamide G (1), and nauclealomide B and C (5 and 6), were isolated from the n-BuOH-soluble fraction of an EtOH extract of the leaves of Nauclea officinalis, together with three known alkaloids, paratunamide C (2), paratunamide D (3) and paratunamide A (4). The structures with absolute configurations of the new compounds were identified on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR, HRESIMS, acid hydrolysis and quantum chemical circular dichroism (CD) calculation. According to the structures of isolated indole alkaloids, their plausible biosynthetic pathway was deduced. PMID:27455233

  16. Isolation of alpha-glusosidase inhibitors from hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis).

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Hideyuki; Miyazaki, Hiroyuki; Asakawa, Chikako; Amano, Midori; Yoshihara, Teruhiko; Mizutani, Junya

    2004-01-01

    alpha-Glucosidase inhibitory activity was found in aqueous methanol extracts of dried hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis) leaves. Active principles against alpha-glucosidase, prepared from rat small intestine acetone powders, were isolated and characterized. The structures of these isolated compounds were determined to be (7S, 8S)-syringoylglycerol-9-O-(6'-O-cinnamoyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside and (7S, 8S)-syringoylglycerol 9-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside by analysis of physical and spectroscopic data (FDMS, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, HMQC, and HMBC experiments) together with chemical syntheses. PMID:14697274

  17. Effect of Rosmarinus officinalis in modulating 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene induced skin tumorigenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Sancheti, Garima; Goyal, P K

    2006-11-01

    The chemopreventive potential of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) on 7,12-dimethlybenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) initiated and croton oil promoted mouse skin tumorigenesis was assessed. The modulatory effects of R. officinalis was monitored on the basis of the average latency period, tumor incidence, tumor burden, tumor yield, tumor weight and diameter as well as lipid peroxidation and glutathione level. The results indicate that R. officinalis leaves extract could prolong the latency period of tumor occurrence, decrease the tumor incidence, tumor burden and tumor yield. The average weight and diameter of tumors recorded were comparatively lower in the rosemary extract treated mouse groups. The level of lipid peroxidation was significantly reduced in blood serum and liver. Furthermore, depleted levels of glutathione were restored in RE-administered animal groups. Thus, at a dose rate of 500 mg/kg body wt/mouse, the oral administration of rosemary extract was found to be significantly protective against two-stage skin tumorigenesis. PMID:16927448

  18. Complete genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain Co1-6, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium of Calendula officinalis

    SciTech Connect

    Koeberl, Martina; White, Richard A.; Erschen, Sabine; Spanberger, Nora; El-Arabi, Tarek F.; Jansson, Janet K.; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-08-13

    The genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain Co1-6, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) with broad-spectrum antagonistic activities against plant pathogenic fungi, bacteria and nematodes, consists of a single 3.9 Mb circular chromosome. The genome reveals genes putatively responsible for its promising biocontrol and PGP properties.

  19. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain Co1-6, a Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium of Calendula officinalis

    PubMed Central

    White, Richard A.; Erschen, Sabine; Spanberger, Nora; El-Arabi, Tarek F.; Jansson, Janet K.; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    The genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain Co1-6, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) with broad-spectrum antagonistic activity against plant-pathogenic fungi, bacteria, and nematodes, consists of a single 3.9-Mb circular chromosome. The genome reveals genes putatively responsible for its promising biocontrol and PGP properties. PMID:26272562

  20. Complete genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain Co1-6, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium of Calendula officinalis

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Köberl, Martina; White, Richard A.; Erschen, Sabine; Spanberger, Nora; El-Arabi, Tarek F.; Jansson, Janet K.; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-08-13

    The genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain Co1-6, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) with broad-spectrum antagonistic activity against plant-pathogenic fungi, bacteria, and nematodes, consists of a single 3.9-Mb circular chromosome. The genome reveals genes putatively responsible for its promising biocontrol and PGP properties.

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain Co1-6, a Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium of Calendula officinalis.

    PubMed

    Köberl, Martina; White, Richard A; Erschen, Sabine; Spanberger, Nora; El-Arabi, Tarek F; Jansson, Janet K; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    The genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain Co1-6, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) with broad-spectrum antagonistic activity against plant-pathogenic fungi, bacteria, and nematodes, consists of a single 3.9-Mb circular chromosome. The genome reveals genes putatively responsible for its promising biocontrol and PGP properties. PMID:26272562

  2. Evaluation of the antibacterial potential of Petroselinum crispum and Rosmarinus officinalis against bacteria that cause urinary tract infections

    PubMed Central

    Petrolini, Fernanda Villas Boas; Lucarini, Rodrigo; de Souza, Maria Gorete Mendes; Pires, Regina Helena; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes

    2013-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the antibacterial activity of the crude hydroalcoholic extracts, fractions, and compounds of two plant species, namely Rosmarinus officinalis and Petroselinum crispum, against the bacteria that cause urinary tract infection. The microdilution method was used for determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The crude hydroalcoholic extract of R. officinalis displayed in vitro activity against Gram-positive bacteria, with satisfactory MBC for the clinical isolate S. saprophyticus. The fractions and the pure compound rosmarinic acid did not furnish promising results for Gram-negative bacteria, whereas fractions 2, 3, and 4 gave encouraging results for Gram-positive bacteria and acted as bactericide against S. epidermidis as well as E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) and its clinical isolate. R. officinalis led to promising results in the case of Gram-positive bacteria, resulting in a considerable interest in the development of reliable alternatives for the treatment of urinary infections. PMID:24516424

  3. Melissa officinalis oil affects infectivity of enveloped herpesviruses.

    PubMed

    Schnitzler, P; Schuhmacher, A; Astani, A; Reichling, Jürgen

    2008-09-01

    Extracts and essential oils of medicinal plants are increasingly of interest as novel drugs of antimicrobial and antiviral agents, since herpes simplex virus (HSV) might develop resistance to commonly used antiviral agents. Melissa officinalis essential oil was phytochemically examined by GC-MS analysis, its main constituents were identified as monoterpenaldehydes citral a, citral b and citronellal. The antiviral effect of lemon balm oil, the essential oil of Melissa officinalis, on herpes simplex virus was examined. The inhibitory activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was tested in vitro on monkey kidney cells using a plaque reduction assay. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of balm oil for herpes simplex virus plaque formation was determined at high dilutions of 0.0004% and 0.00008% for HSV-1 and HSV-2, respectively. At noncytotoxic concentrations of the oil,plaque formation was significantly reduced by 98.8% for HSV-1 and 97.2% for HSV-2, higher concentrations of lemon balm oil abolished viral infectivity nearly completely. In order to determine the mode of antiviral action of this essential oil, time-on-addition assays were performed. Both herpesviruses were significantly inhibited by pretreatment with balm oil prior to infection of cells. These results indicate that Melissa oil affected the virus before adsorption, but not after penetration into the host cell, thus lemon balm oil is capable of exerting a direct antiviral effect on herpesviruses. Considering the lipophilic nature of lemon balm essential oil, which enables it to penetrate the skin, and a high selectivity index, Melissa officinalis oil might be suitable for topical treatment of herpetic infections. PMID:18693101

  4. Rosmarinus officinalis L. as cause of contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Miroddi, M; Calapai, G; Isola, S; Minciullo, P L; Gangemi, S

    2014-01-01

    Because of the widespread use of botanicals, it has become crucial for health professionals to improve their knowledge about safety problems. Several herbal medicines contain chemicals with allergenic properties responsible for contact dermatitis. Among these, one is Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary), a plant used since ancient times in folk medicine; at the present time it is used worldwide as a spice and flavouring agent, as a preservative and for medicinal and cosmetic purposes. The present article aims to revise and summarise scientific literature reporting cases of contact dermatitis caused by the use of R. officinalis as a raw material or as herbal preparations. Published case reports were researched on the following databases and search engines: PUBMED, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Google Scholar, Scopus. The used keywords were: R. officinalis and rosemary each alone or combined with the words allergy, contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, sensitisation and occupational dermatitis. The published case reports show that both rosemary extracts and raw material can be responsible for allergic contact dermatitis. Two cases related to contact dermatitis caused by cross-reactivity between rosemary and thyme were also commented. The diterpene carnosol, a chemical constituent of this plant, has been imputed as a common cause for this reaction. The incidence of contact dermatitis caused by rosemary is not common, but it could be more frequent with respect to the supposed occurrence. It seems plausible that cases of contact dermatitis caused by rosemary are more frequent with respect to the supposed occurrence, because they could be misdiagnosed. For this reason, this possibility should be carefully considered in dermatitis differential diagnosis. PMID:23827646

  5. The reproductive strategies of the heterocarpic annual Calendula arvensis (Asteraceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz De Clavijo, E.

    2005-09-01

    Achene polymorphism and various aspects of the reproductive biology of the annual Calendula arvensis L. (Field marigold), were studied to determine the reproductive strategies of the plant. This species normally produces three types of achene: rostrate, cymbiform and annular. Rostrate and cymbiform achenes are larger and heavier than annular achenes, and are adapted to long-range dispersal (by epizoochory and anemochory, respectively). In contrast, annular achenes are smaller in size and weight, and are adapted to short-range dispersal. Achenes germinate over a broad range of temperatures (both in light and in darkness), exhibiting cymbiform achenes the highest germination percentages and annular achenes the lowest under all conditions tested. A fraction of the three types of achenes exhibit dormancy and presumably enter the soil seedbank. Achene types adapted for long-range dispersal (rostrate and cymbiform achenes) produce seedlings that are best able to emerge from deeper burial depths, and that are initially stronger and exhibit earlier flowering than the plants from the annular achenes (which are likely to disperse over shorter distances). These features, together with the fact that fruiting occurs even in the absence of pollinators (automatic geitonogamy), the different mechanisms for achene dispersal (zoochory, anemochory and myrmerochory), and the extended germination, flowering and fruiting periods, facilitate establishment and expansion of this species in unpredictable and disturbed habitats.

  6. [Anthraquinones isolated from Morinda officinalis and Damnacanthus indicus].

    PubMed

    Yang, Y J; Shu, H Y; Min, Z D

    1992-01-01

    From chloroform extract of the root of Morinda officinalis, eight anthraquinones were isolated whose structures were deduced to be rubiadin (I), rubiadin-1-methyl ether (II), 1-hydroxyanthraquinone (III), 1-hydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone (IV), 1,6-dihydroxy-2,4-dimethoxyanthraquinone (V), 1,6-dihydroxy-2-methoxyanthraquinone (VI), 1-hydroxy-2-methoxyanthraquinone (VII) and physcion (VIII). Except for compound I and compound II, the other compounds, 1-hydroxy-2-hydroxymethylanthraquinone (IX), 1,3-dihydroxy-2-methoxy-anthraquinone (X), 1,4-dihydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone (XI), 1-methoxy-2-hydroxyanthraquinone (XII) and 1,4-dimethoxy-2-hydroxyanthraquinone (XIII), were isolated from chloroform extract of root of Damnacanthus indicus. Compound V, VI and XIII are new compounds. PMID:1442057

  7. Antiscalant properties of Spergularia rubra and Parietaria officinalis aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheap-Charpentier, Hélène; Gelus, Dominique; Pécoul, Nathalie; Perrot, Hubert; Lédion, Jean; Horner, Olivier; Sadoun, Jonathan; Cachet, Xavier; Litaudon, Marc; Roussi, Fanny

    2016-06-01

    The formation of calcium carbonate in water has important implications in industry. Chemical antiscalant is usually used to control scale depositions. Plant extracts have been recently used as new green antiscalant agents, as they can be easily prepared and are environmentally friendly. In this study, stock aqueous solutions of Spergularia rubra and Parietaria officinalis, two plants used in traditional medicine to treat or prevent urolithiasis, were obtained by infusion. The antiscaling properties of these extracts towards CaCO3 formation were tested by using chronoamperometry and Fast Controlled Precipitation methods. The aqueous solution of S. rubra was further fractionated to isolate compounds of lower polarity. Their efficiency towards CaCO3 precipitation was characterized by Fast Controlled Precipitation method. The inhibiting efficiency of this fractionated solution was greater than that of the stock aqueous solution.

  8. Quality control of herbs: determination of amino acids in Althaea officinalis, Matricaria chamomilla and Taraxacum officinale.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Muhammad Nasimullah; Stecher, Guenther; Bonn, Guenther Karl

    2014-05-01

    Analysis of raw materials and final products need reliable methods for the standardization of natural product drugs. Legal guideline also emphasizes on the qualitative and quantitative analyses of the plant constituents in an herbal product. In this study, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and amino acid analyzer was used for the determination of amino acids in plant extracts. Samples for this study were standards and aqueous extracts from Althaea officinalis, Matricaria chamomilla and Taraxacum officinale. Different amino acids in the extracts were detected through TLC. An automatic amino acid analyzer was used for the quantification of amino acids in the plant extracts under study. PMID:24811801

  9. New Insights into Sepsis Therapy Using Sepia Officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Amel M.; Fahmy, Sohair R.; Sayed, Amany A.; Abd El-Latif, Asmaa A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sepsis remains a major problem for both scientists and clinicians. Cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) is considered the gold standard for animal models of sepsis. The undesirable side effects of certain antibiotics have forced scientists to discover new, natural, and safe antimicrobial agents, such as cephalopods, which are known to display significant antimicrobial activity. Objectives: The present investigation aims to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo antibacterial and antiseptic efficacy of Sepia officinalis body tissue (SOBT) extract and S. officinalis polysaccharide (SOP) from its cuttlebone. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight rats were divided into 4 groups, and starting 2 hours after CLP, treatments were given for 2 days as follows: sham control rats treated orally with distilled water, septic rats treated orally distilled water, septic rats treated orally methanolic extract of SOBT (500 mg/kg b.wt) suspended in distilled water, and septic rats treated orally SOP extract (200 mg /kg b.wt) dissolved in distilled water. On the third day, half of the rats in each group were euthanized for blood collection. The other half were kept alive and used for the survival study. Results: The present study revealed that the SOBT and SOP extracts showed in vitro bactericidal activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Furthermore, administration of SOBT and SOP increased the rats’ survival rates by 66.7% and 83.33%, respectively, as compared to the untreated CLP-septic rats. Treatment of the CLP-septic rats with SOBT and SOP significantly alleviated alterations in procalcitonin levels and in some hematological parameters induced by CLP. Conclusions: SOBT and SOP had profound antiseptic efficacy. PMID:27099690

  10. Simultaneous determination of loganin, morroniside, catalpol and acteoside in normal and chronic kidney disease rat plasma by UPLC-MS for investigating the pharmacokinetics of Rehmannia glutinosa and Cornus officinalis Sieb drug pair extract.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Min; Tao, Jinhua; Qian, Dawei; Liu, Pei; Shang, Er-xin; Jiang, Shu; Guo, Jianming; Su, Shu-lan; Duan, Jin-ao; Du, Leyue

    2016-01-15

    A sensitive and rapid method for determination of loganin, morroniside, catalpol and acteoside in rat plasma after oral administration of Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch and Cornus officinalis Sieb drug pair based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS). Chromatographic separation was achieved using an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column (100mm×2.1mm, 1.7μm) at a flow rate of 0.4mL/min, using gradient mode containing 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile were used as the mobile phase A and B. Loganin, morroniside, catalpol, acteoside and the internal standard (chloramphenicol) were detected by selected reaction monitoring in the negative ion mode with the mass transition of m/z 451.0→179.0 (morroniside), m/z 435.0→227.0 (loganin), m/z 407.1→199.1 (catalpol), m/z 623.2→161.0 (acteoside) and m/z 320.8→151.9 (chloramphenicol), respectively. All calibration curves showed good linearity (r>0.991). The precision was evaluated by intra-day and inter-day assays and the RSD% were all within 9.58%. The recovery ranged from 67.62 to 80.14%. The method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study of the analytes in normal and doxorubicin-induced chronic kidney disease rat plasma. PMID:26720701

  11. Cloning and characterisation of rosmarinic acid synthase from Melissa officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Weitzel, Corinna; Petersen, Maike

    2011-05-01

    Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.; Lamiaceae) is a well-known medicinal plant mainly due to two groups of compounds, the essential oil and the phenylpropanoid derivatives. The prominent phenolic compound is rosmarinic acid (RA), an ester of caffeic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid. RA shows a number of interesting biological activities. Rosmarinic acid synthase (RAS; 4-coumaroyl-CoA:hydroxyphenyllactic acid hydroxycinnamoyltransferase) catalyses the ester formation. Cell cultures of M. officinalis have been established in order to characterise the formation of RA in an important diploid medicinal plant. RAS activity as well as the expression of the RAS gene are closely correlated with the accumulation of RA in suspension cultures of M. officinalis. The RAS cDNA and gene (MoRAS) were isolated. The RAS gene was shown to be intron-free. MoRAS belongs to the BAHD superfamily of acyltransferases. Southern-blot analysis suggests the presence of only one RAS gene copy in the M. officinalis genome. The enzyme was characterised with respect to enzyme properties, substrate preferences and kinetic data in crude plant extracts and as heterologously synthesised protein from Escherichia coli. PMID:21354582

  12. In Vivo Potential Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Melissa officinalis L. Essential Oil

    PubMed Central

    Bounihi, Amina; Hajjaj, Ghizlane; Cherrah, Yahia; Zellou, Amina

    2013-01-01

    Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) had been reported in traditional Moroccan medicine to exhibit calming, antispasmodic, and strengthening heart effects. Therefore, this study is aimed at determining the anti-inflammatory activities of M. officinalis L. leaves. The effect of the essential oil of the leaves of this plant was investigated for anti-inflammatory properties by using carrageenan and experimental trauma-induced hind paw edema in rats. The essential oil extracted from leaves by hydrodistillation was characterized by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). M. officinalis contained Nerol (30.44%), Citral (27.03%), Isopulegol (22.02%), Caryophyllene (2.29%), Caryophyllene oxide (1.24%), and Citronella (1.06%). Anti-inflammatory properties of oral administration of essential oil at the doses of 200, 400 mg/kg p.o., respectively, showed significant reduction and inhibition of edema with 61.76% and 70.58%, respectively, (P < 0.001) induced by carrageenan at 6 h when compared with control and standard drug (Indomethacin). On experimental trauma, M. officinalis L. essential oil showed pronounced reduction and inhibition of edema induced by carrageenan at 6 h at 200 and 400 mg/kg with 91.66% and 94.44%, respectively (P < 0.001). We can conclude that the essential oil of M. officinalis L. possesses potential anti-inflammatory activities, supporting the traditional application of this plant in treating various diseases associated with inflammation and pain. PMID:24381585

  13. Evaluation of the genotoxic and antigenotoxic potential of Melissa officinalis in mice.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Natália Cassettari; Corrêa-Angeloni, Maria Júlia Frydberg; Leffa, Daniela Dimer; Moreira, Jeverson; Nicolau, Vanessa; de Aguiar Amaral, Patrícia; Rossatto, Angela Erna; de Andrade, Vanessa Moraes

    2011-04-01

    Melissa officinalis (L.) (Lamiaceae), a plant known as the lemon balm, is native to the east Mediterranean region and west Asia. Also found in tropical countries, such as Brazil, where it is popularly known as "erva-cidreira" or "melissa", it is widely used in aqueous- or alcoholic-extract form in the treatment of various disorders. The aim was to investigate in vivo its antigenotoxicity and antimutagenicity, as well as its genotoxic/mutagenic potential through comet and micronucleus assaying. CF-1 male mice were treated with ethanolic (Mo-EE) (250 or 500 mg/kg) or aqueous (Mo-AE) (100 mg/kg) solutions of an M. officinalis extract for 2 weeks, prior to treatment with saline or Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) doses by intraperitoneal injection. Irrespective of the doses, no genotoxic or mutagenic effects were observed in blood and bone-marrow samples. Although Mo-EE exerted an antigenotoxic effect on the blood cells of mice treated with the alkylating agent (MMS) in all the doses, this was not so with Mo-AE. Micronucleus testing revealed the protector effect of Mo-EE, but only when administered at the highest dose. The implication that an ethanolic extract of M. officinalis has antigenotoxic/antimutagenic properties is an indication of its medicinal relevance. PMID:21734832

  14. Evaluation of the genotoxic and antigenotoxic potential of Melissa officinalis in mice

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Natália Cassettari; Corrêa-Angeloni, Maria Júlia Frydberg; Leffa, Daniela Dimer; Moreira, Jeverson; Nicolau, Vanessa; de Aguiar Amaral, Patrícia; Rossatto, Ângela Erna; de Andrade, Vanessa Moraes

    2011-01-01

    Melissa officinalis (L.) (Lamiaceae), a plant known as the lemon balm, is native to the east Mediterranean region and west Asia. Also found in tropical countries, such as Brazil, where it is popularly known as “erva-cidreira” or “melissa”, it is widely used in aqueous- or alcoholic-extract form in the treatment of various disorders. The aim was to investigate in vivo its antigenotoxicity and antimutagenicity, as well as its genotoxic/mutagenic potential through comet and micronucleus assaying. CF-1 male mice were treated with ethanolic (Mo-EE) (250 or 500 mg/kg) or aqueous (Mo-AE) (100 mg/kg) solutions of an M. officinalis extract for 2 weeks, prior to treatment with saline or Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) doses by intraperitoneal injection. Irrespective of the doses, no genotoxic or mutagenic effects were observed in blood and bone-marrow samples. Although Mo-EE exerted an antigenotoxic effect on the blood cells of mice treated with the alkylating agent (MMS) in all the doses, this was not so with Mo-AE. Micronucleus testing revealed the protector effect of Mo-EE, but only when administered at the highest dose. The implication that an ethanolic extract of M. officinalis has antigenotoxic/antimutagenic properties is an indication of its medicinal relevance. PMID:21734832

  15. Pharmacological perspectives from Brazilian Salvia officinalis (Lamiaceae): antioxidant, and antitumor in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Charlene S C; Menti, Caroline; Lambert, Ana Paula F; Barcellos, Thiago; Moura, Sidnei; Calloni, Caroline; Branco, Cátia S; Salvador, Mirian; Roesch-Ely, Mariana; Henriques, João A P

    2016-03-01

    Salvia officinalis (Lamiaceae) has been used in south of Brazil as a diary homemade, in food condiment and tea-beverage used for the treatment of several disorders. The objective of this study was to characterize chemical compounds in the hydroalcoholic (ExtHS) and aqueous (ExtAS) extract from Salvia officinalis (L.) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and by high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-QTOF MS/MS), evaluate in vitro ability to scavenge the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS•+), catalase (CAT-like) and superoxide dismutase (SOD-like) activity, moreover cytotoxic by MTT assay, alterations on cell morphology by giemsa and apoptotic-induced mechanism for annexin V/propidium iodide. Chemical identification sage extracts revealed the presence of acids and phenolic compounds. In vitro antioxidant analysis for both extracts indicated promising activities. The cytotoxic assays using tumor (Hep-2, HeLa, A-549, HT-29 and A-375) and in non-tumor (HEK-293 and MRC-5), showed selectivity for tumor cell lines. Immunocytochemistry presenting a majority of tumor cells at late stages of the apoptotic process and necrosis. Given the results presented here, Brazilian Salvia officinalis (L.) used as condiment and tea, may protect the body against some disease, in particularly those where oxidative stress is involved, like neurodegenerative disorders, inflammation and cancer. PMID:26839997

  16. [Chemical constituents of Morinda officinalis How].

    PubMed

    Li, S; Ouyang, Q; Tan, X; Shi, S; Yao, Z

    1991-11-01

    This paper reports the identification of four compounds isolated from the cortex of Morinda officinalis growing in Guangdong Province. These compounds are beta-sitosterol (I), 2-methyl-anthraquinone(II), rubiadin-1-methyl ether(III) and 24-ethylcholesterol(VI). Compounds II and VI are isolated from Morinda Genus for the first time. PMID:1804172

  17. Metabolism of monoterpanes: metabolic fate of (+)-camphor in sage (Salvia officinalis). [Salvia officinalis

    SciTech Connect

    Croteau, R.; El-Bialy, H.; Dehal, S.S.

    1987-07-01

    The bicyclic monoterpene ketone (+)-camphor undergoes lactonization to 1,2-campholide in mature sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leaves followed by conversion to the ..beta..-D-glucoside-6-O-glucose ester of the corresponding hydroxy acid (1-carboxymethyl-3-hydroxy-2,2,3-trimethyl cyclopentane). Analysis of the disposition of (+)-(G-/sup 3/H)camphor applied to midstem leaves of intact flowering plants allowed the kinetics of synthesis of the bis-glucose derivative and its transport from leaf to root to be determined, and gave strong indication that the transport derivative was subsequently metabolized in the root. Root extracts were shown to possess ..beta..-glucosidase and acyl glucose esterase activities, and studies with (+)-1,2(U-/sup 14/C)campholide as substrate, using excised root segments, revealed that the terpenoid was converted to lipid materials. Localization studies confirmed the radiolabeled lipids to reside in the membranous fractions of root extracts, and analysis of this material indicated the presence of labeled phytosterols and labeled fatty acids (C/sub 14/ to C/sub 20/) of acyl lipids. Although it was not possible to detail the metabolic steps between 1,2-campholide and the acyl lipids and phytosterols derived therefrom because of the lack of readily detectable intermediates, it seemed likely that the monoterpene lactone was degraded to acetyl CoA which was reincorporated into root membrane components via standard acyl lipid and isoprenoid biosynthetic pathways. Monoterpene catabolism thus appears to represent a salvage mechanism for recycling mobile carbon from senescing oil glands on the leaves to the roots.

  18. Carnosol and Carnosic Acids from Salvia officinalis Inhibit Microsomal Prostaglandin E2 Synthase-1

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Julia; Kuehnl, Susanne; Rollinger, Judith M.; Scherer, Olga; Northoff, Hinnak; Stuppner, Hermann; Werz, Oliver; Koeberle, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), the most relevant eicosanoid promoting inflammation and tumorigenesis, is formed by cyclooxygenases (COXs) and PGE2 synthases from free arachidonic acid. Preparations of the leaves of Salvia officinalis are commonly used in folk medicine as an effective antiseptic and anti-inflammatory remedy and possess anticancer activity. Here, we demonstrate that a standard ethyl acetate extract of S. officinalis efficiently suppresses the formation of PGE2 in a cell-free assay by direct interference with microsomal PGE2 synthase (mPGES)-1. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the extract yielded closely related fractions that potently suppressed mPGES-1 with IC50 values between 1.9 and 3.5 μg/ml. Component analysis of these fractions revealed the diterpenes carnosol and carnosic acid as potential bioactive principles inhibiting mPGES-1 activity with IC50 values of 5.0 μM. Using a human whole-blood assay as a robust cell-based model, carnosic acid, but not carnosol, blocked PGE2 generation upon stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (IC50 = 9.3 μM). Carnosic acid neither inhibited the concomitant biosynthesis of other prostanoids [6-keto PGF1α, 12(S)-hydroxy-5-cis-8,10-trans-heptadecatrienoic acid, and thromboxane B2] in human whole blood nor affected the activities of COX-1/2 in a cell-free assay. Together, S. officinalis extracts and its ingredients carnosol and carnosic acid inhibit PGE2 formation by selectively targeting mPGES-1. We conclude that the inhibitory effect of carnosic acid on PGE2 formation, observed in the physiologically relevant whole-blood model, may critically contribute to the anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties of S. officinalis. PMID:22511203

  19. Evaluation of the effectiveness of Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae) in the alleviation of carbon tetrachloride-induced acute hepatotoxicity in the rat.

    PubMed

    Sotelo-Félix, J I; Martinez-Fong, D; Muriel, P; Santillán, R L; Castillo, D; Yahuaca, P

    2002-07-01

    The effect of oral administration of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) on CCl(4)-induced acute liver injury was investigated. Rats were daily treated with the plant extract at a dose of 200 mg/kg corresponding to 6.04 mg/kg of carnosol as determined by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The treatment was initiated 1 h after CCl(4) administration and Rosmarinus officinalis fully prevented CCl(4) effect on hepatic lipid peroxidation after 24 h of CCl(4) administration. The increase in bilirubin level and alanine aminotransferase activity in plasma induced by CCl(4) was completely normalized by Rosmarinus officinalis. The treatment also produced a significant recovery of CCl(4)-induced decrease in liver glycogen content. CCl(4) did not modify the activity of liver cytosolic glutathione S-transferase (GST) compared with that of control groups. However, Rosmarinus officinalis increased liver cytosolic GST activity and produced an additional increment in plasma GST activity in rats treated with CCl(4). Histological evaluation showed that Rosmarinus officinalis partially prevented CCl(4)-induced inflammation, necrosis and vacuolation. Rosmarinus officinalis might exert a dual effect on CCl(4)-induced acute liver injury, acting as an antioxidant and improving GST-dependent detoxification systems. PMID:12065145

  20. Antioxidant evaluation for Urtica urens, Rumex cyprius and Borago officinalis edible wild plants in Palestine.

    PubMed

    Jaradat, Nidal Amin; Damiri, Basma; Abualhasan, Murad N

    2016-01-01

    Natural plants products are one of the famous and commonly utilized remedies used in fighting diseases. This study was conducted to evaluate antioxidant activity of plants commonly used in Palestine (Urtica urens, Rumex cyprius and Borago officinalis). Free radical scavenging activity method was evaluated by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate. The result show that the overall antioxidant activity of Rumex cyprius was the highest among the plants, followed by Urtica urens, and Borago officinalis; respectively. The (IC(50)) values of the methanolic extracts were 29.70±0.60μg/ml, 5.07±0.49μg/ml, 39.92± 0.52 μg/ml for Urtica urens, Rumex cyprius and Borago officinalis respectively. The results of this study revealed that these edible plants have high antioxidant activity and therefore they can provide natural sources of antioxidants and can be useful in preventing various diseases including cancer. These exhibited properties propose that such plants extracts can possibly be used as natural preservatives in the food and pharmaceutical industries and further characterization of Rumex cyprius constituents is needed. PMID:27005499

  1. Three new germacrane-type sesquiterpenes with NGF-potentiating activity from Valeriana officinalis var. latiofolia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Heng-Wen; Chen, Li; Li, Bin; Yin, Hai-Long; Tian, Ying; Wang, Qiong; Xiao, Yan-Hua; Dong, Jun-Xing

    2013-01-01

    Three new germacrane-type sesquiterpenoids, volvalerenal F (1), volvalerenal G (2) and volvalerenic acid D (3), along with five known compounds 4-8, were isolated from the CHCl₃ soluble partition of the ethanol extract of Valeriana officinalis var. latiofolia. The structures of the new compounds were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence, including their 1D- and 2D-NMR spectra, as well as mass spectrometry. The eight germacrane-type sesquiterpenoids showed nerve growth factor (NGF) potentiating activity, which mediates the neurite outgrowth in PC 12D cells. This study intends to reveal the chemical basis of the use of V. officinalis var. latiofolia as a dietary supplement. PMID:24241156

  2. Modulatory influence of Rosemarinus officinalis on DMBA-induced mouse skin tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Sancheti, Garima; Goyal, Pk

    2006-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to explore the anti-tumor promoting activity of Rosemarinus officinalis on two-stage skin carcinogenesis, induced by a single topical application of 7, 12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene and promoted by treatment of croton oil for 15 weeks in Swiss albino mice. Oral administration of Rosemary leaf extract at a dose of 1,000 mg/ kg b. wt. / day at pre, peri and post-initiational phases, was found to be effective in decreasing the tumor incidence (50, 41.7, 58.3%, respectively) in comparison to the control (100%). Furthermore, the cumulative number of papillomas, tumor yield and tumor burden were also found to be reduced in R. officinalis-treated animals. This was associated with significant alteration in liver lipid peroxidation and glutathione (GSH) levels. PMID:16839234

  3. Rosmarinus officinalis leaves as a natural source of bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Borrás-Linares, Isabel; Stojanović, Zorica; Quirantes-Piné, Rosa; Arráez-Román, David; Švarc-Gajić, Jaroslava; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    In an extensive search for bioactive compounds from plant sources, the composition of different extracts of rosemary leaves collected from different geographical zones of Serbia was studied. The qualitative and quantitative characterization of 20 rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) samples, obtained by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), was determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS). The high mass accuracy and true isotopic pattern in both MS and MS/MS spectra provided by the QTOF-MS analyzer enabled the characterization of a wide range of phenolic compounds in the extracts, including flavonoids, phenolic diterpenes and abietan-type triterpenoids, among others. According to the data compiled, rosemary samples from Sokobanja presented the highest levels in flavonoids and other compounds such as carnosol, rosmaridiphenol, rosmadial, rosmarinic acid, and carnosic acid. On the other hand, higher contents in triterpenes were found in the extracts of rosemary from Gložan (Vojvodina). PMID:25391044

  4. Rosmarinus Officinalis Leaves as a Natural Source of Bioactive Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Borrás-Linares, Isabel; Stojanović, Zorica; Quirantes-Piné, Rosa; Arráez-Román, David; Švarc-Gajić, Jaroslava; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    In an extensive search for bioactive compounds from plant sources, the composition of different extracts of rosemary leaves collected from different geographical zones of Serbia was studied. The qualitative and quantitative characterization of 20 rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) samples, obtained by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), was determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC–ESI-QTOF-MS). The high mass accuracy and true isotopic pattern in both MS and MS/MS spectra provided by the QTOF-MS analyzer enabled the characterization of a wide range of phenolic compounds in the extracts, including flavonoids, phenolic diterpenes and abietan-type triterpenoids, among others. According to the data compiled, rosemary samples from Sokobanja presented the highest levels in flavonoids and other compounds such as carnosol, rosmaridiphenol, rosmadial, rosmarinic acid, and carnosic acid. On the other hand, higher contents in triterpenes were found in the extracts of rosemary from Gložan (Vojvodina). PMID:25391044

  5. Antioxidant and anticancer evaluation of Scindapsus officinalis (Roxb.) Schott fruits

    PubMed Central

    Shivhare, Shaktikumar C.; Patidar, Arjun O.; Malviya, K. G.; Shivhare-Malviya, K. K.

    2011-01-01

    Several methods exist for the treatment of cancer in modern medicine. These include chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery; most cancer chemotherapeutants severely affect the host normal cells. Hence the use of natural products now has been contemplated of exceptional value in the control of cancer. Plant-derived natural products such as flavonoids, terpenes, alkaloids, etc., have received considerable attention in recent years due to their diverse pharmacological properties including cytotoxic and cancer chemopreventive effects. Looking into this, the antioxidant and anticancer evaluation of Scindapsus officinalis (Roxb.) Schott fruits has been attempted to investigate its antitumor activity. The collection and authentication of the plant material mainly fruits and their various extractions was done. Identification of plant's active constituents by preliminary phytochemical screening was carried out. An in-vitro cytotoxic assay using the brine shrimp lethality assay with brine shrimp eggs (Artemia salina) at a dose of 1–10 μg/ml with the fruit extract was performed by the method described by Mayer et al. Cell viability using the Trypan blue dye exclusion test at a dose of 20, 40, 80, 120, and 160 μg/ml dissolved in DMSO (final concentration 0.1%), and cytotoxicity using the MTT assay where viable cells convert MTT into a formazan salt were performed. All pharmacological screening for acute toxicity and anti tumour studies using EAC 1 × 106 cells/mouse treated Swiss albino mice at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg/day orally was carried out. Biochemical and antioxidants predictions from various parameters like hematological, RBC, WBC count, PVC, total protein, Tissue Lipid Peroxidation, SOD, CATALASE, GPx, GST levels and anti tumour activity of Scindapsus officinalis were observed. The data was statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's and Tukey's multiple comparison test. The antitumor effect of the extract is evident from the increase in mean

  6. HPLC-DAD phenolic profile, cytotoxic and anti-kinetoplastidae activity of Melissa officinalis.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Francisco; Tintino, Saulo R; Figueredo, Fernando; Barros, Luiz; Duarte, Antonia E; Vega Gomez, Maria Celeste; Coronel, Cathia Cecilia; Rolón, Mírian; Leite, Nadghia; Sobral-Souza, Celestina E; Brito, S V; Waczuc, Emily Pansera; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth; Kamdem, Jean Paul; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo; Franco, Jéferson

    2016-09-01

    Context Melissa officinalis subsp. inodora Bornm. (Lamiaceae) has been used since ancient times in folk medicine against various diseases, but it has not been investigated against protozoa. Objective To evaluate the activities of M. officinalis against Leishmania braziliensis, Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi as well as its cytotoxicity in fibroblast cell line. Materials and methods The fresh leaves were chopped into 1 cm(2) pieces, washed and macerated with 99.9% of ethanol for 72 h at room temperature. Antiparasitic activity of M. officinalis was accessed by direct counting of cells after serial dilution, while the cytotoxicity of M. officinalis was evaluated in fibroblast cell line (NCTC929) by measuring the reduction of resazurin. The test duration was 24 h. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to characterise the extract. Results The extract at concentrations of 250 and 125 μg/mL inhibited 80.39 and 54.27% of promastigote (LC50  value = 105.78 μg/mL) form of L. infantum, 80.59 and 68.61% of L. brasiliensis (LC50 value  = 110.69 μg/mL) and against epimastigote (LC50 value  = 245.23 μg/mL) forms of T. cruzi with an inhibition of 54.45 and 22.26%, respectively, was observed. The maximum toxicity was noted at 500 μg/mL with 95.41% (LC50  value = 141.01 μg/mL). The HPLC analysis identified caffeic acid and rutin as the major compounds. Discussion The inhibition of the parasites is considered clinically relevant (< 500 μg/mL). Rutin and caffeic acids may be responsible for the antiprotozoal effect of the extract. Conclusion The ethanol extract of M. officinalis can be considered a potential alternative source of natural products with antileishmania and antitrypanosoma activities. PMID:26864563

  7. Effects of chlorhexidine, essential oils and herbal medicines (Salvia, Chamomile, Calendula) on human fibroblast in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Urbaniak, Paulina; Szkaradkiewicz, Anna; Jankun, Jerzy; Kotwicka, Malgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Antiseptic rinses have been successfully used in inflammatory states of the gums and oral cavity mucosa. Antibacterial effects of chlorhexidine, essential oils and some herbs are well documented. Reaction of host tissue to these substances has much poorer documentation. The aim of the study was to analyse the influence of chlorhexidine (CHX), essential oil (EO: thymol, 0.064%; eucalyptol, 0.092%; methyl salicylate, 0.060%; menthol, 0.042%) mouth rinses and salvia, chamomile and calendula brews on fibroblast biology in vitro. The human fibroblast CCD16 line cells were cultured in incubation media which contained the examined substances. After 24 and 48 hours, the cell morphology, relative growth and apoptosis were evaluated. Exposure of fibroblasts to CHX, EO or salvia caused various changes in cell morphology. Cells cultured for 48 hours with CHX revealed a noticeably elongated shape of while cells cultured in high EO concentration or with salvia were considerably smaller and contracted with fewer projections. Chlorhexidine, EO and salvia reduced the fibroblast proliferation rate and stimulated cell death. Both reactions to EO were dose dependent. Cells exposure to chamomile or calendula brews did not change morphology or proliferation of fibroblasts. The results of this in vitro study showed that in contrast to chamomile and calendula, the brews of EO, CHX or salvia had a negative influence on fibroblast biology. PMID:27536196

  8. Effects of chlorhexidine, essential oils and herbal medicines (Salvia, Chamomile, Calendula) on human fibroblast in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wyganowska-Swiatkowska, Marzena; Urbaniak, Paulina; Szkaradkiewicz, Anna; Jankun, Jerzy; Kotwicka, Malgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Antiseptic rinses have been successfully used in inflammatory states of the gums and oral cavity mucosa. Antibacterial effects of chlorhexidine, essential oils and some herbs are well documented. Reaction of host tissue to these substances has much poorer documentation. The aim of the study was to analyse the influence of chlorhexidine (CHX), essential oil (EO: thymol, 0.064%; eucalyptol, 0.092%; methyl salicylate, 0.060%; menthol, 0.042%) mouth rinses and salvia, chamomile and calendula brews on fibroblast biology in vitro. The human fibroblast CCD16 line cells were cultured in incubation media which contained the examined substances. After 24 and 48 hours, the cell morphology, relative growth and apoptosis were evaluated. Exposure of fibroblasts to CHX, EO or salvia caused various changes in cell morphology. Cells cultured for 48 hours with CHX revealed a noticeably elongated shape of while cells cultured in high EO concentration or with salvia were considerably smaller and contracted with fewer projections. Chlorhexidine, EO and salvia reduced the fibroblast proliferation rate and stimulated cell death. Both reactions to EO were dose dependent. Cells exposure to chamomile or calendula brews did not change morphology or proliferation of fibroblasts. The results of this in vitro study showed that in contrast to chamomile and calendula, the brews of EO, CHX or salvia had a negative influence on fibroblast biology. PMID:27536196

  9. A new triterpenoid from Verbena officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Shu, Ji-Cheng; Liu, Jian-Qun; Chou, Gui-Xin

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the chemical constituents of Verbena officinalis L., five triterpenoid constituents were isolated and elucidated as 3α,19,23-trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid, namely, 4-epi-barbinervic acid (1), 2α,3β-dihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (2), 3α,24-dihydroxyurs-12-en- 28-oic acid (3), 3α,24-dihydroxy-olean-12-en-28-oic acid (4), ursolic acid (5), using spectroscopic methods and comparing with published data. Compounds 2 and 4 were obtained from V. officinalis for the first time, and compound 1 is a new triterpenoid compound, which exhibits significantly higher antitumor activity against human hepatoma cell line Bel 7402 in vitro than the blank control. PMID:23061751

  10. Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents of oregano (Origanum vulgare), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) from Romania.

