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1

Application of the threshold of toxicological concern approach for the safety evaluation of calendula flower ( Calendula officinalis) petals and extracts used in cosmetic and personal care products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calendula flower (Calendula officinalis) (CF) has been used in herbal medicine because of its anti-inflammatory activity. CF and C. officinalis extracts (CFE) are used as skin conditioning agents in cosmetics. Although data on dermal irritation and sensitization of CF and CFE’s are available, the risk of subchronic systemic toxicity following dermal application has not been evaluated. The threshold of toxicological

T. A. Re; D. Mooney; E. Antignac; E. Dufour; I. Bark; V. Srinivasan; G. Nohynek

2009-01-01

2

A new extract of the plant calendula officinalis produces a dual in vitro effect: cytotoxic anti-tumor activity and lymphocyte activation  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Phytopharmacological studies of different Calendula extracts have shown anti-inflamatory, anti-viral and anti-genotoxic properties of therapeutic interest. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro cytotoxic anti-tumor and immunomodulatory activities and in vivo anti-tumor effect of Laser Activated Calendula Extract (LACE), a novel extract of the plant Calendula Officinalis (Asteraceae). METHODS: An aqueous extract of Calendula Officinalis was obtained by

Eva Jiménez-Medina; Angel Garcia-Lora; Laura Paco; Ignacio Algarra; Antonia Collado; Federico Garrido

2006-01-01

3

Experimental data and modeling the supercritical fluid extraction of marigold ( Calendula officinalis) oleoresin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fixed bed extraction of marigold (Calendula officinalis) oleoresin with liquid and supercritical carbon dioxide was investigated. The operating conditions studied were: pressures ranging from 12 to 20MPa and temperatures from 293 to 313K, indicating solvent densities ranging from 666 to 938kgCO2\\/m3, and solvent flow rate varying from 1.3×10?5 to 5.0×10?5kgCO2\\/s. The results show an increase in the extraction rate,

Eliane M. Z. Michielin; Leandro Danielski; Sandra R. S. Ferreira

2005-01-01

4

Micropropagação de Calendula officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palavras-chave: Micropropagação, vitrificação, calêndula, plantas medicinais. ABSTRACT: Micropropagation of Calendula officinalis L. Micropropagation of Calendula officinalis L. is usually propagated through seeds and therefore shows high diversity in flower size and colour, what causes quantitative and qualitative chemical variability. A micropropagation protocol was established for clonal propagation of this species to achieve homogeneous biomass, more appropriate for the production of

DAMIÃO FILHO; J. MORO

5

Analysis of Carotenoid Composition in Petals of Calendula (Calendula officinalis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nineteen carotenoids were identified in extracts of petals of orange- and yellow-flowered cultivars of calendula (Calendula officinalis L.). Ten carotenoids were unique to orange-flowered cultivars. The UV-vis absorption maxima of these ten carotenoids were at longer wavelengths than that of flavoxanthin, the main carotenoid of calendula petals, and it is clear that these carotenoids are responsible for the orange color

Sanae KISHIMOTO; Takashi MAOKA; Katsuhiko SUMITOMO; Akemi OHMIYA

2005-01-01

6

Extraction, Separation and Isolation of Volatiles and Dyes from Calendula officinalis L. and Aloysia triphylla (L'Her.) Britton by Supercritical CO2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolation of volatile concentrate from the dried leaves of Aloysia triphylla (L'Herit.) Britton (lemon verbena) and the dried flowers of Calendula officinalis L. were obtained by supercritical extraction with CO2. To obtain a pure volatile extract devoid of cuticular waxes, the extraction products were fractionated in two separators operating in series. A good extraction process was obtained operating at 90

Nicoletta Crabps; Bruno Marongiu; Alessandra Piras; Tiziana Pivetta; Silvia Porcedda

2003-01-01

7

Extraction, Separation and Isolation of Volatiles and Dyes from Calendula officinalis L. and Aloysia triphylla (L'Her.) Britton by Supercritical CO2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolation of volatile concentrate from the dried leaves of Aloysia triphylla (L'Herit.) Britton (Lemon verbena) and the dried flowers of Calendula officinalis L. were obtained by supercritical extraction with CO2. To obtain a pure volatile extract devoid of cuticular waxes, the extraction products were fractionated in two separators operating in series. A good extraction process was obtained operating at 90

Nicoletta Crabas; Bruno Marongiu; Alessandra Piras; Tiziana Pivetta; Silvia Porcedda

2003-01-01

8

Final Report of the Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel Amended Safety Assessment of Calendula officinalis—Derived Cosmetic Ingredients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calendula officinalis extract, C officinalis flower, C officinalis flower extract, C officinalis flower oil, and C officinalis seed oil are cosmetic ingredients derived from C officinalis. These ingredients may contain minerals, carbohydrates, lipids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, coumarins, sterols and steroids, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, triterpenes, tocopherols, quinones, amino acids, and resins. These ingredients were not significantly toxic in single-dose oral studies

F. Alan Andersen; Wilma F. Bergfeld; Donald V. Belsito; Ronald A. Hill; Curtis D. Klaassen; Daniel C. Liebler; James G. Marks; Ronald C. Shank; Thomas J. Slaga; Paul W. Snyder

2010-01-01

9

Composition of Essential Oil Obtained From Tubular, Head and Ligulate Flowers of Calendula officinalis L. by Steam Distillation of Plant Material and CO2 Extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oil content of tubular, head and ligulate flowers of Calendula officinalis L. were determined using official steam distillation procedure. It was found that the ligulate flower sample had the highest oil content (0.16%). Applying SFE by means of CO2 (200 bar, 40°C, 3 h extraction time), the highest extraction yield was found in tubular and ligulate flower samples (3.67%

Lidija Petrovi?; Žika Lepojevi?; Verica Sovilj; Dušan Adamovi?; Vele Teševi?

2010-01-01

10

Effect of Calendula officinalis Flower Extract on Acute Phase Proteins, Antioxidant Defense Mechanism and Granuloma Formation During Thermal Burns  

PubMed Central

Effect of Calendula officinalis flower extract was investigated against experimentally induced thermal burns in rats. Burn injury was made on the shaven back of the rats under anesthesia and the animals were treated orally with different doses of the flower extract (20 mg, 100 mg and 200 mg/kg body weight). The animals treated with the extract showed significant improvement in healing when compared with the control untreated animals. The indicators of the wound healing such as collagen-hydroxyproline and hexosamine contents were significantly increased in the treated group indicating accelerated wound healing in the treated animals. The acute phase proteins—haptoglobin and orosomucoid which were increased due to burn injury were found to be decreased significantly in 200 mg/kg body weight extract treated animals. The antioxidant defense mechanism, which was decreased in the liver during burn injury, was found to be enhanced in treated animals. The lipid peroxidation was significantly lowered in the treated group when compared to control animals. Tissue damage marker enzymes- alkaline phosphatase, alanine and aspartate transaminases were significantly lowered in the treated groups in a dose dependant manner. The histopathological analyses of skin tissue also give the evidence of the increased healing potential of the extract after burn injury.

Chandran, Preethi K.; Kuttan, Ramadasan

2008-01-01

11

Marigold ( Calendula officinalis L.) oleoresin: Solubility in SC-CO 2 and composition profile  

Microsoft Academic Search

The solubility of marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) oleoresin in supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) and the composition profile of the extracts obtained using different extraction methods were investigated. Supercritical experiments were performed at different temperature (20–40°C) and pressure (120–200bar) levels. The oleoresin solubility in SC-CO2 was determined through the dynamic method using low solvent flow rates (0.79–1.67gCO2\\/min), by assuming that the solvent

Leandro Danielski; Louisiane F. V. Bresciani; Haiko Hense; Rosendo A. Yunes; Sandra R. S. Ferreira

2007-01-01

12

Preparative purification of the major anti-inflammatory triterpenoid esters from Marigold ( Calendula officinalis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the efficient preparative purification of faradiol 3-O-laurate, palmitate and myristate, the major anti-inflammatory triterpenoid esters in the flower heads of the medicinal plant Calendula officinalis has been developed. Gram quantities of the individual compounds were obtained with 96 to 98% purity by a combination of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), normal-phase and reversed-phase column chromatography. During the work-up

M. Hamburger; S. Adler; D. Baumann; A. Förg; B. Weinreich

2003-01-01

13

The effects of drying on the chemical components of essential oils of Calendula officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calendula officinalis is a medicinal plant whose essential oils are used for various purposes. The oils were extracted by hydrodistillation from fresh leaves, dry leaves and fresh flowers of the herb yielding 0.06, 0.03 and 0.09%, respectively. The analysis of the oils by GC-MS revealed a total of 30, 21 and 24 compounds from the fresh leaves, dry leaves and

Okoh O. O; Sadimenko A. P; Asekun O. T; Afolayan A. J

2008-01-01

14

Antioxidative responses of Calendula officinalis under salinity conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

To gain a better insight into long-term salt-induced oxidative stress, some physiological parameters in marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) under 0, 50 and 100 mM NaCl were investigated. Salinity affected most of the considered parameters. High salinity caused reduction in growth parameters, lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide accumulation. Under high salinity stress, a decrease in total glutathione and an increase in total ascorbate

Nader Chaparzadeh; Maria Lucia D'Amico; Ramazan-Ali Khavari-Nejad; Riccardo Izzo; Flavia Navari-Izzo

2004-01-01

15

Topical Calendula officinalis L. successfully treated exfoliative cheilitis: a case report  

PubMed Central

Authors describe a case of recurrent exfoliative cheilitis that responded to treatment with a standardized topical preparation of Calendula officinalis L. An eighteen-year-old man was referred to UNESP - São Paulo State University, Department of Biosciences and Oral Diagnosis, São José dos Campos Dental School to investigate a chronic dry scaling lesion on his lips. The patient's main chief was aesthetic compromising. Corticoid therapy was suspended and Calendula officinalis ointment 10% for ad libitum use has been prescribed. The results presented allow the authors to consider Calendula officinalis L. as a potential therapy in cases of cheilitis exfoliative.

2009-01-01

16

Assessment of In vitro Sun Protection Factor of Calendula Officinalis L. (Asteraceae) Essential Oil Formulation  

PubMed Central

The present study was undertaken to study the sunscreen activity of herbal formulation. There is no evidence of the sun protection factor (SPF) studies on essential oil of Calendula flowers (Calendula officinalis L., Asteraceae). The study investigates the in vitro SPF by ultraviolet specrtophotometry method of Calendula flower oil in a cream formulation. Calendula oil was isolated by Clavenger's apparatus, compositions were identified by GC–MS and the cream of calendula flower oil was prepared by homogenization method followed by evaluation for physical parameters. The sun protection factor of cream was evaluated by in vitro method employing UV–visible spectrophotometer (Shimazdu-1600). The SPF of Calendula oil in cream formulation exhibited good activity (SPF = 14.84 ± 0.16). Finding of this study suggested that calendula oil cream can be used to protect the skin from UV radiations in form of sunscreen cream and to maintain the natural pigmentation of the skin.

Mishra, AK; Mishra, A; Chattopadhyay, P

2012-01-01

17

Chemical Composition and Chemometric Analysis of Variation in Essential Oils of Calendula officinalis L . during Vegetation Stages  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variation in the content and composition of Calendula officinalis essential oils was studied using supercritical CO2 extraction followed by GC–MS. Samples of marigold were harvested at four different vegetation stages. A total of 43 different\\u000a compounds were identified in the essential oils. The identified components were represented mainly by monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes\\u000a and sesquiterpene alcohols. The qualitative and quantitative composition

Vilma Kaškonien?; Paulius Kaškonas; Modesta Jalinskait?; Audrius Maruška

2011-01-01

18

HPLC analysis of carotenoids in four varieties of Calendula officinalis L. flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calendula officinalis L. is a medicinal plant that accumulates large amounts of carotenoids in its inflorescences. The yellow-to-orange colour of inflorescences is mostly due to carotenoids and the shade is dependent on pigments content and profile.We investigated the carotenoid content and profile in four selected varieties of Calendula: Double Esterel Orange, Radio Extra Selected, Bonbon Abricot and Double Esterel Jaune.

Adela Pintea; Constantin Bele; Sanda Andrei; Carmen Socaciu

19

Wound Healing and Anti-Inflammatory Effect in Animal Models of Calendula officinalis L. Growing in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Calendula officinalis is an annual herb from Mediterranean origin which is popularly used in wound healing and as an anti-inflammatory agent. In this study, the ethanolic extract, the dichloromethane, and hexanic fractions of the flowers from plants growing in Brazil were produced. The angiogenic activity of the extract and fractions was evaluated through the chorioallantoic membrane and cutaneous wounds in rat models. The healing activity of the extract was evaluated by the same cutaneous wounds model through macroscopic, morphometric, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical analysis. The antibacterial activity of the extract and fractions was also evaluated. This experimental study revealed that C. officinalis presented anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities as well as angiogenic and fibroplastic properties acting in a positive way on the inflammatory and proliferative phases of the healing process.

Parente, Leila Maria Leal; Lino Junior, Ruy de Souza; Tresvenzol, Leonice Manrique Faustino; Vinaud, Marina Clare; de Paula, Jose Realino; Paulo, Neusa Margarida

2012-01-01

20

Calendula officinalis—production potential and crop agronomy in southern England  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in Calendula officinalis L. as an industrial oil crop has developed from the discovery that it has a seed-oil content of around 20%, of which up to 60% is calendic acid, a useful industrial feedstock. An EU AIR project `vegetable oils with specific fatty acids', is in progress to further develop this and other species. The first 2 years

H. T. H Cromack; J. M Smith

1998-01-01

21

The Effects of Age on the Yield and Composition of the Essential Oils of Calendula officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variations in the yield and composition of the essential oils from Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) cultivated in Alice, Eastern Cape of South Africa are reported. Essential oils of this plant were obtained by hydrodistillation using the Clevenger apparatus and analysis was performed by GC-MS. The yield in essential oil showed a maximum at the full flowering stage (0.97%) and

O. O. Okoh; A. A. Sadimenko; A. J. Afolayan

2007-01-01

22

Antifungal activity of the essential oil from Calendula officinalis L. (asteraceae) growing in Brazil  

PubMed Central

This study tested in vitro activity of the essential oil from flowers of Calendula officinalis using disk-diffusion techniques. The antifungal assay results showed for the first time that the essential oil has good potential antifungal activity: it was effective against all 23 clinical fungi strains tested.

Gazim, Zilda Cristiane; Rezende, Claudia Moraes; Fraga, Sandra Regina; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivaleti; Cortez, Diogenes Aparicio Garcia

2008-01-01

23

Anti-oedematous activities of the main triterpendiol esters of marigold ( Calendula officinalis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Separation and isolation of the genuine faradiol esters (1,2) from flower heads of Marigold (Calendula officinalis L., Asteraceae) could be achieved by means of repeated column chromatography (CC) and HPLC for the first time. Structure elucidation of faradiol-3-myristic acid ester 1, faradiol-3-palmitic acid ester 2 and ?-taraxasterol 3 has been also performed, without any previous degradation by means of MS,

K Zitterl-Eglseer; S Sosa; J Jurenitsch; M Schubert-Zsilavecz; R Della Loggia; A Tubaro; M Bertoldi; C Franz

1997-01-01

24

Calendula  

MedlinePLUS

... t take calendula either. There isn’t enough safety information about use during breast-feeding. Allergy to ragweed and related plants: Calendula may cause an allergic reaction in people who are sensitive to the Asteraceae/Compositae ...

25

Qualitative and quantitative high performance thin layer chromatography analysis of Calendula officinalis using high resolution plate imaging and artificial neural network data modelling.  

PubMed

Calendula officinalis, commonly known Marigold, has been traditionally used for its anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of an artificial neural network (ANN) to analyse thin layer chromatography (TLC) chromatograms as fingerprint patterns for quantitative estimation of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and rutin in Calendula plant extracts. By applying samples with different weight ratios of marker compounds to the system, a database of chromatograms was constructed. A hundred and one signal intensities in each of the HPTLC chromatograms were correlated to the amounts of applied chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and rutin using an ANN. The developed ANN correlation was used to quantify the amounts of 3 marker compounds in calendula plant extracts. The minimum quantifiable level (MQL) of 610, 190 and 940ng and the limit of detection (LD) of 183, 57 and 282ng were established for chlorogenic, caffeic acid and rutin, respectively. A novel method for quality control of herbal products, based on HPTLC separation, high resolution digital plate imaging and ANN data analysis has been developed. The proposed method can be adopted for routine evaluation of the phytochemical variability in calendula extracts. PMID:24070490

Agatonovic-Kustrin, S; Loescher, Christine M

2013-09-01

26

O USO DA POMADA DE Calendula officinalis NO TRATAMENTO PÓS-OPERATÓRIO DAS DEISCÊNCIAS DE SUTURA DE FERIDAS CIRÚRGICAS COMPLICADAS. THE USE OF Calendula officinalis OINTMENT DURING THE POST-OPERATIVE TREATMENT OF SUTURE DEHISCENCE AND COMPLICATED SURGICAL WOUNDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following paper reports the topical use of Calendula officinalis in the treatment of 10 dogs that showed post-operative complications in emergency (mainly trauma), orthopedic and oncologic surgeries. These severe complications included suture dehiscence, infections and even tissular necrosis. All the patients reached complete healing between 21 and 28 days of treatment.

JORGE LUIZ COSTA CASTRO; JANE MAIA CASTRO; MARCOS VINICIUS MOTTA

27

Yield, essential oil and pigment content of Calendula officinalis L. flower heads cultivated under salt stress conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flower heads of Calendula officinalis L. are used for medicinal or culinary purposes. Since Egyptian agricultural lands contain salt, this study investigated the effects of saline irrigation water on yield (fresh and dry weights of flower heads), essential oil (EO) yield, chemical constituents of the EO and total flavonoids and carotenoids of flower heads at three flowering stages, i.e. initial

Khalid A. Khalid

2010-01-01

28

Fatty acid composition of lipids in pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) seed genotypes  

PubMed Central

Background Calendula officinalis L. (pot marigold) is an annual aromatic herb with yellow or golden-orange flowers, native to the Mediterranean climate areas. Their seeds contain significant amounts of oil (around 20%), of which about 60% is calendic acid. For these reasons, in Europe concentrated research efforts have been directed towards the development of pot marigold as an oilseed crop for industrial purposes. Results The oil content and fatty acid composition of major lipid fractions in seeds from eleven genotypes of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) were determined. The lipid content of seeds varied between 13.6 and 21.7 g oil/100 g seeds. The calendic and linoleic acids were the two dominant fatty acids in total lipid (51.4 to 57.6% and 28.5 to 31.9%) and triacylglycerol (45.7 to 54.7% and 22.6 to 29.2%) fractions. Polar lipids were also characterised by higher unsaturation ratios (with the PUFAs content between 60.4 and 66.4%), while saturates (consisted mainly of palmitic and very long-chain saturated fatty acids) were found in higher amounts in sterol esters (ranging between 49.3 and 55.7% of total fatty acids). Conclusions All the pot marigold seed oils investigated contain high levels of calendic acid (more than 50% of total fatty acids), making them favorable for industrial use. The compositional differences between the genotypes should be considered when breeding and exploiting the pot marigold seeds for nutraceutical and pharmacological purposes.

2013-01-01

29

Identification and Analysis of a Gene from Calendula officinalis Encoding a Fatty Acid Conjugase  

PubMed Central

Two homologous cDNAs, CoFad2 and CoFac2, were isolated from a Calendula officinalis developing seed by a polymerase chain reaction-based cloning strategy. Both sequences share similarity to FAD2 desaturases and FAD2-related enzymes. In C. officinalis plants CoFad2 was expressed in all tissues tested, whereas CoFac2 expression was specific to developing seeds. Expression of CoFad2 cDNA in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) indicated it encodes a ?12 desaturase that introduces a double bond at the 12 position of 16:1(9Z) and 18:1(9Z). Expression of CoFac2 in yeast revealed that the encoded enzyme acts as a fatty acid conjugase converting 18:2(9Z, 12Z) to calendic acid 18:3(8E, 10E, 12Z). The enzyme also has weak activity on the mono-unsaturates 16:1(9Z) and 18:1(9Z) producing compounds with the properties of 8,10 conjugated dienes.

Qiu, Xiao; Reed, Darwin W.; Hong, Haiping; MacKenzie, Samuel L.; Covello, Patrick S.

2001-01-01

30

New possible molluscicides from Calendula micrantha officinalis and Ammi majus. II. Molluscicidal, physiological, and egg-laying effects against Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus.  

PubMed

In the present study, the effects of CuSo4 and crude extracts of the different parts of Calendula micrantha officinalis and Ammi majus, i. e., leaves, stems, roots, and flowers, on adult Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus were investigated. Generally, leaves and flowers of both plants exhibited marked potency in killing the snail vectors of schistosomiasis. The recorded LC50 and LC90 values showed that C. officinalis was more toxic to both snails than A. majus, and B. truncatus are more sensitive to the extracts of both plants than B. alexandrina. Snails that are produced from snails previously exposed to low doses were more sensitive to the tested extracts, which may give primary indication of no possibility of inherited resistance. Moreover, prolonged exposure to the sublethal concentrations of A. majus have a definite lethal effect on the egg laying and longevity of both snails. Also, treatment with sublethal doses of both plants clearly inhibited the transaminase activity (ALAT, ASAT), diminished the total protein content, and increased markedly total lipid contents in the hemolymph of both snails. PMID:9007003

Rawi, S M; El-Gindy, H; Abd-El-Kader, A

1996-12-01

31

Evaluation of Biologically Active Compounds from Calendula officinalis Flowers using Spectrophotometry  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed to quantify the active biological compounds in C. officinalis flowers. Based on the active principles and biological properties of marigolds flowers reported in the literature, we sought to obtain and characterize the molecular composition of extracts prepared using different solvents. The antioxidant capacities of extracts were assessed by using spectrophotometry to measure both absorbance of the colorimetric free radical scavenger 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) as well as the total antioxidant potential, using the ferric reducing power (FRAP) assay. Results Spectrophotometric assays in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) region enabled identification and characterization of the full range of phenolic and flavonoids acids, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to identify and quantify phenolic compounds (depending on the method of extraction). Methanol ensured more efficient extraction of flavonoids than the other solvents tested. Antioxidant activity in methanolic extracts was correlated with the polyphenol content. Conclusions The UV-VIS spectra of assimilator pigments (e.g. chlorophylls), polyphenols and flavonoids extracted from the C. officinalis flowers consisted in quantitative evaluation of compounds which absorb to wavelengths broader than 360 nm.

2012-01-01

32

Screening of radical scavenging activity of some medicinal and aromatic plant extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts of 12 medicinal and aromatic plants were investigated for their radical scavenging activity using DPPH and ABTS assays: Salvia sclarea, Salvia glutinosa, Salvia pratensis, Lavandula angustifolia, Calendula officinalis, Matricaria recutita, Echinacea purpurea, Rhaponticum carthamoides, Juglans regia, Melilotus officinalis, Geranium macrorrhizum and Potentilla fruticosa. Salvia officinalis was used as a reference plant with well documented antioxidant activity. G. macrorrhizum and

G. Miliauskas; P. R. Venskutonis; T. A. van Beek

2004-01-01

33

Antiulcerogenic activity of crude hydroalcoholic extract of Rosmarinus officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rosmarinus officinalis L. crude hydroalcoholic (70%) extract was evaluated for antiulcerogenic activity employing different experimental models. The crude hydroalcoholic extract (CHE) decreased the ulcerative lesion index produced by indomethacin, ethanol and reserpine in rats. No antisecretory activity was observed on pyloric ligation model. The previous administration of l-NAME, a NO-synthase inhibitor, did not reduce the antiulcerogenic activity of CHE in

Patr??cia Corrêa Dias; Mary Ann Foglio; Ana Possenti; João Ernesto de Carvalho

2000-01-01

34

Repellency Effects of Essential Oils of Myrtle (Myrtus communis), Marigold (Calendula officinalis) Compared with DEET against Anopheles stephensi on Human Volunteers  

PubMed Central

Background: Malaria and leishmaniasis are two most significant parasitic diseases which are endemic in Iran. Over the past decades, interest in botanical repellents has increased as a result of safety to human. The comparative efficacy of essential oils of two native plants, myrtle (Myrtus communis) and marigold (Calendula officinalis) collected from natural habitats at southern Iran was compared with DEET as synthetic repellent against Anopheles stephensi on human subjects under laboratory condition. Methods: Essential oils from two species of native plants were obtained by Clevenger-type water distillation. The protection time of DEET, marigold and myrtle was assessed on human subject using screened cage method against An. stephensi. The effective dose of 50% essential oils of two latter species and DEET were determined by modified ASTM method. ED50 and ED90 values and related statistical parameters were calculated by probit analysis. Results: The protection time of 50% essential oils of marigold and myrtle were respectively 2.15 and 4.36 hours compared to 6.23 hours for DEET 25%. The median effective dose (ED50) of 50% essential oils was 0.1105 and 0.6034 mg/cm2 respectively in myrtle and marigold. The figure for DEET was 0.0023 mg/cm2. Conclusion: This study exhibited that the repellency of both botanical repellents was generally lower than DEET as a synthetic repellent. However the 50% essential oil of myrtle showed a moderate repellency effects compared to marigold against An. stephensi.

Tavassoli, M; Shayeghi, M; Abai, MR; Vatandoost, H; Khoobdel, M; Salari, M; Ghaderi, A; Rafi, F

2011-01-01

35

Antioxidant properties of marigold extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of methanolic and water extracts of growing wild marigold, Calendula arvensis L. (GWM) and cultivated marigold, Calendula officinalis L. (CM), in a concentration range of 0.10–0.90 mg\\/ml, was evaluated on three different free-radical species: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH), hydroxyl radical and lipid peroxyl radical using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. These extracts of CM and GWM, scavenged all

Gordana S ?etkovi?; Sonja M Djilas; Jasna M ?anadanovi?-Brunet; Vesna T Tumbas

2004-01-01

36

Snake venom neutralization by Indian medicinal plants ( Vitex negundo and Emblica officinalis) root extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methanolic root extracts of Vitex negundo Linn. and Emblica officinalis Gaertn. were explored for the first time for antisnake venom activity. The plant (V. negundo and E. officinalis) extracts significantly antagonized the Vipera russellii and Naja kaouthia venom induced lethal activity both in in vitro and in vivo studies. V. russellii venom-induced haemorrhage, coagulant, defibrinogenating and inflammatory activity was

M. I Alam; A Gomes

2003-01-01

37

Promotion of hair growth by Rosmarinus officinalis leaf extract.  

PubMed

Topical administration of Rosmarinus officinalis leaf extract (RO-ext, 2?mg/day/mouse) improved hair regrowth in C57BL/6NCrSlc mice that experienced hair regrowth interruption induced by testosterone treatment. In addition, RO-ext promoted hair growth in C3H/He mice that had their dorsal areas shaved. To investigate the antiandrogenic activity mechanism of RO-ext, we focused on inhibition of testosterone 5?-reductase, which is well recognized as one of the most effective strategies for the treatment of androgenic alopecia. RO-ext showed inhibitory activity of 82.4% and 94.6% at 200 and 500?µg/mL, respectively. As an active constituent of 5?-reductase inhibition, 12-methoxycarnosic acid was identified with activity-guided fractionation. In addition, the extract of R. officinalis and 12-methoxycarnosic acid inhibited androgen-dependent proliferation of LNCaP cells as 64.5% and 66.7% at 5?µg/mL and 5??M, respectively. These results suggest that they inhibit the binding of dihydrotestosterone to androgen receptors. Consequently, RO-ext is a promising crude drug for hair growth. PMID:22517595

Murata, Kazuya; Noguchi, Kazuma; Kondo, Masato; Onishi, Mariko; Watanabe, Naoko; Okamura, Katsumasa; Matsuda, Hideaki

2012-04-20

38

Synergistic anti– Staphylococcus aureus activity of amoxicillin in combination with Emblica officinalis and Nymphae odorata extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo evaluate the antibacterial activity of Emblica officinalis Gaertn (E. officinalis; Family: Euphorbiaceae) seed and Nymphae odorata Aiton (N. odorata; Family: Nymphaeaceae) stamen extracts, alone and in combination, and in combination with amoxicillin (Ax) against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus).

Shyamapada Mandal; Manisha DebMandal; Nishith Kumar Pal; Krishnendu Saha

2010-01-01

39

Supercritical fluid extraction from rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis): Kinetic data, extract's global yield, composition, and antioxidant activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work the global yields isotherms and the overall extraction curves for the system rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis)+CO2, the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the extracts were determined. The experiments were performed in two supercritical extraction units. The following bed height to bed diameter ratios were used: 0.67, 1.34, 2.8, 5.6, and 8.4. The global yields were determined

Raul N. Carvalho; Lucinewton S. Moura; Paulo T. V. Rosa; M. Angela A. Meireles

2005-01-01

40

Supercritical fluid extraction from rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis): Kinetic data, extract's global yield, composition, and antioxidant activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work the global yields isotherms and the overall extraction curves for the system rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis )+C O 2, the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the extracts were determined. The experiments were performed in two supercritical extraction units. The following bed height to bed diameter ratios were used: 0.67, 1.34, 2.8, 5.6, and 8.4. The

Raul N. Carvalho Jr; Lucinewton S. Moura; Paulo T. V. Rosa; M. Angela; A. Meireles

2005-01-01

41

Regulation of Thyroid Function in Mice with Extracts of Emblica officinalis L. and Bauhinia purpurea L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of Emblica officinalis L. and Bauhinia purpurea L. extracts in regulating thyroid functions was studied in male mice. Oral administration of Emblica officinalis L. fruit extract at 30 mg\\/kg body weight (b.wt.) each day for 20 days decreased serum T3 and T4 concentrations and hepatic O2 consumption. In contrast, daily administration of Bauhinia purpurea at 2.5 mg\\/kg b.

S. Panda; A. Kar; S. Bharti

2003-01-01

42

Snake venom neutralising factor from the root extract of Emblica officinalis Linn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The folk use of the Indian medicinal plant Emblica officinalis Linn. root extract and its active compound (Pthalate in nature) against snake venom has been established in experimental animal\\u000a models. From the root extract of Emblica officinalis, a compound was isolated through silica gel column chromatography and the structure was determined by UV, IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR & EIMS studies. The

S. Sarkhel; A. K. Chakravarty; R. Das; Aparna Gomes; A. Gomes

2011-01-01

43

Rosmarinus officinalis extract suppresses Propionibacterium acnes-induced inflammatory responses.  

PubMed

Propionibacterium acnes is a key pathogen involved in the progression of acne inflammation. The development of a new agent possessing antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity against P. acnes is therefore of interest. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extract on P. acnes-induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that ethanolic rosemary extract (ERE) significantly suppressed the secretion and mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1?, and tumor necrosis factor-? in P. acnes-stimulated monocytic THP-1 cells. In an in vivo mouse model, concomitant intradermal injection of ERE attenuated the P. acnes-induced ear swelling and granulomatous inflammation. Since ERE suppressed the P. acnes-induced nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-?B) activation and mRNA expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, the suppressive effect of ERE might be due, at least partially, to diminished NF-?B activation and TLR2-mediated signaling pathways. Furthermore, three major constituents of ERE, carnosol, carnosic acid, and rosmarinic acid, exerted different immumodulatory activities in vitro. In brief, rosmarinic acid significantly suppressed IL-8 production, while the other two compounds inhibited IL-1? production. Further study is needed to explore the role of bioactive compounds of rosemary in mitigation of P. acnes-induced inflammation. PMID:23514231

Tsai, Tsung-Hsien; Chuang, Lu-Te; Lien, Tsung-Jung; Liing, Yau-Rong; Chen, Wei-Yu; Tsai, Po-Jung

2013-03-20

44

HPLC study on the carotenoid composition of Calendula products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report on the HPLC investigation of the carotenoid composition of the steams, leaves, petals and pollens of Calendula officinalis L. In the petals and pollens, the main carotenoids were flavoxanthin and auroxanthin while the stem and leaves mostly contained lutein and ?-carotene.Five different herbal tea and two tinctures made from the flower of C. officinalis L. were also

Eszter Bakó; József Deli; Gyula Tóth

2002-01-01

45

Identification of Magnolia officinalis L. bark extract as the most potent anti-inflammatory of four plant extracts.  

PubMed

This study was designed to compare the anti-inflammatory potential of a Magnolia officinalis L. bark extract solely or in combination with extracts prepared from either Polygonum aviculare L., Sambucus nigra L., or Isodon japonicus L. in bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated human gingival fibroblasts (HGF-1) and human U-937 monocytes, as cell models of periodontal disease. HGF-1 and U-937 cells were incubated with LPS from either Porphyromonas gingivalis or Escherichia coli together with the four plant extracts alone or in combination. Secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines from HGF-1 and U-937 cells was measured by means of a multiplexed bead assay system. Magnolia officinalis L. bark extract, at concentrations of 1 ?g/mL and 10 ?g/mL, reduced interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion from HGF-1 cells to 72.5 ± 28.6% and reduced matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) secretion from U-937 cells to 8.87 ± 7.97% compared to LPS-treated cells (100%). The other three extracts also reduced secretion of these inflammatory markers but were not as effective. Combination of 9 ?g/mL Magnolia officinalis L. extract with 1 ?g/mL of each of the other extracts maintained the anti-inflammatory effect of Magnolia officinalis L. extract. Combination of 5 ?g/mL Magnolia officinalis L. extract with 5 ?g/mL Isodon japonicus L. extract also maintained the anti-inflammatory potential of the Magnolia officinalis L. extract, whereas increasing concentrations of any of the other plant extracts in the combination experiments reduced the Magnolia officinalis L. extract efficacy in U-937 cells. PMID:23711140

Walker, Joel M; Maitra, Amarnath; Walker, Jessica; Ehrnhoefer-Ressler, Miriam M; Inui, Taichi; Somoza, Veronika

2013-01-01

46

Variation in seed lipids in Calendula germplasm  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Calendula officinalis (pot marigold) has considerable promise as an industrial crop, with a long history as an ornamental and medicinal plant. It is also marketed as an ingredient in cosmetics and a colorant. It produces unusual seed lipids, which can provide an additional market for commercial Ca...

47

Phytochemical profile of Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia officinalis extracts and correlation to their antioxidant and anti-proliferative activity.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to monitor the anti-proliferative activity of Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia officinalis extracts against cancer cells and to correlate this activity with their phytochemical profiles using liquid chromatography/diode array detection/electrospray ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (LC/DAD/ESI-MS(n)). For the quantitative estimation of triterpenic acids in the crude extracts an NMR based methodology was used and compared with the HPLC measurements, both applied for the first time, for the case of betulinic acid. Both extracts exerted cytotoxic activity through dose-dependent impairment of viability and mitochondrial activity of rat insulinoma m5F (RINm5F) cells. Decrease of RINm5F viability was mediated by nitric oxide (NO)-induced apoptosis. Importantly, these extracts potentiated NO and TNF-? release from macrophages therefore enhancing their cytocidal action. The rosemary extract developed more pronounced antioxidant, cytotoxic and immunomodifying activities, probably due to the presence of betulinic acid and a higher concentration of carnosic acid in its phytochemical profile. PMID:23017402

Kontogianni, Vassiliki G; Tomic, Goran; Nikolic, Ivana; Nerantzaki, Alexandra A; Sayyad, Nisar; Stosic-Grujicic, Stanislava; Stojanovic, Ivana; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P; Tzakos, Andreas G

2012-07-31

48

Spermatotoxic effect of ochratoxin and its amelioration by Emblica officinalis aqueous extract.  

PubMed

The present study was carried out to evaluate the spermatotoxic effect of ochratoxin and it's amelioration by Emblica officinalis aqueous extract. When male albino mice were treated with ochratoxin (50 and 100 microg/0.2 mL of olive oil/animal/day for 45 days, orally) alterations in various reproductive parameters were observed (sperm count, sperm motility, sperm viability and fertility rate), when further treated with the aqueous extract of Emblica officinalis (2 mg/animal/day for 45 days) amelioration was noted in ochratoxin-induced spermatotoxic effect. Oral administration of ochratoxin for 45 days caused, as compared to vehicle control (Group 2), dose-dependent significant (p < 0.05) reduction in cauda epididymal sperm count, sperm motility, sperm viability and fertility rate (Groups 4, 5). Oral administration of aqueous extract of Emblica officinalis alone did not cause any significant changes in above mentioned parameters (Group 3). However, Emblica officinalis aqueous extract along with ochratoxin treatment caused significant recovery in all the sperm parameters as well as in fertility rate (Groups 6, 7) in comparison with ochratoxin alone treated animals (Groups 4, 5). Amelioration was higher in high dose ochratoxin plus extract treated animals than that of respective low dose. When normal human sperm cell suspension was treated with ochratoxin (in vitro), various morphological alterations were observed. These were mitigated further, when treated with aqueous extract of Emblica officinalis. PMID:20050533

Chakraborty, Devjani; Verma, Ramtej

49

Synergistic antibacterial activity of Salvia officinalis and Cichorium intybus extracts and antibiotics.  

PubMed

Synergistic activity of Salvia officinalis and Cichorium intybus extracts and commonly used antibiotics, amoxicillin and chloramphenicol, were evaluated. Interactions between plant extracts and antibiotics were tested by checkerboard method and interpreted as FIC index. Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and clinical isolates Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis were used. Salvia officinalis showed better synergistic capacity than Cichorium intybus. Synergistic interactions were observed between amoxicillin and acetone or ethyl acetate extract of Salvia officinalis and between chloramphenicol and ethyl acetate extract of Salvia officinalis. In the presence of sub-inhibitory concentration (1/4 MIC to 1/32 MIC) of sage extracts, the MIC values of antibiotics were decreased by 2- to 10-fold. Synergism was observed against all test bacteria, except Escherichia coli. The combinations of acetone and ethyl acetate extract from Cichorium intybus and antibiotics resulted in additive and indifferent effects against tested bacteria. PMID:22594260

Stefanovi?, Olgica D; Stanojevi?, Dragana D; Comi?, Ljiljana R

50

Enzyme assisted extraction of polysaccharides from the fruit of Cornus officinalis.  

PubMed

Process of enzyme assisted extraction (EAE) of polysaccharides from Cornus officinalis was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). The influence of four different factors on the yield of C. officinalis polysaccharides (COP) was studied. Results showed that the optimal conditions were compound enzyme amount of 2.15%, extraction pH of 4.2, extraction temperature of 55°C and extraction time of 97min. Under these conditions, the COP yield was 9.29±0.31%, which was well in agreement with the value predicted by the model. The three methods, EAE, hot water extraction (HWE), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for extracting COP by RSM were further compared. Results showed that EAE had the largest yield of polysaccharides with lower equipment cost. PMID:23987388

You, Qinghong; Yin, Xiulian; Zhao, Yuping

2013-06-28

51

Biocontrol of root-rot disease of Coleus forskohlii and Coleus amboinicus by using plant extracts as antifungal agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different plant extracts were screened for their potential antifungal activity against Fusarium chlamydosporum causing root rot of Coleus amboinicus and Coleus forskohlii; the aqueous and 50% ethanol extract of Annona squamosa, Azadircta indica, Eucalyptus Spp., Ocimum sanctum, Lawsonia inermis, Allium schoenoprasum, Cinnamomum verum Zingiber officinale, Piper nigrum, Calendula officinalis species were found to be effective. Both aqueous and 50% ethanol

Chathuri P. Mudalige; N. S. Jyothi; Uma G. Chikabire; S. T. Girisha

2011-01-01

52

Antimicrobial activities of methanol extracts and essential oils of Rosmarinus officinalis, depending on location and seasonal variations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rosmarinus officinalis is widely found in the lands of Aegean and Mediterranean regions of Turkey. The goal of this work was to test the antimicrobial activity of the essential oils and methanolic extracts of R. officinalis collected from three different regions at four different time intervals of the year against Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterococcus feacalis,

O. Yesil Celiktas; E. E. Hames Kocabas; E. Bedir; F. Vardar Sukan; T. Ozek; K. H. C. Baser

2007-01-01

53

In vitro antioxidant activities of Rosmarinus officinalis extracts treated with supercritical carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary) were subjected to supercritical CO2 extraction (SFE). Different sources of variability, including location (Izmir, Canakkale and Mersin) and harvesting time (December, March, June and September), were considered. Among active constituents of rosemary, carnosic acid, carnosol and rosmarinic acid were analyzed by HPLC. Variability of the amounts of active constituents appears to be due to

O. Yesil Celiktas; E. Bedir; F. Vardar Sukan

2007-01-01

54

Induction of apoptosis of human primary osteoclasts treated with extracts from the medicinal plant Emblica officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Osteoclasts (OCs) are involved in rheumatoid arthritis and in several pathologies associated with bone loss. Recent results support the concept that some medicinal plants and derived natural products are of great interest for developing therapeutic strategies against bone disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis. In this study we determined whether extracts of Emblica officinalis fruits display activity of possible

Letizia Penolazzi; Ilaria Lampronti; Monica Borgatti; Mahmud Tareq Hassan Khan; Margherita Zennaro; Roberta Piva; Roberto Gambari

2008-01-01

55

Protective Effect of an Extract of Emblica officinalis Against Radiation-Induced Damage in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radioprotective effect of Emblica officinalis extract (EOE) was studied in mice. Swiss albino mice were exposed to ? rays (5 Gy) in the absence (control) or presence (experimental) of EOE, orally 100 mg\\/kg body weight, once daily for 7 consecutive days. A specimen of small intestine (jejunum) was removed from the mice and studied at different autopsy intervals from

Archana Jindal; Dhanraj Soyal; Abhilasha Sharma; P. K. Goyal

2009-01-01

56

Radical scavenging, antibacterial, and antiproliferative activities of Melissa officinalis L. extracts.  

PubMed

The aromatic herb Melissa officinalis L. can be used as an easily accessible source of natural antioxidants and as a possible food supplement and as a phytochemical. Radical scavenging, antibacterial, and antiproliferative activities of petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water extracts of M. officinalis L. extracts were investigated. The results of antioxidative activity, obtained by electron spin resonance spectroscopy, confirmed that investigated extracts suppressed the formation of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl, and lipid peroxyl radicals in all investigated systems in a dose-dependent manner. The maximum DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities (SA(DPPH) = SA(OH) = 100%) were achieved in the presence of n-butanol extract at concentrations of 0.4 mg/mL and 0.5 mg/mL, respectively. The highest lipid peroxyl scavenging activity (93.20%) was observed at a higher concentration (5 mg/mL) of n-butanol extract in the lipid peroxidation system. The most effective antibacterial activities were expressed by petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts on Sarcina lutea. Chloroform extract showed the strongest antiproliferative effect with 50% inhibitory concentration values of 0.09 mg/mL and 0.10 mg/mL for HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines, respectively. The present study demonstrated the high phenolic content and radical scavenging, antibacterial, and antiproliferative activities of extracts of M. officinalis L. originating from Serbia. PMID:18361749

Canadanovi?-Brunet, Jasna; Cetkovi?, Gordana; Djilas, Sonja; Tumbas, Vesna; Bogdanovi?, Gordana; Mandi?, Anamarija; Markov, Sinisa; Cvetkovi?, Dragoljub; Canadanovi?, Vladimir

2008-03-01

57

Antioxidant effects of different extracts from Melissa officinalis, Matricaria recutita and Cymbopogon citratus.  

PubMed

Considering the important role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of several neurological diseases, and the growing evidence of the presence of compounds with antioxidant properties in the plant extracts, the aim of the present study was to investigate the antioxidant capacity of three plants used in Brazil to treat neurological disorders: Melissa officinalis, Matricaria recutita and Cymbopogon citratus. The antioxidant effect of phenolic compounds commonly found in plant extracts, namely, quercetin, gallic acid, quercitrin and rutin was also examined for comparative purposes. Cerebral lipid peroxidation (assessed by TBARS) was induced by iron sulfate (10 microM), sodium nitroprusside (5 microM) or 3-nitropropionic acid (2 mM). Free radical scavenger properties and the chemical composition of plant extracts were assessed by 1'-1' Diphenyl-2' picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), respectively. M. officinalis aqueous extract caused the highest decrease in TBARS production induced by all tested pro-oxidants. In the DPPH assay, M. officinalis presented also the best antioxidant effect, but, in this case, the antioxidant potencies were similar for the aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts. Among the purified compounds, quercetin had the highest antioxidant activity followed by gallic acid, quercitrin and rutin. In this work, we have demonstrated that the plant extracts could protect against oxidative damage induced by various pro-oxidant agents that induce lipid peroxidation by different process. Thus, plant extracts could inhibit the generation of early chemical reactive species that subsequently initiate lipid peroxidation or, alternatively, they could block a common final pathway in the process of polyunsaturated fatty acids peroxidation. Our study indicates that M. officinalis could be considered an effective agent in the prevention of various neurological diseases associated with oxidative stress. PMID:18853256

Pereira, Romaiana Picada; Fachinetto, Roselei; de Souza Prestes, Alessandro; Puntel, Robson Luiz; Santos da Silva, Gloria Narjara; Heinzmann, Berta Maria; Boschetti, Ticiane Krapf; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Bürger, Marilise Escobar; Morel, Ademir Farias; Morsch, Vera Maria; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira

2008-10-14

58

Ethanol extract of Magnolia officinalis prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced memory deficiency via its antineuroinflammatory and antiamyloidogenic effects.  

PubMed

Magnolia bark contains several compounds such as magnolol, honokiol, 4-O-methylhonokiol, obovatol, and other neolignan compounds. These compounds have been reported to have various beneficial effects in various diseases. There is sufficient possibility that ethanol extract of Magnolia officinalis is more effective in amyloidogenesis via synergism of these ingredients. Neuroinflammation has been known to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated whether the ethanol extract of M.?officinalis (10?mg/?kg in 0.05% ethanol) prevents memory dysfunction and amyloidogenesis in AD mouse model by intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 250?µg/?kg/day for seven times) injection. We found that ethanol extract of M.?officinalis prevented LPS-induced memory deficiency as well as inhibited the LPS-induced elevation of inflammatory proteins, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2, and activation of astrocytes and microglia. In particular, administration of M.?officinalis ethanol extract inhibited LPS-induced amyloidogenesis, which resulted in the inhibition of amyloid precursor protein, beta-site amyloid-precursor-protein-cleaving enzyme 1 and C99. Thus, this study shows that ethanol extract of M.?officinalis prevents LPS-induced memory impairment as well as amyloidogenesis via inhibition of neuroinflammation and suggests that ethanol extract of M.?officinalis might be a useful intervention for neuroinflammation-associated diseases such as AD. PMID:22628265

Lee, Young-Jung; Choi, Dong-Young; Yun, Yeo-Pyo; Han, Sang Bae; Kim, Hwan Mook; Lee, Kiho; Choi, Seok Hwa; Yang, Mhan-Pyo; Jeon, Hyun Soo; Jeong, Jea-Hwang; Oh, Ki-Wan; Hong, Jin Tae

2012-05-25

59

Potential for the use of ultrasound in the extraction of antioxidants from Rosmarinus officinalis for the food and pharmaceutical industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasound was used to increase the extraction efficiency of carnosic acid from the herb Rosmarinus officinalis using butanone, ethyl acetate and ethanol as solvents. Both dried and fresh leaves of the herb were extracted and, when performed at the same temperature, sonication improved the yields of carnosic acid for all three solvents and shortened the extraction times. Sonication also reduced

S. Albu; E. Joyce; L. Paniwnyk; J. P. Lorimer; T. J. Mason

2004-01-01

60

Protective Effects of Different Marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) and Rosemary Cream Preparations against Sodium-Lauryl-Sulfate-Induced Irritant Contact Dermatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, we evaluated the protective action of cream preparations containing seven different types of marigold and rosemary extracts in vivo in healthy volunteers with experimentally induced irritant contact dermatitis (ICD). Marigold and rosemary extracts in base cream DAC (Deutscher Arzneimittel-Codex = German Pharmaceutical Codex) were tested in a 4-day repetitive irritation test using sodium lauryl sulfate. The

S. M. Fuchs; S. Schliemann-Willers; T. W. Fischer; P. Elsner

2005-01-01

61

Use of Immobilised Lipase from Candida antarctica in Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Borage (Borago officinalis L.) Seed Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This study aims at the investigation of the possibilities to use immobilised lipase from Candida antarctica in supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of borage (Borago officinalis L.) seed oil. The first series of experiments was performed to measure the extract yields obtained with pure CO2 and with the added entrainer (ethanol). The yield increased more than twi- ce after increasing

Petras Rimantas Venskutonis; Egidijus Dauk; Björn Sivik

62

Antioxidant Activity of Calendula officinalis Extract: Inhibitory Effects on Chemiluminescence of Human Neutrophil Bursts and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is growing interest in natural chemical compounds from aromatic, spicy, medicinal and other plants with antioxidant properties in order to find new sources of compounds inactivating free radicals generated by metabolic pathways within body tissue and cells, mainly polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) whose overregulated recruitment and activation generate a large amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species

Pier Carlo Braga; Monica Dal Sasso; Maria Culici; Alessandra Spallino; Mario Falchi; Aldo Bertelli; Roberto Morelli; Roberto Lo Scalzo

2009-01-01

63

Extraction of polysaccharides from Fomes officinalis Ames and their antitumor activity  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to optimize the extraction parameters of Fomes officinalis Ames polysaccharides (FOAPs) and evaluate their antitumor activity. FOAPs were extracted using the hot water extraction, acid extraction and alkali extraction methods, respectively. Alcohol precipitation and acetone washes were conducted to separate and purify the FOAPs. The FOAP content was determined using the phenol-sulfuric acid method. The effects of raw material particle size, extraction time and material-liquid ratio on the yield of FOAPs were investigated, and the effects of FOAPs on the immune function of S180 tumor-bearing mice and their antitumor activity were evaluated. The yield of FOAPs obtained with the hot water extraction method was higher compared with the yields of the other methods. The optimum extraction conditions were as follows: a raw material particle size of 24 mesh; an extraction time of 2.5 h; and a material-liquid ratio of 1 g:12 ml. Under these conditions, the yield of FOAPs was 1.13%. FOAPs significantly inhibited tumor growth and enhanced the immune function in S180 tumor-bearing mice. FOAPs extracted using the hot water extraction method have antitumor activity.

HU, MINGDONG; ZHANG, HUIFENG; FENG, BO; LIU, KE; GUO, SHUYING

2013-01-01

64

Comparative study of the antioxidant and reactive oxygen species scavenging properties in the extracts of the fruits of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis  

PubMed Central

Background Cellular damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in several diseases, and hence natural antioxidants have significant importance in human health. The present study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and reactive oxygen species scavenging activities of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis fruit extracts. Methods The 70% methanol extracts were studied for in vitro total antioxidant activity along with phenolic and flavonoid contents and reducing power. Scavenging ability of the extracts for radicals like DPPH, hydroxyl, superoxide, nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, peroxynitrite, singlet oxygen, hypochlorous acid were also performed to determine the potential of the extracts. Results The ability of the extracts of the fruits in exhibiting their antioxative properties follow the order T. chebula >E. officinalis >T. belerica. The same order is followed in their flavonoid content, whereas in case of phenolic content it becomes E. officinalis >T. belerica >T. chebula. In the studies of free radicals' scavenging, where the activities of the plant extracts were inversely proportional to their IC50 values, T. chebula and E. officinalis were found to be taking leading role with the orders of T. chebula >E. officinalis >T. belerica for superoxide and nitric oxide, and E. officinalis >T. belerica >T. chebula for DPPH and peroxynitrite radicals. Miscellaneous results were observed in the scavenging of other radicals by the plant extracts, viz., T. chebula >T. belerica >E. officinalis for hydroxyl, T. belerica >T. chebula >E. officinalis for singlet oxygen and T. belerica >E. officinalis >T. chebula for hypochlorous acid. In a whole, the studied fruit extracts showed quite good efficacy in their antioxidant and radical scavenging abilities, compared to the standards. Conclusions The evidences as can be concluded from the study of the 70% methanol extract of the fruits of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis, imposes the fact that they might be useful as potent sources of natural antioxidant.

2010-01-01

65

Pharmacological and biological evaluation of extracts from Gratiola officinalis L. (Scrophulariaceae).  

