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Sample records for calendula officinalis extract

  1. Final report on the safety assessment of Calendula officinalis extract and Calendula officinalis.

    PubMed

    2001-01-01

    Calendula Officinalis Extract is an extract of the flowers of Calendula officinalis, the common marigold, whereas Calendula Officinalis is described as plant material derived from the flowers of C. officinalis. Techniques for preparing Calendula Officinalis Extract include gentle disintegration in soybean oil. Propylene glycol and butylene glycol extractions were also reported. Components of these ingredients are variously reported to include sugars, carotenoids, phenolic acids, sterols, saponins, flavonoids, resins, sterins, quinones, mucilages, vitamins, polyprenylquinones, and essential oils. Calendula Officinalis Extract is reported to be used in almost 200 cosmetic formulations, over a wide range of product categories. There are no reported uses of Calendula Officinalis. Acute toxicity studies in rats and mice indicate that the extract is relatively nontoxic. Animal tests showed at most minimal skin irritation, and no sensitization or phototoxicity. Minimal ocular irritation was seen with one formulation and no irritation with others. Six saponins isolated from C. officinalis flowers were not mutagenic in an Ames test, and a tea derived from C. officinalis was not genotoxic in Drosophila melanogaster. No carcinogenicity or reproductive and developmental toxicity data were available. Clinical testing of cosmetic formulations containing the extract elicited little irritation or sensitization. Absent any basis for concluding that data on one member of a botanical ingredient group can be extrapolated to another in a group, or to the same ingredient extracted differently, these data were not considered sufficient to assess the safety of these ingredients. Additional data needs include current concentration of use data; function in cosmetics; ultraviolet (UV) absorption data; if absorption occurs in the UVA or UVB range, photosensitization data are needed; gross pathology and histopathology in skin and other major organ systems associated with repeated dermal exposures; dermal reproductive/developmental toxicity data; inhalation toxicity data, especially addressing the concentration, amount delivered, and particle size; and genotoxicity testing in a mammalian system; if positive, a 2-year dermal carcinogenicity assay performed using National Toxicology Program (NTP) methods is needed. Until these data are available, it is concluded that the available data are insufficient to support the safety of these ingredients in cosmetic formulations. PMID:11558637

  2. The effects of extraction method on recovery rutin from Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Frederico Severino; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Bandeira, Elane Sousa; Silva, José Otávio Carréra; Costa, Roseane Maria Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Background: Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) is a Mediterranean specie, but in Europe and America it is cultivated for ornamental or medicinal purposes. This species is widely used for presenting activities, antiinflammatory antibacterial and antioxidant. However the therapeutic action is linked to the amount of assets of the extracted raw material. The extraction method of bioactive compounds is an important step in the manufacturing of herbal medicines, because secondary metabolites with therapeutic potential are usually found in small quantities in plant materials. Objective: Due the medical and commercial importance of C. officinalis, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of the extraction method on the quality of herbal extract and optimize the extraction of rutin from C. officinalis. Materials and Methods: The extraction of rutin was performed by ultrasound and shaker and the optimized conditions were determined by response surface methodology. Results: The results of ultrasound extraction assisted (UEA) and maceration dynamic (MD) showed that rutin yield ranged from 0.218 to 2.28% (w/w) when extract by ultrasound and 0.1-1.44% by MD. The optimal extraction condition for rutin (2.48% to UEA or 1.46% to MD) from C. officinalis by UEA or MD were a 19-22 min extraction, ethanol: water ratio of 35-40% and 0.05-0.056 mg/mL to raw material: solvent ratio. Conclusion: The UEA is more efficient to extraction rutin. PMID:25298676

  3. Production of Sterilizing Agents from Calendula officinalis Extracts Optimized by Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Goktas, Fatih Mehmet; Sahin, Bilgesu; Yigitarslan, Sibel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to produce hand sterilizing liquid and wet wipes with the extracts of Calendula officinalis. Since this plant has well known antimicrobial activity due to its phytochemical constituents, the increase in the extraction yield was chosen as the principle part of the production process. To achieve the maximum yield, parameters of solid-to-liquid ratio, extraction temperature, and time were studied. The optimum conditions were determined by response surface methodology as 41°C, 7 h, and 3.3 g/200 mL for temperature, time, and solid-to-liquid ratio, respectively. The yield achieved at those conditions was found to be 90 percent. The highest amounts of flavonoids were detected at optimum, whereas the highest triterpene and saponin constituents were determined at different design points. The microbial efficiencies of extracts were determined by the inhibition of the growth of selected microorganisms. Different dilution rates and interaction times were used as parameters of inhibition. Not any of the constituent but symbiotic relation in-between reached the highest inhibition of 90 percent. The pH values of the extracts were 5.1 to 5.4. As a result, the extraction of Calendula officinalis at the optimum conditions can be used effectively in the production of wet wipes and hand sterilizing liquid. PMID:26064122

  4. Biochemical structure of Calendula officinalis.

    PubMed

    Korakhashvili, A; Kacharava, T; Kiknavelidze, N

    2007-01-01

    Calendula officinalis is a well known medicinal herb. It is common knowledge that its medicinal properties are conditioned on biologically active complex substances of Carotin (Provitamin A), Stearin, Triterpiniod, Plavonoid, Kumarin, macro and micro compound elements. Because of constant need in raw material of Calendula officinalis, features of its ontogenetic development agro-biological qualities in various eco regions of Georgia were investigated. The data of biologically active compounds, biochemical structure and the maintenance both in flowers and in others parts of plant is presented; the pharmacological activity and importance in medicine was reviewed. PMID:17921550

  5. In vitro acaricidal activity of ethanolic and aqueous floral extracts of Calendula officinalis against synthetic pyrethroid resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Godara, R; Katoch, R; Yadav, A; Ahanger, R R; Bhutyal, A D S; Verma, P K; Katoch, M; Dutta, S; Nisa, F; Singh, N K

    2015-09-01

    Detection of resistance levels against deltamethrin and cypermethrin in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from Jammu (India) was carried out using larval packet test (LPT). The results showed the presence of resistance level II and I against deltamethrin and cypermethrin, respectively. Adult immersion test (AIT) and LPT were used to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of ethanolic and aqueous floral extracts of Calendula officinalis against synthetic pyrethroid resistant adults and larvae of R. (B.) microplus. Four concentrations (1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10 %) of each extract with four replications for each concentration were used in both the bioassays. A concentration dependent mortality was observed and it was more marked with ethanolic extract. In AIT, the LC50 values for ethanolic and aqueous extracts were calculated as 9.9 and 12.9 %, respectively. The egg weight of the live ticks treated with different concentrations of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts was significantly lower than that of control ticks; consequently, the reproductive index and the percent inhibition of oviposition values of the treated ticks were reduced. The complete inhibition of hatching was recorded at 10 % of ethanolic extract. The 10 % extracts caused 100 % mortality of larvae after 24 h. In LPT, the LC50 values for ethanolic and aqueous extracts were determined to be 2.6 and 3.2 %, respectively. It can be concluded that the ethanolic extract of C. officinalis had better acaricidal properties against adults and larvae of R. (B.) microplus than the aqueous extract. PMID:26071101

  6. Seed germination of Calendula officinalis 'Carola' in response to temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calendula (Calendula officinalis 'Carola') is a potential agronomic oilseed crop with application in the paint, coating, and cosmetic industry. Calendula has historically been used for herbal medicinal purposes and an ornamental plant. With the discovery that calendula seeds contain high concentrati...

  7. Effect of Calendula officinalis hydroalcoholic extract on passive avoidance learning and memory in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Moradkhani, Shirin; Salehi, Iraj; Abdolmaleki, Somayeh; Komaki, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Medicinal plants, owing to their different mechanisms such as antioxidants effects, may improve learning and memory impairments in diabetic rats. Calendula officinalis (CO), has a significant antioxidant activity. Aims: To examine the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of CO on passive avoidance learning (PAL) and memory in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male rats. Settings and Design: A total of 32 adult male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to four groups: Control, diabetic, control + extract of CO and diabetic control + extract of CO groups with free access to regular rat diet. Subjects and Methods: Diabetes in diabetic rats was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg STZ. After confirmation of diabetes, oral administration of 300 mg/kg CO extract to extract-treated groups have been done. PAL was tested 8 weeks after onset of treatment, and blood glucose and body weight were measured in all groups at the beginning and end of the experiment. Statistical Analysis Used: The statistical analysis of data was performed by ANOVA followed by least significant difference post-hoc analysis. Results: Diabetes decreased learning and memory. Effect of CO extract in retention test (after 24 and 48 h) has been shown a significant decrease in step-through latency and increase in time spent in the dark compartment part. Also the extract partially improved hyperglycemia and reduced body weight. Conclusion: Taken together, CO extract can improve PAL and memory impairments in STZ-diabetic rats. This improvement may be due to its antioxidant, anticholinergic activities or its power to reduce hyperglycemia. PMID:26120230

  8. Optimization of chemometric approaches for the extraction of isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside from Calendula officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Maria Lourdes Leite; da Silva, Heron Dominguez Torres; Blanes, Lucas; Doble, Philip; Tavares, Marina Franco Maggi

    2016-06-01

    The application of Design of Experiments (DoE) to the determination of optimum conditions for an extraction process relies on the correct selection of mathematical models. The linear model is the one typically used; however, in some cases it does not always have superior performance, ignoring the real nature of the data and its appropriate descriptive model. In order to evaluate the extraction efficiency of isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside from flowers of Calendula officinalis L. a multivariate factorial analysis was used. Simulations were conducted using linear, quadratic, full cubic and special cubic models. A Simplex-Centroid design was chosen as it delivered greater precision with only minor errors versus other models tested. Analyses were performed by capillary zone electrophoresis using sodium tetraborate buffer (40mmolL(-1), pH 9.4) containing 10% methanol. The detection was linear over a range of 8.0-50.0mgL(-1) (r(2)=0.996), and the limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) for isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside were 3.44mgL(-1) and 11.47mgL(-1), respectively. The full cubic model showed the best extraction results, with an error of 3.40% compared to analysis of variance, and a determination coefficient of 0.974. The difference between the responses at the reference point, calculated by the model, and the experimental response, varies around 2.72% for full cubic model. Comparison of the four models showed the full cubic model was the most appropriate one, allowing greater efficiency in the extraction of isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside. Selection of the model made it possible to obtain a 60% increase in sensitivity compared to the linear model. PMID:27131151

  9. Antioxidant capacity of calendula officinalis flowers extract and prevention of radiation induced oropharyngeal mucositis in patients with head and neck cancers: a randomized controlled clinical study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of Calendula officinalis flowers extract mouthwash as oral gel on radiation-induced oropharyngeal mucositis (OM) in patients with head-and-neck cancer. Forty patients with neck and head cancers under radiotherapy or concurrent chemoradiotherapy protocols were randomly assigned to receive either 2% calendula extract mouthwash or placebo (20 patients in each group). Patients were treated with telecobalt radiotherapy at conventional fractionation (200 cGy/fraction, five fractions weekly, 30–35 fractions within 4–7 weeks). The oropharyngeal mucositis was evaluated by two clinical investigators (a radiation oncologist and a dentist), using the oral mucositis assessment scale (OMAS). Trying to find out the possible mechanism of action of the treatment, total antioxidant, polyphenol and flavonoid contents, and quercetin concentration of the mouth wash were measured. Calendula mouthwash significantly decreased the intensity of OM compared to placebo at week 2 (score: 5.5 vs. 6.8, p = 0.019), week 3 (score: 8.25 vs. 10.95, p < 0.0001) and week 6 (score: 11.4 vs. 13.35, p = 0.031). Total antioxidant, polyphenol and flavonoid contents and quercetin concentration of the 2% extract were 2353.4 ± 56.5 μM, 313.40 ± 6.52 mg/g, 76.66 ± 23.24 mg/g, and 19.41 ± 4.34 mg/l, respectively. Calendula extract gel could be effective on decreasing the intensity of radiotherapy- induced OM during the treatment and antioxidant capacity may be partly responsible for the effect. PMID:23497687

  10. Total antioxidant and oxidant status of plasma and renal tissue of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxic rats: protection by floral extracts of Calendula officinalis Linn.

    PubMed

    Verma, Pawan Kumar; Raina, Rajinder; Sultana, Mudasir; Singh, Maninder; Kumar, Pawan

    2016-02-01

    Absract The present study was aimed to determine the total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) of plasma and renal tissue in cisplatin (cDDP) induced nephrotoxic rats and its protection by treatments with floral extracts of Calendula officinalis Linn. Treatment with cDDP elevated (p < 0.05) the levels of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine (CR), TOS, OSI and malondialdehyde (MDA) but lowered (p < 0.05) total plasma proteins, TAS, total thiols (TTH), blood glutathione (GSH) and antioxidant enzymes compared to the control group. Pre- and post-treatments of ethanolic floral extract of C. officinalis along with cDDP restored (p > 0.05) CR, albumin, TOS, GSH and activities of antioxidant enzymes in blood and renal tissue. Ethanolic extract treatments reduced (p < 0.05) MDA level in renal tissue without restoring the erythrocyte MDA level following cDDP treatment. These observations were further supported by the histopathological findings in renal tissue. Observations of the present study have shown that treatments with ethanolic floral extract of C. officinalis protect cDDP induced nephrotoxicity by restoring antioxidant system of the renal tissue. PMID:26513373

  11. Growth and yield response of calendula (Calendula officinalis) to sowing date in the northern U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calendula (Calendula officinalis L.) seed is a rich source of the conjugated C18:3 fatty acid calendic acid and can serve as a replacement for VOCs in many industrial chemicals such as paints, coatings and adhesives. Calendula is widely adapted to temperate climates and may be a beneficial rotationa...

  12. A Prospective, Descriptive Study to Assess the Clinical Benefits of Using Calendula officinalis Hydroglycolic Extract for the Topical Treatment of Diabetic Foot Ulcers.

    PubMed

    Buzzi, Marcelo; de Freitas, Franciele; Winter, Marcos

    2016-03-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) have a significant impact on patient quality of life. A prospective, descriptive pilot study was conducted between May 2012 and December 2013 through the dermatology outpatient unit in a Brazilian hospital to evaluate the clinical benefits of using Calendula officinalis hydroglycolic extract in the treatment of DFUs. Patients diagnosed with a stable neuropathic ulcer of >3 months' duration; ranging in size from 0.5-40 cm2; without osteomyelitis, gangrene, bone exposure, cancer, or deep tissue infection; ages 18-90 years; with adequate glycemic control and no history of an allergy to C. officinalis were enrolled. Patients provided demographic and diabetes-related information and were evaluated biweekly for 30 weeks or until healing (ie, full epithelialization with no wound drainage). DFUs were measured and clinically examined for microbiological flora and presence of odor, tissue type (eg, granulation, fibrin sloth, necrosis), exudate, and retraction rate using planimetry images. Patients' blood tests and neuropathic pain assessment (the latter by clinician-directed questionnaire) were performed at baseline and the end of treatment; pain also was assessed during dressing changes using a 10-point rating scale. Patients' ulcers were treated twice daily with C. officinalis hydroglycolic extract spray solution and covered with saline-moistened, sterile, nonadherent gauze and bandages followed by foot offloading with adequate protective footwear. Patients received their first treatment in the clinic then performed care at home. From a potential population of 109 patients, 25 did not meet the inclusion criteria. Of the remaining 84 participants enrolled, 43 withdrew before study completion; cited reasons included lost to follow-up (16), medical judgment (2), failure to attend >3 scheduled visits (17), protocol violation (5), and death (3). Forty-one (41) - 17 women, average age 62 years (range 44-82 years), average glycemic level 153 mg/dL (range 82-395 mg/dL), most (34) with Wagner type 1 ulcers - completed the study. The proportions of patients who achieved complete wound closure after 11, 20, and 30 weeks of treatment was 54%, 68%, and 78%, respectively; mean healing time was 15.5 ± 6.7 weeks. When individual weekly healing rates (the percentage reduction in wound area per week) were corrected for variability in initial DFU area, the values were nearly 6-fold higher for complete wound closure (7.8% ± 3.6%) than for incomplete wound closure (1.4% ± 0.7%) (Student t-test; P = 0.001). After 30 weeks of treatment, the number of colonized wounds decreased from 29 at baseline to 5, and the number of odorous wounds decreased from 19 to 1. Ulcer bed planimetry data showed a significant reduction in the amount of exudate, fibrin slough, and necrotic tissue after the treatment with C. officinalis hydroglycolic extract (χ2 test; P = 0.001). No adverse events were observed during treatment. The study findings suggest C. officinalis extract is safe and has a beneficial effect on DFU healing. Randomized, controlled studies using C. officinalis hydroglycolic extract are warranted to confirm its safety and establish its clinical efficacy and effectiveness for the topical treatment of DFUs. PMID:26978856

  13. DNA-based identification of Calendula officinalis (Asteraceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Schmiderer, Corinna; Lukas, Brigitte; Ruzicka, Joana; Novak, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: For the economically important species Calendula officinalis, a fast identification assay based on high-resolution melting curve analysis was designed. This assay was developed to distinguish C. officinalis from other species of the genus and other Asteraceae genera, and to detect C. officinalis as an adulterant of saffron samples. Methods and Results: For this study, five markers (ITS, rbcL, 5′ trnK-matK, psbA-trnH, trnL-trnF) of 10 Calendula species were sequenced and analyzed for species-specific mutations. With the application of two developed primer pairs located in the trnK 5′ intron and trnL-trnF, C. officinalis could be distinguished from other species of the genus and all outgroup samples tested. Adulterations of Calendula DNA in saffron could be detected down to 0.01%. Conclusions: With the developed assay, C. officinalis can be reliably identified and admixtures of this species as adulterant of saffron can be revealed at low levels. PMID:26649268

  14. Preclinical evaluation of collagen type I scaffolds, including gelatin-collagen microparticles and loaded with a hydroglycolic Calendula officinalis extract in a lagomorph model of full-thickness skin wound.