    PubMed

    Spiridon, Iuliana; Colceru, Svetlana; Anghel, Narcis; Teaca, Carmen Alice; Bodirlau, Ruxanda; Armatu, Alice

    2011-10-01

    The study reported here presents a comparative screening of three medicinal plants including oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) having the same geographical origin, the Southeast region of Romania, and growing in the same natural conditions. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids for the extracts of these were determined. Furthermore, the total antioxidant capacity was also evaluated. It was found that Origanum vulgare and Melissa officinalis extracts present the most effective antioxidant capacity in scavenging DPPH radicals, while Lavandula angustifolia is less active. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was used to identify the components of extracts. Major phenolic acids identified in the analysed species were ferulic, rosmarinic, p-coumaric and caffeic, while predominant flavonoids were quercetin, apigenin kaempherol, which were present as glucosides. PMID:21707233

  11. The Hypoglycemic and Synergistic Effect of Loganin, Morroniside, and Ursolic Acid Isolated from the Fruits of Cornus officinalis.

    PubMed

    He, Kai; Song, Shanghua; Zou, Zongyao; Feng, Min; Wang, Dezhen; Wang, Yanzhi; Li, Xuegang; Ye, Xiaoli

    2016-02-01

    Hypoglycemic activity-guided separation of ethanol extracts from the fruits of Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc (CO) led to the isolation of loganin, morroniside, and ursolic acid. The antidiabetic capacity of CO extracts and related compounds was further investigated in diabetes mellitus mice. The results suggested that both CO extracts and pure compounds could ameliorate diabetes-associated damages and complications. Oral administration of loganin and morroniside decreased fasting blood glucose levels in diabetes mellitus mice. Ursolic acid exhibited the highest reactive oxygen species scavenging activity and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Notably, we noticed an interesting synergistic effect between loganin and ursolic acid. Given these favorable hypoglycemic properties, C. officinalis, a food and medicinal plant in China, may be used as a valuable food supplement for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. PMID:26619955

  12. Two new acetylenic compounds from Asparagus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Mei; Cai, Jin-Long; Wang, Wen-Xiang; Ai, Hong-Lian; Mao, Zi-Chao

    2016-01-01

    Two new acetylenic compounds, asparoffins A (1) and B (2), together with two known compounds, nyasol (3) and 3″-methoxynyasol (4), were isolated from stems of Asparagus officinalis. The structures of two new compounds were elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analyses (UV, IR, MS, 1D, and 2D NMR). All compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicities against three human cancer cell lines. PMID:26558641

  13. Comparing the effects of Bentonite & Calendula on the improvement of infantile diaper dermatitis: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudi, Mansoreh; Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Mashaiekhi, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Infantile diaper dermatitis is a common, acute inflammatory reaction of the skin around diaper among infants. This study was undertaken to compare the effect of topical application of Bentonite and Calendula creams on the improvement of infantile diaper dermatitis. Methods: This double blind randomized controlled trial was undertaken on 100 patients of infantile diaper dermatitis. The 100 participants were randomly assigned into two groups of 50 each, and were prescribed the coded medicine. The mothers were trained to apply the cream and level of improvement was judged by observing the affected area on the first visit and then after three days of receiving treatment. Results: The mean age of infants was 6.45±5.53 months in Calendula group and 7.35±6.28 months in Bentonite group. Overall, 88 per cent of lesions in the Bentonite group started improving in the first six hours while this rate was 54 per cent in Calendula group (P<0.001). The risk ratio for the improvement in the first six hours was 2.99 folds in the Bentonite group. Also, lesions in 86 per cent infants in the Bentonite group and 52 per cent in the Calendula group were completely improved in the first three days after treatment (P<0.001). Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that in comparison with Calendula, Bentonite had faster healing effect and was more effective on the improvement of infantile diaper dermatitis (IRCT ID: IRCT 2012112811593N1). PMID:26831423

  14. [Experimental studies on growing seedlings of Morinda officinalis How].

    PubMed

    Wei, X; Pang, F; He, M; Hu, T

    1992-10-01

    By using the techniques of growing seedlings in bowshaped shed covered with plastic sheeting plus treatment with plant growth regulator, vegetative and generative propagation tests have been made of Morinda officinalis. Scientific evidences have thus been provided for growing seedlings of Morinda officinalis. PMID:1294174

  15. Antinociceptive anti-inflammatory effect of Monotropein isolated from the root of Morinda officinalis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jongwon; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Choi, Moo-Young; Nam, Jung-Hwan; Jung, Hyun-Ju; Park, Sun-Kyu; Park, Hee-Juhn

    2005-10-01

    The root of Morinda officinalis (Rubiaceae) is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis and impotence in the traditional Oriental medicine. To identify the antinociceptive anti-inflammatory components of this crude drug, we adopted an activity-directed fractionation approach. The active fraction of the BuOH extract of M. officinalis root was subjected to silica gel and ODS column chromatography to yield two diterpenes, compounds 1 and 2 and these were identified as monotropein and deacetylasperulosidic acid, respectively. The iridoid glycoside, monotropein, was tested for its anti-inflammatory antinociceptive effects using hot plate- and writhing antinociceptive assays and by using carrageenan-induced anti-inflammatory assays in mice and rats. Pretreatment with monotropein (at 20, 30 mg/kg/d, p.o.) significantly reduced stretching episodes and prolonged action time in mice. It also significantly reduced acute paw edema by carrageenan in rats. These results indicate that monotropein contributes to the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory action of Morinda officinalis root. PMID:16204945

  16. Hybrid magnetite nanoparticles/Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil nanobiosystem with antibiofilm activity.

    PubMed

    Chifiriuc, Carmen; Grumezescu, Valentina; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Saviuc, Crina; Lazăr, Veronica; Andronescu, Ecaterina

    2012-01-01

    Biofilms formed by fungal organisms are associated with drastically enhanced resistance against most antimicrobial agents, contributing to the persistence of the fungi despite antifungal therapy. The purpose of this study is to combine the unique properties of nanoparticles with the antimicrobial activity of the Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil in order to obtain a nanobiosystem that could be pelliculised on the surface of catheter pieces, in order to obtain an improved resistance to microbial colonization and biofilm development by Candida albicans and C. tropicalis clinical strains. The R. officinalis essential oils were extracted in a Neo-Clevenger type apparatus, and its chemical composition was settled by GC-MS analysis. Functionalized magnetite nanoparticles of up to 20 nm size had been synthesized by precipitation method adapted for microwave conditions, with oleic acid as surfactant. The catheter pieces were coated with suspended core/shell nanoparticles (Fe3O4/oleic acid:CHCl3), by applying a magnetic field on nanofluid, while the CHCl3 diluted essential oil was applied by adsorption in a secondary covering treatment. The fungal adherence ability was investigated in six multiwell plates, in which there have been placed catheters pieces with and without hybrid nanoparticles/essential oil nanobiosystem pellicle, by using culture-based methods and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The R. officinalis essential oil coated nanoparticles strongly inhibited the adherence ability and biofilm development of the C. albicans and C. tropicalis tested strains to the catheter surface, as shown by viable cell counts and CLSM examination. Due to the important implications of Candida spp. in human pathogenesis, especially in prosthetic devices related infections and the emergence of antifungal tolerance/resistance, using the new core/shell/coated shell based on essential oil of R. officinalis to inhibit the fungal adherence could be of a great interest for the

  17. Hybrid magnetite nanoparticles/ Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil nanobiosystem with antibiofilm activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chifiriuc, Carmen; Grumezescu, Valentina; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Saviuc, Crina; Lazăr, Veronica; Andronescu, Ecaterina

    2012-04-01

    Biofilms formed by fungal organisms are associated with drastically enhanced resistance against most antimicrobial agents, contributing to the persistence of the fungi despite antifungal therapy. The purpose of this study is to combine the unique properties of nanoparticles with the antimicrobial activity of the Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil in order to obtain a nanobiosystem that could be pelliculised on the surface of catheter pieces, in order to obtain an improved resistance to microbial colonization and biofilm development by Candida albicans and C. tropicalis clinical strains. The R. officinalis essential oils were extracted in a Neo-Clevenger type apparatus, and its chemical composition was settled by GC-MS analysis. Functionalized magnetite nanoparticles of up to 20 nm size had been synthesized by precipitation method adapted for microwave conditions, with oleic acid as surfactant. The catheter pieces were coated with suspended core/shell nanoparticles (Fe3O4/oleic acid:CHCl3), by applying a magnetic field on nanofluid, while the CHCl3 diluted essential oil was applied by adsorption in a secondary covering treatment. The fungal adherence ability was investigated in six multiwell plates, in which there have been placed catheters pieces with and without hybrid nanoparticles/essential oil nanobiosystem pellicle, by using culture-based methods and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The R. officinalis essential oil coated nanoparticles strongly inhibited the adherence ability and biofilm development of the C. albicans and C. tropicalis tested strains to the catheter surface, as shown by viable cell counts and CLSM examination. Due to the important implications of C andida spp. in human pathogenesis, especially in prosthetic devices related infections and the emergence of antifungal tolerance/resistance, using the new core/shell/coated shell based on essential oil of R. officinalis to inhibit the fungal adherence could be of a great interest for the

  18. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of Hyssopus officinalis L. from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Fathiazad, Fatemeh; Mazandarani, Masoumeh; Hamedeyazdan, Sanaz

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Hyssopus officinalis (L) (Hyssop, Family: Lamiaceae), one of the endemic Iranian perennial herb with a long history of medicinal use, was studied to detect some biologically active chemical constituents of the plant. Methods: The flavonoids of the hydromethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Hyssopus officinalis (L.) were studied by VLC and crystalisation of the major compound in subsequent fractions. Furthermore, the composition of its essential oil, total phenolic content and antioxidant activities were studied by GC-MS, Folin–Ciocalteau and DPPH reagents respectively. Results: Apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucuronide was isolated as the major flavonoid. All structural elucidation was performed by spectral means. A total of 20 compounds representing 99.97% of the oil have been identified. Myrtenylacetate, Camphor, Germacrene, Spathulenol were the main compounds The total phenol content of the n-butanol and ethylacetate extracts were determined spectrophotometrically according to the Folin–Ciocalteau procedure to be 246 mgGAE g-1 and 51 mgGAE g-1 in the aerial parts of Hyssopus officinalis . The antioxidant activities of apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucuronide, ethylacetate and n-butanol extracts were also determined by DPPH radical scavenging assay with IC50 values of 116×10-3, 103×10-3, 25×10-3 mg mL-1 respectively. The purified flavonoid showed weak radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 116×10-3mg mL-1). N-butanol extract, because of the highest content of total phenolic compounds (246 mgGAE100-1g) had the best antioxidant activity (IC50 = 25mg mL-1). Conclusion: On the whole, the findings of the study revealed that Hyssop possesses valuable antioxidant properties for culinary and possible medicinal use. PMID:24312758

  19. Efficacy of E. officinalis on the Cariogenic Properties of Streptococcus mutans: A Novel and Alternative Approach to Suppress Quorum-Sensing Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Sadaf; Singh, Kunal; Verma, Praveen K.; Khan, Asad U.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was focused on evaluating the potential of Emblica officinalis against cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans, a causative microorganism for caries. The effect of crude extract and ethanolic fraction from Emblica officinalis fruit was analysed against S. mutans. The sub-MIC concentrations of crude and ethanolic fraction of E. officinalis were evaluated for its cariogenic properties such as acid production, biofilm formation, cell-surface hydrophobicity, glucan production, sucrose-dependent and independent adherence. Its effect on biofilm architecture was also investigated with the help of confocal and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, expression of genes involved in biofilm formation was also studied by quantitative RT- PCR. This study showed 50% reduction in adherence at concentrations 156 µg/ and 312.5 µg/ml of crude extract and ethanolic fraction respectively. However, the biofilm was reduced to 50% in the presence of crude extract (39.04 µg/ml) and ethanolic fraction (78.08 µg/ml). Furthermore, effective reduction was observed in the glucan synthesis and cell surface hydrophobicity. The qRT-PCR revealed significant suppression of the genes involved in its virulence. Confocal and scanning electron microscopy clearly depicted the obliteration of biofilm structure with reference to control. Hence, this study reveals the potential of E. officinalis fruit extracts as an alternative and complementary medicine for dental caries by inhibiting the virulence factors of Streptococcus mutans. PMID:22792279

  20. Analysis of the chemical constituents and rats metabolites after oral administration of Nauclea officinalis by ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fenxia; Chen, Jiaquan; Wang, Hui; Jia, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxia; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Zhai, Xiaoting; Xu, Jindi; Tan, Wei; Ning, Qing; Gu, Junfei

    2015-12-15

    Nauclea officinalis has long been used in China for the treatment of cold, fever, swelling of throat, pink eyes, and so on; however, the in vivo integrated metabolism of its multiple bioactive components remains unknown. In this paper, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS) method was established to identify chemical constituents in N. officinalis and metabolites in rat biological fluids after oral administration of N. officinalis. First, 40 chemical constituents in N. officinalis were detected within 19min by UPLC-QTOF/MS. Among them, 18 alkaloids and 7 phenolic acids and iridoids were identified or tentatively characterized. Secondly, 22 metabolites were identified after oral administration of N. officinalis extract, including 3, 9, 6 and 4 metabolites in the plasma, feces, urine and bile samples, respectively. Finally, the metabolic pathway was proposed, which were the hydroxylation, the hydroxylation of deglycosyation product of parent compound, the hydroxylation and dehydrogenation product of parent compound, and acetylation. Among these, hydroxylation was considered as the main metabolic processes. This work suggests that the integrative metabolism approach makes a useful template for drug metabolism research of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). PMID:26571455

  1. Two new iridoids from Verbena officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Shu, Jicheng; Chou, Guixin; Wang, Zhengtao

    2014-01-01

    Two new iridoids, 3-(5-(methoxycarbonyl)-2-oxo-2H-pyran-3-yl)butanoic acid, named verbeofflin I (1), and 7-hydroxydehydrohastatoside (2), were isolated from the aerial part of Verbena officinalis L, along with three known iridoids, verbenalin (3), 3,4-dihydroverbenalin (4), hastatoside (5) by means of various column chromatography steps. The structures of these compounds were elucidated through analysis of their spectroscopic data obtained using 1D and 2D NMR and MS techniques. Verbeofflin I (1) is the new class of secoiridoid in the family Verbenaceae. PMID:25045888

  2. SUR1 Receptor Interaction with Hesperidin and Linarin Predicts Possible Mechanisms of Action of Valeriana officinalis in Parkinson

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Gesivaldo; Giraldez-Alvarez, Lisandro Diego; Ávila-Rodriguez, Marco; Capani, Francisco; Galembeck, Eduardo; Neto, Aristóteles Gôes; Barreto, George E.; Andrade, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders. A theoretical approach of our previous experiments reporting the cytoprotective effects of the Valeriana officinalis compounds extract for PD is suggested. In addiction to considering the PD as a result of mitochondrial metabolic imbalance and oxidative stress, such as in our previous in vitro model of rotenone, in the present manuscript we added a genomic approach to evaluate the possible underlying mechanisms of the effect of the plant extract. Microarray of substantia nigra (SN) genome obtained from Allen Brain Institute was analyzed using gene set enrichment analysis to build a network of hub genes implicated in PD. Proteins transcribed from hub genes and their ligands selected by search ensemble approach algorithm were subjected to molecular docking studies, as well as 20 ns Molecular Dynamics (MD) using a Molecular Mechanic Poison/Boltzman Surface Area (MMPBSA) protocol. Our results bring a new approach to Valeriana officinalis extract, and suggest that hesperidin, and probably linarin are able to relieve effects of oxidative stress during ATP depletion due to its ability to binding SUR1. In addition, the key role of valerenic acid and apigenin is possibly related to prevent cortical hyperexcitation by inducing neuronal cells from SN to release GABA on brain stem. Thus, under hyperexcitability, oxidative stress, asphyxia and/or ATP depletion, Valeriana officinalis may trigger different mechanisms to provide neuronal cell protection. PMID:27199743

  3. SUR1 Receptor Interaction with Hesperidin and Linarin Predicts Possible Mechanisms of Action of Valeriana officinalis in Parkinson.

    PubMed

    Santos, Gesivaldo; Giraldez-Alvarez, Lisandro Diego; Ávila-Rodriguez, Marco; Capani, Francisco; Galembeck, Eduardo; Neto, Aristóteles Gôes; Barreto, George E; Andrade, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders. A theoretical approach of our previous experiments reporting the cytoprotective effects of the Valeriana officinalis compounds extract for PD is suggested. In addiction to considering the PD as a result of mitochondrial metabolic imbalance and oxidative stress, such as in our previous in vitro model of rotenone, in the present manuscript we added a genomic approach to evaluate the possible underlying mechanisms of the effect of the plant extract. Microarray of substantia nigra (SN) genome obtained from Allen Brain Institute was analyzed using gene set enrichment analysis to build a network of hub genes implicated in PD. Proteins transcribed from hub genes and their ligands selected by search ensemble approach algorithm were subjected to molecular docking studies, as well as 20 ns Molecular Dynamics (MD) using a Molecular Mechanic Poison/Boltzman Surface Area (MMPBSA) protocol. Our results bring a new approach to Valeriana officinalis extract, and suggest that hesperidin, and probably linarin are able to relieve effects of oxidative stress during ATP depletion due to its ability to binding SUR1. In addition, the key role of valerenic acid and apigenin is possibly related to prevent cortical hyperexcitation by inducing neuronal cells from SN to release GABA on brain stem. Thus, under hyperexcitability, oxidative stress, asphyxia and/or ATP depletion, Valeriana officinalis may trigger different mechanisms to provide neuronal cell protection. PMID:27199743

  4. Insecticidal compounds against Drosophila melanogaster from Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Anzai, Jun; Fujioka, Jun; Isikawa, Yukio

    2003-10-01

    Dimethyl malate (1) and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (2) were isolated as insecticidal compounds by bioassay-guided fractionation from MeOH extract of the fruits of Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc. Insecticidal activity against larvae of D. melanogaster was demonstrated: 1 and 2 gave the LC50 value of 6.15 and 11.8 micromol/mL of diet concentration, respectively. Acute toxicity against adults of D. melanogaster, 1 and 2 had the insecticidal activity, with the LD50 value of 21.5 and 34.0 microg/adult. PMID:14526912

  5. Antioxidant activity and physicochemical properties of an acidic polysaccharide from Morinda officinalis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hualin; Li, Jun; Xia, Jingmin; Lin, Sanqing

    2013-07-01

    An acidic polysaccharide APMO was isolated from Morinda officinalis by alkaline solvent extraction followed by fractionation treatments. Its antioxidant activities were evaluated by various methods in vitro, APMO presented excellent capability in scavenging DPPH radicals, chelating ferrous ions and inhibiting hemolysis of rats erythrocyte induced by H2O2, which was stronger than those of Vc at high concentration. Moreover, APMO displayed moderate reducing power. Physicochemical characteristics of APMO were observed by a combination of chemical and instrumental analysis. APMO predominantly consisted of galacturonic acid, arabinose and galactose. Galacturonic acid was assigned to be 1→4 glycosyl linkage in the skeleton of APMO. PMID:23511058

  6. Identification of Sensory-Active Phytochemicals in Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.).

    PubMed

    Dawid, Corinna; Hofmann, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    Sensory-directed fractionation of extracts prepared from raw and cooked asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.), respectively, followed by LC-TOF-MS, LC-MS/MS, and 1D/2D-NMR experiments revealed the chemical structures of nine bitter tasting mono- and bidesmotic saponins as well as the previously not reported 1,2-dithiolan-4-carboxylic acid 6-D-α/β-glucopyranose ester exhibiting an interesting buttery mouth-coating effect. Sensory studies showed that the orosensation imparted by this sulfur compound was reminiscent to that of melting butter and revealed an orosensory recognition threshold of 276.8 μmol/L. PMID:23136992

  7. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of the topical preparation of Verbena officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Calvo, M I

    2006-10-11

    Verbena officinalis has traditionally been used in herbal medicine in Navarra, Spain, in the treatment of topical inflammation. Due to the anti-inflammatory activity of Verbena officinalis 50% methanolic extract in i.p. and topical administration, the effects of several formulations were prepared and studied using carrageenan-induced edema and formalin testing. Piroxicam gel and methyl salicylate ointment were studied as positive control for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity, respectively. The edema inhibition of the preparations containing extract at the doses of 1-3% w/w were significantly different from the control group. The anti-inflammatory effect of VO-3% was similar to the effect of piroxicam gel 3 h after carrageenan injection. The analgesic activity of topical preparation with more than 2.5% w/w was observed in the early phase. This activity was observed in concentrations of more than 2% w/w in the late phase. The topical analgesic activity of the extract was less than the analgesic activity of methyl salicylate ointment. PMID:16723201

  8. Salvia officinalis L. induces alveolar bud growing in adult female rat mammary glands

    PubMed Central

    Monsefi, Malihezaman; Abedian, Mehrnaz; Azarbahram, Zahra; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: In traditional medicine Salvia officinalis (sage) has been used as menstrual cycle regulator. In the present study the effects of sage extract on breast tissue were examined. Materials and Methods: Fourteen female rats were divided into two groups: 1) Distilled water-treated rats (Con) that were gavaged with 1ml distilled water and 2) Saliva officinalis hydroalcoholic extract (SHE)-treated rats that were gavaged with 30mg/kg/body weight of sage extract for 30 days. The estrus cycle changes were monitored by daily examination of vaginal smear. Whole mounts of right pelvic breast were spread on the slide and stained by carmine. The number of alveolar buds (ABs) type 1 and 2 and lobules of mammary gland were scored. Tissue sections of left pelvic mammary gland were prepared and its histomorphometrical changes were measured. Blood samples were taken from dorsal aorta and estradiol and progesterone concentrations were measured using radioimmunoassay. Results: Estrous cycles decreased significantly in SHE-treated animals. The number of alveolar buds and lobules in mammary gland whole mount of SHE-treated group were higher than the Con group. The number and diameter of ducts in histological section of mammary gland in SHE-treated group increased as compared to the Con group. Conclusion: Sage promotes alveologenesis of mammary glands and it can be used as a lactiferous herb. PMID:26693413

  9. A rapid and highly specific method to evaluate the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Borago officinalis seed oil.

    PubMed

    Vacillotto, Giulio; Favretto, Donata; Seraglia, Roberta; Pagiotti, Rita; Traldi, Pietro; Mattoli, Luisa

    2013-10-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are complex molecules, present in plants as free bases and N-oxides. They are known for their hepatotoxicity, and consequently there is a health risk associated with the use of medicinal herbs that contain PAs. Unfortunately, there is no international regulation of PAs in foods, unlike those for herbs and medicines: in particular, for herbal preparation or herbal extracts, the total PA content must not exceed 1 µg/kg or 1 µg/l, respectively. Borago officinalis seed oil is a source of γ-linolenic acid, and its use is increased in both pharmaceutical and health food industries. Even if studies based on gas chromatography and TLC methods showed that PAs are not co-extracted with oil, the development of a rapid and sensitive method able to evaluate the presence of PAs in commercially available products is surely of interest. The presence of PAs in a commercially available Borago officinalis seed oil was tested either in the oil sample diluted with tetrahydrofuran/methanol (MeOH)/H2 O (85/10/5 v:v:v) or after extraction with MeOH/H2 O (50/50 v:v) solution The samples were analysed by electrospray ionization in positive ion mode and in high mass resolution (60,000) conditions. In both cases to evaluate the effectiveness of the method, spiking experiments were performed adding known amount of two PA standards to the borage seed oil. A limit of detection in the order of 200 ppt was determined for these two compounds, strongly analogous to Borago officinalis seed oil PAs. Consequently, if present, PAs level in Borago officinalis seed oil must lower than 200 ppt. PMID:24130010

  10. Volatile constituents of Melissa officinalis leaves determined by plant age.

    PubMed

    Nurzyńska-Wierdak, Renata; Bogucka-Kocka, Anna; Szymczak, Grazyna

    2014-05-01

    The present study investigated changes in the content and chemical composition of the essential oil extracted by hydrodistillation from air-dried Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) leaves in the first and second year of plant growth. The lemon balm oil was analysed by GC-MS and GC-FID. The presence of 106 compounds, representing 100% of the oil constituents, was determined in the oil. The predominant components were geranial (45.2% and 45.1%) and neral (32.8% and 33.8%); their proportions in the examined samples of the oil obtained from one- and two-year-old plants were comparable. However, the age of lemon balm plants affected the concentration of other constituents and the proportions of the following compounds were subject to especially high fluctuations: citronellal (8.7% and 0.4%), geraniol (trace amounts and 0.6%), and geranyl acetate (0.5% and 3.0%), as well as, among others, isogeranial, E-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, germacrene D, and carvacrol. The essential oil of two-year-old plants was characterized by a richer chemical composition than the oil from younger plants. PMID:25026727

  11. [Salvia officinalis l. I. Botanic characteristics, composition, use and cultivation].

    PubMed

    Daniela, T

    1993-06-01

    Salvia officinalis L. is an essential oil containing plant, which does not wildly grow in the territories of the Czech and Slovak Republics but it can be successfully cultivated. It is a perennial half-shrub, from which non-flowering herbaceous sprouts or leaves are collected for pharmaceutical purposes. After drying at a temperature not exceeding 35 degrees C they are the plant drugs Herba salviae or Folium salviae. In PhBs, Herba salviae is official. The drug contains mainly ethereal oil (1-2%), diterpenes, triterpenes and tannin. The pharmacopoeial criterion of quality is the content of essential oil, which is produced in an increased amount in the plant in warm summer months. Herba salviae and the extracts prepared from it are used as an antiseptic agent, an antiphlogistic agent, in the inflammations of the oral cavity and gingivitis and also as a stomachic and an antihydrotic agent. Its utilization in cosmetics and food industry is also of importance. PMID:8402963

  12. Study of calendula and Gaillardia growth in two composts prepared from agroindustrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Roudsari, O Nouri; Akbari, B

    2007-05-01

    Two composts prepared from agroindustrial wastes were assayed as substrates: C1 from brewing waste (yeast and malt) plus lemon tree pruning and C2 from the solid fraction of olive mill wastewater plus olive leaves. Sixteen substrates were prepared by combining each compost with Sphagnum peat or a Commercial Substrate (CS) in different proportions. The nutrients (N and K) provided by the composts, which acted as slow-release fertilizers, influenced especially the development of calendula, although the physical and physicochemical properties such as total pore space and Electrical Conductivity (EC) were also relevant. On the other hand, in the salt-sensitive Gaillardia hybrid, EC and chloride concentration were the main factors influencing growth. The best results were found in substrates prepared by mixing C1 at up to 75% with peat, or at up to 50% with CS, or by mixing C2 at up to 50% with peat or CS, for calendula. For salt-sensitive species such as Gaillardia, adequate substrates for plant development were found for C1 at up to 50% with peat or CS, but the use of C2 should be limited to 25% in mixtures with peat or CS. Therefore, composts of agroindustrial origin such as these can be used as an alternative to peat and CSs for growing ornamental plants, provided the mixture contains at least 25% peat or CS. PMID:19069954

  13. Phytoremediation of stable Cs from solutions by Calendula alata, Amaranthus chlorostachys and Chenopodium album.

    PubMed

    Moogouei, Roxana; Borghei, Mehdi; Arjmandi, Reza

    2011-10-01

    Uptake rate of (133)Cs, at three different concentrations of CsCl, by Calendula alata, Amaranthus chlorostachys and Chenopodium album plants grown outdoors was studied. These plants grow abundantly in semi-arid regions and their varieties exist in many parts of the world. When exposed to lowest Cs concentration 68 percent Cs was remediated by Chenopodium album.(133)Cs accumulation in shoots of Amaranthus chlorostachys reached its highest value of 2146.2 mg kg(-1) at a (133)Cs supply level of 3.95 mg l(-1) of feed solution. The highest concentration ratio value was 4.89 for Amaranthus chlorostachys, whereas for the other tests it ranged from 0.74 to 3.33. Furthermore uptake of (133)Cs by all three species increased with increasing metal concentrations. The results also indicated that hydroponically grown Calendula alata, Amaranthus chlorostachys and Chenopodium album could be used as potential candidate plants for phytoremediation of solutions contaminated with Cs. PMID:21839516

  14. Carnosic acid, a component of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), promotes synthesis of nerve growth factor in T98G human glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kosaka, Kunio; Yokoi, Toshio

    2003-11-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a factor vital for the growth and functional maintenance of nerve tissue. The authors found that a rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extract enhanced the production of NGF in T98G human glioblastoma cells. Furthermore, the results indicated that carnosic acid and carnosol, which are major components of the rosemary extract, were able to promote markedly enhanced synthesis of NGF. PMID:14600414

  15. Major anthocyanins from purple asparagus (Asparagus officinalis).

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Yumi; Ozaki, Yukio; Miyajima, Ikuo; Yamaguchi, Masaatsu; Fukui, Yuko; Iwasa, Keiko; Motoki, Satoru; Suzuki, Takashi; Okubo, Hiroshi

    2008-05-01

    Two major anthocyanins (A1 and A2) were isolated from peels of the spears of Asparagus officinalis cv. Purple Passion. They were purified by column, paper and high-performance liquid chromatographic separations, and their structures were elucidated by high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (HR-FT-ICR MS), 1H, 13C and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic analyses and either acid or alkaline hydrolysis, respectively. A1 was identified as cyanidin 3-[3''-(O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl)-6''-(O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl)-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside], whereas A2 was cyanidin 3-rutinoside, which is widely distributed in higher plants. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays proved their high antioxidant activities. PMID:18406435

  16. Iboga-Type Alkaloids from Ervatamia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ben-Qin; Wang, Wen-Jing; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Li, Guo-Qiang; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Ren-Wang; Yang, Ting-Ting; Shi, Lei; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Ye, Wen-Cai

    2014-08-22

    Seven new iboga-type alkaloids, ervaoffines A-D (1-4), (7S)-3-oxoibogaine hydroxyindolenine (5), ibogaine-5,6-dione (6), and 19-epi-5-oxovoacristine (7), and 10 known alkaloids were isolated from Ervatamia officinalis. The absolute configurations of 1-7 were determined through X-ray diffraction and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) analyses. Ervaoffines A and B represent the first iboga-type pseudoindoxyl alkaloids in which the C-2 spiro carbon configuration is opposite to that of other members of this class, such as iboluteine (8). The relationship between the absolute configuration of the spiro carbons and the Cotton effect in the ECD spectrum is established for the first time for iboga-type pseudoindoxyl and oxindole alkaloids. Additionally, a plausible biogenetic pathway for these alkaloids is proposed. PMID:25093992

  17. Production of extracellular exoinulinase from Kluyveromyces marxianus YS-1 using root tubers of Asparagus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Singh, R S; Bhermi, H K

    2008-10-01

    Root tubers of Asparagus officinalis were used as a source of raw inulin for the production of exoinulinase (EC 3.2.1.7) from Kluyveromyces marxianus YS-1. Root extract prepared at 10kg/cm2 pressure for 10min showed maximum inulinase production. Medium components and process parameters were standardized to improve the enzyme production. Inulinase yield of 40.2IU/mL in a medium containing raw inulin (3.5%), beef extract (2%), SDS (0.001%), Mn2+ (2.0mM), Mg2+ (1.5mM), Co2+ (2mM) and pH 6.5 has been obtained under agitation (150rpm) after 60h of incubation at 30 degrees C at shake flask level. After optimization, the enzyme production was 4.8 times more than the basal medium. To test the feasibility of raw inulin from A. officinalis for the production of inulinase, trials were also made in a bioreactor (1.5L). Inulinase activity of 50.2IU/mL was obtained from raw inulin (4.0%) under agitation (200rpm) and aeration (0.75vvm) at 30 degrees C after 60h of fermentation. Inulinase yield in bioreactor was almost six times higher than the basal medium used initially in shake flask. PMID:18280145

  18. Monoterpene synthases from common sage (Salvia officinalis)

    DOEpatents

    Croteau, Rodney Bruce; Wise, Mitchell Lynn; Katahira, Eva Joy; Savage, Thomas Jonathan

    1999-01-01

    cDNAs encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase from common sage (Salvia officinalis) have been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequences has been determined. Accordingly, isolated DNA sequences (SEQ ID No:1; SEQ ID No:3 and SEQ ID No:5) are provided which code for the expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase (SEQ ID No:2), 1,8-cineole synthase (SEQ ID No:4) and (+)-sabinene synthase SEQ ID No:6), respectively, from sage (Salvia officinalis). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase, or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of the aforementioned recombinant monoterpene synthases that may be used to facilitate their production, isolation and purification in significant amounts. Recombinant (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase may be used to obtain expression or enhanced expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of monoterpenoids, or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase, or the production of their products.

  19. [Comparative study on kidney tonifying and yang supporting effects of different processed products of Morinda officinalis].

    PubMed

    Cui, N; Shi, Ji; Jia, Tian-Zhu

    2013-11-01

    To compare the pharmacological effects for tonifying kidney and supporting Yang of different processed products of Morinda officinalis. The oral administration of adenine was performed to establish the kidney-Yang deficiency mice model. Four different processed products, namely M. officinalis, morinda pulp, salt-steamed M. officinalis and licorice-processed M. officinalis, were administered, with Guifu Dihuang pills as the control drug, and mice signs, weight, testicular coefficient, seminal vesicle coefficient, serum testosterone, serum cortisol and serum creatinine as evaluation indexes. The results showed that all of the four processed products of M. officinalis could improve the symptoms of the kidney-Yang deficient mice. Among them, salt-steamed M. officinalis had the most significant effect, which was followed by licorice-processed M. officinalis, morinda pulp and M. officinalis. PMID:24558872

  20. Evaluation of nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of Borage (Echium amoenum) and Valerian (Valerian officinalis).

    PubMed

    Adel Pilerood, Shirin; Prakash, Jamuna

    2014-05-01

    The nutritional composition and antioxidant activity (in aqueose and solvent extracts) of two medicinal plants of Iranian origin Borage (Echium amoenum) and Valerian (Valerian officinalis) used as tea were determined. Samples were analyzed for antioxidant components viz. polyphenols, vitamin C, β carotene, flavonoids, anthocyanins and tannins. Antioxidant assays such as free radical scavenging activity, reducing power and total antioxidant activity were carried out for ethanol, methanol, acetone, 80% methanol and 80% ethanolic extracts. In borage highest and least activity was observed in water and acetone extract respectively in all assays. In Valerian, 80% methanolic extract showed highest activity in reducing power and free radical scavenging activity assay. Total polyphenols in borage and valerian were 1,220 and 500 mg in ethanolic extracts and 25 and 130 mg in acetonic extracts respectively. Total carotenoids and vitamin C contents were 31.6 and 133.69 mg and 51.2 and 44.87 mg for borage and valerian respectively. Highest amount of tannins were extracted in 80% methanolic extract. It can be concluded that borage and valerian exhibited antioxidant activity in all extracts. The antioxidant activity could be attributed to their polyphenol and tannin and flavonoids contents. In all assays borage showed higher activity than valerian. PMID:24803690

  1. Rapid quantitative enrichment of carnosic acid from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) by isoelectric focused adsorptive bubble chromatography.

    PubMed

    Backleh, Marlène; Leupold, Günther; Parlar, Harun

    2003-02-26

    For the first time, the potent but unstable antioxidative diterpene carnosic acid could be enriched from an aqueous extract of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) by isoelectric focused adsorptive bubble chromatography. Enrichment of carnosic acid in the foam was influenced by the pH value and the flow rate of the foam-forming gas. Efficiency was highest with diluted samples at pH 4. Under these conditions, the conversion of carnosic acid to carnosol was negligible. Transfer of carnosic acid to the foam from a standard solution in the presence of saponin as surfactive substance was similar to that from the aqueous rosemary extract. PMID:12590472

  2. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial Activity and Total Phenolic Content within the Aerial Parts of Artemisia absinthum, Artemisia santonicum and Saponaria officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Sengul, Memnune; Ercisli, Sezai; Yildiz, Hilal; Gungor, Neva; Kavaz, Arzu; Çetin, Bülent

    2011-01-01

    Three native Turkish medicinal and aromatic plants (Artemisia absinthum, Artemisia santonicum and Saponaria officinalis) were investigated to analyze their antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and antimicrobial activity. Their total antioxidant activity was determined by using a β-carotene bleaching assay and their antimicrobial activity was determined by utilizing an agar disc diffusion assay. Methanol extracts of the three species analyzed showed high antioxidant activity and among them Artemisia absinthum possessed the highest quantity (71.78%). The total phenolic content (Folin-Ciocalteu assay) was shown to be between 6.57 μgGAE/mg dry weight basis (Saponaria officinalis) and 8.86 μgGAE/mg dry weight basis (Artemisia absinthum). There was a positive correlation (R = 0.819) between the total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity measured in the plant samples. The aqueous and methanol extracts of the aerial parts of the species showed antibacterial activities against a number of microorganisms. The methanol extracts were found to inhibit the growth of microorganisms more than the aqueous extracts. These findings suggest that the methanol extracts of the plants tested contain compounds with antimicrobial properties. These exhibited properties propose that such plant extracts can possibly be used as natural preservatives in the food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:24363680

  3. Protective effects of ψ taraxasterol 3-O-myristate and arnidiol 3-O-myristate isolated from Calendula officinalis on epithelial intestinal barrier.

    PubMed

    Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Catanzaro, Daniela; Cocetta, Veronica; Igl, Nadine; Ragazzi, Eugenio; Giron, Maria Cecilia; Cecconello, Laura; Montopoli, Monica

    2016-03-01

    The triterpene esters ᴪ taraxasterol-3-O-myristate (1) and arnidiol-3-O-myristate (2) were tested for their ability to protect epithelial intestinal barrier in an in vitro model. Their effects on ROS production and on trans-epithelial resistance were investigated on CaCo-2 cell monolayers both in basal and stress-induced conditions. Both compounds were able to modulate the stress damage induced by H2O2 and INFγ+TNFα, showing a potential use as model compounds for the study of new therapeutic agents for intestinal inflammations. PMID:26791917

  4. Complete genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain Co1-6, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium of Calendula officinalis

    SciTech Connect

    Köberl, Martina; White, Richard A.; Erschen, Sabine; Spanberger, Nora; El-Arabi, Tarek F.; Jansson, Janet K.; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-08-13

    The genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain Co1-6, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) with broad-spectrum antagonistic activity against plant-pathogenic fungi, bacteria, and nematodes, consists of a single 3.9-Mb circular chromosome. The genome reveals genes putatively responsible for its promising biocontrol and PGP properties.