PubMed

The crude extract of Gratiola officinalis and its n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions were subjected to biological (Brine Shrimp Bioassay, Insecticidal and Phytotoxicity/Cytotoxic) and neuropharmacological (Head dip, Open field Forced swimming test, Sodium pentothal induced sleep) activities. Results obtained in this study indicated that at high concentration dose (1000?g/ml), all test samples showed 60-95% phytotoxicity. In crude extract, n-butanol and aqueous fractions produced more than 85% phytotoxicity. While low concentration (10?g/ml) dose showed 25-28% phytotoxicity in all test samples. The crude extract was devoid of any effect against the growth of Callosbruchus analis and Tribolium castaneum and caused 10 mortality of Rhyzopertha dominica. n-Hexane, chloroform, ethylacetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions caused 50, 30, 40, 10 and 20% mortality respectively of C. analis where as chloroform, ethyl-acetate, aqueous and crude extract, n-hexane, ethyl-acetate fractions also caused low mortality (10%) of Tribolium castaneum and Rhyzopertha dominica respectively. In cytotoxic assay at 1000?g/ml concentration, n-butanol fraction produced 36.7% and the crude extract produced 13.3% mortality of brine shrimp, its aqueous fraction was inactive at all concentrations. The results of head dip, open field, mobility time and Pentothal Na induced sleep indicated that crude extract, n-butanol and ethylacetate fractions of G. officinalis had mild sedative effect. However aqueous fraction was found to produce a significant decrease in motor activities and potentiated the duration of sleep. PMID:22713957

Ahmad, Mansoor; Muhammad, Noor; Mehjabeen; Jahan, Noor; Ahmad, Manzoor; Habib, Salman

2012-07-01

66

Modulatory role of Emblica officinalis fruit extract against arsenic induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice.  

PubMed

Arsenic, an important human toxin, is naturally occurring in groundwater and its accumulation in plants and animals have assumed a menacing proportion in a large part of the world, particularly Asia. Epidemiological studies have shown a strong association between chronic arsenic exposure and various adverse health effects, including cardiovascular diseases, neurological defects and cancer of lung, skin, bladder, liver and kidney. The protective role of the fruits of Emblica officinalis (500 mg/kg b.wt.) was studied in adult Swiss albino mice against arsenic induced hepatopathy. Arsenic treated group (NaAsO(2), 4 mg/kg b.wt.) had a significant increase in serum transaminases and lipid peroxidation (LPO) content in liver, whereas significant decrease was recorded in hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and serum alkaline phosphatase activity. Combined treatment of Emblica and arsenic (pre and post) declined the serum transaminases and LPO content in liver whereas significant increase was noticed in SOD, CAT, GST and serum alkaline phosphatase activities. Liver histopathology showed that Emblica fruit extract had reduced karyolysis, karyorrhexis, necrosis and cytoplasmic vacuolization induced by NaAsO(2) intoxication. Thus it can be concluded that pre- and post-supplementation of E. officinalis fruit extract significantly reduced arsenic induced oxidative stress in liver. PMID:19428342

Sharma, Ambika; Sharma, Mukesh Kumar; Kumar, Madhu

2009-02-03

67

ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF GREEK O. DICTAMNUS AND R. OFFICINALIS METHANOL AND AQUEOUS EXTRACTS - HPLC DETERMINATION OF PHENOLIC ACIDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study determined the total phenol (TP), phenolic acid (PA) content as well as the free radical scavenging activity (RSA) and ferric reducing antioxidant properties (FRAP) of methanol and aqueous extracts of R.officinalis and O.dictamnus species (Crete, Greece). The methanol extracts showed higher RSA (P<0.05) than the aqueous extracts (mean EC50 value: 0.33 and 0.38mg\\/mL, resp.). Rosemary was superior in

V. Lagouri; G. Alexandri

2011-01-01

68

Amla ( Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) extract promotes procollagen production and inhibits matrix metalloproteinase-1 in human skin fibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim of the studyEmblica officinalis Gaertn., commonly known as amla, is a rich dietary source of vitamin C, minerals and amino acids, and also contains various phenolic compounds. Amla extract is also known to exhibits potent antioxidant properties and to provide protection for human dermal fibroblasts against oxidative stress, and therefore it is thought to be useful for natural skin

Takashi Fujii; Masanori Wakaizumi; Takao Ikami; Morio Saito

2008-01-01

69

Apoptotic effect of hot water extract of Sanguisorba officinalis L. in human oral cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Sanguisorba officinalis L. has been used in traditional Asian medicine to treat diseases including diarrhea, chronic intestinal infections, duodenal ulcers and bleeding. This study examined the antiproliferative effects and apoptotic activity of hot water extract of S. officinalis L. (HESO) on HSC4 and HN22 human oral cancer cells. The effects of HESO were evaluated by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-20yl)-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulphophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay, 4?-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining and western blot analysis. HESO was found to inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis in HSC4 and HN22 oral cancer cells. HESO downregulated myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) in HSC4 cells and was associated with the activation of Bak, resulting in Bak oligomerization on the mitochondrial outer membrane. HESO did not alter Mcl-1 expression in HN22 cells, but it decreased Sp1 expression. The downregulation of Sp1 by HESO in HN22 cells resulted in a decrease in survivin, a downstream target protein of Sp1. These results suggested that HESO inhibited the growth of oral cancer through either Mcl-1 or Sp1, indicating that HESO may serve as a potential drug candidate against oral cancer.

SHIN, JI-AE; KIM, JUN-SUNG; KWON, KI-HAN; NAM, JEONG-SEOK; JUNG, JI-YOUN; CHO, NAM-PYO; CHO, SUNG-DAE

2012-01-01

70

Dietary chemoprevention of clastogenic effects of 3,4-benzo(a)pyrene by Emblica officinalis Gaertn. fruit extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary supplementation with extract of fruit of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (a rich source of vitamin C) to mice in vivo significantly reduced the cytotoxic effects of a known carcinogen, 3,4-benzo(a)pyrene. Age-matched Swiss albino mice were fed by gavaging the fruit extract daily for 28 days. From day 9, one dose of the carcinogen was given on alternate days up to

P Nandi; G Talukder; A Sharma

1997-01-01

71

Screening of free radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant activities of Rosmarinus officinalis extracts with focus on location and harvesting times  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanolic extracts from the leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary) harvested from different locations of Turkey at four different times of the year were analyzed by HPLC, and their\\u000a radical scavenging capacities and antioxidant activities were studied by various assays. The amounts of carnosol, carnosic\\u000a acid and rosmarinic acid, active constituents of rosemary, varied in different geographical regions of growth, and

O. Yesil-Celiktas; G. Girgin; H. Orhan; H. J. Wichers; E. Bedir; F. Vardar-Sukan

2007-01-01

72

Effectiveness of a natural Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extract on the stability of filleted and minced fish during frozen storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding a natural Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extract to filleted and minced frozen fish and to compare the fat stability of the samples with that of the controls.\\u000a Horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus), a relatively fatty fish, and Mediterranean hake (Merluccius mediterraneus), a low-fat fish, were used. Fat stability evaluation

K. Vareltzis; Dimitrios Koufidis; Erini Gavriilidou; Ekaterini Papavergou; Sophia Vasiliadou

1997-01-01

73

A Pilot clinical study to evaluate the effect of Emblica officinalis extract (Amlamax™) on markers of systemic inflammation and dyslipidemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emblica officinalis Gaertn., commonly known as the Indian gooseberry or “Amla”, has been used as health food for centuries\\u000a in India and other Asian countries. The biological effects of amla have been attributed to the antioxidant properties of the\\u000a low-molecular weight hydrolysable tannins present in the fruit. Amlamax™ is a purified, standardized, dried extract of amla\\u000a containing about 35% galloellagi

B. Antony; M. Benny; T. N. B. Kaimal

2008-01-01

74

Pilot trial of Melissa officinalis L. leaf extract in the treatment of volunteers suffering from mild-to-moderate anxiety disorders and sleep disturbances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Botanicals are an alternative option to prescription drugs for the alleviation of symptoms due to anxiety disorders and insomnia.\\u000a Melissa officinalis L. has been shown as an anti-stress and anxiolytic agent. We previously reported moderate stress improvement in mice in which\\u000a Cyracos®, a standardized Melissa officinalis L. extract, was administrated. Cyracos® contains phytochemicals that inhibit gamma-aminobutyric acid catabolism. This was

Julien Cases; Alvin Ibarra; Nicolas Feuillère; Marc Roller; Samir G. Sukkar

75

Protective effect of an extract of Emblica officinalis against radiation-induced damage in mice.  

PubMed

The radioprotective effect of Emblica officinalis extract (EOE) was studied in mice. Swiss albino mice were exposed to gamma rays (5 Gy) in the absence (control) or presence (experimental) of EOE, orally 100 mg/kg body weight, once daily for 7 consecutive days. A specimen of small intestine (jejunum) was removed from the mice and studied at different autopsy intervals from 12 hours to 30 days. In control animals, crypt cell population, mitotic figures, and villus length were markedly reduced on day 1; these later started to increase progressively but did not attain the normal level even at the last autopsy interval. The animals receiving EOE prior to irradiation had a higher number of crypt cells and mitotic figures when compared with non-drug-treated control at all the autopsy intervals. Irradiation of animals resulted in a dose-dependent elevation in lipid peroxidation and a reduction in glutathione as well as catalase concentration in the intestine at 1 hour post-irradiation. In contrast, EOE treatment before irradiation caused a significant depletion in lipid peroxidation and elevation in glutathione and catalase levels. PMID:19223372

Jindal, Archana; Soyal, Dhanraj; Sharma, Abhilasha; Goyal, P K

2009-03-01

76

Permeability of Rosmarinic acid in Prunella vulgaris and Ursolic acid in Salvia officinalis Extracts across Caco-2 Cell Monolayers  

PubMed Central

Ethnopharmacological relevance Rosmarinic acid (RA), a caffeic acid-related compound found in high concentrations in Prunella vulgaris (self-heal), and ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpene acid concentrated in Salvia officinalis (sage), have been traditionally used to treat inflammation in the mouth, and may also be beneficial for gastrointestinal health in general. Aim of the study To investigate the permeabilities of RA and UA as pure compounds and in P. vulgaris and S. officinalis ethanol extracts across human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell monolayers. Materials and methods The permeabilities and Phase II biotransformation of RA and UA as pure compounds and in herbal extracts were compared using Caco-2 cells with HPLC detection. Results The apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) for RA and RA in P. vulgaris extracts was 0.2 ± 0.05 × 10?6 cm/s, significantly increased to 0.9 ± 0.2 × 10?6 cm/s after ?-glucuronidase/sulfatase treatment. Papp for UA and UA in S. officinalis extract was 2.7 ± 0.3 × 10?6 cm/s and 2.3 ± 0.5 × 10?6 cm/s before and after ?-glucuronidase/sulfatase treatment, respectively. Neither compound was affected in permeability by the herbal extract matrix. Conclusion RA and UA in herbal extracts had similar uptake as that found using the pure compounds, which may simplify the prediction of compound efficacy, but the apparent lack of intestinal glucuronidation/sulfation of UA is likely to further enhance the bioavailability of that compound compared with RA.

Qiang, Zhiyi; Ye, Zhong; Hauck, Cathy; Murphy, Patricia A.; McCoy, Joe-Ann; Widrlechner, Mark P.; Reddy, Manju B.; Hendrich, Suzanne

2011-01-01

77

Kinetin applications alleviate salt stress and improve the antioxidant composition of leaf extracts in Salvia officinalis.  

PubMed

A pot experiment was carried out under glasshouse conditions with common sage (Salvia officinalis L.) to investigate the interactive effects of salt stress and kinetin on growth attributes and the abundance of pigments, ions, phenolic diterpenes and ?-tocopherol in leaf extracts of this species. The plants were subjected to the following four treatments: (i) control (nutrient solution), (ii) control + 10 ?M kinetin, (iii) salt stress (nutrient solution + 100 mM NaCl), and (iv) salt stress + 10 ?M kinetin. Kinetin was applied as a foliar fertilizer. Salt stress reduced water contents, photosynthetic activity and pigment contents of sage leaves. In addition, it increased Na(+) contents, and reduced those of Ca(2+) and K(+) in leaves. Salt stress reduced carnosic acid and 12-O-methyl carnosic acid contents in leaves, while it did not affect carnosol and ?-tocopherol contents. Foliar applications of kinetin seemed to counterbalance or alleviate the stress symptoms induced by salinity, improving ion and pigment contents, while leaf phenolic diterpene (mainly carnosol) and ?-tocopherol contents also increased in both control and NaCl-treated plants; still this effect was much more obvious in salt-treated plants. A similar effect was also obtained when plants were sprayed with KNO(3) or Ca(NO(3))(2), thus suggesting that kinetin effects were at least partly due to an improvement of ion homeostasis. Kinetin applications resulted in increased transcript levels of the isoprenoid and tocopherol biosynthetic genes, DXPRI and VTE2 and VTE4 in control plants, but not in NaCl-treated plants. We conclude that kinetin can alleviate the negative impact of salt on sage plants cultivated under arid environments with salinity problems. PMID:21856165

Tounekti, Taïeb; Hernández, Iker; Müller, Maren; Khemira, Habib; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

2011-07-24

78

Comparative study of the antioxidant and reactive oxygen species scavenging properties in the extracts of the fruits of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cellular damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in several diseases, and hence natural antioxidants have significant importance in human health. The present study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and reactive oxygen species scavenging activities of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis fruit extracts. METHODS: The 70% methanol extracts were studied

Bibhabasu Hazra; Rhitajit Sarkar; Santanu Biswas; Nripendranath Mandal

2010-01-01

79

Selective Interactions of Valeriana officinalis Extracts and Valerenic Acid with [H]Glutamate Binding to Rat Synaptic Membranes.  

PubMed

Although GABA neurotransmission has been suggested as a mechanism for Valeriana officinalis effects, CNS depression can also be evoked by inhibition of ionotropic (iGluR) and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR). In this study, we examined if aqueous valerian extract interacted with glutamatergic receptors. Freshly prepared aqueous valerian extract was incubated with rat cortical synaptic membranes in presence of 20?nM [(3)H]Glutamate. Aqueous valerian extract increased [(3)H]Glutamate binding from 1 × 10(-7) to 1 × 10(-3)?mg/mL. In the presence of (2S,1'S,2'S)-2-(Carboxycyclopropyl)glycine (LCCG-I) and (2S,2'R,3'R)-2-(2',3'-Dicarboxycyclopropyl)glycine (DCG-IV), Group II mGluR agents, valerian extract markedly decreased [(3)H]Glutamate binding, while (2S)-2-amino-3-(3,5-dioxo-1,2,4-oxadiazolidin-2-yl) propanoic acid) (quisqualic acid, QA), Group I mGluR agonist, increased [(3)H]Glutamate binding. At 0.05?mg/mL aqueous valerian extract specifically interacted with kainic acid NMDA and AMPA receptors. Valerenic acid, a marker compound for Valeriana officinalis, increased the [(3)H]Glutamate binding after 1.6 × 10(-2)?mg/mL, and at 0.008?mg/mL it interacted only with QA (Group I mGluR). The selective interactions of valerian extract and valerenic acid with Group I and Group II mGluR may represent an alternative explanation for the anxiolytic properties of this plant. PMID:21584239

Del Valle-Mojica, Lisa M; Ayala-Marín, Yoshira M; Ortiz-Sanchez, Carmen M; Torres-Hernández, Bianca A; Abdalla-Mukhaimer, Safa; Ortiz, José G

2011-04-26

80

Efficacy of epigallocatechin-3-gallate and Amla (Emblica officinalis) extract for the treatment of diabetic-uremic patients.  

PubMed

Uremic patients with diabetes suffer from high levels of oxidative stress due to regular hemodialysis therapy (neutrophil activation induced by hemo-incompatibility between the hemodialyser and blood) and complications associated with diabetes. Several plasma biomarkers were screened in 13 uremic diabetic patients after receiving the mixture of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major component of green tea extract, and Amla extract (AE), from Emblica officinalis, the Indian gooseberry, for 3 months. We found that oral administration of a 1:1 mixture of EGCG and AE for 3 months significantly improved antioxidant defense as well as diabetic and atherogenic indices in uremic patients with diabetes. Furthermore, no significant changes in hepatic function, renal function, or inflammatory responses were observed. These results suggest that a 1:1 combination of EGCG and AE is a safe and effective treatment for uremic patients with diabetes. PMID:21631363

Chen, Tung-Sheng; Liou, Show-Yih; Wu, Hsi-Chin; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Tsai, Chang-Hai; Huang, Chih-Yang; Chang, Yen-Lin

2011-06-01

81

Protective effect of Emblica officinalis ethanolic extract against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced genotoxicity in Swiss albino mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanolic extract of Emblica officinalis (EO) fruit extract was evaluated for protection against genotoxicity induced by the rodent carcinogen, 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA). Oral administration of EO fruit extract in various concentrations (100, 250, 500mg\\/kg b.wt) for seven consecutive days prior to a single intraperitoneal injection of DMBA decreased the frequency of bone marrow micronuclei induced in Swiss albino mice. Significant increases

S Mumtaz Banu; K Selvendiran; J Prince Vijeya Singh; D Sakthisekaran

2004-01-01

82

Comparative evaluation of the antibacterial activities of the essential oils of Rosmarinus officinalis L. obtained by hydrodistillation and solvent free microwave extraction methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rosmarinus officinalis L. is a perennial herb that belongs to the Lamiaceae family. It is used as a food flavouring agent, and well known medicinally for its powerful antimutagenic, antibacterial and chemopreventive properties. Essential oils were obtained from this plant by hydrodistillation (HD) and solvent free microwave extraction (SFME). GC–MS analyses of the oils revealed the presence of 24 and

O. O. Okoh; A. P. Sadimenko; A. J. Afolayan

2010-01-01

83

Antioxidant effect rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and oregano ( Origanum vulgare L.) extracts on TBARS and colour of model raw pork batters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbs and spices are traditional used as food ingredients as well as for their antioxidant properties. The objective of this work was to study the concentration of carnosol, rosmarinic and carnosic acids in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and oregano leaves (Origanum vulgare L.), and their effect on the oxidation and colour of model pork batters. Extracts were obtained by maceration

E. Hernández-Hernández; E. Ponce-Alquicira; M. E. Jaramillo-Flores; I. Guerrero Legarreta

2009-01-01

84

Hydroalcoholic extract of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. affords protection against PTZ-induced seizures, oxidative stress and cognitive impairment in rats.  

PubMed

The cognitive impairment seen in epileptics may be a consequence of either the underlying epileptogenic process alone or it could manifest on account of the use of antiepileptic drugs that cause cognitive impairment as an adverse effect or both. Thus, there is a need for drugs that can suppress epileptogenesis without contributing to or, if possible, by acting to prevent the development of cognitive impairment. Emblica officinalis, an Indian medicinal plant, has marked antioxidant property. The effect of seven days pretreatment of 300, 500 and 700 mg/kg doses of hydroalcoholic extract of E. officinalis (HAEEO) administered intraperitoneally to rats was evaluated on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced seizures, cognitive deficit and oxidative stress markers viz malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione. The 500 and 700 mg/kg ip doses of HAEEO completely abolished the generalized tonic seizures and also improved the retention latency in passive avoidance task. Further, HAEEO dose-dependently ameliorated the oxidative stress induced by PTZ. These findings suggest the potential of HAEEO to be used as an adjuvant to treatment with antiepileptic drugs. PMID:20795364

Golechha, Mahaveer; Bhatia, Jagriti; Arya, Dharamvir Singh

2010-05-01

85

[Entrapment of herbal extracts in biodegradable microcapsules].  

PubMed

The microcapsules with entrapped herbal water-soluble extracts Plantago major and Calendula officinalis L. (HE) were prepared by LbL-adsorption of carrageenan and modificated chitosan onto CaCO3 microparticles with their subsequent dissolving after the treatment of EDTA. Entrapment of HE was performed by adsorption and co-precipitation techniques. The co-precipitation provided better entrapment of HE compared to adsorption. In vitro release kinetics in an artificial gastric juice (AGJ) was studied. The HE release was shown to accelerate gastric ulcer treatment in a rat model. PMID:18323151

Borodina, T N; Rumsh, L D; Kunizhev, S M; Sukhorukov, G B; Vorozhtsov, G N; Fel'dman, B M; Rusanova, A V; Vasil'eva, T V; Strukova, S M; Markvicheva, E A

86

GC-MS analysis of essential oils from Salvia officinalis L.: comparison of extraction methods of the volatile components.  

PubMed

In this paper, comparison of the volatile components composition in the samples obtained by hydrodistillation and solid-phase microextraction of Salvia officinalis was described. Different sample preparation techniques showed considerable differences in volatiles composition, especially with respect to sesqui- and diterpenoids. The comparison of the sage essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation in the Deryng and Clevenger type apparatus, according to the pharmacopoeial methods (FP VI and VII), showed the presence of the same terpenoids in both essential oils, however, the relative percentage composition of the components were different. These differences are caused by the different extraction times used in both methods. Since each essential oil to be admitted to medicinal use should meet requirements regarding the composition of major chemical components, the minimum time for the hydrodistillation of the essential oils from sage should be 1 h. PMID:23610957

Baj, Tomasz; Ludwiczuk, Agnieszka; Sieniawska, Elwira; Skalicka-Wo?niak, Krystyna; Widelski, Jaros?aw; Zieba, Krzysztof; G?owniak, Kazimierz

87

Protective action of ethanolic extract of Rosmarinus officinalis L. in gastric ulcer prevention induced by ethanol in rats.  

PubMed

The pathology of a gastric ulcer is complex and multifactorial. Gastric ulcers affect many people around the world and its development is a result of the imbalance between aggressive and protective factors in the gastric mucosa. In this study, we evaluated the ethanolic extract of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (eeRo); this plant, more commonly known as rosemary, has attracted the interest of the scientific community due to its numerous pharmacological properties and their potential therapeutic applications. Here, we tested the preventive effects of eeRo against gastric ulcer induced by 70% ethanol in male Wistar rats. In addition, we aimed to clarify the mechanism involved in the preventive action of the eeRo in gastric ulcers. Based on the analysis of markers of oxidative damage and enzymatic antioxidant defense systems, the measurement of nitrite and nitrate levels and the assessment of the inflammatory response, the eeRo exhibited significant antioxidant, vasodilator and antiinflammatory properties. PMID:23279841

Amaral, Guilherme Pires; de Carvalho, Nelson Rodrigues; Barcelos, Rômulo Pillon; Dobrachinski, Fernando; Portella, Rafael de Lima; da Silva, Michele Hinerasky; Lugokenski, Thiago Henrique; Dias, Glaecir Roseni Mundstock; da Luz, Sônia Cristina Almeida; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Villetti, Marcos Antonio; Antunes Soares, Félix Alexandre; Fachinetto, Roselei

2012-12-29

88

Effects of Valeriana Officinalis Extracts on [ 3 H]Flunitrazepam Binding, Synaptosomal [ 3 H]GABA Uptake, and Hippocampal [ 3 H]GABA Release  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts of Valeriana officinalis have been used in folkloric medicine for its sedative, hypnotic, tranquilizer and anticonvulsant effects, and may interact with ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and\\/or benzodiazepine sites. At low concentrations, valerian extracts enhance [3H]flunitrazepam binding (EC50 4.13 × 10-10 mg\\/ml). However, this increased [3H]flunitrazepam binding is replaced by an inhibition at higher concentrations (IC50 of 4.82 × 10-1 mg\\/ml).

José G. Ortiz; Jennifer Nieves-Natal; Pedro Chavez

1999-01-01

89

Repellent Effect of Extracts and Essential Oils of Citrus limon (Rutaceae) and Melissa officinalis (Labiatae) Against Main Malaria Vector, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repellet effect of extracts and essential oils of Citrus limon (L.) Burm.F., (lemon) and Melissa officinalis, (balm) were evaluated against Anopheles stephensi in laboratory on animal and human and compared with synthetic repellent, N,N- diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (Deet) as a standard. Results of statistical analysis revealed significant differences between oils and extracts (P< 0.05) against the tested species, thus oils were more

MA Oshaghi; R Ghalandari; H Vatandoost; M Shayeghi; M Kamali-nejad; H Tourabi-Khaledi; M Abolhassani; M Hashemzadeh

90

In vitro antioxidant activities of sulfated polysaccharide fractions extracted from Corallina officinalis.  

PubMed

Sulfated polysaccharides (F1, F2) from seaweed Corallina officinalis were isolated through anion-exchange column chromatography. Their chemical characteristics were determined by GC, HPLC, FT-IR and UV spectra. F1 and F2 contained only two monosaccharides, namely galactose and xylose. The antioxidant activities of F1, F2 and the de-sulfated polysaccharides (DF-1, DF-2) in vitro were investigated, including hydroxyl radicals scavenging effect, superoxide radical scavenging capacity, DPPH radical activity and reducing power. As expected, antioxidant assay showed that the two sulfated polysaccharide fractions (F1, F2) possessed considerable antioxidant properties and had more excellent abilities than de-sulfated polysaccharides (DF-1, DF-2). PMID:21896282

Yang, Yuling; Liu, Dan; Wu, Jun; Chen, Yan; Wang, Shusheng

2011-09-01

91

Effects of chronic administration of Melissa officinalis L. extract on anxiety-like reactivity and on circadian and exploratory activities in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to determine the effects of chronic (15 consecutive days of treatment) per os administration of Melissa officinalis L. extract (Cyracos®, Naturex) on anxiety-like reactivity in mice. As measured by HPLC, Cyracos® contains significant amounts of rosmarinic acid and the triterpenoids oleanolic acid and ursolic acid, which inhibit gamma-aminobutyric acid transaminase (GABA-T) activity and increase GABA levels in

Alvin Ibarra; Nicolas Feuillere; Marc Roller; Edith Lesburgere; Daniel Beracochea

2010-01-01

92

Rosmarinus officinalis L. leaf extract improves memory impairment and affects acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities in rat brain.  

PubMed

Rosmarinus officinalis L. leaf as part of a diet and medication can be a valuable proposal for the prevention and treatment of dementia. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of subchronic (28-fold) administration of a plant extract (RE) (200mg/kg, p.o.) on behavioral and cognitive responses of rats linked with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activity and their mRNA expression level in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. The passive avoidance test results showed that RE improved long-term memory in scopolamine-induced rats. The extract inhibited the AChE activity and showed a stimulatory effect on BuChE in both parts of rat brain. Moreover, RE produced a lower mRNA BuChE expression in the cortex and simultaneously an increase in the hippocampus. The study suggests that RE led to improved long-term memory in rats, which can be partially explained by its inhibition of AChE activity in rat brain. PMID:24080468

Ozarowski, Marcin; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L; Bogacz, Anna; Gryszczynska, Agnieszka; Kujawska, Malgorzata; Jodynis-Liebert, Jadwiga; Piasecka, Anna; Napieczynska, Hanna; Szulc, Micha?; Kujawski, Radoslaw; Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Joanna; Cichocka, Joanna; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, Teresa; Czerny, Boguslaw; Mrozikiewicz, Przemyslaw M

2013-09-27

93

Molecularly imprinted microspheres and nanoparticles prepared using precipitation polymerisation method for selective extraction of gallic acid from Emblica officinalis.  

PubMed

This paper reports the preparation of gallic acid (GA) molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) by the precipitation polymerisation and highlights the effect of porogen on particle size and specific molecular recognition properties. MIP, M-100 prepared in the porogen acetonitrile and MIP, M-75 prepared in a mixture of acetonitrile-toluene (75:25 v/v), resulted in the formation of microspheres with approximately 4?m particle size and surface area of 96.73m(2)g(-1) and nanoparticles (0.8-1000nm) and a surface area of 345.9m(2)g(-1), respectively. The Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm study revealed that M-75 has comparatively higher number of binding sites which are homogenous and has higher affinity for GA. The MIPs selectively recognised GA in presence of its structural analogues. Pure GA with percent recovery of 75 (±1.6) and 83.4 (±2.2) was obtained from the aqueous extract of Emblica officinalis by M-100 and M-75, respectively and hot water at 60°C served as the eluting solvent. PMID:24176358

Pardeshi, Sushma; Dhodapkar, Rita; Kumar, Anupama

2013-09-24

94

Estudio de la eficacia antibiótica de un extracto etanólico de Rosmarinus officinalis L. contra Staphylococcus aureus en dos modelos de infección en piel de ratón (Study of the antibiotic efficacy of an ethanolic extract from Rosmarinus officinalis against Staphylococcus aureus in two skin infection models in mice)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we examined the antibacterial efficacy of an ethanolic extract of Rosmarinus officinalis L. containing a high amount of antioxidant polyphenols against the pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus aureus in two skin infection models in mice, superficial and subcutaneous. Results obtained showed that the rosemary extract containing 2.3% of polyphenols had bacteriostatic activity against S. aureus on the skin infection.

María V. BARNI; Adriana FONTANALS; Silvia MORENO

95

Radiation-induced enhancement of antioxidant activity in extracts of rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dry rosemary leaf powder was subjected to 30kGy of gamma ray irradiation, followed by solvent extraction with methanol, ethanol or water. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was assessed using the DPPH radical-scavenging method and the reducing power test. EC50 values, using the radical-scavenging method, indicate a 22% increase in the antioxidant activity of ethanol and water extracts as a

Mónica B. Pérez; Natalia L. Calderón; Clara A. Croci

2007-01-01

96

Effects of extract and essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis L. on TNBS-induced colitis in rats  

PubMed Central

Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Family Lamiaceae) popularly named rosemary, is a common household plant grown around the world, including Iran. Rosemary aerial parts are used as flavoring agent in foods, beverages, and cosmetic preparations and have various traditional uses in ethnomedicine including: analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-rheumatic, spasmolytic, carminative and choleretic applications. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of rosemary leaves hydroalcoholic extract (RHE) and essential oil (REO) in a well-defined model of experimental colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) in rats. Different doses of RHE (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) and REO (100, 200 and 400 ?l/kg) were administered orally and intraperitoneally (100, 400 mg/kg and 100, 400 ?l/kg) to male Wistar rats (n=6), 6 h after colitis induction and continued for 5 days by intracolonic instillation of 0.25 ml TNBS (80 mg/kg)/ethanol 50% v/v. Wet colon weight/length ratio was measured and tissue damage scores as well as indices of colitis were evaluated both macroscopically and histopathologically. RHE and REO at all test doses used were effective to reduce colon tissue lesions and colitis indices while greater doses were significantly effective to diminish histopathologic parameters irrespective to the route of administration. Administration of oral prednisolone, Asacol® (mesalazine microgranules) and parenteral hydrocortisone acetate were effective to reduce colon tissue injures as well. These data suggest that RHE and REO are both effective to possess anti-colitic activity, and reinforce the use of this plant as a remedy for inflammatory bowel diseases in traditional medicine.

Minaiyan, M.; Ghannadi, A. R.; Afsharipour, M.; Mahzouni, P.

2011-01-01

97

Temperature-dependent oxygen extraction from the ventilatory current and the costs of ventilation in the cephalopod Sepia officinalis.  

PubMed

Earlier work found cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) ventilatory muscle tissue to progressively switch to an anaerobic mode of energy production at critical temperatures (T (c)) of 7.0 and 26.8 degrees C. These findings suggested that oxygen availability limits thermal tolerance. The present study was designed to elucidate whether it is the ventilatory apparatus that sets critical temperature thresholds during acute thermal stress. Routine metabolic rate (rmr) rose exponentially between 11 and 23 degrees C, while below (8 degrees C) and above (26 degrees C) this temperature range, rmr was significantly depressed. Ventilation frequency (f (V)) and mean mantle cavity pressure (MMP) followed an exponential relationship within the entire investigated temperature range (8-26 degrees C). Oxygen extraction from the ventilatory current (EO(2)) decreased in a sigmoidal fashion with temperature, falling from > 90% at 8 degrees C to 32% at 26 degrees C. Consequently, ventilatory minute volume (MV(V)) increased by a factor of 20 from 7 to 150% body weight min(-1) in the same temperature interval. Increases in MMP and MV(V) resulted in ventilatory muscle power output (P (out)) increasing by a factor of > 80 from 0.03 to 2.4 mW kg(-1) animal. Nonetheless, costs for ventilatory mechanics remain below 1.5% rmr in the natural thermal window of the population (English Channel, 9-17 degrees C), owing to very low MMPs of < 0.05 kPa driving the ventilatory stream, and may maximally rise to 8.6% rmr at 26 degrees C. Model calculations suggest that the ventilatory system can maintain high arterial PO(2) values of > 14 kPa over the entire temperature interval. We therefore conclude that the cuttlefish ventilation system is probably not limiting oxygen transfer during acute thermal stress. Depression of rmr, well before critical temperatures are being reached, is likely caused by circulatory capacity limitations and not by fatigue of ventilatory muscle fibres. PMID:16710699

Melzner, Frank; Bock, Christian; Pörtner, Hans O

2006-05-18

98

Inhibition of aldose reductase by tannoid principles of Emblica officinalis: Implications for the prevention of sugar cataract  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods: E. officinalis is widely used against many chronic ailments including diabetes. Aqeous extract of E. officinalis and its major constituent tannoids were tested for inhibition against both rat lens and purified recombinant human AR. ARI potential of isolated tannoids of E. officinalis were also investigated against osmotic stress in rat lens organ culture. Results: E. officinalis extract inhibited rat

P. Suryanarayana; P. Anil Kumar; Megha Saraswat; J. Mark Petrash; G. Bhanuprakash Reddy

99

In vitro antioxidant analysis of supercritical fluid extracts from rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Different supercritical fluid extraction conditions were tested on rosemary leaves using a pilot-plant-scale extractor. Each of them provided two separated fractions which were characterized chemically by liquid chromatography–diode-array detection–mass spectrometry using electrospray in the positive mode. Twelve compounds were identified, including phenolic diterpenes and flavonoids. Owing to the lack of available standards, only carnosic acid could be quantified. The antioxidant

Sofía Cavero; Laura Jaime; Pedro J. Martín-Álvarez; F. Javier Señoráns; Guillermo Reglero; Elena Ibañez

2005-01-01

100

Oral administration of the aqueous extract of rosmarinus officinalis in rats before renal reperfusion injury.  

PubMed

Introduction. Reperfusion injury leads to damage to the hemodynamic and functional parameters of the kidney. This study investigated the effects of oral administration of the aqueous extract of rosemary on improvement of changes induced by ischemia-reperfusion in rats. Materials and Methods. Fourty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups. One group was the control, rates in another group underwent sham operation, and 2 groups were exposed to reperfusion injury. Rats in one of the reperfusion groups was treated with 8% oral aqueous extract of rosemary (10 mL/kg/d) for 1 week (rosemary group), and the other received normal saline for the same period of time (reperfusion group). Reperfusion injury was induced by bilateral occlusion of the renal artery and vein for 30 minutes and reperfusion for 24 hours. Examination of oxidative stress was done, including measurement of malondialdehyde and ferric reducing antioxidant power in urine and blood samples. Histological studies were performed on excised kidneys. Results. The comparison between the rosemary and reperfusion groups indicated significant reductions in the levels of plasma creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and absolute urinary excretion of sodium in the rosemary group. Similarly, the rosemary group presented a significant decrease in malondialdehyde and a significant increase in ferric-reducing antioxidant power. Histopathological examinations showed significant reductions in vascular congestion and cells exfoliation in the rosemary group, in comparison with the reperfusion group. Conclusions. Oral administration of the aqueous extract of rosemary prior to ischemia-reperfusion is effective in reducing functional and histopathological complications associated with acute kidney failure. PMID:24072149

Changizi Ashtiyani, Saeed; Zohrabi, Marzieh; Hassanpoor, Akbar; Hosseini, Nasser; Hajihashemi, Saeed

2013-09-01

101

Permeability of rosmarinic acid in Prunella vulgaris and ursolic acid in Salvia officinalis extracts across Caco-2 cell monolayers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnopharmacological relevanceRosmarinic acid (RA), a caffeic acid-related compound found in high concentrations in Prunella vulgaris (self-heal), and ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpene acid concentrated in Salvia officinalis (sage), have been traditionally used to treat inflammation in the mouth, and may also be beneficial for gastrointestinal health in general.

Zhiyi Qiang; Zhong Ye; Cathy Hauck; Patricia A. Murphy; Joe-Ann McCoy; Mark P. Widrlechner; Manju B. Reddy; Suzanne Hendrich

2011-01-01

102

Quantitative HPLC Analysis of Rosmarinic Acid in Extracts of "Melissa officinalis" and Spectrophotometric Measurement of Their Antioxidant Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The students prepare tea samples using different quantities of lemon balm leaves ("Melissa officinalis") and measure the rosmarinic acid contents by an HPLC-DAD method. The antioxidant properties of the tea samples are evaluated by a spectrophotometric method using a radical-scavenging assay with DPPH. (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl). Finally the…

Canelas, Vera; da Costa, Cristina Teixeira

2007-01-01

103

Permeability of rosmarinic acid in Prunella vulgaris and ursolic acid in Salvia officinalis extracts across Caco-2 cell monolayers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rosmarinic acid (RA), a caffeic acid derivative found in high concentrations in Prunella vulgaris (self-heal), and ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpene acid concentrated in Salvia officinalis (sage), have been traditionally used to treat inflammation in the mouth, and may also be of benefit t...

104

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of selected medicinal plants--effects of high pressure and added ethanol on yield of extracted substances.  

PubMed

The possibilities and limitations of supercritical fluid extraction of natural products of low, medium and high polarity under very high pressure and with polar modifiers has been investigated. The medicinal herbs marigold (Calendula officinalis), hawthorn (Crataegus sp.) and chamomile (Matricaria recutita) were used as models in this study. Extraction profiles and the spectra of extractable metabolites were recorded following extraction with mixtures of carbon dioxide:ethanol of varying proportions (0-20% ethanol) and at various pressures in the range 300-689 bar. Components were identified by HPLC-PAD-MS or GC-MS and quantified by HPLC or GC as appropriate. Extraction yields under the varying conditions depended to a large extent on the profiles of secondary metabolites present in the three drugs. Whereas the extractability of lipophilic compounds increased substantially at pressures above 300 bar, the yields of polyphenolic and glycosidic compounds remained low even at 689 bar and with 20% modifier in the extraction fluid. PMID:14979527

Hamburger, M; Baumann, D; Adler, S

105

Temperature-dependent oxygen extraction from the ventilatory current and the costs of ventilation in the cephalopod Sepia officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earlier work found cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) ventilatory muscle tissue to progressively switch to an anaerobic mode of energy production at critical temperatures (T\\u000a c) of 7.0 and 26.8°C. These findings suggested that oxygen availability limits thermal tolerance. The present study was designed to elucidate whether it is the ventilatory apparatus that sets critical temperature thresholds during acute thermal stress. Routine

Frank Melzner; Christian Bock; Hans O. Pörtner

2006-01-01

106

Effects of Calendula Essential Oil-Based Cream on Biochemical Parameters of Skin of Albino Rats against Ultraviolet B Radiation  

PubMed Central

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from UV-B radiation have the capacity to cause oxidative decomposition which leads to the formation of toxic components as well as lipid peroxidation. Considering this fact, the present study was performed to evaluate the effect of a cream (O/W) containing the essential oil of Calendula officinalis on biochemical parameters of the skin of albino rats against UV-B radiation. The fingerprint analysis of Calendula essential oil was performed by HPLC with special reference to 1,8-cineole and ?-pinene. The results indicated that the treatment with creams containing 4% and 5% of Calendula essential oil caused a significant decrease in the malonyldialdehyde level, whereas the levels of catalase, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, ascorbic acid, and the total protein level were significantly increased after 1 month of daily irradiation and treatment when compared to untreated control groups. The results suggest that the cutaneous application of the essential oil of Calendula prevents UV-B-induced alterations in the level of antioxidants in skin tissue.

Mishra, Arun K.; Mishra, Amrita; Verma, Anurag; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh

2012-01-01

107

Antitumour activity of Emblica officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous extract of Emblica officinalis (E.O) was found to be cytotoxic to L 929 cells in culture in a dose dependent manner. Concentration needed for 50% inhibition was found to be 16.5 ?g\\/ml. E.O and chyavanaprash (a non-toxic herbal preparation containing 50% E.O) extracts were found to reduce ascites and solid tumours in mice induced by DLA cells. Animals treated

Jeena K. Jose; Girija Kuttan; Ramadasan Kuttan

2001-01-01

108

Haematological studies of Emblica officinalis formulation on Wistar Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over three-quarters of the world population relies mainly on plants and plant extracts for health care. More than 30% of the entire plant species were used for medicinal purposes. Emblica officinalis is one of the widely used food supplement for the prevention of many ailments. A comprehensive account of the effect of Emblica officinalis formulation on some of the haematological

Narendra Kumar Savala; Parvathaneni Nagasri Haritha; Mangamoori Lakshmi Narasu

2012-01-01

109

[Uterotonic action of extracts from a group of medicinal plants].  

PubMed

Water extracts (infusions) from a group of medicinal plants were studied in terms of their activity enhancing the uterine tonus in a series of experiments with a preparation of an isolated rabbit and guinea pig uterine horn. In a final extract concentration of 1 to 2 mg crude drug per 1 cm3 the plants ranked in the following descending order with regard to their tonus-raising effect on the uterus: camomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), potmarigold calendula (Calendula officinalis L.) cockscomb (Celosia cristata L.), plantain (Plantago lanceolata L. et Plantago major L.), symphytum (Symphytum officinale L.), shepherdspurse (Capsella bursa pastoris L.), St.-John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.). No effect showed the infusions of flax seeds (Linum usitatissimum L.) and bearberry leaves (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi L.). The combined preparation 'Antiinflamin', consisting of a pooled freeze-dried extract from three plants and chemotherapeutic agents produced a good enhancing effect, in the form of 'comprets' for intrauterine application at the rate of one compret per 2500 cm3. PMID:7314446

Shipochliev, T

1981-01-01

110

Hepatoprotective activity of Emblica officinalis and Chyavanaprash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatoprotective activity of Emblica officinalis (EO) and Chyavanaprash (CHY) extracts were studied using carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver injury model in rats. EO and CHY extracts were found to inhibit the hepatotoxicity produced by acute and chronic CCl4 administration as seen from the decreased levels of serum and liver lipid peroxides (LPO), glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (GPT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Chronic

Jeena K Jose; Ramadasan Kuttan

2000-01-01

111

Importance of extract standardization and in vitro/ex vivo assay selection for the evaluation of antioxidant activity of botanicals: a case study on three Rosmarinus officinalis L. extracts.  

PubMed

The overproduction of free radicals and oxygen reactive species is suspected to be implicated in a wide range of metabolic reactions that can have pernicious consequences in the development of a variety of human diseases. Botanical extracts are sources of antioxidants that counteract both free radicals and oxygen reactive species. The processing conditions used in the botanical extraction may influence the antioxidant composition; therefore, different extracts from the same plant may have different antioxidant properties. To illustrate this fact, we conducted a study using three commercial rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) leaf extracts. The three extracts were standardized to contain, respectively, 20% carnosic acid, 40% ursolic acid, or 20% rosmarinic acid. They were evaluated for their total (hydrophilic?+?lipophilic) antioxidant effects on oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), their ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP), and their capacity to inhibit Cu(2+)-induced low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation ex vivo. The ursolic acid extract showed the lowest antioxidant capacity on all models. The rosmarinic acid extract had an antioxidant capacity 1.5 times higher on ORAC and four times higher on FRAP than the carnosic acid extract. However, the carnosic acid extract was better than the rosmarinic acid extract in inhibiting the oxidation of LDL ex vivo. These results encourage conducting further studies to evaluate the carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid extracts in vivo. Our study offers an example of the importance of the extraction procedures, on which depends the nature of the antioxidant composition, and highlights interest to proceed with in vitro/ex vivo assay selection for the evaluation of the antioxidant properties of botanical extracts. PMID:20626255

Ibarra, Alvin; Cases, Julien; Bily, Antoine; He, Kan; Bai, Naisheng; Roller, Marc; Coussaert, Aurélie; Ripoll, Christophe

2010-10-01

112

Preclinical toxicological assessment of a phytotherapeutic product--CPV (based on dry extracts of Crataegus oxyacantha L., Passiflora incarnata L., and Valeriana officinalis L.).  

PubMed

Associations of plants have been widely used, for centuries, in Ayurveda and in Chinese medicine and have been increasingly acknowledged in Western medicine. The objective of this study is to assess the level of toxicity of an association of three plants: Crataegus oxyacantha, Passiflora incarnata, and Valeriana officinalis (CPV extract). This association was administered to rats, mice, and dogs, both acute and chronically for 180 days. The tests used in the acute experiments were: observational pharmacological screening, LD(50), motor coordination and motor activity. Chronic tests carried out were: weight gain/loss and behavioral parameters in rats and in mice; estrus cycle, effects on fertility, and teratogenic studies in rats and of mutagenic features in mice, in addition to the Ames test. The following parameters were assessed in dogs: weight gain/loss, general physical conditions, water/food consumption and anatomopathological examination of the organs subsequent to the 180 days of treatment. All of the results were negative, showing that CPV administered in high doses and over a long period of time presents no toxicity, suggestive of the fact that this is an association devoid of risk for human beings. PMID:19048610

Tabach, Ricardo; Rodrigues, Eliana; Carlini, E A

2009-01-01

113

Use of Rosmarinus officinalis as a treatment against Streptococcus iniae in tilapia ( Oreochromis sp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of Rosmarinus officinalis as a treatment against Streptococcus iniae in Oreochromis sp. (tilapia) is described. Sixteen accessions of R. officinalis were extracted in several solvents and tested in vitro against S. iniae by disk diffusion assay. All extracts were effective in inhibiting bacterial growth. The most effective was accession no. 1 when extracted in ethyl acetate, which inhibited

S. Abutbul; A. Golan-Goldhirsh; O. Barazani; D. Zilberg

2004-01-01

114

In vitro trematocidal effects of crude alcoholic extracts of Artemisia annua, A. absinthium, Asimina triloba, and Fumaria officinalis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Trematode infections negatively affect human and livestock health, and threaten global food safety. The only approved human anthelmintics for trematodiasis are triclabendazole and praziquantel with no alternative drugs in sight. We tested six crude plant extracts against adult Schistosoma mansoni,...

115

In vitro trematocidal effects of crude alcoholic extracts of Artemisia annua , A. absinthium , Asimina triloba , and Fumaria officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trematode infections negatively affect human and livestock health, and threaten global food safety. The only approved human\\u000a anthelmintics for trematodiasis are triclabendazole and praziquantel with no alternative drugs in sight. We tested six crude\\u000a plant extracts against adult Schistosoma mansoni, Fasciola hepatica, and Echinostoma caproni in vitro. Mortality was best achieved by ethanolic extracts of Artemisia annua (sweet Annie), Asimina

Jorge F. S. Ferreira; Paul Peaden; Jennifer Keiser

116

Aqueous extract of Rosmarinus officinalis L. as inhibitor of Al–Mg alloy corrosion in chloride solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first neutral phenol subfraction of the aqueous extract of rosemary leaves was studied as corrosion inhibitor for the Al–2.5Mg alloy in a 3% NaCl solution at 25 °C. Experiments were carried out over a wide range of concentrations. The results show that the additive adsorbs on the alloy according to the Freundlich isotherm. The polarization curves show that the

M. Kliški?; J. Radoševi?; S. Gudi?; V. Katalini?

2000-01-01

117

Effects of rosemary extract ( Rosmarinus officinalis) on the stability of bread with an oil, garlic and parsley dressing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rosemary extract (RE) at different concentrations (0, 2, 4 and 6g\\/l) was added to a dressing consisting of sunflower oil, garlic and parsley. The dressing was then treated at 140°C for 1h to simulate the process of baking and was later stored in an oven for 10 days at 50°C, to promote oxidation and to check the efficacy of the

M. J. Frutos; J. A. Hernández-Herrero

2005-01-01

118

Emblica officinalis Extract Induces Autophagy and Inhibits Human Ovarian Cancer Cell Proliferation, Angiogenesis, Growth of Mouse Xenograft Tumors  

PubMed Central

Patients with ovarian cancer (OC) may be treated with surgery, chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy, although none of these strategies are very effective. Several plant-based natural products/dietary supplements, including extracts from Emblicaofficinalis (Amla), have demonstrated potent anti-neoplastic properties. In this study we determined that Amla extract (AE) has anti-proliferative effects on OC cells under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. We also determined the anti-proliferative effects one of the components of AE, quercetin, on OC cells under in vitro conditions. AE did not induce apoptotic cell death, but did significantly increase the expression of the autophagic proteins beclin1 and LC3B-II under in vitro conditions. Quercetin also increased the expression of the autophagic proteins beclin1 and LC3B-II under in vitro conditions. AE also significantly reduced the expression of several angiogenic genes, including hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF-1?) in OVCAR3 cells. AE acted synergistically with cisplatin to reduce cell proliferation and increase expression of the autophagic proteins beclin1 and LC3B-II under in vitro conditions. AE also had anti-proliferative effects and induced the expression of the autophagic proteins beclin1 and LC3B-II in mouse xenograft tumors. Additionally, AE reduced endothelial cell antigen – CD31 positive blood vessels and HIF-1? expression in mouse xenograft tumors. Together, these studies indicate that AE inhibits OC cell growth both in vitro and in vivo possibly via inhibition of angiogenesis and activation of autophagy in OC. Thus AE may prove useful as an alternative or adjunct therapeutic approach in helping to fight OC.

De, Alok; De, Archana; Papasian, Chris; Hentges, Shane; Banerjee, Snigdha; Haque, Inamul; Banerjee, Sushanta K.

2013-01-01

119

Emblica officinalis Extract Induces Autophagy and Inhibits Human Ovarian Cancer Cell Proliferation, Angiogenesis, Growth of Mouse Xenograft Tumors.  

PubMed

Patients with ovarian cancer (OC) may be treated with surgery, chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy, although none of these strategies are very effective. Several plant-based natural products/dietary supplements, including extracts from Emblicaofficinalis (Amla), have demonstrated potent anti-neoplastic properties. In this study we determined that Amla extract (AE) has anti-proliferative effects on OC cells under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. We also determined the anti-proliferative effects one of the components of AE, quercetin, on OC cells under in vitro conditions. AE did not induce apoptotic cell death, but did significantly increase the expression of the autophagic proteins beclin1 and LC3B-II under in vitro conditions. Quercetin also increased the expression of the autophagic proteins beclin1 and LC3B-II under in vitro conditions. AE also significantly reduced the expression of several angiogenic genes, including hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF-1?) in OVCAR3 cells. AE acted synergistically with cisplatin to reduce cell proliferation and increase expression of the autophagic proteins beclin1 and LC3B-II under in vitro conditions. AE also had anti-proliferative effects and induced the expression of the autophagic proteins beclin1 and LC3B-II in mouse xenograft tumors. Additionally, AE reduced endothelial cell antigen - CD31 positive blood vessels and HIF-1? expression in mouse xenograft tumors. Together, these studies indicate that AE inhibits OC cell growth both in vitro and in vivo possibly via inhibition of angiogenesis and activation of autophagy in OC. Thus AE may prove useful as an alternative or adjunct therapeutic approach in helping to fight OC. PMID:24133573

De, Alok; De, Archana; Papasian, Chris; Hentges, Shane; Banerjee, Snigdha; Haque, Inamul; Banerjee, Sushanta K

2013-08-15

120

Degradation study of carnosic acid, carnosol, rosmarinic acid, and rosemary extract (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) assessed using HPLC.  

PubMed

Rosemary, whose major caffeoyl-derived and diterpenoid ingredients are rosmarinic acid, carnosol, and carnosic acid, is an important source of natural antioxidants and is being recognized increasingly as a useful preservative, protectant, and even as a potential medicinal agent. Understanding the stability of these components and their mode of interaction in mixtures is important if they are to be utilized to greatest effect. A study of the degradation of rosmarinic acid, carnosol, carnosic acid, and a mixture of the three was conducted in ethanolic solutions at different temperatures and light exposure. As expected, degradation increased with temperature. Some unique degradation products were formed with exposure to light. Several degradation products were reported for the first time. The degradation products were identified by HPLC/MS/MS, UV, and NMR. The degradation of rosemary extract in fish oil also was investigated, and much slower rates of degradation were observed for carnosic acid. In the mixture of the three antioxidants, carnosic acid serves to maintain levels of carnosol, though it does so at least in part at the cost of its own degradation. PMID:22881034

Zhang, Ying; Smuts, Jonathan P; Dodbiba, Edra; Rangarajan, Rekha; Lang, John C; Armstrong, Daniel W

2012-08-28

121

Chemical and biological characteristics of Cuminum cyminum and Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from Cuminum cyminum and Rosmarinus officinalis were characterized by means of GC and GC–MS. C. cyminum and R. officinalis contained ?-pinene (29.1%,14.9%), 1,8-cineole (17.9%,7.43%) and linalool (10.4%,14.9%), respectively, as the major compounds. C. cyminum oil exhibited stronger antimicrobial activity than did R. officinalis oil against E. coli, S. aureus and L. monocytogenes. Complete death time

Latif Gachkar; Davood Yadegari; Mohammad Bagher Rezaei; Masood Taghizadeh; Shakiba Alipoor Astaneh; Iraj Rasooli

2007-01-01

122

Efficacy of E. officinalis on the Cariogenic Properties of Streptococcus mutans: A Novel and Alternative Approach to Suppress Quorum-Sensing Mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was focused on evaluating the potential of Emblica officinalis against cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans, a causative microorganism for caries. The effect of crude extract and ethanolic fraction from Emblica officinalis fruit was analysed against S. mutans. The sub-MIC concentrations of crude and ethanolic fraction of E. officinalis were evaluated for its cariogenic properties such as acid

Sadaf Hasan; Mohd Danishuddin; Mohd Adil; Kunal Singh; Praveen K. Verma; Asad U. Khan

2012-01-01

123

Antioxidative constituents of Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Die hohe antioxidative Wirksamkeit vonRosmarinus officinalis undSalvia officinalis läßt sich auf phenolische Diterpene zurückführen. In Form von Extrakten können sie Fetten und fetthaltigen Lebensmitteln zum Schutz vor oxidativen Veränderungen zugesetzt werden. Um ihre Konzentration in Extrakten selbst sowie in Fetten zu bestimmen, wurde eine HPLC-Methode mit elektrochemischer Detektion entwickelt.