    PubMed

    Millán, D; Jiménez, R A; Nieto, L E; Linero, I; Laverde, M; Fontanilla, M R

    2016-02-01

    Previously, we have developed collagen type I scaffolds including microparticles of gelatin-collagen type I (SGC) that are able to control the release of a hydroglycolic extract of the Calendula officinalis flower. The main goal of the present work was to carry out the preclinical evaluation of SGC alone or loaded with the C. officinalis extract (SGC-E) in a lagomorph model of full-thickness skin wound. A total of 39 rabbits were distributed in three groups, of 13 animals each. The first group was used to compare wound healing by secondary intention (control) with wound healing observed when wounds were grafted with SGC alone. Comparison of control wounds with wounds grafted with SGC-E was performed in the second group, and comparison of wounds grafted with SGC with wounds grafted with SGC-E was performed in the third group. Clinical follow-ups were carried in all animals after surgery, and histological and histomorphometric analyses were performed on tissues taken from the healed area and healthy surrounding tissue. Histological and histomorphometric results indicate that grafting of SGC alone favors wound healing and brings a better clinical outcome than grafting SGC-E. In vitro collagenase digestion data suggested that the association of the C. officinalis extract to SGC increased the SGC-E cross-linking, making it difficult to degrade and affecting its biocompatibility. PMID:26597789

  15. Topical Calendula officinalis L. successfully treated exfoliative cheilitis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Authors describe a case of recurrent exfoliative cheilitis that responded to treatment with a standardized topical preparation of Calendula officinalis L. An eighteen-year-old man was referred to UNESP - São Paulo State University, Department of Biosciences and Oral Diagnosis, São José dos Campos Dental School to investigate a chronic dry scaling lesion on his lips. The patient's main chief was aesthetic compromising. Corticoid therapy was suspended and Calendula officinalis ointment 10% for ad libitum use has been prescribed. The results presented allow the authors to consider Calendula officinalis L. as a potential therapy in cases of cheilitis exfoliative. PMID:20062714

  16. Topical Calendula officinalis L. successfully treated exfoliative cheilitis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Roveroni-Favaretto, Lúcia Helena Denardi; Lodi, Karina Bortolin; Almeida, Janete Dias

    2009-01-01

    Authors describe a case of recurrent exfoliative cheilitis that responded to treatment with a standardized topical preparation of Calendula officinalis L. An eighteen-year-old man was referred to UNESP - São Paulo State University, Department of Biosciences and Oral Diagnosis, São José dos Campos Dental School to investigate a chronic dry scaling lesion on his lips. The patient's main chief was aesthetic compromising. Corticoid therapy was suspended and Calendula officinalis ointment 10% for ad libitum use has been prescribed. The results presented allow the authors to consider Calendula officinalis L. as a potential therapy in cases of cheilitis exfoliative. PMID:20062714

  17. Assessment of In vitro Sun Protection Factor of Calendula Officinalis L. (Asteraceae) Essential Oil Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, AK; Mishra, A; Chattopadhyay, P

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to study the sunscreen activity of herbal formulation. There is no evidence of the sun protection factor (SPF) studies on essential oil of Calendula flowers (Calendula officinalis L., Asteraceae). The study investigates the in vitro SPF by ultraviolet specrtophotometry method of Calendula flower oil in a cream formulation. Calendula oil was isolated by Clavenger's apparatus, compositions were identified by GC–MS and the cream of calendula flower oil was prepared by homogenization method followed by evaluation for physical parameters. The sun protection factor of cream was evaluated by in vitro method employing UV–visible spectrophotometer (Shimazdu-1600). The SPF of Calendula oil in cream formulation exhibited good activity (SPF = 14.84 ± 0.16). Finding of this study suggested that calendula oil cream can be used to protect the skin from UV radiations in form of sunscreen cream and to maintain the natural pigmentation of the skin. PMID:22523455

  18. Healing Acceleration of Acetic Acid-induced Colitis by Marigold (Calendula officinalis) in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tanideh, Nader; Jamshidzadeh, Akram; Sepehrimanesh, Masood; Hosseinzadeh, Masood; Koohi-Hosseinabadi, Omid; Najibi, Asma; Raam, Mozhdeh; Daneshi, Sajad; Asadi-Yousefabad, Seyedeh-Leili

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a type of chronic inflammatory bowel disease with unknown etiology. Several therapeutic strategies such as consumption of medicinal plants have been used for its treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate healing effects of Calendula officinalis hydroalcoholic extract in experimentally induced UC in rat. Materials and Methods: Ninety-six rats, weighing 200 ± 20 g, were randomly divided into eight equal groups. UC induced by 3% acetic acid and oral doses of C. officinalis extract, 1500 and 3000 mg/kg, and enema (gel 10% and 20%) were given. Two groups as positive controls were given asacol (enema) and oral mesalamine. Negative control groups were given normal saline and base gel. On days 3 and 7, intestinal histopathology and weight changes, plus oxidative stress indices including malondialdehyde (MDA) level and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were assayed. Results: A significant increase in the body weight of rats was seen in the group given C. officinalis extract 3000 mg/kg orally, oral mesalamine, and 20% intracolonic gel form of marigold extract compared with negative control and base gel groups during the experimental period. Acute inflammation and granular atrophy after UC induction were resolved completely completely by both 20% intracolonic gel and 3000 mg/kg orally. An increase in MPO activity and a decrease in MDA level in response to oral and intracolonic gel form of C. officinalis were observed 3 and and 7 days after treatment (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Our results indicate that oral and enema forms of hydroalcoholic extract of C. officinalis can be offered as are potential therapeutic agents for UC induced in rats. PMID:26831607

  19. Biological Activities of Oleanolic Acid Derivatives from Calendula officinalis Seeds.

    PubMed

    Zaki, Ahmed; Ashour, Ahmed; Mira, Amira; Kishikawa, Asuka; Nakagawa, Toshinori; Zhu, Qinchang; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2016-05-01

    Phytochemical examination of butanol fraction of Calendula officinalis seeds led to the isolation of two compounds identified as 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-oleanolic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (CS1) and oleanolic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (CS2). Biological evaluation was carried out for these two compounds such as melanin biosynthesis inhibitory, hyaluronic acid production activities, anti obesity using lipase inhibition and adipocyte differentiation as well as evaluation of the protective effect against hydrogen peroxide induced neurotoxicity in neuro-2A cells. The results showed that, compound CS2 has a melanin biosynthesis stimulatory activity; however, compound CS1 has a potent stimulatory effect for the production of hyaluronic acid on normal human dermal fibroblast from adult (NHDF-Ad). Both compounds did not show any inhibitory effect on both lipase and adipocyte differentiation. Compound CS2 could protect neuro-2A cells and increased cell viability against H2 O2 . These activities (melanin biosynthesis stimulatory and protective effect against H2 O2 of CS2 and hyaluronic acid productive activities of these triterpene derivatives) have been reported for the first time. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26887328

  20. Chemical characterization and bioactive properties of two aromatic plants: Calendula officinalis L. (flowers) and Mentha cervina L. (leaves).

    PubMed

    Miguel, María; Barros, Lillian; Pereira, Carla; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Garcia, Pablo A; Castro, MaÁngeles; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-05-18

    The chemical composition and bioactive properties of two plants (Calendula officinalis L. and Mentha cervina L.) were studied. Their nutritional value revealed a high content of carbohydrates and low fat levels, and very similar energy values. However, they presented different profiles in phenolic compounds and fatty acids; C. officinalis presented mainly glycosylated flavonols and saturated fatty acids, while M. cervina presented mainly caffeoyl derivatives and polyunsaturated fatty acids. M. cervina showed the highest concentration of phenolic compounds while C. officinalis presented higher amounts of sugars, organic acids and tocopherols. The highest antioxidant and cytotoxic activities were obtained for the hydromethanolic extract of M. cervina, which presented the lowest values of EC50 and exhibited cytotoxicity against the four tumor cell lines tested. Infusions showed no cytotoxicity for the tumor cell lines, and none of the extracts showed toxicity against non-tumor cells. This study contributes to expand the knowledge on both natural sources and therefore their use. PMID:27110832

  1. Shampoo-Clay Heals Diaper Rash Faster Than Calendula Officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Mahmoudi, Mansoreh; Mashaiekhi, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diaper rash is one of the most common skin disorders of infancy and childhood. Some studies have shown that Shampoo-clay was effective to treat chronic dermatitis. Then, it is supposed that it may be effective in diaper rash; however, no published studies were found in this regard. Objectives: This study aimed to compare the effects of Shampoo-clay (S.C) and Calendula officinalis (C.O) to improve infantile diaper rash. Patients and Methods: A randomized, double blind, parallel controlled, non-inferiority trial was conducted on 60 outpatient infants referred to health care centers or pediatric clinics in Khomein city and diagnosed with diaper rash. Patients were randomly assigned into two treatment groups including S.C group (n = 30) and C.O group (n = 30) by using one to one allocation ratio. The rate of complete recovery in three days was the primary outcome. Data was collected using a checklist and analyzed using t-test, Chi-square and Fishers exact tests and risk ratio. Results: Totally, 93.3% of lesions in the S.C group healed in the first 6 hours, while this rate was 40% in C.O group (P < 0.001). The healing ratio for improvement in the first 6 hours was 7 times more in the S.C group. In addition, 90% of infants in the SC group and 36.7% in the C.O group were improved completely in the first 3 days (P < 0.001). Conclusions: S.C was effective to heal diaper rash, and also had faster effects compared to C.O. PMID:25414900

  2. Structure and cytotoxic activity of sesquiterpene glycoside esters from Calendula officinalis L.: Studies on the conformation of viridiflorol.

    PubMed

    D'Ambrosio, Michele; Ciocarlan, Alexandru; Colombo, Elisa; Guerriero, Antonio; Pizza, Cosimo; Sangiovanni, Enrico; Dell'Agli, Mario

    2015-09-01

    Topic applications of Calendula officinalis L. lipophilic extracts are used in phytotherapy to relieve skin inflammatory conditions whereas infusions are used as a remedy for gastric complaints. Such a different usage might be explained by some cytotoxicity of lipophilic extracts at gastric level but little is known about this. Therefore, we screened the CH2Cl2 extract from the flowers of C. officinalis by MTT and LDH assays in human epithelial gastric cells AGS. This bioassay-oriented approach led to the isolation of several sesquiterpene glycosides which were structurally characterized by spectroscopic measurements, chemical reactions and MM calculations. The conformational preferences of viridiflorol fucoside were established and a previously assigned stereochemistry was revised. The compounds 1a, 2a and 3f showed comparably high cytotoxicity in the MTT assays, whereas the effect on LDH release was lower. Our study provides new insights on the composition of C. officinalis extracts of medium polarity and identifies the main compounds that could be responsible for cytotoxic effects at gastric level. PMID:26057223

  3. Qualitative and quantitative high performance thin layer chromatography analysis of Calendula officinalis using high resolution plate imaging and artificial neural network data modelling.

    PubMed

    Agatonovic-Kustrin, S; Loescher, Christine M

    2013-10-10

    Calendula officinalis, commonly known Marigold, has been traditionally used for its anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of an artificial neural network (ANN) to analyse thin layer chromatography (TLC) chromatograms as fingerprint patterns for quantitative estimation of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and rutin in Calendula plant extracts. By applying samples with different weight ratios of marker compounds to the system, a database of chromatograms was constructed. A hundred and one signal intensities in each of the HPTLC chromatograms were correlated to the amounts of applied chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and rutin using an ANN. The developed ANN correlation was used to quantify the amounts of 3 marker compounds in calendula plant extracts. The minimum quantifiable level (MQL) of 610, 190 and 940 ng and the limit of detection (LD) of 183, 57 and 282 ng were established for chlorogenic, caffeic acid and rutin, respectively. A novel method for quality control of herbal products, based on HPTLC separation, high resolution digital plate imaging and ANN data analysis has been developed. The proposed method can be adopted for routine evaluation of the phytochemical variability in calendula extracts. PMID:24070490

  4. A Bio-Guided Fractionation to Assess the Inhibitory Activity of Calendula officinalis L. on the NF-κB Driven Transcription in Human Gastric Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Elisa; Sangiovanni, Enrico; D'Ambrosio, Michele; Bosisio, Enrica; Ciocarlan, Alexandru; Fumagalli, Marco; Guerriero, Antonio; Harghel, Petru; Dell'Agli, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Calendula officinalis L. has been largely known for its topical anti-inflammatory properties; however, there are no experimental evidences about its antiphlogistic effect at the gastric level. To investigate whether marigold might exert an activity against gastric inflammation, a CH2Cl2 extract obtained from C. officinalis flowers was evaluated in vitro on the NF-κB pathway. The lipophilic extract demonstrated a significant inhibitory effect on the NF-κB driven transcription. The identification of active compounds was conducted by a bio-guided fractionation of the extract that afforded 16 fractions. Fraction J exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibitory activity on the NF-κB driven transcription and significantly contributed to the antiphlogistic effect showed by CH2Cl2 extract. The main components of fraction J were loliolide and the fucoside acetates of β-eudesmol and viridiflorol. HPLC analysis of fractions D and E led to the identification and isolation of triterpene esters that showed a concentration-dependent inhibition of the NF-κB driven transcription, with faradiol-3-myristate and the corresponding aglycone being the most active compounds. The present study provides some experimental evidences that Calendula officinalis L. may exert an anti-inflammatory activity on the gastric district by the inhibition of the NF-κB system, identifying the compounds responsible, at least in part, for the observed effect. PMID:26491463

  5. Phenotypic and biochemical profile changes in calendula (Calendula officinalis L.) plants treated with two chemical mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    El-Nashar, Y I; Asrar, A A

    2016-01-01

    Chemical mutagenesis is an efficient tool used in mutation-breeding programs to improve the vital characters of the floricultural crops. This study aimed to estimate the effects of different concentrations of two chemical mutagens; sodium azide (SA) and diethyl sulfate (DES). The vegetative growth and flowering characteristics in two generations (M1 and M2) of calendula plants were investigated. Seeds were treated with five different concentrations of SA and DES (at the same rates) of 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, and 5000 ppm, in addition to a control treatment of 0 ppm. Results showed that lower concentrations of SA mutagen had significant effects on seed germination percentage, plant height, leaf area, plant fresh weight, flowering date, inflorescence diameter, and gas-exchange measurements in plants of both generations. Calendula plants tended to flower earlier under low mutagen concentrations (1000 ppm), whereas higher concentrations delayed flowering significantly. Positive results on seed germination, plant height, number of branches, plant fresh weight, and leaf area were observed in the M2-generation at lower concentrations of SA (1000 ppm), as well as at 4000 ppm DES on number of leaves and inflorescences. The highest total soluble protein was detected at the concentrations of 1000 ppm SA and 2000 ppm DES. DES showed higher average of acid phosphatase activity than SA. Results indicated that lower concentrations of SA and DES mutagens had positive effects on seed germination percentage, plant height, leaf area, plant fresh weight, flowering date, inflorescence diameter, and gas-exchange measurements. Thus, lower mutagen concentrations could be recommended for better floral and physio-chemical performance. PMID:27173326

  6. [Pharmacology of calenduloside B, a new triterpene glycoside from the roots of Calendula officinalis].

    PubMed

    Iatsyno, A I; Belova, L F; Lipkina, G S; Sokolov, S I; Trutneva, E A

    1978-01-01

    Calendulozide B--trioside of oleanolic acid, isolated from rhizomes of Calendula officinalis, Fam. Compositae, used perorally in doses of 5, 10, 20 and 50 mg/kg exerted an antiulcerous action in 3 experimental ulcer models of different genesis (caffein-arsenic, butadion and induced by ligation of pylorus) and also displayed a certain antiphlogistic and sedative action. It did not have any effect on the cardiovascular system, the tone of intestinal smooth muscles, diuretic renal function and electrolytes excretion with urine or on the biligenic function of the liver. The drug is devoid of locally irritation properties, manifests a relatively low hemolytic activity (15000 after Kofler) and an insignificant toxicity both with its one-time and chronic administration. PMID:700077

  7. Fatty acid composition of lipids in pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) seed genotypes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Calendula officinalis L. (pot marigold) is an annual aromatic herb with yellow or golden-orange flowers, native to the Mediterranean climate areas. Their seeds contain significant amounts of oil (around 20%), of which about 60% is calendic acid. For these reasons, in Europe concentrated research efforts have been directed towards the development of pot marigold as an oilseed crop for industrial purposes. Results The oil content and fatty acid composition of major lipid fractions in seeds from eleven genotypes of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) were determined. The lipid content of seeds varied between 13.6 and 21.7 g oil/100 g seeds. The calendic and linoleic acids were the two dominant fatty acids in total lipid (51.4 to 57.6% and 28.5 to 31.9%) and triacylglycerol (45.7 to 54.7% and 22.6 to 29.2%) fractions. Polar lipids were also characterised by higher unsaturation ratios (with the PUFAs content between 60.4 and 66.4%), while saturates (consisted mainly of palmitic and very long-chain saturated fatty acids) were found in higher amounts in sterol esters (ranging between 49.3 and 55.7% of total fatty acids). Conclusions All the pot marigold seed oils investigated contain high levels of calendic acid (more than 50% of total fatty acids), making them favorable for industrial use. The compositional differences between the genotypes should be considered when breeding and exploiting the pot marigold seeds for nutraceutical and pharmacological purposes. PMID:23327299

  8. Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi On Yield and Phytoremediation Performance of Pot Marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) Under Heavy Metals Stress.