  5. Steroidal saponins from roots of Asparagus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xuefeng; Kong, Lingyi

    2006-02-01

    Sarsasapogenin M (1) and sarsasapogenin N (2), two new oligospirostanosides with a unique aglycone moiety, (25S)-5beta-spirostan-3beta, 17alpha-diol, along with seven known compounds (25S)-5beta-spirostan-3beta-ol-3-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1,2)-[beta-d-xylopyranosyl-(1,4)]-beta-d-glucopyranoside (3), (25S)-5beta-spirostan-3beta-ol-3-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1,2)-beta-d-glucopyranoside (4), (25S)-5beta-spirostan-3beta-ol-3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1,2)-[alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1,4)]-beta-d-glucopyranoside (5), (25S)26-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-5beta-furost-20 (22)-ene-3beta,26-diol-3-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1,2)-beta-d-glucopyranoside (6), yamogenin (7), beta-sitosterol (8), and sitosterol-beta-d-glucoside (9) were isolated from the roots of Asparagus officinalis L. Their structures were determined by spectral analysis, including extensive 1D and 2D NMR experiments. PMID:16280142

  6. Top-down Targeted Metabolomics Reveals a Sulfur-Containing Metabolite with Inhibitory Activity against Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme in Asparagus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Nakabayashi, Ryo; Yang, Zhigang; Nishizawa, Tomoko; Mori, Tetsuya; Saito, Kazuki

    2015-05-22

    The discovery of bioactive natural compounds containing sulfur, which is crucial for inhibitory activity against angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), is a challenging task in metabolomics. Herein, a new S-containing metabolite, asparaptine (1), was discovered in the spears of Asparagus officinalis by targeted metabolomics using mass spectrometry for S-containing metabolites. The contribution ratio (2.2%) to the IC50 value in the crude extract showed that asparaptine (1) is a new ACE inhibitor. PMID:25922884

  7. Structural characterization and anti-fatigue activity of polysaccharides from the roots of Morinda officinalis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua-Lin; Li, Jun; Li, George; Wang, Dong-mei; Zhu, Long-ping; Yang, De-po

    2009-04-01

    Three polysaccharides MP-1, MP-2, and MP-3 were isolated from hot water extract of Chinese medicine Morinda officinalis through 95% ethanol precipitation and gel-filtration chromatography (DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B column and Sephadex G-75 or G-100 column). MP-1 was identified as an inulin-type fructan with simple linear (2-->1)-linked structure. Both MP-2 and MP-3 were acidic polysaccharides which consisted predominantly of galacturonic acid, arabinose and galactose. Partial structure characterization of MP-3 was carried out by partial acid hydrolysis and periodate oxidation. The total polysaccharides of the herb were tested in mice weight-loaded swimming model and were found to have anti-fatigue activity. PMID:19150459

  8. Rosmarinus officinalis L. increases Caenorhabditis elegans stress resistance and longevity in a DAF-16, HSF-1 and SKN-1-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Zamberlan, D.C.; Amaral, G.P.; Arantes, L.P.; Machado, M.L.; Mizdal, C.R.; Campos, M.M.A.; Soares, F.A.A.

    2016-01-01

    Improving overall health and quality of life, preventing diseases and increasing life expectancy are key concerns in the field of public health. The search for antioxidants that can inhibit oxidative damage in cells has received a lot of attention. Rosmarinus officinalis L. represents an exceptionally rich source of bioactive compounds with pharmacological properties. In the present study, we explored the effects of the ethanolic extract of R. officinalis (eeRo) on stress resistance and longevity using the non-parasitic nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a model. We report for the first time that eeRo increased resistance against oxidative and thermal stress and extended C. elegans longevity in an insulin/IGF signaling pathway-dependent manner. These data emphasize the eeRo beneficial effects on C. elegans under stress. PMID:27533765

  9. Diversity and Biological Activities of Endophytic Fungi of Emblica officinalis, an Ethnomedicinal Plant of India

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Archana; Raghunatha, Prajwal

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, an attempt to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of fungal endophytes inhabiting Emblica officinalis has been made keeping in view the medicinal importance of the selected host plant in Indian traditional practices. A total of four endophytic fungi belonging to Phylum Ascomycetes were isolated from different parts of the plant which were characterized morphologically and by using rDNA-internal transcribed spacer. The most frequently isolated endophyte was Phomopsis sp. The antioxidant activity by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and reducing power assay, and total phenol were evaluated using ethanolic extract of endophytic fungi. DPPH activities in all the ethanolic extract increased with the increase in concentrations. Endophytes, Phomopsis sp. and Xylaria sp. showed highest antioxidant activity and also had the higher levels of phenolics. Antimicrobial activity of fungal extract were tested against four bacteria namely, Escherichia coli MTCC730, Enteroccocus faecalis MTCC2729, Salmonella enterica ser. paratyphi MTCC735 and Streptococcus pyogenes MTCC1925, and the fungus Candida albicans MTCC183. In general, the fungal extracts inhibited the growth of test organisms except E. coli. PMID:22783128

  10. [Antidepressant active constituents in the roots of Morinda officinalis How].

    PubMed

    Cui, C; Yang, M; Yao, Z; Cao, B; Luo, Z; Xu, Y; Chen, Y

    1995-01-01

    Five compounds having antidepressant activities have been isolated from the roots of Morinda officinalis, a Chinese traditional Yang-tonic drug. These compounds were identified as succinic acid (1), nystose (2), 1F-fructofuranosylnystose (3), inulin-type hexasaccharide (4) and heptasaccharide (5) by chemical and spectroscopic methods. All of the compounds are isolated from the species of genus Morinda for the first time. PMID:7626209

  11. Suppression of LPS-induced inflammatory activities by Rosmarinus officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Yu, Mi-Hee; Choi, Jun-Hyeok; Chae, In-Gyeong; Im, Hyo-Gwon; Yang, Seun-Ah; More, Kunal; Lee, In-Seon; Lee, Jinho

    2013-01-15

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) has been used in folk medicine to treat headaches, epilepsy, poor circulation, and many other ailments. It was found that rosemary could act as a stimulant and mild analgesic and could reduce inflammation. However, the mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of rosemary need more study to be established. Therefore, in this study, the effects of rosemary on the activation of nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-kB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), and cytokine in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were investigated. A methanol extract of rosemary and its hexane fraction reduced NO generation with an IC(50) of 2.75 and 2.83 μg/ml, respectively. Also, the methanol extract and the hexane fraction inhibited LPS-induced MAPKs and NF-kB activation associated with the inhibition of iNOS or COX-2 expression. LPS-induced production of PGE(2) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were blocked by rosemary. Rosemary extract and its hexane fraction are important for the prevention of phosphorylation of MAPKs, thereby blocking NF-kB activation, which in turn leads to decreased expression of iNOS and COX-2, thus preventing inflammation. PMID:23122161

  12. Bioactive compounds, antioxidant and binding activities and spear yield of Asparagus officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Won; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Yu, In Ho; Gorinstein, Shela; Bae, Jong Hyang; Ku, Yang Gyu

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this investigation was to find a proper harvesting period and establishing fern number, which effects the spear yield, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities of Asparagus officinalis L. Spears were harvested at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after sprouting. Control for comparison was used without harvest. Spears and total yield increased with prolonged spear harvest period. In harvest of 6 weeks long optimum spear yield was the highest and fern numbers were 5 ~ 8. Bioactive compounds (polyphenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins and ascorbic acid) and the levels of antioxidant activities by ferric-reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) assays in asparagus ethanol extracts significantly differed in the investigated samples and were the highest at 6 weeks harvest period (P < 0.05). The first and the second segments from the tip significantly increased with the increase of catalase (CAT). It was interesting to investigate in vitro how human serum albumin (HSA) interacts with polyphenols extracted from investigated vegetables. Therefore the functional properties of asparagus were studied by the interaction of polyphenol ethanol extracts with HSA, using 3D- FL. In conclusion, antioxidant status (bioactive compounds, binding and antioxidant activities) improved with the harvesting period and the first segment from spear tip. Appropriate harvesting is effective for higher asparagus yield and its bioactivity. PMID:24793354

  13. Bioassay-guided fractionation of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) using an in vitro measure of GABA transaminase activity.

    PubMed

    Awad, Rosalie; Muhammad, Asim; Durst, Tony; Trudeau, Vance L; Arnason, John T

    2009-08-01

    A novel pharmacological mechanism of action for the anxiolytic botanical Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) is reported. The methanol extract was identified as a potent in vitro inhibitor of rat brain GABA transaminase (GABA-T), an enzyme target in the therapy of anxiety, epilepsy and related neurological disorders. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the identification and isolation of rosmarinic acid (RA) and the triterpenoids, ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA) as active principles. Phytochemical characterization of the crude extract determined RA as the major compound responsible for activity (40% inhibition at 100 microg/mL) since it represented approximately 1.5% of the dry mass of the leaves. Synergistic effects may also play a role. PMID:19165747

  14. Functional properties of spice extracts obtained via supercritical fluid extraction.

    PubMed

    Leal, Patrícia F; Braga, Mara E M; Sato, Daisy N; Carvalho, João E; Marques, Marcia O M; Meireles, M Angela A

    2003-04-23

    In the present study the antioxidant, anticancer, and antimycobacterial activities of extracts from ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), and turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) were evaluated. The extracts were obtained using supercritical CO(2) with and without ethanol and/or isopropyl alcohol as cosolvent. The extracts' antioxidant power was assessed using the reaction between beta-carotene and linolenic acid, the antimycobacterial activity against M. tuberculosis was measured by the MABA test, and their anticancer action was tested against nine human cancer ancestries: lung, breast, breast resistant, melanoma, colon, prostate, leukemia, and kidney. The rosemary extracts exhibited the strongest antioxidant and the lowest antimycobacterial activities. Turmeric extracts showed the greatest antimycobacterial activity. Ginger and turmeric extracts showed selective anticancer activities. PMID:12696930

  15. Assessment of rosmarinic acid content in six Lamiaceae species extracts and their antioxidant and antimicrobial potential.

    PubMed

    Benedec, Daniela; Hanganu, Daniela; Oniga, Ilioara; Tiperciuc, Brindusa; Olah, Neli-Kinga; Raita, Oana; Bischin, Cristina; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Radu; Vlase, Laurian

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, six indigenous species of Lamiaceae family (Origanum vulgare L., Melissa officinalis L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ocimum basilicum L., Salvia officinalis L. and Hyssopus officinalis L.), have been analyzed to assess the rosmarinic acid, phenyl propane derivatives and polyphenolic contents and their antioxidant and antimicrobial potential. HPLC-MS method has been used for the analysis ofrosmarinicacid. The phenyl propane derivatives and total phenolic contents were determined using spectrophotometric method. The ethanolic extracts were screened for antioxidant activities by DPPH radical scavenging, HAPX (hemoglobin ascorbate per oxidase activity inhibition), and EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance) methods. The ethanolic extracts revealed the presence of rosmarinic acid in the largest amount in O. vulgare (12.40mg/g) and in the lowest in R. officinalis (1.33 mg/g). O. vulgare extracts exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity, in line with the rosmarinic acid and polyphenolic contents. The antimicrobial testing showed a significant activity against L. monocytogenes, S. aureus and C. albicans for all six extracts. PMID:26687747

  16. Chemical composition and anticancer activity of essential oils of Mediterranean sage (Salvia officinalis L.) grown in different environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Russo, Alessandra; Formisano, Carmen; Rigano, Daniela; Senatore, Felice; Delfine, Sebastiano; Cardile, Venera; Rosselli, Sergio; Bruno, Maurizio

    2013-05-01

    Salvia officinalis L. can be found worldwide and its leaves are commonly used as ingredient in food industry. Sage essential oil is applied in the treatment of a range of diseases and has been shown to possess different biological activities. The objectives of our research were to study the effects of environment on crop, chemical composition and anticancer activity on S. officinalis essential oil. Sage was cultivated at eighteen experimental sites in south-central Italy (Molise) in different growing environments. The essential oils (S1-S18), extracted by hydrodistillation, were analyzed by GC and CG/MS. Results show that the main components were α-thujone, camphor, borneol, γ-muurolene and sclareol for all the samples, but the percentages of these compounds varied depending on environmental factors such as altitude, water availability and pedo-climatic conditions. The growth-inhibitory and proapoptotic effects of the eighteen sage essential oils were evaluated in three human melanoma cell lines, A375, M14, and A2058. PMID:23291326

  17. [Comparison with the pharmacological actions of Morinda officinalis, Damnacanthus officinarum and Schisandra propinqua].

    PubMed

    Qiao, Z S; Wu, H; Su, Z W

    1991-07-01

    There are three kinds of plants, Morinda officinalis (1), Damnacanthus officinarum (2), and Schisandra propinqua (3) whose roots have been used since the ancient time. In this paper, some of their pharmacological actions that are related to tonifying and invigorating Yang were examined and compared. The body weight, the thymus weight, the amount of leukocyte in the blood, and the continuing swimming times of the young mice could be increased with the oral administration of the water extractions of (1) and (2) (P less than 0.05-0.001). The Rt of M-receptor in the brains of the hypothyroidism mice were decreased after administration of the water extracts of (1) and (2) (P less than 0.05). (1) could also increased the amount of leukocyte in the blood of leukocytopenia mice caused by radiation of gamma-ray (P less than 0.01). (3) has not shown the obvious effects (P greater than 0.05). The results indicate that (1) and (2) have the ability of anti-fatigue, improving the immunological action of the young mice, and reducing the excitability of the para-sympathetic nervous system of the hypothyroidism mice through decreasing the Rt of M-receptor in their brains. All of them did not show acute toxicity, inducing mutation, and sexual hormone like actions. PMID:1914038

  18. Modulatory role of Emblica officinalis against alcohol induced biochemical and biophysical changes in rat erythrocyte membranes.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Vaddi Damodara; Padmavathi, Pannuru; Paramahamsa, Maturu; Varadacharyulu, Nallanchakravarthula

    2009-08-01

    This study investigated the protective effect of Emblica officinalis against alcohol-induced biochemical and biophysical changes in rat erythrocyte membranes. Thirty-two male rats were divided into four groups (n=8 in each group): control (C), alcohol (A), alcohol plus Emblica fruit extract (A+EFE) and Emblica fruit extract (EFE) alone. Administration of twenty percent alcohol (5 g/kg body weight) to rats significantly increased cholesterol/phospholipid (C/P) ratio, lipid peroxidation and the activities of Na(+)/K(+) and Mg(2+) ATPases in erythrocyte membranes as well as augmented nitric oxide (NO) levels. However, membrane fluidity studies using the fluorescent probe DPH (1,6 diphenyl 1,3 hexatriene) reveals that alcohol administration significantly (p<0.05) increased membrane anisotropic values and altered membrane individual phospholipid content. Administration of EFE (250 mg/kg body weight) to alcoholic rats resulted in significant (p<0.05) reduction of NO levels, erythrocyte membrane lipid peroxidation, C/P ratio, activities of Na(+)/K(+) and Mg(2+) ATPases and fluorescent anisotropic values. Further, EFE administration to alcoholic rats beneficially modulated membrane properties as evidenced from the contents of total phospholipids as well individual phospholipid classes. The tannoid principles present in Emblica offers protection against alcohol induced adverse effects in rats. PMID:19454300

  19. Toxicity of some plant extracts against vector of lymphatic filariasis, Culex pipiens.

    PubMed

    Hasaballah, Ahmed I

    2015-04-01

    Many insecticides are generally used as larvicides to control Culex pipiens, vector of lymphatic filariasis. This study was undertaken to evaluate the larvicidal activity of some potential larvicidal plants extracts against C. pipiens larvae. The toxic effects of both ethanolic and petroleum ether plant extracts were evaluated under laboratory conditions against 3rd instar larvae of C. pipiens. Forty ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts of 10 plants namely Echinochloa stagninum, Phragmites australis, Eichhornia crassipes, Rhizophora mucronata, Cichorium intybus, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum majorana, Azadirachta indica, Rosmarinus officinalis and Nigella sativa. On the basis of LC50, the toxic effect of the plant extracts tested varied depending on the plant species, part, solvent used in extraction and the extract concentrations. The petroleum ether extraction was more effective against mosquito as compared with ethanolic extraction. The most effective plant extract was A. indica followed by Ph. australis, N. sativa, C. intybus, R. officinalis, O. basilicum, O. majorana, E. stagninum, Rh. Mucronata and E. crassipes. PMID:26012233

  20. The effect of Morinda officinalis How, a Chinese traditional medicinal plant, on the DRL 72-s schedule in rats and the forced swimming test in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhong-Qi; Yuan, Li; Yang, Ming; Luo, Zhi-Pu; Zhao, Yi-Min

    2002-05-01

    The present study observed the antidepressant-like action of the medicinal plant Morinda officinalis in the differential reinforcement of low rate 72-s (DRL 72-s) schedule, a behavioral screen selective and sensitive to antidepressant drugs, and the forced swimming test, a well-known animal model of depression. In the DRL 72-s schedule in rats, the plant extract (25-50 mg/kg), similar to clinically effective antidepressant drug desipramine (5-10 mg/kg), significantly reduced response rate and efficiency ratio while at the same time increasing reinforcement rate. In the forced swimming test in mice, the plant extract (50 mg/kg), like the effect of desipramine (20 mg/kg), also elicited a significant reduction in the duration of immobility. A tendency to this phenomenon could be seen at the dose of 100 mg/kg. Meanwhile, the plant extract, in the effective doses for the forced swimming test, had no effects on spontaneous motor activity in mice. These findings provide further support for the conclusion that M. officinalis extract possesses the antidepressant effect. PMID:11900767

  1. Skin photoprotective and antiageing effects of a combination of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) polyphenols

    PubMed Central

    Nobile, Vincenzo; Michelotti, Angela; Cestone, Enza; Caturla, Nuria; Castillo, Julián; Benavente-García, Obdulio; Pérez-Sánchez, Almudena; Micol, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Background Plant polyphenols have been found to be effective in preventing ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced skin alterations. A dietary approach based of these compounds could be a safe and effective method to provide a continuous adjunctive photoprotection measure. In a previous study, a combination of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) extracts has exhibited potential photoprotective effects both in skin cell model and in a human pilot trial. Objective We investigated the efficacy of a combination of rosemary (R. officinalis) and grapefruit (C. paradisi) in decreasing the individual susceptibility to UVR exposure (redness and lipoperoxides) and in improving skin wrinkledness and elasticity. Design A randomised, parallel group study was carried out on 90 subjects. Furthermore, a pilot, randomised, crossover study was carried out on five subjects. Female subjects having skin phototype from I to III and showing mild to moderate chrono- or photoageing clinical signs were enrolled in both studies. Skin redness (a* value of CIELab colour space) after UVB exposure to 1 minimal erythemal dose (MED) was assessed in the pilot study, while MED, lipoperoxides (malondialdehyde) skin content, wrinkle depth (image analysis), and skin elasticity (suction and elongation method) were measured in the main study. Results Treated subjects showed a decrease of the UVB- and UVA-induced skin alterations (decreased skin redness and lipoperoxides) and an improvement of skin wrinkledness and elasticity. No differences were found between the 100 and 250 mg extracts doses, indicating a plateau effect starting from 100 mg extracts dose. Some of the positive effects were noted as short as 2 weeks of product consumption. Conclusions The long-term oral intake of Nutroxsun™ can be considered to be a complementary nutrition strategy to avoid the negative effects of sun exposure. The putative mechanism for these effects is most likely to take place through the

  2. DNA isolation protocol for the medicinal plant lemon balm (Melissa officinalis, Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Ghaffariyan, S; Mohammadi, S A; Aharizad, S

    2012-01-01

    Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) is a medicinal plant that is widely used as a sedative or calmant, spasmolytic and antibacterial agent and sleep aid. This has led to a high demand for lemon balm products, resulting in the extinction of this species in some of its natural habitats. Molecular techniques have increasingly been used in plant diversity conservation and isolation of PCR amplifiable genomic DNA is an important pre-requisite. Lemon balm contains high levels of polyphenols and polysaccharides, which pose a major challenge for the isolation of high-quality DNA. We compared different genomic DNA extraction protocols, including traditional phenol-chloroform DNA extraction protocols and two commercial kits for DNA purification for their ability to produce good-quality DNA from fresh leaves of five lemon balm genotypes. Quality and quantity of the DNA samples were determined using 0.8% agarose gel electrophoresis and a spectrophotometer. The DNA purity was further confirmed by PCR amplification using barley retrotransposon LTR base primers. The spectral quality of DNA as measured by the A(260)/A(280) ratio ranged from 1.46 to 2.37. The Fermentase genomic DNA purification kit and the CTAB extraction protocol using PVP and ammonium acetate to overcome the high levels of polyphenols and polysaccharides yielded high-quality DNA with a mean A(260)/A(280) ratio of 1.87. The quantity of DNA and its PCR purity were similar with all the protocols, but considering the time and cost required for extraction of DNA from a large number of samples, the CTAB protocol using PVP and ammonium acetate is suitable for lemon balm. PMID:22614273

  3. Effect of plant extracts on Alzheimer's disease: An insight into therapeutic avenues.

    PubMed

    Obulesu, M; Rao, Dowlathabad Muralidhara

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastative neurodegenerative disorder which needs adequate studies on effective treatment options. The extracts of plants and their effect on the amelioration of AD symptoms have been extensively studied. This paper summarizes the mechanisms like acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, modification of monoamines, antiamyloid aggregation effect, and antioxidant activity which are actively entailed in the process of amelioration of AD symptoms. These effects are induced by extracts of a few plants of different origin like Yizhi Jiannao, Moringa oleifera (Drumstick tree), Ginkgo Biloba (Ginkgo/Maidenhair tree), Cassia obtisufolia (Sicklepod), Desmodium gangeticum (Sal Leaved Desmodium), Melissa officinalis (Lemon Balm), and Salvia officinalis (Garden sage, common sage). PMID:21716802

  4. Effect of plant extracts on Alzheimer's disease: An insight into therapeutic avenues

    PubMed Central

    Obulesu, M; Rao, Dowlathabad Muralidhara

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastative neurodegenerative disorder which needs adequate studies on effective treatment options. The extracts of plants and their effect on the amelioration of AD symptoms have been extensively studied. This paper summarizes the mechanisms like acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, modification of monoamines, antiamyloid aggregation effect, and antioxidant activity which are actively entailed in the process of amelioration of AD symptoms. These effects are induced by extracts of a few plants of different origin like Yizhi Jiannao, Moringa oleifera (Drumstick tree), Ginkgo Biloba (Ginkgo/Maidenhair tree), Cassia obtisufolia (Sicklepod), Desmodium gangeticum (Sal Leaved Desmodium), Melissa officinalis (Lemon Balm), and Salvia officinalis (Garden sage, common sage). PMID:21716802

  5. Preliminary study on mercury uptake by Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Rosemary) in a mining area (Mt. Amiata, Italy)

    SciTech Connect

    Barghigiani, C.; Ristori, T.

    1995-04-01

    Among the different plants analyzed to assess environmental mercury contamination of mining areas, lichens are those most studied, followed by brooms together with pine, which was also used in other areas, and spruce. Other species, both naturally occurring and cultivated, have also been studied. This work reports on the results of mercury uptake and accumulation in rosemary in relation to metal concentrations in both air and soil. R. officinalis is a widespread endemic Mediterranean evergreen shrub, which in Italy grows naturally and is also cultivated as a culinary herb. This research was carried out in Tuscany (Italy), in the Mt. Amiata area, which is characterized by the presence of cinnabar (HgS) deposits and has been used for mercury extraction and smelting from Etruscan times until 1980, and in the country near the town of Pisa, 140 km away from Mt. Amiata. 16 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Officimalonic acids A-H, lanostane triterpenes from the fruiting bodies of Fomes officinalis.

    PubMed

    Han, Jianxin; Li, Liya; Zhong, Jialiang; Tohtaton, Zeynep; Ren, Qing; Han, Li; Huang, Xueshi; Yuan, Tao

    2016-10-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the methanolic extract of the fruiting bodies of Fomes officinalis led to the isolation of eight 24-methyl-lanostane triterpenes named officimalonic acids A-H, along with one known lanostane triterpene. Their structures were elucidated based on the analysis of spectroscopic data, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and electronic circular dichroism. Officimalonic acid A represents a previously unknown triterpene type with a 24-methyl-7(8 → 9)abeo-lanostane skeleton, and all of the compounds possessed a malonate half-ester moiety at C-3. Anti-inflammatory assay revealed that officimalonic acids D, E, G, H, and fomitopsin A showed potent inhibitory effects (IC50 = 5.1-8.9 μM) on nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW264.7 cells. Officimalonic acids E, G, H showed moderate cytotoxicity against H460, HepG2 and BGC-823 human cell lines. PMID:27216472

  7. Structural and Sensory Characterization of Bitter Tasting Steroidal Saponins from Asparagus Spears (Asparagus officinalis L.).

    PubMed

    Dawid, Corinna; Hofmann, Thomas

    2012-12-01

    Application of sequential solvent extraction and iterative chromatographic separation in combination with taste dilution analysis recently revealed a series of steroidal saponins as the key contributors to the typical bitter taste of white asparagus spears (Asparagus officinalis L.). Besides six previously reported saponins, (25R)-furost-5-en-3β,22,26-triol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, (25R)-furostane-3β,22,26-triol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and (25S)-furostane-3β,22,26-triol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, and 3-O-[{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)}{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)}-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25S)-spirost-5-ene-3β-ol were identified for the first time as key bitter compounds in the edible spears of white asparagus by means of LC-MS/MS, LC-TOF-MS, 1D/2D-NMR spectroscopy, and hydrolysis experiments. This paper presents the isolation, structure determination, and sensory activity of these saponins. Depending on their chemical structure, the saponins identified showed human bitter recognition thresholds between 10.9 and 199.7 μmol/L (water). PMID:23137023

  8. Metabolism of monoterpenes in cell cultures of common sage (Salvia officinalis)

    SciTech Connect

    Falk, K.L.; Gershenzon, J.; Croteau, R. )

    1990-08-01

    Leaves of common sage (Salvia officinalis) accumulate monoterpenes in glandular trichomes at levels exceeding 15 milligrams per gram fresh weight at maturity, whereas sage cells in suspension culture did not accumulate detectable levels of monoterpenes (<0.3 nanograms per gram fresh weight) at any stage of the growth cycle, even in the presence of a polystyrene resin trap. Monoterpene biosynthesis from (U-{sup 14}C)sucrose was also virtually undetectable in this cell culture system. In vitro assay of each of the enzymes required for the sequential conversion of the ubiquitous isoprenoid precursor geranyl pyrophosphate to (+){minus}camphor (a major monoterpene product of sage) in soluble extracts of the cells revealed the presence of activity sufficient to produce (+){minus}camphor at a readily detectable level (>0.3 micrograms per gram fresh weight) at the late log phase of growth. Other monoterpene synthetic enzymes were present as well. In vivo measurement of the ability to catabolize (+){minus}camphor in these cells indicated that degradative capability exceeded biosynthetic capacity by at least 1,000-fold. Therefore, the lack of monoterpene accumulation in undifferentiated sage cultures could be attributed to a low level of biosynthetic activity (relative to the intact plant) coupled to a pronounced capacity for monoterpene catabolism.

  9. Copper phytoremediation potential of Calandula officinalis L. and the role of antioxidant enzymes in metal tolerance.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Sunayana; Das, Suchismita

    2016-04-01

    Cu phytoremediation potential of an ornamental plant, Calandula officinalis, was explored in terms of growth responses, photosynthetic activities and antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, CAT and GPX. The results showed that this plant had high Cu tolerance of up to 400 mg/kg, which is far above the phytotoxic range for non hyperaccumulators. It grew normally in soils at all the doses (150-400 mg/kg) without showing external signs of phytotoxicity. At 150 mg/kg, flowering was augmented; root and shoot biomass, root lengths and leaf soluble protein contents remained same as that of the control. However, chlorophyll and carotenoid pigment contents declined significantly along with significant elevations in lipid peroxidation, at all the doses. Elevations of antioxidant enzymes reflected stress as well as probable mitigation of reactive oxygen species due to Cu stress. Except for the highest conc. (400 mg/kg), leaf accumulation of Cu was higher than root accumulations. The Cu accumulation peaked at 300 mg/kg Cu in soil, with leaf and root accumulations to be respectively, 4675 and 3995 µg/g dry wt., far more than the minimum of 1000 µg/g dry wt. for a Cu hyperaccumulator. The plant root at all the doses tolerated Cu, with the tolerance index ranging from 94-62.7. The soil to plant metal uptake capacity, indicated by extraction coefficient and the root to shoot translocation, indicated by translocation factor, at all the doses of Cu were >1, pointed towards efficient phytoremediation potential. PMID:26773830

  10. [Relation between root structure and accumulation of anthraquinones of Morinda officinalis].

    PubMed

    Yao, Hui; Wu, Hong; Feng, Cheng Hao; Zhao, Sheng; Liang, She Jian

    2004-04-01

    The histological structures of the roots of Morinda officinalis How of different ages were observed, the distribution and accumulation of anthraquinones in the root were studied with the help of paraffin section, fluorescent microscope and ultraviolet spectrophotometer. The results indicated that the mature structures of the roots of M. officinalis were similar to those of common perennial herbs, and that the anthraquinones in the root of M. officinalis distributed in parenchymatous cells and the content of anthraquinones in the root gradually increased in number with age. Based on above mentioned investigation, we came to the conclusion that the root of M. officinalis should be collected after four years of growing and the top grade root should have well developed phloem and thin xylem. PMID:15259981

  11. Cytotoxic effect of some medicinal plants from Asteraceae family on J-45.01 leukemic cell line--pilot study.

    PubMed

    Wegiera, Magdalena; Smolarz, Helena D; Jedruch, Marcin; Korczak, Magdalena; Koproń, Kamila

    2012-01-01

    In this study the in vitro cytotoxic properties of ethanol extracts from the herbs, inflorescents and roots of selected Asteraceae species: Arctium lappa, Artemisia absinthium, Calendula officinalis, Centaurea cyanus, Tanacetum vulgare and Tragopogon pratensis on J-45.01 human acute T leukemia cell line was examined. All tested samples possess antileukemic properties and induce cells death via apoptosis. The correlation between antileukemic activity and total polyphenol content was determined. PMID:22568040

  12. Identification of Verbena officinalis based on ITS sequence analysis and RAPD-derived molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Ruzicka, Joana; Lukas, Brigitte; Merza, Lina; Göhler, Irina; Abel, Gudrun; Popp, Michael; Novak, Johannes

    2009-09-01

    Verbenae herba is a widely used drug and consists of the aerial parts of Verbena officinalis (Verbenaceae). Until now, the identification has been performed based on morphological and phytochemical analyses, which are not reliable enough to distinguish Verbena officinalis from other relevant species of the genus Verbena. Hence, impurities and adulterants, negatively influencing the therapeutic effect of the drug, may remain undetected. In an attempt to generate an accurate authentication method we used two different DNA-based approaches: comparison of ITS sequences and molecular markers (RAPD). Both approaches generally enabled discrimination of V. officinalis from the rest of the genus despite the intraspecific variation existing within V. officinalis. The application of the two independent methods, supporting each other, increases the security of identification. For better reproducibility and faster analysis, however, a SCAR marker and primers for HRM were derived from the RAPD results. The SCAR marker could distinguish V. officinalis from all other verbena species except its closest relative V. hastata, while discrimination of V. officinalis even from V. hastata was unproblematic with HRM. PMID:19350481

  13. Officinalioside, a new lignan glucoside from Borago officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Samy, Mamdouh Nabil; Hamed, Ashraf Nageeb El-Sayed; Sugimoto, Sachiko; Otsuka, Hideaki; Kamel, Mohamed Salah; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    A new lignan glucoside, officinalioside (1), was isolated from n-BuOH fraction of the aerial parts of Borago officinalis L., together with four known compounds: actinidioionoside (2), roseoside (3), crotalionoside C (4) and kaempferol 3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside (5). The structure of the new compound was established by means of spectroscopic and chemical analyses. Compounds 1 and 2 showed a moderate DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50: 52.6 ± 1.70 and 41.3 ± 0.25 μM, respectively) comparable with that of the standard trolox (16.6 ± 2.2 μM) without any significant cytotoxicity towards human cell line A549 (IC50 > 100 μM). PMID:26382913

  14. Optical and thermal characterization of natural (Sepia officinalis) melanin.

    PubMed

    Vitkin, I A; Woolsey, J; Wilson, B C; Anderson, R R

    1994-04-01

    The optical properties and the thermal diffusivity of natural cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) melanin have been measured. The optical absorption and scattering properties of melanin particles were determined at 580 nm and 633 nm, using photometric and photothermal techniques. For the photometric studies, the absorption and the transport scattering coefficients were determined from the measurements of diffuse reflectance and transmittance. The scattering anisotropy was obtained from an additional measurement of the total attenuation coefficient and independently obtained by goniometry. For photothermal studies, pulsed photothermal radiometry was used to deduce the absorption and transport scattering coefficients via a model based on optical diffusion theory. Pulsed photothermal radiometry was also used to provide the thermal diffusivity of solid melanin pressed pellets. PMID:8022888

  15. Camouflage during movement in the European cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis).

    PubMed

    Josef, Noam; Berenshtein, Igal; Fiorito, Graziano; Sykes, António V; Shashar, Nadav

    2015-11-01

    A moving object is considered conspicuous because of the movement itself. When moving from one background to another, even dynamic camouflage experts such as cephalopods should sacrifice their extraordinary camouflage. Therefore, minimizing detection at this stage is crucial and highly beneficial. In this study, we describe a background-matching mechanism during movement, which aids the cuttlefish to downplay its presence throughout movement. In situ behavioural experiments using video and image analysis, revealed a delayed, sigmoidal, colour-changing mechanism during movement of Sepia officinalis across uniform black and grey backgrounds. This is a first important step in understanding dynamic camouflage during movement, and this new behavioural mechanism may be incorporated and applied to any dynamic camouflaging animal or man-made system on the move. PMID:26385328

  16. Antimicrobial activity of honokiol and magnolol isolated from Magnolia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Ho, K Y; Tsai, C C; Chen, C P; Huang, J S; Lin, C C

    2001-03-01

    The antimicrobial activity of honokiol and magnolol, the main constituents of Magnolia officinalis was investigated. The antimicrobial activity was assayed by the agar dilution method using brain heart infusion medium and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined for each compound using a twofold serial dilution assay. The results showed that honokiol and magnolol have a marked antimicrobial effect (MIC = 25 microg/mL) against Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus subtilis, but did not show antimicrobial activity (MIC > or = 100 microg/mL) for Shigella flexneii, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Our results indicate that honokiol and magnolol, although less potent than tetracycline, show a significant antimicrobial activity for periodontal pathogens. Hence we suggest that honokiol and magnolol might have the potential to be an adjunct in the treatment of periodontitis. PMID:11268114

  17. Sterols and triterpenes in cell culture of Hyssopus officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Skrzypek, Zuzanna; Wysokińska, Halina

    2003-01-01

    Cell suspension cultures from hypocotyl-derived callus of Hyssopus officinalis were found to produce two sterols i. e. beta-sitosterol (1) and stigmasterol (2), as well as several known pentacyclic triterpenes with an oleanene and ursene skeleton. The triterpenes were identified as oleanolic acid (3), ursolic acid (4), 2alpha,3beta-dihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (5), 2alpha,3beta-dihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (6), 2alpha,3beta,24-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (7), and 2alpha,3beta,24-trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (8). Compounds 5-8 were isolated as their acetates (6, 8) or bromolactone acetates (5, 7). PMID:12872919

  18. [Effects of primary processing on quality of cortex Magnolia officinalis].

    PubMed

    Yu, Shengxian; Zhang, Chunxia; Chen, Chengyu; Yan, Renyi; Yang, Bin; Liao, Chaolin; You, Jinwen

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, the changes of volatile oil and non-volatile ingredients in Cortex Magnolia Officinalis before and after primary processing were determined by an HPLC and a GC-MS method. The method is based on quantitative determination of three index ingredients, beta-eudesmol, honokiol and magnolol, and on qualitative fingerprinting analysis using HPLC and GC. Big differences were observed between processed and unprocessed samples according to their chromatographic fingerprinting data calculated by statistic software. Compared with unprocessed samples, the contents of honokiol and magnolol in processed samples increased, whereas the contents of beta-eudesmol and magnoloside A in processed samples decreased. Magnoloside A was isolated from this plant for the first time. PMID:20939279

  19. New terpenoid glycosides obtained from Rosmarinus officinalis L. aerial parts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Adelakun, Tiwalade Adegoke; Qu, Lu; Li, Xiaoxia; Li, Jian; Han, Lifeng; Wang, Tao

    2014-12-01

    Five new terpenoid glycosides, named as officinoterpenosides A₁ (1), A₂ (2), B (3), C (4), and D (5), together with 11 known ones, (1S,4S,5S)-5-exo-hydrocamphor 5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), isorosmanol (7), rosmanol (8), 7-methoxyrosmanol (9), epirosmanol (10), ursolic acid (11), micromeric acid (12), oleanolic acid (13), niga-ichigoside F₁ (14), glucosyl tormentate (15), and asteryunnanoside B (16), were obtained from the aerial parts of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Their structures were elucidated by chemical and spectroscopic methods (UV, IR, HRESI-TOF-MS, 1D and 2D NMR). Among the new ones, 1 and 2, 3 and 4 are diterpenoid and triterpenoid glycosides, respectively; and 5 is a normonoterpenoid. For the known ones, 6 was isolated from the Rosmarinus genus first, and 15, 16 were obtained from this species for the first time. PMID:25200369

  20. Phytochemical Characterization of Veronica officinalis L., V. teucrium L. and V. orchidea Crantz from Romania and Their Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties

    PubMed Central

    Mocan, Andrei; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Vlase, Laurian; Crișan, Ovidiu; Gheldiu, Ana-Maria; Crișan, Gianina

    2015-01-01

    Aerial parts of Veronica species are used in Romanian traditional medicine for the treatment of various conditions like kidney diseases, cough, and catarrh, and are known for their wound-healing properties. In the present study, the phenolic and sterolic content and the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of three Veronica species (Plantaginaceae), V. officinalis L., V. teucrium L. and V. orchidea Crantz, were studied. The identification and quantification of several phenolic compounds and phytosterols were performed using LC/MS techniques and the main components were p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, luteoline, hispidulin and β-sitosterol. More than that, hispidulin, eupatorin and eupatilin were detected for the first time in the Veronica genus. Nevertheless, representatives of the Veronica genus were never investigated in terms of their phytosterol content. The antioxidant potential investigated by Trolox equivelents antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and EPR spectroscopy revealed that V. officinalis and V. orchidea extracts presented similar antioxidant capacities, whilst the values registered for V. teucrium extract are lower. Regarding the antimicrobial activity of the investigated species, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii were the most sensitive strains with MIC values between 3.9 and 15.62 mg/mL. The results obtained by this study may serve to promote better use of representatives from the genus Veronica as antioxidant and antimicrobial agents. PMID:26404257

  1. Antiproliferation effect of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) on human ovarian cancer cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tai, Joseph; Cheung, Susan; Wu, Matthew; Hasman, David

    2012-03-15

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is a popular culinary/medicinal herb. Recent studies have shown it has pharmacologic activities for cancer chemoprevention and therapy. This study evaluated the antiproliferation activity of rosemary extract (RE) against human ovarian cancer cells, and whether the extract and its three main active ingredients carnosol (CS), carnosic acid (CA) and rosmarinic acid (RA) can enhance the antiproliferation activity of cisplatin (CDDP). Our study showed that RE has significant antiproliferation activity on human ovarian cancer A2780 and its CDDP resistant daughter cell line A2780CP70, with IC(50) (50% inhibitory concentration) estimated at 1/1000 and 1/400 dilutions respectively. RE enhanced the antiproliferation effect with CDDP on both A2780 and A2780CP70 cells. A2780 cells were consistently more sensitive to CS, CA, and RA than A2780CP70 cells between 2.5 and 20μg/ml. CS and RA also showed synergistic antiproliferation effect with CDDP on A2780 cells at some concentrations. RE treated by ultrafiltration, dialysis, and removal of phenolics lost the antiproliferation activity suggested that the activity resides in phenolics with MW<1000Da. Apoptosis array study of A2780 cells treated with RE showed that the expression of a number of genes regulating apoptosis were modulated by the treatment. This study showed that RE inhibited the proliferation of ovarian cancer cell lines by affecting the cell cycle at multiple phases. It induced apoptosis by modifying the expression of multiple genes regulating apoptosis, and holds potential as an adjunct to cancer chemotherapy. PMID:22325591

  2. Oxidative stress modulation by Rosmarinus officinalis in creosote-induced hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    El-Demerdash, Fatma M; Abbady, Ehab A; Baghdadi, Hoda H

    2016-01-01

    Coal tar is a significant product generated from coal pyrolysis. Coal tar can be utilized as raw materials for various industries. It is also a type of raw material from which phenols, naphthalenes, and anthracene can be extracted. The present study was designed to investigate the possibility of coal tar creosote to induce oxidative stress and biochemical perturbations in rat liver and the role of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) in ameliorating its toxic effects. Male Wister Albino rats were randomly divided into four groups of seven each, group I served as control; group II treated with rosemary (10 mL of water extract/kg BW for 21 days), group III received coal tar creosote (200 mg/4 mL olive oil/kg BW for 3 days), and group IV treated with both rosemary and coal tar creosote. The administration of coal tar creosote significantly caused elevation in lipid peroxidation (LPO) and reduction in the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione S-transferase (GST). A significant decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) content was also observed. Liver aminotransferases aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT)] and alkaline phosphatase (AlP) were significantly decreased while lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was increased. Rosemary pretreatment to coal tar creosote-treated rats decreased LPO level and normalized GPx, GR, SOD, CAT, and GST activities, while GSH content was increased. Also, liver AST, ALT, AlP, and LDH were maintained near normal level due to rosemary treatment. In conclusion, rosemary has beneficial effects and could be able to antagonize coal tar creosote toxicity. PMID:25044495

  3. [Investigation of variation of the production of biological and chemical compounds of Hyssopus officinalis L].