Karin Schwarz; Waldemar Ternes

1992-01-01

124

Valeriana officinalis extract and its main component, valerenic acid, ameliorate d-galactose-induced reductions in memory, cell proliferation, and neuroblast differentiation by reducing corticosterone levels and lipid peroxidation.  

PubMed

Valeriana officinalis is used in herbal medicine of many cultures as mild sedatives and tranquilizers. In this study, we investigated the effects of extract from valerian root extracts and its major component, valerenic acid on memory function, cell proliferation, neuroblast differentiation, serum corticosterone, and lipid peroxidation in adult and aged mice. For the aging model, d-galactose (100mg/kg) was administered subcutaneously to 6-week-old male mice for 10weeks. At 13weeks of age, valerian root extracts (100mg/kg) or valerenic acid (340?g/kg) was administered orally to control and d-galactose-treated mice for 3weeks. The dosage of valerenic acid (340?g/kg), which is the active ingredient of valerian root extract, was determined by the content of valerenic acid in valerian root extract (3.401±0.066mg/g) measured by HPLC. The administration of valerian root extract and valerenic acid significantly improved the preferential exploration of new objects in novel object recognition test and the escape latency, swimming speeds, platform crossings, and spatial preference for the target quadrant in Morris water maze test compared to the d-galactose-treated mice. Cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation were significantly decreased, while serum corticosterone level and lipid peroxidation in hippocampus were significantly increased in the d-galactose-treated group compared to that in the control group. The administration of valerian root extract significantly ameliorated these changes in the dentate gyrus of both control and d-galactose-treated groups. In addition, valerenic acid also mitigated the d-galactose-induced reduction of these changes. These results indicate that valerian root extract and valerenic acid enhance cognitive function, promote cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation, and reduce serum corticosterone and lipid peroxidation in aged mice. PMID:24055511

Nam, Sung Min; Choi, Jung Hoon; Yoo, Dae Young; Kim, Woosuk; Jung, Hyo Young; Kim, Jong Whi; Kang, Soo-Yong; Park, Jaeil; Kim, Dong-Woo; Kim, Wan Jae; Yoon, Yeo Sung; Hwang, In Koo

2013-09-18

125

Valeriana officinalis attenuates the rotenone-induced toxicity in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the potential protective effects of Valeriana officinalis (V. officinalis) against the toxicity induced by rotenone in Drosophila melanogaster (D. melanogaster). Adult wild-type flies were concomitantly exposed to rotenone (500 ?M) and V. officinalis aqueous extract (10mg/mL) in the food during 7 days. Rotenone-fed flies had a worse performance in the negative geotaxis assay (i.e. climbing capability) and open-field test (i.e. mobility time) as well as a higher incidence of mortality when compared to control group. V. officinalis treatment offered protection against these detrimental effects of rotenone. In contrast, the decreased number of crossings observed in the flies exposed to rotenone was not modified by V. officinalis. Rotenone toxicity was also associated with a marked decrease on the total-thiol content in the homogenates and cell viability of flies, which were reduced by V. officinalis treatment. Indeed, rotenone exposure caused a significant increase in the mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and also in the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene. The expression of SOD and CAT mRNAs was normalized by V. officinalis treatment. Our results suggest that V. officinalis extract was effective in reducing the toxicity induced by rotenone in D. melanogaster as well as confirm the utility of this model to investigate potential therapeutic strategies on movement disorders, including Parkinson disease (PD). PMID:23639798

Sudati, Jéssie Haigert; Vieira, Francielli Araújo; Pavin, Sandra Sartoretto; Dias, Glaecir Roseni Mundstock; Seeger, Rodrigo Lopes; Golombieski, Ronaldo; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Soares, Félix Antunes; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Barbosa, Nilda Vargas

2013-04-29

126

Comparative antimicrobial activities of Emblica officinalis and Ocimum sanctum.  

PubMed

The aqueous and successive extracts of the fruit pulp of Emblica officinalis and fresh leaves and stems of Ocimum sanctum were prepared and evaluated for antimicrobial activity. The successive extracts such as petroleum ether,chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol were prepared by successive solvent extraction method and aqueous extract by maceration process and screened for antimicrobial activity against gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, gram negative bacteria E.coli and fungal strains of Candida species by using agar cup plate method. The extracts showed different degree of activity against pathogenic microbes. The results obtained were compared with standard drugs Amoxicillin (10?g) and Amphotericin B(10?g). The methanolic extract of Emblica officinalis was found to be more effective than the leaf and stem extracts of Ocimum sanctum in inhibiting all the microbial strains. PMID:22557261

Vijayalakshmi, S; Arunkumar, V; Anju, D; Gunasundari, P; Moorthy, P; Chandrasekharan, A K

2007-10-01

127

Antioxidant and Antifungal Activity of Verbena officinalis L. Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scavenging activity against DPPH (1,1-diphenil-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical and the antifungal effect against chloroform,\\u000a ethyl acetate and 50% methanolic extracts of Verbena officinalis leaves were investigated. The activity of different fractions of 50% methanolic extract and some isolated compounds were\\u000a also investigated. The results suggest that 50% methanolic extract and caffeoyl derivatives could potentially be considered\\u000a as excellent and readily available

E. Casanova; J. M. García-Mina; M. I. Calvo

2008-01-01

128

Preliminary phytochemical, acute oral toxicity and antihepatotoxic study of roots of Paeonia officinalis Linn.  

PubMed Central

Objective To carry out a preliminary phytochemical, acute oral toxicity and antihepatotoxic study of the roots of Paeonia officinalis (P. officinalis) L. Methods Preliminary phytochemical investigation was done as per standard procedures. Acute oral toxicity study was conducted as per OECD 425 guidelines. The antihepatotoxic activity of aqueous extract of root of P. officinalis was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage in rats. Aqueous extract of P. officinalis at the dose levels of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight was administered daily for 14 d in experimental animals. Liver injury was induced chemically, by CCl4 administration (1 mL/kg i.p.). The hepatoprotective activity was assessed using various biochemical parameters like aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP), total bilirubin and total protein (TP) along with histopathological studies. Result Phytochemical screening revealed that the roots of P. officinalis contain alkaloids, tannins, saponins, glycosides, carbohydrates, flavonoids, terpenes, steroids and proteins. The aqueous extract did not cause any mortality up to 2?000 mg/kg. In rats that had received the root extract at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg, the substantially elevated AST, ALT, SALP, total bilirubin levels were significantly lowered, respectively, in a dose dependent manner, along with CCl4 while TP levels were elevated in these groups. Histopathology revealed regeneration of the livers in extract treated groups while Silymarin treated rats were almost normal. Conclusions The aqueous extract of P. officinalis is safe and possesses antihepatotoxic potential.

Ahmad, Feroz; Tabassum, Nahida

2013-01-01

129

Quantification of Valerenic Acid in Valeriana jatamansi and Valeriana officinalis by HPTLC  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple, rapid, cost-effective and accurate high performance thin layer chromatographic method has been developed for quantification\\u000a of valerenic acid in Valeriana jatamansi and Valeriana officinalis which is one of the stable compounds of Valeriana officinalis and designated as a key marker compound. Valerenic acid makes substantial contribution to the sedative and spasmolytic activity\\u000a of the essential oil and extract

N. Singh; A. P. Gupta; B. Singh; V. K. Kaul

2006-01-01

130

Original article Lipid and protein changes in chilled sea salmon (Pseudopercis semifasciata): effect of previous rosemary extract (Rossmarinus officinalis L.) application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The aim of this work was to analyse the effect of rosemary extract application (200 and 500 ppm) on lipid oxidation, colour and protein modifications during the chilled storage (1.0 ± 0.7 ? C) of sea salmon (Pseudopercis semifasciata). Lipid oxidation and x3-22:6 fatty acid content modification were prevented by the addition of rosemary extract. Analysis of interaction between

Valeria Tironi; Mabel Tomas; Marõ ´ aA non

2009-01-01

131

Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis and some other medicinal plants commonly used in South-East Asia  

PubMed Central

Background Eight medicinal plants were tested for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Different extraction methods were also tested for their effects on the bioactivities of the medicinal plants. Methods Eight plants, namely Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis (Laliaocao), Folium Murraya Koenigii (Jialiye), Rhizoma Arachis Hypogea (Huashenggen), Herba Houttuyniae (Yuxingcao), Epipremnum pinnatum (Pashulong), Rhizoma Typhonium Flagelliforme (Laoshuyu), Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis (Houpo) and Rhizoma Imperatae (Baimaogen) were investigated for their potential antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Results Extracts of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis had the strongest activities against M. Smegmatis, C. albicans, B. subtilis and S. aureus. Boiled extracts of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis, Folium Murraya Koenigii, Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis and Herba Houttuyniae demonstrated greater antioxidant activities than other tested medicinal plants. Conclusion Among the eight tested medicinal plants, Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis showed the highest antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Different methods of extraction yield different spectra of bioactivities.

Chan, Lai Wah; Cheah, Emily LC; Saw, Constance LL; Weng, Wanyu; Heng, Paul WS

2008-01-01

132

Relevance of carnosic acid, carnosol, and rosmarinic acid concentrations in the in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Rosmarinus officinalis (L.) methanolic extracts.  

PubMed

The importance of the diterpenic and rosmarinic acid content in the biological activities of rosemary extracts has been studied previously, but how the relationship between the concentration of these components affects their antioxidant and antibacterial activities has received little attention. Accordingly, from a total of 150 plants, 27 methanolic extracts were selected, for their similar diterpene contents but different ratios between carnosic acid and carnosol concentrations. In extracts with similar rosmarinic acid contents but differing proportions between carnosic acid and carnosol, the two diterpenes were seen to equally affect the in vitro antioxidant activity; however, and related with the antibacterial efficiency, this biological activity improved when carnosol was the major diterpene component. PMID:22957812

Jordán, Maria J; Lax, Vanesa; Rota, Maria C; Lorán, Susana; Sotomayor, José A

2012-09-18

133

Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) Extract Regulates Glucose and Lipid Metabolism by Activating AMPK and PPAR Pathways in HepG2 Cells.  

PubMed

An epidemic of metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes is rising dramatically. Using natural products as potential preventive and therapeutic interventions for these disorders has drawn worldwide attention. Rosemary has been shown to lower blood glucose and cholesterol levels and mitigate weight gain in several in vivo studies. However, the mechanisms are essentially unknown. We investigated the effects of rosemary extract on metabolism and demonstrated that rosemary extract significantly increased glucose consumption in HepG2 cells. The phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its substrate, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), was increased by rosemary extract. Rosemary extract also transcriptionally regulated the genes involved in metabolism, including SIRT1, PPAR? coactivator 1? (PGC1?), glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), ACC, and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR). Furthermore, the PPAR?-specific antagonist GW9662 diminished rosemary's effects on glucose consumption. Overall, our study suggested that rosemary potentially increases liver glycolysis and fatty acid oxidation by activating AMPK and PPAR pathways. PMID:23432097

Tu, Zheng; Moss-Pierce, Tijuana; Ford, Paul; Jiang, T Alan

2013-03-01

134

Ascorbic acid and tannins from Emblica officinalis Gaertn. Fruits--a revisit.  

PubMed

The fruits of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (Euphorbiaceae), also known as amla in Ayurveda, are considered to be a rich source of ascorbic acid. However, the antioxidant activities exhibited by E. officinalis extract are superior to those of ascorbic acid itself. Low molecular hydrolyzable tannins emblicanins A and B have been suggested in the earlier literature to be the contributory antioxidant molecules in the extract. This work finds no evidence for the presence of emblicanins A and B in the extract. In addition, the high content of ascorbic acid is also questionable due to previous nonidentification of coeluting mucic acid gallates. This paper reports a new HPLC method to detect even trace amounts of ascorbic acid in E. officinalis fruit juice or extract. PMID:19063633

Majeed, Muhammed; Bhat, Beena; Jadhav, Atul N; Srivastava, Jyotish S; Nagabhushanam, Kalyanam

2009-01-14

135

Antibacterial and resistance modifying activity of Rosmarinus officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a project to characterise plant-derived natural products that modulate bacterial multidrug resistance (MDR), bioassay-guided fractionation of a chloroform extract of the aerial parts of Rosmarinus officinalis led to the characterisation of the known abietane diterpenes carnosic acid (1), carnosol (2) and 12-methoxy-trans-carnosic acid. Additionally, a new diterpene, the cis A\\/B ring junction isomer of 12-methoxy-trans-carnosic acid, 12-methoxy-cis-carnosic

Moyosoluwa Oluwatuyi; Glenn W. Kaatz; Simon Gibbons

2004-01-01

136

Antibacterial and resistance modifying activity of Rosmarinus officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a project to characterise plant-derived natural products that modulate bacterial multidrug resistance (MDR), bioas- say-guided fractionation of a chloroform extract of the aerial parts of Rosmarinus officinalis led to the characterisation of the known abietane diterpenes carnosic acid (1), carnosol (2) and 12-methoxy-trans-carnosic acid. Additionally, a new diterpene, the cis A\\/B ring junction isomer of 12-methoxy-trans-carnosic acid,

Moyosoluwa Oluwatuyi; Glenn W. Kaatz; Simon Gibbons; Brunswick Square; John D. Dingell

2004-01-01

137

The structure of rosmariquinone — A new antioxidant isolated from Rosmarinus officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new diterpene, named rosmariquinone, was isolated from the leaves ofRosmarinus officinalis L. The leaves were first extracted using methanol and, upon further purification, this extract yielded rosmariquinone. Structure\\u000a elucidation of the antioxidant was done using IR, MS,1H-NMR and13C-NMR.

Christopher M. Houlihan; Chi-Tang Ho; Stephen S. Chang

1985-01-01

138

Effect of Emblica officinalis, Phyllanthus amarus and Picrorrhiza kurroa on N-nitrosodiethylamine induced hepatocarcinogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts of Emblica officinalis (EO), Phyllanthus amarus (P. amarus) and Picrorrhiza kurroa (P. kurroa) significantly inhibited hepatocarcinogenesis induced by N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) in a dose dependent manner. The anticarcinogenic activity of these extracts were evaluated by their effect on tumour incidence, levels of carcinogen metabolizing enzymes, levels of liver cancer markers and liver injury markers. Animals treated with NDEA alone showed

K. Jose Jeena; K. L Joy; Ramadasan Kuttan

1999-01-01

139

Matrix solid-phase dispersion for the liquid chromatographic determination of phenolic acids in Melissa officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) was used for sample preparation of plant material (Melissa officinalis, Lemon Balm) prior to liquid chromatography of rosmarinic, caffeic and protocatechuic acids, phenolic compounds present in this herb. Different MSPD sorbents and various elution agents were tested and the optimal extraction conditions determined with the aim to obtain extraction recoveries greater than 90% for all analytes.

Alica Žiaková; Eva Brandšteterová; Eva Blahová

2003-01-01

140

Oxidative stress modulation by Rosmarinus officinalis in CCl4-induced liver cirrhosis.  

PubMed

Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae) possesses antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective effects, and so may provide a possible therapeutic alternative for chronic liver disease. The effect produced by a methanolic extract of Rosmarinus officinalis on CCl(4)-induced liver cirrhosis in rats was investigated using both prevention and reversion models. Over the course of the development of cirrhosis, the increased enzymatic activities of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and alanine aminotransferase, and the rise in bilirubin levels caused by CCl(4) administration, were prevented by Rosmarinus officinalis co-administration. When the cirrhosis by oxidative stress was evaluated as an increase on liver lipoperoxidation, total lipid peroxides, nitric oxide in serum, and loss of erythrocyte plasma membrane stability, R. officinalis was shown to prevent such alterations. On cirrhotic animals treated with CCl(4), histological studies showed massive necrosis, periportal inflammation and fibrosis which were modified by R. officinalis. These benefits on experimental cirrhosis suggest a potential therapeutic use for R. officinalis as an alternative for liver cirrhosis. PMID:19827016

Gutiérrez, Rosalinda; Alvarado, José L; Presno, Manuel; Pérez-Veyna, Oscar; Serrano, Carmen J; Yahuaca, Patricia

2010-04-01

141

Micropropagation of Rosmarinus officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-node stem segments of Rosmarinus officinalis L. var. genuina forma erectus proved better explants than shoot tips (ca. 2 cm long) for extablishment of field-grown plants in aseptic cultures. Benzylaminopurine was far more effective than kinetin for shoot induction in shoot tips excised from aseptically-grown plants. Maximum numbers of shoot buds (ca. 14) were formed per explant at 0.2 mgl-1

Pratibha Misra; H. C. Chaturvedi

1984-01-01

142

Bioactive terpenes from Spongia officinalis.  

PubMed

The terpene metabolite pattern of Mediterranean Spongia officinalis was chemically investigated. This study resulted in the isolation of a series of sesterterpenes and C21 furanoterpenes, according to the literature data on this sponge. Four new oxidized minor metabolites (compounds 1, 2, 3, and 4) were isolated along with six known compounds of the furospongin series (compounds 5-8, 9, and 10) and three scalarane sesterterpenes (compounds 11-13). Interestingly, tetrahydrofurospongin-2 (6) and dihydrofurospongin-2 (7), which were among the main metabolites, induced biofilm formation by Escherichia coli. All compounds isolated were also assayed for antibacterial and antifungal properties. PMID:21548580

Manzo, Emiliano; Ciavatta, M Letizia; Villani, Guido; Varcamonti, Mario; Sayem, S M Abu; van Soest, Rob; Gavagnin, Margherita

2011-05-06

143

COMPOSITION AND INSECT ATTRACTING ACTIVITY OF THE ESSENTIAL OIL OF Rosmarinus officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil and a number of extracts of Rosmarinus officinalisL. in solvents of increasing polarity were isolated, and their components identified and tested as pest control agents. Ethanol and acetone extracts attract grape berry moth Lobesia botrana. However, none of the extracts had a significant effect on western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis, which is attracted by 1,8-cineole, a major

HARALAMBOS E. KATERINOPOULOS; GEORGIA PAGONA; ATHANASIOS AFRATIS; NICOLAOS STRATIGAKIS; NIKOLAOS RODITAKIS

2005-01-01

144

Protective effects of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. in cyclophosphamide-treated mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclophosphamide (CP) is one of the most popular alkylating anticancer drugs in spite of its toxic side effects including immunotoxicity, hematotoxicity, mutagenicity and a host of others. The present study was undertaken to assess the protective effects of total aqueous extract of a medicinal plant, Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) in mice treated with CP. These protective effects were studied

R. Haque; B. Bin-Hafeez; I. Ahmad; S. Parvez; S. Pandey; S. Raisuddin

2001-01-01

145

Simple high-performance liquid chromatography method for ?-tocopherol measurement in Rosmarinus officinalis leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple HPLC method for vitamin E (?-tocopherol) measurement in the leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis has been developed and validated. It has enabled new data for ?-tocopherol content to be established. The leaves, recently harvested, were dried in a microwave oven and crushed; then, ?-tocopherol was directly extracted from portions of ground material with acetone, by probe sonication. After centrifugation

J Torre; M. P Lorenzo; M. P Mart??nez-Alcázar; C Barbas

2001-01-01

146

Modulation of mood and cognitive performance following acute administration of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) is a traditional herbal medicine, which enjoys contemporary usage as a mild sedative, spasmolytic and antibacterial agent. It has been suggested, in light of in vitro cholinergic binding properties, that Melissa extracts may effectively ameliorate the cognitive deficits associated with Alzheimer's disease. To date, no study has investigated the effects on cognition and mood of administration

D. O Kennedy; Andrew B Scholey; N. T. J Tildesley; E. K Perry; K. A Wesnes

2002-01-01

147

On "officinalis" the names of plants as one enduring history of therapeutic medicine.  

PubMed

The officina was the building, usually an out-building, in medieval monasteries where medical monks prepared medicaments and pharmaceutical preparations to heal the sick. Dried extracts, infusions, decoctions, tinctures and distillates were prepared therein. Often the officina was attached to the medicinal or herbal gardens, also enclosed within the monastery precinct. When Linnaeus invented the binomial system of nomenclature, he gave the specific name "officinalis", to dozens of herbs and plants whose medical use had been established in preceding millennia. In the 1735 (1st Edition) of his Systema Naturae, he acknowledged the historical traditions of healing by naming scores of plants with the species designator, "officinalis", as a generic qualifier. Literally "from the officina", the species name "officinalis" thus embodied the history of many centuries of medicinal use and health lore. PMID:21657104

Pearn, John

2010-12-01

148

Chemical and antioxidant evaluation of Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Gaertn., syn. Phyllanthus emblica L.) supplements.  

PubMed

Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) (Euphorbiaceae) has a distinguished history in Ayurveda medicine and is ascribed a number of medicinal properties and as a dietary supplement, its use is increasing in Western countries. It is thought that its beneficial properties are a function of its antioxidant potency. The study investigated the chemistry and antioxidant properties of four commercial E. officinalis fruit extracts in order to determine if there are any qualitative-quantitative differences. All extracts produced positive responses in the total phenol, total flavonoid and total tannin assays. The presence of predominantly (poly)phenolic analytes, e.g. ellagic and gallic acids and corilagin, was confirmed by RP-HPLC coupled with photodiode array detection. Despite ascorbic acid being a major constituent of E. officinalis fruits, the furanolactone could not be identified in one of the samples. The extracts demonstrated varying degrees of antioxidative efficacy. The extract designated IG-3 was consistently amongst the most effective extracts in the iron(III) reduction and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and superoxide anion radical scavenging assays while the extract designated IG-1 demonstrated the best hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. All extracts appeared to be incapable of chelating iron(II) at realistic concentrations. PMID:19172666

Poltanov, Eugeny A; Shikov, Alexander N; Dorman, H J Damien; Pozharitskaya, Olga N; Makarov, Valery G; Tikhonov, Vladimir P; Hiltunen, Raimo

2009-09-01

149

Modulatory role of Emblica officinalis against alcohol induced biochemical and biophysical changes in rat erythrocyte membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the protective effect of Emblica officinalis against alcohol-induced biochemical and biophysical changes in rat erythrocyte membranes. Thirty-two male rats were divided into four groups (n=8 in each group): control (C), alcohol (A), alcohol plus Emblica fruit extract (A+EFE) and Emblica fruit extract (EFE) alone. Administration of twenty percent alcohol (5g\\/kg body weight) to rats significantly increased cholesterol\\/phospholipid

Vaddi Damodara Reddy; Pannuru Padmavathi; Maturu Paramahamsa; Nallanchakravarthula Varadacharyulu

2009-01-01

150

Antinociceptive property of Emblica officinalis Gaertn (Amla) in high fat diet-fed/low dose streptozotocin induced diabetic neuropathy in rats.  

PubMed

Diabetic neuropathic pain is an important microvascular complication in diabetes mellitus and oxidative stress plays a vital role in associated neural and vascular complications. The present study investigated flavonoid rich fruit extract (ethyl acetate:methanol fraction) of E. officinalis (10 mg/kg), in type II diabetes (high fat diet fed/low dose streptozotocin) induced diabetic neuropathy in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Diabetic rats exhibited a significant hyperalgesia (nociception) as compared to control rats. Treatment with E. officinalis extract (EOE) and quercetin in diabetic rats showed significant increase in tail flick latency in hot immersion test and pain threshold level in hot plate test compared to control rats. The changes in lipid peroxidation status and anti-oxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase) levels observed in diabetic rats were significantly restored by E. officinalis extract and quercetin treatment. Both, E. officinalis extract and quercetin attenuated diabetic induced axonal degeneration. The study provides experimental evidence of the preventive and curative effect of E. officinalis on nerve function and oxidative stress in animal model of diabetic neuropathy. Since, E. officinalis fruit is already in clinical use for diabetic patients it may be evaluated for preventive therapy in diabetic patients at risk of developing neuropathy. PMID:19957886

Kumar, N Prem; Annamalai, A R; Thakur, R S

2009-09-01

151

Evaluation of the effectiveness of Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae) in the alleviation of carbon tetrachloride-induced acute hepatotoxicity in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of oral administration of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) on CCl4-induced acute liver injury was investigated. Rats were daily treated with the plant extract at a dose of 200 mg\\/kg corresponding to 6.04 mg\\/kg of carnosol as determined by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The treatment was initiated 1 h after CCl4 administration and Rosmarinus officinalis fully prevented CCl4

J. I Sotelo-Félix; D Martinez-Fong; P Muriel; R. L Santillán; D Castillo; P Yahuaca

2002-01-01

152

Antileishmanial activity of some plants growing in algeria: juglans regia, lawsonia inermis and salvia officinalis.  

PubMed

The current study was undertaken to evaluate in vitro the antileishmanial activity of three plants growing wild in Algeria : Juglans regia, Lawsonia inermis and Salvia officinalis. The hydroalcoholic extracts of these plants were tested on the growth of the promastigotes of Leishmania major. The plant extract effects were compared with three controls : CRL1 composed of 1 ml RPMI inoculated with 10(6) of promastigotes, CRL2 composed of 1 ml RPMI inoculated with 10(6) of promastigotes and 100 µl of hydroalcoholic solvent, CRL3 composed of 1 ml RPMI inoculated with 10(6) of promastigotes and 100 µl of Glucantim as a reference drug in the management of leishmaniasis. The results showed that both J. regia and L. inermis extracts reduced the promastigotes number significantly (P<0.01). however, S. officinalis showed a total inhibition of the Leishmania major growth. PMID:24146470

Serakta, M; Djerrou, Z; Mansour-Djaalab, H; Kahlouche-Riachi, F; Hamimed, S; Trifa, W; Belkhiri, A; Edikra, N; Hamdi Pacha, Y

2013-04-12

153

Studies of UPLC fingerprint for the identification of Magnoliae officinalis cortex processed  

PubMed Central

This study was carried out with the objective of establishing Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatograph (UPLC) fingerprint for the identification of Magnoliae officinalis cortex processed. It was extracted by methanol using an ultrasonic extractor. Twelve samples of M. officinalis cortex produced in Zhejiang of China from different places and species were processed with ginger juice; sample solutions were determined by Waters UPLC equipped with BEH C18 column and a DAD detector, gradient eluted with formic acid/methanol-formic acid/water as mobile phase. The flow rate was set at 0.3 ml• min?1, while the column temperature was set at 30°C, and the wavelength for detection was set at 240 nm. The characteristic of the common peaks of the UPLC fingerprint for M. officinalis cortex processed are obvious. Forty-one common peaks were detected and two of them were identified. The method of UPLC fingerprint established in this experiment was rapid and efficient. It is an effective means for the quality control of M. officinalis cortex processed.

Wang, Lin; Yuan, Ke; Yu, Wei-wu

2010-01-01

154

The reproductive strategies of the heterocarpic annual Calendula arvensis (Asteraceae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Achene polymorphism and various aspects of the reproductive biology of the annual Calendula arvensis L. (Field marigold), were studied to determine the reproductive strategies of the plant. This species normally produces three types of achene: rostrate, cymbiform and annular. Rostrate and cymbiform achenes are larger and heavier than annular achenes, and are adapted to long-range dispersal (by epizoochory and anemochory, respectively). In contrast, annular achenes are smaller in size and weight, and are adapted to short-range dispersal. Achenes germinate over a broad range of temperatures (both in light and in darkness), exhibiting cymbiform achenes the highest germination percentages and annular achenes the lowest under all conditions tested. A fraction of the three types of achenes exhibit dormancy and presumably enter the soil seedbank. Achene types adapted for long-range dispersal (rostrate and cymbiform achenes) produce seedlings that are best able to emerge from deeper burial depths, and that are initially stronger and exhibit earlier flowering than the plants from the annular achenes (which are likely to disperse over shorter distances). These features, together with the fact that fruiting occurs even in the absence of pollinators (automatic geitonogamy), the different mechanisms for achene dispersal (zoochory, anemochory and myrmerochory), and the extended germination, flowering and fruiting periods, facilitate establishment and expansion of this species in unpredictable and disturbed habitats.

Ruiz De Clavijo, E.

2005-09-01

155

Seasonal variation of the lipoidal matters and hypolipidaemic activity of the red alga Corallina officinalis L.  

PubMed

The lipoidal matters of Corallina officinalis L. showed a seasonal nonsignificant quantitative variation. However, the fatty acids revealed a relative increase in the summer and winter, while unsaponifiable matter exhibited a slight increase in the spring. The GC/MS analysis of saponifiable and unsaponifiable matter of the algal samples collected in different seasons revealed that samples collected in the spring contained a low cholesterol content and high steroidal compounds as well as high polyunsaturated fatty acids. The alcohol extract, hexane extract and fatty acid fraction of this algal sample exhibited a significant hypolipidaemic activity. Also, two biologically active fractions of hydrocarbons were isolated by CC technique from the hexane fraction of C. officinalis L. and identified by GC/MS. PMID:12557241

Awad, N E; Selim, M A; Saleh, M M; Matloub, A A

2003-01-01

156

Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis and some other medicinal plants commonly used in South-East Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Eight medicinal plants were tested for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Different extraction methods were also tested for their effects on the bioactivities of the medicinal plants. METHODS: Eight plants, namely Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis (Laliaocao), Folium Murraya Koenigii (Jialiye), Rhizoma Arachis Hypogea (Huashenggen), Herba Houttuyniae (Yuxingcao), Epipremnum pinnatum (Pashulong), Rhizoma Typhonium Flagelliforme (Laoshuyu), Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis (Houpo) and Rhizoma

Lai Wah Chan; Emily LC Cheah; Constance LL Saw; Wanyu Weng; Paul WS Heng

2008-01-01

157

Inhibitory effect of Turkish Rosmarinus officinalis L. on acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current study, we have tested acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activity of the petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, chloroform, and methanol extracts, rosmarinic acid as well as the essential oil obtained from Rosmarinus officinalis L. growing in Turkey by a spectrophotometric method of Ellman using ELISA microplate-reader at 0.2,0.5, and 1.0mg\\/mL concentrations. In addition, quantification of rosmarinic acid,

Ilkay Orhan; Sinem Aslan; Murat Kartal; Bilge ?ener; K. Hüsnü Can Ba?er

2008-01-01

158

LIBS-Based Detection of Antioxidant Elements in Seeds of Emblica officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the elements of the extract of seed from Emblica officinalis on antioxidant enzymes and osmotic fragility of erythrocytes membrane in normal as well as streptozotocin-induced severely\\u000a diabetic albino Wister rats. The results revealed that the untreated diabetic rats exhibited increase in oxidative stress\\u000a as indicated by significantly diminished activities

Shikha Mehta; Prashant Kumar Rai; Devendra Kumar Rai; Nilesh Kumar Rai; A. K. Rai; Dane Bicanic; Bechan Sharma; Geeta Watal

2010-01-01

159

Evaluation of antioxidant profile and activity of amalaki (Emblica officinalis) , spirulina and wheat grass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous and alcoholic extracts of amalki (Emblica officinalis), spirulina and wheatgrass were prepared and analyzed for antioxidant\\u000a vitamin content (vitamin C and E), total phenolic compounds. Antioxidant status, reducing power and effect on glutathione\\u000a S-transferase (GST) activity were evaluated in vitro. Vitamin C content of crude amalaki powder was found to be 5.38 mg\\/g,\\u000a while very less amount 0.22 mg\\/g

Vasudha Shukla; Manish Vashistha; Som Nath Singh

2009-01-01

160

Evaluation of anti-pyretic and analgesic activity of Emblica officinalis Gaertn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was designed to investigate the anti-pyretic and analgesic activity of ethanol (EEO) and aqueous (AEO) extracts of Emblica officinalis fruits in several experimental models. A single oral dose of EEO and AEO (500mg\\/kg, i.p.) showed significant reduction in brewer’s yeast induced hyperthermia in rats. EEO and AEO also elicited pronounced inhibitory effect on acetic acid-induced writhing response

James B. Perianayagam; S. K. Sharma; Aney Joseph; A. J. M. Christina

2004-01-01

161

Carnosol and Carnosic Acids from Salvia officinalis Inhibit Microsomal Prostaglandin E2 Synthase-1  

PubMed Central

Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), the most relevant eicosanoid promoting inflammation and tumorigenesis, is formed by cyclooxygenases (COXs) and PGE2 synthases from free arachidonic acid. Preparations of the leaves of Salvia officinalis are commonly used in folk medicine as an effective antiseptic and anti-inflammatory remedy and possess anticancer activity. Here, we demonstrate that a standard ethyl acetate extract of S. officinalis efficiently suppresses the formation of PGE2 in a cell-free assay by direct interference with microsomal PGE2 synthase (mPGES)-1. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the extract yielded closely related fractions that potently suppressed mPGES-1 with IC50 values between 1.9 and 3.5 ?g/ml. Component analysis of these fractions revealed the diterpenes carnosol and carnosic acid as potential bioactive principles inhibiting mPGES-1 activity with IC50 values of 5.0 ?M. Using a human whole-blood assay as a robust cell-based model, carnosic acid, but not carnosol, blocked PGE2 generation upon stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (IC50 = 9.3 ?M). Carnosic acid neither inhibited the concomitant biosynthesis of other prostanoids [6-keto PGF1?, 12(S)-hydroxy-5-cis-8,10-trans-heptadecatrienoic acid, and thromboxane B2] in human whole blood nor affected the activities of COX-1/2 in a cell-free assay. Together, S. officinalis extracts and its ingredients carnosol and carnosic acid inhibit PGE2 formation by selectively targeting mPGES-1. We conclude that the inhibitory effect of carnosic acid on PGE2 formation, observed in the physiologically relevant whole-blood model, may critically contribute to the anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties of S. officinalis.

Bauer, Julia; Kuehnl, Susanne; Rollinger, Judith M.; Scherer, Olga; Northoff, Hinnak; Stuppner, Hermann; Werz, Oliver; Koeberle, Andreas

2012-01-01

162

In vitro antioxidant and inhibitory potential of Terminalia bellerica and Emblica officinalis fruits against LDL oxidation and key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study evaluated the free radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant potential of different solvent extracts (Hexane (HE), ethyl acetate (EA), methanol (ME), 70% methanol (MW) and Water (WA)) of Terminalia bellerica (TB) and Emblica officinalis (EB) fruits. Methanol extract (ME) of TB and EB fruits exhibited maximum scavenging activity against DPPH, superoxide, hydroxyl and nitric oxide radicals. Cell based

Suresh V. Nampoothiri; A. Prathapan; Ozhathil Lijo Cherian; K. G. Raghu; V. V. Venugopalan; A. Sundaresan

2011-01-01

163

Evaluation of the effectiveness of Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae) in the alleviation of carbon tetrachloride-induced acute hepatotoxicity in the rat.  

PubMed

The effect of oral administration of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) on CCl(4)-induced acute liver injury was investigated. Rats were daily treated with the plant extract at a dose of 200 mg/kg corresponding to 6.04 mg/kg of carnosol as determined by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The treatment was initiated 1 h after CCl(4) administration and Rosmarinus officinalis fully prevented CCl(4) effect on hepatic lipid peroxidation after 24 h of CCl(4) administration. The increase in bilirubin level and alanine aminotransferase activity in plasma induced by CCl(4) was completely normalized by Rosmarinus officinalis. The treatment also produced a significant recovery of CCl(4)-induced decrease in liver glycogen content. CCl(4) did not modify the activity of liver cytosolic glutathione S-transferase (GST) compared with that of control groups. However, Rosmarinus officinalis increased liver cytosolic GST activity and produced an additional increment in plasma GST activity in rats treated with CCl(4). Histological evaluation showed that Rosmarinus officinalis partially prevented CCl(4)-induced inflammation, necrosis and vacuolation. Rosmarinus officinalis might exert a dual effect on CCl(4)-induced acute liver injury, acting as an antioxidant and improving GST-dependent detoxification systems. PMID:12065145

Sotelo-Félix, J I; Martinez-Fong, D; Muriel, P; Santillán, R L; Castillo, D; Yahuaca, P

2002-07-01

164

Stability of the constituents of Calendula, Milk-thistle and Passionflower tinctures by LC-DAD and LCMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a part of our investigations on the stability of tinctures, we evaluated 40 and 60% v\\/v tinctures of Calendula flower, Milk-thistle fruit and Passionflower. These preparations are widely employed in phytotherapy, thus Calendula is used externally for anti-inflammatory properties, Milk-thistle and Passionflower are employed for hepatic injuries and in tenseness with difficulty in falling asleep, respectively. Aim of this

Anna Rita Bilia; Maria Camilla Bergonzi; Sandra Gallori; Giovanni Mazzi; Franco Francesco Vincieri

2002-01-01

165

Total peroxynitrite scavenging capacity of phenylethanoid and flavonoid glycosides from the flowers of Buddleja officinalis.  

PubMed

Nine compounds, including six phenylethanoid glycosides: acteoside (1); bioside (2); echinacoside (3); poliumoside (4); phenylethyl glycoside (5); salidroside (6) and three flavonoids; linarin (7); apigenin (8); isorhoifolin (9), were isolated from the flowers of Buddleja officinalis MAXIM. (Buddlejaceae). Chemical structures were confirmed by (1)H-, and (13)C-NMR, and MS spectral methods and compared with those reported in the literature. Antioxidant activities of the methanol and water extracts, and all isolated compounds were evaluated using the total oxidant scavenging capacity (TOSC) assay against peroxynitrite. Results of the assay showed that the phenylethanoid glycosides, a major class of compounds of the flowers of B. officinalis, possess strong antioxidant activity. Of these, acteoside, echinacoside and poliumoside have 9.9-, 9.8- and 9.5-fold TOSC value, respectively, compared with the positive control, Trolox. PMID:19952410

Tai, Bui Huu; Jung, Bong Yong; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Linh, Pham Thuy; Tung, Nguyen Huu; Nhiem, Nguyen Xuan; Huong, Tran Thu; Anh, Ngo Thi; Kim, Jeong Ah; Kim, Sang Kyum; Kim, Young Ho

2009-12-01

166

Cyto-protective and immunomodulating properties of Amla ( Emblica officinalis) on lymphocytes: an in-vitro study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fruits extracts of Emblica officinalis (Amla) has been reported to have strong anti-oxidant properties. There is a paucity of studies on the immunomodulatory properties of fruit extracts of Amla in immuno-compromised states, with the emphasis on lymphocytes. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the anti-oxidant and immunomodulatory properties of Amla using chromium (VI) as an immunosuppressive

M Sai Ram; D Neetu; B Yogesh; B Anju; P Dipti; T Pauline; S. K Sharma; S. K. S Sarada; G Ilavazhagan; Devendra Kumar; W Selvamurthy

2002-01-01

167

Antibacterial activity of plant extracts and phytochemicals on antibiotic-resistant bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antimicrobial activity of plant extracts and phytochemicals was evaluated with antibiotic susceptible and resistant microorganisms. In addition, the possible synergistic effects when associated with antibiotics were studied. Extracts from the following plants were utilized: Achillea millifolium (yarrow), Caryophyllus aromaticus (clove), Melissa offficinalis (lemon-balm), Ocimun basilucum (basil), Psidium guajava (guava), Punica granatum (pomegranate), Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary), Salvia officinalis (sage), Syzygyum

Gislene G. F. Nascimento; Juliana Locatelli; Paulo C. Freitas; Giuliana L. Silva

2000-01-01

168

Roles of Emblica officinalis in Medicine - A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emblica officinalis (Amla) are widely used in the Indian system of medicine and believed to increase defense against diseases. This article discuses and summarizes important medicinal values of Emblica officinalis (EO). In this communication, we reviewed the applications of EO in cancer, diabetis, liver treatment, heart disease, ulcer, anemia and various other diseases. The use of EO as antioxidant, immunomodulatory,

K. H. Khan

2009-01-01

169

Screening of medicinal and ornamental plants for insecticidal and growth regulating activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts of 121 medicinal and ornamental plants were screened for insecticidal and growth regulating activity to milkweed\\u000a bug, Oncopeltus fasciatus Dallas. The most effective extracts stemmed from Inula helenium L., Rumex crispus L., R. acetosa L., Asarum europaeum L., and Calendula officinalis L. All these extracts exerted growth inhibiting activities and moderate or low acute toxicity. Most promising were extracts

Maja Alexenizer; August Dorn

2007-01-01

170

Chemical composition, intraspecies variation and seasonal variation in essential oils of Calendula arvensis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil composition of Calendula arvensis was established for the first time using GC and GC\\/MS. Eighty-five essential oil components were identified, which accounted for 90.3g\\/100g of essential oil. The oil contained a high concentration of sesquiterpenes, of which ?-cadinene and ?-cadinol were the main components. The chemical composition of 25 Corsican C. arvensis oils was analyzed to determine

Julien Paolini; Toussaint Barboni; Jean-Marie Desjobert; Nassim Djabou; Alain Muselli; Jean Costa

2010-01-01

171

Hybrid magnetite nanoparticles/Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil nanobiosystem with antibiofilm activity  

PubMed Central

Biofilms formed by fungal organisms are associated with drastically enhanced resistance against most antimicrobial agents, contributing to the persistence of the fungi despite antifungal therapy. The purpose of this study is to combine the unique properties of nanoparticles with the antimicrobial activity of the Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil in order to obtain a nanobiosystem that could be pelliculised on the surface of catheter pieces, in order to obtain an improved resistance to microbial colonization and biofilm development by Candida albicans and C. tropicalis clinical strains. The R. officinalis essential oils were extracted in a Neo-Clevenger type apparatus, and its chemical composition was settled by GC-MS analysis. Functionalized magnetite nanoparticles of up to 20 nm size had been synthesized by precipitation method adapted for microwave conditions, with oleic acid as surfactant. The catheter pieces were coated with suspended core/shell nanoparticles (Fe3O4/oleic acid:CHCl3), by applying a magnetic field on nanofluid, while the CHCl3 diluted essential oil was applied by adsorption in a secondary covering treatment. The fungal adherence ability was investigated in six multiwell plates, in which there have been placed catheters pieces with and without hybrid nanoparticles/essential oil nanobiosystem pellicle, by using culture-based methods and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The R. officinalis essential oil coated nanoparticles strongly inhibited the adherence ability and biofilm development of the C. albicans and C. tropicalis tested strains to the catheter surface, as shown by viable cell counts and CLSM examination. Due to the important implications of Candida spp. in human pathogenesis, especially in prosthetic devices related infections and the emergence of antifungal tolerance/resistance, using the new core/shell/coated shell based on essential oil of R. officinalis to inhibit the fungal adherence could be of a great interest for the biomedical field, opening new directions for the design of film-coated surfaces with antibiofilm properties.

2012-01-01

172

Hybrid magnetite nanoparticles/Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil nanobiosystem with antibiofilm activity.  

PubMed

Biofilms formed by fungal organisms are associated with drastically enhanced resistance against most antimicrobial agents, contributing to the persistence of the fungi despite antifungal therapy. The purpose of this study is to combine the unique properties of nanoparticles with the antimicrobial activity of the Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil in order to obtain a nanobiosystem that could be pelliculised on the surface of catheter pieces, in order to obtain an improved resistance to microbial colonization and biofilm development by Candida albicans and C. tropicalis clinical strains. The R. officinalis essential oils were extracted in a Neo-Clevenger type apparatus, and its chemical composition was settled by GC-MS analysis. Functionalized magnetite nanoparticles of up to 20 nm size had been synthesized by precipitation method adapted for microwave conditions, with oleic acid as surfactant. The catheter pieces were coated with suspended core/shell nanoparticles (Fe3O4/oleic acid:CHCl3), by applying a magnetic field on nanofluid, while the CHCl3 diluted essential oil was applied by adsorption in a secondary covering treatment. The fungal adherence ability was investigated in six multiwell plates, in which there have been placed catheters pieces with and without hybrid nanoparticles/essential oil nanobiosystem pellicle, by using culture-based methods and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The R. officinalis essential oil coated nanoparticles strongly inhibited the adherence ability and biofilm development of the C. albicans and C. tropicalis tested strains to the catheter surface, as shown by viable cell counts and CLSM examination. Due to the important implications of Candida spp. in human pathogenesis, especially in prosthetic devices related infections and the emergence of antifungal tolerance/resistance, using the new core/shell/coated shell based on essential oil of R. officinalis to inhibit the fungal adherence could be of a great interest for the biomedical field, opening new directions for the design of film-coated surfaces with antibiofilm properties. PMID:22490675

Chifiriuc, Carmen; Grumezescu, Valentina; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Saviuc, Crina; Laz?r, Veronica; Andronescu, Ecaterina

2012-04-10

173

Flavonoid and phenolic glycosides from Salvia officinalis.  

PubMed

Two novel phenolic glycosides cis-p-coumaric acid 4-O-(2'-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside and trans-p-coumaric acid 4-O-(2'-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside were isolated and identified from Salvia officinalis together with 4-hydroxyacetophenone 4-O-(6'-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, luteolin 7-O-beta-D-glucoside, 7- and 3'-O-beta-D-glucuronide, 6-hydroxyluteolin 7-O-beta-D-glucoside and 7-O-glucuronide, and 6,8-di-C-beta-D-glucosylapigenin (vicenin-2). The luteolin glucuronides and vicenin-2 were identified as new sage constituents. PMID:11142853

Lu, Y; Foo, L Y

2000-10-01

174

Investigation of the Effect of Rice Wine on the Metabolites of the Main Components of Herbal Medicine in Rat Urine by Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole/Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry: A Case Study on Cornus officinalis  

PubMed Central

Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS) was developed for rapid and sensitive analysis of the effect of rice wine on the metabolites of the main components of herbal medicine in rat urine. Using Cornus officinalis as a model of herbal medicine, the metabolite profiles of crude and processed (steaming the crude drug presteeped in rice wine) Cornus officinalis extracts in rat urine were investigated. The metabolites of Cornus officinalis were identified by using dynamic adjustment of the fragmentor voltage to produce structure-relevant fragment ions. In this work, we identified the parent compounds and metabolites of crude and processed Cornus officinalis in rats. In total, three parent compounds and seventeen new metabolites of Cornus officinalis were found in rats. The contents of the parent compounds and metabolites in vivo varied significantly after intragastric (i.g.) administration of aqueous extracts of crude and processed Cornus officinalis. Data from this study suggests that UPLC-QTOF/MS could be used as a potential tool for uncovering the effects of excipients found in the metabolites of the main components of herbal medicine, in vivo, to predict and discover the processing mechanisms of herbal medicine.

Cao, Gang; Cai, Hao; Yue, Xianke; Tu, Sicong; Cai, Baochang; Xu, Zhiwei

2013-01-01

175

Studies on the Physiological Function of In Vitro Produced Antioxidants from Sage (Salvia officinalis L.): Effects on Cell Growth and Metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effect of antioxidant phenolic compounds produced by sage (Salvia officinalis) callus cultures on some physiological parameters of the producing cells. Although cultures demonstrated a continuous growth during an incubation period of five weeks, the cell dehydrogenase activity, the cytochrome c oxidase activity and the respiration of isolated mitochondria declined. An analysis of meth-anolic extracts derived from the

Spiridon Kintzios; Maria Adamopoulou; Eleni Pistola; Katerina Delki; John Drossopoulos

2002-01-01

176

Efficacy of E. officinalis on the cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans: a novel and alternative approach to suppress quorum-sensing mechanism.  

PubMed

The present study was focused on evaluating the potential of Emblica officinalis against cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans, a causative microorganism for caries. The effect of crude extract and ethanolic fraction from Emblica officinalis fruit was analysed against S. mutans. The sub-MIC concentrations of crude and ethanolic fraction of E. officinalis were evaluated for its cariogenic properties such as acid production, biofilm formation, cell-surface hydrophobicity, glucan production, sucrose-dependent and independent adherence. Its effect on biofilm architecture was also investigated with the help of confocal and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, expression of genes involved in biofilm formation was also studied by quantitative RT- PCR. This study showed 50% reduction in adherence at concentrations 156 µg/ and 312.5 µg/ml of crude extract and ethanolic fraction respectively. However, the biofilm was reduced to 50% in the presence of crude extract (39.04 µg/ml) and ethanolic fraction (78.08 µg/ml). Furthermore, effective reduction was observed in the glucan synthesis and cell surface hydrophobicity. The qRT-PCR revealed significant suppression of the genes involved in its virulence. Confocal and scanning electron microscopy clearly depicted the obliteration of biofilm structure with reference to control. Hence, this study reveals the potential of E. officinalis fruit extracts as an alternative and complementary medicine for dental caries by inhibiting the virulence factors of Streptococcus mutans. PMID:22792279

Hasan, Sadaf; Danishuddin, Mohd; Adil, Mohd; Singh, Kunal; Verma, Praveen K; Khan, Asad U

2012-07-05

177

Efficacy of E. officinalis on the Cariogenic Properties of Streptococcus mutans: A Novel and Alternative Approach to Suppress Quorum-Sensing Mechanism  

PubMed Central

The present study was focused on evaluating the potential of Emblica officinalis against cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans, a causative microorganism for caries. The effect of crude extract and ethanolic fraction from Emblica officinalis fruit was analysed against S. mutans. The sub-MIC concentrations of crude and ethanolic fraction of E. officinalis were evaluated for its cariogenic properties such as acid production, biofilm formation, cell-surface hydrophobicity, glucan production, sucrose-dependent and independent adherence. Its effect on biofilm architecture was also investigated with the help of confocal and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, expression of genes involved in biofilm formation was also studied by quantitative RT- PCR. This study showed 50% reduction in adherence at concentrations 156 µg/ and 312.5 µg/ml of crude extract and ethanolic fraction respectively. However, the biofilm was reduced to 50% in the presence of crude extract (39.04 µg/ml) and ethanolic fraction (78.08 µg/ml). Furthermore, effective reduction was observed in the glucan synthesis and cell surface hydrophobicity. The qRT-PCR revealed significant suppression of the genes involved in its virulence. Confocal and scanning electron microscopy clearly depicted the obliteration of biofilm structure with reference to control. Hence, this study reveals the potential of E. officinalis fruit extracts as an alternative and complementary medicine for dental caries by inhibiting the virulence factors of Streptococcus mutans.

Hasan, Sadaf; Singh, Kunal; Verma, Praveen K.; Khan, Asad U.

2012-01-01

178

Chemical Composition of Lebanese Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) Essential Oil as a Function of the Geographical Region and the Harvest Time  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oils of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) from three locations in Lebanon were extracted by steam distillation and their chemical composition was determined by GC\\/MS. The plants were collected during two years at either flowering stage or after. The oils obtained did not show appreciable differences in their composition in relation to geographical region. The three oil samples were

Youssef Diab; Lizette Auezova; Hanna Chebib; Jean-Claude Chalchat; Gilles Figueredo

2002-01-01

179

Protective Effect of Emblica officinalis Against Alcohol-Induced Hepatic Injury by Ameliorating Oxidative Stress in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of Emblica officinalis fruit extract (EFE) against alcohol-induced hepatic damage in rats was investigated in the present study. In vitro studies\\u000a showed that EFE possesses antioxidant as well nitric oxide (NO) scavenging activity. In vivo administration of alcohol (5 g\\/kg\\u000a b.wt\\/day) for 60 days resulted increased liver lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls, nitrite plus nitrate levels. Alcohol\\u000a administration also significantly lowers

V. Damodara Reddy; P. Padmavathi; S. Gopi; M. Paramahamsa; N. Ch. Varadacharyulu

2010-01-01

180

Sorption studies of Cu(II) on gooseberry fruit ( emblica officinalis) and its removal from electroplating wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sorption of Cu(II) onto waste residue left after extraction of juice from Indian gooseberry (Amla) fruit (Emblica officinalis) was studied. Equilibrium isotherms, kinetic data and thermodynamic parameters have been evaluated. Equilibrium data agreed well with Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin–Radushkevich (D–R) isotherm models. The kinetic data followed pseudo-second-order model and it was found that intra-particle diffusion was not the

Rifaqat Ali Khan Rao; Shaista Ikram

2011-01-01

181

Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of the alkaloids of Amlaki (Emblica officinalis).  