    PubMed

    Tabrizi, Leila; Mohammadi, Siavash; Delshad, Mojtaba; Moteshare Zadeh, Babak

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the effect of mycorrhizal fungi (inoculated and non-inoculated) and heavy metals stress [0, Pb (150 and 300mg/kg) and Cd (40 and 80mg/kg)] on pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.), a factorial experiment was conducted based on a randomized complete block design with 4 replications in Research Greenhouse of Department of Horticultural Sciences, University of Tehran, Iran, during 2012-2013. Plant height, herbal and flower fresh and dry weight, root fresh and dry weight and root volume, colonization percentage, total petal extract, total petal flavonoids, root and shoot P and K uptakes, and Pb and Cd accumulations in root and shoot were measured. Results indicated that with increasing soil Pb and Cd concentration, growth and yield of pot marigold was reduced significantly; Cd had greater negative impacts than Pb. However, mycorrhizal fungi alleviated these impacts by improving plant growth and yield. Pot marigold concentrated high amounts of Pb and especially Cd in its roots and shoots; mycorrhizal plants had a greater accumulation of these metals, so that those under 80mg/kg Cd soil(-1) accumulated 833.3 and 1585.8mg Cd in their shoots and roots, respectively. In conclusion, mycorrhizal fungi can improve not only growth and yield of pot marigold in heavy metal stressed condition, but also phytoremediation performance by increasing heavy metals accumulation in the plant organs. PMID:26237494

  9. A Randomized Comparative Trial on the Therapeutic Efficacy of Topical Aloe vera and Calendula officinalis on Diaper Dermatitis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Panahi, Yunes; Sharif, Mohamad Reza; Sharif, Alireza; Beiraghdar, Fatemeh; Zahiri, Zahra; Amirchoopani, Golnoush; Marzony, Eisa Tahmasbpour; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Diaper dermatitis (DD) is a common inflammatory disorder among children and infants. The objective of the present randomized and double-blind trial was to compare the therapeutic efficacies of Aloe vera cream and Calendula officinalis ointment on the frequency and severity of DD in children. Methods. Sixty-six infants with DD (aged < 3 years) were randomized to receive either Aloe cream (n = 32) or Calendula ointment (n = 34). Infants were treated with these drugs 3 times a day for 10 days. The severity of dermatitis was graded at baseline as well as at the end of trial using a 5-point scale. The adverse effects of study medications were assessed during the trial. Results. Although improvement in the severity of DD was observed in both treatment groups (P < 0.001), patients receiving Calendula ointment had significantly fewer rash sites compared to Aloe group (P = 0.001). No adverse effect was reported from either of the medications. Discussion. The evidence from this study suggests that topical Aloe and in particular Calendula could serve as safe and effective treatment for the treatment of diaper dermatitis in infants. PMID:22606064

  10. Biocontrol and Plant Growth Promotion Characterization of Bacillus Species Isolated from Calendula officinalis Rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Ait Kaki, Asma; Kacem Chaouche, Noreddine; Dehimat, Laid; Milet, Asma; Youcef-Ali, Mounia; Ongena, Marc; Thonart, Philippe

    2013-12-01

    The phenotypic and genotypic diversity of the plant growth promoting Bacillus genus have been widely investigated in the rhizosphere of various agricultural crops. However, to our knowledge this is the first report on the Bacillus species isolated from the rhizosphere of Calendula officinalis. 15 % of the isolated bacteria were screened for their important antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium cucumerinium and Alternaria alternata. The bacteria identification based on 16S r-RNA and gyrase-A genes analysis, revealed strains closely related to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, B. velezensis, B. subtilis sub sp spizezenii and Paenibacillus polymyxa species. The electro-spray mass spectrometry coupled to liquid chromatography (ESI-LC MS) analysis showed that most of the Bacillus isolates produced the three lipopeptides families. However, the P. polymyxa (18SRTS) didn't produce any type of lipopeptides. All the tested Bacillus isolates produced cellulase but the protease activity was observed only in the B. amyloliquefaciens species (9SRTS). The Salkowsky colorimetric test showed that the screened bacteria synthesized 6-52 μg/ml of indole 3 acetic acid. These bacteria produced siderophores with more than 10 mm wide orange zones on chromazurol S. The greenhouse experiment using a naturally infested soil with Sclerotonia sclerotiorum showed that the B. amyloliquefaciens (9SRTS) had no significant (P > 0.05) effect on the pre-germination of the chickpea seeds. However, it increased the size of the chickpea plants and reduced the stem rot disease (P < 0.05).These results suggested that the Bacillus strains isolated in this work may be further used as bioinoculants to improve the production of C. officinalis and other crop systems. PMID:24426149

  11. The Effects of Age on the Yield and Composition of the Essential Oils of Calendula officinalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okoh, O. O.; Sadimenko, A. A.; Afolayan, A. J.

    The variations in the yield and composition of the essential oils from Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) cultivated in Alice, Eastern Cape of South Africa are reported. Essential oils of this plant were obtained by hydrodistillation using the Clevenger apparatus and analysis was performed by GC-MS. The yield in essential oil showed a maximum at the full flowering stage (0.97%) and a minimum during the pre-flowering stage (0.13%). The compositions also showed different patterns at different phases of the vegetative cycle. Sesquiterpenes (α-cadinene, α-cadinol, T-muurolol and epi-bicyclosesquiphellandrene) and monoterpenes (limonene, 1, 8-cineole and trans-β-ocimene) showed the highest correlations with the age of the plant. Aiming the use of essential oil as a food ingredient, the most interesting stage is the post-flowering period, the essential oil at this time being rich in α-cadinene, α-cadinol, t-muurolol, limonene, 1,8-cineole, with P-cymene present at lower levels. α-cadinene is an important flavouring agent in baked foods, candy and chewing gum and also used as a fragrance in cosmetics and detergents. T-muurolol and α-cadinol are important antimicrobial agents.

  12. Rapid evaluation and comparison of natural products and antioxidant activity in calendula, feverfew, and German chamomile extracts.

    PubMed

    Agatonovic-Kustrin, Snezana; Babazadeh Ortakand, Davoud; Morton, David W; Yusof, Ahmad P

    2015-03-13

    The present study describes a simple high performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for the simultaneous quantification of apigenin, chamazulene, bisabolol and the use of DPPH free radical as a post-chromatographic derivatization agent to compare the free radical scavenging activities of these components in leaf and flower head extracts from feverfew, German chamomile and marigold from the Asteraceae family. Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) leaves have been traditionally used in the treatment of migraine with parthenolide being the main bioactive compound. However, due to similar flowers, feverfew is sometimes mistaken for the German chamomile (Matricaria recutita). Bisabolol and chamazulene are the main components in chamomile essential oil. Marigold (Calendula officinalis) was included in the study for comparison, as it belongs to the same family. Parthenolide was found to be present in all leaf extracts but was not detected in calendula flower extract. Chamazulene and bisabolol were found to be present in higher concentrations in chamomile and Calendula flowers. Apigenin was detected and quantified only in chamomile extracts (highest concentration in flower head extracts). Antioxidant activity in sample extracts was compared by superimposing the chromatograms obtained after post-chromatographic derivatization with DPPH and post-chromatographic derivatization with anisaldehyde. It was found that extracts from chamomile flower heads and leaves have the most prominent antioxidant activity, with bisabolol and chamazulene being the most effective antioxidants. PMID:25666499

  13. D-Glucose as a modifying agent in gelatin/collagen matrix and reservoir nanoparticles for Calendula officinalis delivery.

    PubMed

    Lam, P-L; Kok, S H-L; Bian, Z-X; Lam, K-H; Tang, J C-O; Lee, K K-H; Gambari, R; Chui, C-H

    2014-05-01

    Gelatin/Collagen-based matrix and reservoir nanoparticles require crosslinkers to stabilize the formed nanosuspensions, considering that physical instability is the main challenge of nanoparticulate systems. The use of crosslinkers improves the physical integrity of nanoformulations under the-host environment. Aldehyde-based fixatives, such as formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde, have been widely applied to the crosslinking process of polymeric nanoparticles. However, their potential toxicity towards human beings has been demonstrated in many previous studies. In order to tackle this problem, D-glucose was used during nanoparticle formation to stabilize the gelatin/collagen-based matrix wall and reservoir wall for the deliveries of Calendula officinalis powder and oil, respectively. In addition, therapeutic selectivity between malignant and normal cells could be observed. The C. officinalis powder loaded nanoparticles significantly strengthened the anti-cancer effect towards human breast adenocarcinoma MCF7 cells and human hepatoma SKHep1 cells when compared with the free powder. On the contrary, the nanoparticles did not show significant cytotoxicity towards normal esophageal epithelial NE3 cells and human skin keratinocyte HaCaT cells. On the basis of these evidences, D-glucose modified gelatin/collagen matrix nanoparticles containing C. officinalis powder might be proposed as a safer alternative vehicle for anti-cancer treatments. PMID:24657927

  14. Evaluation of In Vitro Anticancer Activity of Ocimum Basilicum, Alhagi Maurorum, Calendula Officinalis and Their Parasite Cuscuta Campestris

    PubMed Central

    Behbahani, Mandana

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to study the relationship between presence of cytotoxic compounds in Ocimum basilicum, Alhagi maurorum, Calendula officinalis and their parasite Cuscuta campestris. The cytotoxic activity of the pure compounds was performed by MTT assay against breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and normal breast cell line (MCF 10A). The induction of apoptosis was measured by the expression levels of p53, bcl-2, bax and caspase-3 genes using quantitative Real Time PCR. Three active fractions were detected by nuclear magnetic resonance as lutein, lupeol and eugenol, respectively, in C. officinalis, A. maurorum and O. basilicum. These compounds and their epoxidized forms were also detected in their parasite C. campestris. The cytotoxic activity of lutein epoxide, lupeol epoxide and eugenol epoxide was significantly more than lutein, lupeol and eugenol. The mRNA expression level of p53, caspase-3 and bax genes were increased in both cancer cells treated with all pure compounds. However, bcl-2 gene expression decreased in treated breast cancer cells. In conclusion, all the data indicated that the epoxide forms of lupeol, lutein and eugenol are potential drug candidates for inducing apoptosis in human breast cancer cells. PMID:25548920

  15. Evaluation of in vitro anticancer activity of Ocimum basilicum, Alhagi maurorum, Calendula officinalis and their parasite Cuscuta campestris.

    PubMed

    Behbahani, Mandana

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to study the relationship between presence of cytotoxic compounds in Ocimum basilicum, Alhagi maurorum, Calendula officinalis and their parasite Cuscuta campestris. The cytotoxic activity of the pure compounds was performed by MTT assay against breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and normal breast cell line (MCF 10A). The induction of apoptosis was measured by the expression levels of p53, bcl-2, bax and caspase-3 genes using quantitative Real Time PCR. Three active fractions were detected by nuclear magnetic resonance as lutein, lupeol and eugenol, respectively, in C. officinalis, A. maurorum and O. basilicum. These compounds and their epoxidized forms were also detected in their parasite C. campestris. The cytotoxic activity of lutein epoxide, lupeol epoxide and eugenol epoxide was significantly more than lutein, lupeol and eugenol. The mRNA expression level of p53, caspase-3 and bax genes were increased in both cancer cells treated with all pure compounds. However, bcl-2 gene expression decreased in treated breast cancer cells. In conclusion, all the data indicated that the epoxide forms of lupeol, lutein and eugenol are potential drug candidates for inducing apoptosis in human breast cancer cells. PMID:25548920

  16. Mutagenic influences of colchicine on phenological and molecular diversity of Calendula officinalis L.

    PubMed

    El-Nashar, Y I; Ammar, M H

    2016-01-01

    Six different colchicine concentrations: 0, 400, 800, 1200, 1600, and 2000 ppm, in combination with four soaking time treatments (1, 2, 3, and 4 h), were selected to assess the effects on germination, vegetative growth, and flower yield components in calendula plants. The molecular diversity among the treatments was assessed using ten SRAP marker combinations. Seed soaking in colchicine significantly enhanced both the fresh and the dry shoot and root masses, flowering date, number of flowers per plant, and flower diameter. At 1200-ppm colchicine combined with a 4-h soaking time, a superior effect on seed germination was observed, whereas 800 ppm for 4 h produced the highest number of flowers and the largest flower diameter. The earliest flowering time was found at 800 ppm combined with a short soaking time (1 h), while the 4-h soaking time with 800 ppm, is recommended for growing calendula outdoors, since it enhances flower development. At the molecular level, 752 fragments were successfully amplified using the SRAP primers, with 280 genetic loci found throughout the calendula genome. The polymorphism percentage ranged from 79 to 100% and the polymorphic information content (PIC) values ranged between 0.85 and 0.97. The high number of detected loci and PIC values suggests a great power of SRAP markers in detecting mutant molecular diversity. Our results clearly show the existence of genetic variation among colchicine treated calendula plants and the clustering of the studied mutants was concordant with the colchicine concentration used. PMID:27173261

  17. Development of lamellar gel phase emulsion containing marigold oil (Calendula officinalis) as a potential modern wound dressing.

    PubMed

    Okuma, C H; Andrade, T A M; Caetano, G F; Finci, L I; Maciel, N R; Topan, J F; Cefali, L C; Polizello, A C M; Carlo, T; Rogerio, A P; Spadaro, A C C; Isaac, V L B; Frade, M A C; Rocha-Filho, P A

    2015-04-25

    Appropriate therapeutics for wound treatments can be achieved by studying the pathophysiology of tissue repair. Here we develop formulations of lamellar gel phase (LGP) emulsions containing marigold (Calendula officinalis) oil, evaluating their stability and activity on experimental wound healing in rats. LGP emulsions were developed and evaluated based on a phase ternary diagram to select the best LGP emulsion, having a good amount of anisotropic structure and stability. The selected LGP formulation was analyzed according to the intrinsic and accelerated physical stability at different temperatures. In addition, in vitro and in vivo studies were carried out on wound healing rats as a model. The LGP emulsion (15.0% marigold oil; 10.0% of blend surfactants and 75.0% of purified water [w/w/w]) demonstrated good stability and high viscosity, suggesting longer contact of the formulation with the wound. No cytotoxic activity (50-1000 μg/mL) was observed in marigold oil. In the wound healing rat model, the LGP (15 mg/mL) showed an increase in the leukocyte recruitment to the wound at least on days 2 and 7, but reduced leukocyte recruitment after 14 and 21 days, as compared to the control. Additionally, collagen production was reduced in the LGP emulsion on days 2 and 7 and further accelerated the process of re-epithelialization of the wound itself. The methodology utilized in the present study has produced a potentially useful formulation for a stable LGP emulsion-containing marigold, which was able to improve the wound healing process. PMID:25684193

  18. Planting depth for oilseed calendula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calendula (Calendula officinalis L.) is not only a popular ornamental plant in temperate climates, but also a potential oilseed crop. Its seed oil has high levels of calendic acid, which makes it a highly valued drying oil with important industrial applications. Much basic agronomic information on c...

  19. Inhibiton of photodynamic haemolysis by Gratiola officinalis L. extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkachenko, Natalie; Pravdin, Alexander; Terentyuk, George; Navolokin, Nikita; Kurchatova, Maria; Polukonova, Natalia

    2015-03-01

    On the model of photodynamic haemolysis, the membranoprotective properties of a plant origin antioxidant, Gratiola officinalis L. extract, have been studied based on its ability to inhibit photodamage of sensitized erythrocyte membranes. The effect of different concentrations of the antioxidant on the photodynamic hemolysis has been studied; and the influence of incubation time on the membranoprotective properties of Gratiola officinalis L. extract has also been revealed.

  20. Mastering analytical challenges for the characterization of pentacyclic triterpene mono- and diesters of Calendula officinalis flowers by non-aqueous C30 HPLC and hyphenation with APCI-QTOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Nicolaus, Christoph; Sievers-Engler, Adrian; Murillo, Renato; D'Ambrosio, Michele; Lämmerhofer, Michael; Merfort, Irmgard

    2016-01-25

    Pentacyclic triterpene mono- and diesters have been isolated from Calendula officinalis flowers. GC-MS, APCI-Exactive Orbitrap HR-MS and NMR allowed to identify the triterpene skeleton in various samples (different triterpene mixtures from Calendula n-hexane extract). NMR provided evidence that triterpene diesters are present in the samples as well. However, the corresponding quasi-molecular ions could not be detected by APCI-Exactive Orbitrap HR-MS. Instability of triterpene diesters and loss of a fatty acid residue, respectively, in the ion-source made their MS detection challenging. Thus, a set of new APCI-QTOF-MS methods (using the TripleTOF 5600+ mass spectrometer) were developed which made it eventually possible to solve this problem and confirm the diester structures by MS via quasi-molecular ion [M+H](+) detection. Direct infusion APCI-QTOF MS experiments in MS/MS high sensitivity scan mode with low collision energy and multi-channel averaging acquisition (MCA) allowed the detection of quasi-molecular ions of triterpene diesters for the first time and unequivocally confirmed the presence of faradiol 3,16-dimyristate and -dipalmitate, as well as the corresponding mixed diesters faradiol 3-myristate,16-palmitate and faradiol 3-palmitate,16-myristate. Preferential loss of the fatty acid in 16-position made it possible to distinguish the mixed diesters by MS/MS spectra. Their chromatographic separations turned out to be challenging due to their bulkiness and extended molecular dimensions. However, separation could be achieved by an uncommon non-aqueous RPLC mode with an in-house synthesized C30 phase. Finally, two (U)HPLC-APCI-QTOF-MS methods with C18- and C30-based non-aqueous RPLC provided suitable, sensitive assays to monitor the presence of monoesters and diesters of various triterpenes (faradiol, maniladiol, arnidiol, arnitriol A and lupane-3β,16β,20-triol esters) in the n-hexane extract of C. officinalis with high mass resolution and good mass accuracy. PMID:26562182

  1. Seed germination of calendula in response to temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calendula (Calendula officinalis L.) has been used historically for herbal medicinal purposes and as an ornamental plant. With the discovery that calendula seeds contain high concentrations of calendic acid (C18:3) in the 1980s it began to be investigated as an oilseed crop for use in paint, coating...