    PubMed

    Varga, E; Hajdú, Z; Veres, K; Máthé, I; Németh, E; Pluhár, Z; Bernáth, J

    1998-05-01

    Hyssopus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae family) has been cultivated in Central Europe for a long time. This essential oil containing species serves not only as spice but in many countries including Hungary, it is used as a folk medicine against certain respiratory diseases. Despite this fact, little is known about the variation of its productivity under Central European climatic conditions. The cultivated populations of hyssop can be characterised by a significant heterogenity. In the course of its breeding the uniformity of flower colour (e.g. blue form), and increase in the oil content are the main achievable purposes. The purpose of this work was to investigate both the variability of strains of different crigin and the time-dependent variations of its production parameters. The optimum of phytomass was obtained at the beginning of July. The essential oil content as well as compounds of the non volatile fractions were also investigated. The non volatile fractions for rosmarinic, caffeic acids were analysed mainly by TLC and densitometry. Both compounds were present in all samples and they are suitable for the characterisation of the plant. The essential oils were gained with Water Steam Distillation (WSD) and Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) with CO2. The oils were analysed by GC, GC-MS techniques. In the essential oil composition of the populations studied significant heterogenity could be observed. In the case of applying SFE extraction the oil composition is more uniform, similarly to the obtained by WSD adding hexane. The heterogenity can be experienced in the offsprings, too. If only the main four components (beta-pinene, limonene, pinocamphone, isopinocamphone) are regarded, among the offsprings clear and mixed lines alike can be found. Results of these experiments justify the necessity and usefulness of selection which is going on. PMID:9703705

  4. Quality consistency evaluation of Melissa officinalis L. commercial herbs by HPLC fingerprint and quantitation of selected phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Arceusz, Agnieszka; Wesolowski, Marek

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the quality consistency of commercial medicinal herbs, a simple and reliable HPLC method with UV-vis detector was developed, both for fingerprint analysis and quantitation of some pharmacologically active constituents (marker compounds). Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) was chosen for this study because it is widely used as an aromatic, culinary and medicine remedy. About fifty peaks were found in each chromatogram of a lemon balm extract, including twelve satisfactorily resolved characteristic peaks. A reference chromatographic fingerprint for the studied medicinal herb was calculated using Matlab 9.1 software as a result of analysing all the 19 lemon balm samples obtained from 12 Polish manufacturers. The similarity values and the results of principal component analysis revealed that all the samples were highly correlated with the reference fingerprint and could be accurately classified in relation to their quality consistency. Next, a quantitation of selected phenolic acids in the studied samples was performed. The results have shown that the levels of phenolic acids, i.e. gallic, chlorogenic, syringic, caffeic, ferulic and rosmarinic were as follows (mg/g of dry weight): 0.001-0.067, 0.010-0.333, 0.007-0.553, 0.047-0.705, 0.006-1.589 and 0.158-48.608, respectively. Statistical analysis indicated that rosmarinic acid occurs in M. officinalis at the highest level, whereas gallic acid in the lowest. A detailed inspection of these data has also revealed that reference chromatographic fingerprints combined with quantitation of pharmacologically active constituents of the plant could be used as an efficient strategy for monitoring of the lemon balm quality consistency. PMID:23770780

  5. Effects of cholinesterase inhibiting sage (Salvia officinalis) on mood, anxiety and performance on a psychological stressor battery.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, David O; Pace, Sonia; Haskell, Crystal; Okello, Edward J; Milne, Anthea; Scholey, Andrew B

    2006-04-01

    Salvia officinalis (sage) has previously been shown both to possess in vitro cholinesterase inhibiting properties, and to enhance mnemonic performance and improve mood in healthy young participants. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, 30 healthy participants attended the laboratory on three separate days, 7 days apart, receiving a different treatment in counterbalanced order on each occasion (placebo, 300, 600 mg dried sage leaf). On each day mood was assessed predose and at 1 and 4 h postdose. Each mood assessment comprised completion of Bond-Lader mood scales and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) before and after 20 min performance of the Defined Intensity Stress Simulator (DISS) computerized multitasking battery. In a concomitant investigation, an extract of the sage leaf exhibited dose-dependent, in vitro inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and, to a greater extent, butyrylcholinesterase. Both doses of sage led to improved ratings of mood in the absence of the stressor (that is, in pre-DISS mood scores) postdose, with the lower dose reducing anxiety and the higher dose increasing 'alertness', 'calmness' and 'contentedness' on the Bond-Lader mood scales. The reduced anxiety effect following the lower dose was, however, abolished by performing the DISS, with the same dose also being associated with a reduction of alertness during performance. Task performance on the DISS battery was improved for the higher dose at both postdose sessions, but reduced for the lower dose at the later testing session. The results confirm previous observations of the cholinesterase inhibiting properties of S. officinalis, and improved mood and cognitive performance following the administration of single doses to healthy young participants. PMID:16205785

  6. Stand establishment and yield potential of organically grown seeded and transplanted medicinal herbs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field studies were conducted at Las Cruces, N.M., and Alcalde, N.M., to compare direct seeding to transplanting for stand establishment and yield estimates of calendula (Calendula officinalis L.), catnip (Nepeta cataria L.), lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.), stinging nettles (Urtica dioica L.), a...

  7. Evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and phenolic profile for Hyssopus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum and Teucrium chamaedrys.

    PubMed

    Vlase, Laurian; Benedec, Daniela; Hanganu, Daniela; Damian, Grigore; Csillag, Ioan; Sevastre, Bogdan; Mot, Augustin C; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Radu; Tilea, Ioan

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and to characterize the polyphenolic composition of the ethanolic extracts of Hyssopus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum and Teucrium chamaedrys. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major phenolic compounds were conducted using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The total polyphenols, caffeic acid derivatives and flavonoids content was spectrophotometrically determined. The phenolic profile showed the presence of phenolic acid derivatives (caftaric, gentisic, caffeic, p-coumaric, chlorogenic and ferulic acids), flavonoid glycosides (rutin, isoquercitrin and quercitrin) and free flavonoid aglycons (luteolin, quercetin), in different concentrations. DPPH radical scavenging assay, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) method, hemoglobin ascorbate peroxidase activity inhibition (HAPX) assay, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) radicals detection were employed, revealing several aspects of the antioxidant activities of these species. The antimicrobial tests were performed using the disk diffusion assay. These extracts contained a large amount of the polyphenolic compounds (77.72, 175.57, and 243.65 mg/g, respectively), and they showed a good antioxidant activity, as witnessed by a number of methods. T. chamaedrys had a high antimicrobial activity. Besides their antioxidant activity, the antimicrobial effect of these extracts confirms the biological activities of these herbal medicinal products. PMID:24786688

  8. An observational study and quantification of the actives in a supplement with Sambucus nigra and Asparagus officinalis used for weight reduction.

    PubMed

    Chrubasik, Cosima; Maier, Thorsten; Dawid, Corinna; Torda, Thomas; Schieber, Andreas; Hofmann, Thomas; Chrubasik, Sigrun

    2008-07-01

    The aim of the study was to obtain information on the content of co-active compounds of a food supplement recommended as a weight reduction diet and on its short-term effectiveness and safety as a starter for lifestyle change. Eighty participants completed the protocol. The Sambucus nigra L. berry juice enriched with flower extract and tablets containing berry powder and flower extract provided a total of 1 mg anthocyanins, 370 mg flavonol glycosides and 150 mg hydroxycinnamates per day; the Asparagus officinalis L. powder tablets provided 19 mg saponins per day. After the diet, the mean weight, blood pressure, physical and emotional well-being and the quality of life had significantly improved (ITT analysis). The effectiveness and tolerability of the regimen were rated as very good or good by most of the completers. It remains to be established if any particular compounds contribute to the efficacy of the diet. PMID:18350516

  9. Cancer Prevention and Health Benefices of Traditionally Consumed Borago officinalis Plants.

    PubMed

    Lozano-Baena, María-Dolores; Tasset, Inmaculada; Muñoz-Serrano, Andrés; Alonso-Moraga, Ángeles; de Haro-Bailón, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, healthy eating is increasing the demand of functional foods by societies as sources of bioactive products with healthy qualities. For this reason, we tested the safety of the consumption of Borago officinalis L. and its main phenolic components as well as the possibility of its use as a nutraceutical plant to help in cancer prevention. The in vivo Drosophila Somatic Mutation and Recombination Test (SMART) and in vitro HL-60 human cell systems were performed, as well-recognized methods for testing genotoxicity/cytotoxicity of bioactive compounds and plant products. B. officinalis and the tested compounds possess antigenotoxic activity. Moreover, B. officinalis wild type cultivar exerts the most antigenotoxic values. Cytotoxic effect was probed for both cultivars with IC50 values of 0.49 and 0.28 mg · mL(-1) for wild type and cultivated plants respectively, as well as their constituent rosmarinic acid and the assayed phenolic mixture (IC50 = 0.07 and 0.04 mM respectively). B. officinalis exerts DNA protection and anticarcinogenic effects as do its component rosmarinic acid and the mixture of the main phenolics presented in the plant. In conclusion, the results showed that B. officinalis may represent a high value plant for pleiotropic uses and support its consumption as a nutraceutical plant. PMID:26797631

  10. Cancer Prevention and Health Benefices of Traditionally Consumed Borago officinalis Plants

    PubMed Central

    Lozano-Baena, María-Dolores; Tasset, Inmaculada; Muñoz-Serrano, Andrés; Alonso-Moraga, Ángeles; de Haro-Bailón, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, healthy eating is increasing the demand of functional foods by societies as sources of bioactive products with healthy qualities. For this reason, we tested the safety of the consumption of Borago officinalis L. and its main phenolic components as well as the possibility of its use as a nutraceutical plant to help in cancer prevention. The in vivo Drosophila Somatic Mutation and Recombination Test (SMART) and in vitro HL-60 human cell systems were performed, as well-recognized methods for testing genotoxicity/cytotoxicity of bioactive compounds and plant products. B. officinalis and the tested compounds possess antigenotoxic activity. Moreover, B. officinalis wild type cultivar exerts the most antigenotoxic values. Cytotoxic effect was probed for both cultivars with IC50 values of 0.49 and 0.28 mg·mL−1 for wild type and cultivated plants respectively, as well as their constituent rosmarinic acid and the assayed phenolic mixture (IC50 = 0.07 and 0.04 mM respectively). B. officinalis exerts DNA protection and anticarcinogenic effects as do its component rosmarinic acid and the mixture of the main phenolics presented in the plant. In conclusion, the results showed that B. officinalis may represent a high value plant for pleiotropic uses and support its consumption as a nutraceutical plant. PMID:26797631

  11. Drought-tolerant rice germplasm developed from an Oryza officinalis transformation-competent artificial chromosome clone.

    PubMed

    Liu, R; Zhang, H H; Chen, Z X; Shahid, M Q; Fu, X L; Liu, X D

    2015-01-01

    Oryza officinalis has proven to be a natural gene reservoir for the improvement of domesticated rice as it carries many desirable traits; however, the transfer of elite genes to cultivated rice by conventional hybridization has been a challenge for rice breeders. In this study, the conserved sequence of plant stress-related NAC transcription factors was selected as a probe to screen the O. officinalis genomic transformation-competent artificial chromosome library by Southern blot; 11 positive transformation-competent artificial chromosome clones were subsequently detected. By Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, an indica rice variety, Huajingxian 74 (HJX74), was transformed with a TAC clone harboring a NAC gene-positive genomic fragment from O. officinalis. Molecular analysis revealed that the O. officinalis genomic fragment was integrated into the genome of HJX74. The transgenic lines exhibited high tolerance to drought stress. Our results demonstrate that the introduction of stress-related transformation-competent artificial chromosome clones, coupled with a transgenic validation approach, is an effective method of transferring agronomically important genes from O. officinalis to cultivated rice. PMID:26535682

  12. Polyploid evolution in Oryza officinalis complex of the genus Oryza

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Baosheng; Ding, Zhuoya; Liu, Wei; Pan, Jin; Li, Changbao; Ge, Song; Zhang, Daming

    2009-01-01

    Background Polyploidization is a prominent process in plant evolution, whereas the mechanism and tempo-spatial process remained poorly understood. Oryza officinalis complex, a polyploid complex in the genus Oryza, could exemplify the issues not only for it covering a variety of ploidy levels, but also for the pantropical geographic pattern of its polyploids in Asia, Africa, Australia and Americas, in which a pivotal genome, the C-genome, witnessed all the polyploidization process. Results Tracing the C-genome evolutionary history in Oryza officinalis complex, this study revealed the genomic relationships, polyploid forming and diverging times, and diploidization process, based on phylogeny, molecular-clock analyses and fluorescent in situ hybridization using genome-specific probes. Results showed that C-genome split with B-genome at ca. 4.8 Mya, followed by a series of speciation of C-genome diploids (ca. 1.8-0.9 Mya), which then partook in successive polyploidization events, forming CCDD tetraploids in ca. 0.9 Mya, and stepwise forming BBCC tetraploids between ca. 0.3-0.6 Mya. Inter-genomic translocations between B- and C-genomes were identified in BBCC tetraploid, O. punctata. Distinct FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization) patterns among three CCDD species were visualized by C-genome-specific probes. B-genome was modified before forming the BBCC tetraploid, O. malampuzhaensis. Conclusion C-genome, shared by all polyploid species in the complex, had experienced different evolutionary history particularly after polyploidization, e.g., inter-genomic exchange in BBCC and genomic invasion in CCDD tetraploids. It diverged from B-genome at 4.8 Mya, then participated in the tetraploid formation spanning from 0.9 to 0.3 Mya, and spread into tropics of the disjunct continents by transcontinentally long-distance dispersal, instead of vicariance, as proposed by this study, given that the continental splitting was much earlier than the C-genome species radiation. We also

  13. Immunomodulatory role of Emblica officinalis in arsenic induced oxidative damage and apoptosis in thymocytes of mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Arsenic is widely distributed in the environment and has been found to be associated with the various health related problems including skin lesions, cancer, cardiovascular and immunological disorders. The fruit extract of Emblica officinalis (amla) has been shown to have anti-oxidative and immunomodulatory properties. In view of increasing health risk of arsenic, the present study has been carried out to investigate the protective effect of amla against arsenic induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in thymocytes of mice. Methods Mice were exposed to arsenic (sodium arsenite 3 mg/kg body weight p.o.) or amla (500 mg/kg body weight p.o.) or simultaneously with arsenic and amla for 28 days. The antioxidant enzyme assays were carried out using spectrophotometer and generation of ROS, apoptotic parameters, change in cell cycle were carried out using flow cytometer following the standard protocols. Results Arsenic exposure to mice caused a significant increase in the lipid peroxidation, ROS production and decreased cell viability, levels of reduced glutathione, the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, cytochrome c oxidase and mitochondrial membrane potential in the thymus as compared to controls. Increased activity of caspase-3 linked with apoptosis assessed by the cell cycle analysis and annexin V/PI binding was also observed in mice exposed to arsenic as compared to controls. Co-treatment with arsenic and amla decreased the levels of lipid peroxidation, ROS production, activity of caspase-3, apoptosis and increased cell viability, levels of antioxidant enzymes, cytochrome c oxidase and mitochondrial membrane potential as compared to mice treated with arsenic alone. Conclusions The results of the present study exhibits that arsenic induced oxidative stress and apoptosis significantly protected by co-treatment with amla that could be due to its strong antioxidant potential. PMID:23889914

  14. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and chemical characterization of essential oils of Thymusvulgaris, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Origanum majorana from northeastern México.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Boone, Laura; Alvarez-Román, Rocío; Alvarez-Román, Rocío; Salazar-Aranda, Ricardo; Torres-Cirio, Anabel; Rivas-Galindo, Verónica Mayela; de-Torres, Noemí Waksman; González, Gloria; Pérez-López, Luis Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    There have been no reports of antifungal activity and composition of extracts from Thymus vulgaris, Rosmarinus officinalis or Origanum majorana from northeastern México. Antifungal activity of these oils against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum canis and Epidermophyton floccosum was measured by diffusion assay. Additionally, antibacterial and antioxidant activities were evaluated. Antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes was examined by microdilution. Antioxidant activity was assessed by 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidracil reduction test. The plant oils were characterized by both GC/MS and GC/FID. Oils of T. vulgaris and O. majorana showed growth inhibition activity against dermatophytes, especially T. vulgaris oil, which completely inhibited growth of all tested dermatophytes. The oils also showed bioactivity against bacteria, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values between 62.5 and 500 μg/mL. The antioxidant activity of the oils was low, with effective concentration (EC50) values <250μg/mL. The major components in the oils were as follows: T. vulgaris, o-cymene, μ-terpinene, thymol and carvacrol; R. officinalis, terpinen-4-ol and 1,8-cineole; O. majorana, terpinen-4-ol and thymol. PMID:25631514

  15. Evaluation of Repellency Effect of Essential Oils of Satureja khuzestanica (Carvacrol), Myrtus communis (Myrtle), Lavendula officinalis and Salvia sclarea using Standard WHO Repellency Tests

    PubMed Central

    Kayedi, Mohammad Hassan; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Salehnia, Ali; Khamisabadi, Kiumars

    2014-01-01

    Background Using special lotions and repellent sprays on skin is one of the effective methods to prevent Arthropods biting which was verified in this study. Methods: Essential oils of four plants (Satureja khuzestanica, Salvia sclarea, Lavendula officinalis and Myrtus communis) were separately extracted by Clevenger used hydro distillation method. Then separated solutions with 10%, 20% and 40% concentrations of essential oils of plants in 99.6 % ethanol were prepared. WHO guidelines for efficacy testing of mosquito repellents for human skin were used on different concentrations of essential oils of plants, traditional repellents (DEET, 50% and 33%) as positive control, and ethanol 99.6% and naked hands as negative controls. Results: In negative control groups, the number of bits were comparable (P= 0.42) and had decreasing time trends (naked hands P= 0.011, ethanol P< 0.001). In all time points, minimum bites were observed in traditional repellents and it was significantly less than the other groups (P< 0.001). The time trend in the number of bites in the other groups was positive and showed minimum number of bites in time zero in all groups. We also found that the concentration of repellents had association with the number of bites. The maximum and minimum numbers of bites were observed with 10% and 40% concentrations respectively in all groups. Conclusion: Essential oils of Salvia sclarea, Lavendula officinalis and Myrtus communis have repellency effect, even with 10% concentration of essential oils. PMID:25629066

  16. Flavonoid pattern of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) unifloral honey.

    PubMed

    Kenjerić, Daniela; Mandić, Milena L; Primorac, Ljiljana; Čačić, Frane

    2008-09-01

    The aim of the present paper was to determine the flavonoids in monofloral sage (Salvia officinalis L.) honey which is characteristic and specific for the area of Croatian coast and islands. For that purpose 38 sage honey samples from two production seasons were analysed. After specific pollen content determination, and analyses of selected physicochemical parameters which confirmed that samples are in compliance with national and international regulations and can be regarded as unifloral sage honeys, flavonoid fraction was isolated and analysed using RP-HPLC/DAD method. The HPLC analysis showed that all examined sage honey samples contain quercetin (3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone), luteolin (3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone), kaempferol (3,4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone), apigenin (4',5,7-trihydroxyflavone), chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone) and galangin (3,5,7-trihydroxyflavone), as well as p-coumaric (trans-4-hydroxycinnamic acid) and caffeic acid (3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid). Total amount of identified flavonoids varied from 109.4μg/100g of honey to 589.9μg/100g of honey, with the average of 288.5μg/100g of honey. All analysed honey samples showed common and specific flavonoid profile which could be the basis for differentiating sage from other monofloral honeys. PMID:26050182

  17. Genome-wide identification and validation of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) from Asparagus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Li, Shufen; Zhang, Guojun; Li, Xu; Wang, Lianjun; Yuan, Jinhong; Deng, Chuanliang; Gao, Wujun

    2016-06-01

    Garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis), an important vegetable cultivated worldwide, can also serve as a model dioecious plant species in the study of sex determination and sex chromosome evolution. However, limited DNA marker resources have been developed and used for this species. To expand these resources, we examined the DNA sequences for simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in 163,406 scaffolds representing approximately 400 Mbp of the A. officinalis genome. A total of 87,576 SSRs were identified in 59,565 scaffolds. The most abundant SSR repeats were trinucleotide and tetranucleotide, accounting for 29.2 and 29.1% of the total SSRs, respectively, followed by di-, penta-, hexa-, hepta-, and octanucleotides. The AG motif was most common among dinucleotides and was also the most frequent motif in the entire A. officinalis genome, representing 14.7% of all SSRs. A total of 41,917 SSR primers pairs were designed to amplify SSRs. Twenty-two genomic SSR markers were tested in 39 asparagus accessions belonging to ten cultivars and one accession of Asparagus setaceus for determination of genetic diversity. The intra-species polymorphism information content (PIC) values of the 22 genomic SSR markers were intermediate, with an average of 0.41. The genetic diversity between the ten A. officinalis cultivars was low, and the UPGMA dendrogram was largely unrelated to cultivars. It is here suggested that the sex of individuals is an important factor influencing the clustering results. The information reported here provides new information about the organization of the microsatellites in A. officinalis genome and lays a foundation for further genetic studies and breeding applications of A. officinalis and related species. PMID:26987412

  18. Antimicrobial Activity of Copaiba (Copaifera officinalis) and Pracaxi (Pentaclethra macroloba) Oils against Staphylococcus Aureus: Importance in Compounding for Wound Care.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Anna Luísa Aguijar; Cunha, Elisa Alves; Matias, Fernanda Oliveira; Garcia, Patrícia Guedes; Danopoulos, Panagiota; Swikidisa, Rosita; Pinheiro, Vanessa Alves; Nogueira, Rodrigo José Lupatini

    2016-01-01

    The Amazon rainforest is the largest reserve of natural products in the world. Its rich biodiversity of medicinal plants has been utilized by local populations for hundreds of years for the prevention and treatment of various diseases and ailments. Oil extracts from plant species such as Copaifera officinalis and Pentaclethra macroloba are used in compounded formulations for their antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, emollient, moisturizing, and wound-healing activities. The objective of this study was to investigate the in vitro bacteriostatic effect of two Amazonian oils, Copaiba and Pracaxi, against Staphylococcus aureus, a clinically important microorganism responsible for wound infection, to support the use of these oils as novel natural products for compounded wound-treatment modalities. The antibacterial activity of Copaiba and Pracaxi oils against a standard strain of Staphylococcus aureus was assessed using broth microdilution to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration of the oil extracts. Copaiba oil demonstrated antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, with a Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of 0.3125 mg/mL and a Minimum Bactericidal Concentration of 0.3125 mg/mL. Conversely, Pracaxi oil failed to inhibit Staphylococcus aureus growth. While additional studies are required to further evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Pracaxi oil, even low concentrations of Copaiba oil effectively inhibited Staphylococcus aureus growth, supporting its potential use as a promising adjuvant in compounded topical formulations for wound and scar healing. PMID:27125055

  19. Antihepatic Fibrosis Effect of Active Components Isolated from Green Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) Involves the Inactivation of Hepatic Stellate Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Chunge; Jiang, Chunyu; Xia, Xichun; Mu, Teng; Wei, Lige; Lou, Yuntian; Zhang, Xiaoshu; Zhao, Yuqing; Bi, Xiuli

    2015-07-01

    Green asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) is a vegetable with numerous nutritional properties. In the current study, a total of 23 compounds were isolated from green asparagus, and 9 of these compounds were obtained from this genus for the first time. Preliminary data showed that the ethyl acetate (EtOAc)-extracted fraction of green asparagus exerted a stronger inhibitory effect on the growth of t-HSC/Cl-6 cells, giving an IC50 value of 45.52 μg/mL. The biological activities of the different compounds isolated from the EtOAc-extracted fraction with respect to antihepatic fibrosis were investigated further. Four compounds, C3, C4, C10, and C12, exhibited profound inhibitory effect on the activation of t-HSC/Cl-6 cells induced by TNF-α. The activation t-HSC/Cl-6 cells, which led to the production of fibrotic matrix (TGF-β1, activin C) and accumulation of TNF-α, was dramatically decreased by these compounds. The mechanisms by which these compounds inhibited the activation of hepatic stellate cells appeared to be associated with the inactivation of TGF-β1/Smad signaling and c-Jun N-terminal kinases, as well as the ERK phosphorylation cascade. PMID:26089141

  20. Relaxant effect of essential oil of Melissa officinalis and citral on rat ileum contractions.

    PubMed

    Sadraei, H; Ghannadi, A; Malekshahi, K

    2003-07-01

    The relaxant effect of the essential oil of Melissa officinalis and its main component, citral, on rat isolated ileum contractions was evaluated. M. officinalis essential oil (MOEO) inhibited the response to KCl (80 mM), ACh (320 nM) and 5-HT (1.28 microM) in a concentration-dependent manner with a IC(50) of approximately 20 ng/ml. Citral also had a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on contraction of rat ileum with IC(50)s comparable to that of MOEO. PMID:12837359

  1. Ribosome-inactivating proteins from the seeds of Saponaria officinalis L. (soapwort), of Agrostemma githago L. (corn cockle) and of Asparagus officinalis L. (asparagus), and from the latex of Hura crepitans L. (sandbox tree).

    PubMed

    Stirpe, F; Gasperi-Campani, A; Barbieri, L; Falasca, A; Abbondanza, A; Stevens, W A

    1983-12-15

    Ribosome-inactivating proteins, similar to those already known [Barbieri & Stirpe (1982) Cancer Surveys 1, 489-520] were purified from the seeds of Saponaria officinalis (two proteins), of Agrostemma githago (three proteins), and of Asparagus officinalis (three proteins), and from the latex of Hura crepitans (one protein). The yield ranged from 8 to 400 mg/100 g of starting material. All proteins have an Mr of approx. 30000 and an alkaline isoelectric point. Their sugar content varies from 0 (proteins from S. officinalis) to 40% (protein from H. crepitans). The ribosome-inactivating proteins inhibit protein synthesis by rabbit reticulocyte lysate, the ID50 (concentration giving 50% inhibition) ranging from 1 ng/ml (a protein from S. officinalis) to 18 ng/ml (a protein from A. githago). Those which were tested (the proteins from S. officinalis and from A. githago) also inhibit polymerization of phenylalanine by isolated ribosomes, acting in an apparently catalytic manner. The protein from H. crepitans inhibited protein synthesis by HeLa cells, with an ID50 of 4 micrograms/ml, whereas the proteins from S. officinalis and from A. githago had an ID50 of more than 50-100 micrograms/ml. The ribosome-inactivating proteins from S. officinalis and from A. githago reduced the number of local lesions by tobacco-mosaic virus in the leaves of Nicotiana glutinosa. PMID:6667259

  2. Ribosome-inactivating proteins from the seeds of Saponaria officinalis L. (soapwort), of Agrostemma githago L. (corn cockle) and of Asparagus officinalis L. (asparagus), and from the latex of Hura crepitans L. (sandbox tree).

    PubMed Central

    Stirpe, F; Gasperi-Campani, A; Barbieri, L; Falasca, A; Abbondanza, A; Stevens, W A

    1983-01-01

    Ribosome-inactivating proteins, similar to those already known [Barbieri & Stirpe (1982) Cancer Surveys 1, 489-520] were purified from the seeds of Saponaria officinalis (two proteins), of Agrostemma githago (three proteins), and of Asparagus officinalis (three proteins), and from the latex of Hura crepitans (one protein). The yield ranged from 8 to 400 mg/100 g of starting material. All proteins have an Mr of approx. 30000 and an alkaline isoelectric point. Their sugar content varies from 0 (proteins from S. officinalis) to 40% (protein from H. crepitans). The ribosome-inactivating proteins inhibit protein synthesis by rabbit reticulocyte lysate, the ID50 (concentration giving 50% inhibition) ranging from 1 ng/ml (a protein from S. officinalis) to 18 ng/ml (a protein from A. githago). Those which were tested (the proteins from S. officinalis and from A. githago) also inhibit polymerization of phenylalanine by isolated ribosomes, acting in an apparently catalytic manner. The protein from H. crepitans inhibited protein synthesis by HeLa cells, with an ID50 of 4 micrograms/ml, whereas the proteins from S. officinalis and from A. githago had an ID50 of more than 50-100 micrograms/ml. The ribosome-inactivating proteins from S. officinalis and from A. githago reduced the number of local lesions by tobacco-mosaic virus in the leaves of Nicotiana glutinosa. Images Fig. 2. PMID:6667259

  3. Modeling of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for determination of essential oil from Borago officinalis L. by using combination of artificial neural network and genetic algorithm method.

    PubMed

    Khajeh, Mostafa; Moghaddam, Zahra Safaei; Bohlooli, Mousa; Khajeh, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) coupled with gas chromatography was applied for the extraction and determination of essential oil constituents of the Borago officinalis L. In this study, an experimental data-based artificial neural network (ANN) model was constructed to describe the performance of DLLME method for various operating conditions. The volume of extraction and dispersive solvents, extraction time and salt effect were the input variables of this process, whereas the extraction efficiency was the output. The ANN method was found to be capable of modeling this procedure accurately. The overall agreement between the experimental data and ANN predictions was satisfactory showing a determination coefficient of 0.982. The optimum operating condition was then determined by the genetic algorithm method. The optimal conditions were 248 µL volume of extraction solvent, 260 µL volume of dispersive solvent, 2.5 min extraction time and 0.16 mol L(-1) of salt. The limit of detection and linear dynamic range were 0.15-24.0 and 1.2-1,800 ng mL(-1), respectively. The main components of the essential oil were δ-cadinene (31.02%), carvacrol (24.91%), α-pinene (20.89%) and α-cadinol (16.47%). PMID:26045584

  4. An Evaluation of Root Phytochemicals Derived from Althea officinalis (Marshmallow) and Astragalus membranaceus as Potential Natural Components of UV Protecting Dermatological Formulations.

    PubMed

    Curnow, Alison; Owen, Sara J

    2016-01-01

    As lifetime exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation has risen, the deleterious effects have also become more apparent. Numerous sunscreen and skincare products have therefore been developed to help reduce the occurrence of sunburn, photoageing, and skin carcinogenesis. This has stimulated research into identifying new natural sources of effective skin protecting compounds. Alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) was employed to assess aqueous extracts derived from soil or hydroponically glasshouse-grown roots of Althea officinalis (Marshmallow) and Astragalus membranaceus, compared with commercial, field-grown roots. Hydroponically grown root extracts from both plant species were found to significantly reduce UVA-induced DNA damage in cultured human lung and skin fibroblasts, although initial Astragalus experimentation detected some genotoxic effects, indicating that Althea root extracts may be better suited as potential constituents of dermatological formulations. Glasshouse-grown soil and hydroponic Althea root extracts afforded lung fibroblasts with statistically significant protection against UVA irradiation for a greater period of time than the commercial field-grown roots. No significant reduction in DNA damage was observed when total ultraviolet irradiation (including UVB) was employed (data not shown), indicating that the extracted phytochemicals predominantly protected against indirect UVA-induced oxidative stress. Althea phytochemical root extracts may therefore be useful components in dermatological formulations. PMID:26953144

  5. An Evaluation of Root Phytochemicals Derived from Althea officinalis (Marshmallow) and Astragalus membranaceus as Potential Natural Components of UV Protecting Dermatological Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Curnow, Alison; Owen, Sara J.

    2016-01-01

    As lifetime exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation has risen, the deleterious effects have also become more apparent. Numerous sunscreen and skincare products have therefore been developed to help reduce the occurrence of sunburn, photoageing, and skin carcinogenesis. This has stimulated research into identifying new natural sources of effective skin protecting compounds. Alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) was employed to assess aqueous extracts derived from soil or hydroponically glasshouse-grown roots of Althea officinalis (Marshmallow) and Astragalus membranaceus, compared with commercial, field-grown roots. Hydroponically grown root extracts from both plant species were found to significantly reduce UVA-induced DNA damage in cultured human lung and skin fibroblasts, although initial Astragalus experimentation detected some genotoxic effects, indicating that Althea root extracts may be better suited as potential constituents of dermatological formulations. Glasshouse-grown soil and hydroponic Althea root extracts afforded lung fibroblasts with statistically significant protection against UVA irradiation for a greater period of time than the commercial field-grown roots. No significant reduction in DNA damage was observed when total ultraviolet irradiation (including UVB) was employed (data not shown), indicating that the extracted phytochemicals predominantly protected against indirect UVA-induced oxidative stress. Althea phytochemical root extracts may therefore be useful components in dermatological formulations. PMID:26953144

  6. Antioxidant Studies on Ethanol Extracts from Two Selected Genera of Indian Lamiaceae.

    PubMed

    Ramu, G; Dhanabal, S P

    2015-01-01

    The present work is targeted to evaluate antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts from the leaves of Plectranthus mollis and Salvia officinalis belonging to family Lamiaceae using nitric oxide scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power assay and lipid peroxidation methods. The results of the study indicate that the leaf extracts of both the plants possess in vitro antioxidant activity. The higher amount of flavanoids and phenolic compounds may correspond to their greater antioxidant activity. PMID:26997708

  7. Antioxidant Studies on Ethanol Extracts from Two Selected Genera of Indian Lamiaceae

    PubMed Central

    Ramu, G.; Dhanabal, S. P.

    2015-01-01

    The present work is targeted to evaluate antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts from the leaves of Plectranthus mollis and Salvia officinalis belonging to family Lamiaceae using nitric oxide scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power assay and lipid peroxidation methods. The results of the study indicate that the leaf extracts of both the plants possess in vitro antioxidant activity. The higher amount of flavanoids and phenolic compounds may correspond to their greater antioxidant activity. PMID:26997708

  8. How sensitive is Melissa officinalis to realistic ozone concentrations?

    PubMed

    Döring, Anne Sarah; Pellegrini, Elisa; Campanella, Alessandra; Trivellini, Alice; Gennai, Clizia; Petersen, Maike; Nali, Cristina; Lorenzini, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis, L.; Lamiaceae) was exposed to realistic ozone (O3) dosages (80 ppb for 5 h), because high background levels of O3 are considered to be as harmful as episodic O3 regimes. Temporal alterations of different ecophysiological, biochemical and structural parameters were investigated in order to test if this species can be considered as an O3-bioindicator regarding changes in background concentrations. At the end of ozone exposure, the plants did not exhibit any visible foliar symptoms, as only at microscopic level a small number of dead cells were found. Photosynthetic processes, however, were significantly affected. During and after the treatment, ozone induced a reduction in CO2 fixation capacity (up to 52% after 12 h from the beginning of the treatment) due to mesophyllic limitations. Intercellular CO2 concentration significantly increased in comparison to controls (+90% at the end of the post-fumigation period). Furthermore impairment of carboxylation efficiency (-71% at the end of the post-fumigation period compared to controls in filtered air) and membrane damage in terms of integrity (as demonstrated by a significant rise in solute leakage) were observed. A regulatory adjustment of photosynthetic processes was highlighted during the post-fumigation period by the higher values of qNP and (1-q(P)) and therefore suggests a tendency to reduce the light energy used in photochemistry at the expense of the capacity to dissipate the excess as excitation energy. In addition, the chlorophyll a/b ratio and the de-epoxidation index increased, showing a rearrangement of the pigment composition of the photosynthetic apparatus and a marked activation of photoprotective mechanisms. PMID:24321873

  9. Role of invasive Melilotus officinalis in two native plant communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Riper, Laura C.; Larson, Diane L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the impact of the exotic nitrogen-fixing legume Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam. on native and exotic species cover in two Great Plains ecosystems in Badlands National Park, South Dakota. Melilotus is still widely planted and its effects on native ecosystems are not well studied. Melilotus could have direct effects on native plants, such as through competition or facilitation. Alternatively, Melilotus may have indirect effects on natives, e.g., by favoring exotic species which in turn have a negative effect on native species. This study examined these interactions across a 4-year period in two contrasting vegetation types: Badlands sparse vegetation and western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii) mixed-grass prairie. Structural equation models were used to analyze the pathways through which Melilotus, native species, and other exotic species interact over a series of 2-year time steps. Melilotus can affect native and exotic species both in the current year and in the years after its death (a lag effect). A lag effect is possible because the death of a Melilotus plant can leave an open, potentially nitrogen-enriched site on the landscape. The results showed that the relationship between Melilotus and native and exotic species varied depending on the habitat and the year. In Badlands sparse vegetation, there was a consistent, strong, and positive relationship between Melilotus cover and native and exotic species cover suggesting that Melilotus is acting as a nurse plant and facilitating the growth of other species. In contrast, in western wheatgrass prairie, Melilotus was acting as a weak competitor and had no consistent effect on other species. In both habitats, there was little evidence for a direct lag effect of Melilotus on other species. Together, these results suggest both facilitative and competitive roles for Melilotus, depending on the vegetation type it invades.

  10. Antimycotoxigenic characteristics of Rosmarinus officinalis and Trachyspermum copticum L. essential oils.

    PubMed

    Rasooli, Iraj; Fakoor, Mohammad Hadi; Yadegarinia, Davod; Gachkar, Latif; Allameh, Abdolamir; Rezaei, Mohammad Bagher

    2008-02-29

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolite produced by Aspergillus species on food and agricultural commodities. Natural products may regulate the cellular effects of aflatoxins and evidence suggests that aromatic organic compounds of spices can control the production of aflatoxins. With a view to controlling aflatoxin production, the essential oils from Rosmarinus officinalis and Trachyspermum copticum L. were obtained by hydrodistillation. Antifungal activities of the oils were studied with special reference to the inhibition of Aspergillus parasiticus growth and aflatoxin production. Minimal inhibitory (MIC) and minimal fungicidal (MFC) concentrations of the oils were determined. T. copticum L. oil showed a stronger inhibitory effect than R. officinalis on the growth of A. parasiticus. Aflatoxin production was inhibited at 450 ppm of both oils with that of R. officinalis being stronger inhibitor. The oils were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The major components of R. officinalis and T. copticum L. oils were Piperitone (23.65%), alpha-pinene (14.94%), Limonene (14.89%), 1,8-Cineole (7.43%) and Thymol (37.2%), P-Cymene (32.3%), gamma-Terpinene (27.3%) respectively. It is concluded that the essential oils could be safely used as preservative materials on some kinds of foods to protect them from toxigenic fungal infections. PMID:18190993

  11. [Influence of the blight of Morinda officinalis How on microscopic structure and constituents of the host].

    PubMed

    Lin, L; Xu, H H; Yao, Y L; Wang, S Y; Deng, P F; Zhen, Y E; Lu, W Q

    1993-07-01

    The results showed that microscopic structure in biennial roots, the contents of B and Mn in nutritive organ and beta-sitosterol content in roots, stems of Morinda officinalis were affected markedly. The total sugar content in the roots and aerial stems was decreased by 5.42%-15.29%. PMID:8267851

  12. [Urine metabonomic study of intervention effects of Morinda officinalis how. on 'kidney-yang deficiency syndrome'].