PubMed

Alkaloids are important sources of drug that's why we have conducted our research to find out the biological activity of the alkaloids of a plant that is the Amlaki. Alkaloids were extracted from the methanolic extract of the fresh ripe fruits of Amlaki (Emblica officinalis) through solvent-solvent partitioning method with n-hexane and chloroform. The chloroform soluble fraction of the crude methanolic extract of the ripe fruits of Amlaki containing alkaloids was subjected to antimicrobial activity and brine shrimp lethality bioassay for observing cytotoxic activity. The chloroform soluble fraction of the methanolic extract exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against some Gram positive and Gram negative pathogenic bacteria and strong cytotoxicity having a LC50 of 10.257 +/- 0.770 microg mL(-1). It is concluded that the chloroform soluble fraction of the ripe fruits of Amlaki containing alkaloids are biologically active. PMID:19899327

Rahman, S; Akbor, M M; Howlader, A; Jabbar, A

2009-08-15

182

Nutrient and salt relations of Pterocarpus officinalis L. in coastal ...  

Treesearch

International Institute of Tropical Forestry ... Title: Nutrient and salt relations of Pterocarpus officinalis L. in coastal ... This article was written and prepared by U.S. Government employees on official time, and is therefore in the public domain.

183

Antiallergic action of Magnolia officinalis on immediate hypersensitivity reaction.  

PubMed

We studied the effect of aqueous extract of Magnolia officinalis bark (Magnoliaceae) (MOAE) on the immediate hypersensitivity reaction. MOAE (0.01 to 1 g/kg) dose-dependently inhibited compound 48/80 induced systemic anaphylaxis in rats. MOAE (0.1 and 1 g/kg) also significantly inhibited local immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylactic reaction. When MOAE was pretreated at concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 1 g/kg, the levels of plasma histamine were reduced in a dose-dependent manner. MOAE (0.001 to 1 mg/ml) dose-dependently inhibited the histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMC) activated by compound 48/80 or anti-dinitrophenyl (DNP) IgE. The level of cyclic AMP (cAMP) in RPMC, when MOAE was added, significantly increased compared with that of the normal control. Moreover, MOAE (0.01 to 1 mg/ml) had a significant inhibitory effect on anti-DNP IgE-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha production from RPMC. These results indicate that MOAE inhibits immediate hypersensitivity reaction in vivo and in vitro. PMID:11440086

Shin, T Y; Kim, D K; Chae, B S; Lee, E J

2001-06-01

184

A rapid and highly specific method to evaluate the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Borago officinalis seed oil.  

PubMed

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are complex molecules, present in plants as free bases and N-oxides. They are known for their hepatotoxicity, and consequently there is a health risk associated with the use of medicinal herbs that contain PAs. Unfortunately, there is no international regulation of PAs in foods, unlike those for herbs and medicines: in particular, for herbal preparation or herbal extracts, the total PA content must not exceed 1 µg/kg or 1 µg/l, respectively. Borago officinalis seed oil is a source of ?-linolenic acid, and its use is increased in both pharmaceutical and health food industries. Even if studies based on gas chromatography and TLC methods showed that PAs are not co-extracted with oil, the development of a rapid and sensitive method able to evaluate the presence of PAs in commercially available products is surely of interest. The presence of PAs in a commercially available Borago officinalis seed oil was tested either in the oil sample diluted with tetrahydrofuran/methanol (MeOH)/H2 O (85/10/5 v:v:v) or after extraction with MeOH/H2 O (50/50 v:v) solution The samples were analysed by electrospray ionization in positive ion mode and in high mass resolution (60?000) conditions. In both cases to evaluate the effectiveness of the method, spiking experiments were performed adding known amount of two PA standards to the borage seed oil. A limit of detection in the order of 200 ppt was determined for these two compounds, strongly analogous to Borago officinalis seed oil PAs. Consequently, if present, PAs level in Borago officinalis seed oil must lower than 200 ppt. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24130010

Vacillotto, Giulio; Favretto, Donata; Seraglia, Roberta; Pagiotti, Rita; Traldi, Pietro; Mattoli, Luisa

2013-10-01

185

Modulation of mood and cognitive performance following acute administration of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm).  

PubMed

Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) is a traditional herbal medicine, which enjoys contemporary usage as a mild sedative, spasmolytic and antibacterial agent. It has been suggested, in light of in vitro cholinergic binding properties, that Melissa extracts may effectively ameliorate the cognitive deficits associated with Alzheimer's disease. To date, no study has investigated the effects on cognition and mood of administration of Melissa to healthy humans. The present randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, balanced-crossover study investigated the acute effects on cognition and mood of a standardised extract of M. officinalis. Twenty healthy, young participants received single doses of 300, 600 and 900 mg of M. officinalis (Pharmaton) or a matching placebo at 7-day intervals. Cognitive performance was assessed using the Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) computerised test battery and two serial subtraction tasks immediately prior to dosing and at 1, 2.5, 4 and 6 h thereafter. In vitro IC(50) concentrations for the displacement of [3H]-(N)-nicotine and [3H]-(N)-scopolamine from nicotinic and muscarinic receptors in human occipital cortex tissue were also calculated. Results, utilising the cognitive factors previously derived from the CDR battery, included a sustained improvement in Accuracy of Attention following 600 mg of Melissa and time- and dose-specific reductions in both Secondary Memory and Working Memory factors. Self-rated "calmness," as assessed by Bond-Lader mood scales, was elevated at the earliest time points by the lowest dose, whilst "alertness" was significantly reduced at all time points following the highest dose. Both nicotinic and muscarinic binding were found to be low in comparison to the levels found in previous studies. PMID:12062586

Kennedy, D O; Scholey, Andrew B; Tildesley, N T J; Perry, E K; Wesnes, K A

2002-07-01

186

Potential of Calendula alata for phytoremediation of stable cesium and lead from solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calendula alata plants were tested for their potential to remove stable cesium and lead from solutions in a 15-day period. The plants were\\u000a grown hydroponically and placed in solutions containing CsCl and Pb(C2H3O2)2 at different concentrations (0.6, 2 and 5 mg l???1). When plants were incubated in CsCl solutions 46.84 ± 2.12%, 41.35 ± 1.59%, and 52.06 ± 1.02% cesium was

Mehdi Borghei; Reza Arjmandi; Roxana Moogouei

187

Modulation of Mood and Cognitive Performance Following Acute Administration of Single Doses of Melissa Officinalis (Lemon Balm) with Human CNS Nicotinic and Muscarinic Receptor-Binding Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melissa officinalis (Lemon balm) is a herbal medicine that has traditionally been attributed with memory-enhancing properties, but which is currently more widely used as a mild sedative and sleep aid. In a previous study it was demonstrated that a commercial Melissa extract led to dose-specific increases in calmness, and dose-dependent decrements in timed memory task performance. However, the extract utilized

D O Kennedy; G Wake; S Savelev; N T J Tildesley; E K Perry; K A Wesnes; A B Scholey

2003-01-01

188

Study of calendula and Gaillardia growth in two composts prepared from agroindustrial wastes.  

PubMed

Two composts prepared from agroindustrial wastes were assayed as substrates: C1 from brewing waste (yeast and malt) plus lemon tree pruning and C2 from the solid fraction of olive mill wastewater plus olive leaves. Sixteen substrates were prepared by combining each compost with Sphagnum peat or a Commercial Substrate (CS) in different proportions. The nutrients (N and K) provided by the composts, which acted as slow-release fertilizers, influenced especially the development of calendula, although the physical and physicochemical properties such as total pore space and Electrical Conductivity (EC) were also relevant. On the other hand, in the salt-sensitive Gaillardia hybrid, EC and chloride concentration were the main factors influencing growth. The best results were found in substrates prepared by mixing C1 at up to 75% with peat, or at up to 50% with CS, or by mixing C2 at up to 50% with peat or CS, for calendula. For salt-sensitive species such as Gaillardia, adequate substrates for plant development were found for C1 at up to 50% with peat or CS, but the use of C2 should be limited to 25% in mixtures with peat or CS. Therefore, composts of agroindustrial origin such as these can be used as an alternative to peat and CSs for growing ornamental plants, provided the mixture contains at least 25% peat or CS. PMID:19069954

Roudsari, O Nouri; Akbari, B

2007-05-01

189

Flavonoids from Emblica officinalis and Mangifera indica—effectiveness for dyslipidemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flavonoids from Emblica officinalis and Mangifera indica effectively reduce lipid levels in serum and tissues of rats induced hyperlipidemia. Hepatic HMG CoA reductase activity was significantly inhibited in rats fed E. officinalis flavonoids. But increase of this enzyme was observed in rats administered M. indica flavonoids. LCAT showed elevated levels in rats fed flavonoids from E. officinalis and M. indica.

L Anila; N. R Vijayalakshmi

2002-01-01

190

Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil: antiproliferative, antioxidant and antibacterial activities.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to investigate and compare the antiproliferative, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil, native to Pakistan. The essential oil content from the leaves of R. officinalis was 0.93 g 100g(-1). The GC and GC-MS analysis revealed that the major components determined in R. officinalis essential oil were 1,8-cineol (38.5%), camphor (17.1%), ?-pinene (12.3%), limonene (6.23%), camphene (6.00%) and linalool (5.70%). The antiproliferative activity was tested against two cancer (MCF-7 and LNCaP) and one fibroblast cell line (NIH-3T3) using the MTT assay, while, the antioxidant activity was evaluated by the reduction of 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and measuring percent inhibition of peroxidation in linoleic acid system. The disc diffusion and modified resazurin microtitre-plate assays were used to evaluate the inhibition zones (IZ) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of R. officinalis essential oil, respectively. It is concluded from the results that Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil exhibited antiproliferative, antioxidant and antibacterial activities. PMID:24031588

Hussain, Abdullah Ijaz; Anwar, Farooq; Chatha, Shahzad Ali Shahid; Jabbar, Abdul; Mahboob, Shahid; Nigam, Poonam Singh

2010-12-01

191

Emblica officinalis protects against alcohol-induced liver mitochondrial dysfunction in rats.  

PubMed

The protective effect of Emblica officinalis, a commonly used botanical in many Ayurvedic preparations, was investigated for its effects on liver mitochondria of ethanol-administered rats. Oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species-mediated toxicity are considered two of the key underlying mechanisms responsible for alcohol-induced liver injury and mitochondrial dysfunction. Alcohol-administered rats showed a significant elevation of plasma transaminases (aspartate and alanine aminotransferases), alkaline phosphatase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase compared to control rats. However, activities of hepatic mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes, viz., superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and reduced glutathione, were significantly lower. Chronic alcohol feeding also increased lipid peroxide levels, protein carbonyl content, and overproduction of nitric oxide followed by lowered activities of NADH dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and cytochrome c oxidase and content of cytochromes. Administration of E. officinalis fruit extract (EFE) at a dose of 250 mg/kg of body weight/day to alcoholic rats offers protection by simultaneously lowering the carbonyl content and lipid peroxidation and elevating antioxidant enzyme activities, SDH, NADH dehydrogenase, and cytochrome c oxidase activities, and content of cytochromes in hepatic mitochondria. Our data indicate that EFE administration to chronically alcohol-fed rats offers protection against alcohol-induced alterations. The active tannoid principles and nitric oxide scavenging compounds present in EFE may have contributed to the protection observed. PMID:19459733

Reddy, V Damodara; Padmavathi, P; Varadacharyulu, N Ch

2009-04-01

192

Emblica officinalis ameliorates alcohol-induced brain mitochondrial dysfunction in rats.  

PubMed

The fruit of Emblica officinalis has been used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine for the treatment of different ailments and is also an ingredient of various traditional medicinal herbal formulations in India and other countries. To investigate the protective effect of Emblica officinalis fruit extract (EFE) against alcohol-induced brain mitochondrial dysfunction, male Wistar rats were orally administered 20% alcohol (5?g/kg of body weight/day) and EFE (250?mg/kg of body weight/day) for 60 days. Alcohol-treated rats showed significantly lowered activities of mitochondrial antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) and reduced glutathione compared with those of experimental control rats. Furthermore, alcohol feeding lowered the activities of NADH dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), and cytochrome c oxidase and the content of cytochromes followed by increased levels of nitric oxide (NO), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, and protein carbonyls. No significant change was observed in membrane potential. Administration of EFE to alcohol-treated rats, lowered the levels of NO, protein carbonyls, and lipid peroxidation and elevated the activities of the antioxidant enzymes SDH, NADH dehydrogenase, and cytochrome c oxidase and the content of cytochromes. The active tannoid principles present in EFE with its antioxidant as well as NO scavenging properties might have contributed to the observed protection against alcohol-induced brain mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:21138366

Reddy, Vaddi Damodara; Padmavathi, Pannuru; Kavitha, Godugu; Gopi, Sriram; Varadacharyulu, Nallanchakravarthula

2010-12-07

193

Protective effect of ursolic acid from Cornus officinalis on the hydrogen peroxide-induced damage of HEI-OC1 auditory cells.  

PubMed

The fruits of Cornus officinalis have been used in traditional oriental medicine for treatment of inner ear diseases, such as tinnitus and hearing loss. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of C. officinalis on hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity in HEI-OC1 auditory cells. The results from bioassay-guided fractionation of methanol extract of C. officinalis fruits showed that ursolic acid is a major active component. Ursolic acid (0.05-2 microg/ml) had protective effect against the HEI-OC1 cell damage and reduced lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, pre-treatment with ursolic acid significantly attenuated the decrease of activities of catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX), but superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was not significantly affected by ursolic acid. These results indicate that ursolic acid protects hydrogen peroxide-induced HEI-OC1 cell damage through inhibition of lipid peroxidation and induction of antioxidant enzymes, CAT and GPX, and may be one of the active components responsible for these effects of C. officinalis fruits. PMID:19655411

Yu, Hyeon-Hee; Hur, Jong-Moon; Seo, Se-Jeong; Moon, Hae-Dalma; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Park, Rae-Kil; You, Yong-Ouk

2009-01-01

194

Flower Size Variation in Rosmarinus officinalis: Individuals, Populations and Habitats  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Background and Aims Flowers are relatively invariant organs within species, but quantitative variation often exists among conspecifics. These variations represent the raw material that natural selection can magnify, eventually resulting in morphological divergence and diversification. This paper investigates floral variability in Rosmarinus officinalis, a Mediterranean shrub. ? Methods Nine populations were selected in three major southern Spanish habitats (coast,

JAVIER HERRERA

2005-01-01

195

The Essential Oil from Rosmarinus officinalis L. in Algeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis L. from Algeria was analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. More than 90% of the components were identified with 1,8-cineole (52.4%) and camphor (12.6%) being the major components.

C. Boutekedjiret; F. Bentahar; R. Belabbes; J. M. Bessiere

1998-01-01

196

Role of invasive Melilotus officinalis in two native plant communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the impact of the exotic nitrogen-fixing legume Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam. on native and exotic species cover in two Great Plains ecosystems in Badlands National Park, South Dakota. Melilotus is still widely planted and its effects on native ecosystems are not well studied. Melilotus could have direct effects on native plants, such as through competition or facilitation.

Laura C. Van Riper; Diane L. Larson

2009-01-01

197

Über ein antispastisches Prinzip in Petasites officinalis Moench  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung  In Petasites officinalis Moench kommt ein antispastisches Prinzip vor, das qualitativ hnlich wie Papaverin wirkt. Es drfte\\u000a quantitativ bedeutend wirksamer sein als Papaverin und eine gnstigere therapeutische Breite haben. Seine chemische Natur\\u000a ist zur Zelt noch unbekannt.

Karl Bucher

1951-01-01

198

Emblica officinalis corrects functional, biochemical and molecular deficits in experimental diabetic neuropathy by targeting the oxido-nitrosative stress mediated inflammatory cascade.  

PubMed

Diabetic neuropathy is one of the most common microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus which affects more than 50% of diabetic patients. Diabetic neuropathic pain is amongst the most difficult types of pain to treat mainly due to the lack of understanding of its etiology and inadequate relief with available drug therapy. The present study targeted oxidative stress mediated nerve damage in diabetic rats using an aqueous extract of Emblica officinalis, a potent natural antioxidant. Diabetic rats exhibited significantly decreased tail-flick latency in the tail-immersion test (thermal hyperalgesia) and decreased paw withdrawal threshold in both Randall-Selitto (mechanical hyperalgesia) and von-Frey hair test (mechanical allodynia). A decrease in the nociceptive threshold was accompanied by significantly increased oxidative stress, nitrite levels and cytokines (TNF-?, IL-1? and TGF-?1) both in the serum and sciatic nerve of diabetic rats. Treatment with the Emblica officinalis aqueous extract (250, 500 and 1000?mg/kg/day) significantly attenuated all the behavioral, biochemical and molecular alterations in a dose-dependent manner. The major finding of the study is that insulin alone corrected the hyperglycemia and partially reversed the pain response in diabetic rats. However, combination with Emblica officinalis extract not only attenuated the diabetic condition but also reversed neuropathic pain through modulation of oxidative-nitrosative stress in diabetic rats. PMID:21394805

Tiwari, Vinod; Kuhad, Anurag; Chopra, Kanwaljit

2011-03-11

199

Chlorinated Coumarins from the Polypore Mushroom Fomitopsis officinalis and Their Activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

An EtOH extract of the polypore mushroom Fomitopsis officinalis afforded two new naturally occurring chlorinated coumarins, which were identified as the previously synthesized compounds 6-chloro-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-2-one (1) and ethyl 6-chloro-2-oxo-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-3-carboxylate (2). The structures of the two isolates were deduced by ab initio spectroscopic methods and confirmed by chemical synthesis. In addition, an analogue of each was synthesized as 7-chloro-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-2-one (3) and ethyl 7-chloro-2-oxo-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-3-carboxylate (4). All four compounds were characterized physicochemically, and their antimicrobial activity profiles revealed a narrow spectrum of activity with lowest MICs against the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. PMID:24087924

Hwang, Chang Hwa; Jaki, Birgit U; Klein, Larry L; Lankin, David C; McAlpine, James B; Napolitano, José G; Fryling, Nicole A; Franzblau, Scott G; Cho, Sang Hyun; Stamets, Paul E; Wang, Yuehong; Pauli, Guido F

2013-10-02

200

Diversity and Biological Activities of Endophytic Fungi of Emblica officinalis, an Ethnomedicinal Plant of India.  

PubMed

In the present study, an attempt to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of fungal endophytes inhabiting Emblica officinalis has been made keeping in view the medicinal importance of the selected host plant in Indian traditional practices. A total of four endophytic fungi belonging to Phylum Ascomycetes were isolated from different parts of the plant which were characterized morphologically and by using rDNA-internal transcribed spacer. The most frequently isolated endophyte was Phomopsis sp. The antioxidant activity by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and reducing power assay, and total phenol were evaluated using ethanolic extract of endophytic fungi. DPPH activities in all the ethanolic extract increased with the increase in concentrations. Endophytes, Phomopsis sp. and Xylaria sp. showed highest antioxidant activity and also had the higher levels of phenolics. Antimicrobial activity of fungal extract were tested against four bacteria namely, Escherichia coli MTCC730, Enteroccocus faecalis MTCC2729, Salmonella enterica ser. paratyphi MTCC735 and Streptococcus pyogenes MTCC1925, and the fungus Candida albicans MTCC183. In general, the fungal extracts inhibited the growth of test organisms except E. coli. PMID:22783128

Nath, Archana; Raghunatha, Prajwal; Joshi, S R

2012-03-31

201

Diversity and Biological Activities of Endophytic Fungi of Emblica officinalis, an Ethnomedicinal Plant of India  

PubMed Central

In the present study, an attempt to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of fungal endophytes inhabiting Emblica officinalis has been made keeping in view the medicinal importance of the selected host plant in Indian traditional practices. A total of four endophytic fungi belonging to Phylum Ascomycetes were isolated from different parts of the plant which were characterized morphologically and by using rDNA-internal transcribed spacer. The most frequently isolated endophyte was Phomopsis sp. The antioxidant activity by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and reducing power assay, and total phenol were evaluated using ethanolic extract of endophytic fungi. DPPH activities in all the ethanolic extract increased with the increase in concentrations. Endophytes, Phomopsis sp. and Xylaria sp. showed highest antioxidant activity and also had the higher levels of phenolics. Antimicrobial activity of fungal extract were tested against four bacteria namely, Escherichia coli MTCC730, Enteroccocus faecalis MTCC2729, Salmonella enterica ser. paratyphi MTCC735 and Streptococcus pyogenes MTCC1925, and the fungus Candida albicans MTCC183. In general, the fungal extracts inhibited the growth of test organisms except E. coli.

Nath, Archana; Raghunatha, Prajwal

2012-01-01

202

Physicochemical evaluation of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nineteen samples of Rosmarinus officinalis were e xtracted by steam distillation in a p ilot plant and evaluated in terms of chemical compositions and physico-chemical characteristics. The v olatile oil yields ranged from 0.37% (1999 harvest) to 0.49% (1998 harvest). Twenty components were identified in the oils. The major components were alpha-pinene (40.55 to 45.10%), 1,8-cineole (17.40 to 19.35%), camphene

Ana Cristina Atti-Santos; Marcelo Rossato; Gabriel Fernandes Pauletti; Luciana Duarte Rota; Juarez Ciro Rech; Marcia Regina Pansera; Fabiana Agostini; Luciana Atti Serafini; Patrick Moyna

2005-01-01

203

Suppression of LPS-induced inflammatory activities by Rosmarinus officinalis L.  

PubMed

Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) has been used in folk medicine to treat headaches, epilepsy, poor circulation, and many other ailments. It was found that rosemary could act as a stimulant and mild analgesic and could reduce inflammation. However, the mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of rosemary need more study to be established. Therefore, in this study, the effects of rosemary on the activation of nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-kB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), and cytokine in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were investigated. A methanol extract of rosemary and its hexane fraction reduced NO generation with an IC(50) of 2.75 and 2.83 ?g/ml, respectively. Also, the methanol extract and the hexane fraction inhibited LPS-induced MAPKs and NF-kB activation associated with the inhibition of iNOS or COX-2 expression. LPS-induced production of PGE(2) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) were blocked by rosemary. Rosemary extract and its hexane fraction are important for the prevention of phosphorylation of MAPKs, thereby blocking NF-kB activation, which in turn leads to decreased expression of iNOS and COX-2, thus preventing inflammation. PMID:23122161

Yu, Mi-Hee; Choi, Jun-Hyeok; Chae, In-Gyeong; Im, Hyo-Gwon; Yang, Seun-Ah; More, Kunal; Lee, In-Seon; Lee, Jinho

2012-09-12

204

Effects of Iron on Yield and Composition of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Essential Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of iron absorption on yield and composition of the oil of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) growing in calcareous soil in the North of Sardinia is reported. The plant material was obtained from two different chemotypes of R. officinalis whose oils were rich in ?-pinene (sample A) and 1,8-cineole (sample B) respectively. The effect of foliar iron sprays was

Mario D. L. Moretti; Alessandra T. Peana; Giovanni Sanna Passino; Alessandra Bazzoni; Vincenzo Solinas

1998-01-01

205

Component Interactions and Productivity of Emblica officinalis Based Cropping System in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emblica officinalis Gaerth was intercropped for 6 years with a view to monitoring tree-crop interaction and system productivity for socio-economic benefits to the people of the dry region. Two year old seedlings of E. officinalis spaced 5 x 5 m was intercropped (i) continuously with Vigna radiata throughout the study (FC), and (ii) with Vigna radiata, Pennisetum glaucum, Cymopsis tetragonoloba

G. Singh; T. R. Rathod; Bilas Singh; Manoj Chouhan

2008-01-01

206

Hypolipidaemic effect of fruit juice of Emblica officinalis in cholesterol-fed rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lipid lowering and antiatherosclerotic effects of Emblica officinalis (Amla) fresh juice were evaluated in cholesterol-fed rabbits (rendered hyperlipidaemic by atherogenic diet and cholesterol feeding). E. officinalis fresh juice was administered at a dose of 5 ml\\/kg body weight per rabbit per day for 60 days. Serum cholesterol, TG, phospholipid and LDL levels were lowered by 82%, 66%, 77% and

Ritu Mathur; Arti Sharma; V. P. Dixit; Mira Varma

1996-01-01

207

Protective efficacy of Emblica officinalis against Klebsiella pneumoniae induced pneumonia in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & objectives: Emblica officinalis (amla), which is a good source of vitamin C, has been shown to be beneficial due to its immune system enhancing property coupled with its tonifying and antiageing effect. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of E. officinalis feeding on the susceptibility of experimental mice to respiratory tract infection induced by Klebsiella

A. Saini; S. Sharma; S. Chhibber

208

The antiinflammatory potential of phenolic compounds from Emblica officinalis L. in rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antiinflammatory effects of phenolic compounds from Emblica officinalis were evaluated in carrageenan and cotton pellet induced acute and chronic inflammatory animal model. Fractions of E. officinalis containing free (FPEO) and bounded (BPEO) phenolic compounds were assessed by HPLC technique. The free and bound phenolic\\u000a compounds were studied for their acute and chronic antiinflammatory activity at dose level of 20 and

Arunachalam Muthuraman; Shailja Sood; Sumeet Kumar Singla

209

Free and bound phenolic antioxidants in amla ( Emblica officinalis) and turmeric ( Curcuma longa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant activity of free and bound phenolics of amla (Emblica officinalis) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) was investigated. The Emblica officinalis free (EOFP) and bound phenolics (EOBP) showed between four- to 10-fold higher levels of antioxidant activity as evaluated by both free radical scavenging and reducing power assays compared to that of Curcuma longa free (CLFP) and bound phenolics (CLBP).

G. Suresh Kumar; Harish Nayaka; Shylaja M. Dharmesh; P. V. Salimath

2006-01-01

210

Glandular trichomes of Rosmarinus officinalis L.: Anatomical and phytochemical analyses of leaf volatiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rosmarinus officinalis is known for the production of volatile compounds used in medicinal and food preparations. Leaves of R. officinalis are densely covered with capitate and peltate glandular trichomes where biosynthesis of volatiles mainly occurs. This study aims to conduct a morphological assessment to identify anatomical characteristics of both leaves and trichomes, as well as a chemical analysis of leaf

Yilan Fung Boix; Cristiane Pimentel Victório; Anna Carina Antunes Defaveri; Rosani Do Carmo De Oliveira Arruda; Alice Sato; Celso Luiz Salgueiro Lage

2011-01-01

211

In vitro antioxidant and inhibitory potential of Terminalia bellerica and Emblica officinalis fruits against LDL oxidation and key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes.  

PubMed

The present study evaluated the free radical scavenging capacity and antioxidant potential of different solvent extracts (Hexane (HE), ethyl acetate (EA), methanol (ME), 70% methanol (MW) and Water (WA)) of Terminalia bellerica (TB) and Emblica officinalis (EB) fruits. Methanol extract (ME) of TB and EB fruits exhibited maximum scavenging activity against DPPH, superoxide, hydroxyl and nitric oxide radicals. Cell based antioxidant activity was assayed by flow cytometry using DCFH-DA as probe. Methanol extracts were also screened for their antidiabetic activity via inhibition of ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase and antiglycation assays. Results showed that ME of TB and EB can act as potent ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase inhibitor. Significant antiglycation activity also confirms the therapeutic potential of these extracts against diabetes. Both the extracts significantly inhibited the oxidation of LDL under in vitro conditions. Liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) analysis revealed that methanol extract of TB and EB contains ellagic acid and ascorbic acid as the major compound respectively. PMID:20951180

Nampoothiri, Suresh V; Prathapan, A; Cherian, Ozhathil Lijo; Raghu, K G; Venugopalan, V V; Sundaresan, A

2010-10-14

212

Aqueous extracts from peppermint, sage and lemon balm leaves display potent anti-HIV-1 activity by increasing the virion density  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Aqueous extracts from leaves of well known species of the Lamiaceae family were examined for their potency to inhibit infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). RESULTS: Extracts from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.), peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.), and sage (Salvia officinalis L.) exhibited a high and concentration-dependent activity against the infection of HIV-1 in T-cell lines,

Silvia Geuenich; Christine Goffinet; Stephanie Venzke; Silke Nolkemper; Ingo Baumann; Peter Plinkert; Jürgen Reichling; Oliver T Keppler

2008-01-01

213

Antidepressant-like effects of fractions, essential oil, carnosol and betulinic acid isolated from Rosmarinus officinalis L.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the antidepressant-like effect of fractions from Rosmarinus officinalis L.: ethyl acetate 1 and 2 (AcOEt1 and 2), hexane (HEX), ethanolic (ET), and essential oil-free (EOF) fractions, as well as essential oil, the isolated compounds carnosol and betulinic acid in the tail suspension test, a predictive test of antidepressant activity. Swiss mice were acutely administered by oral route (p.o.) with fractions, essential oil or isolated compounds, 60 min before the tail suspension test or open-field test. All of them produced a significant antidepressant-like effect: AcOEt1, ET, EOF fractions and essential oil (0.1-100mg/kg, p.o); HEX (0.1-10mg/kg, p.o) and AcOEt2 fraction (0.1-1mg/kg, p.o), carnosol (0.01-0.1mg/kg, p.o.) isolated from the HEX fraction and betulinic acid (10mg/kg, p.o.), isolated from the AcOEt1 and AcOEt2 fractions. No psychostimulant effect was shown in the open-field test, indicating that the effects in the tail suspension test are specific. This study suggests that carnosol and betulinic acid could be responsible for the anti-immobility effect of extracts from R. officinalis. PMID:23122155

Machado, Daniele G; Cunha, Mauricio P; Neis, Vivian B; Balen, Grasiela O; Colla, André; Bettio, Luis E B; Oliveira, Agatha; Pazini, Francis Leonardo; Dalmarco, Juliana B; Simionatto, Edésio Luiz; Pizzolatti, Moacir G; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S

2012-09-16

214

Modulatory role of Emblica officinalis against alcohol induced biochemical and biophysical changes in rat erythrocyte membranes.  

PubMed

This study investigated the protective effect of Emblica officinalis against alcohol-induced biochemical and biophysical changes in rat erythrocyte membranes. Thirty-two male rats were divided into four groups (n=8 in each group): control (C), alcohol (A), alcohol plus Emblica fruit extract (A+EFE) and Emblica fruit extract (EFE) alone. Administration of twenty percent alcohol (5 g/kg body weight) to rats significantly increased cholesterol/phospholipid (C/P) ratio, lipid peroxidation and the activities of Na(+)/K(+) and Mg(2+) ATPases in erythrocyte membranes as well as augmented nitric oxide (NO) levels. However, membrane fluidity studies using the fluorescent probe DPH (1,6 diphenyl 1,3 hexatriene) reveals that alcohol administration significantly (p<0.05) increased membrane anisotropic values and altered membrane individual phospholipid content. Administration of EFE (250 mg/kg body weight) to alcoholic rats resulted in significant (p<0.05) reduction of NO levels, erythrocyte membrane lipid peroxidation, C/P ratio, activities of Na(+)/K(+) and Mg(2+) ATPases and fluorescent anisotropic values. Further, EFE administration to alcoholic rats beneficially modulated membrane properties as evidenced from the contents of total phospholipids as well individual phospholipid classes. The tannoid principles present in Emblica offers protection against alcohol induced adverse effects in rats. PMID:19454300

Reddy, Vaddi Damodara; Padmavathi, Pannuru; Paramahamsa, Maturu; Varadacharyulu, Nallanchakravarthula

2009-05-18

215

The effect of Emblica officinalis diet on lifespan, sexual behavior, and fitness characters in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

Drosophila is an excellent organism to test Ayurvedic medicines. The objective of our study was to explore the potential of Emblica officinalis drug on longevity, sexual behavior, and reproductive fitness of Drosophila melanogaster using adult feeding method. Increase in the lifespan, fecundity, fertility, ovarioles number, and developmental time was observed in both parents and F1 generation, but not in the F2 generation in experimental culture (control + E. officinalis). According to the Duncan's multiple range test and ANOVA, there is a significant difference between two cultures. It was also noticed that E. officinalis influence some fitness characters in Drosophila along with sexual behavior. PMID:22408317

Pathak, Pankaj; Prasad, B R Guru; Murthy, N Anjaneya; Hegde, S N

2011-04-01

216

Studies on effects of Emblica officinalis (Amla) on oxidative stress and cholinergic function in scopolamine induced amnesia in mice.  

PubMed

Emblica officinalis, commonly known as amla, is an important medicinal plant of India. Its fruits have potent antioxidant activity due to the presence of tannoids, tannins, vitamin C and flavonoids. The aim of this study was to investigate the beneficial effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of the fruits of Emblica officinalis (EO) on memory impairment in Swiss albino mice. Scopolamine (1 mg kg(-1), i.p)was administered to induce amnesia and the memory was evaluated by using elevated plus-maze and passive avoidance tests. Piracetam (200 mg kg(-1), i.p.) was used as a standard nootropic agent. The EO extract was administered intraperitoneally in four graded doses (150, 300, 450 and 600 mg kg(-1)) for 7 consecutive days to different groups of mice. The mice were sacrificed on the 8th day following assessment of memory. The brain malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) as well as acetylcholinesterase (AchE)) activity was determined. It was observed that EO extract reversed the amnesia induced by scopolamine. The mean transfer latency and retention latency in the EO extract 600 mg kg(-1) group vs the vehicle treated scopolamine group was 13.46 sec (p<0.001) and 134.4 sec (p<0.001) vs 23.99 sec and 44.55 sec, respectively. EO extract treatment also significantly (p<0.001) ameliorated the oxidative stress induced by scopolamine administration. The mice brain MDA and GSH levels in the EO extract 600 mg kg(-1) group vs the scopolamine group were 29.95 nmol g(-1) of wet tissue and 51.87 microg g(-1) tissue vs 55.22 nmol g(-1) of wet tissue and 28.33 microg g(-1) tissue, respectively. Further, EO extract (300, 450 and 600 mg kg(-1), i.p) significantly (p<0.001) reversed the rise in brain acetyl cholinesterase (AchE) level induced by scopolamine. The mice brain Ach E levels in the EO extract 600 mg kg(-1) group as compared to the scopolamine group was 70.23 vs 151.49 U mg(-1) protein(-1), respectively. These results suggestthat EO possesses memory enhancing, antioxidant and anti-cholinesterase activity. It may be useful for the treament of cognitive impairments induced by cholinergic dysfunction. Its potential in the management of dementia and Azheimer disease needs to be further explored. PMID:23033650

Golechha, Mahaveer; Bhatia, Jagriti; Arya, Dharmveer Singh

2012-01-01

217

Emblica officinalis Exerts Antihypertensive Effect in a Rat Model of DOCA-Salt-Induced Hypertension: Role of (p) eNOS, NO and Oxidative Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emblica officinalis (EO) has antioxidant properties that could improve redox-sensitive vascular, cardiac and renal changes associated with deoxycorticosterone\\u000a acetate\\/1% NaCl high salt (DOCA\\/HS)-induced hypertension. We determined whether hydroalcoholic lyophilized extract of EO may\\u000a influence DOCA\\/HS-induced hypertension by modulating activity of (p) eNOS and endogenous antioxidants. Hypertension was induced\\u000a in rats by DOCA-salt (20 mg\\/kg, s.c.) twice weekly for 5 weeks and replacing

Jagriti BhatiaFauzia; Fauzia Tabassum; Ashok Kumar Sharma; Saurabh Bharti; Mahaveer Golechha; Sujata Joshi; Abhay Krishna Srivastava; Dharamvir Singh Arya

2011-01-01

218

Preliminary study on mercury uptake by Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Rosemary) in a mining area (Mt. Amiata, Italy)  

SciTech Connect

Among the different plants analyzed to assess environmental mercury contamination of mining areas, lichens are those most studied, followed by brooms together with pine, which was also used in other areas, and spruce. Other species, both naturally occurring and cultivated, have also been studied. This work reports on the results of mercury uptake and accumulation in rosemary in relation to metal concentrations in both air and soil. R. officinalis is a widespread endemic Mediterranean evergreen shrub, which in Italy grows naturally and is also cultivated as a culinary herb. This research was carried out in Tuscany (Italy), in the Mt. Amiata area, which is characterized by the presence of cinnabar (HgS) deposits and has been used for mercury extraction and smelting from Etruscan times until 1980, and in the country near the town of Pisa, 140 km away from Mt. Amiata. 16 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Barghigiani, C.; Ristori, T. [Institute of Biophysics, Pisa (Italy)

1995-04-01

219

Dried Ginger (Zingiber officinalis) Inhibits Inflammation in a Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Mouse Model.  

PubMed

Objectives. Ginger rhizomes have a long history of human use, especially with regards to their anti-inflammatory properties. However, the mechanisms by which ginger acts on lipopolysaccharide-(LPS-)induced inflammation have not yet been identified. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of dried Zingiber officinalis (DZO) on LPS-induced hepatic injury. Methods. ICR mice were given a DZO water extract (100, 1000?mg/kg) orally for three consecutive days. On the third day, they were administered by LPS intraperitoneally. To investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of DZO, histological, cytokine expression, and protein factor analyses were performed. Results. Oral administration of DZO significantly reduced pathological changes in the liver and proinflammatory cytokines including interferon-(IFN-) ? and interleukin-(IL-)6 in the serum. In addition, DZO inhibited LPS-induced NF- ? B activation by preventing degradation of the I ? B- ? , as well as the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, SAPK/JNK, and p38 MAPKs. These were associated with a decrease in the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxyenase-2 (COX-2). Conclusions. Our data provide evidence for the hepatoprotective mechanisms of DZO as an anti-inflammatory effect. Furthermore, use of DZO to treat could provide therapeutic benefits in clinical settings. PMID:23935687

Choi, You Yeon; Kim, Mi Hye; Hong, Jongki; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Yang, Woong Mo

2013-06-27

220

Metabolism of Monoterpenes in Cell Cultures of Common Sage (Salvia officinalis) 1  

PubMed Central

Leaves of common sage (Salvia officinalis) accumulate monoterpenes in glandular trichomes at levels exceeding 15 milligrams per gram fresh weight at maturity, whereas sage cells in suspension culture did not accumulate detectable levels of monoterpenes (<0.3 nanograms per gram fresh weight) at any stage of the growth cycle, even in the presence of a polystyrene resin trap. Monoterpene biosynthesis from [U-14C]sucrose was also virtually undetectable in this cell culture system. In vitro assay of each of the enzymes required for the sequential conversion of the ubiquitous isoprenoid precursor geranyl pyrophosphate to (+)-camphor (a major monoterpene product of sage) in soluble extracts of the cells revealed the presence of activity sufficient to produce (+)-camphor at a readily detectable level (>0.3 micrograms per gram fresh weight) at the late log phase of growth. Other monoterpene synthetic enzymes were present as well. In vivo measurement of the ability to catabolize (+)-camphor in these cells indicated that degradative capability exceeded biosynthetic capacity by at least 1000-fold. Therefore, the lack of monoterpene accumulation in undifferentiated sage cultures could be attributed to a low level of biosynthetic activity (relative to the intact plant) coupled to a pronounced capacity for monoterpene catabolism.

Falk, Kimberly L.; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Croteau, Rodney

1990-01-01

221

Dried Ginger (Zingiber officinalis) Inhibits Inflammation in a Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Mouse Model  

PubMed Central

Objectives. Ginger rhizomes have a long history of human use, especially with regards to their anti-inflammatory properties. However, the mechanisms by which ginger acts on lipopolysaccharide-(LPS-)induced inflammation have not yet been identified. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of dried Zingiber officinalis (DZO) on LPS-induced hepatic injury. Methods. ICR mice were given a DZO water extract (100, 1000?mg/kg) orally for three consecutive days. On the third day, they were administered by LPS intraperitoneally. To investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of DZO, histological, cytokine expression, and protein factor analyses were performed. Results. Oral administration of DZO significantly reduced pathological changes in the liver and proinflammatory cytokines including interferon-(IFN-)? and interleukin-(IL-)6 in the serum. In addition, DZO inhibited LPS-induced NF-?B activation by preventing degradation of the I?B-?, as well as the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, SAPK/JNK, and p38 MAPKs. These were associated with a decrease in the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxyenase-2 (COX-2). Conclusions. Our data provide evidence for the hepatoprotective mechanisms of DZO as an anti-inflammatory effect. Furthermore, use of DZO to treat could provide therapeutic benefits in clinical settings.

Choi, You Yeon; Kim, Mi Hye; Hong, Jongki; Kim, Sung-Hoon

2013-01-01

222

[Antioxidant properties of plant extracts].  

PubMed

Investigation of antioxidant properties of some plants was carried out. A group of plants exhibited antimicrobial activity was studied in detail. Efficiency of plants as antioxidants was tested by the influence of their extracts on the yield of photochemiluminescence of Gly-Trp solutions. Antioxidant properties were examined under conditions when their own absorption was minimized. Riboflavin as additional sensitizer was used in this experiment for superoxide generation. The antioxidant effect was evaluated with regard to single dose of plant extracts and their concentration in human organism. The effect decreases in the following consequence: Hypericum perforatum > Potentilla erectra > Ledum palustre > Plantago major > Salvia officinalis > Chamomilla recutita > Arctostaphylos uva. PMID:9591094

Bol'shakova, I V; Lozovskaia, E L; Sapezhinski?, I I

223

Composition of the Essential Oils of Ocimum basilicum var. glabratum and Rosmarinus officinalis from Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water-distilled volatiles of Ocimum basilicum var. glabratum and Rosmarinus officinalis gathered in Turkey were analyzed by means of GC, GC\\/MS, H-NMR and C-NMR. O. basilicum oil was found to contain linalool (43.73%) and (E)-methyl cinnamate (27.28%) as the major constituents whereas 1,8-cineole (36.91%), borneol (17.50%) and p-cymene (10.50%) were shown to dominate R. officinalis oil.

M. J. Pérez-Alonso; A. Velasco-Negueruela; M. Emin Duru; M. Harmandar; Joaquin L. Esteban

1995-01-01

224

Antioxidant Property of Emblica officinalis during Experimentally Induced Restrain Stress in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was aimed to investigate the antioxidant property of Emblica officinalis (E. offic- inalis) during restrain-stress in albino rat. Three groups of albino rat were employed namely control, restrain-stress (4hr\\/day for 15days) and E. officinalis +r estrain-stress. The oxidative stress was assessed by measuring the lipid peroxidation (LPO), enzymatic antioxidant status superoxide dismutase (SOD), cata- lase (CAT), and

Ramasundaram Thangaraj; Senniyanallur Rathakrishnan Ayyappan; Panneerselvam Manikandan; Jayaraman Baskaranc

2007-01-01

225

Synergetic effects of plant extracts and antibiotics on Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from clinical specimens  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study has been done to evaluate the interaction between water extracts of Psidium guajava, Rosmarinus officinalis, Salvia fruticosa, Majorana syriaca, Ocimum basilucum, Syzygium aromaticum, Laurus nobilis and Rosa damascena alone and then synergy testing of these extracts with known antimicrobial agents of different mechanisms (protein synthesis inhibition: oxytetracycline HCl and gentamicin sulfate; cell wall synthesis inhibition: penicillin G and

Mohammad Lafi Mhanna

226

Identification of Verbena officinalis based on ITS sequence analysis and RAPD-derived molecular markers.  

PubMed

Verbenae herba is a widely used drug and consists of the aerial parts of Verbena officinalis (Verbenaceae). Until now, the identification has been performed based on morphological and phytochemical analyses, which are not reliable enough to distinguish Verbena officinalis from other relevant species of the genus Verbena. Hence, impurities and adulterants, negatively influencing the therapeutic effect of the drug, may remain undetected. In an attempt to generate an accurate authentication method we used two different DNA-based approaches: comparison of ITS sequences and molecular markers (RAPD). Both approaches generally enabled discrimination of V. officinalis from the rest of the genus despite the intraspecific variation existing within V. officinalis. The application of the two independent methods, supporting each other, increases the security of identification. For better reproducibility and faster analysis, however, a SCAR marker and primers for HRM were derived from the RAPD results. The SCAR marker could distinguish V. officinalis from all other verbena species except its closest relative V. hastata, while discrimination of V. officinalis even from V. hastata was unproblematic with HRM. PMID:19350481

Ruzicka, Joana; Lukas, Brigitte; Merza, Lina; Göhler, Irina; Abel, Gudrun; Popp, Michael; Novak, Johannes

2009-04-06

227

Rosmarinus officinalis polyphenols produce anti-depressant like effect through monoaminergic and cholinergic functions modulation.  

PubMed

Rosmarinus officinalis (R. officinalis), a culinary aromatic and medicinal plant, is very rich in polyphenols and flavonoids with high antioxidant properties. This plant was reported to exert multiple benefits for neuronal system and alleviate mood disorder. In our previous study, we demonstrated that R. officinalis and its active compounds, luteolin (Lut), carnosic acid (CA), and rosmarinic acid (RA), exhibited neurotrophic effects and improved cholinergic functions in PC12 cells in correlation with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), ERK1/2 signaling pathway. The current study was conducted to evaluate and understand the anti-depressant effect of R. officinalis using tail suspension test (TST) in ICR mice and PC12 cells as in vitro neuronal model. Proteomics analysis of PC12 cells treated with R. officinalis polyphenols (ROP) Lut, CA, and RA revealed a significant upregulation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and pyruvate carboxylase (PC) two major genes involved in dopaminergic, serotonergic and GABAergic pathway regulations. Moreover, ROP were demonstrated to protect neuronal cells against corticosterone-induced toxicity. These results were concordant with decreasing immobility time in TST and regulation of several neurotransmitters (dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin and acetylcholine) and gene expression in mice brain like TH, PC and MAPK phosphatase (MKP-1). To the best of our knowledge this is the first evidence to contribute to the understanding of molecular mechanism behind the anti-depressant effect of R. officinalis and its major active compounds. PMID:23085339

Sasaki, Kazunori; El Omri, Abdelfatteh; Kondo, Shinji; Han, Junkyu; Isoda, Hiroko

2012-10-17

228

Amelioration of iron overload-induced liver toxicity by a potent antioxidant and iron chelator, Emblica officinalis Gaertn.  

PubMed

In liver, the major site of iron storage, iron overload is associated with oxidative damage of protein, lipid, and DNA and causes protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation, and rupture of hepatocytes, leading to cell death. Serum ferritin and liver iron content are the main forecasters of moderate to severe iron overload in the liver. The sequels of excess iron deposition in the liver are fibrosis and enhanced levels of serum enzymes and bilirubin markers. Emblica officinalis (EO) fruit extract was found efficient in lessening intraperitoneally injected iron dextran-induced liver toxicity in Swiss albino mice. Mice administered with different doses of 70% methanol extract of EO (50, 100, and 200 mg kg(-1) body weight) showed significant decrease in liver iron, serum ferritin, and serum enzyme levels, along with the decrease in lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and collagen content. The activity was further supported by its considerable iron chelation with half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 70.24 ± 2.74 ?g ml(-1) and the protection on ferrous ion-mediated DNA breakdown with 50% protection ([P]50) of 1.04 ± 0.01 ?g ml(-1). Simultaneously, the extract effectively induced the antioxidant enzyme levels and also exhibited the potential activity of reductive release of ferritin iron. These findings suggest that the EO extract may be used as a potent drug for the treatment of pathological sequences arisen in the iron overload-induced liver damage. PMID:23524878

Sarkar, Rhitajit; Hazra, Bibhabasu; Mandal, Nripendranath

2013-03-22

229

Effect of plant extracts on Alzheimer's disease: An insight into therapeutic avenues.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastative neurodegenerative disorder which needs adequate studies on effective treatment options. The extracts of plants and their effect on the amelioration of AD symptoms have been extensively studied. This paper summarizes the mechanisms like acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, modification of monoamines, antiamyloid aggregation effect, and antioxidant activity which are actively entailed in the process of amelioration of AD symptoms. These effects are induced by extracts of a few plants of different origin like Yizhi Jiannao, Moringa oleifera (Drumstick tree), Ginkgo Biloba (Ginkgo/Maidenhair tree), Cassia obtisufolia (Sicklepod), Desmodium gangeticum (Sal Leaved Desmodium), Melissa officinalis (Lemon Balm), and Salvia officinalis (Garden sage, common sage). PMID:21716802

Obulesu, M; Rao, Dowlathabad Muralidhara

2011-01-01

230

Antiproliferation effect of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) on human ovarian cancer cells in vitro.  

PubMed

Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is a popular culinary/medicinal herb. Recent studies have shown it has pharmacologic activities for cancer chemoprevention and therapy. This study evaluated the antiproliferation activity of rosemary extract (RE) against human ovarian cancer cells, and whether the extract and its three main active ingredients carnosol (CS), carnosic acid (CA) and rosmarinic acid (RA) can enhance the antiproliferation activity of cisplatin (CDDP). Our study showed that RE has significant antiproliferation activity on human ovarian cancer A2780 and its CDDP resistant daughter cell line A2780CP70, with IC(50) (50% inhibitory concentration) estimated at 1/1000 and 1/400 dilutions respectively. RE enhanced the antiproliferation effect with CDDP on both A2780 and A2780CP70 cells. A2780 cells were consistently more sensitive to CS, CA, and RA than A2780CP70 cells between 2.5 and 20?g/ml. CS and RA also showed synergistic antiproliferation effect with CDDP on A2780 cells at some concentrations. RE treated by ultrafiltration, dialysis, and removal of phenolics lost the antiproliferation activity suggested that the activity resides in phenolics with MW<1000Da. Apoptosis array study of A2780 cells treated with RE showed that the expression of a number of genes regulating apoptosis were modulated by the treatment. This study showed that RE inhibited the proliferation of ovarian cancer cell lines by affecting the cell cycle at multiple phases. It induced apoptosis by modifying the expression of multiple genes regulating apoptosis, and holds potential as an adjunct to cancer chemotherapy. PMID:22325591

Tai, Joseph; Cheung, Susan; Wu, Matthew; Hasman, David

2012-02-09

231

Polyploid evolution in Oryza officinalis complex of the genus Oryza  

PubMed Central

Background Polyploidization is a prominent process in plant evolution, whereas the mechanism and tempo-spatial process remained poorly understood. Oryza officinalis complex, a polyploid complex in the genus Oryza, could exemplify the issues not only for it covering a variety of ploidy levels, but also for the pantropical geographic pattern of its polyploids in Asia, Africa, Australia and Americas, in which a pivotal genome, the C-genome, witnessed all the polyploidization process. Results Tracing the C-genome evolutionary history in Oryza officinalis complex, this study revealed the genomic relationships, polyploid forming and diverging times, and diploidization process, based on phylogeny, molecular-clock analyses and fluorescent in situ hybridization using genome-specific probes. Results showed that C-genome split with B-genome at ca. 4.8 Mya, followed by a series of speciation of C-genome diploids (ca. 1.8-0.9 Mya), which then partook in successive polyploidization events, forming CCDD tetraploids in ca. 0.9 Mya, and stepwise forming BBCC tetraploids between ca. 0.3-0.6 Mya. Inter-genomic translocations between B- and C-genomes were identified in BBCC tetraploid, O. punctata. Distinct FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization) patterns among three CCDD species were visualized by C-genome-specific probes. B-genome was modified before forming the BBCC tetraploid, O. malampuzhaensis. Conclusion C-genome, shared by all polyploid species in the complex, had experienced different evolutionary history particularly after polyploidization, e.g., inter-genomic exchange in BBCC and genomic invasion in CCDD tetraploids. It diverged from B-genome at 4.8 Mya, then participated in the tetraploid formation spanning from 0.9 to 0.3 Mya, and spread into tropics of the disjunct continents by transcontinentally long-distance dispersal, instead of vicariance, as proposed by this study, given that the continental splitting was much earlier than the C-genome species radiation. We also find reliable evidence indicated that an extinct BB diploid species in Asia was presumptively the direct genomic donor of their sympatric tetraploids.

Wang, Baosheng; Ding, Zhuoya; Liu, Wei; Pan, Jin; Li, Changbao; Ge, Song; Zhang, Daming

2009-01-01

232

In vitro antimicrobial activity of less-utilized spice and herb extracts against selected food-borne bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we compared the antimicrobial activities of extracts from four under-utilized spices and herbs including goraka (Garcinia quaesita), galangal (Alpinia galanga), lemon iron bark (Eucalyptus staigerana) and mountain pepper (Tasmannia lanceolata) to the three common spices and herbs pepper (Piper nigrum), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), and oregano (Oreganum vulgare). Different extraction solvents were used (water, ethanol and hexane) and

Nimsha S. Weerakkody; Nola Caffin; Mark S. Turner; Gary A. Dykes

2010-01-01

233

Cadmium-induced Oxidative Stress and Evaluation of Embilica Officinalis and Stressroak in Broilers  

PubMed Central

Cadmium (Cd) toxicity was studied in broilers, and efficacy of Emblica officinalis (500 ppm in feed), vitamin E (300 ppm in feed), and stressroak (1 g/kg feed) were evaluated for prophylactic and therapeutic management of Cd toxicity. One-day-old male broiler chicks were randomly divided into eight groups consisting of 10 chicks in each. Groups 1 and 2 were maintained as plain control and Cd (100 ppm in feed) toxic control (for six weeks). Groups 3, 4, and 5 were maintained on a combination of Cd (100 ppm in feed) and Emblica officinalis, vitamin E, and stressroak for six weeks. Groups 6, 7, and 8 were maintained with Cd for the first four weeks and on Emblica officinalis, vitamin E, and stressroak during the subsequent two weeks without Cd. Body weights, feed consumed, Feed conversion ratio (FCR), and glulathione (GSH) were significantly (P<0.05) decreased, whereas the activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase and Superoxide dismutase (SOD)) and concentration of Thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) were significantly (P<0.05) increased in toxic control group. After treatment with Emblica officinalis, vitamin E, and stressroak in groups 6, 7, and 8 during last two weeks and discontinuation of Cd, the parameters revealed improvement. From this study, it is concluded that Cd induces toxicity by oxidative stress, and supplementing Emblica officinalis, vitamin E, and stressroak in feed is useful in preventing and treating the toxicity.