  2. Post-emergence herbicides useful in calendula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Easy and effective weed control is required by growers who are considering new industrial crops. Post-emergence herbicides typically are the products of choice by today’s growers. Unfortunately, post-emergence herbicides with proven safety margins are not known for calendula (Calendula officinalis),...

  3. Calendula and camelina response to nitrogen fertility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The emerging oil-seed crops calendula (Calendula officinalis) and camelina (Camelina sativa L.) can provide a domestic, renewable, non-food alternative to imported oil sources for bioenergy and industrial purposes. However, very little information exists concerning nitrogen (N) fertilizer guidelines...

  4. Calendula: A Potential New Oilseed Crop for the Northern U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seeds of calendula (Calendula officinalis) are a rich source of calendic acid (conjugated C18:3), a highly oxidative fatty acid that can be used to replace volatile organic compounds (VOC) as a drying agent in many industrial chemicals including paints and adhesives. Calendula flourishes in temperat...

  5. Variation in seed lipids in Calendula germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calendula officinalis (pot marigold) has considerable promise as an industrial crop, with a long history as an ornamental and medicinal plant. It is also marketed as an ingredient in cosmetics and a colorant. It produces unusual seed lipids, which can provide an additional market for commercial Ca...

  6. Antioxidant activity and sensory evaluation of a rosmarinic acid-enriched extract of Salvia officinalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An extract of S. officinalis (garden sage) was developed using supercritical fluid extraction, followed by hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. The extract contained RA at a conc...

  7. Rosmarinus officinalis Extract Suppresses Propionibacterium acnes–Induced Inflammatory Responses

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Tsung-Hsien; Chuang, Lu-Te; Lien, Tsung-Jung; Liing, Yau-Rong; Chen, Wei-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Propionibacterium acnes is a key pathogen involved in the progression of acne inflammation. The development of a new agent possessing antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity against P. acnes is therefore of interest. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extract on P. acnes–induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that ethanolic rosemary extract (ERE) significantly suppressed the secretion and mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α in P. acnes–stimulated monocytic THP-1 cells. In an in vivo mouse model, concomitant intradermal injection of ERE attenuated the P. acnes–induced ear swelling and granulomatous inflammation. Since ERE suppressed the P. acnes–induced nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activation and mRNA expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, the suppressive effect of ERE might be due, at least partially, to diminished NF-κB activation and TLR2-mediated signaling pathways. Furthermore, three major constituents of ERE, carnosol, carnosic acid, and rosmarinic acid, exerted different immumodulatory activities in vitro. In brief, rosmarinic acid significantly suppressed IL-8 production, while the other two compounds inhibited IL-1β production. Further study is needed to explore the role of bioactive compounds of rosemary in mitigation of P. acnes–induced inflammation. PMID:23514231

  8. Antioxidant activity and sensory assessment of a rosmarinic acid-enriched extract of Salvia officinalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An extract of S. officinalis (garden sage) was prepared using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction, followed by a Soxhlet hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. The ext...

  9. Valeriana officinalis Dry Plant Extract for Direct Compression: Preparation and Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Loreana; Ramírez-Rigo, María Veronica; Piña, Juliana; Palma, Santiago; Allemandi, Daniel; Bucalá, Verónica

    2012-01-01

    Valeriana officinalis L. (Valerianaceae) is one of the most widely used plants for the treatment of anxiety and insomnia. Usually dry plant extracts, including V. officinalis, are hygroscopic materials with poor physico-mechanical properties that can be directly compressed. A V. officinalis dry extract with moderate hygroscocity is suitable for direct compression, and was obtained by using a simple and economical technique. The V. officinalis fluid extract was oven-dried with colloidal silicon dioxide as a drying adjuvant. The addition of colloidal silicon dioxide resulted in a dry plant extract with good physico-mechanical properties for direct compression and lower hygroscopicity than the dry extract without the carrier. The dry plant extract glass transition temperature was considerably above room temperature (about 72 °C). The colloidal silicon dioxide also produced an antiplasticizing effect, improving the powder’s physical stability. The pharmaceutical performance of the prepared V. officinalis dry extract was studied through the design of tablets. The manufactured tablets showed good compactability, friability, hardness, and disintegration time. Those containing a disintegrant (Avicel PH 101) exhibited the best pharmaceutical performance, having the lowest disintegration time of around 40 seconds. PMID:23264947

  10. Phytochemical profile of Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia officinalis extracts and correlation to their antioxidant and anti-proliferative activity.

    PubMed

    Kontogianni, Vassiliki G; Tomic, Goran; Nikolic, Ivana; Nerantzaki, Alexandra A; Sayyad, Nisar; Stosic-Grujicic, Stanislava; Stojanovic, Ivana; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P; Tzakos, Andreas G

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to monitor the anti-proliferative activity of Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia officinalis extracts against cancer cells and to correlate this activity with their phytochemical profiles using liquid chromatography/diode array detection/electrospray ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (LC/DAD/ESI-MS(n)). For the quantitative estimation of triterpenic acids in the crude extracts an NMR based methodology was used and compared with the HPLC measurements, both applied for the first time, for the case of betulinic acid. Both extracts exerted cytotoxic activity through dose-dependent impairment of viability and mitochondrial activity of rat insulinoma m5F (RINm5F) cells. Decrease of RINm5F viability was mediated by nitric oxide (NO)-induced apoptosis. Importantly, these extracts potentiated NO and TNF-α release from macrophages therefore enhancing their cytocidal action. The rosemary extract developed more pronounced antioxidant, cytotoxic and immunomodifying activities, probably due to the presence of betulinic acid and a higher concentration of carnosic acid in its phytochemical profile. PMID:23017402

  11. Green biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Althaea officinalis radix hydroalcoholic extract.

    PubMed

    Korbekandi, Hassan; Asghari, Gholamreza; Chitsazi, Mohammad Reza; Bahri Najafi, Rahim; Badii, Akbar; Iravani, Siavash

    2016-02-01

    The objectives were to study the potential of Althaea officinalis radix in production of silver NPs, and the effect of the extract ethanol concentration on the produced NPs. Seventy and ninety-six percent hydroalcoholic extracts were prepared by percolation of the plant powder. The extract was concentrated by rotary evaporator and then freeze-dried. Silver ions were determined using atomic absorption analysis. The NPs were characterized by Nano-Zeta Sizer and TEM. Both of 70% and 96% of hydroalcoholic extracts of A. officinalis radix successfully synthesized spherical and poly-dispersed silver NPs. The conversion was fast and almost completed in 5 h. PMID:25058031

  12. Study on in-vivo anti-tumor activity of Verbena officinalis extract.

    PubMed

    Kou, Wei-Zheng; Yang, Jun; Yang, Qing-Hui; Wang, Ying; Wang, Zhi-Fen; Xu, Su-Ling; Liu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the anti-tumor effects of Verbena officinalis extract on H22 tumor-bearing mice and its effect on immune function. Mice model of H22 solid tumor was established, the mice were divided into five groups and administered the extract, later, tumors were removed and inhibition rates were calculated; spleens were removed and spleen indices were calculated, and the sheep red blood cell-delayed-type hypersensitivity (SRBC-DTH) and the serum hemolysin level were determined. The Verbena officinalis extract had anti-tumor effect, with the inhibition rate reaching 38.78%, it also increased the spleen index to a certain extent, in addition, the changes in DTA and HA were not obvious compared with the model group. The Verbena officinalis extract had in vivo anti-tumor effect, while causing no damage on the immune function. PMID:24146482

  13. Antidermatophytic activity of hydroalcoholic extracts from Rosmarinus officinalis and Tetradenia riparia.

    PubMed

    Endo, E H; Costa, G M; Nakamura, T U; Nakamura, C V; Dias Filho, B P

    2015-12-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis and Tetradenia riparia are used in folk medicine for the treatment of disease, including infectious diseases and skin disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antifungal activity of hydroalcoholic extracts from R. officinalis and T. riparia against strains of Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes and Microsporum gypseum. Hydroalcoholic extracts prepared with dried leaves from R. officinalis, Psidium guajava and T. riparia were assayed against dermatophyte species by the microdilution technique and by microscopy. R. officinalis and T. riparia were the most active against dermatophytes, as determined from the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC), and were investigated further. Fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to investigate inhibition of hyphal growth by the two extracts, and showed a strong inhibition and an irregular growth pattern. Both extracts showed good action against dermatophytes, inhibiting fungal growth and causing alterations in their hyphae. Therefore, R. officinalis and T. riparia are potential sources of new compounds for the development of antifungal drugs. PMID:26603099

  14. Aqueous extract of Rosmarinus officinalis L. inhibits neutrophil influx and cytokine secretion.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ana Mara de Oliveira E; Machado, Isabel Daufenback; Santin, José Roberto; de Melo, Illana Louise Pereira; Pedrosa, Gabriela Vieira; Genovese, Maria Ines; Farsky, Sandra Helena Poliselli; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis L. phenolic compounds have attracted considerable attention because of their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, including its ability to treat inflammatory disorders. In this work, we investigated the in vivo and in vitro effects of R. officinalis aqueous extract on neutrophil trafficking from the blood into an inflamed tissue, on cell-derived secretion of chemical mediators, and on oxidative stress. Anti-inflammatory activity was investigated using carrageenan-induced inflammation in the subcutaneous tissue of male Wistar rats orally treated with the R. officinalis extract (100, 200, or 400 mg/kg). The leukocyte influx (optical microscopy), secretion of chemical mediators (prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), TNF-α, interleukin 6 (IL-6), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 1 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), and the anti-oxidative profile (super oxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) spectrophotometry) were quantified in the inflamed exudate. N-Formyl-methionine-leucine-phenylalanine-induced chemotaxis, lipopolysaccharide-induced NO2 (-) production (Greiss reaction), and adhesion molecule expression (flow cytometry) were in vitro quantified using oyster glycogen recruited peritoneal neutrophils previous treated with the extract (1, 10, or 100 µg/mL). Animals orally treated with phosphate-buffered saline and neutrophils incubated with Hank's balanced salt solution were used as control. R. officinalis extract oral treatment caused a dose-dependent reduction in the neutrophil migration as well as decreased SOD, TBARS, LTB4, PGE2, IL-6, and TNF-α levels in the inflamed exudate. In vitro treatment with R. officinalis decreased neutrophil chemotaxis, NO2 (-) production, and shedding of L-selectin and β2 integrin expressions. Results here presented show that R. officinalis aqueous extract displays important in vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory actions by blocking pathways of neutrophil migration and secretion, suggesting its therapeutic application to acute inflammatory reactions. PMID:25319517

  15. A Review of the Use of Topical Calendula in the Prevention and Treatment of Radiotherapy-Induced Skin Reactions.

    PubMed

    Kodiyan, Joyson; Amber, Kyle T

    2015-01-01

    Calendula is a topical agent derived from a plant of the marigold family Calendula Officinalis. Containing numerous polyphenolic antioxidants, calendula has been studied in both the laboratory and clinical setting for the use in treating and preventing radiation induced skin toxicity. Despite strong evidence in the laboratory supporting calendula's mechanism of action in preventing radiation induced skin toxicity, clinical studies have demonstrated mixed results. In light of the controversy surrounding the efficacy of calendula in treating and preventing radiodermatitis, the topic warrants further discussion. PMID:26783706

  16. Hypnotic effect of Coriandrum sativum, Ziziphus jujuba, Lavandula angustifolia and Melissa officinalis extracts in mice.

    PubMed

    Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Safaei, Azadeh

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate hypnotic effect of Coriandrum sativum, Ziziphus jujuba, Lavandula angustifolia and Melissa officinalis hydroalcoholic extracts in mice to select the most effective ones for a combination formula. Three doses of the extracts (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg of C. sativum and Z. jujuba and 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg of L. angustifolia and M. officinalis) were orally administered to male Swiss mice (20-25 g) and one hour later pentobarbital (50 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected to induce sleep. Onset of sleep and its duration were measured and compared. Control animals and reference group received vehicle (10 ml/kg, p.o.) and diazepam (3 mg/kg, i.p.), respectively. C. sativum and Z. jujuba failed to change sleep parameters. L. angustifolia at doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg shortened sleep onset by 7.6%, 50% and 51.5% and prolonged sleep duration by 9.9%, 43.1% and 80.2%, respectively. Compared with control group the same doses of M. officinalis also decreased sleep onset by 24.7%, 27.5% and 51.2% and prolonged sleep duration by 37.9%, 68.7% and 131.7% respectively. Combinations of L. angustifolia and M. officinalis extracts showed additive effect and it is suggested that a preparation containing both extracts may be useful for insomnia. PMID:26779267

  17. Hypnotic effect of Coriandrum sativum, Ziziphus jujuba, Lavandula angustifolia and Melissa officinalis extracts in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Safaei, Azadeh

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate hypnotic effect of Coriandrum sativum, Ziziphus jujuba, Lavandula angustifolia and Melissa officinalis hydroalcoholic extracts in mice to select the most effective ones for a combination formula. Three doses of the extracts (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg of C. sativum and Z. jujuba and 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg of L. angustifolia and M. officinalis) were orally administered to male Swiss mice (20-25 g) and one hour later pentobarbital (50 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected to induce sleep. Onset of sleep and its duration were measured and compared. Control animals and reference group received vehicle (10 ml/kg, p.o.) and diazepam (3 mg/kg, i.p.), respectively. C. sativum and Z. jujuba failed to change sleep parameters. L. angustifolia at doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg shortened sleep onset by 7.6%, 50% and 51.5% and prolonged sleep duration by 9.9%, 43.1% and 80.2%, respectively. Compared with control group the same doses of M. officinalis also decreased sleep onset by 24.7%, 27.5% and 51.2% and prolonged sleep duration by 37.9%, 68.7% and 131.7% respectively. Combinations of L. angustifolia and M. officinalis extracts showed additive effect and it is suggested that a preparation containing both extracts may be useful for insomnia. PMID:26779267

  18. Novel neuroprotective effects of the aqueous extracts from Verbena officinalis Linn.

    PubMed

    Lai, Sau-Wan; Yu, Man-Shan; Yuen, Wai-Hung; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung

    2006-05-01

    Verbena officinialis Linn. (Verbenaceae) is a perennial plant which has been used as herbal medicine or health supplement in both Western and Eastern countries for centuries. It has been used to treat acute dysentery, enteritis, amenorrhea and depression. In view of its wide array of biological effects, we hypothesized that V. officinalis can exert cytoprotective effects on cells of the central nervous system. Pre-treatment of aqueous extracts of V. officinalis significantly attenuated the toxicity of beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptide and reducing agent dithiothreitol in primary cultures of cortical neurons. As extracellular accumulation of Abeta peptide is an important cytotoxic factor involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD), we have further explored its neuroprotective effect against Abeta. Treatment of V. officinalis attenuated Abeta-triggered DEVD- and VDVAD-cleavage activities in a dose-dependent manner. Further studies elucidated that phosphorylation of both interferon-inducing protein kinase (PKR) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) was attenuated in Abeta-treated neurons. Taken together, we have proved our hypothesis by showing the novel neuroprotective effects of V. officinalis. As V. officinalis has long been used for many years to be a folk medicine, our study may provide a lead for its potential to be a neuroprotective agent against neuronal loss in AD. PMID:16406021

  19. Plant mediated green synthesis and antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles using Emblica officinalis fruit extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, P. S.; Kokila, T.; Geetha, D.

    2015-05-01

    A green straight forward method of synthesizing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in an aqueous medium was designed using Emblica officinalis (EO) fruit extract as stabilizer and reducer. The formation of AgNPs depends on the effect of extract concentration and pH were studied. The AgNPs was synthesized using E.officinalis (fruit extract) and nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, the presence of biomolecules of E.officinalis capped in AgNPs was found by FT-IR analysis, shape and size were examined by SEM and XRD. The XRD analysis respects the Bragg's law and confirmed the crystalline nature of silver nanoparticles. From XRD the average size of AgNPs was found to be around 15 nm. AFM has proved to be very helpful in the determination and verification of various morphological features and parameters. EO fruit extract mediated AgNPs was synthesized and confirmed through kinetic behavior of nanoparticles. The shape of the bio-synthesized AgNPs was spherical. Potent biomolecules of E.officinalis such as polyphenols, glucose, and fructose was capped with AgNPs which reduces the toxicity. The synthesized AgNPs were tested for its antibacterial activity against the isolates by disc diffusion method. The obtained results confirmed that the E.officinalis fruit extract is a very good bioreductant for the synthesis of AgNPs. It was investigated that the synthesized AgNPs showed inhibition and had significant antibacterial against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains.