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhong-jie; Xie, Yuan-yuan; Gong, Meng-juan; Han, Bin; Wang, Shu-mei; Liang, Sheng-wang

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the intervention effects of Morinda officinalis How. on 'Kidney-yang deficiency syndrome' induced by hydrocortisone in rats, the metabolic profiles of rat urine were characterized using proton nuclear magnetic resonance and principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to study the trajectory of urinary metabolic phenotype of rats with 'Kidney-yang deficiency syndrome' under administration of M. officinalis at different time points. Meanwhile, the intervention effects of M. officinalis on urinary metabolic potential biomarkers associated with 'Kidney-yang deficiency syndrome' were also discussed. The experimental results showed that in accordance to the increased time of administration, an obvious tendency was observed that clustering of the treatment group moved gradually closed to that of the control group. Eight potential biomarkers including citrate, succinate, alpha-ketoglutarate, lactate, betaine, sarcosine, alanine and taurine were definitely up- or down-regulated. In conclusion, the effectiveness of M. oficinalis on 'Kidney-yang deficiency syndrome' is proved using the established metabonomic method and the regulated metabolic pathways involve energy metabolism, transmethylation and transportation of amine. Meanwhile, the administration of M. officinalis can alleviate the kidney impairment induced by 'Kidney-yang deficiency syndrome'. PMID:24475714

  13. [Genuineness of Morinda officinalis How germplasm inferred from ITS sequences variation of nuclear ribosomal DNA].

    PubMed

    Ding, Ping; Liu, Jin; Qiu, Jin-Ying; Lai, Xiao-Ping

    2012-04-01

    PCR sequencing ITS genes methods were used to assess the genetic diversity of Morinda officinalis How different populations. The sequence of Morinda officinalis ITS gene was 567 bp in length, and the content of G/C was 64.5%. In this study, 17 haplotypes were obtained, which were at a high level of branching, and the haplotypes of Guangdong population showed to be the expansion origin. The result of the analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) also showed that the percentage of variation among populations (56.65%) was greater than that within a population (43.35%). The F(ST) value was 0.566 5, and the genetic divergence among populations was significant. Mantel test results also indicated that the level of geneflow was positively correlated with geographic distances (R2 = 0.721 1). The result showed a good correlation between genotype and geographic distribution of Morinda officinalis, and ITS gene sequencing could be useful molecular method for the genuineness and phylogeography of Morinda officinalis. PMID:22799040

  14. Evaluation of Emblica officinalis fruit powder as a growth promoter in commercial broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Patel, A. P.; Bhagwat, S. R.; Pawar, M. M.; Prajapati, K. B.; Chauhan, H. D.; Makwana, R. B.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the dietary addition of Emblica officinalis (Amla) fruit powder as a growth promoter in commercial broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: An experiment was conducted on 135 commercial broiler chicks (Ven-Cobb 400 strain) divided into three groups with three replicates of 15 chicks each. Three treatment groups were as follows – T1: Basal diet as per BIS standards; T2: Basal diet supplemented with 0.4% of E. officinalis fruit powder; and T3: Basal diet supplemented with 0.8% of E. officinalis fruit powder. Results: The average body weights at the end of the 6th week were significantly higher (p<0.05) in groups T2 and T3 compared to group T1. Feed intake, feed conversion ratio and feed cost per kg live weight production were similar among the treatment groups. The net profit per bird was the highest in group T2 (Rs. 19.22/bird) followed by group T3 (Rs. 17.86/bird) and the lowest in group T1 (Rs. 14.61/bird). Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, it was concluded that dietary addition of E. officinalis (Amla) fruit powder had a positive effect on growth performance and net profit per bird in commercial broiler chickens. PMID:27051210

  15. Effect of essential oil of Hyssopus officinalis on the lipid composition of Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Ghfir, B; Fonvieille, J L; Koulali, Y; Ecalle, R; Dargent, R

    1994-06-01

    Addition of the essential oil of Hyssopus officinalis to the culture medium of Aspergillus fumigatus induced alterations in both growth and lipid composition of this mould. Total lipids and sterols were reduced, whereas total phospholipids were increased. There were alterations in the proportions of fatty acids, neutral lipid and phospholipid fractions. PMID:7935731

  16. FTIR spectroscopic evaluation of changes in the cellular biochemical composition of the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata induced by extracts of some Greek medicinal and aromatic plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skotti, Efstathia; Kountouri, Sophia; Bouchagier, Pavlos; Tsitsigiannis, Dimitrios I.; Polissiou, Moschos; Tarantilis, Petros A.

    2014-06-01

    In this study, the biological activity of aquatic extracts of selected Greek medicinal and aromatic plants to the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata was investigated. Lamiaceae species (Hyssopus officinalis L., Melissa officinalis L., Origanum dictamnus L., Origanum vulgare L. and Salvia officinalis L.) were found to enhance significantly the mycelium growth whereas Crocus sativus appears to inhibit it slightly. M. officinalis and S. officinalis caused the highest stimulation in mycelium growth (+97%) and conidia production (+65%) respectively. In order to further investigate the bioactivity of plant extracts to A. alternata, we employed Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Differences of original spectra were assigned mainly to amides of proteins. The second derivative transformation of spectra revealed changes in spectral regions corresponding to absorptions of the major cellular constituents such as cell membrane and proteins. Principal component analysis of the second derivative transformed spectra confirmed that fatty acids of the cell membranes, amides of proteins and polysaccharides of the cell wall had the major contribution to data variation. FTIR band area ratios were found to correlate with fungal mycelium growth.

  17. FTIR spectroscopic evaluation of changes in the cellular biochemical composition of the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata induced by extracts of some Greek medicinal and aromatic plants.

    PubMed

    Skotti, Efstathia; Kountouri, Sophia; Bouchagier, Pavlos; Tsitsigiannis, Dimitrios I; Polissiou, Moschos; Tarantilis, Petros A

    2014-06-01

    In this study, the biological activity of aquatic extracts of selected Greek medicinal and aromatic plants to the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata was investigated. Lamiaceae species (Hyssopus officinalis L., Melissa officinalis L., Origanum dictamnus L., Origanum vulgare L. and Salvia officinalis L.) were found to enhance significantly the mycelium growth whereas Crocus sativus appears to inhibit it slightly. M. officinalis and S. officinalis caused the highest stimulation in mycelium growth (+97%) and conidia production (+65%) respectively. In order to further investigate the bioactivity of plant extracts to A. alternata, we employed Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Differences of original spectra were assigned mainly to amides of proteins. The second derivative transformation of spectra revealed changes in spectral regions corresponding to absorptions of the major cellular constituents such as cell membrane and proteins. Principal component analysis of the second derivative transformed spectra confirmed that fatty acids of the cell membranes, amides of proteins and polysaccharides of the cell wall had the major contribution to data variation. FTIR band area ratios were found to correlate with fungal mycelium growth. PMID:24657421

  18. In vitro effects of Salvia officinalis L. essential oil on Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Sookto, Tularat; Srithavaj, Theerathavaj; Thaweboon, Sroisiri; Thaweboon, Boonyanit; Shrestha, Binit

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the anticandidal activities of Salvia officinalis L. (S. officinalis) essential oil against Candida albicans (C. albicans) and the inhibitory effects on the adhesion of C. albicans to polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) resin surface. Methods Disc diffusion method was first used to test the anticandidal activities of the S. officinalis L. essential oil against the reference strain (ATCC 90028) and 2 clinical strains of C. albicans. Then the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were determined by modified membrane method. The adhesion of C. albicans to PMMA resin surface was assessed after immersion with S. officinalis L. essential oil at various concentrations of 1×MIC, 0.5×MIC and 0.25×MIC at room temperature for 30 min. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the Candida cell adhesion with the pretreatment agents and Tukey's test was used for multiple comparisons. Results S. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited anticandidal activity against all strains of C. albicans with inhibition zone ranging from 40.5 mm to 19.5 mm. The MIC and MLC of the oil were determined as 2.780 g/L against all test strains. According to the effects on C. albicans adhesion to PMMA resin surface, it was found that immersion in the essential oil at concentrations of 1×MIC (2.780 g/L), 0.5×MIC (1.390 g/L) and 0.25×MIC (0.695 g/L) for 30 min significantly reduced the adhesion of all 3 test strains to PMMA resin surface in a dose dependent manner (P<0.05). Conclusions S. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited anticandidal activities against C. albicans and had inhibitory effects on the adhesion of the cells to PMMA resin surface. With further testing and development, S. officinalis essential oil may be used as an antifungal denture cleanser to prevent candidal adhesion and thus reduce the risk of candida-associated denture stomatitis. PMID:23646301

  19. Analysis of the interactions of multicomponents in Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc. with human serum albumin using on-line dialysis coupled with HPLC.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Han, Zhi-Ping; Wang, Yu-Ling; Gao, Yue; Zhang, Zhi-Qi

    2011-03-15

    Interactions of three iridoid glycosides extracted from Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc. (CIG) with protein were simultaneously explored by on-line dialysis sampling coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (DS-HPLC). Three main compounds in CIG were unequivocally identified as loganin, sweroside and cornuside by comparing their t(R), MS data and UV spectra with those of reference compounds. Dialysis recoveries and quantitative characteristics of DS-HPLC for three iridoid glycosides were determined. Recoveries of dialysis sampling ranged from 73.9 to 91.7% with the RSD below 3.0%. Based on the determination of concentrations before and after interaction with human serum albumin (HSA), the binding parameters of loganin, sweroside and cornuside with HSA were obtained and the binding mechanisms were investigated. PMID:21345748

  20. Honokiol Dimers and Magnolol Derivatives with New Carbon Skeletons from the Roots of Magnolia officinalis and Their Inhibitory Effects on Superoxide Anion Generation and Elastase Release

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hung-Chung; Kuo, Ping-Chung; Lee, E-Jian; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Wu, Tian-Shung

    2013-01-01

    Two honokiol dimers, houpulins A and B (1 and 2), and two magnolol derivatives, houpulins C and D (3 and 4), were isolated and characterized from an ethanol extract obtained from the roots of Magnolia officinalis. The chemical structures were determined based on spectroscopic and physicochemical analyses, which included 1D and 2D NMR, as well as mass spectrometry data. These four oligomers possess new carbon skeletons postulated to be biosynthesized from the coupling of three or four C6-C3 subunits. In addition, the new oligomers were evaluated for inhibition of superoxide anion generation and elastase release, and houpulin B (2) was identified as a new anti-inflammatory lead compound. PMID:23667420

  1. Tunisian Salvia officinalis L. and Schinus molle L. essential oils: their chemical compositions and their preservative effects against Salmonella inoculated in minced beef meat.

    PubMed

    Hayouni, El Akrem; Chraief, Imed; Abedrabba, Manaf; Bouix, Marielle; Leveau, Jean-Yves; Mohammed, Hammami; Hamdi, Moktar

    2008-07-31

    The essential oils (EOs) extracted from the aerial parts of cultivated Salvia officinalis L. and the berries of Schinus molle L. were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and 68 and 67 constituents were identified, respectively. The major constituents were 1,8-cineole (33.27%), beta-thujone (18.40%), alpha-thujone (13.45%), borneol (7.39%) in S. officinalis oil and alpha-phellandrene (35.86%), beta-phellandrene (29.3%), beta-pinene (15.68%), p-cymene (5.43%) and alpha-pinene (5.22%) in S. molle oil. In its second part, the present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of both studied EOs. For this purpose, paper disc-diffusion method and broth microdilution test were used. The disc-diffusion method showed significant zone of lysis against all the pathogens studied (gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, yeast). These activities remained stable after six months, and decreased approximately by 20% after one year of storage of the EOs at 4 to 7 degrees C. On comparing the efficiency of both EOs, S. officinalis EO exhibited higher antibacterial activity against the majority of strains and especially against Candida albicans (two fold more active according to the inhibition zones values). The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were reported between 4.5 mg/ml and 72 mg/ml on nutrient broth. The particular chemotype of each EO may be involved in its specific antimicrobial behaviour. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of these EOs were evaluated against two foodborne pathogens belonging to Salmonella genus, experimentally inoculated (10(3) CFU/g) in minced beef meat, which was mixed with different concentrations of the EO and stored at 4 to 7 degrees C for 15 days. Although the antibacterial activities of both EOs in minced beef meat were clearly evident, their addition had notable effects on the flavour and taste of the meat at concentrations more than 2% for S. molle and 1.5% for S. officinalis. One solution to

  2. Valeriana officinalis ameliorates vacuous chewing movements induced by reserpine in rats.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Romaiana Picada; Fachinetto, Roselei; de Souza Prestes, Alessandro; Wagner, Caroline; Sudati, Jéssie Haigert; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Morsch, Vera Maria; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira

    2011-11-01

    Oral movements are associated with important neuropathologies as Parkinson's disease and tardive dyskinesia. However, until this time, there has been no known efficacious treatment, without side effects, for these disorders. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the possible preventive effects of V. officinalis, a phytotherapic that has GABAergic and antioxidant properties, in vacuous chewing movements (VCMs) induced by reserpine in rats. Adult male rats were treated with reserpine (1 mg/kg, s.c.) and/or with V. officinalis (in the drinking water, starting 15 days before the administration of the reserpine). VCMs, locomotor activity and oxidative stress measurements were evaluated. Furthermore, we carried out the identification of valeric acid and gallic acid by HPLC in the V. officinalis tincture. Our findings demonstrated that reserpine caused a marked increase on VCMs and the co-treatment with V. officinalis was able to reduce the intensity of VCM. Reserpine did not induce oxidative stress in cerebral structures (cortex, hippocampus, striatum and substantia nigra). However, a significant positive correlation between DCF-oxidation (an estimation of oxidative stress) in the cortex and VCMs (p < 0.05) was observed. Moreover, a negative correlation between Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity in substantia nigra and the number of VCMs was observed (p < 0.05). In conclusion, V. officinalis had behavioral protective effect against reserpine-induced VCMs in rats; however, the exact mechanisms that contributed to this effect have not been completely understood. PMID:21476069

  3. De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing of Oryza officinalis Wall ex Watt to Identify Disease-Resistance Genes

    PubMed Central

    He, Bin; Gu, Yinghong; Tao, Xiang; Cheng, Xiaojie; Wei, Changhe; Fu, Jian; Cheng, Zaiquan; Zhang, Yizheng

    2015-01-01

    Oryza officinalis Wall ex Watt is one of the most important wild relatives of cultivated rice and exhibits high resistance to many diseases. It has been used as a source of genes for introgression into cultivated rice. However, there are limited genomic resources and little genetic information publicly reported for this species. To better understand the pathways and factors involved in disease resistance and accelerating the process of rice breeding, we carried out a de novo transcriptome sequencing of O. officinalis. In this research, 137,229 contigs were obtained ranging from 200 to 19,214 bp with an N50 of 2331 bp through de novo assembly of leaves, stems and roots in O. officinalis using an Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. Based on sequence similarity searches against a non-redundant protein database, a total of 88,249 contigs were annotated with gene descriptions and 75,589 transcripts were further assigned to GO terms. Candidate genes for plant–pathogen interaction and plant hormones regulation pathways involved in disease-resistance were identified. Further analyses of gene expression profiles showed that the majority of genes related to disease resistance were all expressed in the three tissues. In addition, there are two kinds of rice bacterial blight-resistant genes in O. officinalis, including two Xa1 genes and three Xa26 genes. All 2 Xa1 genes showed the highest expression level in stem, whereas one of Xa26 was expressed dominantly in leaf and other 2 Xa26 genes displayed low expression level in all three tissues. This transcriptomic database provides an opportunity for identifying the genes involved in disease-resistance and will provide a basis for studying functional genomics of O. officinalis and genetic improvement of cultivated rice in the future. PMID:26690414

  4. Antileishmanial activity and mechanism of action from a purified fraction of Zingiber officinalis Roscoe against Leishmania amazonensis.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Mariana C; Tavares, Grasiele S V; Valadares, Diogo G; Lage, Daniela P; Ribeiro, Tatiana G; Lage, Letícia M R; Rodrigues, Marcella R; Faraco, André A G; Soto, Manuel; da Silva, Eduardo S; Chávez Fumagalli, Miguel A; Tavares, Carlos A P; Leite, João Paulo V; Oliveira, Jamil S; Castilho, Rachel O; Coelho, Eduardo A F

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, considerable attention has been given to identify new antileishmanial products derived from medicinal plants, although, to date, no new effective compound has been recently applied to treat leishmaniasis. In the present study, the antileishmanial activity of a water extract from Zingiber officinalis Roscoe (ginger) was investigated and a purified fraction, named F10, was identified as responsible by this biological activity. The chemical characterization performed for this fraction showed that it is mainly composed by flavonoids and saponins. The water extract and the F10 fraction presented IC50 values of 125.5 and 49.8 μg/mL, respectively. Their selectivity indexes (SI) were calculated and values were seven and 40 times higher, respectively, in relation to the value found for amphotericin B, which was used as a control. Additional studies were performed to evaluate the toxicity of these compounds in human red blood cells, besides of the production of nitrite, as an indicator of nitric oxide (NO), in treated and infected macrophages. The results showed that both F10 fraction and water extract were not toxic to human cells, and they were able to stimulate the nitrite production, with values of 13.6 and 5.4 μM, respectively, suggesting that their biological activity could be due to macrophages activation via NO production. In conclusion, the present study shows that a purified fraction from ginger could be evaluated in future works as a therapeutic alternative, on its own or in association with other drugs, to treat disease caused by L. amazonensis. PMID:27013260

  5. Studies on Emblica officinalis Derived Tannins for Their Immunostimulatory and Protective Activities against Coccidiosis in Industrial Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Kaleem, Qari Muhammad; Akhtar, Masood; Awais, Mian Muhammad; Saleem, Muhammad; Zafar, Muddassar; Iqbal, Zafar; Muhammad, Faqir

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports the effect of Emblica officinalis (EO) derived tannins on humoral immune responses and their protective efficacy against Eimeria infection in chickens. Tannins were extracted from EO and characterized by HPLC. EO derived tannins (EOT) and commercial tannins (CT) were orally administered in broiler chicks in graded doses for three consecutive days, that is, 5th-7th days of age. On day 14 after administration of tannins, humoral immune response was detected against sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) by haemagglutination assay. Protective efficacy of tannins was measured against coccidial infection, induced by Eimeria species. Results revealed higher geomean titers against SRBCs in chickens administered with EOT as compared to those administered with CT and control group. Mean oocysts per gram of droppings were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in EOT administered chickens as compared to control group. Lesion scoring also showed the lowest caecal and intestinal lesion score of mild to moderate intensity in chickens administered with EOT. Further, significantly higher (P < 0.05) daily body weight gains and antibody titers were detected in EOT administered chickens as compared to those of CT administered and control groups. EOT showed the immunostimulatory properties in broilers and their administration in chickens boost the protective immunity against coccidiosis. PMID:24578631

  6. Chemical composition and biological activity of essential oils of Dracocephalum heterophyllum and Hyssopus officinalis from Western Himalaya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The essential oils of two representatives of the Lamiaceae-family, Dracocephalum heterophyllum Benth. and Hyssopus officinalis L., are described for their antifungal, antibacterial and larvicidal as well as biting deterrent activities. Additionally, the essential oils’ chemical compositions, analyze...

  7. Antioxidant effect and study of bioactive components of Valeriana sisymbriifolia and Nardostachys jatamansii in comparison to Valeriana officinalis.

    PubMed

    Dugaheh, Mehdi Ansari; Meisami, Faramarz; Torabian, Zahra; Sharififar, Fariba

    2013-01-01

    The roots of Nardostachys jatamansi have been used as a substitute for valerian in Iranian traditions. Moreover, six species from Valeriana genus such as V. sisymbriifolia grow in Iran which has not been studied yet. We aimed to study of antioxidant effect of Valeriana officinalis, Nardostachys jatamansi and Valeriana sisymbriifolia and comparing their content of valerenic acid and valepotriate. Antioxidant effect was evaluated using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) inhibition and beta carotene-bleaching assays. Identification of valepotriates was achieved using chemical and TLC method. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of valerenic acid was performed using TLC and spectrophotometry methods. Among the tested samples, V. Officinalis showed the highest DPPH inhibition effect with IC(50) value of 38mg/mL. All of the tested plants potentially inhibited beta-carotene oxidation. The calibration curve of authentic valerenic acid was linear in the range of 2-51 mg L(-1). The most and least amount of valepotraites was detectable in V. officinalis and V. sisymbriifolia respectively. Total valerenic acid in different plant species ranged from 0.02% in V. sisymbriifolia to 0.07% (w/w) in V. Officinalis. Our results indicated that all three tested plants contain different amount of valepotriates and valerenic acid. The highest percentage of valepotriates and valerenic acid was detectable in V. officinalis. Overall can conclude that N. jatamansii and V. sisymbriifolia would be a good candidate for substitutation of V. officinalis with noticeable antioxidant effect. PMID:23261727

  8. In Vitro Antibacterial and Antibiotic Resistance Modifying Effect of Bioactive Plant Extracts on Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis

    PubMed Central

    Chovanová, Romana; Vaverková, Štefánia

    2013-01-01

    The crude extracts of plants from Asteraceae and Lamiaceae family and essential oils from Salvia officinalis and Salvia sclarea were studied for their antibacterial as well as antibiotic resistance modifying activity. Using disc diffusion and broth microdilution assays we determined higher antibacterial effect of three Salvia spp. and by evaluating the leakage of 260 nm absorbing material we detected effect of extracts and, namely, of essential oils on the disruption of cytoplasmic membrane. The evaluation of in vitro interactions between plant extracts and oxacillin described in terms of fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices revealed synergistic or additive effects of plant extracts and clearly synergistic effects of essential oil from Salvia officinalis with oxacillin in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis. PMID:24222768

  9. The effect of preparation procedures on the morphology of melanin from the ink sac of Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Simon, John D

    2003-02-01

    The structure of melanin extracted from the ink sac of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis was examined for different methods of isolation and purification of the pigment. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of Sepia eumelanin prepared by different procedures establish that multi-microm-sized aggregates reported by previous workers are generated by their sample preparation, and that the dominant constituents of Sepia melanin are approximately 150 nm spherical granules. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) measurements reveal that Sepia eumelanin from Sigma (prepared by spray drying the pigment) has a surface area of 14.3 m2/g. Pigment extracted directly from the fresh ink sac and then freeze-dried has a surface area of 21.5 m2/g, while CO2-supercritically dried has a surface area of 37.5 m2/g. This is consistent with SEM images showing that the process of freeze-drying produces aggregates, but to a lesser extent than spray drying. Supercritical drying of the sample produces suspensions of the individual approximately 150 nm granule, which is more reflective of the natural pigment. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area analysis and Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) pore volume analysis indicate that the surface of the granules is not smooth and the interior of the granules is not porous, but rather the aggregates of granules are porous. Ultra-high resolution SEM and atomic force microscopy (AFM) images show the granules are easily deformed and are comprised of smaller constituents. De-aggregation of the granules by sonication and ultra-filtration reveal a range of structures depending on the pore size of the membrane used. The implications of these results on quantifying photochemical properties and kinetic reaction rate constants of melanin are discussed. PMID:12519128

  10. Systemic administration of Rosmarinus officinalis attenuates the inflammatory response induced by carrageenan in the mouse model of pleurisy.

    PubMed

    da Rosa, Julia Salvan; Facchin, Bruno Matheus; Bastos, Juliana; Siqueira, Mariana Araújo; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu; Dalmarco, Eduardo Monguilhott; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Fröde, Tânia Silvia

    2013-11-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis, also named rosemary, is a native plant from the Mediterranean region that is useful for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Studies using experimental models and/or in vitro tests have shown the important biological effects of rosemary. In this context, the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory activity of rosemary must be investigated to support the discovery of new substances with anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of crude extract oil free obtained from the leaves of rosemary in an animal model of inflammation, thus evaluating its medicinal use for the treatment of inflammatory conditions. Also its ethanol, hexane, and ethyl acetate fractions, as well as its isolated compounds carnosol and rosmarinic acid were analyzed. Swiss mice were used for the in vivo experiments. The effect of this herb on the inhibition of the leukocytes, exudation, myeloperoxidase, and adenosine-deaminase activities, nitrite/nitrate, interleukin 17A, and interleukin 10 levels and mRNA expression was determined. The crude extract and its derived fractions, in addition to its isolated compounds, inhibited leukocytes and decreased exudation and myeloperoxidase and adenosine-deaminase activities, as well as nitrite/nitrate and interleukin 17A levels and mRNA expression, besides increasing interleukin 10 levels and mRNA expression. Rosemary showed important anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting leukocytes and decreasing exudation. These effects were associated with a decrease in the proinflammatory parameters (myeloperoxidase, adenosine-deaminase, nitrite/nitrate, and interleukin 17A) and an increase in the anti-inflammatory cytokine (interleukin 10). This study confirms the anti-inflammatory properties of rosemary and validates its use in folk medicine to treat inflammatory diseases such as rheumatism and asthma. PMID:24288274

  11. Phytochemical Variations and Enhanced Efficiency of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Ingredients in Salvia officinalis as Inoculated with Different Rhizobacteria.

    PubMed

    Ghorbanpour, Mansour; Hatami, Mehrnaz; Kariman, Khalil; Abbaszadeh Dahaji, Payman

    2016-03-01

    Plants produce a variety of secondary metabolites to improve their performance upon exposure to pathogens, pests, herbivores, or environmental stresses. Secondary metabolism in plants is, therefore, highly regulated by presence of biotic or abiotic elicitors in the environment. The present research was undertaken to characterize plant growth-promoting attributes of four plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) including two Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf Ap1, Pf Ap18) and two P. putida (Pp Ap9, Pp Ap14) strains, and to determine their role (individually or in consortium) on growth of Salvia officialis, and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites such as essential oils (EOs), total phenolics, and flavonoids. The antioxidant and antibacterial properties of the extracts and EOs obtained from the inoculated plants were also investigated. The PGPR inoculum was applied to soil, cuttings, and foliage. Results indicated that different PGPR strains varied in their efficiency for production of auxin, siderophore, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase, and phosphate solubilization. All individually inoculated plants had significantly higher shoot and root biomass, leaf P content, EOs yield, total phenolics, and flavonoids content compared to uninoculated control plants. The major constituents of EOs, cis-thujene, camphor, and 1,8-cineol, increased following inoculation with reference PGPRs. Although the extract from all inoculated plants had improved antioxidant activity, it was remarkable for the Pf Ap18 strain, which had the lowest IC50 value across treatments. Antibacterial assay of various EOs and their major constituents against pathogenic bacteria showed that the highest activity was observed against Staphylococcus aureus using EOs of Pp Ap14 source. Based on our findings, we suggest that individual inoculation with effective PGPR strains can substantially improve plant growth and secondary metabolism in S. officinalis plants. PMID:26916832

  12. High-performance liquid chromatographic characterization of some medical plant extracts used in cosmetic formulas.

    PubMed

    Schulz, H; Albroscheit, G

    1988-06-17

    Rapid and reliable methods are presented for the characterization of biologically active and/or characteristic constituents in aqueous extracts of Hamamelis virginiana, Matricaria chamomilla, Achillea millefolium, Thymus vulgaris, Althaea officinalis and Cinchonia spp. Prior to high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) separation a clean-up step was performed using a solid-phase extraction system. The purified extracts were analysed by HPLC coupled with a diode-array detector and a fluorescence detector. In some instances, previously unreported components of the aqueous plant extracts were found. PMID:3417826

  13. Melissa officinalis L. decoctions as functional beverages: a bioactive approach and chemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Carocho, Márcio; Barros, Lillian; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Ćirić, Ana; Soković, Marina; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Morales, Patricia; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-07-01

    Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) is a member of the Lamiaceae family with a long story of human consumption. It has been consumed for decades, directly in food and as a decoction or an infusion for its medicinal purposes. In this manuscript, a detailed chemical characterization of the decoction of this plant is described, encompassing antimicrobial, antioxidant and antitumor activities. Rosmarinic acid and lithospermic acid A were the most abundant phenolic compounds. Quinic acid, fructose, glucose and γ-tocopherol were the most abundant within their groups of molecules. M. officinalis decoctions were active against a wide range of microorganisms, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhimurium, and Penicillium funiculosum being the most sensitive bacteria and fungi, respectively. The growth inhibition of different human tumor cell lines (mainly MCF-7 and HepG2) was also observed, as also high free radical scavenging activity and reducing power. This manuscript highlights some beneficial effects of these functional beverages. PMID:26075899

  14. Purification and spectroscopic studies on catechol oxidase from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis).

    PubMed

    Rompel, Annette; Büldt-Karentzopoulos, Klaudia; Molitor, Christian; Krebs, Bernt

    2012-09-01

    A catechol oxidase from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) moCO which only catalyzes the oxidation of catechols to quinones without hydroxylating tyrosine was purified. The molecular mass of the M. officinalis enzyme of 39,370 Da was obtained by MALDI mass spectrometry and the isoelectric point was determined to be 3.4. Addition of 2 eq. H(2)O(2) to the enzyme leads to oxy catechol oxidase. In the UV/Vis spectrum two new absorption bands occur at 343 nm (ε=8510 M(-1)cm(-1)) and 580 nm (ε=580 M(-1)cm(-1)) due to O(2)(2-)Cu (II) charge transfer transitions in accordance with the oxy forms of other type 3 copper proteins. The N-terminal sequence has been determined by Edman degradation to NPVQAPELDKCGTAT, exhibiting a proline at the second and sixth position conserved in other polyphenol oxidases. PMID:22727580

  15. Antiplasmodial activity of ethanolic extracts of some selected medicinal plants from the northwest of Iran.

    PubMed

    Sangian, Hadi; Faramarzi, Hossein; Yazdinezhad, Alireza; Mousavi, Seyed Javad; Zamani, Zahra; Noubarani, Maryam; Ramazani, Ali

    2013-11-01

    The effectiveness of antimalarial drugs is declining at an ever accelerating rate, with consequent increase in malaria-related morbidity and mortality. The newest antiplasmodial drug from plants is needed to overcome this problem. The aim of this study was to assess antimalarial activity of the ethanolic extracts of 10 different medicinal plants from eight families against Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 strain. The selection of the hereby studied plants was based on the existing information on their local ethnobotanic history. Plants were dried, powdered, and macerated in a hydroalcoholic solution. Resulting extracts have been assessed for in vitro and in vivo antimalarial and brine shrimp toxicity activities. Of 10 plant species tested, four plants: Althea officinalis L. (Malvaceae), Myrtus communis Linn (Myrtaceae), Plantago major (Plantaginaceae), and Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Papilionaceae) displayed promising antimalarial activity in vitro (50% inhibitory concentration values of 62.77, 42.18, 40.00, and 13.56 μg/mL, respectively) with no toxicity against brine shrimp larvae. The crude extracts of three active plants, G. glabra, M. communis, and A. officinalis, also significantly reduced parasitemia in vivo in female Swiss albino mice at a dose of 400 mg/kg compared to no treatment. Antiplasmodial activities of extracts of A. officinalis and M. communis are reported for the first time. PMID:23922204

  16. Two New Oxindole Alkaloid Glycosides from the Leaves of Nauclea officinalis.

    PubMed

    Fan, Long; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Fan, Chun-Lin; Li, Guo-Qiang; Wu, Zhen-Long; Li, Shuo-Guo; He, Zhen-Dan; Wang, Ying; Ye, Wen-Cai

    2015-12-01

    Two new oxindole alkaloid glycosides, nauclealomide A and (3S,7R)-javaniside, were isolated from the leaves of Nauclea officinalis. Their structures and absolute configurations were elucidated by means of NMR, HRESIMS, X-ray diffraction, acid hydrolysis and quantum chemical CD calculation. Nauclealomide A is a novel monoterpenoid oxindole alkaloid possessing a rare tetrahydro-2H-1,3-oxazine ring. PMID:26882671

  17. Volvalerine A, an unprecedented N-containing sesquiterpenoid dimer derivative from Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng-Cheng; Ran, Xin-Hui; Luo, Huai-Rong; Ma, Qing-Yun; Zhou, Jun; Hu, Jiang-Miao; Zhao, You-Xing

    2016-03-01

    Volvalerine A (1), a novel N-containing bisesquiterpenoid derivative with a dihydroisoxazole ring, and its possible biosynthetic precursor, 1-hydroxy-1,11,11-trimethyldecahydrocyclopropane azulene-10-one (2), were isolated from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia. Their structures and relative configurations were identified using spectroscopic data and X-ray crystallography. A plausible biosynthetic pathway for 1 is also presented. PMID:26779941

  18. Distribution of flavone glycoside diosmin in Hyssopus officinalis plants: changes during growth.

    PubMed

    Marin, F R; Ortuño, A; Benavente-Garcia, O; Del Rio, J A

    1998-03-01

    A study of the flavonoid composition of Hyssopus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) plants using high-performance liquid chromatography and NMR spectroscopy revealed the presence of diosmin as the major flavone. The maximum levels of this secondary compound are located in sepals and leaves, which represent 51 and 40.5%, respectively, of the total content of diosmin in whole plant. The presence of isoferulyl D-glucose ester in this plant material was also revealed. PMID:17253233

  19. Evaluating the effect of zingiber officinalis on nausea and vomiting in patients receiving Cisplatin based regimens.

    PubMed

    Fahimi, Fanak; Khodadad, Kian; Amini, Somayeh; Naghibi, Farzaneh; Salamzadeh, Jamshid; Baniasadi, Shadi

    2011-01-01

    Ginger, the rhizome of Zingiber officinalis, has long been used as herbal medicine for its antiemetic effect. For evaluating the effect of zingiber officinalis on nausea and vomiting (N and V) in patients receiving cisplatin based regimens, a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over clinical trial was carried out in patients receiving cisplatin in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents. The patients were randomly assigned to receive ginger capsules (rhizome of zingiber officinalis) or placebo in their first cycle of the study. All patients received standard antiemetics for chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). The patients were crossed-over to receive ginger or placebo in their next cycle of chemotherapy. Among 36 eligible patients who received both cycles of treatment, there were no difference in prevalence, severity, and duration of both acute and delayed N and V. Addition of ginger to the standard antiemetic regimen has shown no advantage in reducing acute and delayed N and V in patients with cisplatin-based regimen in this study. PMID:24250368

  20. Cloning, prokaryotic expression and functional analysis of squalene synthase (SQS) in Magnolia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Zha, Liangping; Liu, Shuang; Su, Ping; Yuan, Yuan; Huang, Luqi

    2016-04-01

    Magnolia officinalis Rehder et Wilson is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine that is used to treat various diseases such as neurosis, anxiety, and stroke. The main secondary metabolites in magnolia bark are phenolic compounds and terpenoids. Squalene synthase plays a significant role in catalyzing two farnesyl diphosphate molecules to form squalene, the first precursor of triterpenoid, phytosterol, and cholesterol biosynthesis. In this study, a full-length cDNA of squalene synthase was cloned from M. officinalis and designated MoSQS (GenBank accession no. KT223496). The gene contains a 1240-bp open reading frame and it encodes a protein with 409 amino acids. Bioinformatic and phylogenetic analysis clearly suggested that MoSQS shared high similarity with squalene synthases among other plants. Prokaryotic expression showed that a transmembrane domain-deleted (385-409 aa) MoSQS mutant (MoSQSΔTM) could be expressed in its soluble form in Escherichia coli Transetta (DE3). GC-MS analysis showed that squalene was detected in an in vitro reaction mixture. These results indicated that MoSQSΔTM was functional, thereby establishing an important foundation for the study of triterpenoid biosynthesis in M. officinalis. PMID:26696600

  1. Neuroprotective properties of Melissa officinalis after hypoxic-ischemic injury both in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Brain ischemia initiates several metabolic events leading to neuronal death. These events mediate large amount of damage that arises after some neurodegenerative disorders as well as transient brain ischemia. Melissa officinalis is considered as a helpful herbal plant in the prevention of various neurological diseases like Alzheimer that is related with oxidative stress. Methods We examined the effect of Melissa officinalis on hypoxia induced neuronal death in a cortical neuronal culture system as in vitro model and transient hippocampal ischemia as in vivo model. Transient hippocampal ischemia was induced in male rats by tow vessel-occlusion for 20 min. After reperfusion, the histopathological changes and the levels inflammation, oxidative stress status, and caspase-3 activity in hippocampus were measured. Results Cytotoxicity assays showed a significant protection of a 10 μg/ml dose of Melissa against hypoxia in cultured neurons which was confirmed by a conventional staining (P<0.05). Melissa treatment decrease caspase3 activity (P<0.05) and TUNEL-positive cells significantly (P<0.01). Melissa oil has also inhibited malon dialdehyde level and attenuated decrease of Antioxidant Capacity in the hippocampus. Pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β and HIF-1α mRNA levels were highly increased after ischemia and treatment with Melissa significantly suppressed HIF-1α gene expression (P<0.05). Discussion Results showed that Melissa officinalis could be considered as a protective agent in various neurological diseases associated with ischemic brain injury. PMID:23351182

  2. Evaluating the Effect of Zingiber Officinalis on Nausea and Vomiting in Patients Receiving Cisplatin Based Regimens

    PubMed Central

    Fahimi, Fanak; Khodadad, Kian; Amini, Somayeh; Naghibi, Farzaneh; Salamzadeh, Jamshid; Baniasadi, Shadi

    2011-01-01

    Ginger, the rhizome of Zingiber officinalis, has long been used as herbal medicine for its antiemetic effect. For evaluating the effect of zingiber officinalis on nausea and vomiting (N and V) in patients receiving cisplatin based regimens, a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over clinical trial was carried out in patients receiving cisplatin in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents. The patients were randomly assigned to receive ginger capsules (rhizome of zingiber officinalis) or placebo in their first cycle of the study. All patients received standard antiemetics for chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). The patients were crossed-over to receive ginger or placebo in their next cycle of chemotherapy. Among 36 eligible patients who received both cycles of treatment, there were no difference in prevalence, severity, and duration of both acute and delayed N and V. Addition of ginger to the standard antiemetic regimen has shown no advantage in reducing acute and delayed N and V in patients with cisplatin-based regimen in this study. PMID:24250368

  3. Suppression of COX-2, IL-1β and TNF-α expression and leukocyte infiltration in inflamed skin by bioactive compounds from Rosmarinus officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Mengoni, Eleonora S; Vichera, Gabriel; Rigano, Luciano A; Rodriguez-Puebla, Marcelo L; Galliano, Silvia R; Cafferata, Eduardo E; Pivetta, Omar H; Moreno, Sivia; Vojnov, Adrián A

    2011-04-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the effects of extracts and purified compounds from fresh leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Pretreatment with the major anti-inflammatory compounds, carnosic acid (CA) and carnosol (CS), inhibited phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced ear inflammation in mice with an EC(50) of 10.20 μg/cm(2) and 10.70 μg/cm(2), respectively. To further understand the anti-inflammatory mechanism of these compounds, we analyzed the in vivo expression of several inflammation-associated genes in mouse skin by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Our data showed that CA and CS reduced the expression of IL-1β and TNF-α but had less effect on fibronectin and ICAM-1 expression. Interestingly, both compounds selectively inhibited COX-2 but not COX-1. Histopathological analysis of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained tissue revealed a marked reduction in leukocyte infiltration and epidermal ulceration of PMA-treated ears when ears were pretreated with ethanolic extracts or pure CA. In vitro, we showed that ethanolic extract, carnosic acid and carnosol significantly inhibited the overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) in a dose-dependent manner in the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line. For the first time in vivo, we showed that CA and CS differentially regulate the expression of inflammation-associated genes, thus demonstrating the pharmacological basis for the anti-inflammatory properties reported for CA and CS. PMID:21129455

  4. Morphology and polymorphic phase changes of calcium carbonate micro/nanocrystals using fruit extracts.

    PubMed

    Ankamwar, Balaprasad

    2011-05-01

    This study reveals the morphology and polymorphic phase changes of calcium carbonate crystals into a mixture of calcite and aragonite micro/nanocrystals of interesting morphology at room temperature by a simple reaction with fruit extracts of Tamarindus indica and Emblica officinalis respectively by mixing CaCO3 solutions with their corresponding extracts. The control experiments were carried out to establish the plausible role of tartaric acid from Tamarindus indica and ascorbic acid from Emblica officinalis in this regard. The quantitative determination of CaCO3 phases was done based on the use of intensities obtained from corresponding XRD spectrum. The molar % of aragonite was found to be more in case of TA and AA rather than TI and EO respectively, however the calcite was observed to be the predominant phase in all four reactions. Interestingly, the TI changes the rhombohedral morphology of calcite to elongated rods, whereas EO induces a great polymorphic phase change. PMID:21780397

  5. Antimicrobial effect of extracts from Chinese chive, cinnamon, and corni fructus.

    PubMed

    Mau, J; Chen, C; Hsieh, P

    2001-01-01

    Extracts were prepared from Chinese chive (Allium tuberosum), cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia), and corni fructus (Cornus officinalis) and used to evaluate their antimicrobial activity on common foodborne microorganisms, alone and in combination. The mixed extract, consisting of three extracts in equal volumes, showed an entire antimicrobial spectrum and had excellent stability to heat, pH, and storage. The mixed extract exhibited better inhibition on growth of Escherichia coli than potassium sorbate at 2-5 mg/mL. The mixed extract inhibited the growth of Pichia membranaefaciens at levels as low as 2 mg/mL. When the mixed extract was used in foods, the expected antimicrobial effect in orange juice, pork, and milk was observed. After gel filtration chromatography, each extract was partially purified into fractions, and one fraction in each extract showed enhanced antimicrobial activity. Overall, the mixed extract was of promising potential for incorporation into various food products for which a natural antimicrobial additive is desired. PMID:11170575

  6. Molecular phylogeny of the genus Asparagus (Asparagaceae) explains interspecific crossability between the garden asparagus (A. officinalis) and other Asparagus species.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Shosei; Konno, Itaru; Kanno, Akira

    2012-02-01

    The genus Asparagus comprises approximately 200 species, some of which are commercially cultivated, such as the garden asparagus (A. officinalis). Many Asparagus species, including A. officinalis, are dioecious and have been grouped into a subgenus distinct from that of hermaphroditic species. Although many interspecific crossings have been attempted to introduce useful traits into A. officinalis, only some of the dioecious species were found to be cross-compatible with A. officinalis. Here, molecular phylogenetic analyses were conducted to determine whether interspecific crossability is proportional to the genetic distance between the crossing pairs and to further clarify the evolutionary history of the Asparagus genus. A clade with all cross-compatible species and no cross-incompatible species was recovered in the phylogenetic tree based on analyses of non-coding cpDNA regions. In addition, a sex-linked marker developed for A. officinalis amplified a male-specific region in all cross-compatible species. The phylogenetic analyses also provided some insights about the evolutionary history of Asparagus; for example, by indicating that the genus had its origin in southern Africa, subsequently spreading throughout the old world through intensive speciation and dispersal. The results also suggest that dioecious species were derived from a single evolutionary transition from hermaphroditism in Asparagus. These findings not only contribute towards the understanding of the evolutionary history of the genus but may also facilitate future interspecific hybridization programs involving Asparagus species. PMID:21947345

  7. Antiangiogenic-Like Properties of Fermented Extracts of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants.

    PubMed

    Rabhi, Chérif; Arcile, Guillaume; Cariel, Léon; Lenoir, Christine; Bignon, Jérome; Wdzieczak-Bakala, Joanna; Ouazzani, Jamal

    2015-09-01

    The three ayurvedic medicinal plants, Withania somnifera, Emblica officinalis, and Bacopa monnieri, were extracted by high-pressure static extraction using the Zippertex(®) technology. The extracts were mixed to reach quantifiable amounts of active compounds identified by high-pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) analysis. The mixture of extracts was incubated with resting cells of the fungus Beauveria bassiana ATCC 7159. The fermentation promoted the fluidization of the starting dense mixture, while HPLC monitoring evidenced the disappearance of glucogallin from E. officinalis extract and the concomitant increase in gallic acid content. Topical exposure of the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) to the nonfermented extract led to the extensive necrosis and destruction of the treated membrane. However, the fermented extract was shown to be free of any toxicity. Furthermore, compared with the untreated CAM, the fermented sample reduced CAM vascularization, suggesting its antiangiogenic potency. The innocuity of the fermented extract was demonstrated using the in vivo LD50 test, the morphological examination of internal organs of treated rats, as well as the evaluation of blood biomarkers of liver damage (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase). The fermented extract was developed as a nutraceutical antiangiogenic treatment of age-related macular degeneration and commercialized in an oral form named Ethnodyne-Visio™. PMID:25608021

  8. In Vitro Screening for Anti-Cholinesterase and Antioxidant Activity of Methanolic Extracts of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants Used for Cognitive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Maya; Subramanian, Sarada

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is still considered as the main therapeutic strategy against Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Many plant derived phytochemicals have shown AChE inhibitory activity in addition to the currently approved drugs for AD. In the present study, methanolic extracts of 20 plants used in Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine for improving cognitive function were screened for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity by Ellman’s microplate colorimetric method. Out of 20 extracts, Emblica officinalis, Nardostachys jatamansi, Nelumbo nucifera, Punica granatum and Raulfia Serpentina showed IC50 values <100 µg/ml for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Antioxidant activities of these plants were assessed by DPPH scavenging assay. Among the extracts used, antioxidant activity was highest for Terminalia chebula and Emblica officinalis with IC50 values <10 µg/ml. Considering the complex multifactorial etiology of AD, these plant extracts will be safer and better candidates for the future disease modifying therapies against this devastating disease. PMID:24466247

  9. A study of the electrical polarization of Sepia officinalis yolk envelope, a role for Na+/K+-ATPases in osmoregulation?