Swapna, G.; Reddy, A. Gopala; Reddy, A. Rajasekhar

2010-01-01

234

Valeriana officinalis ameliorates vacuous chewing movements induced by reserpine in rats.  

PubMed

Oral movements are associated with important neuropathologies as Parkinson's disease and tardive dyskinesia. However, until this time, there has been no known efficacious treatment, without side effects, for these disorders. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the possible preventive effects of V. officinalis, a phytotherapic that has GABAergic and antioxidant properties, in vacuous chewing movements (VCMs) induced by reserpine in rats. Adult male rats were treated with reserpine (1 mg/kg, s.c.) and/or with V. officinalis (in the drinking water, starting 15 days before the administration of the reserpine). VCMs, locomotor activity and oxidative stress measurements were evaluated. Furthermore, we carried out the identification of valeric acid and gallic acid by HPLC in the V. officinalis tincture. Our findings demonstrated that reserpine caused a marked increase on VCMs and the co-treatment with V. officinalis was able to reduce the intensity of VCM. Reserpine did not induce oxidative stress in cerebral structures (cortex, hippocampus, striatum and substantia nigra). However, a significant positive correlation between DCF-oxidation (an estimation of oxidative stress) in the cortex and VCMs (p < 0.05) was observed. Moreover, a negative correlation between Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity in substantia nigra and the number of VCMs was observed (p < 0.05). In conclusion, V. officinalis had behavioral protective effect against reserpine-induced VCMs in rats; however, the exact mechanisms that contributed to this effect have not been completely understood. PMID:21476069

Pereira, Romaiana Picada; Fachinetto, Roselei; de Souza Prestes, Alessandro; Wagner, Caroline; Sudati, Jéssie Haigert; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Morsch, Vera Maria; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira

2011-04-08

235

Cadmium-induced Oxidative Stress and Evaluation of Embilica Officinalis and Stressroak in Broilers.  

PubMed

Cadmium (Cd) toxicity was studied in broilers, and efficacy of Emblica officinalis (500 ppm in feed), vitamin E (300 ppm in feed), and stressroak (1 g/kg feed) were evaluated for prophylactic and therapeutic management of Cd toxicity. One-day-old male broiler chicks were randomly divided into eight groups consisting of 10 chicks in each. Groups 1 and 2 were maintained as plain control and Cd (100 ppm in feed) toxic control (for six weeks). Groups 3, 4, and 5 were maintained on a combination of Cd (100 ppm in feed) and Emblica officinalis, vitamin E, and stressroak for six weeks. Groups 6, 7, and 8 were maintained with Cd for the first four weeks and on Emblica officinalis, vitamin E, and stressroak during the subsequent two weeks without Cd. Body weights, feed consumed, Feed conversion ratio (FCR), and glulathione (GSH) were significantly (P<0.05) decreased, whereas the activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase and Superoxide dismutase (SOD)) and concentration of Thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) were significantly (P<0.05) increased in toxic control group. After treatment with Emblica officinalis, vitamin E, and stressroak in groups 6, 7, and 8 during last two weeks and discontinuation of Cd, the parameters revealed improvement. From this study, it is concluded that Cd induces toxicity by oxidative stress, and supplementing Emblica officinalis, vitamin E, and stressroak in feed is useful in preventing and treating the toxicity. PMID:21170244

Swapna, G; Reddy, A Gopala; Reddy, A Rajasekhar

2010-07-01

236

Vitamin C content and antioxidant activity of the fruit and of the Ayurvedic preparation of Emblica officinalis Gaertn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emblica officinalis Gaertn. is one of the most important plants of ?yurved, the traditional Indian medicine. In this ancient medicine, the fruit of Emblica officinalis is processed according to a method named “Svaras Bhavana”, whereby the therapeutic potential of the plant is enhanced by treating the main herb with its own juice. For many years, the activity of the fruits

P. Scartezzini; F. Antognoni; M. A. Raggi; F. Poli; C. Sabbioni

2006-01-01

237

Acylated iridoids from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia.  

PubMed

Phytochemical investigation of the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia resulted in the isolation and characterization of six new acylated iridoids, (5S,7S,8S,9S)-7-hydroxy-8-isovaleroyloxy-??,¹¹-dihyronepetalactone (1), (5S,7S,8S,9S)-7-hydroxy-10-isovaleroyloxy-??,¹¹-dihyronepetalactone (2), (5S,8S,9S)-10-isovaleroyloxy-??,¹¹-dihyronepetalactone (3), (5S,6S,8S,9R)-6-isovaleroyloxy-??,¹¹-1,3-diol (4), (5S,6S,8S,9R)-1,3-isovaleroxy-?4,11-1,3-diol (5), and (5S,6S,8S,9R)-3-isovaleroxy-6-isovaleroyloxy-??,¹¹-1,3-diol (6). Their structures were determined mainly by 1D and 2D?NMR spectroscopic techniques. We also report herein for the first time the single crystal X-ray structure of compound 1. In addition, the cytotoxic activities of compounds 1-6 were evaluated against A549 (human lung adenocarcinoma), HCT116 (human colon carcinoma), SK-BR-3 (human breast carcinoma), and HepG2 (human hepatoma) cell lines. Compound 6 showed weak cell growth inhibition of A549, HCT116, SK-BR-3, and HepG2 cells. PMID:22872588

Han, Zhu-zhen; Yan, Zhao-hui; Liu, Qing-xin; Hu, Xian-qing; Ye, Ji; Li, Hui-liang; Zhang, Wei-dong

2012-08-07

238

Emblica officinalis Gaertn and serum cholesterol level in experimental rabbits.  

PubMed

Twelve albino rabbits of either sex weighing 1.0-1.25 kg were fed a standard laboratory diet of green grass and sattu (roasted Bengal gram). After a 2-week run-in period their serum cholesterol levels were estimated. All animals were now fed 0.5 g cholesterol and 1.0 g clarified butter daily and were not divided into 3 groups of 4 animals each. While all received the standard cholesterol-rich diet, Group A animals received no additional substances, animals in Group B were each fed 10 mg vitamin C daily, while those in Group C were each given 1.0 g fresh Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn). Mean serum cholesterol levels in all three groups rose to significantly higher levels by the end of the second week. There was a further rise by the end of the third and fourth weeks in Groups A and B. However, animals in Group C (i.e. those given Amla) showed significantly lower mean serum cholesterol levels at the end of the second week than their counterparts in Groups A and B. At the end of the third and fourth weeks the differences were even more pronounced. PMID:7295546

Mishra, M; Pathak, U N; Khan, A B

1981-10-01

239

Emblica officinalis Gaertn and serum cholesterol level in experimental rabbits.  

PubMed Central

Twelve albino rabbits of either sex weighing 1.0-1.25 kg were fed a standard laboratory diet of green grass and sattu (roasted Bengal gram). After a 2-week run-in period their serum cholesterol levels were estimated. All animals were now fed 0.5 g cholesterol and 1.0 g clarified butter daily and were not divided into 3 groups of 4 animals each. While all received the standard cholesterol-rich diet, Group A animals received no additional substances, animals in Group B were each fed 10 mg vitamin C daily, while those in Group C were each given 1.0 g fresh Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn). Mean serum cholesterol levels in all three groups rose to significantly higher levels by the end of the second week. There was a further rise by the end of the third and fourth weeks in Groups A and B. However, animals in Group C (i.e. those given Amla) showed significantly lower mean serum cholesterol levels at the end of the second week than their counterparts in Groups A and B. At the end of the third and fourth weeks the differences were even more pronounced.

Mishra, M.; Pathak, U. N.; Khan, A. B.

1981-01-01

240

Immunomodulatory role of Emblica officinalis in arsenic induced oxidative damage and apoptosis in thymocytes of mice  

PubMed Central

Background Arsenic is widely distributed in the environment and has been found to be associated with the various health related problems including skin lesions, cancer, cardiovascular and immunological disorders. The fruit extract of Emblica officinalis (amla) has been shown to have anti-oxidative and immunomodulatory properties. In view of increasing health risk of arsenic, the present study has been carried out to investigate the protective effect of amla against arsenic induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in thymocytes of mice. Methods Mice were exposed to arsenic (sodium arsenite 3 mg/kg body weight p.o.) or amla (500 mg/kg body weight p.o.) or simultaneously with arsenic and amla for 28 days. The antioxidant enzyme assays were carried out using spectrophotometer and generation of ROS, apoptotic parameters, change in cell cycle were carried out using flow cytometer following the standard protocols. Results Arsenic exposure to mice caused a significant increase in the lipid peroxidation, ROS production and decreased cell viability, levels of reduced glutathione, the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, cytochrome c oxidase and mitochondrial membrane potential in the thymus as compared to controls. Increased activity of caspase-3 linked with apoptosis assessed by the cell cycle analysis and annexin V/PI binding was also observed in mice exposed to arsenic as compared to controls. Co-treatment with arsenic and amla decreased the levels of lipid peroxidation, ROS production, activity of caspase-3, apoptosis and increased cell viability, levels of antioxidant enzymes, cytochrome c oxidase and mitochondrial membrane potential as compared to mice treated with arsenic alone. Conclusions The results of the present study exhibits that arsenic induced oxidative stress and apoptosis significantly protected by co-treatment with amla that could be due to its strong antioxidant potential.

2013-01-01

241

The isolation and characterization of ?-glucogallin as a novel aldose reductase inhibitor from Emblica officinalis.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus is recognized as a leading cause of new cases of blindness. The prevalence of diabetic eye disease is expected to continue to increase worldwide as a result of the dramatic increase in the number of people with diabetes. At present, there is no medical treatment to delay or prevent the onset and progression of cataract or retinopathy, the most common causes of vision loss in diabetics. The plant Emblica officinalis (gooseberry) has been used for thousands of years as a traditional Indian Ayurvedic preparation for the treatment of diabetes in humans. Extracts from this plant have been shown to be efficacious against the progression of cataract in a diabetic rat model. Aldose reductase (ALR2) is implicated in the development of secondary complications of diabetes including cataract and, therefore, has been a major drug target for the development of therapies to treat diabetic disease. Herein, we present the bioassay-guided isolation and structure elucidation of 1-O-galloyl-?-D-glucose (?-glucogallin), a major component from the fruit of the gooseberry that displays selective as well as relatively potent inhibition (IC(50) = 17 µM) of AKR1B1 in vitro. Molecular modeling demonstrates that this inhibitor is able to favorably bind in the active site. Further, we show that ?-glucogallin effectively inhibits sorbitol accumulation by 73% at 30 µM under hyperglycemic conditions in an ex-vivo organ culture model of lenses excised from transgenic mice overexpressing human ALR2 in the lens. This study supports the continued development of natural products such as ?-glucogallin as therapeutic leads in the development of novel therapies to treat diabetic complications such as cataract. PMID:22485126

Puppala, Muthenna; Ponder, Jessica; Suryanarayana, Palla; Reddy, Geereddy Bhanuprakash; Petrash, J Mark; LaBarbera, Daniel V

2012-04-02

242

The Isolation and Characterization of ?-Glucogallin as a Novel Aldose Reductase Inhibitor from Emblica officinalis  

PubMed Central

Diabetes mellitus is recognized as a leading cause of new cases of blindness. The prevalence of diabetic eye disease is expected to continue to increase worldwide as a result of the dramatic increase in the number of people with diabetes. At present, there is no medical treatment to delay or prevent the onset and progression of cataract or retinopathy, the most common causes of vision loss in diabetics. The plant Emblica officinalis (gooseberry) has been used for thousands of years as a traditional Indian Ayurvedic preparation for the treatment of diabetes in humans. Extracts from this plant have been shown to be efficacious against the progression of cataract in a diabetic rat model. Aldose reductase (ALR2) is implicated in the development of secondary complications of diabetes including cataract and, therefore, has been a major drug target for the development of therapies to treat diabetic disease. Herein, we present the bioassay-guided isolation and structure elucidation of 1-O-galloyl-?-D-glucose (?-glucogallin), a major component from the fruit of the gooseberry that displays selective as well as relatively potent inhibition (IC50?=?17 µM) of AKR1B1 in vitro. Molecular modeling demonstrates that this inhibitor is able to favorably bind in the active site. Further, we show that ?-glucogallin effectively inhibits sorbitol accumulation by 73% at 30 µM under hyperglycemic conditions in an ex-vivo organ culture model of lenses excised from transgenic mice overexpressing human ALR2 in the lens. This study supports the continued development of natural products such as ?-glucogallin as therapeutic leads in the development of novel therapies to treat diabetic complications such as cataract.

Puppala, Muthenna; Ponder, Jessica; Suryanarayana, Palla; Reddy, Geereddy Bhanuprakash; Petrash, J. Mark; LaBarbera, Daniel V.

2012-01-01

243

Beneficial effects of Emblica officinalis in L-arginine-induced acute pancreatitis in rats.  

PubMed

Acute necrotizing pancreatitis is characterized by focal macroscopic or diffuse necrosis, hemorrhage, and vascular thrombosis of the pancreas. Current treatment options are limited to supportive and symptomatic interventions. A large amount of experimental work is ongoing to identify novel therapeutic agents for acute pancreatitis. The present study was carried out to explore the beneficial effects of Emblica officinalis, a medicinal plant of India, on acute pancreatitis. Ascorbic acid is one of the major chemical components of E. officinalis, so a vitamin C group was included for comparison. Acute pancreatitis was induced by L-arginine. Rats were divided into the following groups: control (saline), arginine?+?saline, arginine?+?E. officinalis, and arginine?+?vitamin C. Animals in each group were sacrificed at 24 hours and 3, 14, and 28 days after pancreatitis induction for determination of biochemical parameters and histological examination. For rate of DNA synthesis and immunohistochemical studies, animals were sacrificed on Day 3 and Day 7. Drug administration was started 2 hours after the last arginine injection and continued until the day of sacrifice. E. officinalis treatment was found to be beneficial for treating acute pancreatitis. Serum levels of lipase and interleukin-10 were significantly lower than in the arginine group. Nucleic acid content, rate of DNA synthesis, pancreatic proteins, and pancreatic amylase content were significantly improved. Histopathological examination showed significantly lower total scores in the Emblica group. Vitamin C was found to be less efficacious than E. officinalis for all outcome parameters. Thus E. officinalis treatment was found to be beneficial in acute necrotizing pancreatitis. PMID:21138365

Sidhu, Shabir; Pandhi, Promila; Malhotra, Samir; Vaiphei, Kim; Khanduja, Kundal Lal

2010-12-07

244

Protective effect of Emblica officinalis (amla) on isoproterenol-induced cardiotoxicity in rats.  

PubMed

Emblica officinalis, commonly known as amla, is an important medicinal plant reputed for its dietary and therapeutic uses. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective role of E. officinalis against isoproterenol (ISP)-induced cardiotoxicity in rats and elucidate the possible mechanism involved. Rats were administered E. officinalis (100, 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) or vehicle (normal saline) for 30 days, with concurrent subcutaneous injections of ISP (85 mg/kg, at 24 h interval) on 29th and 30th day. ISP-induced cardiac dysfunction as evidenced by decreased mean arterial pressure, heart rate, contractility (+LVdP/dt) and relaxation (-LVdP/dt) along with increased left ventricular end diastolic pressure. ISP significantly (p < 0.05) decreased antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase and myocyte-injury-specific marker enzymes, creatine phosphokinase-MB and lactate dehydrogenase in heart. A significant (p < 0.05) depletion of reduced glutathione and increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances along with histopathological alteration has further indicated the oxidative damage of myocardium. However, pretreatment with E. officinalis exhibited restoration of hemodynamic and left ventricular function along with significant preservation of antioxidants, myocytes-injury-specific marker enzymes and significant inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, histopathological salvage of myocardium reconfirmed the protective effects of E. officinalis. Results of the present study demonstrate cardioprotective potential of E. officinalis attributed to its potent antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity as evidenced by favorable improvement in hemodynamic, contractile function and tissue antioxidant status. PMID:22033422

Ojha, Shreesh; Golechha, Mahaveer; Kumari, Santosh; Arya, Dharamvir Singh

2011-10-27

245

Antibacterial activities of Emblica officinalis and Coriandrum sativum against Gram negative urinary pathogens.  

PubMed

Present investigation is focused on antibacterial potential of aqueous infusions and aqueous decoctions of Emblica officinalis (amla) and Coriandrum sativum (coriander) against 345 bacterial isolates belonging to 6 different genera of Gram negative bacterial population isolated from urine specimens by employing well diffusion technique. Aqueous infusion and decoction of Emblica officinalis exhibited potent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (270), Klebsiella pneumoniae (51), K. ozaenae (3), Proteus mirabilis (5), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10), Salmonella typhi (1), S. paratyphi A (2), S. paratyphi B (1) and Serratia marcescens (2) but did not show any antibacterial activity against Gram negative urinary pathogens. PMID:17337425

Saeed, Sabahat; Tariq, Perween

2007-01-01

246

Indole alkoloids from Nauclea officinalis with weak antimalarial activity.  

PubMed

Five indole alkaloids (naucleofficines A-E) were isolated from the stems (with bark) of Nauclea officinalis: (E)-2-(1-beta-d-glucopyranosyloxybut-2-en-2-yl)-3-(hydroxymethyl)-6,7-dihydro-indolo[2,3-a]quinolizin-4(12H)-one (1), (E)-1-propenyl-12-beta-d-glucopyranosyloxy-2,7,8-trihydro-indolo[2,3-a]pyran[3,4-g]quinolizin-4,5(13H)-dione (2), (E)-2-(1-hydroxybut-2-en-2-yl)-11-beta-d-glucopyranosyloxy-6,7-dihydro-indolo[2,3-a]quinolizin-4(12H)-one (3), (E)-1-propenyl-4-hydroxy-2,4a,7,8,13b,14,14a-hepthydro-(4alpha,4abeta,13balpha,14abeta)indolo[2,3-a]pyran[3,4-g]quinolizin-5(13H)-one (4) and 1-(1-hydroxyethyl)-10-hydroxy-7,8-dihydro-indolo[2,3-a]pirydine[3,4-g]quinolizin-5(13H)-one (10-hydroxyangustoline) (5), together with two known compounds, naucleidinal (6) and angustoline (7). All of the structures of the seven compounds above were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including use of 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic analyses. Compounds 2 and 3 are rare examples of monoterpene indole alkaloids with a glucopyranosyloxy group attached to position C-12. In vitro activity screening of the above seven compounds showed weak to moderate inhibitory activity against Plasmodium falciparum. PMID:18328515

Sun, Jingyong; Lou, Hongxiang; Dai, Shengjun; Xu, Hui; Zhao, Feng; Liu, Ke

2008-03-06

247

Modulation of mood and cognitive performance following acute administration of single doses of Melissa officinalis (Lemon balm) with human CNS nicotinic and muscarinic receptor-binding properties.  

PubMed

Melissa officinalis (Lemon balm) is a herbal medicine that has traditionally been attributed with memory-enhancing properties, but which is currently more widely used as a mild sedative and sleep aid. In a previous study it was demonstrated that a commercial Melissa extract led to dose-specific increases in calmness, and dose-dependent decrements in timed memory task performance. However, the extract utilized in that study did not exhibit in vitro cholinergic receptor-binding properties. The current study involved an initial screening of samples of M. officinalis for human acetylcholinesterase inhibition and cholinergic receptor-binding properties. The cognitive and mood effects of single doses of the most cholinergically active dried leaf were then assessed in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, balanced crossover study. Following the in vitro analysis, 20 healthy, young participants received single doses of 600, 1000, and 1600 mg of encapsulated dried leaf, or a matching placebo, at 7-day intervals. Cognitive performance and mood were assessed predose and at 1, 3, and 6 h postdose using the Cognitive Drug Research computerized assessment battery and Bond-Lader visual analog scales, respectively. In vitro analysis of the chosen extract established IC(50) concentrations of 0.18 and 3.47 mg ml(-1), respectively, for the displacement of [(3)H]-(N)-nicotine and [(3)H]-(N)-scopolamine from nicotinic and muscarinic receptors in the human cerebral cortex tissue. However, no cholinesterase inhibitory properties were detected. The most notable cognitive and mood effects were improved memory performance and increased 'calmness' at all postdose time points for the highest (1600 mg) dose. However, while the profile of results was overwhelmingly favorable for the highest dose, decrements in the speed of timed memory task performance and on a rapid visual information-processing task increased with decreasing dose. These results suggest that doses of Melissa officinalis at or above the maximum employed here can improve cognitive performance and mood and may therefore be a valuable adjunct in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. The results also suggest that different preparations derived from the same plant species may exhibit different properties depending on the process used for the sample preparation. PMID:12888775

Kennedy, D O; Wake, G; Savelev, S; Tildesley, N T J; Perry, E K; Wesnes, K A; Scholey, A B

2003-10-01

248

Antimycotoxigenic characteristics of Rosmarinus officinalis and Trachyspermum copticum L. essential oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolite produced by Aspergillus species on food and agricultural commodities. Natural products may regulate the cellular effects of aflatoxins and evidence suggests that aromatic organic compounds of spices can control the production of aflatoxins. With a view to controlling aflatoxin production, the essential oils from Rosmarinus officinalis and Trachyspermum copticum L.

Iraj Rasooli; Mohammad Hadi Fakoor; Davod Yadegarinia; Latif Gachkar; Abdolamir Allameh; Mohammad Bagher Rezaei

2008-01-01

249

Glandular trichomes on the leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis: Morphology, stereology and histochemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stereological and histochemical analyses of the glandular trichomes on leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis were carried out using light and fluorescence microscopy. Non-glandular and two types of glandular trichomes – peltate and capitate – are described. The stereological method was used for estimating the volume density of epidermis, mesophyll, mechanical tissue, central cylinder, intercellular spaces and volume density of different types

M. Marin; V. Koko; S. Duleti?-Lauševi?; P. D. Marin; D. Ran?i?; Z. Dajic-Stevanovic

2006-01-01

250

Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil of Rosmarinus officinalis Cultivated in the Algerian Sahara  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volatile compounds obtained by hydrodistillation of the aerial parts of Rosmarinus officinalis cultivated at the Algerian Sahara were analyzed by GC\\/MS. Thirty compounds were characterized representing 98.2% of the essential oil with 1,8-cineole (29.5%), 2-ethyl-4,5-dimethylphenol (12.0%) and camphor (11.5%) as the major components.

O. Touafek; A. Nacer; A. Kabouche; Z. Kabouche; C. Bruneau

2004-01-01

251

Phytostabilization of Amended Soils Polluted with Trace Elements Using the Mediterranean Shrub: Rosmarinus Officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluate the mid-term effects of two amendments and the establishment of R. officinalis on chemical and biochemical properties in a trace element contaminated soil by a mine spill and the possible use of this plant for stabilization purposes. The experiment was carried out using containers filled with trace element polluted soil, where four treatments were established: organic treatment (biosolid

P. Madejón; P. Burgos; F. Cabrera; E. Madejón

2009-01-01

252

Drinking of Salvia officinalis tea increases CCl 4-induced hepatotoxicity in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous study, the drinking of a Salvia officinalis tea (prepared as an infusion) for 14 days improved liver antioxidant status in mice and rats where, among other factors, an enhancement of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity was observed. Taking in consideration these effects, in the present study the potential protective effects of sage tea drinking against a situation of hepatotoxicity

Cristovao F. Lima; Manuel Fernandes-Ferreira; Cristina Pereira-Wilson

2007-01-01

253

Effects of culture density on growth and broodstock management of the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus, 1758)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of culture density on growth and broodstock management of the cuttlefish S. officinalis were studied. Cuttlefish used were one month old at the start of the experiment, on average; two densities were used (16 and 76 cuttlefish m?2). During the first experiment (until day 43), dead cuttlefish were replaced by individuals of similar weight. From that day onwards,

Miguel Correia; Pedro M. Domingues; António Sykes; José P. Andrade

2005-01-01

254

Effects of culture density on growth and broodstock management of the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus, 1758)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of culture density on growth and broodstock management of the cuttlefish S. officinalis were studied. Cuttlefish used were one month old at the start of the experiment, on average; two densities were used (16 and 76 cuttlefish m2). During the first experiment (until day 43), dead cuttlefish were replaced by individuals of similar weight. From that day onwards,

Miguel Correia; Pedro M. Domingues; Antonio Sykes

255

Effect of drying methods on nutritional composition of dehydrated aonla fruit ( Emblica officinalis Garten) during storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aonla fruit (Emblica officinalis Garten) cv. Chakaiya was dried using four different methods viz., osmo-air drying, direct sun drying, indirect solar drying and oven drying. The osmo-air drying method was found to be the best method for drying of aonla because of better retention of nutrients like ascorbic acid and sugars. The level of antinutrients like tannins was also found

Pragati; S. S. Dhawan

2003-01-01

256

Effect of bioactive tannoid principles of Emblica officinalis on iron-induced hepatic toxicity in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tannoid principles of the fruits of the plant Emblica officinalis Gaertn comprising of emblicanin A. emblicanin B, punigluconin and pedunculagin, have been reported to exhibit antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, an emblicanin A (37%) and B (33 %) enriched fraction of fresh juice of Emblica fruits (EOT), administered prophylactically (10, 20 and 50

A. Bhattacharya; M. Kumar; S. Ghosal; S. K. Bhattacharya

2000-01-01

257

Effect of Emblica officinalis (Gaertn) on lens regeneration in the frog, Rana cyanophlyctis (Schneider)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emblica officinalis (Amla) accelerated cell proliferation and dedifferentiation of pigmented epithelial cells of dorsal iris and consequently induced lens regeneration in R.cyanophlyctis. Further it enhanced the percentage of lens regeneration not only in young tadpoles but also is adult frogs. Lens regeneration ability declined with the age of animals in both control as well as treated groups.

Jayshree Banot; Garima Lata; O P Jangir; Manshi Sharma; Vijay Singh Rathore; S K Saini; Amit Nagal

258

Effect of Emblica officinalis (Gaertn) on lens regeneration in the frog, Rana cyanophlyctis (Schneider).  

PubMed

Emblica officinalis (Amla) accelerated cell proliferation and dedifferentiation of pigmented epithelial cells of dorsal iris and consequently induced lens regeneration in R. cyanophlyctis. Further it enhanced the percentage of lens regeneration not only in young tadpoles but also is adult frogs. Lens regeneration ability declined with the age of animals in both control as well as treated groups. PMID:19405379

Banot, Jayshree; Lata, Garima; Jangir, O P; Sharma, Manshi; Rathore, Vijay Singh; Saini, S K; Nagal, Amit

2009-03-01

259

Antioxidant action of flavonoids from Mangifera indica and Emblica officinalis in hypercholesterolemic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oral administration of flavonoids from Mangifera indica and Emblica officinalis at a dose of 10 mg kg?1 body weight day?1 showed significant antioxidant action in cholesterol-fed experimental rats. The antioxidant activity of flavonoids was investigated on the basis of their effects on the activities of oxidative free radical scavenging enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase,

L. Anila; N. R. Vijayalakshmi

2003-01-01

260

Impact of Harvesting of Emblica officinalis (Aonla) on Its Natural Regeneration in Central Indian Forests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper reports the prevalent harvesting practices of an important NTFP species, Aonla, Emblic myrobalan (Emblica officinalis) which grows as an associate in tropical dry and moist deciduous forests in large parts of India. Aonla fruit is a rich natural source of vitamin C and is an integral part of a number of Ayurvedic (Indian system of medicine) formulations.

Ram Prasad; P. C. Kotwal; Manish Mishra

2001-01-01

261

Studies on identification of white specks in cured aonla ( Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aonla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.), an Indian vitamin C-rich fruit, has great potential for pickling but the development of white specks during curing and pickling is a major hindrance. Studies to evaluate the effects of various pre-treatments on the development of white specks were carried out. The extent of white specks was less in aonla fruit segments preserved in steeping solution

B. R Premi; Vijay Sethi; D. B Saxena

1998-01-01

262

Effect of Emblica officinalis (fruit) against UVB-induced photo-aging in human skin fibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnopharmacological relevanceEmblica officinalis fruit (EO), commonly known as Amla is a reputed traditional medicine and functional food used in Indian subcontinent. It has long been used in Indian folk medicine to treat liver diseases, stomach ulcers, inflammatory diseases, metabolic disorders, geriatric complaints, skin disorders and beauty care.

Mushtaq D. Adil; Peerzada Kaiser; Naresh K. Satti; Afzal M. Zargar; Ram A. Vishwakarma; Sheikh A. Tasduq

2010-01-01

263

Reduction of hexachlorocyclohexane-induced oxidative stress and cytotoxicity in rat liver by Emblica officinalis Gaertn  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of prefeeding of dehydrated E. officinalis (amla) powder at 5 and 10% levels on hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH)-induced changes in multicomponent antioxidant system and lipid peroxides in rat liver was studied. HCH induced significant elevation in hepatic malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes and hydroperoxides. The prefeeding of amla at 10% level could decrease the formation of these lipid peroxides significantly. The HCH

K R Anilakumar; N S Nagaraj; K Santhanam

264

Effect of Water Stress on Salvia officinalis L. Bioproductivity and Its Bioelement Concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salvia officinalis L. is an aromatic and medicinal species that has medicinal and antioxidative properties. Studying the growth, productivity, and nutrient absorption of this plant under different water regimes is necessary to optimize its cropping techniques. Five irrigation regimes (100, 75, 50, 25, and 0% of ET0) were tested in this trial, through two consecutive years, at two sites during

M. Corell; M. C. Garcia; J. I. Contreras; M. L. Segura; P. Cermeño

2012-01-01

265

Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Salvia officinalis L. Oil from Two Culture Sites in Tunisia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oils were produced from the aerial parts (leaves, stems and flowers) of Salvia officinalis cultivated in two culture sites in Tunisia. The herbage was hydrodistillated and the resulting oils were analyzed by GC-FID and GC\\/MS. The composition of the oils obtained from the two culture sites reveals that they were quite similar, although some quantitative differences were found. The main

Souad Fellah; Papa N. Diouf; Mathieu Petrissans; Dominique Perrin; Mehrez Romdhane; Manef Abderrabba

2006-01-01

266

Essential Oil Variation of Salvia officinalis Leaves during Vegetation after Treatment with Foliar Fertilizer and Thidiazuron  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil yield and chemical composition of Salvia officinalis L. (Dalmatica origin) have been analyzed. Leaf samples for essential oil analysis were harvested at different developmental stages after treatment with foliar fertilizer Agroleaf and foliar fertilizer + thidiazuron. In total, 10 constituents were identified and quantified. The main compounds in the essential oil that increased during the vegetative to

Ira Stancheva; Maria Geneva; Georgi Georgiev; Milka Todorova; Lyuba Evstatieva

2010-01-01

267

Linkage Arrangement of RFLP loci in progenies from crosses between doubled haploid Asparagus officinalis L. clones  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary genetic map of the dioecious species Asparagus officinalis L. (2n = 20) has been constructed on the basis of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and isozyme marker data. With DNA samples digested with either EcoRI or HindIII 61 out of 148 probes (41%) identified RFLPs in six families of doubled haploid lines obtained through anther culture. A higher

F. M. Restivo; F. Tassi; R. Biffi; A. Falavigna; E. Caporali; A. Carboni; M. L. Doldi; A. Spada; G. P. Marziani

1995-01-01

268

Über Inhaltsstoffe aus Petasites officinalis Moench I. Petasin und die Petasolester B und C  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Three spasmolytically active substances which contain no nitrogen, namely petasin and the petasolesters B and C, were isolated fromPetasites officinalis Moench. They are all esters of the same C15-alcohol. Petasin is an ester of angelic acid, whereas the petasolesters B and C are derivates of a new acid containing sulphur, the?-methylmercapto-acrylic acid.

A. Stoll; R. Morf; A. Rheiner; J. Renz

1956-01-01

269

Size-dependent pollination efficiency in Anchusa officinalis (Boraginaceae) : causes and consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bumblebees foraging on the self-incompatible Anchusa officinalis fly between near neighbour plants and between near neighbour inflorescences within plants. Although many-flowered plants attracted most bumblebees these plants received fewer visits on a per flower basis than smaller plants, and each bumblebee visited a smaller proportion of the flowers. The calculated effective visitation rate per flower was highest on plants of

Stefan Andersson

1988-01-01

270

Isolation and identification of a novel Ala-Pro-Gly-Trp-amide-related peptide inhibiting the motility of the mature oviduct in the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis.  

PubMed

A novel myotropic neuropeptide was isolated from 110 optic lobes (OL) of mature females of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis L. by mean of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The peptide inhibits the motility of the oviduct by decreasing the tonus, the frequency and the amplitude of the contractions. The primary structure of the peptide was determined as Gly-Trp-NH2. This new dipeptide is closely related to the Ala-Pro-Gly-Trp-NH2 family first identified in gastropod molluscs. On the perfused oviduct, GWa appeared to be 3000 times more potent than APGW-amide. The processing of synthetic APGWa into GWa by diaminopeptidyl activity has been clearly observed in OL extract. Nevertheless, the analysis in MALDI-MS of HPLC OL fractions did not reveal any APGWa related peptides of the known: APGWa, KPGWa, RPGWa and TPGWa. GWa could be processed from a not yet identified APGWa related peptide. PMID:9437704

Henry, J; Favrel, P; Boucaud-Camou, E

1997-01-01

271

Antioxidant evaluation of three adaptogen extracts.  

PubMed

Adaptogens are harmless herbs which have pharmaceutical benefits due to their balancing, regulative and tonic functions. However, despite these medicinal effects, the antioxidant potential of adaptogens is rarely mentioned. This study investigated the antioxidant potential of 3 adaptogen extracts, Rhodiola rosea (golden root), Eleutherococcus senticosis (Siberian ginseng) and Emblica officinalis (Indian gooseberry, Amla). The results of this study showed that R. rosea had the highest potential for singlet oxygen scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, ferric reducing, ferrous chelating and protein thiol protection than either of the other 2 extracts. E. senticosis, on the other hand, showed the best potential for hypochlorite scavenging. In addition, the polyphenol content in the 3 adaptogen extracts followed the order: R. rosea, E. officinalis and E. senticosis. Our data suggest that the antioxidant potential of the 3 adaptogen extracts was proportional to their respective polyphenol content. The supplementation of adaptogen extracts containing high levels of polyphenols may not only have adaptogen properties, but may decrease the risk of complications induced by oxidative stress. PMID:19051347

Chen, Tung-Sheng; Liou, Show-Yih; Chang, Yen-Lin

2008-01-01

272

Effect of ionising radiation on polyphenolic content and antioxidant potential of parathion-treated sage (Salvia officinalis) leaves.  

PubMed

The ?-irradiation effects on polyphenolic content and antioxidant capacity of parathion-pretreated leaves of Salvia officinalis plant were investigated. The analysis of phenolic extracts of sage without parathion showed that irradiation decreased polyphenolic content significantly (p<0.05) by 30% and 45% at 2 and 4kGy, respectively, compared to non-irradiated samples. The same trend was observed for the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), as assessed by the anionic DPPH and cationic ABTS radical-scavenging assays. The antioxidant potential decreased significantly (p<0.01) at 2 and 4kGy, by 11-20% and 40-44%, respectively. The results obtained with a pure chlorogenic acid solution confirmed the degradation of phenols; however, its TEAC was significantly (p<0.01) increased following irradiation. Degradation products of parathion formed by irradiation seem to protect against a decline of antioxidant capacity and reduce polyphenolic loss. Ionising radiation was found to be useful in breaking down pesticide residues without inducing significant losses in polyphenols. PMID:23790930

Ben Salem, Issam; Fekih, Sana; Sghaier, Haitham; Bousselmi, Mehrez; Saidi, Mouldi; Landoulsi, Ahmed; Fattouch, Sami

2013-04-18

273

Protective Effect of Emblica officinalis Against Alcohol-Induced Hepatic Injury by Ameliorating Oxidative Stress in Rats.  

PubMed

The effect of Emblica officinalis fruit extract (EFE) against alcohol-induced hepatic damage in rats was investigated in the present study. In vitro studies showed that EFE possesses antioxidant as well nitric oxide (NO) scavenging activity. In vivo administration of alcohol (5 g/kg b.wt/day) for 60 days resulted increased liver lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls, nitrite plus nitrate levels. Alcohol administration also significantly lowers the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase and reduced glutathione as compared with control rats. Administration of EFE (250 mg/kg body weight) to alcoholic rats significantly brought the plasma enzymes towards near normal level and also significantly reduced the levels of lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls and restored the enzymic and non-enzymatic antioxidants level. This observation was supplemented by histopathological examination in liver. Our data indicate that the tannoid, flavonoid and NO scavenging compounds present in EFE may offer protection against free radical mediated oxidative stress in rat hepatocytes of animals with alcohol-induced liver injury. PMID:21966117

Damodara Reddy, V; Padmavathi, P; Gopi, S; Paramahamsa, M; Varadacharyulu, N Ch

2010-09-14

274

Coordination between ventilatory pressure oscillations and venous return in the cephalopod Sepia officinalis under control conditions, spontaneous exercise and recovery.  

PubMed

Venous blood flow was measured for the first time in a cephalopod. Blood velocity was determined in the anterior vena cava (AVC) of cuttlefish S. officinalis with a Doppler, while simultaneously, ventilatory pressure oscillations were recorded in the mantle cavity. In addition, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was employed to investigate pulsatile flow in other major vessels. Blood pulses in the AVC are obligatorily coupled to ventilatory pressure pulses, both in frequency and phase. AVC peak blood velocity (v(AVC)) in animals of 232 (+/- 30 SD) g wet mass at 15 degrees C was found to be 14.2 (+/- 7.1) cm s(-1), AVC stroke volume (SV(AVC)) was 0.2 (+/- 0.1) ml stroke(-1), AVC minute volume (MV(AVC)) amounted to 5.5 (+/- 2.8) ml min(-1). Intense exercise bouts of 1-2 min resulted in 2.2-fold increases in MV(AVC), enabled by 1.6-fold increments in both, AVC pulse frequency (f (AVC)) and v(AVC). As increases in blood flow occurred delayed in time by 1.7 min with regard to exercise periods, we concluded that it is not direct mantle cavity pressure conveyance that drives venous return in this cephalopod blood vessel. However, during jetting at high pressure amplitude (> 1 kPa), AVC blood flow and mantle cavity pressure pulse shapes completely overlap, suggesting that under these conditions, blood transport must be driven passively by mantle cavity pressure. MRI measurements at 15 degrees C also revealed that under resting conditions, f (AVC )and ventilation frequency (f (V)) match at 31.6 (+/- 2.1) strokes min(-1). In addition, rates of pulsations in the cephalic artery and in afferent branchial vessels did not significantly differ from f (AVC) and f (V). It is suggested that these adaptations are beneficial for high rates of oxygen extraction observed in S. officinalis and the energy conserving mode of life of the cuttlefish ecotype in general. PMID:16868753

Melzner, Frank; Bock, Christian; Pörtner, Hans-O

2006-07-26

275

Extraction, structure and bioactivities of the polysaccharides from Fructus corni.  

PubMed

Plant-derived bioactive polysaccharides have a long history of application in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The polysaccharides of Fructus Corni, secondary metabolites from Cornus officinalis Sieb. Et Zucc, possess various pharmacological activities, including immune regulation, anti-oxidation, anti-tumor, and anti-aging effects. The present review is trying to summarize the extraction process of polysaccharides of Fructus Corni, structural features and related patents. PMID:23013412

Wu, Yanfang; Wang, Xinsheng; Shen, Biao; Kang, Lei; Fan, Enguo

2013-04-01

276

Effects of NaCl on growth, water status, N 2 fixation, and ion distribution in Pterocarpus officinalis seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pterocarpus officinalis (Fabaceae) dominates in the swamp forests of the Lesser Antilles, submitted to strong variations of soil salinity (30–445 mM).\\u000a This study aimed to assess the effect of salinity on growth, nodulation, N2 fixation, water status and ions content in P. officinalis and to clarify the mechanisms involved. Seedlings inoculated or not with two strains from areas of contrasting salinity

Maguy Dulormne; Olivia Musseau; Félix Muller; Armel Toribio; Amadou Bâ

2010-01-01

277

Biological screening of 100 plant extracts for cosmetic use (II): anti-oxidative activity and free radical scavenging activity.  

PubMed

Methanol aqueous extracts of 100 plants were screened for anti-oxidative activity using Fenton's reagent/ethyl linoleate system and for free radical scavenging activity using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl free radical generating system. The results suggest that 14 plants - Alpinia officinarum, Areca catechu, Brassica alba, Cannabis sativa, Curcuma longa, Curcuma aromatica, Eugenia caryophyllata, Evodia officinalis, Paeonia suffruticosa, Rhaphanus sativus, Rheum palmatum, Rhus verniciflua, Trapa bispinosa, Zanthoxylum piperitum - may be potential sources of anti-oxidants. Eight plants - Citrus aurantium, Cornus officinalis, Gleditsia japonica, Lindera strychnifolia, Phragmites communis, Prunus mume, Schizandra chinensis, Terminalia chebula - may be the potential source of free radical scavengers from natural plant. PMID:18505484

Kim, B J; Kim, J H; Kim, H P; Heo, M Y

1997-12-01

278

Modulatory role of Emblica officinalis fruit extract against arsenic induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic, an important human toxin, is naturally occurring in groundwater and its accumulation in plants and animals have assumed a menacing proportion in a large part of the world, particularly Asia. Epidemiological studies have shown a strong association between chronic arsenic exposure and various adverse health effects, including cardiovascular diseases, neurological defects and cancer of lung, skin, bladder, liver and

Ambika Sharma; Mukesh Kumar Sharma; Madhu Kumar

2009-01-01

279

The protective role of amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) against fructose-induced metabolic syndrome in a rat model.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) on fructose-induced metabolic syndrome using a rat model. Male Wistar rats were fed a high-fructose (65 %) diet or standard chow for 1 week, and treated with an ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extract of amla, a polyphenol-rich fraction, at 10 or 20 mg/kg body weight per d, or vehicle, for 2 weeks. Serum glucose, TAG, total cholesterol and blood pressure levels of the high-fructose diet-fed rats were increased compared with those of the normal rats (P < 0.001). However, the EtOAc extract of amla ameliorated the high fructose-induced metabolic syndrome, including hypertriacylglycerolaemia and hypercholesterolaemia. Also, the elevated levels of hepatic TAG and total cholesterol in rats given the high-fructose diet were significantly reduced by 33.8 and 24.6 %, respectively (P < 0.001), on the administration of the EtOAc extract of amla at the dose of 20 mg/kg with the regulation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1 expression. The protein levels of PPARalpha and SREBP-2 were not affected by the feeding of the high-fructose diet or EtOAc extract of amla. In addition, oral administration of the amla extract at the dose of 20 mg/kg significantly inhibited the increased serum and hepatic mitochondrial thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels (21.1 and 43.1 %, respectively; P < 0.001). Furthermore, the amla extract inhibited the increase of cyclo-oxygenase-2 with the regulation of NF-kappaB and bcl-2 proteins in the liver, while the elevated expression level of bax was significantly decreased by 8.5 and 10.2 % at the doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight per d, respectively. These findings suggest that fructose-induced metabolic syndrome is attenuated by the polyphenol-rich fraction of amla. PMID:19878614

Kim, Hyun Young; Okubo, Tsutomu; Juneja, Lekh Raj; Yokozawa, Takako

2009-11-02

280

Effect of Magnolia officinalis and Phellodendron amurense (Relora®) on cortisol and psychological mood state in moderately stressed subjects  

PubMed Central

Background Magnolia (Magnolia officinalis) and Phellodendron (Phellodendron amurense) barks are medicinal plants commonly used as traditional remedies for reducing stress and anxiety. Modern dietary supplements are intended to induce relaxation and reduce stress as well as stress-related eating. Previous studies have shown the combination of Magnolia/Phellodendron (MP) to reduce both cortisol exposure and the perception of stress/anxiety, while improving weight loss in subjects with stress-related eating. Competitive athletes are “stressed” by their intense exercise regimens in addition to their normal activities of daily living and thus may benefit from a natural therapy intended to modulate baseline perceptions of stress and stress hormone exposure. Methods We assessed salivary cortisol exposure and psychological mood state in 56 subjects (35 men and 21 women) screened for moderate stress and supplemented with a standardized/patented MP combination (Relora®, Next Pharmaceuticals) or Placebo for 4 weeks. Results After 4 weeks of supplementation, salivary cortisol exposure was significantly (p<0.05) lower (?18%) in the Relora group compared to Placebo. Compared to Placebo, the Relora group had significantly better (p<0.05) mood state parameters, including lower indices of Overall Stress (?11%), Tension (?13%), Depression (?20%), Anger (?42%), Fatigue (?31%), and Confusion (?27%), and higher indices of Global Mood State (+11%) and Vigor (+18%). Conclusion These results indicate that daily supplementation with a combination of Magnolia bark extract and Phellodendron bark extract (Relora®) reduces cortisol exposure and perceived daily stress, while improving a variety of mood state parameters, including lower fatigue and higher vigor. These results suggest an effective natural approach to modulating the detrimental health effects of chronic stress in moderately stressed adults. Future studies should examine the possible performance and recovery benefits of Relora supplementation in athletes overstressed by the physical and psychological demands of training and competition.

2013-01-01

281

Characterization of a Saponaria officinalis seed ribosome-inactivating protein: immunoreactivity and sequence homologies.  

PubMed

A ribosome inactivating protein from Saponaria officinalis, SO-6, was purified and the N-terminus sequenced. The sequence shows extensive homology with Pokeweed antiviral protein, Pokeweed antiviral protein II, Pokeweed antiviral seed protein and dodecandrin. SDS gel electrophoresis in the Laemmli system revealed two bands of similar intensities with a smear between them, probably an artifact due to the high pI of the protein. Use of a harsher denaturing gel system resulted in one band in electrophoresis. Immune antisera was raised in rabbits against this protein and it cross reacted with other proteins (SO-5, SO-8 and SO-9) from seeds of Saponaria officinalis, but not with gelonin, Momordica charantia inhibitor and dianthin 32. PMID:3925952

Lappi, D A; Esch, F S; Barbieri, L; Stirpe, F; Soria, M

1985-06-28

282

Antioxidative activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil compared to its main components  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to examine the in vitro antioxidant activities of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil compared to three of its main components (1,8-cineole, ?-pinene, ?-pinene). GC–MS analysis of the essential oil resulted in the identification of 19 compounds, representing 97.97% of the oil, the major constituents of the oil were described as 1,8-cineole (27.23%), ?-pinene (19.43%), camphor (14.26%),

W. Wang; N. Wu; Y. G. Zu; Y. J. Fu

2008-01-01

283

Effects of Carbon Dioxide, Water Supply, and Seasonality on Terpene Content and Emission by Rosmarinus officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rosmarinus officinalis L. plants were grown under carbon dioxide concentrations of 350 and 700 µmol\\/mol (atmospheric CO2 and elevated CO2) and under two levels of irrigation (high water and low water) from October 1, 1994 to May 31, 1996. Elevated CO2 led to increasingly larger monthly growth rates than the atmospheric CO2 treatments. The increase was 9.5% in spring 1995,

Josep Peñuelas; Joan Llusià

1997-01-01

284

Essential oils composition in two Rosmarinus officinalis L. varieties and incidence for antimicrobial and antioxidant activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil composition of Rosmarinus officinalis var. typicus and var. troglodytorum endemic to Tunisia, and growing wild in different bioclimates, was determined by GC and GC–MS. Oils were assessed for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. A variation of the chemical composition attributed to varieties rather than to bioclimates was revealed. 1.8-Cineole (47.2–27.5%) and camphor (12.9–27.9%) were identified as the

Yosr Zaouali; Taroub Bouzaine; Mohamed Boussaid

2010-01-01

285

Morphogenesis and plant regeneration from cultured endosperm of Emblica officinalis Gaertn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mature endosperm of Emblica Officinalis (Euphorbiaceae) formed a continously growing callus on MS medium supplemented with an auxin (2,4-D or IAA) and a cytokinin (K or BAP). Subculture of callus on MS with BAP (0.2 mg\\/l) and IAA (0.1 mg\\/l) resulted in formation of shoots and embryo-like structures in 50 and 8 per cent cultures, respectively. Regeneration of shoots was

C. B. Sehgal; Sunilla Khurana

1985-01-01

286

Plant regeneration after long term callus culture in clones of Asparagus officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Callus growth and plant regeneration from long-term callus cultures were studied in two elite clones of Asparagus officinalis cv. Argenteuil, to establish a suitable protocol for a prospective in vitro selec- tion program. Callus initiation and growth was evaluated on MS medium with 3% sucrose, 0.9% agar, 1 mg.l - 1 kinetin, and three levels of 2,4-D. The highest callus

A. C. PONTAROLI; E. L. CAMADRO

287

Disinfectant properties of essential oils from Salvia officinalis L. cultivated in Tunisia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation of the aerial part of Salvia officinalis L. cultivated in Sfax gardens, Tunisia. The obtained oils were analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and 44 compounds were identified. Strong bactericidal and fungicidal effects were shown using the NCCLS broth dilution, EN 1275 and EN 1276 standard methods. The minimal cidal concentrations (MCCs) values

Mohamed Bouaziz; Thabèt Yangui; Sami Sayadi; Abdelhafidh Dhouib

2009-01-01

288

Lipid components of borage ( Borago officinalis L.) seeds and their changes during germination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changes in composition of total and neutral lipids (NL) as well as glycolipids (GL) and phospholipids (PL) of borage (Borago officinalis L.) seeds, germinated in the dark at 25°C for 10 d, were studied. Total lipids constituted 34.0% of the dry matter of borage seeds. During germination, the content\\u000a of total lipids was decreased by 95%. NL accounted for

S. P. J. Namal Senanayake; Fereidoon Shahidi

2000-01-01

289

Neuroprotective properties of Melissa officinalis after hypoxic-ischemic injury both in vitro and in vivo  

PubMed Central

Background Brain ischemia initiates several metabolic events leading to neuronal death. These events mediate large amount of damage that arises after some neurodegenerative disorders as well as transient brain ischemia. Melissa officinalis is considered as a helpful herbal plant in the prevention of various neurological diseases like Alzheimer that is related with oxidative stress. Methods We examined the effect of Melissa officinalis on hypoxia induced neuronal death in a cortical neuronal culture system as in vitro model and transient hippocampal ischemia as in vivo model. Transient hippocampal ischemia was induced in male rats by tow vessel-occlusion for 20 min. After reperfusion, the histopathological changes and the levels inflammation, oxidative stress status, and caspase-3 activity in hippocampus were measured. Results Cytotoxicity assays showed a significant protection of a 10 ?g/ml dose of Melissa against hypoxia in cultured neurons which was confirmed by a conventional staining (P<0.05). Melissa treatment decrease caspase3 activity (P<0.05) and TUNEL-positive cells significantly (P<0.01). Melissa oil has also inhibited malon dialdehyde level and attenuated decrease of Antioxidant Capacity in the hippocampus. Pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-?, IL-1? and HIF-1? mRNA levels were highly increased after ischemia and treatment with Melissa significantly suppressed HIF-1? gene expression (P<0.05). Discussion Results showed that Melissa officinalis could be considered as a protective agent in various neurological diseases associated with ischemic brain injury.

2012-01-01

290

The antiinflammatory potential of phenolic compounds from Emblica officinalis L. in rat.  

PubMed

Antiinflammatory effects of phenolic compounds from Emblica officinalis were evaluated in carrageenan and cotton pellet induced acute and chronic inflammatory animal model. Fractions of E. officinalis containing free (FPEO) and bounded (BPEO) phenolic compounds were assessed by HPLC technique. The free and bound phenolic compounds were studied for their acute and chronic antiinflammatory activity at dose level of 20 and 40 mg/kg. The carrageenan induced acute inflammation was assessed by measuring rat paw volume at different time of intervals. Further, cotton pellet induced chronic inflammation was assessed by granulomatous tissue mass estimation along with the estimation of tissue biomarker changes (i.e. lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, myeloperoxidase and plasma extravasation). The results indicated that in both acute and chronic inflammation, FPEO and BPEO show reduction in the inflammation, but significant effects was observed only at high doses of both fractions which was comparable to diclofenac treated group. In conclusion, phenolic compounds of E. officinalis may serve as potential herbal candidate for amelioration of acute and chronic inflammation due to their modulatory action of free radicals. PMID:20596897

Muthuraman, Arunachalam; Sood, Shailja; Singla, Sumeet Kumar

2010-07-02

291

Disinfectant properties of essential oils from Salvia officinalis L. cultivated in Tunisia.  