  20. Plant mediated green synthesis and antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles using Emblica officinalis fruit extract.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, P S; Kokila, T; Geetha, D

    2015-05-01

    A green straight forward method of synthesizing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in an aqueous medium was designed using Emblica officinalis (EO) fruit extract as stabilizer and reducer. The formation of AgNPs depends on the effect of extract concentration and pH were studied. The AgNPs was synthesized using E.officinalis (fruit extract) and nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, the presence of biomolecules of E.officinalis capped in AgNPs was found by FT-IR analysis, shape and size were examined by SEM and XRD. The XRD analysis respects the Bragg's law and confirmed the crystalline nature of silver nanoparticles. From XRD the average size of AgNPs was found to be around 15nm. AFM has proved to be very helpful in the determination and verification of various morphological features and parameters. EO fruit extract mediated AgNPs was synthesized and confirmed through kinetic behavior of nanoparticles. The shape of the bio-synthesized AgNPs was spherical. Potent biomolecules of E.officinalis such as polyphenols, glucose, and fructose was capped with AgNPs which reduces the toxicity. The synthesized AgNPs were tested for its antibacterial activity against the isolates by disc diffusion method. The obtained results confirmed that the E.officinalis fruit extract is a very good bioreductant for the synthesis of AgNPs. It was investigated that the synthesized AgNPs showed inhibition and had significant antibacterial against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains. PMID:25710891

  1. Radical scavenging, antibacterial, and antiproliferative activities of Melissa officinalis L. extracts.

    PubMed

    Canadanović-Brunet, Jasna; Cetković, Gordana; Djilas, Sonja; Tumbas, Vesna; Bogdanović, Gordana; Mandić, Anamarija; Markov, Sinisa; Cvetković, Dragoljub; Canadanović, Vladimir

    2008-03-01

    The aromatic herb Melissa officinalis L. can be used as an easily accessible source of natural antioxidants and as a possible food supplement and as a phytochemical. Radical scavenging, antibacterial, and antiproliferative activities of petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water extracts of M. officinalis L. extracts were investigated. The results of antioxidative activity, obtained by electron spin resonance spectroscopy, confirmed that investigated extracts suppressed the formation of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl, and lipid peroxyl radicals in all investigated systems in a dose-dependent manner. The maximum DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities (SA(DPPH) = SA(OH) = 100%) were achieved in the presence of n-butanol extract at concentrations of 0.4 mg/mL and 0.5 mg/mL, respectively. The highest lipid peroxyl scavenging activity (93.20%) was observed at a higher concentration (5 mg/mL) of n-butanol extract in the lipid peroxidation system. The most effective antibacterial activities were expressed by petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts on Sarcina lutea. Chloroform extract showed the strongest antiproliferative effect with 50% inhibitory concentration values of 0.09 mg/mL and 0.10 mg/mL for HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines, respectively. The present study demonstrated the high phenolic content and radical scavenging, antibacterial, and antiproliferative activities of extracts of M. officinalis L. originating from Serbia. PMID:18361749

  2. A review on phytochemistry and ethnopharmacological aspects of genus Calendula.

    PubMed

    Arora, Disha; Rani, Anita; Sharma, Anupam

    2013-07-01

    This review includes 84 references on the genus Calendula (Asteraceae) and comprises ethnopharmacology, morphology and microscopy, phytoconstituents, pharmacological reports, clinical studies and toxicology of the prominent species of Calendula. Triterpene alcohols, triterpene saponins, flavonoids, carotenoids and polysaccharides constitute major classes of phytoconstituents of the genus. A few species of this genus have medicinal value, among these Calendula officinalis Linn., has been traditionally used in the treatment of various skin tumors, dermatological lesions, ulcers, swellings and nervous disorders as well as almost 200 cosmetic formulations, i.e., creams, lotions, shampoos. Despite a long tradition of use of some species, the genus has not been explored properly. In the concluding part, the future scope of Calendula species has been emphasized with a view to establish their multifarious biological activities and mode of action. PMID:24347926

  3. A review on phytochemistry and ethnopharmacological aspects of genus Calendula

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Disha; Rani, Anita; Sharma, Anupam

    2013-01-01

    This review includes 84 references on the genus Calendula (Asteraceae) and comprises ethnopharmacology, morphology and microscopy, phytoconstituents, pharmacological reports, clinical studies and toxicology of the prominent species of Calendula. Triterpene alcohols, triterpene saponins, flavonoids, carotenoids and polysaccharides constitute major classes of phytoconstituents of the genus. A few species of this genus have medicinal value, among these Calendula officinalis Linn., has been traditionally used in the treatment of various skin tumors, dermatological lesions, ulcers, swellings and nervous disorders as well as almost 200 cosmetic formulations, i.e., creams, lotions, shampoos. Despite a long tradition of use of some species, the genus has not been explored properly. In the concluding part, the future scope of Calendula species has been emphasized with a view to establish their multifarious biological activities and mode of action. PMID:24347926

  4. Effect of Dietary Ethanolic Extract of Lavandula officinalis on Serum Lipids Profile in Rats.

    PubMed

    Rabiei, Zahra; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Mokhtari, Shiva; Shahrani, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidants are effective in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Lavandula officinalis possesses antioxidant activity, therefore, in this study; the effects of Lavandula officinalis extract were investigated on serum lipids levels of rats. Experimental mature male Wistar rats were treated with 100, 200 or 400 mg/Kg/day of lavender ethanolic extract or distilled water for 25 days via gastric gavage (n=8 each group). At the end of 25(th) day, the serum cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL and VLDL levels, as well as atherogenic indices were determined in rats' serum. The ethanolic extract of lavender decreased serum cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and VLDL levels in 100 mg/Kg group (p=0.03, p=0.001, p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Serum HDL level increased in 100 mg/Kg/day group (p=0.01). Lavender extract decreased LDL/HDL level at doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). The TG/HDL levels decreased in experimental groups with doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Lavandula officinalis extract exerts hypolipidemic effect in rats and might be beneficial in hyperlipidemic patients. PMID:25587318

  5. Sedative and Hypnotic Activities of the Methanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Lavandula officinalis from Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Alnamer, Rachad; Alaoui, Katim; Bouidida, El Houcine; Benjouad, Abdelaziz; Cherrah, Yahia

    2012-01-01

    We evaluate the sedative and hypnotic activities of the methanolic and aqueous extract of Lavandula officinalis L. on central nervous system (CNS). In this study, the effect of the methanolic and aqueous extracts of this plant was investigated in a battery of behavioural models in mice. Stems and flowers of Lavandula officinalis L. have several therapeutic applications in folk medicine in curing or managing a wide range of diseases, including insomnia. The methanolic extract produced significant sedative effect at the doses of 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg (by oral route), compared to reference substance diazepam (DZP), and an hypnotic effect at the doses of 800 and 1000 mg/kg while the treatment of mice with the aqueous extract at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg via oral pathway significantly reduced in both the reestablishment time and number of head dips during the traction and hole-board tests. In conclusion, these results suggest that the methanolic and aqueous extracts of Lavandula officinalis possess potent sedative and hypnotic activities, which supported its therapeutic use for insomnia. PMID:22162677

  6. Sedative and Hypnotic Activities of the Methanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Lavandula officinalis from Morocco.

    PubMed

    Alnamer, Rachad; Alaoui, Katim; Bouidida, El Houcine; Benjouad, Abdelaziz; Cherrah, Yahia

    2012-01-01

    We evaluate the sedative and hypnotic activities of the methanolic and aqueous extract of Lavandula officinalis L. on central nervous system (CNS). In this study, the effect of the methanolic and aqueous extracts of this plant was investigated in a battery of behavioural models in mice. Stems and flowers of Lavandula officinalis L. have several therapeutic applications in folk medicine in curing or managing a wide range of diseases, including insomnia. The methanolic extract produced significant sedative effect at the doses of 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg (by oral route), compared to reference substance diazepam (DZP), and an hypnotic effect at the doses of 800 and 1000 mg/kg while the treatment of mice with the aqueous extract at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg via oral pathway significantly reduced in both the reestablishment time and number of head dips during the traction and hole-board tests. In conclusion, these results suggest that the methanolic and aqueous extracts of Lavandula officinalis possess potent sedative and hypnotic activities, which supported its therapeutic use for insomnia. PMID:22162677

  7. Effect of Dietary Ethanolic Extract of Lavandula officinalis on Serum Lipids Profile in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rabiei, Zahra; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Mokhtari, Shiva; Shahrani, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidants are effective in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Lavandula officinalis possesses antioxidant activity, therefore, in this study; the effects of Lavandula officinalis extract were investigated on serum lipids levels of rats. Experimental mature male Wistar rats were treated with 100, 200 or 400 mg/Kg/day of lavender ethanolic extract or distilled water for 25 days via gastric gavage (n=8 each group). At the end of 25th day, the serum cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL and VLDL levels, as well as atherogenic indices were determined in rats’ serum. The ethanolic extract of lavender decreased serum cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and VLDL levels in 100 mg/Kg group (p=0.03, p=0.001, p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Serum HDL level increased in 100 mg/Kg/day group (p=0.01). Lavender extract decreased LDL/HDL level at doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). The TG/HDL levels decreased in experimental groups with doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Lavandula officinalis extract exerts hypolipidemic effect in rats and might be beneficial in hyperlipidemic patients. PMID:25587318

  8. Memory-improving activity of Melissa officinalis extract in naïve and scopolamine-treated rats

    PubMed Central

    Soodi, M.; Naghdi, N.; Hajimehdipoor, H.; Choopani, S.; Sahraei, E.

    2014-01-01

    Melissa officinalis L. (Labiatae) traditionally used in treating neurological disorders has also been identified as a memory-enhancing herb. The extract of M. officinalis has a cholinergic property. The role of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, the neurons that are destroyed in Alzheimer's disease (AD), in learning and memory, is also well known. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of cholinergic system on the memory improving activity of M. officinalis extract. The leaves of M. officinalis were extracted with ethanol 80% using the maceration method. Rats received intra-peritoneal injections of M. officinalis extract in different doses (50–400 mg/kg) alone or in combination with scopolamine (1 mg/kg) before being trained in a Morris water maze (MWM) in a single-day training protocol. After training, the acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE) activity was measured in the hippocampus. Administration of M. officinalis extract (200 mg/kg) could significantly enhance learning and memory of naïve rats (p<0.001) and significantly ameliorate scopolamine-induced learning deficit, but the effect of the extract was not dose dependent, and doses above 200 mg/kg could neither enhance memory in naïve rats nor reverse scopolamine-induced memory impairment. Also, inhibition of AChE activity was observed in both naïve and scopolamine-induced memory-impaired rats. These results suggest that M. officinalis can improve memory and that the cholinergic property of the extract may contribute to the memory-improving effects observed in this study. Then M. officinalis extract has potential therapeutic value in alleviating certain memory impairment observed in AD. PMID:25657779

  9. Memory-improving activity of Melissa officinalis extract in naïve and scopolamine-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Soodi, M; Naghdi, N; Hajimehdipoor, H; Choopani, S; Sahraei, E

    2014-01-01

    Melissa officinalis L. (Labiatae) traditionally used in treating neurological disorders has also been identified as a memory-enhancing herb. The extract of M. officinalis has a cholinergic property. The role of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, the neurons that are destroyed in Alzheimer's disease (AD), in learning and memory, is also well known. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of cholinergic system on the memory improving activity of M. officinalis extract. The leaves of M. officinalis were extracted with ethanol 80% using the maceration method. Rats received intra-peritoneal injections of M. officinalis extract in different doses (50-400 mg/kg) alone or in combination with scopolamine (1 mg/kg) before being trained in a Morris water maze (MWM) in a single-day training protocol. After training, the acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE) activity was measured in the hippocampus. Administration of M. officinalis extract (200 mg/kg) could significantly enhance learning and memory of naïve rats (p<0.001) and significantly ameliorate scopolamine-induced learning deficit, but the effect of the extract was not dose dependent, and doses above 200 mg/kg could neither enhance memory in naïve rats nor reverse scopolamine-induced memory impairment. Also, inhibition of AChE activity was observed in both naïve and scopolamine-induced memory-impaired rats. These results suggest that M. officinalis can improve memory and that the cholinergic property of the extract may contribute to the memory-improving effects observed in this study. Then M. officinalis extract has potential therapeutic value in alleviating certain memory impairment observed in AD. PMID:25657779

  10. In vitro amoebicidal activity of borage (Borago officinalis) extract on Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Leos-Rivas, Catalina; Verde-Star, M Julia; Torres, Lidia Osuna; Oranday-Cardenas, Azucena; Rivas-Morales, Catalina; Barron-Gonzalez, M Porfiria; Morales-Vallarta, Mario R; Cruz-Vega, Delia E

    2011-01-01

    Borage (Borago officinalis) is a plant with nutritional value that is also used in traditional medicine to treat gastrointestinal disease. This study investigated the amoebicidal activity of a methanol extract of borage. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀) of the extract for Entamoeba histolytica was 33 μg/mL. The 50% lethal dose of the extract for brine shrimp was greater than 1,000 μg/mL. The IC₅₀ of the extract for Vero cells was 203.9 μg/mL. These results support the use of borage to prevent diseases associated with E. histolytica infection. PMID:21476887

  11. The Antinociceptive Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Borago Officinalis Flower in Male Rats Using Formalin Test

    PubMed Central

    Shahraki, Mohammad Reza; Ahmadimoghadm, Mahdieh; Shahraki, Ahmad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Borago officinalis flower (borage) is a known sedative in herbal medicine; the aim of the present study was to evaluate the antinociceptive effect of borage hydroalcoholic extract in formalin test male rats. Methods: Fifty-six adult male albino Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups: Control groups of A (intact), B (saline), and C (Positive control) plus test groups of D, E, F, and G (n=8). The groups D, E, and F received 6.25, 12.5, and 25 mg/kg, Borago officinalis flower hydroalcholic extract before the test, respectively but group G received 25 mg/kg borage extract and aspirin before the test. A biphasic pain was induced by injection of formalin 1%. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS software ver. 17 employing statistical tests of Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney. The results were expressed as mean±SD. Statistical differences were considered significant at P<0.05. Results: The results revealed that the acute and chronic pain behavior score in test groups of D, E, F, and G significantly decreased compared to groups A and B, but this score did not show any difference compared to group C. Moreover, chronic pain behavior score in group G was significantly lower than all other groups. Discussion: The results indicated that Borago officinalis hydroalcoholic extract affects the acute and chronic pain behavior response in formaline test male rats. PMID:26649166

  12. Optimization for ultrasonic-microwave synergistic extraction of polysaccharides from Cornus officinalis and characterization of polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiulian; You, Qinghong; Jiang, Zhonghai; Zhou, Xinghai

    2016-02-01

    Ultrasonic-microwave synergistic extraction (UMSE) of polysaccharides from Cornus officinalis was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). The effect of four different factors on the yield of C. officinalis polysaccharides (COP) was studied. RSM results showed that the optimal conditions were extraction time of 31.49823 min, microwave power of 99.39769 W, and water-to-raw material ratio of 28.16273. The COP yield was 11.38±0.31% using the modified optimal conditions, which was consistent with the value predicted by the model. The crude COP was purified by DEAE-Cellulose 52 chromatography and Sephadex G-100 chromatography. Five fractions, namely, crude COP, COP-1, COP-2, COP-3, and COP-4, were obtained. Monosaccharide composition analysis revealed that the COP was composed of glucose, arabinose, fucose, xylose, mannose, and rhamnose. Preliminary structural characterizations of COP were conducted by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. PMID:26627604

  13. Antioxidant activity and sensory evaluation of a rosmarinic acid-enriched extract of Salvia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Bakota, Erica L; Winkler-Moser, Jill K; Berhow, Mark A; Eller, Fred J; Vaughn, Steven F

    2015-04-01

    An extract of Salvia officinalis (garden sage) was prepared using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 ) extraction, followed by hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. The extract contained RA at a concentration of 28.4 mg/g, representing a significant enrichment from the RA content in sage leaves. This extract was incorporated into oil-in-water emulsions as a source of lipid antioxidants and compared to emulsions containing pure rosmarinic acid. Both treatments were effective in suppressing lipid oxidation. The extract was evaluated by a trained sensory panel in a tea formulation. While the panel could discriminate among extract-treated and control samples, panelists demonstrated high acceptability of the sage extract in a tea. PMID:25808312

  14. Antioxidant activity and sensory analysis of a rosmarinic acid-enriched extract of garden sage (Salvia officinalis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel extract of S. officinalis (garden sage) was prepared using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction, followed by a Soxhlet hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. Th...

  15. A Review of the Use of Topical Calendula in the Prevention and Treatment of Radiotherapy-Induced Skin Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Kodiyan, Joyson; Amber, Kyle T.

    2015-01-01

    Calendula is a topical agent derived from a plant of the marigold family Calendula Officinalis. Containing numerous polyphenolic antioxidants, calendula has been studied in both the laboratory and clinical setting for the use in treating and preventing radiation induced skin toxicity. Despite strong evidence in the laboratory supporting calendula’s mechanism of action in preventing radiation induced skin toxicity, clinical studies have demonstrated mixed results. In light of the controversy surrounding the efficacy of calendula in treating and preventing radiodermatitis, the topic warrants further discussion. PMID:26783706

  16. Evaluation of two natural extracts (Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Melissa officinalis L.) as antioxidants in cooked pork patties packed in MAP.

    PubMed

    Lara, M S; Gutierrez, J I; Timón, M; Andrés, A I

    2011-07-01

    Two natural extracts, from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.; Nutrox) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.; Meliox) showing a potential antioxidant activity, have been evaluated and compared with a synthetic antioxidant (Butylated hydroxytoluene; BHT) and a control batch. Pork meat patties were made by addition of the mentioned compounds, cooked and packed in modified atmosphere and stored under illumination for 6 days. A descriptive sensory analysis was also conducted. The patties with natural extracts showed higher a*-values (P<0.001) than control and BHT samples. Cooked pork hardness was the lowest for Meliox batch after 0 and 3 days of storage in comparison with the rest of the batches. Nutrox batch showed the lowest TBARS values and hexanal content (P<0.05) throughout the storage period. The batches with natural antioxidants produced the highest concentrations of free thiol groups after 0 and 3 days. Differences in sensory attributes among batches were not detected by the judge panel. PMID:21345605

  17. Effects of differential extraction of Verbena officinalis on rat models of inflammation, cicatrization and gastric damage.