    PubMed Central

    Bonnaud, Laure; Franko, Delphine; Vouillot, Léna; Bouteau, François

    2013-01-01

    The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis mate and spawn in the intertidal zone where eggs are exposed during low tide to osmotic stress. Embryonic outer yolk sac is a putative site for osmoregulation of young S. officinalis embryos. By using electrophysiological recordings and immunostaining we showed, (i) that the chorion is only a passive barrier for ions, since large molecules could not pass through it, (ii) that a complex transepithelial potential difference occurs through the yolk epithelium, (iii) that ionocyte-like cells and Na+/K+-ATPases were localized in the yolk epithelium and (iv) that ouabain sensitive Na+/K+-ATPase activity could participate to this yolk polarization. These data warrant further study on the role of ion transport systems of this epithelium in the osmoregulation processes in S. officinalis embryos. PMID:24505501

  10. Chemical composition and biological activity of essential oils of Dracocephalum heterophyllum and Hyssopus officinalis from Western Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Stappen, Iris; Wanner, Jürgen; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Wedge, David E; Ali, Abbas; Kaul, Vijay K; Lal, Brij; Jaitak, Vikas; Gochev, Velizar K; Schmidt, Erich; Jirovetz, Leopold

    2015-01-01

    The essential oils of two representatives of the Lamiaceae, Dracocephalum heterophyllum Benth. and Hyssopus officinalis L., are described for their antifungal, antibacterial, larvicidal and inect biting deterrent activities. Additionally, the chemical compositions of the essential oils, analyzed by simultaneous GC-MS and GC-FID, and odor descriptions are given. The main components of H. officinalis oil were pinocarvone, cis-pinocamphone, and β-pinene. Citronellol was found as the main compound of D. heterophyllum essential oil. Antibacterial testing by agar dilution assay revealed greater activity of D. heterophyllum against Staphylococcus aureus compared with H. officinalis. D. heterophyllum essential oil also showed promising antifungal activity against Colletotrichum species and was more toxic to Aedes aegypti larvae in a larvicial bioassay. Both essential oils showed high activity in the biting deterrent bioassay. PMID:25920235

  11. Herbicides for Calendula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rising need for replacements for volatile organic compounds (VOC), which are used in the manufacture of paints, plastics, pesticides, etc., has placed demands on drying oils that may not be met by current sources. The primary source is eleostearic acid, or tung oil, which is derived from the see...

  12. Salvia officinalis for hot flushes: towards determination of mechanism of activity and active principles.

    PubMed

    Rahte, Sinikka; Evans, Richard; Eugster, Philippe J; Marcourt, Laurence; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Tasdemir, Deniz

    2013-06-01

    Herbal medicinal products are commonly used in alternative treatment of menopausal hot flushes. In a recent clinical study, Salvia officinalis tincture was found to reduce hot flush frequency and intensity. The aim of the current study was the investigation of the mechanism(s) responsible for the anti-hot flush activity of S. officinalis and determination of its active principle(s). The 66% ethanolic tincture, as well as the n-hexane, CHCl₃, and aqueous ethanolic subextracts obtained from the tincture were studied in vitro for two of the most relevant activities, estrogenicity and selective serotonin reuptake inhibition. Because of an increased risk of menopausal women to suffer from Alzheimer's disease, an in vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibition assay was also employed. No activity was observed in the selective serotonin reuptake inhibition or the acetylcholinesterase inhibition assays at the highest test concentrations. The tincture showed no estrogenic effects whereas the aqueous ethanolic subextract exhibited estrogenicity in the ERLUX assay with an EC₅₀ value of 64 µg/mL. Estrogenic activity-guided fractionation of the aqueous ethanolic subextract by a combination of reverse-phase vacuum liquid chromatography and gel chromatography identified luteolin-7-O-glucuronide (EC₅₀ 129 µg/mL) as the active component of the vacuum liquid chromatography fraction 4 (EC₅₀ 69 µg/mL). Luteolin-7-O-glucoside was identified as the putative estrogenic principle of the most potent minor fraction (7.6.7.6, EC₅₀ 0.7 µg/mL) obtained from the initial vacuum liquid chromatography fraction 7 (EC₅₀ 3 µg/mL). This study suggests the involvement of common and ubiquitous estrogenic flavonoids in the anti-hot flush effect of Salvia officinalis, a safe and commonly used herbal medicinal product during the menopause. PMID:23670626

  13. Anthraquinone compounds from Morinda officinalis inhibit osteoclastic bone resorption in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bao, Leilei; Qin, Luping; Liu, Lei; Wu, Yanbin; Han, Ting; Xue, Liming; Zhang, Qiaoyan

    2011-11-15

    The root of Morinda officinalis has been claimed to have a protective effect against bone loss in sciatic neurectomized and ovariectomized osteoporotic rats, and this protective effect is supposed to be attributed to anthraquinone compounds in the plant. In the present study, we investigated the effects of three anthraquinones isolated from M. officinalis, including 1, 3, 8-trihydroxy-2-methoxy-anthraquinone (1), 2-hydroxy-1-methoxy-anthraquinone (2) and rubiadin (3) on bone resorption activity in vitro and the mechanism on osteoclasts derived from rat bone marrow cells. Compound 1, 2 and 3 decreased the formation of bone resorption pits, the number of multinucleated osteoclasts, and the activity of tartrate resistant acid phosphates (TRAP) and cathepsin K in the coculture system of osteoblasts and bone marrow cells in the presence of 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamine D(3) and dexamethasone. They also enhanced the apoptosis of osteoclasts induced from bone marrow cells with M-CSF and RANKL. In addition, Compound 1, 2 and 3 improved the ratio of mRNA and protein expression of OPG and RANKL in osteoblasts, interfered with the JNK and NF-κB signal pathway, and reduced the expression of calcitonin receptor (CTR) and carbonic anhydrase/II (CA II) in osteoclasts induced from bone marrow cells with M-CSF and RANKL. These findings indicate that the anthraquinone compounds from M. officinalis are potential inhibitors of bone resorption, and may also serve as evidence to explain the mechanism of the inhibitory effects of some other reported anthraquinones on bone loss. PMID:21945525

  14. Chemical compositions and antioxidant properties of essential oils from nine species of Turkish plants obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and steam distillation.

    PubMed

    Topal, Ummihan; Sasaki, Mitsuru; Goto, Motonobu; Otles, Semih

    2008-01-01

    Chemical compositions and antioxidant activities of essential oils from nine different species of Turkish plants, namely Melissa officinalis L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Cuminum cyminum L., Piper nigrum L., Lavandula stoechas spp., Foeniculum vulgare, Pimpinella anisum L., Thymus serpyllum and Liquidamber orientalis Mill., were studied. Essential oils were obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) extraction and steam distillation, and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The antioxidant activities of SCCO2 extraction and steam distillation extracts were tested by means of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Essential oils extracted by SCCO2 and steam distillation showed different compositions in different species. In the DPPH assay, R. officinalis, C. cyminum, P. anisum, T. serpyllum and L. orientalis essential oils obtained by SCCO2 extraction showed higher antioxidant activity than steam distillation extracts, with radical scavenging activities ranging from 87.1 +/- 0.23% to 92.0 +/- 0.34% compared with the butylated hydroxytoluene positive control (91.4 +/- 0.21%). PMID:19382349

  15. Protective effect of polysaccharides from morinda officinalis on bone loss in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    MengYong, Zhu; CaiJiao, Wang; HuSheng, Zhang; XianWu, Pei; JianMin, Fen

    2008-10-01

    In order to examine the effect of polysaccharides from morinda officinalis (MOP) on bone quality of osteoporosis rats. The osteoporosis in rats was induced by ovariectomy, and MOP (100 or 300 mg/kg) was orally administrated once daily. The animals were assessed 30 days after the operation for bone mineral density, serum cytokines level and mineral element concentration. MOP administration in rats resulted in an increase in bone mineral density and mineral element concentration, a decrease in serum cytokines level, which indicated that MOP administration may play an important role in the development of osteoporosis. PMID:18638500

  16. Apoptosis-inducing effects of Melissa officinalis L. essential oil in glioblastoma multiforme cells.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Rafaela Muniz de; Takiya, Christina Maeda; Guimarães, Lívia Paes Tavares Pacheco; Rocha, Gleice da Graça; Alviano, Daniela Sales; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Gattass, Cerli Rocha

    2014-07-01

    Current therapies for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) are not effective. This study investigated the activity of the M. officinalis essential oil (EO) and its major component (citral) in GBM cell lines. Both EO and citral decreased the viability and induced apoptosis of GBM cells as demonstrated by DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activation. Antioxidant prevented citral-induced death, indicating its dependence on the production of reactive oxygen species. Citral downmodulated the activity and inhibited the expression of multidrug resistance associated protein 1 (MRP1). These results show that EO, through its major component, citral, may be of potential interest for the treatment of GBM. PMID:24745610

  17. A new steroidal saponin from the dried stems of Asparagus officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhouxuan; Huang, Xuefeng; Kong, Lingyi

    2010-04-01

    Yamogenin II (1), a new steroidal saponin with a unique aglycone moiety, and (25S)-spirostan-5-ene-3beta-ol-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1,2)-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1,4)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), were isolated from the dried stems of Asparagus officinalis L. The structure of 1 was assessed by spectroscopial analysis as (25S)-spirostan-5-ene-3beta,21-diol-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1,2)-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1,4)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside. PMID:19751809

  18. Steroids from the roots of Asparagus officinalis and their cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xue-Feng; Lin, Yu-Ying; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2008-06-01

    One new (Sarsasapogenin O) and seven known steroids were isolated from the roots of Asparagus officinalis L. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including various 2D-NMR techniques, hydrolysis, and by comparison of spectral data of known compounds. These compounds together with nine steroids which were previously isolated from this plant, were tested for cytotoxic activity. Among them, eight compounds displayed significant cytotoxicities against human A2780, HO-8910, Eca-109, MGC-803, CNE, LTEP-a-2, KB and mouse L1210 tumor cells. PMID:18713412

  19. A congenital malformation of the systemic heart complex in Sepia officinalis L. (Cephalopoda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schipp, R.; von Boletzky, S.; Jakobs, P.; Labourg, P. J.

    1998-03-01

    In semi-adult Sepia officinalis L. (Cephalopoda) from the Bay of Arcachon (France) a congenital malformation of the systemic heart is described by macro-and microscopical methods. It concerns an atypical doubling of the site of insertion at the cephalic aorta at the apical ventricle. Its comparison with the paired anlagen of the systemic heart complex in normal embryogenesis and the central circulatory system of Nautilus gives rise to interpret it as a form of atavism. The possible causal role of mutagenic antifoulings is discussed.

  20. Two new flavonoid glycosides from the whole herbs of Hyssopus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nan; Yang, Xiu-Wei

    2010-12-01

    Two new flavonoid glycosides, quercetin 7-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-xylopyranoside (1) and quercetin 7-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-xylopyranoside 3'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), together with nine known flavonoids were isolated from the whole herbs of Hyssopus officinalis L. cultivated in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China. All structures were characterized by the spectroscopic methods including UV, IR, ESI-MS, 1D, and 2D NMR. Their potent free radical scavenging activity against the stable 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical was evaluated. PMID:21128145

  1. In Vitro efficacy of antimicrobial extracts against the atypical ruminant pathogen Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mycoplasmosis is a common infection in human and veterinary medicine, and is associated with chronic inflammation and high morbidity. Mycoplasma species are often intrinsically resistant to many conventional antimicrobial therapies, and the resistance patterns of pathogenic mycoplasmas to commonly used medicinal (antimicrobial) plant extracts are currently unknown. Methods Aqueous extracts, ethanol extracts, or oils of the targeted plant species and colloidal silver were prepared or purchased. Activity against the wall-less bacterial pathogen Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri was determined and compared to activities measured against Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by broth microdilution assays. The lethal or inhibitory nature of each extract was determined by subculture into neat growth medium. Results Growth of M. mycoides capri, E. coli, and B. subtilis was inhibited by elderberry extract, oregano oil, ethanol extract of oregano leaves, and ethanol extract of goldenseal root. No inhibition was seen with aqueous extract of astragalus or calendula oil. Growth of M. mycoides capri and B. subtilis was inhibited by ethanol extract of astragalus, whereas growth of E. coli was not. Similarly, M. mycoides capri and E. coli were inhibited by aqueous extract of thyme, but B. subtilis was unaffected. Only B. subtilis was inhibited by colloidal silver. Measured MICs ranged from 0.0003 mg/mL to 3.8 mg/mL. Bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects differed by species and extract. Conclusions The atypical pathogen M. mycoides capri was sensitive to extracts from many medicinal plants commonly used as antimicrobials in states of preparation and concentrations currently available for purchase in the United States and Europe. Variation in bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities between species and extracts indicates that multiple effecter compounds are present in these plant species. PMID:23031072

  2. Genotypic Variation in a Breeding Population of Yellow Sweet Clover (Melilotus officinalis)

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Kai; Jahufer, M. Z. Z.; Wu, Fan; Di, Hongyan; Zhang, Daiyu; Meng, Xuanchen; Zhang, Jiyu; Wang, Yanrong

    2016-01-01

    Yellow sweet clover is a widely spread legume species that has potential to be used as a forage crop in Western China. However, limited information is available on the genetic variation for herbage yield, key morphological traits, and coumarin content. In this study, 40 half sib (HS) families of M. officinalis were evaluated for genotypic variation and phenotypic and genotypic correlation for the traits: LS (leaf to stem ratio), SV (spring vigor), LA (leaf area), PH (plant height), DW (herbage dry weight), SD (stem diameter), SN (stem number), Cou (coumarin content), SY (seed yield), across two locations, Yuzhong and Linze, in Western China. There was significant (P < 0.05) genotypic variation among the HS families for all traits. There was also significant (P < 0.05) genotype-by-environment interaction for the traits DW, PH, SD, SN, and SV. The estimates of HS family mean repeatability across two locations ranged from 0.32 for SN to 0.89 for LA. Pattern analysis generated four HS family groups where group 3 consisted of families with above average expression for DW and below average expression for Cou. The breeding population developed by polycrossing the selected HS families within group 3 will provide a significant breeding pool for M. officinalis cultivar development in China. PMID:27462321

  3. How do background ozone concentrations affect the biosynthesis of rosmarinic acid in Melissa officinalis?

    PubMed

    Döring, Anne S; Pellegrini, Elisa; Della Batola, Michele; Nali, Cristina; Lorenzini, Giacomo; Petersen, Maike

    2014-03-01

    Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis; Lamiaceae) plants were exposed to background ozone (O3) dosages (80ppb for 5h), because high background levels of O3 are considered to be as harmful as episodic O3 peaks. Immediately at the end of fumigation the plants appeared visually symptomless, but necrotic lesions were observed later. The biosynthesis of rosmarinic acid (RA) comprises eight enzymes, among them phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL), tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) and rosmarinic acid synthase (RAS). The transcript levels of these genes have been investigated by quantitative RT-PCR. There was a quick up-regulation of all genes at 3h of O3 exposure, but at 24h from beginning of exposure (FBE) only RAS and PAL were up-regulated. The specific activity of RAS was closely correlated with a decrease of RA concentration in lemon balm leaves. The specific activity of PAL increased at 12h FBE to 163% in comparison to control levels. This work provides insight into the effect of O3 stress on the formation of the main phenolic ingredient of the pharmaceutically important plant M. officinalis. PMID:24484956

  4. Enzymes of phenylpropanoid metabolism in the important medicinal plant Melissa officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Weitzel, Corinna; Petersen, Maike

    2010-08-01

    Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis, Lamiaceae) is a well-known medicinal plant. Amongst the biologically active ingredients are a number of phenolic compounds, the most prominent of which is rosmarinic acid. To obtain better knowledge of the biosynthesis of these phenolic compounds, two enzymes of the general phenylpropanoid pathway, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and 4-coumarate:coenzyme A-ligase (4CL), were investigated in suspension cultures of lemon balm. MoPAL1 and Mo4CL1 cDNAs were cloned and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and the enzymes characterised. Expression analysis of both genes showed a correlation with the enzyme activities and rosmarinic acid content during a cultivation period of the suspension culture. Southern-blot analysis suggested the presence of most probably two gene copies in the M. officinalis genome of both PAL and 4CL. The genomic DNA sequences of MoPAL1 and Mo4CL1 were amplified and sequenced. MoPAL1 contains one phase 2 intron of 836 bp at a conserved site, whilst Mo4CL1 was devoid of introns. PMID:20563822

  5. Regulation of sesquiterpenoid metabolism in recombinant and elicited Valeriana officinalis hairy roots.

    PubMed

    Ricigliano, Vincent; Kumar, Santosh; Kinison, Scott; Brooks, Christopher; Nybo, S Eric; Chappell, Joe; Howarth, Dianella G

    2016-05-01

    The medicinal properties of Valerian (Valeriana officinalis) root preparations are attributed to the anxiolytic sesquiterpenoid valerenic acid and its biosynthetic precursors valerenal and valerenadiene, as well as the anti-inflammatory sesquiterpenoid β-caryophyllene. In order to study and engineer the biosynthesis of these pharmacologically active metabolites, a binary vector co-transformation system was developed for V. officinalis hairy roots. The relative expression levels and jasmonate-inducibility of a number of genes associated with sesquiterpenoid metabolism were profiled in roots: farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (VoFPS), valerendiene synthase (VoVDS), germacrene C synthase (VoGCS), and a cytochrome P450 (CYP71D442) putatively associated with terpene metabolism based on sequence homology. Recombinant hairy root lines overexpressing VoFPS or VoVDS were generated and compared to control cultures. Overexpression of the VoFPS cDNA increased levels of the corresponding transcript 4- to 8-fold and sesquiterpene hydrocarbon accumulation by 1.5- to 4-fold. Overexpression of the VoVDS cDNA increased the corresponding transcript levels 5- to 9-fold and markedly increased yields of the oxygenated sesquiterpenoids valerenic acid and valerenal. Our findings suggest that the availability of cytoplasmic farnesyl diphosphate and valerenadiene are potential bottlenecks in Valeriana-specific sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis, which is also subject to regulation by methyl jasmonate elicitation. PMID:26920719

  6. New protocols to improve the deposition and hatching of Sepia officinalis' eggs.

    PubMed

    Barile, Nadia B; Cappabianca, Sabatino; Antonetti, Luigi; Scopa, Mariaspina; Nerone, Eliana; Mascilongo, Giuseppina; Recchi, Sara; D'Aloise, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was the development of hatching protocols in controlled conditions to obtain juveniles, in order to restock and increase the resource of Sepia officinalis. The study was divided into the following phases: development and application of artificial surfaces at specific sites of the Molise coast in Italy; induction of eggs hatching and juveniles maintenance under controlled condition; juveniles introduction into specific sites and assessment their increment; experimental data elaboration. The obtained results concerned both the effectiveness of the artificial surfaces tasted during the study and the importance of the recovery of the eggs laid on artificial surfaces (artefacts and fishing gear) for preservation and the management of the Sepia officinalis resource. The induction tests conducted on eggs hatching under controlled conditions confirmed what described in the extant literature. Water salinity was detected as the only limiting factor, with values ≤ 20% related to the absence of hatching. The described practices for harvesting and induction of hatching for the production of juvenile cuttlefish may be endorsed by the operators at relatively low cost and throughout the year, with obvious economic benefits. PMID:24362778

  7. Genotypic Variation in a Breeding Population of Yellow Sweet Clover (Melilotus officinalis).

    PubMed

    Luo, Kai; Jahufer, M Z Z; Wu, Fan; Di, Hongyan; Zhang, Daiyu; Meng, Xuanchen; Zhang, Jiyu; Wang, Yanrong

    2016-01-01

    Yellow sweet clover is a widely spread legume species that has potential to be used as a forage crop in Western China. However, limited information is available on the genetic variation for herbage yield, key morphological traits, and coumarin content. In this study, 40 half sib (HS) families of M. officinalis were evaluated for genotypic variation and phenotypic and genotypic correlation for the traits: LS (leaf to stem ratio), SV (spring vigor), LA (leaf area), PH (plant height), DW (herbage dry weight), SD (stem diameter), SN (stem number), Cou (coumarin content), SY (seed yield), across two locations, Yuzhong and Linze, in Western China. There was significant (P < 0.05) genotypic variation among the HS families for all traits. There was also significant (P < 0.05) genotype-by-environment interaction for the traits DW, PH, SD, SN, and SV. The estimates of HS family mean repeatability across two locations ranged from 0.32 for SN to 0.89 for LA. Pattern analysis generated four HS family groups where group 3 consisted of families with above average expression for DW and below average expression for Cou. The breeding population developed by polycrossing the selected HS families within group 3 will provide a significant breeding pool for M. officinalis cultivar development in China. PMID:27462321

  8. Characterising the microbiome of Corallina officinalis, a dominant calcified intertidal red alga.

    PubMed

    Brodie, Juliet; Williamson, Christopher; Barker, Gary L; Walker, Rachel H; Briscoe, Andrew; Yallop, Marian

    2016-08-01

    The living prokaryotic microbiome of the calcified geniculate (articulated) red alga, Corallina officinalis from the intertidal seashore is characterised for the first time based on the V6 hypervariable region of 16S rRNA. Results revealed an extraordinary diversity of bacteria associated with the microbiome. Thirty-five prokaryotic phyla were recovered, of which Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes, Acidobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Firmicutes and Chloroflexi made up the core microbiome. Unclassified sequences made up 25% of sequences, suggesting insufficient sampling of the world's oceans/macroalgae. The greatest diversity in the microbiome was on the upper shore, followed by the lower shore then the middle shore, although the microbiome community composition did not vary between shore levels. The C. officinalis core microbiome was broadly similar in composition to those reported in the literature for crustose coralline algae (CCAs) and free-living rhodoliths. Differences in relative abundance of the phyla between the different types of calcified macroalgal species may relate to the intertidal versus subtidal habit of the taxa and functionality of the microbiome components. The results indicate that much work is needed to identify prokaryotic taxa, and to determine the nature of the relationship of the bacteria with the calcified host spatially, temporally and functionally. PMID:27222222

  9. Sponging up metals: bacteria associated with the marine sponge Spongia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Bauvais, Cléa; Zirah, Séverine; Piette, Laurie; Chaspoul, Florence; Domart-Coulon, Isabelle; Chapon, Virginie; Gallice, Philippe; Rebuffat, Sylvie; Pérez, Thierry; Bourguet-Kondracki, Marie-Lise

    2015-03-01

    The present study explored the bacteria of the sponge Spongia officinalis in a metal-polluted environment, using PCR-DGGE fingerprinting, culture-dependent approaches and in situ hybridization. The sponge samples collected over three consecutive years in the Western Mediterranean Sea contained high concentrations of zinc, nickel, lead and copper determined by ICP-MS. DGGE signatures indicated a sponge specific bacterial association and suggested spatial and temporal variations. The bacterial culturable fraction associated with S. officinalis and tolerant to heavy metals was isolated using metal-enriched microbiological media. The obtained 63 aerobic strains were phylogenetically affiliated to the phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. All isolates showed high tolerances to the selected heavy metals. The predominant genus Pseudovibrio was localized via CARD-FISH in the sponge surface tissue and validated as a sponge-associated epibiont. This study is the first step in understanding the potential involvement of the associated bacteria in sponge's tolerance to heavy metals. PMID:25575352

  10. Egg attachment of the asparagus beetle Crioceris asparagi to the crystalline waxy surface of Asparagus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Dagmar; Gorb, Stanislav

    2010-03-22

    Plant surfaces covered with crystalline epicuticular waxes are known to be anti-adhesive, hardly wettable and preventing insect attachment. But there are insects that are capable of gluing their eggs to these surfaces by means of proteinaceous secretions. In this study, we analysed the bonding region between the eggs of Crioceris asparagi and the plant surface of Asparagus officinalis using light and cryo-scanning electron microscopy. The wettability of the plant surface by egg secretion was compared with that by Aqua Millipore water, aqueous sugar solution and chicken egg white. Furthermore, the force required to remove C. asparagi eggs from the plant surface was measured, in order to evaluate the egg's bonding strength. Mean pull-off force was 14.7 mN, which is about 8650 times higher than the egg weight. Egg glue was observed spreading over the wax crystal arrays on the plant cladophyll and wetting them. Similar wetting behaviour on the A. officinalis surface was observed for chicken egg white. Our results support the hypothesis that the mechanism of insect egg adhesion on micro- and nanostructured hydrophobic plant surfaces is related to the proteinaceous nature of adhesive secretions of insect eggs. The secretion wets superhydrophobic surfaces and after solidifying builds up a composite, consisting of the solidified glue and wax crystals, at the interface between the egg and plant cuticle. PMID:19923132

  11. Analysis of transposable elements in the genome of Asparagus officinalis from high coverage sequence data.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu-Fen; Gao, Wu-Jun; Zhao, Xin-Peng; Dong, Tian-Yu; Deng, Chuan-Liang; Lu, Long-Dou

    2014-01-01

    Asparagus officinalis is an economically and nutritionally important vegetable crop that is widely cultivated and is used as a model dioecious species to study plant sex determination and sex chromosome evolution. To improve our understanding of its genome composition, especially with respect to transposable elements (TEs), which make up the majority of the genome, we performed Illumina HiSeq2000 sequencing of both male and female asparagus genomes followed by bioinformatics analysis. We generated 17 Gb of sequence (12×coverage) and assembled them into 163,406 scaffolds with a total cumulated length of 400 Mbp, which represent about 30% of asparagus genome. Overall, TEs masked about 53% of the A. officinalis assembly. Majority of the identified TEs belonged to LTR retrotransposons, which constitute about 28% of genomic DNA, with Ty1/copia elements being more diverse and accumulated to higher copy numbers than Ty3/gypsy. Compared with LTR retrotransposons, non-LTR retrotransposons and DNA transposons were relatively rare. In addition, comparison of the abundance of the TE groups between male and female genomes showed that the overall TE composition was highly similar, with only slight differences in the abundance of several TE groups, which is consistent with the relatively recent origin of asparagus sex chromosomes. This study greatly improves our knowledge of the repetitive sequence construction of asparagus, which facilitates the identification of TEs responsible for the early evolution of plant sex chromosomes and is helpful for further studies on this dioecious plant. PMID:24810432

  12. De novo assembly and characterization of Oryza officinalis leaf transcriptome by using RNA-seq.

    PubMed

    Bao, Ying; Xu, Si; Jing, Xiang; Meng, Lu; Qin, Zongyan

    2015-01-01

    Although endeavors have been made to identify useful wild rice genes that can be used to improve cultivated rice, the virtual reservoir of genetic variation hidden within the wild relatives of cultivated rice is largely untapped. Here, using next-generation sequencing technology, we investigated the leaf transcriptome of a wild rice O. officinalis with CC genome. Approximately 23 million reads were produced in the species leaf transcriptome analysis and de novo assembly methods constructed 68,132 unigenes. Functional annotations for the unigenes were conducted using sequence similarity comparisons against the following databases: the nonredundant nucleotide database, the nonredundant protein database, the SWISS-PROT database, the Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins database, the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database, the Gene Ontology Consortium database, and the InterPro domains database. In addition, a total of 476 unigenes related to disease resistance were identified in O. officinalis, and these unigenes can serve as important genetic resources for cultivated rice breeding and quality improvement. The present study broadens our understanding of the genetic background of non-AA genomic wild rice species and it also provides a bridge to extend studies to other Oryza species with CC genomes. PMID:25713814

  13. Muscle relaxing activity of Hyssopus officinalis essential oil on isolated intestinal preparations.

    PubMed

    Lu, Mei; Battinelli, Lucia; Daniele, Claudia; Melchioni, Cristiana; Salvatore, Giuseppe; Mazzanti, Gabriela

    2002-03-01

    The muscle relaxing activity of the essential oil of Hyssopus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) and some of its main components (isopinocamphone, limonene and beta-pinene) was studied on isolated preparations of guinea-pig and rabbit intestine. The essential oil and isopinocamphone inhibited the acetylcholine- and BaCl2-induced contractions in guinea-pig ileum in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 42.4 microg/ml and 61.9 microg/ml to acetylcholine; 48.3 microg/ml and 70.4 microg/ml to BaCl2) whereas limonene or beta-pinene left tissue contraction unchanged. In guinea-pig ileum H. officinalis essential oil also blocked the contractions induced by CaCl2. In isolated rabbit jejunum the essential oil reduced the amplitude of spontaneous movements and decreased the basal tone; neither haemoglobin, methylene blue, N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) or propranolol blocked the myorelaxant effect. PMID:11914956

  14. Effect of Melissa officinalis Capsule on the Intensity of Premenstrual Syndrome Symptoms in High School Girl Students

    PubMed Central

    Akbarzadeh, Marzieh; Dehghani, Mansoore; Moshfeghy, Zeinab; Emamghoreishi, Masoumeh; Tavakoli, Pouran; Zare, Najaf

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies are conducted on Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS). However, a few herbal surveys exist on the treatment of PMS in Iran. Due to the sedative effects of Melissa officinalis (M. officinalis), this question comes to mind that “can it be used in the treatment of PMS symptoms?” Objectives: The current study aimed to assess the effect of M. officinalis capsule on the intensity of PMS in high-school girls. Materials and Methods: A double-blind randomized, placebo-controlled trial was performed on 100 high school girls from 2013 to 2014. The intervention group (n = 50) received 1200 mg of M. officinalis essence daily from the first to the last day of their menstrual cycle for three consecutive cycles. The second group (n = 50) received the placebo. The premenstrual symptoms screening tool was used to assess the intensity of PMS symptoms in the two groups before and one, two, and three months after the intervention. The data were analyzed using paired t-test and repeated measures analysis of variance. Results: The results of repeated measures test revealed a significant reduction (P < 0.001) in PMS symptoms. Overall, the mean score of PMS intensity in the intervention group was 42.56 + 15.73 before the intervention and changed to 32.72 ± 13.24, 30.02 ± 12.08, and 13.90 ± 10.22 at the three consecutive months after the intervention, respectively (P = 0.001). Conclusions: M. officinalis capsules were effective in reduction of the PMS symptoms. Yet, application of this medication requires further investigations. PMID:26339667

  15. Effect of Hyssopus officinalis L. on inhibiting airway inflammation and immune regulation in a chronic asthmatic mouse model

    PubMed Central

    MA, XIAOJUAN; MA, XIUMIN; MA, ZHIXING; WANG, JING; SUN, ZHAN; YU, WENYAN; LI, FENGSEN; DING, JIANBING

    2014-01-01

    The Uygur herb, Hyssopus officinalis L., has been demonstrated to affect the levels of a number of cytokines in asthmatic mice, including interleukin-4, -6 and -17 and interferon-γ. In the present study, the effect of Hyssopus officinalis L. on airway immune regulation and airway inflammation was investigated in a mouse model of chronic asthma. A total of 32 BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups, which included the normal, chronic asthmatic, dexamethasone treatment and Hyssopus officinalis L.treatment groups. Mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin to establish an asthma model and the ratio of eosinophils (EOS) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was determined. In addition, the levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)E and IgG were detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The degree of airway mucus secretion was observed using the periodic acid-Schiff stain method. The results demonstrated that the ratio of EOS in the BALF and the level of serum IgE in the chronic asthmatic and dexamethasone treatment groups increased, while the level of serum IgG decreased, when compared with the normal group. In addition, excessive secretion of airway mucus was observed in these two groups. However, the EOS ratio in the BALF and the levels of serum IgE and IgG in the Hyssopus officinalis L. treatment group were similar to the results observed in the normal group. In conclusion, Hyssopus officinalis L. not only plays an anti-inflammatory role by inhibiting the invasion of EOS and decreasing the levels of IgE, but also affects immune regulation. PMID:25289025

  16. Effect of Hyssopus officinalis L. on inhibiting airway inflammation and immune regulation in a chronic asthmatic mouse model.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaojuan; Ma, Xiumin; Ma, Zhixing; Wang, Jing; Sun, Zhan; Yu, Wenyan; Li, Fengsen; Ding, Jianbing

    2014-11-01

    The Uygur herb, Hyssopus officinalis L., has been demonstrated to affect the levels of a number of cytokines in asthmatic mice, including interleukin-4, -6 and -17 and interferon-γ. In the present study, the effect of Hyssopus officinalis L. on airway immune regulation and airway inflammation was investigated in a mouse model of chronic asthma. A total of 32 BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups, which included the normal, chronic asthmatic, dexamethasone treatment and Hyssopus officinalis L.treatment groups. Mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin to establish an asthma model and the ratio of eosinophils (EOS) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was determined. In addition, the levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)E and IgG were detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The degree of airway mucus secretion was observed using the periodic acid-Schiff stain method. The results demonstrated that the ratio of EOS in the BALF and the level of serum IgE in the chronic asthmatic and dexamethasone treatment groups increased, while the level of serum IgG decreased, when compared with the normal group. In addition, excessive secretion of airway mucus was observed in these two groups. However, the EOS ratio in the BALF and the levels of serum IgE and IgG in the Hyssopus officinalis L. treatment group were similar to the results observed in the normal group. In conclusion, Hyssopus officinalis L. not only plays an anti-inflammatory role by inhibiting the invasion of EOS and decreasing the levels of IgE, but also affects immune regulation. PMID:25289025

  17. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) and sardine (Sardina pilchardus) viscera using commercial proteases: effects on lipid distribution and amino acid composition.