PubMed

The essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation of the aerial part of Salvia officinalis L. cultivated in Sfax gardens, Tunisia. The obtained oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and 44 compounds were identified. Strong bactericidal and fungicidal effects were shown using the NCCLS broth dilution, EN 1275 and EN 1276 standard methods. The minimal cidal concentrations (MCCs) values ranged from 0.031 to 0.25 microLmL(-1). The essential oils concentrations of 0.5% and 1% (v/v) resulted in a reduction in viability higher than 5 and 4 log units per mL for the standard bacteria and fungi, respectively, within a contact time of 5 min. Using an air sampler and an aroma dispenser, vaporisation of 0.25 mLm(-3) of S. officinalis essential oils resulted in (72%, 73% and 70%) and (54%, 55% and 55%) reduction of the total microbial count and the total count of yeasts and moulds, after a residence time of 1h, 6h and 24h in a selected testing room, respectively. S. officinalis essential oils showed a potent vapour activity against a panel of bacteria, yeasts and fungi. This supported their use as a natural eco-friendly disinfectant to manage airborne microbes. PMID:19682532

Bouaziz, Mohamed; Yangui, Thabèt; Sayadi, Sami; Dhouib, Abdelhafidh

2009-08-12

292

Cholinesterase inhibitory effects of Rhizophora lamarckii, Avicennia officinalis, Sesuvium portulacastrum and Suaeda monica: Mangroves inhabiting an Indian coastal area (Vellar Estuary).  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative illness accounting for approximately 50% of all types of dementia in elderly people. The only symptomatic treatment proven effective to date is the use of cholinesterase inhibitors to augment surviving cholinergic activity. The purpose of this study is to investigate cholinesterase inhibitory activity of mangroves as an alternative medicine for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. About nine mangrove plants, which were used as folk medicine in tropical countries, were collected from Parangipettai, Vellar estuary, Tamilnadu, India. Nile Tilapia muscle homogenate was used as source of enzyme. Inhibitory effect of methanolic leaf extract was assessed under in vitro condition by incubating various concentration of the extract with total cholinesterase and butyryl cholinesterase and assessing their residual activities by Ellman's colorimetric method. The results showed that of the nine plants screened Rhizophora lamarckii, Suaeda monica, Avicennia officinalis and Sesuvium portulacastrum showed 50% inhibitory activity to both TChE and BChE at concentrations less than 2 mg/mL when compared to other plant extracts, which was comparable to the standard drug Donepezil. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloids in high concentration which might be correlated to its cholinesterase inhibitory activity. PMID:18686140

Suganthy, Natarajan; Pandian, Shanmugiahthevar Karutha; Devi, Kasi Pandima

2009-06-01

293

Effects of irrigation and air humidity preconditioning on water relations, growth and survival of Rosmarinus officinalis plants during and after transplanting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of different irrigation and air humidity conditioning treatments on the morphological and physiological responses of Rosmarinus officinalis in nursery conditions was investigated in order to evaluate the degree of hardening resulting from these conditions. Rosmarinus officinalis seedlings were pot-grown during 4 months in two greenhouses (nursery period), in which two irrigation treatments were used (control and deficit). In

Trinitario Ferrández; Alejandra Navarro; Sebastián Bañon; Juan José Alarcón

2004-01-01

294

Soil moisture changes under shrub cover (rosmarinus officinalis) and cleared shrub as response to precipitation in a semiarid environment: Stemflow effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variations in soil moisture after rainfall under Rosmarinus officinalis L and cleared shrub (prior cover R. officinalis) were analyzed. The results from the General Linear Model analysis showed the relevance of shrub plant cover on soil water infiltration in depth. A threshold of about 15–18 mm of rainfall was established, above which soil moisture changes tended to be positive. Moisture

J. Bellot

1997-01-01

295

The Influence Of Motor-Car Exhaust On The Content Of Non-Structural Carbohydrates In Stem Apices, Floral Meristems And Apical Buds Of Tagetes Patula L. And Calendula Officinales L  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been shown that the decrease in flowering of Tagetes patula L. and Calendula officinales L. under conditions of environmental pollution due to motor-car exhaust fumes results in a reduction of non-structural carbohydrates\\u000a in stem apices, floral meristems and apical buds. This might be one of the reasons for reduced flowering intensity. A comparison\\u000a of the results showed that

V. P. Bessonova; O. P. Priymak

296

Antiplasmodial activity of ethanolic extracts of some selected medicinal plants from the northwest of Iran.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of antimalarial drugs is declining at an ever accelerating rate, with consequent increase in malaria-related morbidity and mortality. The newest antiplasmodial drug from plants is needed to overcome this problem. The aim of this study was to assess antimalarial activity of the ethanolic extracts of 10 different medicinal plants from eight families against Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 strain. The selection of the hereby studied plants was based on the existing information on their local ethnobotanic history. Plants were dried, powdered, and macerated in a hydroalcoholic solution. Resulting extracts have been assessed for in vitro and in vivo antimalarial and brine shrimp toxicity activities. Of 10 plant species tested, four plants: Althea officinalis L. (Malvaceae), Myrtus communis Linn (Myrtaceae), Plantago major (Plantaginaceae), and Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Papilionaceae) displayed promising antimalarial activity in vitro (50 % inhibitory concentration values of 62.77, 42.18, 40.00, and 13.56 ?g/mL, respectively) with no toxicity against brine shrimp larvae. The crude extracts of three active plants, G. glabra, M. communis, and A. officinalis, also significantly reduced parasitemia in vivo in female Swiss albino mice at a dose of 400 mg/kg compared to no treatment. Antiplasmodial activities of extracts of A. officinalis and M. communis are reported for the first time. PMID:23922204

Sangian, Hadi; Faramarzi, Hossein; Yazdinezhad, Alireza; Mousavi, Seyed Javad; Zamani, Zahra; Noubarani, Maryam; Ramazani, Ali

2013-08-07

297

The W-shaped pupil in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis): functions for improving horizontal vision.  

PubMed

The eyes of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) have a modified horizontal slit-pupil with a distinctive W-shape in bright light, while in darkness the pupil is circular. Two suggestions have previously been made for a function of the W-shape: (1) camouflaging the eye; (2) providing distance information. Since neither of these suggestions can fully explain the function of this pupil across the entire visual field, particularly the frontal and caudal periphery, we re-addressed the question of its functional significance. We took infra-red images of the eyes of live S. officinalis at different light intensities and from different viewing angles. This allowed us to determine the shape and light-admitting area of the pupil for different parts of the visual field. Our data show that the W-shaped pupil projects a blurred "W" directly onto the retina and that it effectively operates as vertical slits for the frontal and caudal parts of the visual field. We also took images of the natural habitat of S. officinalis and calculated the average vertical brightness distribution in the visual habitat. Computing a retinal illumination map shows that the W-shaped pupil is effective in balancing a vertically uneven light field: The constricted pupil reduces light from the dorsal part of the visual field significantly more than it reduces light from the horizontal band. This will cut the amount of direct sunlight that is scattered by the lens and ocular media, and thus improve image contrast particularly for the dimmer parts of the scene. We also conclude that the pupil provides even attenuation along the horizontal band, whereas a circular pupil would attenuate the image relatively more in the important frontal and caudal periphery of the visual field. PMID:23474299

Mäthger, Lydia M; Hanlon, Roger T; Håkansson, Jonas; Nilsson, Dan-Eric

2013-03-05

298

Protonophoric and uncoupling activity of royleanones from Salvia officinalis and euvimals from Eucalyptus viminalis.  

PubMed

The mechanism of action of quinones from the roots of Salvia officinalis L. (royleanones) and terpenoid phenolaldehydes from the leaves of Eucalyptus viminalis Labill. (euvimals) was studied. Royleanones and euvimals displayed marked protonophoric activity on artificial bilayer lipid membranes in vitro, and exerted an uncoupling action on oxidative phosphorylation in isolated rat liver mitochondria. The results suggest that biological membranes are the primary targets of royleanones and euvimals, and the protonophoric activity may contribute to the cytotoxicity and antimicrobial properties of these compounds. PMID:14669263

Spiridonov, Nikolay A; Arkhipov, Vladimir V; Foigel, Alexander G; Shipulina, Liudmila D; Fomkina, Maria G

2003-12-01

299

Morphology and polymorphic phase changes of calcium carbonate micro/nanocrystals using fruit extracts.  

PubMed

This study reveals the morphology and polymorphic phase changes of calcium carbonate crystals into a mixture of calcite and aragonite micro/nanocrystals of interesting morphology at room temperature by a simple reaction with fruit extracts of Tamarindus indica and Emblica officinalis respectively by mixing CaCO3 solutions with their corresponding extracts. The control experiments were carried out to establish the plausible role of tartaric acid from Tamarindus indica and ascorbic acid from Emblica officinalis in this regard. The quantitative determination of CaCO3 phases was done based on the use of intensities obtained from corresponding XRD spectrum. The molar % of aragonite was found to be more in case of TA and AA rather than TI and EO respectively, however the calcite was observed to be the predominant phase in all four reactions. Interestingly, the TI changes the rhombohedral morphology of calcite to elongated rods, whereas EO induces a great polymorphic phase change. PMID:21780397

Ankamwar, Balaprasad

2011-05-01

300

High diversity of indigenous populations of dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) in essential-oil composition.  

PubMed

Essential oils of 25 indigenous populations of Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) that represent nearly half of native distribution area of the species were analyzed. Plantlets collected from wild populations were grown in the same field under the same environmental conditions and then sampled for essential-oil analysis. The yield of essential oil ranged from 1.93 to 3.70% with average of 2.83%. Among the 62 compounds detected, eight (cis-thujone, camphor, trans-thujone, 1,8-cineole, ?-pinene, camphene, borneol, and bornyl acetate) formed 78.13-87.33% of essential oils of individual populations. Strong positive correlations were observed between camphor and ?-pinene, ?-pinene and borneol, as well as between borneol and bornyl acetate. The strongest negative correlation was detected between camphor and trans-thujone. Principal component analysis (PCA) on the basis of eight main compounds showed that first main component separated populations with high thujone content, from those rich in camphor, while the second component separated populations rich in cis-thujone from those rich in trans-thujone. Cluster analysis (CA) led to the identification of three chemotypes of S. officinalis populations: cis-thujone; trans-tujone, and camphor/?-pinene/borneol/bornyl acetate. We propose that differences in essential oils of 25 populations are mostly genetically controlled, since potential environmental factors were controlled in this study. PMID:23081929

Jug-Dujakovi?, Marija; Risti?, Mihailo; Pljevljakuši?, Dejan; Daji?-Stevanovi?, Zora; Liber, Zlatko; Han?evi?, Katarina; Radi?, Tomislav; Satovi?, Zlatko

2012-10-01

301

Evaluation of microbiological accumulation capability of the commercial sponge Spongia officinalis var. adriatica (Schmidt) (Porifera, Demospongiae).  

PubMed

This study was carried out to evaluate the microbiological accumulation capability of the demosponge Spongia officinalis var. adriatica. Six microbiological parameters were researched in two sampling periods in the water and in reared sponge samples coming from sites with different degrees of microbial contamination: an off-shore fish farm displaced off the Apulian coast (Southern Adriatic Sea) and a no-impacted area displaced into the Marine Protected Area of Porto Cesareo (Apulian coast-Ionian Sea). We detected the density of culturable heterotrophic bacteria by spread plate on marine agar, total culturable bacteria at 37 degrees C on Plate Count Agar and vibrios on thiosulphate-citrate-bile-sucrose-salt (TCBS) agar. Total and fecal coliforms as well as fecal streptococci concentrations were detected by the MPN method. Bacterial densities were always higher in the sponge homogenates compared with the corresponding seawater in the sampling points and in both sampling periods. As regard vibrios, total culturable bacteria at 37 degrees C and fecal streptococci concentrations, the highest values were observed in the sponge samples coming from the off-shore fish farm during the summer period. The ability of Spongia officinalis var. adriatica to accumulate the microbial pollution indicators suggests that this species can be employed as a bioindicator for monitoring water quality. PMID:18325562

Stabili, Loredana; Licciano, Margherita; Longo, Caterina; Corriero, Giuseppe; Mercurio, Maria

2008-02-19

302

Glycyrrhiza glabra (Linn.) and Lavandula officinalis (L.) cell suspension cultures-based biotransformation of ?-artemether.  

PubMed

The biotransformation of ?-artemether (1) by cell suspension cultures of Glycyrrhiza glabra and Lavandula officinalis is reported here for the first time. The major biotransformed product appeared as a grayish-blue color spot on thin-layer chromatography (TLC) with transparent crystal-like texture. Based on its infrared (IR) and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, the product was characterized as a tetrahydrofuran (THF)-acetate derivative (2). The highest conversion efficiencies of 57 and 60% were obtained when 8-9-day-old cell suspensions of G. glabra and L. officinalis were respectively fed with 4-7 mg of compound 1 in 40 ml of medium per culture and the cells were harvested after 2-5 days of incubation. The addition of compound 1 at the beginning of the culture cycle caused severe growth depression in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in poor bioconversion efficiency of ~25% at 2-5 mg/culture dose only. PMID:21544685

Patel, Suman; Gaur, Rashmi; Upadhyaya, Mohita; Mathur, Archana; Mathur, Ajay K; Bhakuni, Rajendra S

2011-05-05

303

Antiosteoporotic activity of the water extract of Dioscorea spongiosa.  

PubMed

After 60 MeOH and water extracts of natural crude drugs were screened for their ability to stimulate osteoblast proliferation, four MeOH extracts (Cynomorium songaricum, Drynaria fortunei, Lycium chinense, Rehmannia glutinosa) and seven water extracts (Cornus officinalis, Dendrobium nobile, Dioscorea spongiosa, Drynaria fortunei, Eucommia ulmoides, Lycium chinensis, Viscum coloratum) showed that potent activities were evaluated for inhibition of osteoclast formation. The results indicated that the water extract of D. spongiosa not only showed the strongest stimulation of osteoblast proliferation but also possessed potent inhibitory activity aganist osteoclast formation, whereas it showed lower cytotoxicity in osteoblast and bone marrow cells. A further in vivo experiment determined the antiosteoporotic activity of this extract, in which it inhibited the decrease in cancellous bone mineral content, cancellous bone mineral density, and cortical bone mineral content of the proximal tibia in ovariectomized rats. PMID:15056872

Yin, Jun; Tezuka, Yasuhiro; Kouda, Kyoji; Tran, Quan Le; Miyahara, Tatsuro; Chen, Yingjie; Kadota, Shigetoshi

2004-04-01

304

Effects of water and a nutrient pulse supply on Rosmarinus officinalis growth, nutrient content and flowering in the field  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rosmarinus officinalis is a dominant shrub species of calcareous Mediterranean communities that has increased its presence in wide areas due to fire frequency increase and field abandonment. We aimed to study the capacity of adult shrubs to respond to nutrient pulses such as those produced by fires and human driven eutrophycation. In a 5 years old post-fire Mediterranean shrubland we

J. Sardans; F. Rodà; J. Peñuelas

2005-01-01

305

Effect of drying on the volatile constituents of thyme ( Thymus vulgaris L.) and sage ( Salvia officinalis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The losses of volatile constituents in herbs and spices depend mainly on drying parameters and biological characteristics of the plants. In the present study, two methods were applied in the analysis of the effect of drying on the aroma constituents of the widely used herbs thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and sage (Salvia officinalis L.). The volatile constituents of herbs (fresh,

P. R. Venskutonis

1997-01-01

306

Effects of sugar concentration and strength of basal medium on conversion of somatic embryos in Asparagus officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of sugar concentration and strength of basal medium were studied to produce plants from somatic embryos in Asparagus officinalis L. There was a significant difference among concentrations of sugar but not among kinds of sugar tested in the present experiment in growth of shoots and roots. When the sucrose concentrations were 10, 30, or 50gl?1, the fresh weight

Kanji Mamiya; Yuji Sakamoto

2000-01-01

307

Testing hypotheses of population structuring in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea using the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population structuring in species inhabiting marine environments such as the Northeast Atlantic Ocean (NEA) and Mediterranean Sea (MS) has usually been explained based on past and present physical barriers to gene flow and isolation by distance (IBD). Here, we examined the relative importance of these factors on population structuring of the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis by using methods of phylogenetic

MARCOS PÉREZ-LOSADA; MARK J. NOLTE; KEITH A. CRANDALL; PAUL W. SHAW

2007-01-01

308

Influence of amla fruits ( Emblica officinalis) on the bio-availability of iron from staple cereals and pulses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amla fruits (Emblica officinalis) used as an acidulant in Indian dietary are claimed to be rich source of ascorbic acid, and the latter has been known to enhance intestinal absorption of dietary iron. The present study examined the beneficial influence of amla fruits, if any, on food iron availability, by virtue of their high ascorbic acid content. In this context,

B. S Gowri; Kalpana Platel; Jamuna Prakash; K Srinivasan

2001-01-01

309

MONOAMINES AND THE ISOLATED AURICLE OFSEPIA OFFICINALIS: ARE THERE ?-LIKE RECEPTORS IN THE HEART OF A CEPHALOPOD?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pharmacological examinations of isolated auricles from Sepia officinalis were carried out to analyze the putative role of the monoaminergic transmitter\\/receptor system in the control of auricle function. In conjunction with histofluorescence studies and HPLC analyses, evidence of a double excitatory serotonergic and noradrenergic innervation of the auricles was obtained. Serotonin- induced positive chronotropic and inotropic effects were blocked by mianserin

B. VERSEN; S. GOKORSCH; A. FIEDLER; R. SCHIPP

310

TULIP VIRUS X (TVX) ASSOCIATED WITH LEMON BALM (MELISSA OFFICINALIS) VARIEGATION . FIRST REPORT OF TVX IN THE UNITED STATES.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) has been used for centuries as an ornamental and for its medicinal properties. One of the most popular clones shows bright variegation symptoms. Mechanical inoculations onto Gomphrena globosa using variegated leaf tissue as the inoculum source resulted in development...

311

Antibacterial activity and anticancer activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil compared to that of its main components.  

PubMed

In this study, Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil and three of its main components 1,8-cineole (27.23%), ?-pinene (19.43%) and ?-pinene (6.71%) were evaluated for their in vitro antibacterial activities and toxicology properties. R. officinalis L. essential oil possessed similar antibacterial activities to ?-pinene, and a little bit better than ?-pinene, while 1,8-cineole possessed the lowest antibacterial activities. R. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited the strongest cytotoxicity towards three human cancer cells. Its inhibition concentration 50% (IC??) values on SK-OV-3, HO-8910 and Bel-7402 were 0.025‰, 0.076‰ and 0.13‰ (v/v), respectively. The cytotoxicity of all the test samples on SK-OV-3 was significantly stronger than on HO-8910 and Bel-7402. In general, R. officinalis L. essential oil showed greater activity than its components in both antibacterial and anticancer test systems, and the activities were mostly related to their concentrations. PMID:22391603

Wang, Wei; Li, Nan; Luo, Meng; Zu, Yuangang; Efferth, Thomas

2012-03-05

312

Physical, chemical, histological and microbiological changes in fresh green asparagus ( Asparagus officinalis, L.) stored in modified atmosphere packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) has been used to increase the shelf life of the green asparagus (Asparagus officinalis, L.), meeting the market demand for fresh high quality products available annually and without the use of additives whenever possible.Green asparagus spears were stored under three different conditions until they were not fit for consumption: refrigeration at 2 °C, MAP at 2

M. J. Villanueva; M. D. Tenorio; M. Sagardoy; A. Redondo; M. D. Saco

2005-01-01

313

Study of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Essential Oil Yield and Composition as a Function of the Plant Life Cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yield and composition variation of the Algerian Rosmarinus officinalis as a function of plant life cycle was studied. Best period to collect the plant was found to be at full flowering stage. However, to obtain required oil quality, a compromise between oil yield and composition must be considered.

C. Boutekedjiret; R. Belabbes; F. Bentahar; J. M. Bessiere

1999-01-01

314

Adaptive Coloration in Young Cuttlefish (Sepia Officinalis L.): The Morphology and Development of Body Patterns and Their Relation to Behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Young Sepia officinalis (0-5 months) were studied in the laboratory and in the sea, and their appearance and behaviour compared with that of adult animals. Cuttlefish lay large eggs and the hatchlings are miniature replicas of the adults. From the moment of hatching they show body patterns as complex as those of adults and far more elaborate than those shown

R. T. Hanlon; J. B. Messenger

1988-01-01

315

Emblica officinalis exerts antihypertensive effect in a rat model of DOCA-salt-induced hypertension: role of (p) eNOS, NO and oxidative stress.  

PubMed

Emblica officinalis (EO) has antioxidant properties that could improve redox-sensitive vascular, cardiac and renal changes associated with deoxycorticosterone acetate/1% NaCl high salt (DOCA/HS)-induced hypertension. We determined whether hydroalcoholic lyophilized extract of EO may influence DOCA/HS-induced hypertension by modulating activity of (p) eNOS and endogenous antioxidants. Hypertension was induced in rats by DOCA-salt (20 mg/kg, s.c.) twice weekly for 5 weeks and replacing drinking water with 1% NaCl solution. These rats received cotreatment of different doses of EO (75, 150 and 300 mg/kg/day) for 5 weeks. EO significantly decreased arterial blood pressure and heart rate along with cardiac and renal hypertrophy in a dose-dependent fashion as compared to DOCA control rats. Increased TBARS and decreased endogenous antioxidants including GSH, SOD and GSHPx activity in serum, heart and kidney tissues of hypertensive rats were also normalized. Furthermore, this antihypertensive activity of EO was also linked with increased serum NO, K(+) levels and decreased Na(+) levels. Moreover, EO robustly increased activated eNOS expression in heart. Our results demonstrate that EO reduces oxidative stress, prevents development and progression of hypertension as well as cardiac and renal hypertrophy in DOCA/HS-induced hypertension via modulation of activated eNOS, endogenous antioxidants, serum NO and electrolyte levels. PMID:21748534

Bhatia, Jagriti; Tabassum, Fauzia; Sharma, Ashok Kumar; Bharti, Saurabh; Golechha, Mahaveer; Joshi, Sujata; Sayeed Akhatar, Md; Srivastava, Abhay Krishna; Arya, Dharamvir Singh

2011-09-01

316

40 CFR 180.41 - Crop group tables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Marigold (Calendula officinalis ) 19A Marjoram (Origanum spp. ) (includes sweet or annual marjoram, wild marjoram or oregano, and pot marjoram) 19A Mustard (seed) (Brassica juncea, B. hirta, B. nigra) 19B Nasturtium...

2010-07-01

317

40 CFR 180.41 - Crop group tables.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Marigold (Calendula officinalis) 19AMarjoram (Origanum spp. ) (includes sweet or annual marjoram, wild marjoram or oregano, and pot marjoram)19A Mustard (seed) (Brassicajuncea, B. hirta, B.nigra) 19BNasturtium...

2013-07-01

318

Galega orientalis is more diverse than Galega officinalis in Caucasus--whole-genome AFLP analysis and phylogenetics of symbiosis-related genes.  

PubMed

Legume plants can obtain combined nitrogen for their growth in an efficient way through symbiosis with specific bacteria. The symbiosis between Rhizobium galegae and its host plant Galega is an interesting case where the plant species G. orientalis and G. officinalis form effective, nitrogen-fixing, symbioses only with the appropriate rhizobial counterpart, R. galegae bv. orientalis and R. galegae bv. officinalis, respectively. The symbiotic properties of nitrogen-fixing rhizobia are well studied, but more information is needed on the properties of the host plants. The Caucasus region in Eurasia has been identified as the gene centre (centre of origin) of G. orientalis, although both G. orientalis and G. officinalis can be found in this region. In this study, the diversity of these two Galega species in Caucasus was investigated to test the hypothesis that in this region G. orientalis is more diverse than G. officinalis. The amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting performed here showed that the populations of G. orientalis and R. galegae bv. orientalis are more diverse than those of G. officinalis and R. galegae bv. officinalis, respectively. These results support the centre of origin status of Caucasus for G. orientalis at a genetic level. Analysis of the symbiosis-related plant genes NORK and Nfr5 reveals remarkable diversity within the Nfr5 sequence, although no evidence of adaptive evolution could be found. PMID:21980996

Osterman, J; Chizhevskaja, E P; Andronov, E E; Fewer, D P; Terefework, Z; Roumiantseva, M L; Onichtchouk, O P; Dresler-Nurmi, A; Simarov, B V; Dzyubenko, N I; Lindström, K

2011-10-10

319

Simultaneous quantification of verbenalin and verbascoside in Verbena officinalis by ATR-IR and NIR spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Attenuated-total-reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (NIR) in hyphenation with multivariate analysis was utilized to quantify verbenalin and verbascoside in Verbena officinalis. A new high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method as a reference was established and validated. For both vibrational spectroscopic methods test-set and cross validation were performed. Different data-pre-treatments like SNV, 1st and 2nd derivative were applied to remove systematic errors and were evaluated. Quality parameters obtained for the test-set validation revealed that ATR-IR (verbenalin: R(2)=0.94, RPD=4.23; verbascoside: R(2)=0.93, RPD=3.63) has advantages over NIR (verbenalin: R(2)=0.91, RPD=3.75; verbascoside: R(2)=0.80, RPD=2.35) in the given application. PMID:23810849

Schönbichler, S A; Bittner, L K H; Pallua, J D; Popp, M; Abel, G; Bonn, G K; Huck, C W

2013-05-20

320

Histological study of some Echium vulgare, Pulmonaria officinalis and Symphytum officinale populations.  

PubMed

Plants living in different ecological habitats can show significant variability in their histological and phytochemical characters. The main histological features of various populations of three medicinal plants from the Boraginaceae family were studied. Stems, petioles and leaves were investigated by light microscopy in vertical and transverse sections. The outline of the epidermal cells, as well as the shape and cell number of trichomes was studied in leaf surface casts. Differences were measured among the populations of Echium vulgare in the width and height of epidermis cells in the stem, petiole and leaf, as well as in the size of palisade cells in the leaves. Among the populations of Pulmonaria officinalis significant differences were found in the length of trichomes and in the slightly or strongly wavy outline of epidermal radial cell walls. Populations of Symphytum officinale showed variance in the height of epidermal cells in leaves and stems, length of palisade cells and number of intercellular spaces in leaves, and the size of the central cavity in the stem. Boraginaceae bristles were found to be longer in plants in windy/shady habitats as opposed to sunny habitats, both in the leaves and stems ofP. officinalis and S. officinale, which might be connected to varying levels of exposure to wind. Longer epidermal cells were detected in the leaves and stems of both E. vulgare and S. officinale plants living in shady habitats, compared with shorter cells in sunny habitats. Leaf mesophyll cells were shorter in shady habitats as opposed to longer cells in sunny habitats, both in E. vulgare and S. officinale. This combination of histological characters may contribute to the plant's adaptation to various amounts of sunshine. The reported data prove the polymorphism of the studied taxa, as well as their ability to adapt to various ecological circumstances. PMID:22164787

Papp, Nóra; Bencsik, Tímea; Németh, Kitti; Gyergyák, Kinga; Sulc, Alexandra; Farkas, Agnes

2011-10-01

321

Effect of Rosemarinus officinalis L. on MMP-9, MCP-1 levels, and cell migration in RAW 264.7 and smooth muscle cells.  

PubMed

Atherosclerosis is a chronic and progressive inflammatory disease. Novel anti-inflammatory therapies may have promise as treatment strategies for cardiovascular risk reduction. Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis L.) has been used in folk medicine to treat headaches, epilepsy, poor circulation, and many other ailments. It was found that rosemary could act as a stimulant and mild analgesic and could reduce inflammation. However, the mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory and antiatherosclerotic effects of rosemary need more study. This study investigated effects of the rosemary components, carnosic acid (CA), and carnosol (CAR), on cell migration. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) were determined by Western blot and gelatin zymography, respectively, in RAW 264.7 macrophages and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). VSMC migration was assessed by a Matrigel migration assay. Active compounds of rosemary extracts were also analyzed using a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. MMP-9 and MCP-1 activities were markedly diminished with methanol extract (RM), n-hexane fraction (RH), and CA in RAW 264.7 cells. RM, RH, CA, and CAR suppressed tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced VSMC migration by inhibiting MMP-9 expression. Chromatograms of RM- and RH-containing CA and CAR revealed higher CA contents of RM (9.4%, 93.85??g/mg dry wt.) and, especially, RH (18.4%, 184.00??g/mg dry wt.), which were appreciably elevated compared with the similar CAR content in RM and RH (3.7%, 37.30??g/mg dry wt.; and 2.5%, 25.05??g/mg dry wt., respectively). Rosemary, especially its CA component, has potential antiatherosclerosis effects related to cell migration. PMID:22985398

Chae, In Gyeong; Yu, Mi Hee; Im, Nam-Kyung; Jung, Young Tae; Lee, Jinho; Chun, Kyung-Soo; Lee, In-Seon

2012-09-17

322

Effect of Rosemarinus officinalis L. on MMP-9, MCP-1 Levels, and Cell Migration in RAW 264.7 and Smooth Muscle Cells  

PubMed Central

Abstract Atherosclerosis is a chronic and progressive inflammatory disease. Novel anti-inflammatory therapies may have promise as treatment strategies for cardiovascular risk reduction. Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis L.) has been used in folk medicine to treat headaches, epilepsy, poor circulation, and many other ailments. It was found that rosemary could act as a stimulant and mild analgesic and could reduce inflammation. However, the mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory and antiatherosclerotic effects of rosemary need more study. This study investigated effects of the rosemary components, carnosic acid (CA), and carnosol (CAR), on cell migration. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) were determined by Western blot and gelatin zymography, respectively, in RAW 264.7 macrophages and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). VSMC migration was assessed by a Matrigel migration assay. Active compounds of rosemary extracts were also analyzed using a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. MMP-9 and MCP-1 activities were markedly diminished with methanol extract (RM), n-hexane fraction (RH), and CA in RAW 264.7 cells. RM, RH, CA, and CAR suppressed tumor necrosis factor-alpha–induced VSMC migration by inhibiting MMP-9 expression. Chromatograms of RM- and RH-containing CA and CAR revealed higher CA contents of RM (9.4%, 93.85??g/mg dry wt.) and, especially, RH (18.4%, 184.00??g/mg dry wt.), which were appreciably elevated compared with the similar CAR content in RM and RH (3.7%, 37.30??g/mg dry wt.; and 2.5%, 25.05??g/mg dry wt., respectively). Rosemary, especially its CA component, has potential antiatherosclerosis effects related to cell migration.

Chae, In Gyeong; Yu, Mi Hee; Im, Nam-Kyung; Jung, Young Tae; Lee, Jinho; Chun, Kyung-Soo

2012-01-01

323

Effects of IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3 on Rooting and Morphological Features of Melissa officinalis L. Stem Cuttings  

PubMed Central

This study analyzed the potential of producing Melissa officinalis L. using stem cuttings. Four different hormones (IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3) were applied to the cuttings, with and without buds, in two doses (1000?mg/L and 5000?mg/L), and after 60 days, 10 morphological characteristics of newly generated plants were detected, and a statistical analysis was carried out. The results of the study show that the cuttings with at least one bud must be used in order to produce M. officinalis using stem cuttings. Even though the auxin group hormones (IAA, IBA, and NAA) do not have an apparent effect on rooting percentage, these hormones were detected to affect the morphological characteristics of the newly generated plants, especially root generation. GA3 application has a considerable effect on stem height.

Guney, Kerim

2013-01-01

324

Investigation on the hypoglycaemic effects of extracts of four Mexican medicinal plants in normal and alloxan-diabetic mice.  

PubMed

The hypoglycaemic activities of four water ethanol extracts (WEE) prepared from Bidens pilosa L., Salvia officinalis L., Psacalium peltatum H.B.K. (Cass) and Turnera diffusa Willd. were investigated in healthy and alloxan-diabetic mice. The WEE of S. officinalis significantly reduced the blood glucose of fasting normal mice 120 (15.7%) and 240 min (30.2%) after intraperitoneal administration (p < 0.05). The WEE of P. peltatum and B. pilosa also significantly diminished glycaemia in healthy mice at 240 min (19.6% and 13.8%, respectively). In mildly diabetic mice, the WEE of P. peltatum lowered the basal blood glucose level 120 (16%) and 240 min (54%) after intraperitoneal administration (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). The WEE of B. pilosa and S. officinalis also significantly diminished the hyperglycaemia in mildly diabetic mice at 240 mins (32.6% and 22.7%, respectively). The administration of these three extracts to animals with severe hyperglycaemia did not cause a significant decrease. The WEE of T. diffusa did not show any hypoglycaemic activity. Thus, three of the WEE studied conserved the hypoglycaemic activity originally detected in the traditional preparations of the studied antidiabetic plants. It appears that these extracts require the presence of insulin to show hypoglycaemic activity. PMID:12112298

Alarcon-Aguilar, F J; Roman-Ramos, R; Flores-Saenz, J L; Aguirre-Garcia, F

2002-06-01

325

Distribution of oxytocin-like and vasopressin-like immunoreactivities within the central nervous system of the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the distribution of oxytocin\\/vasopressin (OT\\/VP) superfamily peptides in the central nervous system (CNS)\\u000a of the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, by using antibodies raised against mammalian OT and VP. Several populations of OT-like and VP-like immunoreactive cell bodies\\u000a and fibers were widely distributed in cerebral structures involved in learning processes (vertical lobe complex, optic lobes),\\u000a behavioral communication (peduncle, lateral

Isabelle Bardou; Eric Maubert; Jérôme Leprince; Raymond Chichery; Claude Cocquerelle; Séverine Launay; Denis Vivien; Hubert Vaudry; Véronique Agin

2009-01-01

326

Increase in Freezing Resistance of Excised Shoot Tips of Asparagus officinalisL. by Preculture on Sugar-Rich Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of preculture on freezing resistance, sugar and water content, and the cell structure of asparagus shoot tips (Asparagus officinalisL.) were examined. Freezing resistance of tips was increased by a 48-h preculture on a medium supplemented with a high concentration of sugar. The optimal concentration of sugar in the preculture medium was 0.5M,regardless of the sugar. The results of

Takashi Suzuki; Manabu Kaneko; Takashi Harada

1997-01-01

327

Salvia officinalis L. essential oils: effect of hydrodistillation time on the chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salvia officinalis L. oils were isolated from the plant's commercial dried aerial parts, by hydrodistillation, with different distillation times. The essential oils were analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The antioxidant ability was measured using a free radical scavenging activity assay using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), a thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay, a deoxyribose assay for the scavenging of

G. Miguel; C. Cruz; M. L. Faleiro; M. T. F. Simões; A. C. Figueiredo; J. G. Barroso; L. G. Pedro

2011-01-01

328

Essential Oils of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.). The Chemical Composition of Oils of Various Origins (Morocco, Spain, France)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of the essential oil of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) from various geographical origins (Morocco, Spain and France) was determined by GC\\/MS. Although 48 constituents were identified, the oils of different origins could be differentiated based both on their physicochemical characteristics and their major components. The Spanish oils were found to be rich in ?-pinene (19.4–24.7%), 1,8-cineole (19.0–21.8%)

Jean-Claude Chalchat; Raymond-Philippe Garry; André Michet; B. Benjilali; J. L. Chabart

1993-01-01

329

Instrumental neutron activation analysis of Emblica officinalis, Terminalia belerica and Terminalia chebula for trace element efficacy and safety.  

PubMed

To assess the efficacy and safety, essential (Cl, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Mn, Na, Se, Zn), toxic (As, Br, Hg, Sb,) and other elements (Ba, Ce, Cs, Eu, Rb, Sc) were determined in Emblica officinalis (EO), Terminalia belerica (TB) and Terminalia chebula (TC) using instrumental neutron activation analysis. These herbs contain K as a major element, while Co, Cr and Na in EO, Fe, K and Mn in TB and Cl and Zn in TC are the highest. PMID:23608598

Waheed, S; Fatima, I

2013-03-16

330

High frequency plant regeneration through adventitious multiple shoot organogenesis in epicotyl explants of Indian gooseberry ( Emblica officinalis Gaertn)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shoots regenerated adventitiously on epicotyl segments from in vitro seedlings of Emblica officinalis var. ‘Kanchan’. Epicotyls derived from 2-week-old aseptic seedlings were most responsive and produced a maximum number of 303 shoots per explant in Murashige and Skoog (1962) medium (MS) augmented with 8.8?MN6-benzyladenine (BA)+1.425?M indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Shoots readily elongated in MS lacking growth regulators and rooted in half-salt-strength

P. Nayak; P. R. Behera; M. Thirunavoukkarasu; P. K. Chand

2010-01-01

331

Vitamin C Enrichment of Fruit Juice Based ReadytoServe Beverages Through Blending of Indian Gooseberry ( Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) Juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physiconutritional qualities of fruits viz. apple, lime, pome- granate, Perlette grape, and Pusa Navrang grape were analyzed and compared with those of Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.). Indian gooseberry juice contained the highest vitamin C (478.56 mg\\/100 ml). Hence, when gooseberry juice was blended with other fruits’ juice for the preparation of ready-to-serve (RTS) beverages, it boosted their nutritional quality

SHASHI KUMAR JAIN; D. S. KHURDIYA

2004-01-01

332

Plant growth, essential oil yield and composition of sage ( Salvia officinalis L.) fruits cultivated under salt stress conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A glasshouse experiment was conducted to assess the effect of different NaCl concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 100mM) on plant growth, essential oil production and composition of Salvia officinalis fruits. The first results showed that increasing NaCl levels to 100mM reduced significantly the plant growth by 65%. While, the essential oil yield increased significantly from control to 75mM and decreased

Mouna Ben Taarit; Kamel Msaada; Karim Hosni; Mohamed Hammami; Mohamed Elyes Kchouk; Brahim Marzouk

2009-01-01

333

Prevention of diabetes-induced myocardial dysfunction in rats using the juice of the Emblica officinalis fruit  

PubMed Central

Normalization of hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress is an important objective in preventing diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction. The present study investigated the effects of the fruit juice obtained from Emblica officinalis on myocardial dysfunction in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ), and the rats were treated with E officinalis fruit juice for eight weeks. Injection of STZ produced loss of body weight, polydypsia, polyphagia, hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia and dyslipidemia. It also produced hypertension, bradycardia, hypertrophy and myocardial functional alterations associated with an increase in serum lactate dehydrogenase and creatinine kinase-MB levels. Treatment with the fruit juice not only prevented STZ-induced loss of body weight, increases in water and food intake, increases in serum glucose levels and disturbed lipid profile, but also an increase in serum lactate dehydrogenase and creatinine kinase-MB levels, and increased myocardial hypertrophy and cardiomyopathy. There was an increase in the area under the curve (AUC) for glucose, and a decrease in AUCinsulin was observed in diabetic rats; treatment decreased AUCglucose but not AUCinsulin or hyperinsulinemia. There was a decrease in antioxidant enzyme levels (in superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione and catalase) in diabetic hearts, which could be improved by treatment with fruit juice. The present data suggest that fruit juice may be beneficial for the treatment of myocardial damage associated with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The activity of E officinalis fruit juice can be attributed to the concentration of polyphenol present.

Patel, Snehal S; Goyal, Ramesh K

2011-01-01

334

Prevention of diabetes-induced myocardial dysfunction in rats using the juice of the Emblica officinalis fruit.  

PubMed

Normalization of hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress is an important objective in preventing diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction. The present study investigated the effects of the fruit juice obtained from Emblica officinalis on myocardial dysfunction in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ), and the rats were treated with E officinalis fruit juice for eight weeks. Injection of STZ produced loss of body weight, polydypsia, polyphagia, hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia and dyslipidemia. It also produced hypertension, bradycardia, hypertrophy and myocardial functional alterations associated with an increase in serum lactate dehydrogenase and creatinine kinase-MB levels. Treatment with the fruit juice not only prevented STZ-induced loss of body weight, increases in water and food intake, increases in serum glucose levels and disturbed lipid profile, but also an increase in serum lactate dehydrogenase and creatinine kinase-MB levels, and increased myocardial hypertrophy and cardiomyopathy. There was an increase in the area under the curve (AUC) for glucose, and a decrease in AUC(insulin) was observed in diabetic rats; treatment decreased AUC(glucose) but not AUC(insulin) or hyperinsulinemia. There was a decrease in antioxidant enzyme levels (in superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione and catalase) in diabetic hearts, which could be improved by treatment with fruit juice. The present data suggest that fruit juice may be beneficial for the treatment of myocardial damage associated with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The activity of E officinalis fruit juice can be attributed to the concentration of polyphenol present. PMID:22065939

Patel, Snehal S; Goyal, Ramesh K

2011-01-01

335

Simultaneous determination of four bioactive compounds in Verbena officinalis L. by using high-performance liquid chromatography  

PubMed Central

Background: Verbena officinalis L., called mabiancao in Chinese, is derived from the aerial part of Herba Verbanae. It is a traditional Chinese medicine commonly used in China and northern Europe, which is widely used for clearing away heat and detoxicating, promoting blood circulation, and removing blood stasis. This paper describes a sensitive and specific assay for the determination of four bioactive compounds in V. officinalis L. Materials and Methods: In this paper, the four components were separated on an Agilent Zorbax Extend C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm × 5 ?m) and detected by a diode array detector. The mobile phase was composed of (a) aqueous phosphoric acid (0.1%, v/v) and (b) acetonitrile using a gradient elution. Analytes were performed at 30°C with a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min and UV detection at 203, 238, and 331 nm. Results: All calibration curves showed good linear regression (r2 ? 0.9999) within tested ranges. Overall intra- and interday variations were less than 1.84%, and the average recoveries were 97.32–102.81% for analytes. Discussion and Conclusion: The proposed method would be sensitive enough and reliable for comprehensive quality control for clinical use and modernization of V. officinalis L.

Liu, Zhen; Xu, Zhiwei; Zhou, Hanyu; Cao, Gang; Cong, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Yun; Cai, Bao-Chang

2012-01-01

336

Water repellency and soil moisture variations under Rosmarinus officinalis in a burned soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mediterranean semi-arid landscapes are characterised by the patchiness of the vegetation cover, in which variations in the distribution pattern of soil water repellency (SWR) can be of major importance for their hydrological and geomorphological effects in burned areas, and also for their ecological implications concerning to the re-establishment of their plant cover. Within a broader research framework, the present work studies the influence of Rosmarinus officinalis vegetated patches on SWR in burned and unburned soils and its relationship with the field soil moisture content (SMC). The results presented here are the first step analysing the spatial pattern of sink and source runoff areas in a burned hillslope. The study area is located in the municipality of Les Useres, 40 km from Castellón city (E Spain), where a wildfire occurred in August 2007. We selected a burned SSE facing hillslope, located at 570 m a.s.l., with 12 ° slope angle, in which it was possible to identify the presence of two unique shrub species: Quercus coccifera L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L., which were distributed in a patchy mosaic. Twenty microsites with burned R. officinalis and eight at the nearest unburned area were selected. At the burned microsites, it was possible to distinguish three concentric zones (I, II and III) around the stumps showing differences on their soil surface appearance, which indicate a gradient of fire severity. Those differences were considered for soil sampling (1 sample per zone at each microsite, n= 84, form the first 2 cm of the mineral A horizon) and field soil moisture measurements determined by means of the moisture meter HH2 with ThetaProbe sensor type ML2x (5 measurements per zone at each microsite, n= 420), which were taken one day after the first rainfall event after fire, when 11 mm were registered in the study area. Results showed that the largest repellency persistence (measured by means of the Water Drop Penetration Time test, WDPT) was found close to the burned R. officinalis stumps, where all soil samples showed water repellency, with mean WDPT of 68 seconds. Generally, we observed a sharp hydrophobic/hydrophilic boundary between the zones I (stump) and II (intermediate). Soil samples from bare soil (zone III) were entirely wettable. At control microsites, SWR was present only in one of the unburned R. officinalis samples. On the basis that unburned microsites are representative of the pre-fire conditions at the burned ones, these results imply that fire caused a significant increase in SWR occurrence at the soil surface. Field SMC showed statistically significant differences between the three zones. Both control and burned microsites showed the same trend, with an increasing gradient towards the outer zone. Furthermore, burned microsites showed larger differences in SMC between zone I and zone III (18% and 27%, respectively) than the unburned ones. It could be explained because at burned stumps, the largest persistence of water repellency and the highest SOM content might decrease the wettability of aggregates, slowing their rates of wetting, which might not occur at all during the rainstorms. In fact, there was obtained a significant and negative Pearson's correlation coefficients between SMC and WDPT, and between SMC and SOM at burned microsites. However, no correlation between field SMC and WDPT was found from control microsites. Moreover, at the burned microsites, the partial correlation analysis with SOM as control variable revealed that SMC and WDPT were influenced by the SOM. In addition, it is necessary to consider the existence of root channels with the development of preferential flow pathways, which could enhance deeper water infiltration in the stump areas. These results provide evidences of the importance of microsite soil surface properties on SMC variability on semiarid burned slopes. The existence of SWR and lowest SMC detected at burned stumps opposite to the highest SMC after rainfall and the absence of SWR in burned bare soil zones could be key factors for the differences in ove

Gimeno-García, E.; Pascual-Aguilar, J. A.; Llovet, J.

2009-04-01

337

The antimicrobial activity of essential oils and extracts of some medicinal plants grown in Ash-shoubak region - South of Jordan.  

PubMed

The inhibitory effects of essential oils as well as chloroformic extracts of Thymus vulgaris, Thymus serpyllum, Salvia officinalis and Pimpinella anisum grown in Ash-shoubak region-south of Jordan and their possible individual phytochemical constituents was screened against pathogenic clinical and standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. The bioassay employed was the agar well diffusion method. The essential oils and chloroformic extracts of T. vulgaris and T. serpyllum were the most effective against the tested strains of bacteria. Clinical and standard strains of S .aureus and P. aeruginosa were uninhibited by S. officinalis essential oils. P. aeruginosa tested strains were also resistant to P. anisum essential oils. For almost all bacterial strains, the highest antibacterial effect of oils was obtained with the highest tested dose (15 ?l). Chlorformic extracts of S. officinalis showed small activity against standard and clinical E. coli strains and were not effective to inhibit strains of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. Chloroformic extracts obtained from P. anisum and applied at 300 ?g/cm(2) slightly inhibited E. coli, but moderately inhibited S. aureus. It is shown from the results that the antibacterial effects of the individual components varied depending upon their chemical structure, functional groups and configuration as well as doses used. This study showed the beneficial effects of the essential oils of T. serpyllum and T. vulgaris grown in Ash-shoubak in inhibiting the growth of microbes and the implications this could have in pharmacy and food technology. PMID:22186336

Abu-Darwish, Mohammad Sanad; Al-Ramamneh, Ezz Al-Dein Muhammed; Kyslychenko, Viktoria Sergeevna; Karpiuk, Uliana Vladimirovna

2012-01-01

338

Effect of Amla fruit (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) on blood glucose and lipid profile of normal subjects and type 2 diabetic patients.  

PubMed

The present study evaluated the anti-hyperglycemic and lipid-lowering properties of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. fruit in normal and diabetic human volunteers. The results indicated a significant decrease (P <  0.05) in fasting and 2-h post-prandial blood glucose levels on the 21st day in both normal and diabetic subjects receiving 1, 2 or 3 g E. officinalis powder per day as compared with their baseline values. Significant (P <  0.05) decreases were also observed in total cholesterol and triglycerides in both normal and diabetic volunteers on day 21 that were given either 2 or 3 g E. officinalis powder per day. However, diabetic volunteers receiving only 3 g E. officinalis powder exhibited a significant (P <  0.05) decrease in total lipids on day 21. Both normal and diabetic volunteers receiving 2 or 3 g E. officinalis powder significantly (P <  0.05) improved high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and lowered low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels. PMID:21495900

Akhtar, Muhammad Shoaib; Ramzan, Ayesha; Ali, Amanat; Ahmad, Maqsood

2011-04-18

339

Identification and expression of two oxytocin/vasopressin-related peptides in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.  

PubMed

Two novel members of the oxytocin/vasopressin superfamily have been identified in the cephalopod Sepia officinalis. Oxytocin/vasopressin gene sequences were cloned by Race PCR. The two precursors we identified exhibit the classical organization of OT/VP superfamily precursors: a signal peptide followed by a nonapeptide and a neurophysin domain. The neurophysin domain is entirely conserved for the cuttlefish precursors, but the nonapeptides and the signal peptides differ. The first nonapeptide, called sepiatocin, is highly homologous to Octopus vulgaris octopressin. The second nonapeptide, called pro-sepiatocin, shows sequence homologies with a Crustacean oxytocin/vasopressin-like peptide identified in Daphnia culex and with a novel form of oxytocin described in New World monkeys. The expression of pro-sepiatocin is restricted to the supraesophageal and subesophageal masses of the brain whereas sepiatocin is expressed in the entire central nervous system. Sepiatocin, as described for octopressin, modulates the contractile activity of several muscles such as penis, oviduct and vena cava muscles; this suggests its involvement in reproduction and blood circulation. Pro-sepiatocin is released in the hemolymph; it is a neurohormone able to target numerous peripheral organs. PMID:23764263

Henry, Joël; Cornet, Valerie; Bernay, Benoit; Zatylny-Gaudin, Céline

2013-06-11

340

Plant regeneration after long-term callus culture in clones of Asparagus officinalis L.  

PubMed

Callus growth and plant regeneration from long-term callus cultures were studied in two elite clones of Asparagus officinalis cv. Argenteuil, to establish a suitable protocol for a prospective in vitro selection program. Callus initiation and growth was evaluated on MS medium with 3% sucrose, 0.9% agar, 1 mg x l(-1) kinetin, and three levels of 2,4-D. The highest callus relative growth was obtained on medium with 1.5 mg x l(-1) 2,4-D and 1 mg x l(-1) kinetin. Shoot primordia (SP) induction from > 18-months-old calluses was evaluated on several media; the highest percentage of SP induction (89%) and average number of SP per callus (8.6) were obtained with clone "265" on MS medium with 5 mg x l(-1) 2iP, 1 mg x l(-1) IAA, 3% sucrose and 0.9% agar. The highest percentage of root induction (100%) was achieved with clone '265' on MS medium with 0.1 mg x l(-1) kinetin, 0.1 mg x l(-1) NAA, 1.32 mg x l(-1) ancymidol, 7% glucose and 0.8% agar. Important medium x genotype interactions were detected, pointing to the need of adjusting this and other in vitro protocols for specific asparagus genotypes. PMID:16524253

Pontaroli, A C; Camadro, E L

2005-12-01

341

Effect of pasteurized egg and Rosmarinus officinalis supplementation on quality of cryopreserved ram semen.  

PubMed

The aim was to assess the in vitro effect of pasteurized egg (PE) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) on frozen-thawed ram semen. Ejaculates from three mature rams of the Rasa Aragonesa breed were cryopreserved using a 2-step dilution method (Fraction 1: F1; Fraction 2: F2). In Experiment 1, semen was frozen in egg yolk (EY) or PE extenders. After thawing, similar results were obtained in terms of total and progressive motility, viability, hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST) and acrosome integrity after 2 h incubation. In Experiment 2, addition of rosemary to F1, F2 or both fractions to EY extenders was evaluated. Rosemary in F1 decreased progressive motility (p = 0.013) after 2 h incubation. Finally, PE can be used as a substitute for EY to reduce hygienic risks in extenders and is easier to standardize. Supplementation of EY extender with rosemary in F1 reduced progressive motility. Rosemary supplementation in F2 does not affect semen quality. PMID:23995410

Mascaro, F; Gil, L; Malo, C; Gonzales, N; Martinez, F; de Blas, I

342

Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn), a wonder berry in the treatment and prevention of cancer.  