    PubMed

    Speroni, E; Cervellati, R; Costa, S; Guerra, M C; Utan, A; Govoni, P; Berger, A; Müller, A; Stuppner, H

    2007-03-01

    Verbena officinalis L. is used in folk medicine for the treatment of inflammatory disorders, skin burns, abrasions, and gastric diseases. Extracts obtained with different solvents (methanol, VoME; enriched flavonoids, VoEF; supercritical CO2, VoCO2) were evaluated for anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective and cicatrizing activities. Additionally, the antioxidant capacity was determined in vitro. In order to confirm the activities investigated, histological observations were performed. All extracts induce a remarkable anti-inflammatory activity. The gastric damage is significantly reduced by all extracts administered, whereby the most pronounced protection is observed for the VoCO2 and VoEF extracts. Finally, a wound healing effect is obtained particularly by the CO2 extract, suggesting the presence of some lipophilic active principles. Histological evidence confirms the results evaluated with the animal procedures. The results obtained after oral administration of V. officinalis extracts are also in agreement with the antioxidant capacity evaluated in vitro, confirming the relationship between pharmacological activities and antiradical efficacy. PMID:17354166

  18. Anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) extract in rats: Influence of administration and gender

    PubMed Central

    Taiwo, Adefunmilayo E.; Leite, Franco B.; Lucena, Greice M.; Barros, Marilia; Silveira, Dâmaris; Silva, Mônica V.; Ferreira, Vania M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the behavioral effects of Melissa officinalis extract in rats following acute or subacute treatment. Materials and Methods: The behavioral effects of an acute or subacute (10-day course) orally administered M. officinalis (MO; 0, 30, 100 or 300 mg/kg) ethanol extract were evaluated in male and female Wistar rats in elevated plus-maze (EPM), forced swimming (FS) and open field (OF) tests. The effects of diazepam (DZP; 1 mg/kg) and fluoxetine (FXT; 10 mg/kg) were also assessed. Results: In the EPM test, the percentage of open arm entries and open arm times of both males and females given the subacute M. officinalis ethanol extract were significantly higher than those of the vehicle-treated animals but were at levels similar to those observed in the DZP group, regardless of the treatment length. In the FS test, immobility duration was significantly lower in both males and females treated with the plant extract when compared to vehicle-treated counterparts. A 10-day treatment with FXT induced the same antidepressant response, regardless of gender, and was more effective than the M. officinalis extract. Male and female rats demonstrated distinct gender profiles, and treatment × gender interactions were observed. Locomotion in the EPM and OF tests was not significantly altered by treatments. Conclusion: The potential psychoactive properties of M. officinalis may provide a unique pharmacological alternative for certain psychiatric disorders; however, the efficacy appears to be dependent on both gender and administration length. PMID:22529473

  19. Evaluation of bioactive properties and phenolic compounds in different extracts prepared from Salvia officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Martins, Natália; Barros, Lillian; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Henriques, Mariana; Silva, Sónia; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-03-01

    The therapeutic benefits of medicinal plants are well known. Nevertheless, essential oils have been the main focus of antioxidant and antimicrobial studies, remaining scarce the reports with hydrophilic extracts. Thus, the antioxidant and antifungal activities of aqueous (prepared by infusion and decoction) and methanol/water (80:20, v/v) extracts of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) were evaluated and characterised in terms of phenolic compounds. Decoction and methanol/water extract gave the most pronounced antioxidant and antifungal properties, being positively related with their phenolic composition. The highest concentration of phenolic compounds was observed in the decoction, followed by methanol/water extract and infusion. Fungicidal and/or fungi static effects proved to be dependent on the extracts concentration. Overall, the incorporation of sage decoction in the daily diet or its use as a complement for antifungal therapies, could provide considerable benefits, also being an alternative to sage essential oils that can display some toxic effects. PMID:25306360

  20. Postemergence herbicides for calendula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calendula is an alternative oilseed crop whose seed oil is valued as a substitute for tung oil and a replacement for petroleum-based volatile organic compounds in paints and other coatings. Calendula is not yet grown extensively as an agronomic crop, and its tolerances to most herbicides are unknown...

  1. Extraction of polysaccharides from Fomes officinalis Ames and their antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Hu, Mingdong; Zhang, Huifeng; Feng, Bo; Liu, Ke; Guo, Shuying

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize the extraction parameters of Fomes officinalis Ames polysaccharides (FOAPs) and evaluate their antitumor activity. FOAPs were extracted using the hot water extraction, acid extraction and alkali extraction methods, respectively. Alcohol precipitation and acetone washes were conducted to separate and purify the FOAPs. The FOAP content was determined using the phenol-sulfuric acid method. The effects of raw material particle size, extraction time and material-liquid ratio on the yield of FOAPs were investigated, and the effects of FOAPs on the immune function of S180 tumor-bearing mice and their antitumor activity were evaluated. The yield of FOAPs obtained with the hot water extraction method was higher compared with the yields of the other methods. The optimum extraction conditions were as follows: a raw material particle size of 24 mesh; an extraction time of 2.5 h; and a material-liquid ratio of 1 g:12 ml. Under these conditions, the yield of FOAPs was 1.13%. FOAPs significantly inhibited tumor growth and enhanced the immune function in S180 tumor-bearing mice. FOAPs extracted using the hot water extraction method have antitumor activity. PMID:24137206

  2. Cytotoxicity of aqueous extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Labiatae) in plant test system.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, G H S; Dantas, E B S; Sousa, F R C; Peron, A P

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the cytotoxic activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) aqueous extract on the cell cycle of Allium cepa. To this end, crude aqueous leaf extracts at four concentrations, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08 mg/mL, were tested on A. cepa meristematic root cells, at exposure times of 24 and 48 h. Slides were prepared by the crushing technique, and cells analyzed throughout the cell cycle, totaling 5,000 for each control group and concentration. The four concentrations tested, including the lowest and considered ideal for use, at all exposure times, showed a significant antiproliferative effect on the cell cycle of this test system and presented a high number of cells in prophase. Our results evidenced the cytotoxicity of rosemary extracts, under the studied conditions. PMID:25627599

  3. Pharmacological and biological evaluation of extracts from Gratiola officinalis L. (Scrophulariaceae).

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Mansoor; Muhammad, Noor; Mehjabeen; Jahan, Noor; Ahmad, Manzoor; Habib, Salman

    2012-07-01

    The crude extract of Gratiola officinalis and its n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions were subjected to biological (Brine Shrimp Bioassay, Insecticidal and Phytotoxicity/Cytotoxic) and neuropharmacological (Head dip, Open field Forced swimming test, Sodium pentothal induced sleep) activities. Results obtained in this study indicated that at high concentration dose (1000μg/ml), all test samples showed 60-95% phytotoxicity. In crude extract, n-butanol and aqueous fractions produced more than 85% phytotoxicity. While low concentration (10μg/ml) dose showed 25-28% phytotoxicity in all test samples. The crude extract was devoid of any effect against the growth of Callosbruchus analis and Tribolium castaneum and caused 10 mortality of Rhyzopertha dominica. n-Hexane, chloroform, ethylacetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions caused 50, 30, 40, 10 and 20% mortality respectively of C. analis where as chloroform, ethyl-acetate, aqueous and crude extract, n-hexane, ethyl-acetate fractions also caused low mortality (10%) of Tribolium castaneum and Rhyzopertha dominica respectively. In cytotoxic assay at 1000μg/ml concentration, n-butanol fraction produced 36.7% and the crude extract produced 13.3% mortality of brine shrimp, its aqueous fraction was inactive at all concentrations. The results of head dip, open field, mobility time and Pentothal Na induced sleep indicated that crude extract, n-butanol and ethylacetate fractions of G. officinalis had mild sedative effect. However aqueous fraction was found to produce a significant decrease in motor activities and potentiated the duration of sleep. PMID:22713957

  4. NT-28NEUROPROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF BACOPA MONNIERI AND ROSMARINUS OFFICINALIS SUPERCRITICAL CO2 EXTRACTS

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Cheppail; Quirin, Karl-Werner; Escalon, Enrique; Melnick, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Ethnobotanical evidence suggests that herbs such as brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) may possess anti-oxidant and neuroprotective properties. We compared the anti-oxidant and neuroprotective effects of supercritical extract of Bacopa monnieri (BM) and rosemary anti-oxidant (RA) extract obtained from Rosmarinus officinalis as well as their combination to examine the effects on human glial (U-87 MG) and embryonic mouse hypothalamus (EMH) cells. BM, RA and their combination (1:1) are not cytotoxic in both glial and EMH cell lines up to 200 µg/ml concentration. BM + RA combination has better anti-oxidant potential and anti-lipid peroxidation activity than either agent alone. Although BM + RA showed almost similar inhibition of phospho tau expression as BM or RA alone, the combination has better inhibitory effect on Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) synthesis and higher brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) production in hypothalamus cells than single agents. These results suggest that BM + RA is more neuroprotective than BM or RA individually.

  5. Cornus officinalis Methanol Extract Upregulates Melanogenesis in Melan-a Cells.

    PubMed

    An, Yun Ah; Hwang, Ji Yeon; Lee, Jae Soon; Kim, Young Chul

    2015-06-01

    Cornus officinalis is widely distributed in Korea, and its fruit has been used to make as herbal drug for traditional medicine in Korea, Japan, and China because of its tonic, analgesic, and diuretic properties. However, the effects of C. officinalis methanol extract (COME) on melanogenesis remain poorly understood. We evaluated the melanogenic capability of COME in melan-a cells, which are immortalized mouse melanocytes. COME increased melanin synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with 12.5 μg/mL of COME significantly increased melanin content by 36.1% (p < 0.001) to a level even higher than that (31.6%) of 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine, a well-known pigmentation agent. COME also upregulated tyrosinase activity and its messenger RNA and protein expression. In addition, COME upregulated the expression of tyrosinase-related proteins 1 and 2 and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor-M messenger RNA expression. These results imply that COME may be appropriate for development as a natural product to treat hair graying. PMID:26191383

  6. Cornus officinalis Methanol Extract Upregulates Melanogenesis in Melan-a Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ji Yeon; Lee, Jae Soon; Kim, Young Chul

    2015-01-01

    Cornus officinalis is widely distributed in Korea, and its fruit has been used to make as herbal drug for traditional medicine in Korea, Japan, and China because of its tonic, analgesic, and diuretic properties. However, the effects of C. officinalis methanol extract (COME) on melanogenesis remain poorly understood. We evaluated the melanogenic capability of COME in melan-a cells, which are immortalized mouse melanocytes. COME increased melanin synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with 12.5 μg/mL of COME significantly increased melanin content by 36.1% (p < 0.001) to a level even higher than that (31.6%) of 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine, a well-known pigmentation agent. COME also upregulated tyrosinase activity and its messenger RNA and protein expression. In addition, COME upregulated the expression of tyrosinase-related proteins 1 and 2 and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor-M messenger RNA expression. These results imply that COME may be appropriate for development as a natural product to treat hair graying. PMID:26191383

  7. Apoptotic effect of hot water extract of Sanguisorba officinalis L. in human oral cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    SHIN, JI-AE; KIM, JUN-SUNG; KWON, KI-HAN; NAM, JEONG-SEOK; JUNG, JI-YOUN; CHO, NAM-PYO; CHO, SUNG-DAE

    2012-01-01

    Sanguisorba officinalis L. has been used in traditional Asian medicine to treat diseases including diarrhea, chronic intestinal infections, duodenal ulcers and bleeding. This study examined the antiproliferative effects and apoptotic activity of hot water extract of S. officinalis L. (HESO) on HSC4 and HN22 human oral cancer cells. The effects of HESO were evaluated by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-20yl)-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulphophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay, 4′-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining and western blot analysis. HESO was found to inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis in HSC4 and HN22 oral cancer cells. HESO downregulated myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) in HSC4 cells and was associated with the activation of Bak, resulting in Bak oligomerization on the mitochondrial outer membrane. HESO did not alter Mcl-1 expression in HN22 cells, but it decreased Sp1 expression. The downregulation of Sp1 by HESO in HN22 cells resulted in a decrease in survivin, a downstream target protein of Sp1. These results suggested that HESO inhibited the growth of oral cancer through either Mcl-1 or Sp1, indicating that HESO may serve as a potential drug candidate against oral cancer. PMID:23741248

  8. Effect of different format-solvent rosemary extracts (Rosmarinus officinalis) on frozen chicken nuggets quality.

    PubMed

    Rocío Teruel, M; Garrido, M Dolores; Espinosa, Miriam C; Linares, M Belén

    2015-04-01

    Three kinds of Rosmarinus officinalis extract (powder-acetone, liquid-methanol, liquid-acetone) were used to examine the effects of format-solvent on the active compounds extracted (total phenolic, carnosol and carnosic acid content) and antioxidant activity (FRAP, ABTS). The results showed that both, as the format but also the solvent used, had significant effect on the parameters analyzed (p < 0.05). The highest antioxidant activity was found for the powder-acetone extract followed by the liquid methanol and liquid acetone extracts (p < 0.05). The effect of the three different extracts on the physical-chemical and sensory quality of frozen chicken nuggets was evaluated. At the dose proposed by the European Union Directive 2010/69/EU for the carnosic and carnosol compounds [150 ppm (mg/kg fat basic)], the format-solvent combination of the rosemary extracts used did not modify the chicken nuggets quality characteristics (pH, colour, sensory quality) and still underlines the effectiveness of these extracts. PMID:25442521

  9. Assessment of Eyebright (Euphrasia Officinalis L.) Extract Activity in Relation to Human Corneal Cells Using In Vitro Tests

    PubMed Central

    Paduch, Roman; Woźniak, Anna; Niedziela, Piotr; Rejdak, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background: Euphrasia officinalis L. is an herb traditionally used in folk medicine, mainly in the treatment of eye disorders. Aims: The present study analyzed the activity of three extracts of E. officinalis L. (ethanol, ethyl acetate and heptane) on cultured human corneal epithelial cells (10.014 pRSV-T). Study Design: In vitro study. Methods: Toxicity, free radical scavenging activity and the immunomodulatory effects of the extracts were tested using the thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) or Neutral Red, 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ELISA tests, respectively. Moreover, nitric oxide levels and cytoskeleton architecture were analyzed after corneal cell incubation with the plant extracts. Results: We show that the biological effect depended on both the concentration and the extraction solvent used. Heptane extracts, distinct from those in ethanol and ethyl acetate, were toxic to 10.014 pRSV-T cells at low concentrations (25 μg/mL) and did not demonstrate free radical scavenging effects. All tested extracts decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine expression (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) and also anti-inflammatory IL-10 expression by human corneal cells when the extracts were added to the cell culture medium for 24 h. Conclusion: In conclusion, we show that the promising effects of the application of E. officinalis L. preparations as a supplementary therapy for eye disorders are associated with the ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts, not the heptane extract. PMID:25207164

  10. Protective effect of Melissa officinalis aqueous extract against Mn-induced oxidative stress in chronically exposed mice.

    PubMed

    Martins, Eduarda N; Pessano, Naira T C; Leal, Luiza; Roos, Daniel H; Folmer, Vanderlei; Puntel, Gustavo O; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Aschner, Michael; Ávila, Daiana Silva; Puntel, Robson Luiz

    2012-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential element for biological systems; however occupational exposure to high levels of this metal may lead to neurodegenerative disorders, resembling Parkinson's disease (PD). While its mechanisms of neurotoxicity have yet to be fully understood, oxidative stress plays a critical role. Thus, the main goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of aqueous extract of Melissa officinalis in attenuating Mn-induced brain oxidative stress in mice. Sixteen male mice were randomly divided into two groups and treated for 3 months: the first group consumed tap water (control group) and the second group was treated with Mn (50 mg/kg/day for habituation during the first 15 days followed by 100 mg/kg/day for additional 75 days) in the drinking water. After 3 months both groups were sub divided (n=4 per group) and treated for additional 3 months with Mn and/or M. officinalis in the drinking water. The first group (control) was treated with water and served as control; the second group (M. officinalis) was treated with M. officinalis (100 mg/kg/day); the third group was treated with Mn (100 mg/kg/day); the fourth group (Mn+M. officinalis) was treated with both Mn and M. officinalis (100 mg/kg/day each). Mn-treated mice showed a significant increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) levels (a marker of oxidative stress) in both the hippocampus and striatum. These changes were accompanied by a decrease in total thiol content in the hippocampus and a significant increase in antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase and catalase) in the hippocampus, striatum, cortex and cerebellum. Co-treatment with M. officinalis aqueous extract in Mn-treated mice significantly inhibited the antioxidant enzyme activities and attenuated the oxidative damage (TBARS and decreased total thiol levels). These results establish that M. officinalis aqueous extract possesses potent antioxidative properties, validating its efficacy in attenuating Mn-induced oxidative stress in the mouse brain. PMID:22020131

  11. Attachment and penetration of acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus are inhibited by Melissa officinalis extract.