    PubMed

    Kechaou, Emna Soufi; Dumay, Justine; Donnay-Moreno, Claire; Jaouen, Pascal; Gouygou, Jean-Paul; Bergé, Jean-Pascal; Amar, Raja Ben

    2009-02-01

    Total lipid and phospholipid recovery as well as amino acid quality and composition from cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) and sardine (Sardina pilchardus) were compared. Enzymatic hydrolyses were performed using the three proteases Protamex, Alcalase, and Flavourzyme by the pH-stat method (24 h, pH 8, 50 degrees C). Three fractions were generated: an insoluble sludge, a soluble aqueous phase, and an oily phase. For each fraction, lipids, phospholipids, and proteins were quantified. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of the raw material and hydrolysates were performed. The degree of hydrolysis (DH) for cuttlefish viscera was 3.2% using Protamex, 6.8% using Flavourzyme, and 7% using Alcalase. DH for sardine viscera was 1.9% (using Flavourzyme), 3.1% (using Protamex) and 3.3% (using Alcalase). Dry matter yields of all hydrolysis reactions increased in the aqueous phases. Protein recovery following hydrolysis ranged from 57.2% to 64.3% for cuttlefish and 57.4% to 61.2% for sardine. Tissue disruption following protease treatment increased lipid extractability, leading to higher total lipid content after hydrolysis. At least 80% of the lipids quantified in the raw material were distributed in the liquid phases for both substrates. The hydrolysed lipids were richer in phospholipids than in the lipids extracted by classical chemical extraction, especially after Flavourzyme hydrolysis for cuttlefish and Alcalase hydrolysis for sardine. The total amino acid content differed according to the substrate and the enzyme used. However, regardless of the raw material or the protease used, hydrolysis increased the level of essential amino acids in the hydrolysates, thereby increasing their potential nutritional value for feed products. PMID:19217554

  18. Sesquiterpenes and a monoterpenoid with acetylcholinesterase (AchE) inhibitory activity from Valeriana officinalis var. latiofolia in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chen, Heng-Wen; He, Xuan-Hui; Yuan, Rong; Wei, Ben-Jun; Chen, Zhong; Dong, Jun-Xing; Wang, Jie

    2016-04-01

    Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor (AchEI) is the most extensive in all anti-dementia drugs. The extracts and isolated compounds from the Valeriana genus have shown anti-dementia bioactivity. Four new sesquiterpenoids (1-4) and a new monoterpenoid (5) were isolated from the root of Valeriana officinalis var. latiofolia. The acetylcholinesterase (AchE) inhibitory activity of isolates was evaluated by modified Ellman method in vitro. Learning and memory ability of compound 4 on mice was evaluated by the Morris water maze. The contents of acetylcholine (Ach), acetylcholine transferase (ChAT) and AchE in mice brains were determined by colorimetry. The results showed IC50 of compound 4 was 0.161 μM in vitro. Compared with the normal group, the learning and memory ability of mice and the contents of Ach and ChAT decreased in model group mice (P<0.01), while the AchE increased (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, Ach and ChAT in the positive control group, the high-dose group and the medium-dose group increased (P<0.01), while the AchE decreased (P<0.01). Compound 4 can improve the learning and memory abilities of APPswe/PSΔE9 double-transgenic mice, and the mechanism may be related to the regulation of the relative enzyme in the cholinergic system. PMID:26976216

  19. Green asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) prevented hypertension by an inhibitory effect on angiotensin-converting enzyme activity in the kidney of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Sanae, Matsuda; Yasuo, Aoyagi

    2013-06-12

    Green asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is known to be rich in functional components. In the present study, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were used to clarify whether green asparagus prevents hypertension by inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity. Six-week-old male SHR were fed a diet with (AD group) or without (ND group) 5% asparagus for 10 weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) (AD: 159 ± 4.8 mmHg, ND: 192 ± 14.7 mmHg), urinary protein excretion/creatinine excretion, and ACE activity in the kidney were significantly lower in the AD group compared with the ND group. Creatinine clearance was significantly higher in the AD group compared with the ND group. In addition, ACE inhibitory activity was observed in a boiling water extract of asparagus. The ACE inhibitor purified and isolated from asparagus was identified as 2″-hydroxynicotianamine. In conclusion, 2″-hydroxynicotianamine in asparagus may be one of the factors inhibiting ACE activity in the kidney, thus preventing hypertension and preserving renal function. PMID:23647085

  20. Anxiolytic-like effect of inhalation of essential oil from Lavandula officinalis: investigation of changes in 5-HT turnover and involvement of olfactory stimulation.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Mizuho; Yamanaka, Ayako; Asanuma, Chihiro; Asano, Hiroko; Satou, Tadaaki; Koike, Kazuo

    2014-07-01

    Essential oil extracted from Lavandula officinalis (LvEO) has a long history of usage in anxiety alleviation with good evidence to support its use. However, findings and information regarding the exact pathway involved and mechanism of action remain inconclusive. Therefore, we aimed to (1) reveal the influence of olfactory stimulation, and (2) determine whether the serotonergic system is involved in the anxiolytic effect of LvEO when it is inhaled. To this end, we first compared the anxiety-related behaviors of normosmic and anosmic mice. LvEO inhalation caused notable elevation in anxiety-related parameters with or without olfactory perception, indicating that olfactory stimulation is not necessarily required for LvEO to be effective. Neurochemical analysis of the serotonin (5-HT) turnover rate, accompanied by EPM testing, was then performed. LvEO significantly increased the striatal and hippocampal levels of 5-HT and decreased turnover rates in accordance with the anxiolytic behavioral changes. These results, together with previous findings, support the hypothesis that serotonergic neurotransmission plays a certain role in the anxiolytic properties of LvEO. PMID:25230519

  1. Determination of the biologically active flavour substances thujone and camphor in foods and medicines containing sage (Salvia officinalis L.)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The sage plant Salvia officinalis L. is used as ingredient in foods and beverages as well as in herbal medicinal products. A major use is in the form of aqueous infusions as sage tea, which is legal to be sold as either food or medicine. Sage may contain two health relevant substances, thujone and camphor. The aim of this study was to develop and validate an analytical methodology to determine these active principles of sage and give a first overview of their concentrations in a wide variety of sage foods and medicines. Results A GC/MS procedure was applied for the analysis of α- and β-thujone and camphor with cyclodecanone as internal standard. The precision was between 0.8 and 12.6%, linearity was obtained from 0.1 - 80 mg/L. The recoveries of spiked samples were between 93.7 and 104.0% (average 99.1%). The time of infusion had a considerable influence on the content of analytes found in the teas. During the brewing time, thujone and camphor show an increase up to about 5 min, after which saturation is reached. No effect was found for preparation with or without a lid on the pot used for brewing the infusion. Compared to extracts with ethanol (60% vol), which provide a maximum yield, an average of 30% thujone are recovered in the aqueous tea preparations. The average thujone and camphor contents were 4.4 mg/L and 16.7 mg/L in food tea infusions and 11.3 mg/L and 25.4 mg/L in medicinal tea infusions. Conclusions The developed methodology allows the efficient determination of thujone and camphor in a wide variety of sage food and medicine matrices and can be applied to conduct surveys for exposure assessment. The current results suggest that on average between 3 and 6 cups of sage tea could be daily consumed without reaching toxicological thresholds. PMID:21777420

  2. Hydrological modification, saltwater intrusion, and tree water use of a Pterocarpus officinalis swamp in Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colón-Rivera, Ricardo J.; Feagin, Rusty A.; West, Jason B.; López, Natalia B.; Benítez-Joubert, Rafael J.

    2014-06-01

    Tidal freshwater forested wetlands occupy a narrow ecological space determined by the balance between saltwater and freshwater inputs to the system. However, this balance is not well understood. In the Caribbean, tidal freshwater-forested wetlands dominated by Pterocarpus officinalis are vulnerable to changes in tidal influence and freshwater inputs. In this setting, the seasonal interactions of saltwater and freshwater inputs create less than ideal conditions for these forests to survive. Hence, it is crucial to have a better understanding of the hydrologic context of these and other tidal freshwater forested wetlands. We examined the extent of tidal forcing and saltwater influence in the largest Pterocarpus swamp of Puerto Rico by installing automated water level and conductivity recorders across a tidal creek transect at four different distances from the ocean, and by using water stable isotopes ratios (δD, δ18O) as natural tracers to determine the most important freshwater sources for tree transpiration. Records of water level and salinity revealed that the amount of rainfall was most influential on saltwater wedge migration in the creek for locations at the front and back of the tidal network, but that tidal dynamics were most influential at the middle section of the tidal network. Saltwater intrusion into the deepest parts of the tidal network was most prominent during sustained dry periods. Isotopic ratios of the surface water samples in the forest revealed that most of the water there was derived from freshwater runoff, but there was a seasonal change in its relative contribution to the forest hydrology. During the dry season, high δ values suggested the presence of runoff-derived water that had undergone evaporation, and saline influences were found in locations where past deforestation created preferential pathways for this water. During both seasons, δ 18O values of groundwater revealed the influence of saline water at depths 60 cm and greater near

  3. The antimicrobial activity of essential oils and extracts of some medicinal plants grown in Ash-shoubak region - South of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Abu-Darwish, Mohammad Sanad; Al-Ramamneh, Ezz Al-Dein Muhammed; Kyslychenko, Viktoria Sergeevna; Karpiuk, Uliana Vladimirovna

    2012-01-01

    The inhibitory effects of essential oils as well as chloroformic extracts of Thymus vulgaris, Thymus serpyllum, Salvia officinalis and Pimpinella anisum grown in Ash-shoubak region-south of Jordan and their possible individual phytochemical constituents was screened against pathogenic clinical and standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. The bioassay employed was the agar well diffusion method. The essential oils and chloroformic extracts of T. vulgaris and T. serpyllum were the most effective against the tested strains of bacteria. Clinical and standard strains of S .aureus and P. aeruginosa were uninhibited by S. officinalis essential oils. P. aeruginosa tested strains were also resistant to P. anisum essential oils. For almost all bacterial strains, the highest antibacterial effect of oils was obtained with the highest tested dose (15 μl). Chlorformic extracts of S. officinalis showed small activity against standard and clinical E. coli strains and were not effective to inhibit strains of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. Chloroformic extracts obtained from P. anisum and applied at 300 μg/cm(2) slightly inhibited E. coli, but moderately inhibited S. aureus. It is shown from the results that the antibacterial effects of the individual components varied depending upon their chemical structure, functional groups and configuration as well as doses used. This study showed the beneficial effects of the essential oils of T. serpyllum and T. vulgaris grown in Ash-shoubak in inhibiting the growth of microbes and the implications this could have in pharmacy and food technology. PMID:22186336

  4. HPTLC method for the estimation of alkaloids of Cinchona officinalis stem bark and its marketed formulations.

    PubMed

    Ravishankara, M N; Shrivastava, N; Padh, H; Rajani, M

    2001-04-01

    We report a sensitive method for the estimation of quinine (Qn), cinchonine (Cn), and cinchonidine (Cnd) and a new method based on fluorescence enhancement and detection and quantification of quinidine (Qnd) from Cinchona stem bark and its formulations, using HPTLC. Standard solutions of Qn, Qnd, Cn, and Cnd were applied on precoated HPTLC plates and developed with chloroform/diethylamine (9.6:1.4 v/v). The plates were scanned and quantified at 226 nm for Qn, Cn, Cnd and for Qnd at 366 nm in fluorescence and reflectance mode ([symbol: see text] K400 filter). The method was validated for precision, accuracy and repeatability. Further, the stem bark of Cinchona officinalis and some herbal and homeopathic formulations were evaluated for their individual alkaloid content applying the developed method. PMID:11345710

  5. Simultaneous quantification of verbenalin and verbascoside in Verbena officinalis by ATR-IR and NIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Schönbichler, S A; Bittner, L K H; Pallua, J D; Popp, M; Abel, G; Bonn, G K; Huck, C W

    2013-10-01

    Attenuated-total-reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (NIR) in hyphenation with multivariate analysis was utilized to quantify verbenalin and verbascoside in Verbena officinalis. A new high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method as a reference was established and validated. For both vibrational spectroscopic methods test-set and cross validation were performed. Different data-pre-treatments like SNV, 1st and 2nd derivative were applied to remove systematic errors and were evaluated. Quality parameters obtained for the test-set validation revealed that ATR-IR (verbenalin: R(2)=0.94, RPD=4.23; verbascoside: R(2)=0.93, RPD=3.63) has advantages over NIR (verbenalin: R(2)=0.91, RPD=3.75; verbascoside: R(2)=0.80, RPD=2.35) in the given application. PMID:23810849

  6. Molecular cloning and characterization of drimenol synthase from valerian plant (Valeriana officinalis).

    PubMed

    Kwon, Moonhyuk; Cochrane, Stephen A; Vederas, John C; Ro, Dae-Kyun

    2014-12-20

    Drimenol, a sesquiterpene alcohol, and its derivatives display diverse bio-activities in nature. However, a drimenol synthase gene has yet to be identified. We identified a new sesquiterpene synthase cDNA (VoTPS3) in valerian plant (Valeriana officinalis). Purification and NMR analyses of the VoTPS3-produced terpene, and characterization of the VoTPS3 enzyme confirmed that VoTPS3 synthesizes (-)-drimenol. In feeding assays, possible reaction intermediates, farnesol and drimenyl diphosphate, could not be converted to drimenol, suggesting that the intermediate remains tightly bound to VoTPS3 during catalysis. A mechanistic consideration of (-)-drimenol synthesis suggests that drimenol synthase is likely to use a protonation-initiated cyclization, which is rare for sesquiterpene synthases. VoTPS3 can be used to produce (-)-drimenol, from which useful drimane-type terpenes can be synthesized. PMID:25447532

  7. Anthraquinones from Morinda officinalis roots enhance adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Kim, Seon Beom; Ahn, Jong Hoon; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Kim, Sung Yeon; Lee, Mi Kyeong

    2012-01-01

    To search for anti-diabetic and insulin-sensitising natural products, the effect on adipocyte differentiation was investigated by assessing fat accumulation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes using Oil Red O staining. Fractionation and separation of n-hexane and CHCl₃ fractions of Morinda officinalis (Rubiaceae) using several chromatographic methods led to the isolation of three anthraquinones, 1,2-dimethoxyanthraquinone (1), alizarin-2-methyl ether (2) and rubiadin-1-methyl ether (3). Among them, alizarin-2-methyl ether (2) showed the strongest enhancing activity, followed by rubiadin-1-methyl ether (3) and 1,2-dimethoxyanthraquinone (1). At a concentration of 100 µM, alizarin-2-methyl ether (2) enhanced adipocyte differentiation by up to 131% (compared to insulin-treated cells). Thus, these compounds could be beneficial in the treatment of diabetes. PMID:22008000

  8. Development and essential oil content of secretory glands of sage (Salvia officinalis)

    SciTech Connect

    Venkatachalam, K.V.; Kjonaas, R.; Croteau, R.

    1984-09-01

    Scanning electron microscopy of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leave confirmed the presence of two basic types of glandular trichomes consisting of a capitate stalked form containing a multicellular stalk and surmounted by a unicellular secretory head, and a capitate sessile form containing a unicellular stalk and unicellular, or multicellular, secretory head. In the latter type, secretory activity and filling of the subcuticular cavity may begin at virtually any stage of the division cycle affording fully developed glands containing from one to twelve cells in the secretory head. Gas liquid chromatographic analysis of the oil content of the most numerous gland species (capitate stalked, capitate sessile with one and with eight secretory cells) indicated only minor quantitative differences in essential oil composition. Thus, each gland type is capable of producing the four major monoterpene families (p-menthanes, pinanes, bornanes and thujanes) characteristic of sage. 21 references, 2 figures.

  9. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) as a potential therapeutic plant in metabolic syndrome: a review.

    PubMed

    Hassani, Faezeh Vahdati; Shirani, Kobra; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2016-09-01

    Metabolic syndrome is defined by a constellation of complex coexisting cardiometabolic risk factors such as hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, inflammation, abdominal obesity, coagulopathies, and hypertension that raise the risk of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in the use of herbs and natural compounds in prevention and treatment of diseases and a large number of published articles have focused on this issue. Rosmarinus officinalis L. or rosemary (Lamiaceae) is a rich source of phenolic phytochemicals having significant anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, hypotensive, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-thrombotic, hepatoprotective, and hypocholesterolemic effects. The purpose of this review is to highlight the interesting pharmacological effects of rosemary, and its active compounds, and the related mechanisms in the management of metabolic syndrome that are documented in in vitro and in vivo studies. PMID:27178264

  10. [Cloning and analyzing of the female-specific marker in the dioecious species Asparagus officinalis L].

    PubMed

    Lu, Long Dou; Li, Rui Li; Gao, Wu Jun; Deng, Chuan Liang; Wang, Lian Jun

    2006-06-01

    Sex-linked molecular markers are being obtained, which would be essential to be used in the screening of different sex of dioecious plants at the seedling stage. Furthermore, it is important in cloning the gene related to the sex. In this study the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was employed with the objective to find markers linked to sex determination in Asparagus. A total of 100 primers were tested with the same PCR cycling procedure. A female-associated fragment with a length of about 867bp was generated with S12 primer. The fragment was cloned and sequenced, showing it is abundant in AT and contains 2 shorter open reading frames. In order to convert the RAPD marker into SCAR (sequence characterized amplified regions) marker, 24bp specific primers were constructed and used for PCR amplifying. The female-linked dominant SCAR marker was obtained, which would be efficient to identify the different sex of Asparagus officinalis L. PMID:16944605

  11. Hemocyte morphology and phagocytic activity in the common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis).

    PubMed

    Le Pabic, Charles; Goux, Didier; Guillamin, Maryline; Safi, Georges; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Koueta, Noussithé; Serpentini, Antoine

    2014-10-01

    Little is known about the immune system of cephalopods, in spite of their many highly derived characters within the molluscan clade, including a vertebrate-like high-pressure closed circulatory system. Further the economic importance of cephalopod fisheries, potential for aquaculture, and use as ecotoxicology models demand a thorough understanding of their immune system. In this study, we present a comprehensive characterization of hemocytes in the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. Cytological stainings, electron microscopy- and flow cytometry-observations highlight a single granulocyte population with various densities of eosinophilic granules and unstained vesicles. These hemocytes contain acid phosphatase-, lysozyme- and proPO system enzymes, and have high activity in bead phagocytosis assays. Interestingly, bead pre-incubation in plasma results in time-dependent aggregation perhaps resulting from hemocyanin-coating, and decrease in phagocytosis. This study provides the basis for understanding hemocyte-mediated immunity in the common cuttlefish, and essential background for future studies on cephalopod immunity. PMID:25066968

  12. Relationship of Camphor Biosynthesis to Leaf Development in Sage (Salvia officinalis) 12

    PubMed Central

    Croteau, Rodney; Felton, Mark; Karp, Frank; Kjonaas, Robert

    1981-01-01

    The camphor content of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leaves increases as the leaves expand, and the increase is roughly proportional to the number of filled peltate oil glands which appear on the leaf surface during the expansion process. 14CO2 is more rapidly incorporated into camphor and its direct progenitors in expanding leaves than in mature leaves, and direct in vitro measurement of the key enzymes involved in the conversion of geranyl pyrophosphate to camphor indicates that these enzymes, including the probable rate-limiting cyclization step, are at the highest levels during the period of maximum leaf expansion. These results clearly demonstrate that immature sage leaves synthesize and accumulate camphor most rapidly. Images PMID:16661761

  13. Composition and metabolism of phospholipids in Octopus vulgaris and Sepia officinalis hatchlings.

    PubMed

    Reis, Diana B; Acosta, Nieves G; Almansa, Eduardo; Tocher, Douglas R; Andrade, José P; Sykes, António V; Rodríguez, Covadonga

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to characterise the fatty acid (FA) profiles of the major phospholipids, of Octopus vulgaris and Sepia officinalis hatchlings, namely phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE); and to evaluate the capability of both cephalopod species on dietary phospholipid remodelling. Thus, O. vulgaris and S. officinalis hatchlings were in vivo incubated with 0.3μM of L-∝-1-palmitoyl-2-[1-(14)C]arachidonyl-PC or L-∝-1-palmitoyl-2-[1-(14)C]arachidonyl-PE. Octopus and cuttlefish hatchlings phospholipids showed a characteristic FA profiles with PC presenting high contents of 16:0 and 22:6n-3 (DHA); PS having high 18:0, DHA and 20:5n-3 (EPA); PI a high content of saturated FA; and PE showing high contents of DHA and EPA. Interestingly, the highest content of 20:4n-6 (ARA) was found in PE rather than PI. Irrespective of the phospholipid in which [1-(14)C]ARA was initially bound (either PC or PE), the esterification pattern of [1-(14)C]ARA in octopus lipids was similar to that found in their tissues with high esterification of this FA into PE. In contrast, in cuttlefish hatchlings [1-(14)C]ARA was mainly recovered in the same phospholipid that was provided. These results showed a characteristic FA profiles in the major phospholipids of the two species, as well as a contrasting capability to remodel dietary phospholipids, which may suggest a difference in phospholipase activities. PMID:27267253

  14. Effect of Rosemarinus officinalis L. on MMP-9, MCP-1 Levels, and Cell Migration in RAW 264.7 and Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chae, In Gyeong; Yu, Mi Hee; Im, Nam-Kyung; Jung, Young Tae; Lee, Jinho; Chun, Kyung-Soo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Atherosclerosis is a chronic and progressive inflammatory disease. Novel anti-inflammatory therapies may have promise as treatment strategies for cardiovascular risk reduction. Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis L.) has been used in folk medicine to treat headaches, epilepsy, poor circulation, and many other ailments. It was found that rosemary could act as a stimulant and mild analgesic and could reduce inflammation. However, the mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory and antiatherosclerotic effects of rosemary need more study. This study investigated effects of the rosemary components, carnosic acid (CA), and carnosol (CAR), on cell migration. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) were determined by Western blot and gelatin zymography, respectively, in RAW 264.7 macrophages and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). VSMC migration was assessed by a Matrigel migration assay. Active compounds of rosemary extracts were also analyzed using a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. MMP-9 and MCP-1 activities were markedly diminished with methanol extract (RM), n-hexane fraction (RH), and CA in RAW 264.7 cells. RM, RH, CA, and CAR suppressed tumor necrosis factor-alpha–induced VSMC migration by inhibiting MMP-9 expression. Chromatograms of RM- and RH-containing CA and CAR revealed higher CA contents of RM (9.4%, 93.85 μg/mg dry wt.) and, especially, RH (18.4%, 184.00 μg/mg dry wt.), which were appreciably elevated compared with the similar CAR content in RM and RH (3.7%, 37.30 μg/mg dry wt.; and 2.5%, 25.05 μg/mg dry wt., respectively). Rosemary, especially its CA component, has potential antiatherosclerosis effects related to cell migration. PMID:22985398

  15. Effect of Rosemarinus officinalis L. on MMP-9, MCP-1 levels, and cell migration in RAW 264.7 and smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Chae, In Gyeong; Yu, Mi Hee; Im, Nam-Kyung; Jung, Young Tae; Lee, Jinho; Chun, Kyung-Soo; Lee, In-Seon

    2012-10-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic and progressive inflammatory disease. Novel anti-inflammatory therapies may have promise as treatment strategies for cardiovascular risk reduction. Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis L.) has been used in folk medicine to treat headaches, epilepsy, poor circulation, and many other ailments. It was found that rosemary could act as a stimulant and mild analgesic and could reduce inflammation. However, the mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory and antiatherosclerotic effects of rosemary need more study. This study investigated effects of the rosemary components, carnosic acid (CA), and carnosol (CAR), on cell migration. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) were determined by Western blot and gelatin zymography, respectively, in RAW 264.7 macrophages and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). VSMC migration was assessed by a Matrigel migration assay. Active compounds of rosemary extracts were also analyzed using a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. MMP-9 and MCP-1 activities were markedly diminished with methanol extract (RM), n-hexane fraction (RH), and CA in RAW 264.7 cells. RM, RH, CA, and CAR suppressed tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced VSMC migration by inhibiting MMP-9 expression. Chromatograms of RM- and RH-containing CA and CAR revealed higher CA contents of RM (9.4%, 93.85 μg/mg dry wt.) and, especially, RH (18.4%, 184.00 μg/mg dry wt.), which were appreciably elevated compared with the similar CAR content in RM and RH (3.7%, 37.30 μg/mg dry wt.; and 2.5%, 25.05 μg/mg dry wt., respectively). Rosemary, especially its CA component, has potential antiatherosclerosis effects related to cell migration. PMID:22985398

  16. Gamma-linolenic acid enrichment from Borago officinalis and Echium fastuosum seed oils and fatty acids by low temperature crystallization.

    PubMed

    López-Martínez, Juan Carlos; Campra-Madrid, Pablo; Guil-Guerrero, José Luis

    2004-01-01

    Solvent winterization of seed oil and free fatty acids (FFAs) was employed to obtain gamma-linolenic acid (GLA; 18:3omega6) concentrates from seed oils of two Boraginaceae species, Echium fastuosum and Borago officinalis. Different solutions of seed oils and FFAs from these two oils at 10%, 20% and 40% (w/w) were crystallized at 4 degrees C, -24 degrees C and -70 degrees C, respectively, using hexane, acetone, diethyl ether, isobutanol and ethanol as solvents. Best results were obtained for B. officinalis FFAs in hexane, reaching a maximum GLA concentration of 58.8% in the liquid fraction (LF). In E. fastuosum, the highest GLA concentration (39.9%) was also achieved with FFAs in hexane. PMID:16233632

  17. Effects of IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3 on Rooting and Morphological Features of Melissa officinalis L. Stem Cuttings

    PubMed Central

    Guney, Kerim

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed the potential of producing Melissa officinalis L. using stem cuttings. Four different hormones (IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3) were applied to the cuttings, with and without buds, in two doses (1000 mg/L and 5000 mg/L), and after 60 days, 10 morphological characteristics of newly generated plants were detected, and a statistical analysis was carried out. The results of the study show that the cuttings with at least one bud must be used in order to produce M. officinalis using stem cuttings. Even though the auxin group hormones (IAA, IBA, and NAA) do not have an apparent effect on rooting percentage, these hormones were detected to affect the morphological characteristics of the newly generated plants, especially root generation. GA3 application has a considerable effect on stem height. PMID:23818834

  18. Changes in antioxidant enzymes activities and proline, total phenol and anthocyanine contents in Hyssopus officinalis L. plants under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Jahantigh, Omolbanin; Najafi, Farzaneh; Badi, Hassanali Naghdi; Khavari-Nejad, Ramazan Ali; Sanjarian, Forough

    2016-06-01

    The relationships between salt stress and antioxidant enzymes activities, proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents in Hyssopus officinalis L. plants in growth stage were investigated. The plants were subjected to five levels of saline irrigation water, 0.37 (tap water as control) with 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 dSm(-1) of saline water. After two months the uniform plants were harvested for experimental analysis. Antioxidant enzymes activities and proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents of the plants were examinated. Enhanced activities of peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase were determined by increasing salinity that plays an important protective role in the ROS-scavenging process. Proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents increased significantly with increasing salinity. These results suggest that salinity tolerance of Hyssopus officinalis plants might be closely related with the increased capacity of antioxidative system to scavenge reactive oxygen species and with the accumulation of osmoprotectant proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents under salinity conditions. PMID:27165530

  19. Effects of IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3 on rooting and morphological features of Melissa officinalis L. stem cuttings.

    PubMed

    Sevik, Hakan; Guney, Kerim

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed the potential of producing Melissa officinalis L. using stem cuttings. Four different hormones (IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3) were applied to the cuttings, with and without buds, in two doses (1000 mg/L and 5000 mg/L), and after 60 days, 10 morphological characteristics of newly generated plants were detected, and a statistical analysis was carried out. The results of the study show that the cuttings with at least one bud must be used in order to produce M. officinalis using stem cuttings. Even though the auxin group hormones (IAA, IBA, and NAA) do not have an apparent effect on rooting percentage, these hormones were detected to affect the morphological characteristics of the newly generated plants, especially root generation. GA3 application has a considerable effect on stem height. PMID:23818834

  20. Verbena officinalis essential oil and its component citral as apoptotic-inducing agent in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    De Martino, L; D'Arena, G; Minervini, M M; Deaglio, S; Fusco, B M; Cascavilla, N; De Feo, V

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the pro-apoptotic activity of Verbena officinalis essential oil and of its main component citral, on lymphocytes collected from normal blood donors and patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The number of apoptotic cells was greater in CLL patients than in healthy subjects at all different times of incubation (4, 8 and 24 hours) for samples treated with Verbena officinalis essential oil (A) and citral (B) as well vs controls at different concentrations (0.1% and 0.01%). The greater pro-apoptotic ability was shown by both essential oil of Verbena officinalis and citral at lower concentrations (after 4 h A 0.1%: 17.8% vs 37.1%; A 0.01%: 15.8% vs 52%; B 0.1%: 18.4% vs 46.4%; B 0.01%: 15.8% vs 54.2%; after 8 h A 0.1%: 23% vs 38%; A 0.01%: 22.2% vs 55%; B 0.1%: 32% vs 42.2%; B 0.01%: 22% vs 54.3%; after 24 h A 0.1%: 5% vs 20.7%; A 0.01%: 25.8% vs 47.2%; B 0.1%: 18.4% vs 46.4%; B 0.01%: 15.8% vs 54.2%). Patients carrying deletion 17p13 (p53 mutation) showed a reduced ability to undergo apoptosis with respect to patients with other genomic aberrations or normal karyotype. The proapoptotic activity of Verbena officinalis essential oil and citral is thought to be due to a direct procaspase 3 activation. These data further support evidence that indicate natural compounds as a possible lead structure to develop new therapeutic agents. PMID:20074474

  1. In vitro propagation of the Garden Heliotrope, Valeriana officinalis L.: influence of pre-chilling and light on seed germination.

    PubMed

    Bhat, B; Sharma, V D

    2015-03-01

    Valeriana officinalis is an important medicinal herb commonly found in Kashmir valley. This study forms an important preliminary step for in-vitro micro propagation of V. officinalis from breaking the seed dormancy, inducing rapid seed germination and its subsequent micro propagation. We investigated the influence of pretreatment of V. officinalis seeds with reduced temperature and light on seed germination and in-vitro propagation. Culture of explants from cultivated seeds have demonstrated its potential for in vitro propagation and plantlet regeneration. Individual as well as combinations of treatments such as temperature and light availability influenced the germination of seeds variedly. Unchilled seeds of V. officinalis were given dip in GA3 (200 ppm) for 24, 48 and 120 h. Seeds treated with GA3 for 24 h and kept in darkness showed the best results, i.e. 48%. Seeds pretreated with GA3 for 120 h and incubated in dark showed 40% germination. Pre-chilling up to 72 h and kept in light showed maximum germination of 60% followed by 40% kept in darkness. Pre-chilling for 48 h resulted in 40 and 25% seed germination in light and darkness, respectively. GA3 pre-treatment for 72 h and 24 h pre chilling were most effective in inducing seed germination. Maximum shoot response was obtained on MS enriched with BAP (1 mg/L) + IAA (0.1 mg/L) combinations using shoot tips as explants. Multiple shoot regeneration from shoot apices was recorded on BAP (1 mg/L) and BAP (1 mg/L) + IAA (0.1 mg/L). PMID:25872250

  2. Chemical constituents of Chinese natural medicine, morindae radix, the dried roots of morinda officinalis how.: structures of morindolide and morofficinaloside.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, M; Yamaguchi, S; Nishisaka, H; Yamahara, J; Murakami, N

    1995-09-01

    A new iridoid lactone, morindolide, and a new iridoid glucoside, morofficinaloside, have been isolated from a Chinese natural medicine, Morindae Radix, the dried root of Morinda officinalis How. together with a number of known compounds: five anthraquinones, four iridoid glucosides, a monoterpene glycoside, two sterols, an ursane-type triterpene, and a lactone compound. The chemical structures of the new compounds were determined on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. PMID:7586069

  3. Prevention of diabetes-induced myocardial dysfunction in rats using the juice of the Emblica officinalis fruit

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Snehal S; Goyal, Ramesh K

    2011-01-01

    Normalization of hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress is an important objective in preventing diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction. The present study investigated the effects of the fruit juice obtained from Emblica officinalis on myocardial dysfunction in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ), and the rats were treated with E officinalis fruit juice for eight weeks. Injection of STZ produced loss of body weight, polydypsia, polyphagia, hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia and dyslipidemia. It also produced hypertension, bradycardia, hypertrophy and myocardial functional alterations associated with an increase in serum lactate dehydrogenase and creatinine kinase-MB levels. Treatment with the fruit juice not only prevented STZ-induced loss of body weight, increases in water and food intake, increases in serum glucose levels and disturbed lipid profile, but also an increase in serum lactate dehydrogenase and creatinine kinase-MB levels, and increased myocardial hypertrophy and cardiomyopathy. There was an increase in the area under the curve (AUC) for glucose, and a decrease in AUCinsulin was observed in diabetic rats; treatment decreased AUCglucose but not AUCinsulin or hyperinsulinemia. There was a decrease in antioxidant enzyme levels (in superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione and catalase) in diabetic hearts, which could be improved by treatment with fruit juice. The present data suggest that fruit juice may be beneficial for the treatment of myocardial damage associated with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The activity of E officinalis fruit juice can be attributed to the concentration of polyphenol present. PMID:22065939

  4. Metabolite profiling of sucrose effect on the metabolism of Melissa officinalis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sooah; Shin, Min Hye; Hossain, Md Aktar; Yun, Eun Ju; Lee, Hojoung; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2011-04-01

    The effect of sugar on plant metabolism, which is known to be similar to hormone-like signaling, was metabolomically studied using Melissa officinalis (lemon balm). The metabolite profiles of M. officinalis treated with sucrose were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and principal component analysis (PCA). A total of 64 metabolites from various chemical classes including alcohols, amines, amino acids, fatty acids, inorganic acids, organic acids, phosphates, and sugars were identified by GC-MS. Three groups treated with different sucrose concentrations were clearly separated by PCA of their metabolite profiles, indicating changes in the levels of many metabolites depending on the sucrose concentration. Metabolite profiling revealed that treatment with a higher sucrose level caused an increase in the levels of metabolites such as sugars, sugar alcohols, and sugar phosphates, which are related to the glycolytic pathway of M. officinalis. Furthermore, proline and succinic acid, which are associated with the proline-linked pentose phosphate pathway, the shikimic acid pathway, and the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids, also increased with increasing sucrose concentration. Therefore, these metabolic changes induced by sucrose ultimately led to the increased production of flavonoids such as caffeic acid via the biosynthetic pathway of phenylpropanoids. This study demonstrated that the abundance changes in some primary and secondary metabolites were somewhat interlocked with each other in response to sucrose. PMID:21301821

  5. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil of Thymus schimperi, Matricaria chamomilla, Eucalyptus globulus, and Rosmarinus officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Mekonnen, Awol; Yitayew, Berhanu; Tesema, Alemnesh; Taddese, Solomon

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the in vitro antimicrobial activities of four plant essential oils (T. schimperi, E. globulus, R. officinalis, and M. Chamomilla) were evaluated against bacteria and fungi. The studies were carried out using agar diffusion method for screening the most effective essential oils and agar dilution to determine minimum inhibitory concentration of the essential oils. Results of this study revealed that essential oils of T. schimperi, E. globulus, and R. officinalis were active against bacteria and some fungi. The antimicrobial effect of M. chamomilla was found to be weaker and did not show any antimicrobial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of T. schimperi were <15.75 mg/mL for most of the bacteria and fungi used in this study. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of the other essential oils were in the range of 15.75–36.33 mg/mL against tested bacteria. This study highlighted the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of E. globulus, M. chamomilla, T. Schimperi, and R. officinalis. The results indicated that T. schimperi have shown strong antimicrobial activity which could be potential candidates for preparation of antimicrobial drug preparation. PMID:26880928

  6. An HPLC-DAD method for simultaneous quantitative determination of four active hydrophilic compounds in Magnoliae officinalis cortex.

    PubMed

    Yan, Renyi; Yu, Shengxian; Liu, Hongliang; Xue, Zhenzhen; Yang, Bin

    2015-04-01

    Magnoliae officinalis cortex (MOC), derived from Magnolia officinalis and its variation M. officinalis var. biloba, is an important traditional Chinese medicine. In our previous work, 11 hydrophilic ingredients of MOC were isolated and structurally elucidated and four, namely syringin (SG), magnoloside A (MA), magnoloside B (MB) and magnoflorine (MF), showed bioactive effects. Herein, we describe an HPLC-DAD method for the simultaneous quantitative determination of MA, MB, MF and SG in MOC for the first time. The chromatographic separation of samples was performed on an Agilent Zorbax SB-C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 µm) by gradient elution with water-acetic acid (pH 3.0) and methanol at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The wavelengths were set at 265 nm for MF and SG, and 328 nm for MA and MB. The average recovery of the four compounds was from 97.63 to 103.84%. Nearly 100 MOC samples harvested from eight habitats were analyzed in which the contents of the tested compound varied in the range of 0.016-0.350% (MF), 0.010-0.337% (SG), 0.017-3.009% (MB) and 0.077-2.529% (MA). The analysis also indicated that MOC contains a significant amount of phenylethanoid glycosides. This was an unexpected finding because previously lignan was considered to be the main component of MOC. PMID:25085894

  7. AFLP fingerprinting as a tool to study the genetic diversity of Rhizobium galegae isolated from Galega orientalis and Galega officinalis.