PubMed

Emblica officinalis Gaertn. or Phyllanthus emblica Linn, commonly known as Indian gooseberry or amla, is arguably the most important medicinal plant in the Indian traditional system of medicine, the Ayurveda. Various parts of the plant are used to treat a range of diseases, but the most important is the fruit. The fruit is used either alone or in combination with other plants to treat many ailments such as common cold and fever; as a diuretic, laxative, liver tonic, refrigerant, stomachic, restorative, alterative, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, hair tonic; to prevent peptic ulcer and dyspepsia, and as a digestive. Preclinical studies have shown that amla possesses antipyretic, analgesic, antitussive, antiatherogenic, adaptogenic, cardioprotective, gastroprotective, antianemia, antihypercholesterolemia, wound healing, antidiarrheal, antiatherosclerotic, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, and neuroprotective properties. In addition, experimental studies have shown that amla and some of its phytochemicals such as gallic acid, ellagic acid, pyrogallol, some norsesquiterpenoids, corilagin, geraniin, elaeocarpusin, and prodelphinidins B1 and B2 also possess antineoplastic effects. Amla is also reported to possess radiomodulatory, chemomodulatory, chemopreventive effects, free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic and immunomodulatory activities, properties that are efficacious in the treatment and prevention of cancer. This review for the first time summarizes the results related to these properties and also emphasizes the aspects that warrant future research to establish its activity and utility as a cancer preventive and therapeutic drug in humans. PMID:21317655

Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath; Dsouza, Jason Jerome

2011-05-01

343

Interactions of Valeriana officinalis L. and Passiflora incarnata L. in a patient treated with lorazepam.  

PubMed

There is an increasing interest in the health risks related to the use of herbal remedies. Although most consumers think that phytomedicines are safe and without side effects, interactions between complementary alternative and conventional medicines are being described. The aim of this clinical case report is to highlight the importance of the safe use of herbal remedies by providing a clinical interaction study between pharmaceutical medicines and herbal medicinal products. The case of a patient self-medicated with Valeriana officinalis L. and Passiflora incarnata L. while he was on lorazepam treatment is described. Handshaking, dizziness, throbbing and muscular fatigue were reported within the 32 h before clinical diagnosis. The analysis of family medical history ruled out essential tremor, Parkinson's disease, Wilson's disease and other symptom-related pathologies. His medical history revealed a generalized anxiety disorder and medicinal plant consumption but no neurological disorder. Appropriate physical examination was carried out. An additive or synergistic effect is suspected to have produced these symptoms. The active principles of Valerian and passionflower might increase the inhibitory activity of benzodiazepines binding to the GABA receptors, causing severe secondary effects. Due to the increase in herbal product self-medication, the use of herbal remedies should be registered while taking the personal clinical history. Multidisciplinary teams should be created to raise studies on medicinal plants with impact on medical praxis. PMID:19441067

Carrasco, María Consuelo; Vallejo, José Ramón; Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel; Peral, Diego; Martín, Miguel Angel; Altimiras, Jacinto

2009-12-01

344

Composition of the essential oil of Salvia officinalis L. from various European countries.  

PubMed

Variations in the essential oil composition of Salvia officinalis L. growing in Estonia and in other European countries were determined. The oils were obtained in yields of 2.2-24.8 mL kg(-1). In three samples, the content of essential oil did not conform to the EP standard (10 mL kg(-1)). Variations in the essential oil composition of sage were studied using capillary gas chromatographic methods. A total of 40 components were identified. The principal components in the sage oils were 1,8-cineole, camphor, alpha-thujone, beta-thujone, borneol, and viridiflorol. The chemotypes of sage were not determined in investigated samples. The concentration of the main compounds in the drugs cultivated in Estonia varied in about the same range as the concentrations of these compounds in the oils of drugs obtained from other countries. The comparatively high concentration of toxic thujones seem to be characteristic to sage leaves cultivated in Estonia. PMID:17487611

Raal, Ain; Orav, Anne; Arak, Elmar

2007-05-01

345

Perception of visual texture and the expression of disruptive camouflage by the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis  

PubMed Central

Juvenile cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) camouflage themselves by changing their body pattern according to the background. This behaviour can be used to investigate visual perception in these molluscs and may also give insight into camouflage design. Edge detection is an important aspect of vision, and here we compare the body patterns that cuttlefish produced in response to checkerboard backgrounds with responses to backgrounds that have the same spatial frequency power spectrum as the checkerboards, but randomized spatial phase. For humans, phase randomization removes visual edges. To describe the cuttlefish body patterns, we scored the level of expression of 20 separate pattern ‘components’, and then derived principal components (PCs) from these scores. After varimax rotation, the first component (PC1) corresponded closely to the so-called disruptive body pattern, and the second (PC2) to the mottle pattern. PC1 was predominantly expressed on checkerboards, and PC2 on phase-randomized backgrounds. Thus, cuttlefish probably have edge detectors that control the expression of disruptive pattern. Although the experiments used unnatural backgrounds, it seems probable that cuttlefish display disruptive camouflage when there are edges in the visual background caused by discrete objects such as pebbles. We discuss the implications of these findings for our understanding of disruptive camouflage.

Kelman, E.J; Baddeley, R.J; Shohet, A.J; Osorio, D

2007-01-01

346

Nitric Oxide Mediates the Glutamate-dependent Pathway for Neurotransmission in Sepia officinalis Chromatophore Organs  

PubMed Central

Chromatophore organs are complex and unique structures responsible for the variety of body coloration patterns used by cephalopods to communicate and camouflage. They are formed by a pigment-containing cytoelastic sacculus, surrounded by muscle fibers directly innervated from the brain. Muscle contraction and relaxation are responsible for expansion and retraction of the pigment-containing cell. Their functioning depends on glutamate and Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2-related peptides, which induce fast and slow cell expansion, respectively, and 5-hydroxytryptamine, which induces retraction. Apart from these three substances and acetylcholine, which acts presynaptically, no other neuroactive compounds have so far been found to be involved in the neuroregulation of chromatophore physiology, and the detailed signaling mechanisms are still little understood. Herein, we disclose the role of nitric oxide (NO) as mediator in one of the signaling pathways by which glutamate activates body patterning. NO and nitric-oxide synthase have been detected in pigment and muscle fibers of embryo, juvenile, and adult chromatophore organs from Sepia officinalis. NO-mediated Sepia chromatophore expansion operates at slower rate than glutamate and involves cGMP, cyclic ADP-ribose, and ryanodine receptor activation. These results demonstrate for the first time that NO is an important messenger in the long term maintenance of the body coloration patterns in Sepia.

Mattiello, Teresa; Fiore, Gabriella; Brown, Euan R.; d'Ischia, Marco; Palumbo, Anna

2010-01-01

347

Acaricidal effect of essential oils from Lippia graveolens (Lamiales: Verbenaceae), Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), and Allium sativum (Liliales: Liliaceae) against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).  

PubMed

Acaricidal effects of three essential oils extracted from Mexican oregano leaves (Lippia graveolens Kunth), rosemary leaves (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), and garlic bulbs (Allium sativum L.) on 10-d-old Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) tick larvae were evaluated by using the larval packet test bioassay. Serial dilutions of the three essential oils were tested from a starting concentration of 20 to 1.25%. Results showed that both Mexican oregano and garlic essential oils had very similar activity, producing high mortality (90-100%) in all tested concentrations on 10-d-old R. microplus tick larvae. Rosemary essential oil produced >85% larval mortality at the higher concentrations (10 and 20%), but the effect decreased noticeably to 40% at an oil concentration of 5%, and mortality was absent at 2.5 and 1.25% of the essential oil concentration. Chemical composition of the essential oils was elucidated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. Mexican oregano essential oil included thymol (24.59%), carvacrol (24.54%), p-cymene (13.6%), and y-terpinene (7.43%) as its main compounds, whereas rosemary essential oil was rich in a-pinene (31.07%), verbenone (15.26%), and 1,8-cineol (14.2%), and garlic essential oil was rich in diallyl trisulfide (33.57%), diallyl disulfide (30.93%), and methyl allyl trisulfide (11.28%). These results suggest that Mexican oregano and garlic essential oils merit further investigation as components of alternative approaches for R. microplus tick control. PMID:21845941

Martinez-Velazquez, M; Rosario-Cruz, R; Castillo-Herrera, G; Flores-Fernandez, J M; Alvarez, A H; Lugo-Cervantes, E

2011-07-01

348

Induction of Heme Oxygenase1 by Plant Extract KIOM-79 via Akt Pathway and NF-E2 Related Factor 2 in Pancreatic ?-Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the present study was to determine the mechanism by which KIOM-79 induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in rat pancreatic ?-cells (RINm5F). A mixture of plant extracts (KIOM-79) was obtained from Magnolia officinalis, Pueraria lobata, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, and Euphorbia pekinensis. HO-1, an antioxidant phase 2 enzyme, was previously reported to possess cytoprotective properties in pancreatic ?-cells. KIOM-79 induced heme

Kyoung Ah Kang; Jin Sook Kim; Rui Zhang; Mei Jing Piao; Dong Ok Ko; Zhi Hong Wang; Young Hee Maeng; Su Yong Eun; Jin Won Hyun

2008-01-01

349

Elevated CO2 levels affect the activity of nitrate reductase and carbonic anhydrase in the calcifying rhodophyte Corallina officinalis  

PubMed Central

The concentration of CO2 in global surface ocean waters is increasing due to rising atmospheric CO2 emissions, resulting in lower pH and a lower saturation state of carbonate ions. Such changes in seawater chemistry are expected to impact calcification in calcifying marine organisms. However, other physiological processes related to calcification might also be affected, including enzyme activity. In a mesocosm experiment, macroalgal communities were exposed to three CO2 concentrations (380, 665, and 1486 µatm) to determine how the activity of two enzymes related to inorganic carbon uptake and nutrient assimilation in Corallina officinalis, an abundant calcifying rhodophyte, will be affected by elevated CO2 concentrations. The activity of external carbonic anhydrase, an important enzyme functioning in macroalgal carbon-concentrating mechanisms, was inversely related to CO2 concentration after long-term exposure (12 weeks). Nitrate reductase, the enzyme responsible for reduction of nitrate to nitrite, was stimulated by CO2 and was highest in algae grown at 665 µatm CO2. Nitrate and phosphate uptake rates were inversely related to CO2, while ammonium uptake was unaffected, and the percentage of inorganic carbon in the algal skeleton decreased with increasing CO2. The results indicate that the processes of inorganic carbon and nutrient uptake and assimilation are affected by elevated CO2 due to changes in enzyme activity, which change the energy balance and physiological status of C. officinalis, therefore affecting its competitive interactions with other macroalgae. The ecological implications of the physiological changes in C. officinalis in response to elevated CO2 are discussed.

Hofmann, Laurie C.

2013-01-01

350

Antiglycating potential of Zingiber officinalis and delay of diabetic cataract in rats  

PubMed Central

Purpose Advanced glycation end products (AGE) are associated in the development of several pathophysiologies including diabetic cataract. Earlier we have reported that some common dietary agents have antiglycating activity and ginger (Zingiber officinalis) was one of the few prominent agents that effectively prevented AGE formation in vitro. In this study we investigated the potential of ginger to prevent diabetic cataract in rats. Methods Diabetes was induced in Wistar-NIN rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (35 mg/kg bodyweight) and the control rats received vehicle alone. While a set of diabetic animals received AIN-93 diet, another set received either 0.5 or 3% ginger in their diet for a period of two months. Cataract progression was monitored by slit-lamp biomicroscope. At the end of two months, the animals were sacrificed to evaluate non-enzymatic glycation and osmotic stress in the eye lens. Results Slit-lamp examination revealed that feeding of ginger not only delayed the onset but also the progression of cataract in rats. Molecular analyses indicated that feeding of ginger significantly inhibited the formation of various AGE products including carboxymethyl lysine in the eye lens. In addition, ginger also countered hyperglycemia-induced osmotic stress in the lens. Conclusions The results indicated that ginger was effective against the development of diabetic cataract in rats mainly through its antiglycating potential and to a lesser extent by inhibition of the polyol pathway. Thus, ingredients of dietary sources, such as ginger, may be explored for the prevention or delay of diabetic complications.

Saraswat, Megha; Suryanarayana, Palla; Patil, Madhoosudan A.; Balakrishna, Nagalla

2010-01-01

351

Role of blood-oxygen transport in thermal tolerance of the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis.  

PubMed

Mechanisms that affect thermal tolerance of ectothermic organisms have recently received much interest, mainly due to global warming and climate-change debates in both the public and in the scientific community. In physiological terms, thermal tolerance of several marine ectothermic taxa can be linked to oxygen availability, with capacity limitations in ventilatory and circulatory systems contributing to oxygen limitation at extreme temperatures. The present review briefly summarizes the processes that define thermal tolerance in a model cephalopod organism, the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, with a focus on the contribution of the cephalopod oxygen-carrying blood pigment, hemocyanin. When acutely exposed to either extremely high or low temperatures, cuttlefish display a gradual transition to an anaerobic mode of energy production in key muscle tissues once critical temperatures (T(crit)) are reached. At high temperatures, stagnating metabolic rates and a developing hypoxemia can be correlated with a progressive failure of the circulatory system, well before T(crit) is reached. However, at low temperatures, declining metabolic rates cannot be related to ventilatory or circulatory failure. Rather, we propose a role for hemocyanin functional characteristics as a major limiting factor preventing proper tissue oxygenation. Using information on the oxygen binding characteristics of cephalopod hemocyanins, we argue that high oxygen affinities (= low P(50) values), as found at low temperatures, allow efficient oxygen shuttling only at very low venous oxygen partial pressures. Low venous PO(2)s limit rates of oxygen diffusion into cells, thus eventually causing the observed transition to anaerobic metabolism. On the basis of existing blood physiological, molecular, and crystallographical data, the potential to resolve the role of hemocyanin isoforms in thermal adaptation by an integrated molecular physiological approach is discussed. PMID:21672869

Melzner, Frank; Mark, Felix C; Pörtner, Hans-Otto

2007-07-23

352

Quantitation and bitter taste contribution of saponins in fresh and cooked white asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.).  

PubMed

A sensitive HPLC-MS/MS method was developed enabling the simultaneous quantification of bitter-tasting mono- and bidesmosidic saponins in fresh and processed asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.). Based on quantitative data and bitter taste recognition thresholds, dose-over-threshold factors were determined for the first time to determine the bitter impact of the individual saponins. Although 3-O-[?-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)-?-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-d-glucopyranosyl]-(25R/S)-spirost-5-ene-3?-ol was found based on dose-over-threshold factors to be the predominant bitter saponin in raw asparagus spears, 3-O-[?-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)-{?-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)}-?-d-glucopyranosyl]-26-O-[?-d-glucopyranosyl]-(25R)-22-hydroxyfurost-5-ene-3?,26-diol, 3-O-[?-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)-{?-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)}-?-d-glucopyranosyl]-26-O-[?-d-glucopyranosyl]-(25S)-22-hydroxyfurost-5-ene-3?,26-diol, and (25R)- and (25S)-furost-5-en-3?,22,26-triol-3-O-[?-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-d-glucopyranoside]-26-O-?-d-glucopyranoside were found as key bitter contributors after cooking. Interestingly, the monodesmosidic saponins 5a/b were demonstrated for the first time to be the major contributor to the bitter taste of fresh asparagus spears, while the bidesmosides 1a/b and 2a/b may be considered the primary determinants for the bitter taste of cooked asparagus. PMID:24128498

Dawid, Corinna; Hofmann, Thomas

2013-08-26

353

Hepatoprotective properties of the Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Gaertn): a review.  

PubMed

Liver diseases characterized by inflammation or tissue damage affect the optimal functioning and increase the morbidity and mortality of the affected individual. Liver diseases are a largely neglected health issue and recent reports indicate that they affect over 10% of the world population, with the highest burden in low and middle income countries that have minimal medical resources. To complicate matters the currently available pharmacological therapies are not optimal and when used for extended periods of time impart systemic toxicity. Diet can modify pathophysiological processes, including those of hepatotoxins, and studies have shown that some dietary constituents can afford heptoprotection. Emblica officinalis Gaertn or Phyllanthus emblica Linn, commonly known as the Indian gooseberry in English or amla in Hindi, is one of the most important medicinal and dietary plants in the Indian subcontinent. The fruits are of dietary and medicinal use and have wide applications in both traditional and folk systems of medicine. Scientific studies have shown amla to be effective in preventing/ameliorating the toxic effects of hepatotoxic agents like ethanol, paracetamol, carbon tetrachloride, heavy metals, ochratoxins, hexachlorocyclohexane, antitubercular drugs and hepatotoxicity resulting from iron overload. Amla is also reported to impart beneficial effects on liver function and to mitigate hyperlipidemia and metabolic syndrome. Amla possesses protective effects against chemical-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in animal models of study. Additionally, the phytochemicals quercetin, gallic acid, corilagin and ellagic acid are also reported to protect against the cytotoxic effects of paracetamol, microcystins, galactosamine and lipopolysaccharide. The hepatoprotective actions of amla appear to be mediated by its free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and modulation of the xenobiotic detoxification process and lipid metabolism. PMID:23978895

Thilakchand, Karadka Ramdas; Mathai, Rashmi Teresa; Simon, Paul; Ravi, Rithin T; Baliga-Rao, Manjeshwar Poonam; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

2013-10-25

354

Emblica officinalis Gaertn. attentuates N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced apoptosis, autophagy, and inflammation in rat livers.  

PubMed

Inflammation and oxidative stress contribute to liver injury. Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) is rich in vitamin C, gallic acid, flavonoids, and tannins, which may protect against hepatoxicity-induced liver injury. We elucidated the effects of supplementary Amla (100?mg/kg of body weight) on N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced injury by evaluating reactive oxygen species (ROS) responses in the liver and bile, the degree of accumulated leukocytes and Kupffer cell infiltration, 3-nitrotyrosine and 4-hydroxynonenal stains, apoptosis and autophagy, plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and ?-glutamyl transpeptidase (?-GT) levels, and antioxidant/oxidant enzymes in rats. Amla was more potent than vitamin C in scavenging O??·, hydrogen peroxide, and nitric oxide. N-Nitrosodiethylamine increased ROS production in liver and bile, hepatic Kupffer cell and leukocyte infiltration, 3-nitrotyrosine and 4-hydroxynonenal accumulations, apoptosis and autophagy, and plasma ALT, AST, and ?-GT levels in the rats, decreased hepatic manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and catalase protein expressions, and enhanced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) protein expressions. Amla significantly preserved MnSOD and catalase expressions and decreased iNOS and CYP2E1 protein expressions in N-nitrosodiethylamine-treated livers. Amla decreased N-nitrosodiethylamine-enhanced hepatic apoptosis and autophagy appearances via down-regulation of the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and Beclin-1 expression. Thus Amla supplementation counteracts N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced liver injury via its antioxidant, anti-inflammation, anti-apoptosis, and anti-autophagy properties. PMID:21761987

Chen, Kuo-Hsin; Lin, Bor-Ru; Chien, Chiang-Ting; Ho, Chien-Hsin

355

A herbal antifungal formulation of Thymus serpillum, Origanum vulgare and Rosmarinus officinalis for treating ovine dermatophytosis due to Trichophyton mentagrophytes.  

PubMed

A number of herbal products with anti-inflammatory, antiseptic and antimycotic properties are available for dermatological usage. The successful treatment of 13 sheep affected by ringworm due to Trichophyton mentagrophytes with a mixture consisting of essential oils (EOs) of Thymus serpillum 2%, Origanum vulgare 5% and Rosmarinus officinalis 5% in sweet almond (Prunus dulcis) oil. The effectiveness of EOs and of the major components of the mixture (thymol, carvacrol, 1,8 cineole, ?-pinene, p-cymene, ?-terpinene) against the fungal clinical isolate was evaluated by a microdilution test. Thirteen animals were topically administered with the mixture twice daily for 15?days. The other sheep were administered with a conventional treatment (seven animals) or left untreated (two animals). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were 0.1% for T. serpillum, 0.5% for O. vulgare, 2.5% for I. verum and 5% for both R. officinalis and C. limon. Thymol and carvacrol showed MICs of 0.125% and 0.0625%. A clinical and aetiological cure was obtained at the end of each treatment regimen in only the treated animals. Specific antimycotic drugs licenced for food-producing sheep are not available within the European Community. The mixture tested here appeared to be a versatile tool for limiting fungal growth. PMID:23368893

Mugnaini, Linda; Nardoni, Simona; Pistelli, Luisa; Leonardi, Michele; Giuliotti, Lorella; Benvenuti, Maria N; Pisseri, Francesca; Mancianti, Francesca

2013-02-01

356

AM inoculation as a biological tool to improve plant revegetation of a disturbed soil with Rosmarinus officinalis under semi-arid conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rosmarinus officinalis L., is an evergreen sclerophyllous mediterranean shrub that can be used for revegetation purposes under semi-arid conditions. Plants, some of which had been inoculated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus intraradices Schenck & Smith, were grown on eroded topsoil collected from a sideslope of a recently constructed motorway. The effects of the symbiosis on plant growth and

Victoria Estaún; Robert Savé; Carme Biel

1997-01-01

357

Antioxidant effect of dittany ( Origanum dictamnus ) in pre-cooked chicken meat balls during chill-storage in comparison to rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dittany ( Origanus dictamnus L.) has been compared with rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis L.) as an antioxidant in pre-cooked meat balls made from chicken breast and added 0.50% salt during chill storage for up to ten days packed in atmospheric air. For an addition of 0.10% of dried leaves, dittany yielded protection of the product against oxidation a little less

Aline M. C. Racanicci; Bente Danielsen; JoséFernando M. Menten; Marisa A. B. Regitano-d’Arce; Leif H. Skibsted

2004-01-01

358

Effect of irrigation frequency and planting density on herbage biomass and oil production of thyme ( Thymus vulgaris) and hyssop ( Hyssopus officinalis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was undertaken to determine the herbage biomass and oil production of thyme (Thymus vulgaris Linn.) and hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis Linn.) in 2003 and 2004 in the semi-arid region of Khorasan in Iran. The experiment was a split plot with three irrigation intervals as main plots and three planting densities as subplots, all of which replicated three times. Irrigation

H. R. Khazaie; F. Nadjafi; M. Bannayan

2008-01-01

359

Comparisons of microsatellite variability and population genetic structure of two endangered wild rice species, Oryza rufipogon and O. officinalis , and their conservation implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conserving endangered wild rice species requires a thorough understanding of their population genetic structure and appropriate approaches. We applied six and seven microsatellite loci to study the genetic structure of six populations throughout the range of Chinese Oryza rufipogon and Oryza officinalis, respectively. The results showed that O. rufipogon possesses higher levels of genetic diversity but lower differentiation (RS =

Li-Zhi Gao; Chi-Hong Zhang

2005-01-01

360

Effects of increased pCO2 and temperature on trace element (Ag, Cd and Zn) bioaccumulation in the eggs of the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cephalopods play a key role in many marine trophic networks and constitute alternative fisheries resources, especially given the ongoing decline in finfish stocks. Along the European coast, the eggs of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis are characterized by an increasing permeability of the eggshell during development, which leads to selective accumulation of essential and non-essential elements in the embryo. Temperature and

T. Lacoue-Labarthe; S. Martin; F. Oberhänsli; J.-L. Teyssié; S. Markich; R. Jeffree; P. Bustamante

2009-01-01

361

Variation of volatile oil concentration of Mediterranean aromatic shrubs Thymus capitatus hoffmag et link, Satureja thymbra L., Teucrium polium L. and Rosmarinus officinalis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The volatile oil content of four Labiatae aromatic plants, viz. Thymus capitatus, Satureja thymbra, Teucrium polium and Rosmarinus officinalis has been estimated throughout the year; leaves, braches, flowers and leaf litter were analysed. The pattern of changes in the volatile oil concentration is not the same in all four plants; it corresponds to the major adaptive strategy towards summer drought, which each has evolved.

Vokou, D.; Margaris, N. S.

1986-06-01

362

Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Characteristic of the Essential Oils Obtained from the Flower, Leaf and Stem of Salvia officinalis L. Originating from Southeast Serbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison of the yield, chemical composition and antimicrobial action of the essential oils obtained from the flower, leaf and stem of Salvia officinalis L., originating from the southeast region of Serbia was carried out. The oils were obtained by different procedures of distillation (water and steam distillation). Water distillation contributed to a larger oil yield from all parts of

Dragan T. Velickovic; Mihailo S. Ristic; Novica V. Randjelovic; Andrija A. Smelcerovic

2002-01-01

363

Antioxidative/acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of some Asteraceae plants.  

PubMed

The extracts obtained by 80% EtOH from some Asteraceae plants (Calendula officinalis, Inula helenium, Arctium lappa, Artemisia absinthium and Achillea millefolium) were studied. Rosmarinic acid, one of the main compounds identified in all extracts, was determined quantitatively by using HPLC. In addition, spectrophotometric methods were evaluated as an alternative for rosmarinic acid content determination. Total phenolic content was also established for all extracts. A. millefolium extract was found to have the highest content of rosmarinic acid as well as total phenols. All extracts were tested for antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. A. millefolium was shown to possess the best antioxidant activity (for all tested methods) as well as acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Highly positive linear relationships were obtained between antioxidant/acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity and the determined rosmarinic acid content indicating its significance for the observed activities. PMID:23738456

Mekini?, Ivana Generali?; Burcul, Franko; Blazevi?, Ivica; Skroza, Danijela; Kerum, Daniela; Katalini?, Visnja

2013-04-01

364

Behavior of Free Aromatic Amino Acid Pools in Rosmarinic Acid-Producing Cell Cultures of Anchusa officinalis L. 1  

PubMed Central

The pool sizes of free l-phenylalanine and l-tyrosine, the precursors of rosmarinic acid in Anchusa officinalis L. cell suspension cultures, fluctuated during the culture cycle. The major increase in pool sizes was preceded by a peak of prephenate aminotransferase activity, while the subsequent decrease coincided with the presence of high activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and tyrosine aminotransferase, the two entrypoint enzymes of the rosmarinic acid biosynthesis pathway. Timecourse feeding studies with linear growth stage cells revealed that the tyrosine pool turned over rapidly, consistent with direct participation in rosmarinic acid synthesis. Since externally applied l-tyrosine was rapidly incorporated into rosmarinic acid with little evidence of radioactively labeled intermediates, it is suggested that there exists a close coupling between the l-tyrosine pool and the rosmarinic acid biosynthetic pathway, which may involve the channelling of intermediates both into and within the pathway.

De-Eknamkul, Wanchai; Ellis, Brian E.

1989-01-01

365

Expression and characterization of the N-terminal half of antistasin, an anticoagulant protein derived from the leech Haementeria officinalis.  

PubMed

Antistasin, a 15-kDa anticoagulant protein isolated from the salivary glands of the Mexican leech Haementeria officinalis, has been shown to be a potent inhibitor of factor Xa in the blood coagulation cascade. Antistasin possesses a twofold internal homology between the N- and C-terminal halves of the molecule, suggesting a gene duplication event in the evolution of the antistasin gene. This structural feature also suggests that either or both halves of the protein may possess biological activity if expressed as separate domains. Because the N-terminal domain contains a factor Xa P1-reactive site, we chose to express this domain in an insect cell baculovirus expression system. Characterization of this recombinant half antistasin molecule reveals that the N-terminal domain inhibits factor Xa in vitro, with a K(i) of 1.7 nM. PMID:1821771

Palladino, L O; Tung, J S; Dunwiddie, C; Alves, K; Lenny, A B; Przysiecki, C; Lehman, D; Nutt, E; Cuca, G C; Law, S W

1991-02-01

366

Biased morph ratios and skewed mating success contribute to loss of genetic diversity in the distylous Pulmonaria officinalis  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims In heterostylous plant species, skewed morph ratios are not uncommon and may arise from a range of factors. Despite the recognized importance of skewed morph ratios on overall reproductive success within populations, little is known about the impact of skewed morph ratios on population genetic diversity and differentiation in heterostylous species. This study specifically aimed to clarify the effect of population size and morph bias on population genetic diversity and differentiation in the temperate forest herb Pulmonaria officinalis. This species is characterized by a distylous breeding system and shows morph-specific differences in reproductive success. Methods Genetic diversity was determined for 27 P. officinalis populations in northern Belgium by using eight recently developed microsatellite markers. Multiple regressions were used to assess the relationship between genetic diversity, morph bias and population size, and FST-values were calculated for short- and long-styled morphs separately to study genetic differentiation as a function of morph type. Key Results For all genetic measures used, morph bias was more important in explaining patterns of genetic diversity than population size, and in all cases patterns of population genetic diversity followed a quadratic function, which showed a symmetrical decrease in genetic diversity with increasing morph bias. However, probably due to the reproductive advantage of L-morphs relative to S-morphs, maximum genetic diversity was found in populations showing an excess of L-morphs (60·7 % L-morph). On the other hand, no significant difference in pairwise genetic distances between populations was observed between L- (0·107) and S-morphs (0·106). Conclusions Our results indicate that significant deviations from equal morph ratios not only affect plant reproductive success but also population genetic diversity of heterostylous plant species. Hence, when defining conservation measures for populations of heterostylous plant species, morph ratios should be considered as an important trait affecting their long-term population viability.

Meeus, Sofie; Honnay, Olivier; Brys, Rein; Jacquemyn, Hans

2012-01-01

367

Hydroalcoholic extracts of Indian medicinal plants can help in amelioration from oxidative stress through antioxidant properties.  

PubMed

The in vitro study of the antioxidant properties of the hydroalcoholic extracts of various Indian medicinal plants can logically help to develop a better and safer way of amelioration from oxidative stress. As aimed, the present study has been done to estimate and thereby conclude regarding the antioxidant activities of a few Indian medicinal plants, viz., Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, Emblica officinalis, Caesalpinia crista, Cajanus cajan, and Tinospora cordifolia. The extracts of the plants have been subjected to the evaluation of antioxidant properties through scavenging assays for reactive oxygen species like superoxide, nitric oxide, peroxynitrite, hypochlorous acid, singlet oxygen, etc. and measurement of TEAC values and other phytochemical parameters. The phenolic and flavonoid contents of each plant have been found to be correlated to their individual antioxidant activity. The results showed the hydroalcoholic extracts of the plants were efficient indicators of their antioxidant capacity thus concreting their basis to be used as natural antioxidant. PMID:22624183

Sarkar, Rhitajit; Mandal, Nripendranath

2012-01-01

368

Bioavailability of the antioxidative Rosmarinus officinalis compound carnosic acid in eggs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rosemary is one of the herb spices and it exhibits antioxidative activity. The phenolic diterpene carnosic acid is mainly\\u000a responsible for these antioxidant effects in rosemary and rosemary extracts. A modified high-performance liquid chromatography\\u000a method for the determination of carnosic acid in rosemary extract was established. The analysis can be accomplished under\\u000a isocratic conditions using electrochemical detection. The effect of

Edburga L. Krause; Waldemar Ternes

2000-01-01

369

Antihormonal effects of plant extracts: iodothyronine deiodinase of rat liver is inhibited by extracts and secondary metabolites of plants.  

PubMed

Aqueous extracts from plants such as Lycopus virginicus , Melissa officinalis ( Laminaceae ), and Lithospermum officinale ( Boraginaceae ), containing various antihormonal components, also inhibit both the extrathyroidal enzymic T4-5'-deiodination to T3 and the T4-5'-deiodination. The effects were dose dependent and ultimately complete using rat liver microsomes as a source of the enzyme in vitro. The "specific inhibitory activity" of extracts depends on the plant species used and the extraction procedure applied. It can be increased by either extraction of freeze dried aqueous extracts and decreased by oxidation with KMnO4. The active principle(s) exhibits chemical characteristics of phenols or phenolcarboxylic acids: rosmarinic acid, ellagic acid, and luteolin -7 beta-glucoside are active inhibitory components whilst other secondary plant metabolites consisting only of a single diphenolic ring e.g. cinnamic acid and derivatives are inactive. The inhibition of both iodothyronine-5'- and -5-deiodinase by this new class of iodine-free phenolic inhibitors--belonging to the cinnamic acid-flavonoid-type--supports the hypothesis that in rat liver only a single enzyme catalyses both deiodination pathways and might be of pharmacological interest for the treatment of hyperthyroidism. PMID:6724503

Auf'mkolk, M; Köhrle, J; Gumbinger, H; Winterhoff, H; Hesch, R D

1984-04-01

370

Comparative evaluation of the antimicrobial activities of essential oils of Artemisia afra, Pteronia incana and Rosmarinus officinalis on selected bacteria and yeast strains.  

PubMed

Essential oils are frequently used for flavour and fragrance in the perfume, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries. The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils of Artemisia afra, Pteronia incana and Rosmarinus officinalis were tested against 41 microbial strains. The test organisms were selected on the basis of their significance as food spoilage and/or poisoning, common human and plant pathogens. The agar diffusion assay was performed using nutrient agar and antibiotic medium. All the oils tested displayed some antimicrobial activities. However, the efficiency differed and depended both on the type and concentration of the oil, as well as the test microbial strain. Artemisia afra and R. officinalis showed similar and higher antimicrobial activity than P. incana. Due to their broad antimicrobial activities, the essential oils of the above plants growing in Eastern Cape may have preservative potential for the food and cosmetic industries. PMID:10212442

Mangena, T; Muyima, N Y

1999-04-01

371

Recovering effects of aqueous extracts of some selected medical plants on the teratogenic effects during the development of D. melanogaster.  

PubMed

In this study the effects of some selected medical plants (Pimpinella anisum L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Achillea millefolium L., Acorus calamus L., Hypericum perforatum L.) on the development of Drosophila melanogaster have been investigated. When the different concentration of plant extracts were applied to the cultures of Drosophila melanogaster, they did not caused an elongation of metamorphosis of F1 progeny. Furthermore, depending on an increase of plant extract on the application groups, the number of offsprings increased. But this increasing (for application groups no. I, II and IV) was not statistically significant (p > 0.05) according to control group. The highest increase in the total number of offspring of F1 progeny obtained from applications of Acorus calamus extracts and the 10 mL/100 mL medium concentration of the extract of Hypericum perforatum. PMID:19086522

Uysal, Handan; Kara, Ay?e Aydan; Algur, Omer Faruk; Dumlupinar, Rahmi; Aydogan, Mehmet Nuri

2007-05-15

372

Population structure and genetic diversity distribution in wild and cultivated populations of the traditional Chinese medicinal plant Magnolia officinalis subsp. biloba (Magnoliaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Magnolia officinalis subsp. biloba, a traditional Chinese medicinal plant, experienced severe declines in the number of populations and the number of individuals\\u000a in the late 20th century due to the widespread harvest of the subspecies. A large-scale cultivation program was initiated\\u000a and cultivated populations rapidly recovered the loss in individual plant numbers, but wild populations remained small as\\u000a a consequence

Jingsheng He; Ling Chen; Ying Si; Bo Huang; Xiaoquan Ban; Youwei Wang

2009-01-01

373

Estimating recent growth in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis: are nucleic acid-based indicators for growth and condition the method of choice?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory calibration study was undertaken with juvenile Sepia officinalis (80–85 g initial wet weight) to investigate the effects of different food rations and different starving intervals on RNA\\/dry weight (DW) ratios and RNA\\/DNA ratios in cephalopod mantle muscle at two different temperatures. The digestive gland index was also used as an additional indicator of recent growth. High food rations

Frank Melzner; John W. Forsythe; Phillip G. Lee; James B. Wood; Uwe Piatkowski; Catriona Clemmesen

2005-01-01

374

SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF GALLIC ACID, ELLAGIC ACID AND ASCORBIC ACID IN EMBLICA OFFICINALIS AND IN UNANI POLYHERBAL FORMULATIONS BY VALIDATED HPLC METHOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple rapid and economic simultaneous HPLC method was developed and validated for the quantification of Gallic acid (GA), Ellagic acid (EA) and Ascorbic acid (AA), in Emblica officinalis Linn. (aamla) and in two poly herbal Unani formulations, containing aamla as an ingredient. Separation of was achieved on a reverse phase C18 (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) column with mobile phase 0.1% orthophosphoric

Mhaveer Singh; Y. T. Kamal; E. T. Tamboli; Rabea Parveen; Khalid M. Siddiqui; S. M. A. Zaidi; Sayeed Ahmad

2012-01-01

375

Evaluation of Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni and Fe levels in Rosmarinus officinalis labaiatae (Rosemary) medicinal plant and soils in selected zones in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentration of heavy metals including Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni and Fe in different parts of Rosmarinus officinalis medicinal plant grown in Jordan were evaluated. Medicinal plant samples and soil samples were collected from three different\\u000a zones in Jordan (Irbid, Al-Mafraq and Ma’an). Samples were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) after chemical\\u000a treatments using acid digestion procedures. Heavy

Abdul-Wahab O. El-Rjoob; Adnan M. Massadeh; Mohammad N. Omari

2008-01-01

376

Changes in carotenoids, tocopherols and diterpenes during drought and recovery, and the biological significance of chlorophyll loss in Rosmarinus officinalis plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   Two-year-old rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) plants were subjected to severe stress by exposure to prolonged drought during a Mediterranean summer. Severely stressed\\u000a plants recovered completely after the autumn rainfalls although the relative water content remained below 35% for 3 months\\u000a and the chlorophyll content of leaves was reduced by up to 85% during the drought. In severe stress: (i)

S. Munné-Bosch; L. Alegre

2000-01-01

377

The antioxidative activity of summer savory ( Satureja hortemis L.) and rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis L.) in dressing stored exposed to light or in darkness  

Microsoft Academic Search

For an oil-in-water emulsion dressing, addition of 0.15% of dried leaves of summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.) or more significantly of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), resulted in a significantly better antioxidative protection than addition of 80 ppm propyl gallate (standard concentration for this type of product) during dark storage at 19 °C for up to 24 weeks, as determined by

Helle Lindberg Madsen; Bente Sørensen; Leif H. Skibsted; Grete Bertelsen

1998-01-01

378

The combined effect of rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and modified atmosphere packaging as protection against warmed over flavour in cooked minced pork meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Rosmarin (getrocknete Blätter vonRosmarinus officinalis L.), erwärmten Fleischklößen (gehacktes Schweinefleisch) zugesetzt, hinderte die Entwicklung des Aufwärmgeschmacks (warmed over flavour) während der Kühllagerung. Das Gewürz wurde den aus Schweinefleisch (Longissimus dorsi) hergestellten Fleischklößen in einer für das Produkt akzeptablen Menge zugegeben, beurteilt von einem sensorischen Panel (0.05% des Totalgewichtes). Nach der Wärmebehandlung (Wasserbad, Zentrum-Temperatur 80°C) wurden die Fleischklöße in fünf

Miranda Huisman; Helle Lindberg Madsen; Leif H. Skibsted; Grete Bertelsen

1994-01-01

379

Composition of Oils of Three Cultivated Forms of Hyssopus officinalis Endemic in Yugoslavia: f. albus Alef., f. cyaneus Alef. and f. ruber Mill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three forms of hyssop Hyssopus officinalis L., f. cyaneus Alef., f. ruber Mill, and f. albus Alef. occurring wild in Yugoslavia were multiplied and cultivated. The cyaneus form, characterized by its blue flowers, yielded between 4.9 and 5.8 tonnes of fresh plant material per hectare, and essential oil in yields ranging from 0.65–0.75%. The pink-flowered ruber form and the white

Jean-Claude Chalchat; D. Adamovic; M. S. Gorunovic

2001-01-01

380

Genetic diversity of the imperilled bath sponge Spongia officinalis Linnaeus, 1759 across the Mediterranean Sea: patterns of population differentiation and implications for taxonomy and conservation.  

PubMed

The Mediterranean bath sponge Spongia officinalis is an iconic species with high socio-economic value and precarious future owing to unregulated harvesting, mortality incidents and lack of established knowledge regarding its ecology. This study aims to assess genetic diversity and population structure of the species at different geographical scales throughout its distribution. For this purpose, 11 locations in the Eastern Mediterranean (Aegean Sea), Western Mediterranean (Provence coast) and the Strait of Gibraltar were sampled; specimens were analysed using partial mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences, along with a set of eight microsatellite loci. According to our results (i) no genetic differentiation exists among the acknowledged Mediterranean morphotypes, and hence, S. officinalis can be viewed as a single, morphologically variable species; (ii) a notable divergence was recorded in the Gibraltar region, indicating the possible existence of a cryptic species; (iii) restriction to gene flow was evidenced between the Aegean Sea and Provence giving two well-defined regional clusters, thus suggesting the existence of a phylogeographic break between the two systems; (iv) low levels of genetic structure, not correlated to geographical distance, were observed inside geographical sectors, implying mechanisms (natural or anthropogenic) that enhance dispersal and gene flow have promoted population connectivity; (v) the genetic diversity of S. officinalis is maintained high in most studied locations despite pressure from harvesting and the influence of devastating epidemics. These findings provide a basis towards the effective conservation and management of the species. PMID:21880083

Dailianis, T; Tsigenopoulos, C S; Dounas, C; Voultsiadou, E

2011-08-22

381

Extraction faults  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose the term “extraction fault” for a planar structure that forms at the trailing edge of a discrete block when it is forced or extracted out of the surrounding material. This process results in the merging of two block-bounding faults with opposite senses of displacement. An extraction fault differs fundamentally from other faults in that its two sides have approached each other substantially in the direction perpendicular to the fault. The fault-parallel displacement may be either zero (pure extraction faults) or not (mixed extraction faults). Pure small-scale extraction faults can result from boudinage. A large-scale example may be the S-reflector of the Galicia passive continental margin which is related to rifting and continental breakup. When the strong portion of the lithosphere, i.e. the upper mantle and the lower crust, underwent necking, thermally weak mantle from below and upper crust from above collapsed into the opening gap in the rift centre and an extraction fault formed at the trailing edge of the strong lithosphere. Extraction faults are also potentially important in the exhumation of high-pressure metamorphic rocks in collisional orogens. We propose that the Combin fault on top of the eclogite-facies Zermatt-Saas ophiolites in the Penninic Alps, earlier interpreted either as a normal fault or as a thrust, is in fact an extraction fault.

Froitzheim, Nikolaus; Pleuger, Jan; Nagel, Thorsten J.

2006-08-01

382

Preparation and the arrhythmic activity of the total alkaloids of Fumaria officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

possible to appreciably shorten the purification stage of the product. The sorption of the alkaloids was carried out from an aqueous sulfuric acid extract on an SBS-3 resin: We used an APSS-0.6 apparatus with a sorbent in a semiliquefied state [4], in which the complete cycle of the ion-exchange process, i.e., the sorption, desorption, and regeneration* were performed consecutively, without

N. P. Gorbunov; L. G. Molokhova; A. A. Sukhanov

1977-01-01

383

[Evaluation of the activity on the mouse CNS of several plant extracts and a combination of them].  

PubMed

Some activities of seven vegetable extracts and an association of them given by oral route were tested on the C.N.S. of the mouse. Among these, Crataegus oxyacantha and, less clearly, Valeriana officinalis show some sedative activity, whereas the extract from Passiflora incarnata gives some anxiolytic effect. Matricaria chamomilla and Piscidia erythrina stand in an intermediate position between the previous ones. Hyoscyamus niger proved to be active in only one of the tests performed, whereas Atropa belladonna did not show any activity on the C.N.S. The association of the seven extracts seemed to act in a synergetic way, the resulting activity being sedative at high dosage and anxiolytic at low dosage. PMID:6118937

Della Loggia, R; Tubaro, A; Redaelli, C

384

Mutational analysis of antistasin, an inhibitor of blood coagulation factor Xa derived from the Mexican leech Haementeria officinalis.  

PubMed

Antistasin is a Factor Xa inhibitor that is present in the salivary glands of the Mexican leech Haementeria officinalis. The antistasin protein consists of 119 amino acids, of which residues 1-55 (domain I) are 56% similar to residues 56-110 (domain II). Of the nine C-terminal amino acids (residues 111-119; domain III), four are positively charged. The reactive site for Factor Xa is located in domain I. In this study we assessed the role of separate domains and of individual amino acids in the reactive site for the inhibition of Factor Xa. A series of mutants was constructed and expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. In vitro chromogenic assays for Factor Xa show that domain I is sufficient for inhibition of Factor Xa. Domains II and III neither contain any intrinsic Factor Xa inhibitory activity, nor contribute to the activity of domain I. Furthermore, domain II does not become a Factor Xa inhibitor by partially adaptating its sequence towards that of the reactive site in domain I. Mutation of the cysteine at position 33 is not crucial for Factor Xa inhibition, suggesting a relatively rigid reactive site loop structure. PMID:8073407

Theunissen, H J; Dijkema, R; Swinkels, J C; de Poorter, T L; Vink, P M; van Dinther, T G

1994-07-01

385

Spatial and temporal variations of soil moisture under Rosmarinus officinalis and Quercus coccifera in a burned soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When studying surface runoff processes, measurement of the soil moisture content (SMC) at the surface could be used to identify sinks and sources areas of runoff. Surface soil moisture patterns variability have been studied in a burned Mediterranean semi-arid area. Since surface SMC and soil water repellency (SWR) are influenced by fire and vegetation (see previous abstract), and soil water dynamics and vegetation dynamics are functionally related, it could be expected to find some changes during the following months after fire when vegetation starts to recover. The identification of these changes is the main goal of this research. The study area is located at the municipality of Les Useres, 40 km from Castellón city (E Spain), where a wildfire occured in August 2007. We selected a burned SSE facing hillslope, located at 570 m a.s.l., with 12° slope angle, in which it was possible to identify the presence of two unique shrub species: Quercus coccifera L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L., which were distributed in a patchy mosaic. Twenty microsites with burned R. officinalis and eight microsites with burned Q. coccifera were selected in an area of 7 m wide by 14 m long. At the burned microsites, it was possible to distinguish three concentric zones (I, II and III) around the stumps showing differences on their soil surface appearance, which indicate a gradient of fire severity. Those differences were considered for field soil moisture measurements. Five measurements of SMC separated approximately 10 cm per zone at each microsite (n= 420) were carried out after different rainfall events. Volumetric soil moisture was measured by means of the moisture meter HH2 with ThetaProbe sensor type ML2x, 6 cm long. SMC was monitored on three occasions, always one day after the following rainfall events: (1) the first rainfall event after fire, when 11 mm were registered (Oct-07); (2) four months later than fire (Dec-07), after six consecutive raining days with a total rain volume of 172 mm; and (3) ten months after fire (Jun-08), when 50 mm were registered in the previous ten days. The spatial pattern of SMC was determined trough geostatistical analysis using GS+ software, calculating the semivariograms, to analyse the spatial correlation scale, interpolating data to estimate values of SMC at unsampled locations by means of kriging and finally, the results of kriging were displayed as different contour maps. Results showed that spatial pattern of SMC was highly variable, with important differences recorded within short distances. In fact, the range of spatial correlation (a0), which is the distance at that spatial correlation exists, varied between 0.5 to 1.4 m. A0 also varied according to the time from fire, with values of 0.5 m in the first rainfall after fire, 0.9 m four months later and 1.4 m ten months after fire occurs. This result suggests that the extent of the wettest areas increase as the vegetation recover. After the first rainfall, the SMC spatial pattern seems to be related to the soil microsite characteristics, mainly organic matter content, presence of hydrophobicity and soil clay content. Generally, the highest SMC (26-31%) appears at the burned bare soil areas. Four months later, as the same time as Q. coccifera resprouts, and in the R. officinalis microsites an important regrowth of Brachypodium resutum is observed, the spatial pattern of SMC changed according this plant cover distribution. This pattern is more clearly observed ten months after fire, when the highest SMC values were located at Q. coccifera and B. resutum areas (28-33%). At this time, no evidence of germination of R. officinalis (obligate seeder specie) was found. The lowest SMC (19-22%) appeared at the half lower part of the plot, where there was a central strip dominated by bare soil, with scarce presence of resprouter species. These results showed that at detailed working scale, the soil moisture pattern in this burned area was highly heterogeneous and the microsite characteristics (mainly soil properties and vegetation regrowth) seem to control the

Gimeno-García, E.; Pascual-Aguilar, J. A.; Llovet, J.

2009-04-01

386

The cytotoxic effect of essential oils from Origanum vulgare L. and/or Rosmarinus officinalis L. on Aeromonas hydrophila.  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activities of the essential oils from Origanum vulgare L. (OV) and Rosmarinus officinalis L. (RO), both singly and in combination at sub-inhibitory concentrations (¼ MIC?+?¼ MIC), against Aeromonas hydrophila and to investigate the possible mechanisms underlying these activities. Used singly (OV: 2.5??L/mL; RO: 20??L/mL) or in a mixture (OV: 0.625??L/mL?+?RO: 5??L/L), these essential oils led to a significant decrease (p<0.01) in bacterial viability after 24?h of exposure. A decrease in glucose consumption by A. hydrophila and release of cellular material were observed immediately after the addition of the essential oils, both singly and as a mixture, and continued for up to 6?h. Electron microscopy of cells exposed to the essential oils revealed severe changes in the plasma membrane, cytoplasmic appearance, and cell shape during the 6-h exposure period. OV and RO essential oils combined at sub-inhibitory concentrations could be rationally applied to inhibit the growth of A. hydrophila in food products, particularly minimally processed vegetables. PMID:22300224

Azerêdo, Geíza Alves de; Stamford, Tânia Lúcia Montenegro; Figueiredo, Regina Celia Bressan Queiroz de; Souza, Evandro Leite de

2012-02-02

387

Environment-related variations of the composition of the essential oils of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) in the Balkan Penninsula.  

PubMed

Composition of the essential oils of Rosmarinus officinalis of ten populations from the Balkan Peninsula were determined by GC/FID and GC/MS. The main constituents were 1,8-cineole, camphor, ?-pinene, and borneol. Multivariate statistical analysis (UPGMA cluster analysis and principal-component analysis (PCA)) revealed two major types of rosemary oil, i.e., 1,8-cineole and camphor-type, and two intermediate types, i.e., camphor/1,8-cineole/borneol type and 1,8-cineole/camphor type. The regression analyses (simple linear regression and stepwise multiple regression) have shown that, with respect to basic geographic, orographic, and 19 bioclimatic characteristics of each population, bioclimatic factor temperature of habitat represented the dominant abiogenetic factor, which, in chemical sense, led to differentiation of populations in the studied region. Also, the regression analysis have shown that some constituents of essential oils are independent of any single bioclimatic factors. However, some constituents display statistically significant correlations with some abiotic factors. PMID:22782876

Lakuši?, Dmitar V; Risti?, Mihailo S; Slavkovska, Violeta N; Sinžar-Sekuli?, Jasmina B; Lakuši?, Branislava S

2012-07-01

388

Down regulation effect of Rosmarinus officinalis polyphenols on cellular stress proteins in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells.  

PubMed

Polyphenols are known to exhibit wide spectrum of benefit for brain health and to protect from several neurodegenerative diseases. The present study was sought to determine the neuroprotective effects of Rosmarinus officinalis' polyphenols (luteolin, carnosic acid, and rosmarinic acid) through the investigation of stress-related proteins. We carried out measurement of the expression of heat-shock protein (Hsp) 47 promoter in heat stressed Chinese hamster ovary transfected cells. We performed proteomic analysis and confirmed gene expression by real time PCR in PC12 cells. Results showed that these compounds modulated significant and different effects on the expression of 4 stress-related proteins: heat shock protein 90 ? (Hsp90), Transitional endoplasmic reticulum ATPase (VCP/p97), Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK), and Hypoxia up-regulated protein 1 (HYOU1)) at translational and post translational levels in PC12 cells and they downregulated the expression of Hsp47 activity in Chinese hamster transformed cells. These findings suggest that luteolin, carnosic acid, and rosmarinic acid may modulate the neuroprotective defense system against cellular stress insults and increase neuro-thermotolerance. PMID:21861121

E L Omri, Abdelfatteh; Han, Junkyu; Ben Abdrabbah, Manef; Isoda, Hiroko

2011-08-23

389

Multiple night-time doses of valerian (Valeriana officinalis) had minimal effects on CYP3A4 activity and no effect on CYP2D6 activity in healthy volunteers.  

PubMed

Valerian (Valeriana officinalis) is a popular dietary supplement. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of a valerian extract on the activity of the drug-metabolizing enzymes cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) and 3A4. Probe drugs dextromethorphan (30 mg; CYP2D6 activity) and alprazolam (2 mg; CYP3A4 activity) were administered orally to healthy volunteers (n = 12) at baseline and again after exposure to two 500-mg valerian tablets (1000 mg) nightly for 14 days. The valerian supplement contained a total valerenic acid content of 5.51 mg/tablet. Dextromethorphan to dextorphan metabolic ratios (DMRs) and alprazolam pharmacokinetics were determined at baseline and after valerian treatment. The DMR was 0.214 +/- 0.025 at baseline and 0.254 +/- 0.026 after valerian supplementation (p > 0.05). For alprazolam, the maximum concentration in plasma was significantly increased after treatment with valerian (25 +/- 7 ng/ml versus 31 +/- 8 ng/ml; p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in other pharmacokinetic parameters at baseline and after valerian exposure (all p values > or = 0.05; time to reach maximum concentration in plasma, 3.0 +/- 3.2 versus 3.1 +/- 2.1 h; area under the plasma concentration versus time curve, 471 +/- 183 versus 539 +/- 240 hx ng x ml(-1); half-life of elimination, 13.5 +/- 4.3 versus 12.2 +/- 5.6 h). Our results indicate that although a modest increase was observed in the alprazolam Cmax, typical doses of valerian are unlikely to produce clinically significant effects on the disposition of medications dependent on the CYP2D6 or CYP3A4 pathways of metabolism. PMID:15328251

Donovan, Jennifer L; DeVane, C Lindsay; Chavin, Kenneth D; Wang, Jun-Sheng; Gibson, Bryan B; Gefroh, Holly A; Markowitz, John S

2004-08-24

390

Bevalac extraction  

SciTech Connect

This report will describe some of the general features of the Bevatron extraction system, primarily the dependence of the beam parameters and extraction magnet currents on the Bevalac field. The extraction magnets considered are: PFW, XPl, XP2, XS1, XS2, XM1, XM2, XM3, XQ3A and X03B. This study is based on 84 past tunes (from 1987 to the present) of various ions (p,He,O,Ne,Si,S,Ar,Ca,Ti,Fe,Nb,La,Au and U), for Bevalac fields from 1.749 to 12.575 kG, where all tunes included a complete set of beam line wire chamber pictures. The circulating beam intensity inside the Bevalac is measured with Beam Induction Electrodes (BIE) in the South Tangent Tank. The extracted beam intensity is usually measured with the Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) in the F1-Box. For most of the tunes the extraction efficiency, as given by the SEM/BIE ratio, was not recorded in the MCR Log Book, but plotting the available Log Book data as a function of the Bevalac field, see Fig.9, we find that the extraction efficiency is typically between 30->60% with feedback spill.