    PubMed

    Astani, Akram; Navid, Mojdeh Heidary; Schnitzler, Paul

    2014-10-01

    Medicinal plants are increasingly of interest as novel source of drugs for antiherpetic agents, because herpes simplex virus (HSV) might develop resistance to commonly used antiviral drugs. An aqueous extract of Melissa officinalis and the phenolic compounds caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid and rosmarinic acid were examined for their antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) acyclovir-sensitive and clinical isolates of acyclovir-resistant strains in vitro. When drugs were added during the intracellular replication of HSV-1 infected cells, no antiviral effect was observed by plaque reduction assay. However, Melissa extract interacted directly with free viral particles of two acyclovir-resistant HSV strains at low IC50 values of 0.13 and 0.23 µg/mL and high selectivity indices of 2692 and 1522, respectively. The Melissa extract and rosmarinic acid inhibited HSV-1 attachment to host cells in a dose-dependent manner for acyclovir-sensitive and acyclovir-resistant strains. These results indicate that mainly rosmarinic acid contributed to the antiviral activity of Melissa extract. Penetration of herpes viruses into cells was inhibited by Melissa extract at 80% and 96% for drug-sensitive and drug-resistant viruses, respectively. Melissa extract exhibits low toxicity and affects attachment and penetration of acyclovir-sensitive and acyclovir-resistant HSVs in vitro. PMID:24817544

  12. Antibacterial effects of biosynthesized MgO nanoparticles using ethanolic fruit extract of Emblica officinalis.

    PubMed

    Ramanujam, Kalimuthan; Sundrarajan, Mahalingam

    2014-12-01

    Magnesium oxides nanoparticles were successfully synthesized from Mg(NO3)(2)·6H2O through a simple greener route using fruit extract (Emblica officinalis). The synthesized samples were characterized by different techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. The XRD pattern shows the face centered cubic structure with 27 nm of crystalline size of MgO nanoparticles was confirmed by the Debye-Scherrer's Formula. The spherical in shape of MgO nanoparticles is confirmed by SEM analysis. MgO nanoparticles treated cotton fabric produced stronger antibacterial activity. These types of treated fabrics are used in medical application. PMID:25463681

  13. Inhibitory effects of hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis) extracts on intestinal alpha-glucosidase activity and postprandial hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Hiroyuki; Matsuura, Hideyuki; Yanagiya, Chikako; Mizutani, Junya; Tsuji, Masayoshi; Ishihara, Chiaki

    2003-10-01

    It has been known that Hyssopus officinalis (hyssop) is a herb that grows in the wild and is a source of natural antioxidants. We previously reported that a-glucosidase inhibitors, (2S, 3S)1-O-beta-D-6'-O-cinnamoylglucopyranosyl-3-(3", 5"-dimethoxy-4"-hydroxyphenyl)-1,2,3-propanetriol and (2S, 3S)1-O-beta-D-glucopranosyl-3-(3", 5"-dimethoxy-4"-hydroxyphenyl)-1,2,3-propanetriol, from the dry leaves of hyssop, were isolated. This study examined the alpha-glucosidase inhibitory effects of hyssop extracts on intestinal carbohydrate absorption in rat everted gut sac and carbohydrate-loaded hyperglycemia in mice. In the everted gut sac experiment, 10 mM sucrose- and 5 mM maltose-treated increases in glucose concentration in the serosal compartment were inhibited in the presence of 0.5 and 1.0 mg/ mL hyssop extracts, although a 10 mM glucose-induced increase in serosal glucose was not inhibited by the extracts. Additionally, hyperglycemia in sucrose- and maltose-loaded mice was significantly suppressed at an early stage, within 30 to 60 min by oral pre-administration of 300 and 100 mg/kg hyssop extracts, respectively. These findings suggest that hyssop extracts inhibited the digestion of complex carbohydrates, but not that of absorbable monosaccharide, and might be a useful supplemental food for hyperglycemia. PMID:14703310

  14. Determination of phenolic content and antioxidant activity of extracts obtained from Rosmarinus officinalis' calli.

    PubMed

    Yesil-Celiktas, Ozlem; Nartop, Pinar; Gurel, Aynur; Bedir, Erdal; Vardar-Sukan, Fazilet

    2007-11-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis is widely found in the lands of Aegean and Mediterranean regions of Turkey. Stem explants of very young shoots were cultured in both woody plant medium (WPM) and Murashige and Skoog (MS) media supplemented with 7g/L agar, 30g/L sucrose, and 1 and 3mg/L naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) for callus initiation. Induced calli were subcultured 4 times with intervals of 7-10 days. MS medium supplemented with 1mg/L NAA proved to be the best medium for the production of callus (65.0%) among the samples tested. The lyophilized calli were subjected to solvent extraction. Active constituents of 8 calli extracts were analyzed by HPLC, and rosmarinic acid (RA) was determined to be the primary compound. Calli cultivated in WPM supplemented with 1mg/L NAA and extracted at 50 degrees C, yielded the highest amount of RA (34.4mg/g dry weight). Moreover, antioxidant activity of calli extracts was determined using a number of in vitro assays, including total phenol assay, DPPH radical scavenging activity (RSA), and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). On the basis of the current findings, we conclude that WPM supplemented with 1mg/L NAA yields higher phenolic content as well as higher antioxidant activity. PMID:17913287

  15. Anti-Proliferative Effect of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Extract on Human Melanoma A375 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cattaneo, Lucia; Cicconi, Rosella; Mignogna, Giuseppina; Giorgi, Alessandra; Mattei, Maurizio; Graziani, Giulia; Ferracane, Rosalia; Grosso, Alessandro; Aducci, Patrizia; Schininà, M. Eugenia; Marra, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) has been used since ancient times in traditional medicine, while nowadays various rosemary formulations are increasingly exploited by alternative medicine to cure or prevent a wide range of health disorders. Rosemary’s bioproperties have prompted scientific investigation, which allowed us to ascertain antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cytostatic, and cytotoxic activities of crude extracts or of pure components. Although there is a growing body of experimental work, information about rosemary’s anticancer properties, such as chemoprotective or anti-proliferative effects on cancer cells, is very poor, especially concerning the mechanism of action. Melanoma is a skin tumor whose diffusion is rapidly increasing in the world and whose malignancy is reinforced by its high resistance to cytotoxic agents; hence the availability of new cytotoxic drugs would be very helpful to improve melanoma prognosis. Here we report on the effect of a rosemary hydroalcoholic extract on the viability of the human melanoma A375 cell line. Main components of rosemary extract were identified by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) and the effect of the crude extract or of pure components on the proliferation of cancer cells was tested by MTT and Trypan blue assays. The effect on cell cycle was investigated by using flow cytometry, and the alteration of the cellular redox state was evaluated by intracellular ROS levels and protein carbonylation analysis. Furthermore, in order to get information about the molecular mechanisms of cytotoxicity, a comparative proteomic investigation was performed. PMID:26176704

  16. Anti-Proliferative Effect of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Extract on Human Melanoma A375 Cells.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Lucia; Cicconi, Rosella; Mignogna, Giuseppina; Giorgi, Alessandra; Mattei, Maurizio; Graziani, Giulia; Ferracane, Rosalia; Grosso, Alessandro; Aducci, Patrizia; Schininà, M Eugenia; Marra, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) has been used since ancient times in traditional medicine, while nowadays various rosemary formulations are increasingly exploited by alternative medicine to cure or prevent a wide range of health disorders. Rosemary's bioproperties have prompted scientific investigation, which allowed us to ascertain antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cytostatic, and cytotoxic activities of crude extracts or of pure components. Although there is a growing body of experimental work, information about rosemary's anticancer properties, such as chemoprotective or anti-proliferative effects on cancer cells, is very poor, especially concerning the mechanism of action. Melanoma is a skin tumor whose diffusion is rapidly increasing in the world and whose malignancy is reinforced by its high resistance to cytotoxic agents; hence the availability of new cytotoxic drugs would be very helpful to improve melanoma prognosis. Here we report on the effect of a rosemary hydroalcoholic extract on the viability of the human melanoma A375 cell line. Main components of rosemary extract were identified by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) and the effect of the crude extract or of pure components on the proliferation of cancer cells was tested by MTT and Trypan blue assays. The effect on cell cycle was investigated by using flow cytometry, and the alteration of the cellular redox state was evaluated by intracellular ROS levels and protein carbonylation analysis. Furthermore, in order to get information about the molecular mechanisms of cytotoxicity, a comparative proteomic investigation was performed. PMID:26176704

  17. The effects of Valeriana officinalis L. hydro-alcoholic extract on depression like behavior in ovalbumin sensitized rats

    PubMed Central

    Neamati, Ali; Chaman, Fariba; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Neuroimmune factors have been considered as contributors to the pathogenesis of depression. Beside other therapeutic effects, Valeriana officinalis L., have been suggested to have anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, the effects of V. officinalis L. hydro alcoholic extract was investigated on depression like behavior in ovalbumin sensitized rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 Wistar rats were divided into five groups: Group 1 (control group) received saline instead of Valeriana officinalis L. extract. The animals in group 2 (sensitized) were treated by saline instead of the extract and were sensitized using the ovalbumin. Groups 3-5 (Sent - Ext 50), (Sent - Ext 100) and (Sent - Ext 200) were treated by 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of V. officinalis L. hydro-alcoholic extract respectively, during the sensitization protocol. Forced swimming test was performed for all groups and immobility time was recorded. Finally, the animals were placed in the open-field apparatus and the crossing number on peripheral and central areas was observed. Results: The immobility time in the sensitized group was higher than that in the control group (P < 0.01). The animals in Sent-Ext 100 and Sent-Ext 200 groups had lower immobility times in comparison with sensitized group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). In the open field test, the crossed number in peripheral by the sensitized group was higher than that of the control one (P < 0.01) while, the animals of Sent-Ext 50, Sent-Ext 100 and Sent-Ext 200 groups had lower crossing number in peripheral compared with the sensitized group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 respectively). Furthermore, in the sensitized group, the central crossing number was lower than that of the control group (P < 0.001). In the animals treated by 200 mg/kg of the extract, the central crossing number was higher than that of the sensitized group (P < 0. 05). Conclusions: The results of the present study showed that the hydro-alcoholic extract of V. officinalis prevents depression like behavior in ovalbumin sensitized rats. These results support the traditional belief on the about beneficial effects of V. officinalis in the nervous system. Moreover, further investigations are required in order to better understand this protective effect. PMID:24741277

  18. Inhibitory and Cytotoxic Activities of Salvia Officinalis L. Extract on Human Lymphoma and Leukemia Cells by Induction of Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    zare shahneh, fatemeh; Valiyari, Samira; Baradaran, Behzad; Abdolalizadeh, Jalal; Bandehagh, Ali; Azadmehr, Abass; Hajiaghaee, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Salvia officinalis L., also known as Maryam Goli, is one of the native plants used to Persian medicinal herbs. Hence, the objective of this study was to examine the in vitro cytotoxic activities of a standardized crude methanol extracts prepared from Salvia officinalis L., on a non-Hodgkin’s B-cell lymphoma (Raji) and human leukemic monocyte lymphoma (U937), Human acute myelocytic leukemia (KG-1A) and Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial (HUVEC) cell lines. Methods: The effect of methanolic extract on the inhibition of cell proliferation and cytotoxic activity was evaluated by Dye exclusion and Micro culture tetrazolium test (MTT) cytotoxicity assay. Cell death ELISA was employed to quantify the nucleosome production result from nuclear DNA fragmentation during apoptosis and determined whether the mechanism involves induction of apoptosis or necrosis. Results: The present results demonstrated that methanolic extract at 50 to 800 μg/ml dose and time-dependently suppressed the proliferation of KG-1A, U937 and Raji cells by more than 80% (p<0.01), with ascending order of IC50 values in 24: KG-1A (214.377 μg/ml), U937 (229.312 μg/ml) and Raji (239.692 μg/ml) when compared with a chemotherapeutic anticancer drug, paclitaxel (Toxol), confirming the tumour-selective cytotoxicity. The crude extract however did not exert any significant cytotoxic effect on normal cell line HUVEC (IC50>800 Ag/ml). Nucleosome productions in KG-1A, Raji and U937 cells were significantly increased respectively upon the treatment of Salvia officinalis L. extract. Conclusion: The Salvia officinalis L. extract was found dose and time-dependently inhibits the proliferation of lymphoma and leukemic cells possibly via an apoptosis-dependent pathway. PMID:24312812

  19. Enrichment of antioxidant compounds from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) by pressurized liquid extraction and enzyme-assisted extraction.

    PubMed

    Miron, T L; Herrero, M; Ibáñez, E

    2013-05-01

    In this work enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) are applied for extraction of natural compounds from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis). Cellulase, endo-β-1,4 xylanase and pectinase were studied in order to degrade cell wall of lemon balm leaves and to release phenolic compounds. On the other hand, in order to compare the performance obtained with EAE, PLE using water and ethanol was employed maintaining 150°C as extraction temperature. The obtained extracts were characterized in terms of antioxidant capacity by using DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) in vitro assays, whereas the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure was employed to estimate the total phenols content. On the other hand, extracts were chemically characterized by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The results showed that EAE enhanced the total phenolic content and the antioxidant capacity compared to a non-enzymatic control. PLE extracts presented higher amount of phenols and antioxidant capacity than enzyme-assisted extracts, reaching the highest values on water extracts (193.18mggallicacid/gextract and EC50=6.81μg/mL). Among the bioactive phenolic compounds identified in lemon balm, rosmarinic acid was the main component, although other important compounds were also identified, such as caffeic acid derivatives (salvianolic acids, lithospermic acid) and rosmarinic acid derivatives (rosmarinic acid hexoside, sagerinic acid, sulfated rosmarinic acid). The present study confirms that EAE and PLE can be considered alternative methods for the extraction of natural compounds with biological activity from natural sources. PMID:23528869

  20. Anticonvulsant and analgesic activities of crude extract and its fractions of the defensive secretion from the Mediterranean sponge, Spongia officinalis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This study progresses in the direction of identifying component(s) from the Mediterranean sponge, Spongia officinalis with anticonvulsant and analgesic activities. We investigated the efficacy of crude extract and its semi-purified fractions (F1-F3) of the defensive secretion from Spongia officinalis for their in vivo anticonvulsant activity using the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) seizure model and analgesic activity using the writhing test in mice. Among the series the crude extract exhibited interesting analgesic activity in a dose dependent manner. Similarly the fraction F2 showed a partial protection of mice from PTZ-induced seizure and interesting analgesic activity in a dose dependent manner. The purification and the determination of chemical structure(s) of compound(s) of this active fraction are under investigation. PMID:22494441

  1. Inhibitory effect of an extract of Sanguisorba officinalis L. on ultraviolet-B-induced photodamage of rat skin.

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, K; Moriwaki, S; Fujimura, T; Takema, Y

    2001-09-01

    We previously reported that chronic Ultraviolet-B (UVB) irradiation causes wrinkle formation, decreases skin elasticity, and damages/curls dermal elastic fibers. Those UVB-induced wrinkles can be improved by treatment with retinoic acid or with a CO2 laser which results in a recovery of skin elasticity and a repair of elastic fiber linearity. We showed further that topical application of N-phenetyl-leucyl-tryptophane, an agent that specifically inhibits fibroblast-derived elastase, immediately after UVB irradiation inhibited UVB-induced wrinkle formation, maintained skin elasticity, and inhibited changes in the three-dimensional structure of dermal elastic fibers in a dose-dependent manner. In this study, the effects of an extract of Sanguisorba officinalis L., which also inhibits fibroblast-derived elastase, was evaluated for possible inhibition of UVB induced wrinkle formation, maintenance of skin elasticity, and prevention of damage to the 3-dimensional structure of dermal elastic fibers. Hind limb skins of 3-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were irradiated with UVB at a suberythemal dose 3 times a week for 6 weeks. Simultaneously, an extract of Sanguisorba officinalis L. (at 0.2% (v/v) or 1% (v/v)) was topically applied 5 times per week immediately following each UVB irradiation and 1 d later. The extract of Sanguisorba officinalis L. inhibited wrinkle formation, maintained skin elasticity, and inhibited the decrease of dermal elastic fiber linearity in the rat hind limb skin in a dose-dependent manner. We have confirmed that the inhibition of elastase activity in fibroblasts immediately after UVB irradiation using an extract of Sanguisorba officinalis L. prevents chronic photodamage following UVB irradiation. PMID:11558584

  2. Effects of Rosmarinus officinalis extract on human primary omental preadipocytes and adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Stefanon, Bruno; Pomari, Elena; Colitti, Monica

    2015-07-01

    The prevalence of obesity is increasing all over the world. Although it has been shown that natural substances influence fat metabolism, little is known about the effect on cellular and molecular mechanisms in human. In this in vitro study, the activity of Rosmarinus officinalis (RO) standardized extract in modulating human primary visceral preadipocytes differentiation, lipolysis, and apoptosis was investigated. Moreover, gene expression of key adipogenesis modulators and microRNAs-seq were evaluated. Preadipocytes treated with RO extract significantly reduced triglyceride incorporation during maturation in a dose-dependent manner without affecting cell viability. In addition, RO extract stimulated lipolytic activity in differentiating preadipocytes and mature adipocytes in treated cells compared to controls. Differentiating preadipocytes incubated in the presence of RO extract showed a decreased expression of cell cycle genes such as cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase 4, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21, Cip1) and an increased expression of GATA binding protein 3, wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 3A mRNA levels. Recent studies have demonstrated that some phytochemicals alter the expression of specific genes and microRNAs that play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of obesity and related diseases. Interestingly, genes modulated in RO-treated cells were found to be validated miRNAs targets, such as let-7f-1, miR-17, and miR-143. The results indicated that RO extract modulates human adipocyte differentiation and significantly interferes with adipogenesis and lipid metabolism, supporting its interest as dietary supplement. PMID:25710930

  3. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) Extract as a Potential Complementary Agent in Anticancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    González-Vallinas, Margarita; Reglero, Guillermo; Ramírez de Molina, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Cancer remains an important cause of mortality nowadays and, therefore, new therapeutic approaches are still needed. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) has been reported to possess antitumor activities both in vitro and in animal studies. Some of these activities were attributed to its major components, such as carnosic acid, carnosol, ursolic acid, and rosmarinic acid. Initially, the antitumor effects of rosemary were attributed to its antioxidant activity. However, in recent years, a lack of correlation between antioxidant and antitumor effects exerted by rosemary was reported, and different molecular mechanisms were related to its tumor inhibitory properties. Moreover, supported by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the European Food and Safety Authority, specific compositions of rosemary extract were demonstrated to be safe for human health and used as antioxidant additive in foods, suggesting the potential easy application of this agent as a complementary approach in cancer therapy. In this review, we aim to summarize the reported anticancer effects of rosemary, the demonstrated molecular mechanisms related to these effects and the interactions between rosemary and currently used anticancer agents. The possibility of using rosemary extract as a complementary agent in cancer therapy in comparison with its isolated components is discussed. PMID:26452641