    PubMed

    Terefework, Z; Kaijalainen, S; Lindström, K

    2001-10-01

    AFLP fingerprints of Rhizobium galegae strains that infect Galega orientalis and Galega officinalis obtained from different geographical sources, and of taxonomically diverse rhizobia representing the recognized species, were generated. Comparisons of the fingerprints from fluorescent labeled AFLP products using capillary electrophoresis on ABI prism 310, slab gel electrophoresis on ABI prism 377 genetic analyzers and silver staining were in good agreement. All methods delineated the G. orientalis strains from G. officinalis strains, the G. orientalis strains formed a tight cluster whereas the G. officinalis strains seem to show a greater level of genetic diversity. Comparison of fluorescent AFLP with other detection methods revealed that fluorescent labeling is more sensitive and practical, in addition, the deleterious effect of radioactivity associated with 32P-labeling, the delicate process of blotting polyacrylamide gels or the tedious procedure of silver staining can be avoided. The automated system facilitated a large number of runs at a time and the subsequent analysis of the data by generating exportable raw data. The congruency of the experiments was analyzed using the Bionumerics software. PMID:11566388

  8. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil of Thymus schimperi, Matricaria chamomilla, Eucalyptus globulus, and Rosmarinus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Mekonnen, Awol; Yitayew, Berhanu; Tesema, Alemnesh; Taddese, Solomon

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the in vitro antimicrobial activities of four plant essential oils (T. schimperi, E. globulus, R. officinalis, and M. Chamomilla) were evaluated against bacteria and fungi. The studies were carried out using agar diffusion method for screening the most effective essential oils and agar dilution to determine minimum inhibitory concentration of the essential oils. Results of this study revealed that essential oils of T. schimperi, E. globulus, and R. officinalis were active against bacteria and some fungi. The antimicrobial effect of M. chamomilla was found to be weaker and did not show any antimicrobial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of T. schimperi were <15.75 mg/mL for most of the bacteria and fungi used in this study. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of the other essential oils were in the range of 15.75-36.33 mg/mL against tested bacteria. This study highlighted the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of E. globulus, M. chamomilla, T. Schimperi, and R. officinalis. The results indicated that T. schimperi have shown strong antimicrobial activity which could be potential candidates for preparation of antimicrobial drug preparation. PMID:26880928

  9. Evaluation of antioxidant capacity of 13 plant extracts by three different methods: cluster analyses applied for selection of the natural extracts with higher antioxidant capacity to replace synthetic antioxidant in lamb burgers.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, R P P; Trindade, M A; Tonin, F G; Lima, C G; Pugine, S M P; Munekata, P E S; Lorenzo, J M; de Melo, M P

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were: to evaluate the total equivalent antioxidant capacities (TEAC) and phenolic contents of 13 plants extracts; to select the most promising extracts regarding reducing activity using cluster analysis multivariate statistical technique; and to analyse evaluate sensory acceptance of lamb burgers produced with the most promising natural antioxidants replacing sodium erythorbate. Plant extracts were evaluated regarding TEAC by DPPH(•) and FRAP methods, and total phenolics contents by Folin-Ciocalteau assay. The TEAC values ranged from 0.50 to 9.06 g trolox/100 g dry weight (dw) and from 43.6 to 472.32 μmol trolox/g dw for DPPH(•) and FRAP methods, respectively, and the total phenolic contents from 5.98 to 74.01 mg GAE/g dw. Extracts from Origanum vulgare, Melissa officinalis, Origanum majorana L. and Rosmarinus officinalis were grouped as the ones with higher antioxidant capacities by cluster analysis. All burgers produced with each one of these four plant extracts or with sodium erythorbate showed no differences (P > 0.05) regarding consumers' sensory acceptance. In conclusion, it is possible to replace sodium erythorbate in lamb burgers by any of the four natural extracts selected without compromising sensory acceptance of this meat product. PMID:26787964

  10. High performance thin layer chromatography fingerprinting, phytochemical and physico-chemical studies of anti-diabetic herbal extracts

    PubMed Central

    Itankar, Prakash R.; Sawant, Dattatray B.; Tauqeer, Mohd.; Charde, Sonal S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Herbal medicines have gained increasing popularity in the last few decades, and this global resurgence of herbal medicines increases their commercial value. However, this increasing demand has resulted in a decline in their quality, primarily due to a lack of adequate regulations pertaining to herbal medicines. Aim: To develop an optimized methodology for the standardization of herbal raw materials. Materials and Methods: The present study has been designed to examine each of the five herbal anti-diabetic drugs, Gymnema sylvester R. Br., Pterocarpus marsupium Roxburgh., Enicostema littorale Blume., Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels. and Emblica officinalis Gaertn. The in-house extracts and marketed extracts were evaluated using physicochemical parameters, preliminary phytochemical screening, quantification of polyphenols (Folin–Ciocalteu colorimetric method) and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprint profiling with reference to marker compounds in plant extracts. Results: All the plants mainly contain polyphenolic compounds and are quantified in the range of 3.6–21.72% w/w. E. officinalis contain the highest and E. littorale contain the lowest content of polyphenol among plant extracts analyzed. HPTLC fingerprinting showed that the in-house extracts were of better quality than marketed extracts. Conclusion: The results obtained from the study could be utilized for setting limits for the reference phytoconstituents (biomarker) for the quality control and quality assurance of these anti-diabetic drugs. PMID:27011722

  11. Inhibition of HIV-1 infection by aqueous extracts of Prunella vulgaris L.

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The mint family (Lamiaceae) produces a wide variety of constituents with medicinal properties. Several family members have been reported to have antiviral activity, including lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.), sage (Salvia spp.), peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.), hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.), basil (Ocimum spp.) and self-heal (Prunella vulgaris L.). To further characterize the anti-lentiviral activities of Prunella vulgaris, water and ethanol extracts were tested for their ability to inhibit HIV-1 infection. Results Aqueous extracts contained more anti-viral activity than did ethanol extracts, displaying potent antiviral activity against HIV-1 at sub μg/mL concentrations with little to no cellular cytotoxicity at concentrations more than 100-fold higher. Time-of-addition studies demonstrated that aqueous extracts were effective when added during the first five hours following initiation of infection, suggesting that the botanical constituents were targeting entry events. Further analysis revealed that extracts inhibited both virus/cell interactions and post-binding events. While only 40% inhibition was maximally achieved in our virus/cell interaction studies, extract effectively blocked post-binding events at concentrations similar to those that blocked infection, suggesting that it was targeting of these latter steps that was most important for mediating inhibition of virus infectivity. Conclusions We demonstrate that aqueous P. vulgaris extracts inhibited HIV-1 infectivity. Our studies suggest that inhibition occurs primarily by interference of early, post-virion binding events. The ability of aqueous extracts to inhibit early events within the HIV life cycle suggests that these extracts, or purified constituents responsible for the antiviral activity, are promising microbicides and/or antivirals against HIV-1. PMID:21513560

  12. Antibacterial Activity of Various Plants Extracts Against Antibiotic-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila

    PubMed Central

    Al Laham, Shaza Anwar; Al Fadel, Frdoos Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aeromonas hydrophila cause one of the most important diseases in fishes and lead to economic losses, and may be contaminated human beings. Objectives: The current research aimed to investigate the anti-bacterial activity shown by the extracts prepared from different parts of Olea europea, Myrtus communis, Thymus vulgaris, Rosmarinuis officinalis, and Achillea falcata that grow in Syria against A. hydrophila that causes the most dangerous bacterial diseases in fish. Materials and Methods: The study was performed in four stages: First of all, the presence of A. hydrophila was investigated in 450 Samples of Cyprinus Carpio fish using blood agar, Trypticase soya agar, and Analytical Profile Index (API20E). Secondly, the plants extract was obtained using water, absolute alcohol, then ether using Soxhlet extraction apparatus and rotary vacuum evaporator. Thirdly, the antibacterial activity of some antibiotics on these bacteria was evaluated by disk diffusion method. Finally, the antibacterial effect of the extracts was determined by disk diffusion method. Results: The studied antibiotics showed no antibacterial activity against these bacteria, except amikacin which had an acceptable effectiveness. However, the ethanol extracts of the studied plants revealed different antibacterial effects against A. hydrophila which showed antibiotic resistant. T. vulgaris extract had the strongest effect, whereas O. europea extract had the weakest activity. The water and ether petroleum extracts had no antibacterial activities. Conclusions: Ethanol extracts of the studied plants had different antibacterial effects against antibiotic-resistant A. hydrophila. T. vulgaris had the highest activity, R. officinalis had the second, and M. communis and A. falcate were in the third place, while the O. europea had the weakest antibacterial activity. PMID:25368797

  13. Efficacy of crude extract of Emblica officinalis (amla) in arsenic-induced oxidative damage and apoptosis in splenocytes of mice

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Manish Kumar; Yadav, Suraj Singh; Yadav, Rajesh Singh; Singh, Uma Shanker; Shukla, Yogeshwar; Pant, Kamlesh Kumar; Khattri, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Arsenic, an environmental contaminant naturally occurred in groundwater and has been found to be associated with immune-related health problems in humans. Objective: In view of increasing risk of arsenic exposure due to occupational and non-occupational settings, the present study has been focused to investigate the protective efficacy of amla against arsenic-induced spleenomegaly in mice. Results: Arsenic exposures (3 mg/kg body weight p.o for 30 days) in mice caused an increase production of ROS (76%), lipid peroxidation (84%) and decrease in the levels of superoxide dismutase (53%) and catalase (54%) in spleen as compared to controls. Arsenic exposure to mice also caused a significant increase in caspases-3 activity (2.8 fold) and decreases cell viability (44%), mitochondrial membrane potential (47%) linked with apoptosis assessed by the cell cycle analysis (subG1-28.72%) and annexin V/PI binding in spleen as compared to controls. Simultaneous treatment of arsenic and amla (500 mg/kg body weight p.o for 30 days) in mice decreased the levels of lipid peroxidation (33%), ROS production (24%), activity of caspase-3 (1.4 fold), apoptosis (subG1 12.72%) and increased cell viability (63%), levels superoxide dismutase (80%), catalase (77%) and mitochondrial membrane potential (66%) as compared to mice treated with arsenic alone. Conclusions: Results of the present study indicate that the effect of arsenic is mainly due to the depletion of glutathione in liver associated with enhanced oxidative stress that has been found to be protected following simultaneous treatment of arsenic and amla. PMID:24748729

  14. The influence of purge times on the yields of essential oil components extracted from plants by pressurized liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Wianowska, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    The influence of different purge times on the yield of the main essential oil constituents of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), and chamomile (Chamomilla recutita L.) was investigated. The pressurized liquid extraction process was performed by applying different extraction temperatures and solvents. The results presented in the paper show that the estimated yield of essential oil components extracted from the plants in the pressurized liquid extraction process is purge time-dependent. The differences in the estimated yields are mainly connected with the evaporation of individual essential oil components and the applied solvent during the purge; the more volatile an essential oil constituent is, the greater is its loss during purge time, and the faster the evaporation of the solvent during the purge process is, the higher the concentration of less volatile essential oil components in the pressurized liquid extraction receptacle. The effect of purge time on the estimated yield of individual essential oil constituents is additionally differentiated by the extraction temperature and the extraction ability of the applied solvent. PMID:25902980

  15. Pharmacogenomic Characterization of Cytotoxic Compounds from Salvia officinalis in Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Kadioglu, Onat; Efferth, Thomas

    2015-04-24

    Salvia officinalis is used as a dietary supplement with diverse medicinal activity (e.g. antidiabetic and antiatherosclerotic effects). The plant also exerts profound cytotoxicity toward cancer cells. Here, we investigated possible modes of action to explain its activity toward drug-resistant tumor cells. Log10IC50 values of two constituents of S. officinalis (ursolic acid, pomolic acid) were correlated to the expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters (P-glycoprotein/ABCB1/MDR1, MRP1/ABCC1, BCRP/ABCG2) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) or mutations in RAS oncogenes and the tumor suppressor gene TP53 of the NCI panel of cell lines. Gene expression profiles predicting sensitivity and resistance of tumor cells to these compounds were determined by microarray-based mRNA expressions, COMPARE, and hierarchical cluster analyses. Furthermore, the binding of both plant acids to key molecules of the NF-κB pathway (NF-κB, I-κB, NEMO) was analyzed by molecular docking. Neither expression nor mutation of ABC transporters, oncogenes, or tumor suppressor genes correlated with log10IC50 values for ursolic acid or pomolic acid. In microarray analyses, many genes involved in signal transduction processes correlated with cellular responsiveness to these compounds. Molecular docking indicated that the two plant acids strongly bound to target proteins of the NF-κB pathway with even lower free binding energies than the known NF-κB inhibitor MG-132. They interacted more strongly with DNA-bound NF-κB than free NF-κB, pointing to inhibition of DNA binding by these compounds. In conclusion, the lack of cross-resistance to classical drug resistance mechanisms (ABC-transporters, oncogenes, tumor suppressors) may indicate a promising role of the both plant acids for cancer chemotherapy. Genes involved in signal transduction may contribute to the sensitivity or resistance of tumor cells to ursolic and pomolic acids. Ursolic and pomolic acid may target different

  16. Antioxidative/acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of some Asteraceae plants.

    PubMed

    Mekinić, Ivana Generalić; Burcul, Franko; Blazević, Ivica; Skroza, Danijela; Kerum, Daniela; Katalinić, Visnja

    2013-04-01

    The extracts obtained by 80% EtOH from some Asteraceae plants (Calendula officinalis, Inula helenium, Arctium lappa, Artemisia absinthium and Achillea millefolium) were studied. Rosmarinic acid, one of the main compounds identified in all extracts, was determined quantitatively by using HPLC. In addition, spectrophotometric methods were evaluated as an alternative for rosmarinic acid content determination. Total phenolic content was also established for all extracts. A. millefolium extract was found to have the highest content of rosmarinic acid as well as total phenols. All extracts were tested for antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. A. millefolium was shown to possess the best antioxidant activity (for all tested methods) as well as acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Highly positive linear relationships were obtained between antioxidant/acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity and the determined rosmarinic acid content indicating its significance for the observed activities. PMID:23738456

  17. Acaricidal effect of essential oils from Lippia graveolens (Lamiales: Verbenaceae), Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), and Allium sativum (Liliales: Liliaceae) against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Martinez-Velazquez, M; Rosario-Cruz, R; Castillo-Herrera, G; Flores-Fernandez, J M; Alvarez, A H; Lugo-Cervantes, E

    2011-07-01

    Acaricidal effects of three essential oils extracted from Mexican oregano leaves (Lippia graveolens Kunth), rosemary leaves (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), and garlic bulbs (Allium sativum L.) on 10-d-old Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) tick larvae were evaluated by using the larval packet test bioassay. Serial dilutions of the three essential oils were tested from a starting concentration of 20 to 1.25%. Results showed that both Mexican oregano and garlic essential oils had very similar activity, producing high mortality (90-100%) in all tested concentrations on 10-d-old R. microplus tick larvae. Rosemary essential oil produced >85% larval mortality at the higher concentrations (10 and 20%), but the effect decreased noticeably to 40% at an oil concentration of 5%, and mortality was absent at 2.5 and 1.25% of the essential oil concentration. Chemical composition of the essential oils was elucidated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. Mexican oregano essential oil included thymol (24.59%), carvacrol (24.54%), p-cymene (13.6%), and y-terpinene (7.43%) as its main compounds, whereas rosemary essential oil was rich in a-pinene (31.07%), verbenone (15.26%), and 1,8-cineol (14.2%), and garlic essential oil was rich in diallyl trisulfide (33.57%), diallyl disulfide (30.93%), and methyl allyl trisulfide (11.28%). These results suggest that Mexican oregano and garlic essential oils merit further investigation as components of alternative approaches for R. microplus tick control. PMID:21845941

  18. Selective extraction of derivates of p-hydroxy-benzoic acid from plant material by using a molecularly imprinted polymer.

    PubMed

    Karasová, Gabriela; Lehotay, Jozef; Sádecká, Jana; Skacáni, Ivan; Lachová, Miroslava

    2005-12-01

    Selective SPE of derivates of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (pHBA) from plant extract of Melissa officinalis is presented using a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) made with protocatechuic acid (PA) as template molecule. MIP was prepared with acrylamide as functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as crosslinking monomer and ACN as porogen. MIP was evaluated towards six phenolic acids: PA, gallic acid, pHBA, vanillic acid (VA), gentisic acid (GeA) and syringic acid (SyrA), and then steps of molecularly imprinted SPE (MISPE) procedure were optimized. The best specific binding capacity of MIP was obtained for PA in ACN (34.7 microg/g of MIP). Other tested acids were also bound on MIP if they were dissolved in this solvent. ACN was chosen as solvent for sample application. M. officinalis was extracted into methanol/water (4:1, v/v), the extract was then evaporated to dryness and dissolved in ACN before application on MIP. Water and ACN were used as washing solvents and elution of benzoic acids was performed by means of a mixture methanol/acetic acid (9:1, v/v). pHBA, GA, PA and VA were extracted with recoveries of 56.3-82.1% using this MISPE method. GeA was not determined in plant extract. PMID:16405176

  19. The chemical composition, botanical characteristic and biological activities of Borago officinalis: a review.

    PubMed

    Asadi-Samani, Majid; Bahmani, Mahmoud; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2014-09-01

    Borage (Borago officinalis) is an annual herb which is cultivated for medicinal and culinary uses, although it is commercially cultivated for borage seed oil. Borage seed oil is the plant rich in the gamma-linolenic acid (26%-38%) which is used as dietary or food supplement. Other than seed oil it contains a lot of fatty acids such as linoleic acid (35%-38%), oleic acid (16%-20%), palmitic acid (10%-11%), stearic acid (3.5%-4.5%), eicosenoic acid (3.5%-5.5%) and erucic acid (1.5%-3.5%). It is used for the treatment of various diseases such as multiple sclerosis, diabetes, heart diseases, arthritis and eczema. In this study different aspects of borage such as plant characteristics, production, applications in traditional medicine, clinical considerations, its effects on patients' blood and urine biochemistry, and also the effect of the its products on liver and kidney performance tests are presented using published articles in scientific sites. PMID:25312125

  20. Functional identification of a delta8-sphingolipid desaturase from Borago officinalis.

    PubMed

    Sperling, P; Libisch, B; Zähringer, U; Napier, J A; Heinz, E

    2001-04-15

    The similarities between delta12- and delta5-fatty acyl desaturase sequences were used to construct degenerate primers for PCR experiments with cDNA transcribed from mRNA of developing borage seeds. Screening of a borage seed cDNA library with an amplified DNA fragment resulted in the isolation of a full-length cDNA corresponding to a deduced open-reading frame of 446 amino acids. The protein showed high similarity to plant delta8-sphingolipid desaturases as well as to the delta6-fatty acyl desaturase from Borago officinalis. The sequence is characterized by the presence of a N-terminal cytochrome b5 domain. Expression of this open-reading frame in Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in the formation of delta8-trans/cis-phytosphingenines not present in wild-type cells, as shown by HPLC analysis of sphingoid bases as their dinitrophenyl derivatives. GLC-MS analysis of the methylated di-O-trimethylsilyl ether derivatives confirmed the presence of delta8-stereoisomers of C18- and C20-phytosphingenine. Furthermore, Northern blotting showed that the gene encoding a stereo-unselective delta8-sphingolipid desaturase is primarily expressed in young borage leaves. PMID:11368168

  1. Compositions of the seed oil of the Borago officinalis from Iran.

    PubMed

    Morteza, Elham; Akbari, Gholam-Ali; Moaveni, Payam; Alahdadi, Iraj; Bihamta, Mohammad-Reza; Hasanloo, Tahereh; Joorabloo, Ali

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the composition of borage (Borago officinalis L.) seed oil, this research was performed under the field conditions at Shahriyar and Garmsar zones, Iran during the 2012 planting year. The oil yield of borage was 31.46% and 33.7% at Shahriyar and Garmsar zone, respectively, and nine and eight fatty acids were identified in the seed oil of borage at Shahriyar and Garmsar, respectively - palmitic, linoleic, stearic and γ-linolenic acids were dominant in the seed oil of borage from both zones. Unsaturated fatty acid content was more than the saturated fatty acids in both zones. The ratio of linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid in the borage cultivated at Shahriyar and Garmsar zones was 2.13 and 2.29. The fatty acid profile of Garmsar borage, oleic and oleic/linoleic acid ratio, increased. Locations with different ecological conditions resulted in changes in both seed oil content and fatty acid profile of borage. PMID:25360856

  2. Biochemical evaluation of borage (Borago officinalis) rosette leaves through their essential oil and fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Mhamdi, Baya; Aidi Wannes, Wissem; Marzouk, Brahim

    2007-06-01

    Borago officinalis rosette leaves were sampled in the region of Amdoun (Tunisia) during different stages of their development. Essential oil contents varied from 0.01% to 0.13% respectively in young and adult leaves. Twenty three volatile compounds were identified. Hydrocarbons, mainly represented by nonadecane (29.8%), tetracosane (11.3%) and heptacosane (4.7%), constituted the major class in the young leaves (45.8%), followed by aldehydes (22.4%). The percentages of these two classes decreased to reach respectively 15% and 8.1% in adult leaves in favour of alcohols (57.9%) where cis-3-hexenol (29.6%) and hexanol (14.5%) were the main compounds. Total fatty acids amounts increased from 5.03 mg/g DW in young leaves to 32.23 mg/g DW in adult ones. The predominant fatty acids were alpha-linolenic (C18:3 n-3), stearidonic (C18:4 n-3), gamma-linolenic (C18:3 n-6), palmitic (C16: 0) and linoleic (C18:2 n-6) acids. PMID:17722661

  3. Phenylethanoid glycosides and phenolic glycosides from stem bark of Magnolia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zhenzhen; Yan, Renyi; Yang, Bin

    2016-07-01

    An investigation of the hydrophilic constituents of the stem bark of Magnolia officinalis was performed and which led to isolation and identification of twenty-one previously unreported glycosides. These included eleven phenylethanoid glycosides, magnolosides F-P, and ten phenolic glycosides, magnolosides Q-Z, along with eight known compounds. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses and chemical hydrolysis methods, as well as by comparison with literature data. Most of the phenylethanoid glycosides contained an allopyranose moiety, which is rare in the plant kingdom. Magnolosides I and K as well as 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) ethanol 1-O-[4-O-caffeoyl-2-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-6-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl]-β-d-glucopyranoside showed more potent α-glucosidase inhibitory effects (IC50 values of 0.13, 0.27, and 0.29mM, respectively) than the positive control, acarbose (IC50 value of 1.09mM) in vitro. Magnolosides H, E and D also showed moderate cytotoxicity against MGC-803 and HepG2 cells with IC50 values of 13.59-17.16μM and 29.53-32.46μM, respectively. PMID:27086163

  4. Metabolic rate and rates of protein turnover in food-deprived cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus 1758).

    PubMed

    Lamarre, Simon G; MacCormack, Tyson J; Sykes, Antonio V; Hall, Jennifer R; Speers-Roesch, Ben; Callaghan, Neal I; Driedzic, William R

    2016-06-01

    To determine the metabolic response to food deprivation, cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) juveniles were either fed, fasted (3 to 5 days food deprivation), or starved (12 days food deprivation). Fasting resulted in a decrease in triglyceride levels in the digestive gland, and after 12 days, these lipid reserves were essentially depleted. Oxygen consumption was decreased to 53% and NH4 excretion to 36% of the fed group following 3-5 days of food deprivation. Oxygen consumption remained low in the starved group, but NH4 excretion returned to the level recorded for fed animals during starvation. The fractional rate of protein synthesis of fasting animals decreased to 25% in both mantle and gill compared with fed animals and remained low in the mantle with the onset of starvation. In gill, however, protein synthesis rate increased to a level that was 45% of the fed group during starvation. In mantle, starvation led to an increase in cathepsin A-, B-, H-, and L-like enzyme activity and a 2.3-fold increase in polyubiquitin mRNA that suggested an increase in ubiquitin-proteasome activity. In gill, there was a transient increase in the polyubiquitin transcript levels in the transition from fed through fasted to the starved state and cathepsin A-, B-, H-, and L-like activity was lower in starved compared with fed animals. The response in gill appears more complex, as they better maintain rates of protein synthesis and show no evidence of enhanced protein breakdown through recognized catabolic processes. PMID:27053650

  5. Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn), a wonder berry in the treatment and prevention of cancer.

    PubMed

    Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath; Dsouza, Jason Jerome

    2011-05-01

    Emblica officinalis Gaertn. or Phyllanthus emblica Linn, commonly known as Indian gooseberry or amla, is arguably the most important medicinal plant in the Indian traditional system of medicine, the Ayurveda. Various parts of the plant are used to treat a range of diseases, but the most important is the fruit. The fruit is used either alone or in combination with other plants to treat many ailments such as common cold and fever; as a diuretic, laxative, liver tonic, refrigerant, stomachic, restorative, alterative, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, hair tonic; to prevent peptic ulcer and dyspepsia, and as a digestive. Preclinical studies have shown that amla possesses antipyretic, analgesic, antitussive, antiatherogenic, adaptogenic, cardioprotective, gastroprotective, antianemia, antihypercholesterolemia, wound healing, antidiarrheal, antiatherosclerotic, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, and neuroprotective properties. In addition, experimental studies have shown that amla and some of its phytochemicals such as gallic acid, ellagic acid, pyrogallol, some norsesquiterpenoids, corilagin, geraniin, elaeocarpusin, and prodelphinidins B1 and B2 also possess antineoplastic effects. Amla is also reported to possess radiomodulatory, chemomodulatory, chemopreventive effects, free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic and immunomodulatory activities, properties that are efficacious in the treatment and prevention of cancer. This review for the first time summarizes the results related to these properties and also emphasizes the aspects that warrant future research to establish its activity and utility as a cancer preventive and therapeutic drug in humans. PMID:21317655

  6. Proteomic Characterisation of the Salt Gland-Enriched Tissues of the Mangrove Tree Species Avicennia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wee-Kee; Lim, Teck-Kwang; Loh, Chiang-Shiong; Kumar, Prakash; Lin, Qingsong

    2015-01-01

    Plant salt glands are nature's desalination devices that harbour potentially useful information pertaining to salt and water transport during secretion. As part of the program toward deciphering secretion mechanisms in salt glands, we used shotgun proteomics to compare the protein profiles of salt gland-enriched (isolated epidermal peels) and salt gland-deprived (mesophyll) tissues of the mangrove species Avicennia officinalis. The purpose of the work is to identify proteins that are present in the salt gland-enriched tissues. An average of 2189 and 977 proteins were identified from the epidermal peel and mesophyll tissues, respectively. Among these, 2188 proteins were identified in salt gland-enriched tissues and a total of 1032 selected proteins were categorized by Gene Ontology (GO) analysis. This paper reports for the first time the proteomic analysis of salt gland-enriched tissues of a mangrove tree species. Candidate proteins that may play a role in the desalination process of the mangrove salt glands and their potential localization were identified. Information obtained from this study paves the way for future proteomic research aiming at elucidating the molecular mechanism underlying secretion in plant salt glands. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000771. PMID:26193361

  7. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from leaves of Algerian Melissa officinalis L.

    PubMed Central

    Abdellatif, Fahima; Boudjella, Hadjira; Zitouni, Abdelghani; Hassani, Aicha

    2014-01-01

    The essential oil obtained from leaves of Melissa officinalis L. (Family of Lamiaceae) growing in Algeria, was investigated for its chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial activity. The chemical composition was determined by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS and GC-FID. Sixty-three compounds were identified in the essential oil, representing 94.10 % of the total oil and the yields were 0.34 %. The major component was geranial (44.20 %). Other predominant components were neral (30.20 %) and citronellal (6.30 %). The in vitro antimicrobial activity was determined by paper disk agar diffusion testing and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using 7 bacteria (3 Gram-positive and 4 Gram-negative), 2 yeasts and 3 fungi. The results showed that the essential oil presented high antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms targeted mainly against five human pathogenic bacteria, one yeast Candida albicans and two phytopathogenic fungi tested. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranged from 1.00 to 5.00 µL/mL. PMID:26417300

  8. Phenolic profiles of cultivated, in vitro cultured and commercial samples of Melissa officinalis L. infusions.

    PubMed

    Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Dias, Maria Inês; Sousa, Maria João; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2013-01-01

    Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) is normally consumed as an infusion and presents therapeutic properties, such as sedative, carminative and antispasmodic, also being included in some pharmaceutical preparations. The phenolic profiles of different samples of lemon balm, prepared as infusions, were evaluated by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS. The profiles were compared in order to understand the differences between cultivated, in vitro cultured and commercial (bags and granulated) samples. All the samples showed a similar phenolic profile, presenting differences only in the quantities found of each compound. Rosmarinic acid was the most abundant compound, being higher in commercial samples, especially in tea bag sample (55.68mg/g of infusion) and lower in in vitro cultured sample (15.46mg/g). Moreover, dimers, trimers and tetramers of caffeic acid were identified and quantified for the first time in lemon balm. Only one flavonoid, luteolin-3'-O-glucuronide was found in all the samples, ranging from 8.43mg/g in commercial granulate sample to 1.22mg/g in in vitro cultured sample. Overall, cultivated and in vitro cultured samples presented the lowest amounts of phenolic compounds (59.59 and 30.21mg/g, respectively); otherwise, commercial samples showed the highest contents (109.24mg/g for tea bag and 101.03mg/g for granulate sample). The present study shows that infusion of lemon balm can be a source of phenolic compounds, known for their bioactive effects. PMID:23017385

  9. Studies on bio-chemical profiling of Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis) for genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Pandey, G; Pandey, D; Tripathi, Mritynjay; Singh, Achal; Mishra, Maneesh

    2016-03-01

    Biochemical profiling of physiologically mature fruits of 51 diverse Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Gaertn) germplasm accessions was collected from Vindhyan hill region of Madhya Pradesh, with a view to select nutraceutically rich genotypes based on important biochemical traits. The mean ascorbic acid and total phenol (tannin) content amongst different accessions was recorded as 496.47 mg 100 g⁻¹ and 4.88% with highest value found in CISH A-12 (654.50 mg 100 g⁻¹) and CISH A-30 (7.18%), respectively. Apart from the above, wide range of variability in the composition of other important biochemical attributes viz., total soluble solids (8.60-17.70°Brix), acidity (1.61-2.94%), total sugar (4.15-9.17), reducing sugar (2.19-4.45%) and TSS/acid ratio (3.89-8.33) was also recorded. Highest significant and positive correlation was observed between total sugar and TSS (0.895) followed by reducing sugar and TSS (0.882). Significant positive correlation between ascorbic acid and tannins (0.551) was an indication to be associated with binding capacity of ascorbic acid over a longer period of storage. PMID:27097435

  10. [Study on intestinal absorption features of oligosaccharides in Morinda officinalis How. with sigle-pass perfusion].

    PubMed

    Deng, Shao-Dong; Zhang, Peng; Lin, Li; Xiao, Feng-Xia; Lin, Jing-Ran

    2015-01-01

    To study the in situ intestinal absorption of five oligosaccharides contained in Morinda officinalis How. (sucrose, kestose, nystose, 1F-Fructofuranosyinystose and Bajijiasu). The absorption of the five oligosaccharides in small intestine (duodenum, jejunum and ileum) and colon of rats and their contents were investigated by using in situ single-pass perfusion model and HPLC-ELSD. The effects of drug concentration, pH in perfusate and P-glycoprotein inhibitor on the intestinal absorption were investigated to define the intestinal absorption mechanism of the five oligosaccharides in rats. According to the results, all of the five oligosaccharides were absorbed in the whole intestine, and their absorption rates were affected by the pH of the perfusion solution, drug concentration and intestinal segments. Verapamil Hydrochloride could significantly increase the absorptive amount of sucrose and Bajijiasu, suggesting sucrose and Bajijiasu are P-gp's substrate. The five oligosaccharides are absorbed mainly through passive diffusion in the intestinal segments, without saturated absorption. They are absorbed well in all intestines and mainly in duodenum and jejunum. PMID:25993803

  11. A new dopachrome-rearranging enzyme from the ejected ink of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed Central

    Palumbo, A; d'Ischia, M; Misuraca, G; De Martino, L; Prota, G

    1994-01-01

    A melanogenic enzyme catalysing the rearrangement of dopachrome has been identified in the ejected ink of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. This enzyme occurs as a heat-labile protein which co-migrates with tyrosinase under a variety of chromatographic and electrophoretic conditions. On SDS/PAGE it shows like a single band with an approx. molecular mass of 85 kDa. The enzyme possesses high substrate specificity, acting on L-dopachrome (Km = 1 mM at pH 6.8) and on L-alpha-methyl-dopachrome, but not on D-dopachrome, L-dopachrome methyl ester, dopaminochrome and adrenochrome. Significant inhibition of the catalytic activity was observed with tropolone and L-mimosine. H.p.1.c. analysis of the enzyme-catalysed rearrangement of L-dopachrome revealed the quantitative formation of the decarboxylated product, 5,6-dihydroxyindole. These results point to marked differences between melanogenesis in cephalopod pigment cells and in melanocytes, which may have important implications in relation to the use of sepiomelanin as a model for studies of mammalian melanins. Images Figure 2 PMID:8192674

  12. Taurine depresses cardiac contractility and enhances systemic heart glucose utilization in the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    MacCormack, Tyson J; Callaghan, N I; Sykes, A V; Driedzic, W R

    2016-02-01

    Taurine is the most abundant amino acid in the blood of the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, where levels can exceed 200 mmol L(-1). In mammals, intracellular taurine modulates cardiac Ca(2+) handling and carbohydrate metabolism at much lower concentrations but it is not clear if it exerts similar actions in cephalopods. Blood Ca(2+) levels are high in cephalopods and we hypothesized that taurine would depress cardiac Ca(2+) flux and modulate contractility in systemic and branchial hearts of cuttlefish. Heart performance was assessed with an in situ perfused systemic heart preparation and contractility was evaluated using isometrically contracting systemic and branchial heart muscle rings. Stroke volume, cardiac output, and Ca(2+) sensitivity were significantly lower in systemic hearts perfused with supplemental taurine (100 mmol L(-1)) than in controls. In muscle ring preparations, taurine impaired relaxation at high contraction frequencies, an effect abolished by supra-physiological Ca(2+) levels. Taurine did not affect oxygen consumption in non-contracting systemic heart muscle, but extracellular glucose utilization was twice that of control preparations. Collectively, our results suggest that extracellular taurine depresses cardiac Ca(2+) flux and potentiates glucose utilization in cuttlefish. Variations in taurine levels may represent an important mechanism for regulating cardiovascular function and metabolism in cephalopods. PMID:26644087

  13. The Therapeutic Potential of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) Diterpenes for Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Habtemariam, Solomon

    2016-01-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is one of the most economically important species of the family Lamiaceae. Native to the Mediterranean region, the plant is now widely distributed all over the world mainly due to its culinary, medicinal, and commercial uses including in the fragrance and food industries. Among the most important group of compounds isolated from the plant are the abietane-type phenolic diterpenes that account for most of the antioxidant and many pharmacological activities of the plant. Rosemary diterpenes have also been shown in recent years to inhibit neuronal cell death induced by a variety of agents both in vitro and in vivo. The therapeutic potential of these compounds for Alzheimer's disease (AD) is reviewed in this communication by giving special attention to the chemistry of the compounds along with the various pharmacological targets of the disease. The multifunctional nature of the compounds from the general antioxidant-mediated neuronal protection to other specific mechanisms including brain inflammation and amyloid beta (Aβ) formation, polymerisation, and pathologies is discussed. PMID:26941822

  14. Single nucleotide polymorphism isolated from a novel EST dataset in garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.).

    PubMed

    Mercati, Francesco; Riccardi, Paolo; Leebens-Mack, Jim; Abenavoli, Maria Rosa; Falavigna, Agostino; Sunseri, Francesco

    2013-04-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and simple sequence repeats (SSR) are abundant and evenly distributed co-dominant molecular markers in plant genomes. SSRs are valuable for marker assisted breeding and positional cloning of genes associated traits of interest. Although several high throughput platforms have been developed to identify SNP and SSR markers for analysis of segregant plant populations, breeding in garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) has been limited by a low content of such markers. In this study massively parallel GS-FLX pyro-sequencing technology (454 Life Sciences) has been used to sequence and compare transcriptome from two genotypes: a rust tolerant male (1770) and a susceptible female (G190). A total of 122,963 and 99,368 sequence reads, with an average length of 245.7bp, have been recovered from accessions 1770 and 190 respectively. A computational pipeline has been used to predict and visually inspect putative SNPs and SSR sequences. Analysis of Gene Ontology (GO) slim annotation assignments for all assembled uniscripts indicated that the 24,403 assemblies represent genes from a broad array of functions. Further, over 1800 putative SNPs and 1000 SSRs were detected. One hundred forty-four SNPs together with 60 selected SSRs were validated and used to develop a preliminary genetic map by using a large BC(1) population, derived from 1770 and G190. The abundance of SNPs and SSRs provides a foundation for the development of saturated genetic maps and their utilization in assisted asparagus breeding programs. PMID:23415335

  15. Ambispora granatensis, a new arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, associated with Asparagus officinalis in Andalucia (Spain).

    PubMed

    Palenzuela, Javier; Barea, José-Miguel; Ferrol, Nuria; Oehl, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    A new dimorphic fungal species in the arbuscular mycorrhiza-forming Glomeromycota, Ambispora granatensis, was isolated from an agricultural site in the province of Granada (Andalucía, Spain) growing in the rhizosphere of Asparagus officinalis. It was propagated in pot cultures with Trifolium pratense and Sorghum vulgare. The fungus also colonized Ri T-DNA transformed Daucus carota roots but did not form spores in these root organ cultures. The spores of the acaulosporoid morph are 90-150 μm diam and hyaline to white to pale yellow. They have three walls and a papillae-like rough irregular surface on the outer surface of the outer wall. The irregular surface might become difficult to detect within a few hours in lactic acid-based mountings but are clearly visible in water. The structural central wall layer of the outer wall is only 0.8-1.5 μm thick. The glomoid spores are formed singly or in small, loose spore clusters of 2-10 spores. They are hyaline to pale yellow, (25)40-70 μm diam and have a bilayered spore wall without ornamentation. Nearly full length sequences of the 18S and the ITS regions of the ribosomal gene place the new fungus in a separate clade next to Ambispora fennica and Ambispora gerdemannii. The acaulosporoid spores of the new fungus can be distinguished easily from all other spores in genus Ambispora by the conspicuous thin outer wall. PMID:20952800

  16. Comparative analysis of gene expression by microarray analysis of male and female flowers of Asparagus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wu-Jun; Li, Shu-Fen; Zhang, Guo-Jun; Wang, Ning-Na; Deng, Chuan-Liang; Lu, Long-Dou

    2013-01-01

    To identify rapidly a number of genes probably involved in sex determination and differentiation of the dioecious plant Asparagus officinalis, gene expression profiles in early flower development for male and female plants were investigated by microarray assay with 8,665 probes. In total, 638 male-biased and 543 female-biased genes were identified. These genes with biased-expression for male and female were involved in a variety of processes associated with molecular functions, cellular components, and biological processes, suggesting that a complex mechanism underlies the sex development of asparagus. Among the differentially expressed genes involved in the reproductive process, a number of genes associated with floral development were identified. Reverse transcription-PCR was performed for validation, and the results were largely consistent with those obtained by microarray analysis. The findings of this study might contribute to understanding of the molecular mechanisms of sex determination and differentiation in dioecious asparagus and provide a foundation for further studies of this plant. PMID:23748756

  17. Occurrence and characterization of a Phytophthora sp. pathogenic to asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) in Michigan.

    PubMed

    Saude, C; Hurtado-Gonzales, O P; Lamour, K H; Hausbeck, M K

    2008-10-01

    A homothallic Phytophthora sp. was recovered from asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) spears, storage roots, crowns, and stems in northwest and central Michigan in 2004 and 2005. Isolates (n = 131) produced ovoid, nonpapillate, noncaducous sporangia 45 microm long x 26 microm wide and amphigynous oospores of 25 to 30 microm diameter. Mycelial growth was optimum at 25 degrees C with no growth at 5 and 30 degrees C. All isolates were sensitive to 100 ppm mefenoxam. Pathogenicity studies confirmed the ability of the isolates to infect asparagus as well as cucurbits. Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis of 99 isolates revealed identical fingerprints, with 12 clearly resolved fragments present and no clearly resolved polymorphic fragments, suggesting a single clonal lineage. The internal transcribed spacer regions of representative isolates were homologous with a Phytophthora sp. isolated from diseased asparagus in France and a Phytophthora sp. from agave in Australia. Phylogenetic analysis supports the conclusion that the Phytophthora sp. isolated from asparagus in Michigan is a distinct species, and has been named Phytophthora asparagi. PMID:18943453

  18. Plant regeneration after long-term callus culture in clones of Asparagus officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Pontaroli, A C; Camadro, E L

    2005-12-01

    Callus growth and plant regeneration from long-term callus cultures were studied in two elite clones of Asparagus officinalis cv. Argenteuil, to establish a suitable protocol for a prospective in vitro selection program. Callus initiation and growth was evaluated on MS medium with 3% sucrose, 0.9% agar, 1 mg x l(-1) kinetin, and three levels of 2,4-D. The highest callus relative growth was obtained on medium with 1.5 mg x l(-1) 2,4-D and 1 mg x l(-1) kinetin. Shoot primordia (SP) induction from > 18-months-old calluses was evaluated on several media; the highest percentage of SP induction (89%) and average number of SP per callus (8.6) were obtained with clone "265" on MS medium with 5 mg x l(-1) 2iP, 1 mg x l(-1) IAA, 3% sucrose and 0.9% agar. The highest percentage of root induction (100%) was achieved with clone '265' on MS medium with 0.1 mg x l(-1) kinetin, 0.1 mg x l(-1) NAA, 1.32 mg x l(-1) ancymidol, 7% glucose and 0.8% agar. Important medium x genotype interactions were detected, pointing to the need of adjusting this and other in vitro protocols for specific asparagus genotypes. PMID:16524253

  19. Proteomic Characterisation of the Salt Gland-Enriched Tissues of the Mangrove Tree Species Avicennia officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Wee-Kee; Lim, Teck-Kwang; Loh, Chiang-Shiong; Kumar, Prakash; Lin, Qingsong

    2015-01-01

    Plant salt glands are nature’s desalination devices that harbour potentially useful information pertaining to salt and water transport during secretion. As part of the program toward deciphering secretion mechanisms in salt glands, we used shotgun proteomics to compare the protein profiles of salt gland-enriched (isolated epidermal peels) and salt gland-deprived (mesophyll) tissues of the mangrove species Avicennia officinalis. The purpose of the work is to identify proteins that are present in the salt gland-enriched tissues. An average of 2189 and 977 proteins were identified from the epidermal peel and mesophyll tissues, respectively. Among these, 2188 proteins were identified in salt gland-enriched tissues and a total of 1032 selected proteins were categorized by Gene Ontology (GO) analysis. This paper reports for the first time the proteomic analysis of salt gland-enriched tissues of a mangrove tree species. Candidate proteins that may play a role in the desalination process of the mangrove salt glands and their potential localization were identified. Information obtained from this study paves the way for future proteomic research aiming at elucidating the molecular mechanism underlying secretion in plant salt glands. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000771. PMID:26193361

  20. Effect of bioclimatic area on the composition and bioactivity of Tunisian Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils.

    PubMed

    Ben Jemia, Mariem; Tundis, Rosa; Pugliese, Alessandro; Menichini, Francesco; Senatore, Felice; Bruno, Maurizio; Kchouk, Mohamed Elyes; Loizzo, Monica Rosa

    2015-02-01

    The chemical composition of eight Tunisian Rosmarinus officinalis L. populations (A-H) from different bioclimatic areas has been examined by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry. The essential oils are characterised by high amounts of oxygenated monoterpenes (58.2-71.7%) followed by monoterpene hydrocabons (15.1-26.7%). 1,8-Cineole, camphor, α-pinene and borneol are the main representative components. The antioxidant activity was investigated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), ferric reducing ability power assay and β-carotene bleaching test. Samples showed antiradical activity by inhibiting DPPH radical with IC50 values ranging from 375.3 to 592.8 μg mL(- 1) for samples F and A, respectively. Sample A also showed the most promising activity in β-carotene bleaching test (IC50 of 31.9 μg mL(- 1)). The essential oils were also screened for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activity. Sample G showed the highest activity against AChE (IC50 of 64.7 μg mL(- 1)) while sample D (IC50 of 29.5 μg mL(- 1)) exhibited the most potent activity against BChE. PMID:25104041