Kalnins, J.G.; Krebs, G.; Tekawa, M.; Cowles, D.; Byrne, T.

1992-02-01

391

Formulations of dietary supplements and herbal extracts for relaxation and anxiolytic action: Relarian.  

PubMed

Dietary supplements are widely used for desired effects on memory, insomnia, mood and anxiety. This review focuses on supplements which have anxiolytic or mild relaxation properties and enhance mood. For example, Kava (Piper methysticum) is reported to have anaxiolytic actions and to reduce tension through skeletal muscle relaxation. Dried passion flower (genus Passiflora) is reported to reduce insomnia and hysteria. Skullcap (genus Scutellaria), hops (Humulus lupulus), lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) and Valerian (Valeriana officinalis) root are all herbs reported as anaxiolytic calming agents. Further, extracts of Magnolia and Phellondendron bark are mild sedatives. Supplements such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), theanine, tryptophan and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) are reported to promote relaxation. In general, these supplements appear to act as GABA receptor agonists or to boost GABA levels, although Kava inhibits both norephinephrine uptake and sodium and potassium channels and 5-HTP may act through elevation of serotonin. While questions remain in the literature regarding the medicinal value of these supplements in treating mood and anxiety disorders, based on cellular and animal studies as well as human clinical trials the literature supports a role for these preparations as useful alternatives in the management of the stress and anxiety of everyday life. PMID:19865069

Weeks, Benjamin S

2009-11-01

392

Composition for accelerated production of collagen  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Here the inventors provide a composition for topical application to the skin of animal comprising stearidonic acid in combination with one or octadecatrienoic acids (CODTAs). Preferably the composition comprises echium oil as a source of the stearidonic acid, and a plant lipid as a source of octadecatrienoic acid, such as borage oil (Borago officinalis), wheat germ oil (Triticum vulgare) rosehip oil (refined; Rosa mosqueta), jacaranda oil (Jacandra mimosi folia), and/or calendula oil (Calendula officinalis). The composition of the invention increases collagen I secretion and thus has particular utility for promoting collagen production in skin.

2013-10-08

393

Anxiolytic properties of Valeriana officinalis in the zebrafish: a possible role for metabotropic glutamate receptors.  

PubMed

Valerian extract is used in complementary and alternative medicine for its anxiolytic and sedative properties. Our previous research demonstrated valerian interactions with glutamate receptors. The purpose of this study was to determine if valerian anxiolytic properties are mediated by metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR) such as mGluR (1/5) (mGluR I) and mGluR (2/3) (mGluR II). Adult wild-type zebrafish (Danio rerio) prefer the black compartment and avoid the white compartment in the dark/light preference task. Zebrafish exposed to 1 mg/mL of valerian extract or 0.00117 mg/mL valerenic acid increased their residence time in the white side by 84.61 ± 6.55 % and 58.30 ± 8.97 %, respectively. LAP3 (mGluR I antagonist) and EGLU (mGluR II antagonist) significantly inhibited the effects of valerian and valerenic acid. These results demonstrated that valerian and valerenic acid have anxiolytic properties in the zebrafish. Moreover, the selective interaction of valerian with mGluR I and II represent an alternative explanation for the anxiolytic properties of this plant and support the role of mGluR in anxiety. PMID:22923195

Del Valle-Mojica, Lisa M; Ortíz, José G

2012-08-24

394

Extractant composition  

DOEpatents

An organic extracting solution useful for separating elements of the actinide series of the periodic table from elements of the lanthanide series, where both are in trivalent form. The extracting solution consists of a primary ligand and a secondary ligand, preferably in an organic solvent. The primary ligand is a substituted monothio-1,3-dicarbonyl, which includes a substituted 4-acyl-2-pyrazolin-5-thione, such as 4-benzoyl-2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-thione (BMPPT). The secondary ligand is a substituted phosphine oxide, such as trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO).

Smith, Barbara F. (Los Alamos, NM); Jarvinen, Gordon D. (Los Alamos, NM); Ryan, Robert R. (Los Alamos, NM)

1990-01-01

395

An analytical and theoretical approach for the profiling of the antioxidant activity of essential oils: The case of Rosmarinus officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant constituents of essential oils (EOs) of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (?-pinene chemotype) were isolated at the flowering (A), post-flowering (B), and vegetative stages (C). GC–MS was used to analyze total chemical composition, Folin–Ciocalteau and Prussian blue methods for reducing substances. Radical scavenging capacity (DPPH test, IC50 36.78±0.38, 79.69±1.54, 111.94±2.56?L) and anti-lipoperoxidant activity (TBARS, IC50 0.42±0.04, 1.20±0.06?L, 4.07±0.05?L) differed widely

G. Beretta; R. Artali; R. Maffei Facino; F. Gelmini

2011-01-01

396

HPTLC-densitometry determination of triterpenic acids in Origanum vulgare, Rosmarinus officinalis and Syzygium aromaticum.  

PubMed

Spices play an important role in the chemoprevention and they can be a rich source of biologically active compounds such as triterpenes in the human diet. A method based on high performance thin-layer chromatography combined with densitometry for determination of ursolic and oleanolic acids in some common spices was elaborated. The prechromatographic derivatization with 1% of iodine solution was used to enable simultaneous analysis of these triterpenes. The extracts were separated on HPTLC silica gel 60 F254 plates with use of mobile phase consisting of toluene-petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-acetonitrile 5 : 5 : 1 : 0.3 (v/v/v/v). After drying, the plates were sprayed with 10% (v/v) ethanol solution of sulfuric acid (VI) and heated to 120 degrees C for 3 min. Quantification was performed in fluorescence/reflectance mode at a wavelength of 400 nm using a computer-controlled densitometer Desaga CD 60. PMID:23757931

Nowak, Renata; Wójciak-Kosior, Magdalena; Sowa, Ireneusz; Soko?owska-Krzaczek, Anna; Pietrzak, Wioleta; Szczodra, Aleksandra; Kocjan, Ryszard

397

In vitro susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to botanical extracts used traditionally for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders.  

PubMed

The gram-negative bacterium Helicobacter pylori (HP), identified in 1982, is now recognized as the primary etiological factor associated with the development of gastritis and peptic ulcer disease. In addition, HP infections are also associated with chronic gastritis, gastric carcinoma and primary gastric B-cell lymphoma. For centuries, herbals have been used in traditional medicine to treat a wide range of ailments, including gastrointestinal (GI) disorders such as dyspepsia, gastritis and peptic ulcer disease (PUD). However, the mechanism of action by which these botanicals exert their therapeutic effects has not been completely elucidated. As part of an ongoing screening program, the study assessed the in vitro susceptibility of 15 HP strains to botanical extracts, which have a history of traditional use in the treatment of GI disorders. Methanol extracts of Myristica fragrans (seed) had a MIC of 12.5 microg/mL; Zingiber officinale (ginger rhizome/root) and Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary leaf) had an MIC of 25 microg/mL. Methanol extracts of botanicals with a MIC of 50 microg/mL included Achillea millefolium, Foeniculum vulgare (seed), Passiflora incarnata (herb), Origanum majorana (herb) and a (1:1) combination of Curcuma longa (root) and ginger rhizome. Botanical extracts with a MIC of 100 microg/mL included Carum carvi (seed), Elettaria cardamomum (seed), Gentiana lutea (roots), Juniper communis (berry), Lavandula angustifolia (flowers), Melissa officinalis (leaves), Mentha piperita (leaves) and Pimpinella anisum (seed). Methanol extracts of Matricaria recutita (flowers) and Ginkgo biloba (leaves) had a MIC > 100 microg/mL. PMID:16317658

Mahady, Gail B; Pendland, Susan L; Stoia, Adenia; Hamill, Frank A; Fabricant, Daniel; Dietz, Birgit M; Chadwick, Lucas R

2005-11-01

398

A review of the factors influencing spawning, early life stage survival and recruitment variability in the common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis).  

PubMed

Global landings of cephalopods (cuttlefish, squid and octopus) have increased dramatically over the past 50 years and now constitute almost 5% of the total world's fisheries production. At a time when landings of many traditional fin-fish stocks are continuing to experience a global decline as a result of over-exploitation, it is expected that fishing pressure on cephalopod stocks will continue to rise as the fishing industry switch their focus onto these non-quota species. However, long-term trends indicate that landings may have begun to plateau or even decrease. In European waters, cuttlefish are among the most important commercial cephalopod resource and are currently the highest yielding cephalopod group harvested in the north-east Atlantic, with the English Channel supporting the main fishery for this species. Recruitment variability in this short-lived species drives large fluctuations in landings. In order to provide sustainable management for Sepia officinalis populations, it is essential that we first have a thorough understanding of the ecology and life history of this species, in particular, the factors affecting spawning, early life stage (ELS) survival and recruitment variability. This review explores how and why such variability exists, starting with the impact of maternal effects (e.g. navigation, migration and egg laying), moving onto the direct impact of environmental variation on embryonic and ELSs and culminating on the impacts that these variations (maternal and environmental) have at a population level on annual recruitment success. Understanding these factors is critical to the effective management of expanding fisheries for this species. PMID:23763891

Bloor, Isobel S M; Attrill, Martin J; Jackson, Emma L

2013-01-01

399

Accumulation, transformation and tissue distribution of domoic acid, the amnesic shellfish poisoning toxin, in the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis.  

PubMed

Domoic acid (DA) is a phycotoxin produced by some diatoms, mainly from the Pseudo-nitzschia genus, and has been detected throughout the marine food web. Although DA has been frequently found in cephalopod prey such as crustaceans and fish, little is known about DA accumulation in these molluscs. This study presents the first data showing relevant concentrations of DA detected in the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, which is one of the most studied cephalopod species in the world. Domoic acid was consistently found throughout 2003 and 2004 in the digestive gland of cuttlefish reaching concentrations of 241.7 microg DA g(-1). The highest DA values were detected during spring and summer months, periods when Pseudo-nitzschia occur in the plankton. In fact, Pseudo-nitzschia blooms preceded the highest DA concentrations in cuttlefish. Evaluation of DA tissue distribution showed elevated DA concentrations in the digestive gland and branchial hearts. Further, DA isomers comprised a relevant percentage of the toxin profile, indicating degradation and biotransformation of the toxin in the branchial hearts. The common cuttlefish, like other cephalopod species, plays a central position in the food web and might be a new DA vector to top predators like marine mammals. Human intoxications are not expected since DA was only seldom detected in the mantle and even then in very low levels (max 0.7 microg DA g(-1)). However, in some countries whole juvenile animals are consumed (i.e. without evisceration) and in this case they might represent a risk to human health. This study contributes to understanding the occurrence of phycotoxins in cephalopods and reveals a new member of the marine food web able to accumulate DA. PMID:15961171

Costa, Pedro R; Rosa, Rui; Duarte-Silva, Alexandra; Brotas, Vanda; Sampayo, Maria Antónia M

2005-08-15

400

Biosynthesis of gamma-linolenic acid in cotyledons and microsomal preparations of the developing seeds of common borage (Borago officinalis).  

PubMed Central

The developing seeds of Borago officinalis (common borage) accumulate a triacylglycerol oil that is relatively rich in the uncommon fatty acid gamma-linolenate (octadec-6,9,12-trienoic acid). Incubation of developing, whole, cotyledons with [14C]oleate and [14C]linoleate showed that the gamma-linolenate was synthesized by the sequential desaturation of oleate----linoleate----gamma-linolenate. Microsomal membrane preparations from the developing cotyledons contained an active delta 6-desaturase enzyme that catalysed the conversion of linoleate into gamma-linolenate. Experiments were designed to manipulate the [14C]linoleate content of the microsomal phosphatidylcholine. The [14C]linoleoyl phosphatidylcholine labelled in situ was converted into gamma-linolenoyl phosphatidylcholine in the presence of NADH. The substrate for the delta 6-desaturase in borage was, therefore, the linoleate in the complex microsomal lipid phosphatidylcholine, rather than, as in animals, the acyl-CoA. This was further confirmed in experiments that compared the specific radioactivity of the gamma-linolenate, in acyl-CoA and phosphatidylcholine, that was synthesized when [14C]linoleoyl-CoA was incubated with microsomal membranes, NADH and non-radioactive gamma-linolenoyl-CoA. The delta 6-desaturase was positionally specific and only utilized the linoleate in position 2 of sn-phosphatidylcholine. Analysis of the positional distribution of fatty acids in the endogenous microsomal sn-phosphatidylcholine showed that, whereas position 1 contained substantial linoleate, only small amounts of gamma-linolenate were present. The results shed further light on the synthesis of C18 polyunsaturated fatty acids in plants and in particular its relationship to the regulation of the acyl quality of the triacylglycerols in oilseeds.

Stymne, S; Stobart, A K

1986-01-01

401

Influence of gibberellin and daminozide on the expression of terpene synthases and on monoterpenes in common sage (Salvia officinalis).  

PubMed

Common sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) is one of the most important medicinal and aromatic plants, with antioxidant, antimicrobial, spasmolytic, astringent, antihidrotic and specific sensorial properties. The essential oil of the plant, composed mainly of the monoterpenes 1,8-cineole, alpha-thujone, beta-thujone and camphor, is responsible for some of these effects. Gibberellins regulate diverse physiological processes in plants, such as seed germination, shoot elongation and cell division. In this study, we analyzed the effect of exogenously applied plant growth regulators, namely gibberellic acid (GA(3)) and daminozide, on leaf morphology and essential oil formation of two leaf stages during the period of leaf expansion. Essential oil content increased with increasing levels of gibberellins and decreased when gibberellin biosynthesis was blocked with daminozide. With increasing levels of gibberellins, 1,8-cineole and camphor contents increased. Daminozide blocked the accumulation of alpha- and beta-thujone. GA(3) at the highest level applied also led to a significant decrease of alpha- and beta-thujone. Monoterpene synthases are a class of enzymes responsible for the first step in monoterpene biosynthesis, competing for the same substrate geranylpyrophosphate. The levels of gene expression of the three most important monoterpene synthases in sage were investigated, 1,8-cineole synthase leading directly to 1,8-cineole, (+)-sabinene synthase responsible for the first step in the formation of alpha- and beta-thujone, and (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, the first step in camphor biosynthesis. The foliar application of GA(3) increased, while daminozide significantly decreased gene expression of the monoterpene synthases. The amounts of two of the end products, 1,8-cineole and camphor, were directly correlated with the levels of gene expression of the respective monoterpene synthases, indicating transcriptional control, while the formation of alpha- and beta-thujone was not transcriptionally regulated. PMID:20163890

Schmiderer, Corinna; Grausgruber-Gröger, Sabine; Grassi, Paolo; Steinborn, Ralf; Novak, Johannes

2010-02-16

402

Population structure and genetic diversity distribution in wild and cultivated populations of the traditional Chinese medicinal plant Magnolia officinalis subsp. biloba (Magnoliaceae).  

PubMed

Magnolia officinalis subsp. biloba, a traditional Chinese medicinal plant, experienced severe declines in the number of populations and the number of individuals in the late 20th century due to the widespread harvest of the subspecies. A large-scale cultivation program was initiated and cultivated populations rapidly recovered the loss in individual plant numbers, but wild populations remained small as a consequence of cutting. In this study, the levels of genetic variation and genetic structure of seven wild populations and five domestic populations of M. officinalis subsp. biloba were estimated employing an AFLP methodology. The plant exhibited a relatively high level of intra-population genetic diversity (h = 0.208 and H(j) = 0.268). The cultivated populations maintained approximately 95% of the variation exhibited in wild populations, indicating a slight genetic bottleneck in the cultivated populations. The analysis of genetic differentiation revealed that most of the AFLP diversity resided within populations both for the wild group (78.22%) and the cultivated group (85.92%). Genetic differentiation among populations in the wild group was significant (F(ST) = 0.1092, P < 0.005), suggesting wild population level genetic structure. Principal coordinates analysis (PCO) did not discern among wild and cultivated populations, indicating that alleles from the wild population were maintained in the cultivated gene pool. Results from the present study provide important baseline data for effectively conserving the genetic resources of this medicinal subspecies. PMID:18500655

He, Jingsheng; Chen, Ling; Si, Ying; Huang, Bo; Ban, Xiaoquan; Wang, Youwei

2008-05-26

403

DNA Extraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teachers' Domain presents this interactive, adapted from the University of Nebraska's Plant and Soil Science eLibrary, with reading material and animations to help students learn the basics of DNA extraction. The lesson is divided into and introduction and the four processes involved: cell lysis, dismantling the cell membrane, removing unwanted cell parts, and precipitating the DNA. On the site, visitors will also find a supplemental background essay, discussion questions, and standards alignment from Teachers' Domain.

2010-10-07

404

URANIUM EXTRACTION  

DOEpatents

The recovery of uranium values from uranium ore such as pitchblende is described. The ore is first dissolved in nitric acid, and a water soluble nitrate is added as a salting out agent. The resulting feed solution is then contacted with diethyl ether, whereby the bulk of the uranyl nitrate and a portion of the impurities are taken up by the ether. This acid ether extract is then separated from the aqueous raffinate, and contacted with water causing back extractioa of the uranyl nitrate and impurities into the water to form a crude liquor. After separation from the ether extract, this crude liquor is heated to about 118 deg C to obtain molten uranyl nitrate hexahydratc. After being slightly cooled the uranyl nitrate hexahydrate is contacted with acid free diethyl ether whereby the bulk of the uranyl nitrate is dissolved into the ethcr to form a neutral ether solution while most of the impurities remain in the aqueous waste. After separation from the aqueous waste, the resultant ether solution is washed with about l0% of its volume of water to free it of any dissolved impurities and is then contacted with at least one half its volume of water whereby the uranyl nitrate is extracted into the water to form an aqueous product solution.

Harrington, C.D.; Opie, J.V.

1958-07-01

405

Comparison of benzydamine hydrochloride and Salvia officinalis as an adjuvant local treatment to systemic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug in controlling pain after tonsillectomy, adenoidectomy, or both: an open-label, single-blind, randomized clinical trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundBenzydamine hydrochloride (BNZD) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used in an oral rinse formulation as an adjuvant to other NSAIDs in controlling postoperative pain after tonsillectomy, adenoidectomy, or both. Salvia officinalis (SO) is a topically applied herbal preparation frequently used for the same indication. Pain, bleeding, and infection are the most common postoperative complications of tonsillectomy.

Sinisa Lali?evi?; Ivan Djordjevi?

2004-01-01

406

Amelioration of alcohol-induced oxidative stress by Emblica officinalis (amla) in rats.  

PubMed

The present study was aimed at investigating the ameliorative effect of Emblica (Phyllanthus Emblica L) fruit extract (EFE) against alcohol-induced oxidative changes in plasma biochemical profile in rats. Alcohol administration (5 g/kg body wt/day) for 60 days resulted in significantly (P<0.05) higher levels of plasma nitrite/nitrate (NOx), total bilirubin, creatinine, and abnormalities in lipid and lipoproteins. Moreover, alcohol receiving rats showed significantly (P<0.05) lowered plasma total protein, albumin/globulin (A/G) ratio and uric acid, with no significant change in glucose level. The EFE administration (250 mg/kg body wt/day) to alcohol-administered rats significantly modulated plasma lipids and lipoprotein patterns and also decreased nitrite/nitrate, total bilirubin and creatinine levels. EFE administration to alcohol receiving rats showed a significant (P<0.05) increase in plasma total protein, A/G ratio and uric acid levels. Total cholesterol (r = 0.466), triglycerides (r = 0.574), VLDL-C (r = 0.578), LDL-C (r = 0.225) and total bilirubin (r = 0.419) showed a stronger positive correlation with that of NOx in alcohol-treated rats. The concentration of nitric oxide (NOx) was negatively correlated with HDL-C (r = -0.285) and uric acid (r = 0.392) in alcohol-treated rats. The amelioration of alcohol-induced oxidative stress might be due to the combined effect of phytophenols, such as tannins and flavonoid compounds and vitamin C. PMID:21086750

Reddy, V Damodara; Padmavathi, P; Paramahamsa, M; Varadacharyulu, N C

2010-02-01

407

Revealing the metabonomic variation of rosemary extracts using 1H NMR spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis.  

PubMed

The molecular compositions of rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extracts and their dependence on extraction solvents, seasons, and drying processes were systematically characterized using NMR spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis. The results showed that the rosemary metabonome was dominated by 33 metabolites including sugars, amino acids, organic acids, polyphenolic acids, and diterpenes, among which quinate, cis-4-glucosyloxycinnamic acid, and 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenylmethanol were found in rosemary for the first time. Compared with water extracts, the 50% aqueous methanol extracts contained higher levels of sucrose, succinate, fumarate, malonate, shikimate, and phenolic acids, but lower levels of fructose, glucose, citrate, and quinate. Chloroform/methanol was an excellent solvent for selective extraction of diterpenes. From February to August, the levels of rosmarinate and quinate increased, whereas the sucrose level decreased. The sun-dried samples contained higher concentrations of rosmarinate, sucrose, and some amino acids but lower concentrations of glucose, fructose, malate, succinate, lactate, and quinate than freeze-dried ones. These findings will fill the gap in the understanding of rosemary composition and its variations. PMID:18800806

Xiao, Chaoni; Dai, Hui; Liu, Hongbing; Wang, Yulan; Tang, Huiru

2008-09-19

408

Variation in agronomic characteristics and seed oil composition of new oilseed crops in central Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following new potential oilseed crops for industrial uses have been considered for agronomic traits and seed oil composition during a 3 year trial in Central Italy: Calendula officinalis (calendic acid); Camelina sativa and Lepidium sativum (linolenic acid); Coriandrum sativum (petroselinic acid); Euphorbia lagascae and Vernonia galamensis (epoxy fatty acids); Madia sativa (linoleic acid); Lesquerella fendleri (hydroxy fatty acids). Agronomic

Luciana G Angelini; Elisabetta Moscheni; Giusefiana Colonna; Paola Belloni; Enrico Bonari

1997-01-01

409

Effects of a multi-herbal extract on type 2 diabetes  

PubMed Central

Background An aqueous extract of multi-hypoglycemic herbs of Panax ginseng C.A.Meyer, Pueraria lobata, Dioscorea batatas Decaisne, Rehmannia glutinosa, Amomum cadamomum Linné, Poncirus fructus and Evodia officinalis was investigated for its anti-diabetic effects in cell and animal models. Methods Activities of PPAR? agonist, anti-inflammation, AMPK activator and anti-ER stress were measured in cell models and in db/db mice (a genetic animal model for type 2 diabetes). Results While the extract stimulated PPAR?-dependent luciferase activity and activated AMPK in C2C12 cells, it inhibited TNF-?-stimulated IKK?/NFkB signaling and attenuated ER stress in HepG2 cells. The db/db mice treated with the extract showed reduced fasting blood glucose and HbA1c levels, improved postprandial glucose levels, enhanced insulin sensitivity and significantly decreased plasma free fatty acid, triglyceride and total cholesterol. Conclusion The aqueous extract of these seven hypoglycemic herbs demonstrated many therapeutic effects for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in cell and animal models.

2011-01-01

410

Isolation of carnosic acid from rosemary extracts using semi-preparative supercritical fluid chromatography.  

PubMed

Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) in analytical and semi-preparative scale was studied to separate rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) supercritical extracts to produce fractions with high antioxidant activity. Carnosic acid, the major antioxidant present in rosemary supercritical extracts, was the target compound to be isolated in the fractions produced. First, rosemary extracts were produced in a supercritical CO2 pilot-plant employing different extraction conditions, in order to obtain samples with diverse composition. The content of carnosic acid was determined and the DPPH test was accomplished in order to assess the antioxidant activity of the different samples produced. Then, using some of these samples, experiments were carried out in a semi-preparative SFC system testing the performance of four different chromatographic columns to isolate and recover a fraction with high concentration of carnosic acid. The four chromatographic columns employed were silica and 2-ethylpyridine (especially packed for SFC) and silica and diol columns (packed for HPLC). The SFC fractionation conditions explored were in the ranges 10-20 MPa, 313-333 K and 5-20% of cosolvent (ethanol). Using the first three columns, it was possible to isolate fractions with concentrations of carnosic acid greater than 80% mass. PMID:23497854

Vicente, Gonzalo; García-Risco, Mónica R; Fornari, Tiziana; Reglero, Guillermo

2013-02-20

411

A study of the synergistic antilisterial effects of a sub-lethal dose of lactic acid and essential oils from Thymus vulgaris L., Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Origanum vulgare L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commercial essential oils of Thymus vulgaris L., Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Origanum vulgare L. were chemically characterized by GC, GC\\/MS analyses. The antilisterial activity of the oils, and the sub-lethal concentration of lactic acid were established by the agar-well diffusion method. The bactericidal kinetics of the diluted oils (50ppm, 100ppm, 200ppm and 300ppm) and their mixtures with 50ppm of lactic

Suzana I. Dimitrijevi?; Katarina R. Mihajlovski; Dušan G. Antonovi?; Mirjana R. Milanovi?-Stevanovi?; Dušan Ž. Mijin

2007-01-01

412

Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil and the related compound 1,8-cineole do not induce direct or cross-protection in Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 cultivated in meat broth.  

PubMed

Listeria monocytogenes has the capability of adapting to 1 or more antimicrobial compounds or procedures applied by the food industry to control the growth and survival of microorganisms in foods. In this study, the effects of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil (EO) and the related compound 1,8-cineole on the inhibition of the growth and survival of L. monocytogenes ATCC 7644 were determined. The ability of the R. officinalis EO and 1,8-cineole to induce direct and cross-protection of bacteria against various stresses (lactic acid, pH 5.2; NaCl, 3 g/100 mL; high temperature, 45 °C) was also determined. At all concentrations tested (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), ½ MIC, and ¼ MIC), both compounds inhibited the cell viability of L. monocytogenes over 120 min of exposure. Overnight exposure of L. monocytogenes to sublethal amounts of either the R. officinalis EO or 1,8-cineole in meat broth revealed no induction of direct or cross-protection against lactic acid, NaCl, or high temperature. Similarly, cells subjected to 24 h cycles of adaptation with increasing amounts (½ MIC to 2× MIC) of the EO and 1,8-cineole showed no increase in direct tolerance, as they were able to survive in growth medium containing up to ½ MIC of either substance. These results show the antimicrobial efficacy of R. officinalis EO and 1,8-cineole for use in systems, particularly as anti-L. monocytogenes compounds. PMID:22808924

Gomes Neto, Nelson Justino; Luz, Isabelle Silva; Honório, Wanessa Gonçalves; Tavares, Adassa Gama; de Souza, Evandro Leite

2012-07-18

413

Effects of Melissa officinalis L. on oxidative status and DNA damage in subjects exposed to long-term low-dose ionizing radiation.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the capability of Melissa officinalis L. (Lemon balm) infusion on improvement of oxidative stress status in radiology staff that were exposed to persistent low-dose radiation during work. The study was a before-after clinical trial performed on 55 radiology staff. They were asked to drink Lemon balm infusion which was prepared like a tea bag twice daily (1.5 g/100 mL) for 30 days. In the plasma, lipid peroxidation, DNA damage, catalase, superoxide dismutase, myeloperoxidase, and glutathione peroxidase activity were measured before and after using Lemon balm infusion.Use of Lemon balm infusion in radiology unit workers resulted in a significant improvement in plasma levels of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase and a marked reduction in plasma DNA damage, myeloperoxidase, and lipid peroxidation. It is concluded that infusion of Lemon balm markedly improve oxidative stress condition and DNA damage in radiology staff when used as a dietary supplement for radiation protection. PMID:20858648

Zeraatpishe, Akbar; Oryan, Shahrbano; Bagheri, Mohammad Hadi; Pilevarian, Ali Asghar; Malekirad, Ali Akbar; Baeeri, Maryam; Abdollahi, Mohammad

2010-09-21

414

Comparative Study on Biochemical Properties and Antioxidative Activity of Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) Protein Hydrolysates Produced by Alcalase and Bacillus licheniformis NH1 Proteases  

PubMed Central

Antioxidative activities and biochemical properties of protein hydrolysates prepared from cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) using Alcalase 2.4?L and Bacillus licheniformis NH1 proteases with different degrees of hydrolysis (DH) were determined. For the biochemical properties, hydrolysis by both enzymes increased protein solubility to above 75% over a wide pH range. The antioxidant activities of cuttlefish protein hydrolysates (CPHs) increase with increasing DH. In addition, all CPHs exhibited antioxidative activity in a concentration-dependent manner. NH1-CPHs generally showed greater antioxidative activity than Alcalase protein hydrolysates (P < 0.05) as indicated by the higher 1,1-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and ferrous chelating activity. Both Alcalase and NH1 protein hydrolysates were able to retard lipid peroxidation and ?-carotene-linoleic acid oxidation. Alcalase-CPH (DH = 12.5%) and NH1-CPH (DH = 15%) contained 75.36% and 80.11% protein, respectively, with histidine and arginine as the major amino acids, followed by glutamic acid/glutamine, serine, lysine, and leucine. In addition, CPHs have a high percentage of essential amino acids made up 48.85% and 50.04%. Cuttlefish muscle protein hydrolysates had a high nutritional value and could be used as supplement to poorly balanced dietary proteins.

Balti, Rafik; Bougatef, Ali; El Hadj Ali, Nedra; Ktari, Naourez; Jellouli, Kemel; Nedjar-Arroume, Naima; Dhulster, Pascal; Nasri, Moncef

2011-01-01

415

Efficacy of Origanum vulgare L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oils in combination to control postharvest pathogenic Aspergilli and autochthonous mycoflora in Vitis labrusca L. (table grapes).  

PubMed

This study evaluated the efficacy of the application of the essential oils of Origanum vulgare L. (OVEO) and Rosmarinus officinalis L. (ROEO) alone and in combination to inhibit Aspergillus flavus URM 4540 and Aspergillus niger URM 5842 in fungal growth media and on Vitis labrusca L. (table grapes). The influence on the autochthonous mycoflora and the physical, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the grapes during storage (25°C, 12days and 12°C, 24days) were also studied. The application of the essential oils in different concentrations (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration - MIC, 1/2 MIC+1/2 MIC and 1/4 MIC+1/4 MIC) inhibited the mycelial growth and spore germination of the test fungi and inhibited the growth of the assayed fungal strains in artificially contaminated grapes and the autochthonous mycoflora of grapes stored at both room and cold temperatures. In general, the application of OVEO and/or ROEO at sub-lethal concentrations preserved the quality of grapes as measured by their physical, physicochemical and sensory attributes throughout the assessed storage time. These results demonstrate the potential of the combination of OVEO and ROEO at sub-lethal concentrations to control postharvest pathogenic fungi in fruits, particularly, A. flavus and A. niger in table grapes. PMID:23810954

de Sousa, Larissa Lima; de Andrade, Sonálle Carolina Albuquerque; Athayde, Ana Júlia Alves Aguiar; de Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo Vasconcelos; de Sales, Camila Veríssimo; Madruga, Marta Suely; de Souza, Evandro Leite

2013-06-10

416

Enzyme-assisted acidolysis of borage (Borago officinalis L.) and evening primrose (Oenothera biennis L.) oils: incorporation of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.  

PubMed

Lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of borage (Borago officinalis L.) and evening primrose (Oenothera biennisL.) oils with long-chain omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), namely, eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids, was carried out in hexane, and the products were analyzed using gas chromatography. The most effective lipase for incorporation of omega3 PUFA into these oils was Pseudomonas sp. as compared to lipases from Mucor miehei and Candida antarctica. Response surface methodology was used to obtain a maximum yield of EPA+DHA incorporation while using the minimum amount of enzyme possible. The process variables studied were the amount of enzyme (150-350 units), reaction temperature (30-60 degrees C), and reaction time (6-30 h). All experiments were carried out according to a face-centered cube design. Under optimum conditions, incorporation of EPA+DHA was 35.5% in borage oil and 33. 6% in evening primrose oil. The modified borage and evening primrose oils containing gamma-linolenic acid, EPA, and DHA were successfully produced and may have potential health benefits. PMID:10552616

Senanayake, S P; Shahidi, F

1999-08-01

417

Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil and its majority compound 1,8-cineole at sublethal amounts induce no direct and cross protection in Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538.  

PubMed

In this study, the inhibitory efficacy of Rosmarinus officinalis essential L. (ROEO) and 1,8-cineole (CIN) in inhibiting the growth and survival of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 and the induction of direct and bacterial cross protection (lactic acid pH 5.2; NaCl 100?g/L; high temperature 45°C) were evaluated following exposure to sublethal and increasing amounts of these treatments in meat broth. All of the concentrations of the ROEO and CIN examined in this study (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC], 1/2 MIC, and 1/4 MIC) inhibited the viability of S. aureus throughout the 120?min of exposure. The overnight exposure of S. aureus to sublethal amounts of both ROEO or CIN in meat broth did not result in direct or cross protection. Cells progressively subcultured (24-h cycles) in meat broth with increasing amounts of ROEO or CIN showed no increased direct tolerance. These results reveal the antimicrobial efficacy of ROEO and CIN for use in food conservation systems as anti-S. aureus compounds given their efficacy at inhibiting bacterial growth, in addition to their lack of induction for the development of homologous and heterologous resistance. PMID:23190166

Gomes Neto, Nelson Justino; Luz, Isabelle da Silva; Tavares, Adassa Gama; Honório, Vanessa Gonçalves; Magnani, Marciane; de Souza, Evandro Leite

2012-11-28

418

Isolation and Characterization of Antimicrobial Compounds in Plant Extracts against Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii  

PubMed Central

The number of fully active antibiotic options that treat nosocomial infections due to multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) is extremely limited. Magnolia officinalis, Mahonia bealei, Rabdosia rubescens, Rosa rugosa, Rubus chingii, Scutellaria baicalensis, and Terminalia chebula plant extracts were previously shown to have growth inhibitory activity against a multidrug-resistant clinical strain of A. baumannii. In this study, the compounds responsible for their antimicrobial activity were identified by fractionating each plant extract using high performance liquid chromatography, and determining the antimicrobial activity of each fraction against A. baumannii. The chemical structures of the fractions inhibiting >40% of the bacterial growth were elucidated by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The six most active compounds were identified as: ellagic acid in Rosa rugosa; norwogonin in Scutellaria baicalensis; and chebulagic acid, chebulinic acid, corilagin, and terchebulin in Terminalia chebula. The most potent compound was identified as norwogonin with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 128 µg/mL, and minimum bactericidal concentration of 256 µg/mL against clinically relevant strains of A. baumannii. Combination studies of norwogonin with ten anti-Gram negative bacterial agents demonstrated that norwogonin did not enhance the antimicrobial activity of the synthetic antibiotics chosen for this study. In conclusion, of all identified antimicrobial compounds, norwogonin was the most potent against multidrug-resistant A. baumannii strains. Further studies are warranted to ascertain the prophylactic and therapeutic potential of norwogonin for infections due to multidrug-resistant A. baumannii.

Miyasaki, Yoko; Rabenstein, John D.; Rhea, Joshua; Crouch, Marie-Laure; Mocek, Ulla M.; Kittell, Patricia Emmett; Morgan, Margie A.; Nichols, Wesley Stephen; Van Benschoten, M. M.; Hardy, William David; Liu, George Y.

2013-01-01

419

Herbal Extracts and Phytochemicals: Plant Secondary Metabolites and the Enhancement of Human Brain Function1  

PubMed Central

Humans consume a wide range of foods, drugs, and dietary supplements that are derived from plants and which modify the functioning of the central nervous sytem (CNS). The psychoactive properties of these substances are attributable to the presence of plant secondary metabolites, chemicals that are not required for the immediate survival of the plant but which are synthesized to increase the fitness of the plant to survive by allowing it to interact with its environment, including pathogens and herbivorous and symbiotic insects. In many cases, the effects of these phytochemicals on the human CNS might be linked either to their ecological roles in the life of the plant or to molecular and biochemical similarities in the biology of plants and higher animals. This review assesses the current evidence for the efficacy of a range of readily available plant-based extracts and chemicals that may improve brain function and which have attracted sufficient research in this regard to reach a conclusion as to their potential effectiveness as nootropics. Many of these candidate phytochemicals/extracts can be grouped by the chemical nature of their potentially active secondary metabolite constituents into alkaloids (caffeine, nicotine), terpenes (ginkgo, ginseng, valerian, Melissa officinalis, sage), and phenolic compounds (curcumin, resveratrol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, Hypericum perforatum, soy isoflavones). They are discussed in terms of how an increased understanding of the relationship between their ecological roles and CNS effects might further the field of natural, phytochemical drug discovery.

Kennedy, David O.; Wightman, Emma L.

2011-01-01

420

Herbal extracts and phytochemicals: plant secondary metabolites and the enhancement of human brain function.  

PubMed

Humans consume a wide range of foods, drugs, and dietary supplements that are derived from plants and which modify the functioning of the central nervous sytem (CNS). The psychoactive properties of these substances are attributable to the presence of plant secondary metabolites, chemicals that are not required for the immediate survival of the plant but which are synthesized to increase the fitness of the plant to survive by allowing it to interact with its environment, including pathogens and herbivorous and symbiotic insects. In many cases, the effects of these phytochemicals on the human CNS might be linked either to their ecological roles in the life of the plant or to molecular and biochemical similarities in the biology of plants and higher animals. This review assesses the current evidence for the efficacy of a range of readily available plant-based extracts and chemicals that may improve brain function and which have attracted sufficient research in this regard to reach a conclusion as to their potential effectiveness as nootropics. Many of these candidate phytochemicals/extracts can be grouped by the chemical nature of their potentially active secondary metabolite constituents into alkaloids (caffeine, nicotine), terpenes (ginkgo, ginseng, valerian, Melissa officinalis, sage), and phenolic compounds (curcumin, resveratrol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, Hypericum perforatum, soy isoflavones). They are discussed in terms of how an increased understanding of the relationship between their ecological roles and CNS effects might further the field of natural, phytochemical drug discovery. PMID:22211188

Kennedy, David O; Wightman, Emma L

2011-01-10

421

PITFALLS OF SEQUENTIAL EXTRACTION  

EPA Science Inventory

An increasing number of researchers are using sequential extraction to determine the speciation of trace elements in sediments. nfortunately, sequential extraction methods have not been successfully validated. he results are simply taken as providing "operational definitions" of ...

422

Tevatron Extraction Microcomputer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Extraction in the Fermilab Tevatron is controlled by a multi-processor Multibus microcomputer system called QXR (Quad eXtraction Regulator). QXR monitors several analog beam signals and controls three sets of power supplies: the ''bucker'' and ''pulse'' m...

L. Chapman D. A. Finley M. Harrison W. Merz

1985-01-01

423

Endovascular extraction techniques  

PubMed Central

The use of lead extraction is expanding with the introduction of new endovascular extraction techniques. Indications for extraction of chronically implanted pacemaker leads have been classified as mandatory, necessary or discretionary, but their rationale is often based on clinical judgement without corresponding support from the literature. We reviewed the literature of pacemaker lead-related complications as a starting point for discussing the indications for lead extraction. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3

Bracke, F.A.; Meijer, A.; van Gelder, B.

2001-01-01

424

Processed anthocyanin pigment extracts  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The stability of anthocyanin pigment extracts and food products containing anthocyanin extracts is enhanced by removal from the anthocyanin pigment extracts of nutrients which support yeast growth, constituents which react to produce off-flavor, and constituents which catalyze oxidation. These undesirable materials contained in anthocyanin extracts are removed by subjecting the extracts to ultrafiltration or dialysis to remove low molecular weight components from the extracts. The extracts are also subjected to ion exchange to remove additional of these undesirable constituents. Sufficient of these undesirable constituents can be removed from anthocyanin extracts so that, e.g., carbonated beverages containing the extracts may not support sufficient growth of yeasts to cause the beverages to become hazy and/or have an off-flavor, and so that when the extracts are used to prepare dry beverage powder mixtures after prolonged shelf storage, the mixtures may not obtain an off-flavor. Moreover, the oxidative stability and photostability of the anthocyanin pigment extracts may be enhanced by the process of this invention. Such processed anthocyanin extracts may have higher tinctoral powers, e.g., more brilliant red colors, and are less hygroscopic, and thus they may be suitable for coloring various solid food products including liquid and powder concentrates.

Hilton; Barney W. (Dallas, TX); Lin; Robert I. (Irving, TX); Topor; Michael G. (Farmer's Branch, TX)

1982-03-16

425

Content Extraction Signatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivated by emerging needs in online interactions, we dene a new type of digital signature called a 'Content Extraction Signature' (CES). A CES allows the owner, Bob, of a document signed by Alice, to produce an 'extracted signature' on selected extracted portions of the original document, which can be veried to originate from Alice by any third party Cathy, while

Ron Steinfeld; Laurence Bull; Yuliang Zheng

2001-01-01

426

Extractive Distillation: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extractive distillation is more and more commonly applied in industry, and becomes an important separation method in chemical engineering. This paper provides an in?depth review for extractive distillation. Separation sequence of the columns, combination with other separation processes, tray configuration and operation policy are included in process of extractive distillation. Since the solvent plays an important role in the design

Zhigang Lei; Chengyue Li; Biaohua Chen

2003-01-01

427

METAL EXTRACTION PROCESS  

DOEpatents

An improved method for extracting uranium from aqueous solutions by solvent extraction is presented. A difficulty encountered in solvent extraction operations using an organic extractant (e.g., tributyl phosphate dissolved in kerosene or carbon tetrachloride) is that emulsions sometimes form, and phase separation is difficult or impossible. This difficulty is overcome by dissolving the organic extractant in a molten wax which is a solid at operating temperatures. After cooling, the wax which now contains the extractant, is broken into small particles (preferably flakes) and this wax complex'' is used to contact the uranium bearing solutions and extract the metal therefrom. Microcrystalline petroleum wax and certain ethylene polymers have been found suitable for this purpose.

Lewis, G.W. Jr.; Rhodes, D.E.

1957-11-01

428

An inhibitor of collagen-stimulated platelet activation from the salivary glands of the Haementeria officinalis leech. II. Cloning of the cDNA and expression.  

PubMed

Salivary glands of the leech Haementeria officinalis contain a protein, leech antiplatelet protein (LAPP), that specifically blocks collagen-mediated platelet aggregation (Connolly, T. M., Jacobs, J. W., and Condra, C. (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 6893-6898). Degenerate oligonucleotides whose sequences were derived from two short peptides from V8 digests of the native LAPP were used as primers to generate a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product which contains the cDNA region coding for the sequence between these two peptides. Using this PCR product as a hybridization probe, phage containing cDNA clones were isolated containing the entire deduced amino acid sequence for LAPP. Computer analysis of the amino acid sequence predicts a peptidase cleavage site between a 21-residue pre-peptide and a mature protein of 126 amino acids. A DNA insert to express the predicted mature LAPP protein was generated by PCR amplification using phage-derived cDNA clones as a substrate. This insert encoded a fusion protein with the leader sequence of the yeast alpha mating factor and the mature LAPP cDNA. These PCR products were cloned into the yeast expression vector pKH4 alpha 2. A KEX 2 Lys-Arg endopeptidase cleavage site was placed NH2-terminal to the predicted mature protein. This vector transfected into the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae directs expression of a secreted mature protein at levels up to 200 mg of LAPP/liter of culture medium. The recombinant protein was comparable to native LAPP in its electrophoretic mobility, its reactivity with anti-LAPP antisera, and its biological activity including inhibition of collagen-stimulated platelet aggregation and the adhesion of platelets to collagen. Availability of significant quantities of recombinant LAPP opens the way to further biochemical structure/function studies and to studies on the effects of an inhibitor of collagen-stimulated platelet aggregation in vivo. PMID:1551898

Keller, P M; Schultz, L D; Condra, C; Karczewski, J; Connolly, T M

1992-04-01

429

An evaluation of the inhibitory effects against rotavirus infection of edible plant extracts  

PubMed Central

Background Rotaviruses are the single most important cause of severe diarrhea in young children worldwide. The developments of specific, potent and accessible antiviral treatments that restrain rotavirus infection remain important to control rotavirus disease. Methods 150 plant extracts with nutritional applications were screened in vitro on MA-104 cells for their antiviral activity against rhesus rotavirus (RRV). One extract (Aspalathus linearis (Burm.f.) R.Dahlgren) was also tested for its effect on the loss of transepithelial resistance (TER) of Caco-2 cells caused by simian rotavirus (SA-11) infection. Results Aqueous extracts of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. fruit, Urtica dioica L. root, Aspalathus linearis (Burm.f.) R.Dahlgren leaves, Glycyrrhiza glabra L. root and Olea europaea L. leaves were found to have strong significant antiviral activity with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50)?officinalis (IC50 150??M). A combination of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. + Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. and Urtica dioica L. + Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. showed synergy in their anti-viral activities. Aspalathus linearis (Burm.f.) R.Dahlgren showed no positive effect on the maintenance of the TER. Conclusions These results indicate that nutritional intervention with extracts of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn., Aspalathus linearis (Burm.f.) R.Dahlgren, Urtica dioica L., Glycyrrhiza glabra L. and Olea europaea L. might be useful in the treatment of diarrhea caused by rotavirus infection.

2012-01-01

430

Supercritical extraction of coal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical extraction of Wyodak coal was studied by passing various solvents upwards through a 15 gram sample of 12-20 mesh coal. For the high temperature experiments, the coal was heated to 375°C and 425°C in a hot fluidized sand bath. The main solvent used was toluene, while extractions with n-pentane, xylene, methanol, and water were also done. The extract was

Sunol

1982-01-01

431

Polyphenolic transmission to Segureno lamb meat from ewes' diet supplemented with the distillate from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) leaves.  

PubMed

The aim of the present work is to study whether the introduction of rosemary plant byproduct, from plant steam distillation, in daily Segurena sheep feeding allows the transfer of active antioxidant components to lamb meat, without detriment to the animal productivity. For this, 36 Segurena ewes were assigned randomly to three homogeneous groups. One group was fed a basal diet as a control and the diet of the other two groups was modified by substituting 10 or 20% of the control diet (respectively) with distilled rosemary leaves. Chromatographic analysis allowed the identification of 11 polyphenolic components previously identified in the rosemary and basal diet pellets, respectively. Among them, rosmarinic acid, carnosol, and carnosic acid were the phenolic components that had a significantly increased presence ( P < 0.05) in the lamb meat from sheep mothers fed this aromatic herb, when compared to the control group. The incorporation of this byproduct into the animal diet favored the antioxidant capacity of these lamb meat samples. Fresh meat produced on rosemary had higher total ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) ( P < 0.05), greater ability to reduce ABTS*+, and lower IC50 (DPPH*) ( P < 0.05) values when compared to the control group. Because no statistically significant differences were detected among the results obtained from the lamb meat belonging to the different ewe groups fed rosemary leaf extract (10 or 20%), it can be concluded that the incorporation of distilled rosemary leaves at a rate of 10% of the ewes' diet should be enough to improve the lamb meat antioxidant status. PMID:18422334

Moñino, Inmaculada; Martínez, Cristina; Sotomayor, José A; Lafuente, Arturo; Jordán, Maria J

2008-04-19

432

Extracts and constituents of Hypericum perforatum inhibit the binding of various ligands to recombinant receptors expressed with the Semliki Forest virus system.  

PubMed

Extracts, fractions and constituents of Hypericum perforatum were studied for in vitro receptor binding with various ligands to recombinant CNS receptors expressed with the Semliki Forest virus expression system. For this purpose we have prepared membranes of CHO cells with high density of several opioid, serotonin, estrogen, histamine, GABAA, neurokinin and metabotropic glutamate receptors, respectively. A lipophilic Hypericum fraction revealed relatively potent inhibition to the binding of the mu-, delta- and kappa-opioid and the 5-HT6 and 5-HT7 receptors. Moreover, Hypericum constituents such as the naphthodianthrones, hypericin and pseudohypericin, and the phloroglucinole hyperforin inhibited both binding to the opioid and serotonin receptors in the lower micromolar range. Estrogen binding was 50% inhibited by the biflavonoid I3,II8-biapigenin at micromolar concentration. The lipophilic Hypericum fraction provided a less potent inhibition of the neurokinin-1 receptor binding compared to the opioid and serotonin receptors. A total ethanolic Hypericum extract potently inhibited GABAA binding at approximately 3 micrograms/ml. This inhibition is however not specific to Hypericum, since extracts of plants like Valeriana officinalis and Passiflora incarnata showed similar inhibitions. Binding to neither histamine nor metabotropic glutamate receptors was affected by Hypericum extracts. These results support the hypothesis that several active constituents of Hypericum might in a synergistic way contribute to its antidepressant effect in the central nervous system. PMID:10071750

Simmen, U; Burkard, W; Berger, K; Schaffner, W; Lundstrom, K

433

Antioxidant capacity and inhibitory effect of grape seed and rosemary extract in marinades on the formation of heterocyclic amines in fried beef patties.  

PubMed

The effect of oil-based marinades containing grape seed extract (Vitis vinifera L.; 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 g/100g) formulated in a water/oil emulsion or rosemary extract (Rosmarinus officinalis; 0.12, 0.2, 0.6, 1.0 and 1.5 g/100g) in oil on the formation of heterocyclic amines (HAs) in fried beef patties was examined. After application of marinades and frying, four HAs MeIQx (2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline), PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5b]pyridine), Norharman, and Harman were found at low levels in all fried patties, MeIQx (0.3-1.0 ng/g), and PhIP (0.02-0.3 ng/g). The content of MeIQx and PhIP were significantly reduced by approx. 57% and 90% (p<0.05), respectively, after use of marinades containing the highest extract concentration. The antioxidant capacity of grape seed was about two-times greater than that of rosemary extract. A correlation between inhibition of HAs and Trolox-equivalents (MeIQx, R(2)=0.85, p<0.001; PhIP, R(2)=0.83, p<0.001) was found. Sensory tests showed a high acceptance of flavour and colour for controls and samples. PMID:23107689

Gibis, Monika; Weiss, Jochen

2012-03-10

434

Glomalin extraction and measurement  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated extraction from soil of glomalin, a glycoprotein produced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and we examined its measurement. The most commonly used protocols for extracting glomalin require autoclaving of soil in citrate solution, followed by centrifugation to separate the supernatant, and then measurement by either Bradford protein assay or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We found that lengthening the time

David P. Janos; Sara Garamszegi; Bray Beltran

2008-01-01

435

Feature Extraction Assessment Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the feature extraction assessment study (FEAS) is to assess the degree to which the DMA feature extraction process can be automated by 1985. The major conclusion of the study is that given the state-of-the-art in image understanding and pat...

M. J. Carlotto V. T. Tom G. K. Wallace

1984-01-01

436

Yeast DNA Extraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This laboratory exercise is designed to show learners how DNA can easily be extracted from yeast using simple materials. Use this experiment to supplement any unit on genetics and to demonstrate how scientists study DNA. Adult supervision is recommended. This resource guide includes tips and suggestions for instructors as well as other DNA extraction experiments and a chart for learners to answer questions.

Hays, Lana

2009-01-01

437

Extractive Metallurgy of Beryllium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive review of the extractive metallurgy of beryllium is presented. Due to the strategic importance and element of secrecy surrounding the metal, any open literature on beryllium is rather limited. However, this review has been made to cover all important aspects of beryllium extraction technology namely, resources of the metal; processing of ores; reduction of fluoride and oxide to

C. K. GUPTA; S. SAHA

2002-01-01

438

Extractive Metallurgy of Beryllium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive review of the extractive metallurgy of beryllium is presented. Due to the strategic importance and element of secrecy surrounding the metal, any open literature on beryllium is rather limited. However, this review has been made to cover all important aspects of beryllium extraction technology namely, resources of the metal; processing of ores; reduction of fluoride and oxide to

C. K. GUPTA; S. SAHA

2001-01-01