  4. Pharmacokinetics, Safety and Tolerability of Melissa officinalis Extract which Contained Rosmarinic Acid in Healthy Individuals: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Noguchi-Shinohara, Moeko; Ono, Kenjiro; Hamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Iwasa, Kazuo; Nagai, Toshitada; Kobayashi, Shoko; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Masahito

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of single dose of Melissa officinalis extract which contained rosmarinic acid, including food-effects in healthy individuals. A total of eleven healthy individuals were randomly assigned to treatment arms in the two studies [Study 1 (fasted state) and Study 2 (fed state)]. Rosmarinic acid in serum was measured by a coulometric detection method using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography electrochemical detector. The serum concentration of total rosmarinic acid peaked at 1 hour after administration of Melissa officinalis extract containing 500mg rosmarinic acid in fasted state, with a maximum serum concentration 162.20 nmol/ L. The area under the curve for intact rosmarinic acid was calculated from the serum concentration-time profile to be 832.13 nmol • hour/ L. Food intake increases area under the curve and delayed time at which the maximum serum concentration. Rosmarinic acid supplementation did not affect liver, kidney, or blood cell function parameters. No adverse event was reported by any of the participants due to the study treatment. Single dose of Melissa officinalis extract containing 500 mg rosmarinic acid appears to be safe and tolerable in healthy individuals. Food intake increased the exposure of rosmarinic acid and delayed absorption of rosmarinic acid in healthy individuals. PMID:25978046

  5. Pharmacokinetics, Safety and Tolerability of Melissa officinalis Extract which Contained Rosmarinic Acid in Healthy Individuals: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Noguchi-Shinohara, Moeko; Ono, Kenjiro; Hamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Iwasa, Kazuo; Nagai, Toshitada; Kobayashi, Shoko; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Masahito

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of single dose of Melissa officinalis extract which contained rosmarinic acid, including food-effects in healthy individuals. A total of eleven healthy individuals were randomly assigned to treatment arms in the two studies [Study 1 (fasted state) and Study 2 (fed state)]. Rosmarinic acid in serum was measured by a coulometric detection method using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography electrochemical detector. The serum concentration of total rosmarinic acid peaked at 1 hour after administration of Melissa officinalis extract containing 500mg rosmarinic acid in fasted state, with a maximum serum concentration 162.20 nmol/ L. The area under the curve for intact rosmarinic acid was calculated from the serum concentration-time profile to be 832.13 nmol • hour/ L. Food intake increases area under the curve and delayed time at which the maximum serum concentration. Rosmarinic acid supplementation did not affect liver, kidney, or blood cell function parameters. No adverse event was reported by any of the participants due to the study treatment. Single dose of Melissa officinalis extract containing 500 mg rosmarinic acid appears to be safe and tolerable in healthy individuals. Food intake increased the exposure of rosmarinic acid and delayed absorption of rosmarinic acid in healthy individuals. Trial Registration Trial Registration: UMIN-CTR UMIN000004997 PMID:25978046

  6. Melissa Officinalis L. Extracts Protect Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells against Oxidative Stress-Induced Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Jeung, In Cheul; Jee, Donghyun; Rho, Chang-Rae; Kang, Seungbum

    2016-01-01

    Background: We evaluated the protective effect of ALS-L1023, an extract of Melissa officinalis L. (Labiatae; lemon balm) against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19 cells). Methods: ARPE-19 cells were incubated with ALS-L1023 for 24 h and then treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were assessed by flow cytometry. Caspase-3/7 activation and cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) were measured to investigate the protective role of ALS-L1023 against apoptosis. The protective effect of ALS-L1023 against oxidative stress through activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) was evaluated by Western blot analysis. Results: ALS-L1023 clearly reduced H2O2-induced cell apoptosis and intracellular production of ROS. H2O2-induced oxidative stress increased caspase-3/7 activity and apoptotic PARP cleavage, which were significantly inhibited by ALS-L1023. Activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway was associated with the protective effect of ALS-L1023 on ARPE-19 cells. Conclusions: ALS-L1023 protected human RPE cells against oxidative damage. This suggests that ALS-L1023 has therapeutic potential for the prevention of dry age-related macular degeneration. PMID:26941573

  7. Extracts of medicinal herb Sanguisorba officinalis inhibit the entry of human immunodeficiency virus type one.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jianguo; Chen, Jianping; Tan, Zhiwu; Peng, Jie; Zheng, Xiao; Nishiura, Kenji; Ng, Jenny; Wang, Zhiyu; Wang, Dongmei; Chen, Zhiwei; Liu, Li

    2013-12-01

    Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been successful in reducing HIV-1-associated morbidity and mortality since its introduction in 1996. It, however, fails to eradicate HIV-1 infection thoroughly. The high cost of life-long HAART and the emergence of drug resistance among HIV-1-infected individuals have brought renewed pressure for the discovery of novel antivirals and alternative medicines. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is one of the mainstreams of complementary and alternative medicine, and serves as rich resources for new drug development. Despite almost 100 plant-derived compounds are in clinical trials, few target HIV-1 infection. In this study, we discovered that extract of Sanguisorba officinalis (SOE) has anti-HIV-1 activities. Using a cell-based assay and single-cycle luciferase reporter viruses pseudotyped with envelopes from HIV-1 or control viruses, we found that SOE exhibited significant inhibitory ability against both CCR5 and CXCR4 tropic HIV-1 (ADA and HXB2) with respective IC50 values of 1.91±0.16 μg/ml and 3.70±0.53 μg/ml. Interestingly, SOE also inhibited SIV infection but failed to block vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), SARS-CoV and influeunza H5N1 pseudoviruses. Furthermore, we showed that SOE had no effects on post-entry events of HIV-1 replication. It blocked entry by acting on viral envelope directly because SOE pre-treatment with the virus but not with cell lines expressing viral receptors showed the maximal inhibitory activity. In addition, SOE was able to inhibit reverse-transcription-inhibitor-resistant viruses (K103N, Y188L, and K103N/Y188L/G190A) and a protease-inhibitor-resistant strain (PI-2840). Our findings demonstrated SOE as a novel and specific entry inhibitor, which shed lights on the discovery of anti-HIV-1 drugs from traditional herbal medicines. PMID:25191092

  8. Kinetin applications alleviate salt stress and improve the antioxidant composition of leaf extracts in Salvia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Tounekti, Taïeb; Hernández, Iker; Müller, Maren; Khemira, Habib; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2011-10-01

    A pot experiment was carried out under glasshouse conditions with common sage (Salvia officinalis L.) to investigate the interactive effects of salt stress and kinetin on growth attributes and the abundance of pigments, ions, phenolic diterpenes and α-tocopherol in leaf extracts of this species. The plants were subjected to the following four treatments: (i) control (nutrient solution), (ii) control + 10 μM kinetin, (iii) salt stress (nutrient solution + 100 mM NaCl), and (iv) salt stress + 10 μM kinetin. Kinetin was applied as a foliar fertilizer. Salt stress reduced water contents, photosynthetic activity and pigment contents of sage leaves. In addition, it increased Na(+) contents, and reduced those of Ca(2+) and K(+) in leaves. Salt stress reduced carnosic acid and 12-O-methyl carnosic acid contents in leaves, while it did not affect carnosol and α-tocopherol contents. Foliar applications of kinetin seemed to counterbalance or alleviate the stress symptoms induced by salinity, improving ion and pigment contents, while leaf phenolic diterpene (mainly carnosol) and α-tocopherol contents also increased in both control and NaCl-treated plants; still this effect was much more obvious in salt-treated plants. A similar effect was also obtained when plants were sprayed with KNO(3) or Ca(NO(3))(2), thus suggesting that kinetin effects were at least partly due to an improvement of ion homeostasis. Kinetin applications resulted in increased transcript levels of the isoprenoid and tocopherol biosynthetic genes, DXPRI and VTE2 and VTE4 in control plants, but not in NaCl-treated plants. We conclude that kinetin can alleviate the negative impact of salt on sage plants cultivated under arid environments with salinity problems. PMID:21856165

  9. Lippia alba, Melissa officinalis and Cymbopogon citratus: effects of the aqueous extracts on the isolated hearts of rats.

    PubMed

    Gazola, Ruth; Machado, Denise; Ruggiero, Campos; Singi, Glenan; Macedo Alexandre, Maringela

    2004-11-01

    1. This research was developed to evaluate the actions of the aqueous extracts of leaves of Lippia alba, Melissa officinalis and Cymbopogon citratus upon contractile force (CF) and cardiac rate (CR). 2. For the experiments in isolated heart, 21 male adult rats were used. The hearts were perfused according to Langendorff's method. The records of CF and CR were obtained in control and after application of the extracts. The extracts were utilized in doses: 0.038, 0.38, 3.8 and 38 mg. Results obtained were compared by statistic analyses. 3. The aqueous extracts provoked significant CR reduction and did not alter the CF. The negative CR effect may have occurred by cardiac muscarinics receptors stimulation. PMID:15458767

  10. Biosynthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles using Emblica Officinalis fruit extract, their phase transfer and transmetallation in an organic solution.

    PubMed

    Ankamwar, Balaprasad; Damle, Chinmay; Ahmad, Absar; Sastry, Murali

    2005-10-01

    The design, synthesis and characterization of biologically synthesized nanomaterials have become an area of significant interest. In this paper, we report the extracellular synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles using Emblica Officinalis (amla, Indian Gooseberry) fruit extract as the reducing agent to synthesize Ag and Au nanoparticles, their subsequent phase transfer to an organic solution and the transmetallation reaction of hydrophobized silver nanoparticles with hydrophobized chloroaurate ions. On treating aqueous silver sulfate and chloroauric acid solutions with Emblica Officinalis fruit extract, rapid reduction of the silver and chloroaurate ions is observed leading to the formation of highly stable silver and gold nanoparticles in solution. Transmission Electron Microscopy analysis of the silver and gold nanoparticles indicated that they ranged in size from 10 to 20 nm and 15 to 25 nm respectively. Ag and Au nanoparticles thus synthesized were then phase transferred into an organic solution using a cationic surfactant octadecylamine. Transmetallation reaction between hydrophobized silver nanoparticles and hydrophobized chloroaurate ions in chloroform resulted in the formation of gold nanoparticles. PMID:16245525

  11. Enriching the drinking water of rats with extracts of Salvia officinalis and Thymus vulgaris increases their resistance to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Horváthová, Eva; Srančíková, Annamária; Regendová-Sedláčková, Eva; Melušová, Martina; Meluš, Vladimír; Netriová, Jana; Krajčovičová, Zdenka; Slameňová, Darina; Pastorek, Michal; Kozics, Katarína

    2016-01-01

    Nature is an attractive source of therapeutic compounds. In comparison to the artificial drugs, natural compounds cause less adverse side effects and are suitable for current molecularly oriented approaches to drug development and their mutual combining. Medicinal plants represent one of the most available remedy against various diseases. Proper examples are Salvia officinalis L. and Thymus vulgaris L. which are known aromatic medicinal plants. They are very popular and frequently used in many countries. The molecular mechanism of their biological activity has not yet been fully understood. The aim of this study was to ascertain if liver cells of experimental animals drinking extracts of sage or thyme will manifest increased resistance against oxidative stress. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into seven groups. They drank sage or thyme extracts for 2 weeks. At the end of the drinking period, blood samples were collected for determination of liver biochemical parameters and hepatocytes were isolated to analyze (i) oxidatively generated DNA damage (conventional and modified comet assay), (ii) activities of antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx)] and (iii) content of glutathione. Intake of sage and thyme had no effect either on the basal level of DNA damage or on the activity of SOD in rat hepatocytes and did not change the biochemical parameters of blood plasma. Simultaneously, the activity of GPx was significantly increased and the level of DNA damage induced by oxidants was decreased. Moreover, sage extract was able to start up the antioxidant protection expressed by increased content of glutathione. Our results indicate that the consumption of S.officinalis and T.vulgaris extracts positively affects resistency of rat liver cells against oxidative stress and may have hepatoprotective potential. PMID:26297740

  12. Downregulation of matrix metalloproteinase-13 by the root extract of Cyathula officinalis Kuan and its constituents in IL-1β-treated chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Young; Lim, Hyun; Kim, Hyun Pyo; Kwon, Yong Soo

    2011-09-01

    The roots of Cyathula officinalis Kuan are widely used in Chinese medicine for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. Here, the ability of C. officinalis Kuan to downregulate matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 was examined since MMP-13 is an important enzyme for the degradation of the cartilage collagen matrix, especially under arthritic conditions. The ethanol extract of C. officinalis Kuan as well as the N-hexane and chloroform soluble fractions were found to potently inhibit MMP-13 induction in IL-1 β-treated SW1353 cells, a human chondrosarcoma cell line, at 50-200 µg/mL. Activity-guided separation led to the isolation of six compounds, palmitic acid (1), β-sitosterol (2), α-spinasterol (3), atractylenolide I (4), 1,3-diacetoxy-tetradeca-6E,12E-dien-8,10-dyn (5), and N-trans-feruloyl-3-methyldopamine (6). Among these, 4 and 5 exhibited MMP-13 downregulating activity in IL-1 β-treated SW1353 cells. And 4 also showed anti-oedematous activity against λ-carageenan-induced paw edema in mice at 20-200 mg/kg, p. o. The results of this study provide information that can help elucidate the action mechanism of C. officinalis Kuan. In addition, the results presented here suggest that C. officinalis Kuan and its constituents may have the potential for chondroprotection against cartilage degrading disorders. PMID:21347999

  13. Effects of extract of Buddleja officinalis eye drops on androgen receptors of lacrimal gland cells of castrated rats with dry eye

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Qing-Hua; Yao, Xiao-Lei; Wu, Quan-Long; Tan, Han-Yu; Zhang, Jing-Rong

    2010-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the effects of the extract of Buddleja officinalis eye drops in basic tears secretory volume, tear film stability, expression of androgen receptors (AR) in castrated rats with dry eye, and to investigate the therapeutic effects of the extract of Buddleja officinalis on dry eye caused by gonadal hormones level imbalance. METHODS Forty-five Wistar masculinity rats were divided at random into nine groups, including normal groups (A1, A2 and A3); model groups (B1, B2 and B3); therapy groups with extract of Buddleja officinalis eye drops (C1, C2 and C3). The “1” stood for being fed for 1 month, and “2” for 2 months, and “3” for 3 months. The dry eye model was established with orchiectomy on groups B and C. Group C was treated with Buddleja officinalis extract eye drops for one month. All rats were checked with Schirmer I test (SIT) and tear film break-up time (BUT). Expression of AR was analyzed by flow cytometer (FCM). RESULTS The SIT value of group C was significantly higher than that of group B (P<0.01) and the BUT value of group C was significantly longer than that of group B (P<0.01), which indicated the eye drop could significantly keep basic tears secretory volume and tear film stability. And the expression of AR of group C was much higher than that of group B, which showed that available composition of the eye drops maybe display androgen-like activity. CONCLUSION The main components of the extract of Buddleja officinalis is the flavonoids that can significantly inhibit happening of dry eye of rat after androgen level lowered. Its mechanism is like androgen's and it can display androgen-like activity to keep basic tears secretory volume and tear film stability PMID:22553515

  14. Evaluation of antioxidant interactions in combined extracts of green tea (Camellia sinensis), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and oak fruit (Quercus branti).

    PubMed

    Ranjbar Nedamani, Elham; Sadeghi Mahoonak, Alireza; Ghorbani, Mohammad; Kashaninejad, Mehdi

    2015-07-01

    Green tea (Camellia sinensis), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and oak fruit (Quercus branti) are of known medicinal plants used in traditional medicine. They provide substantial antioxidant activities but the possible antioxidant interaction between them has not been studied. In the present study first the bioactive compounds from these three plants were first extracted and thereafter assayed for total phenols, 2, 2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, total antioxidant capacity (TAOC) and reducing power. In addition, the antioxidant properties of the extracts individually and in combinations were evaluated in soy bean oil as food system. There was a direct relation between total phenolics and antioxidant activities of extracts. Green tea and oak fruit extracts had the highest and least activity, respectively. All three kinds of interactions (synergistic, antagonistic and additive) were observed. In soy bean oil, the only effect was antagonism but even with this effect, combined extract was significantly (P < 0.05) better than butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and control sample. Results showed that these three natural extracts and their combination can be effectively used as a substituent of synthetic antioxidant BHT. PMID:26139926

  15. GC-MS analysis of essential oils from Salvia officinalis L.: comparison of extraction methods of the volatile components.

    PubMed

    Baj, Tomasz; Ludwiczuk, Agnieszka; Sieniawska, Elwira; Skalicka-Woźniak, Krystyna; Widelski, Jarosław; Zieba, Krzysztof; Głowniak, Kazimierz

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, comparison of the volatile components composition in the samples obtained by hydrodistillation and solid-phase microextraction of Salvia officinalis was described. Different sample preparation techniques showed considerable differences in volatiles composition, especially with respect to sesqui- and diterpenoids. The comparison of the sage essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation in the Deryng and Clevenger type apparatus, according to the pharmacopoeial methods (FP VI and VII), showed the presence of the same terpenoids in both essential oils, however, the relative percentage composition of the components were different. These differences are caused by the different extraction times used in both methods. Since each essential oil to be admitted to medicinal use should meet requirements regarding the composition of major chemical components, the minimum time for the hydrodistillation of the essential oils from sage should be 1 h. PMID:23610957

  16. Healthy reduced-fat Bologna sausages enriched in ALA and DHA and stabilized with Melissa officinalis extract.

    PubMed

    Berasategi, Izaskun; Navarro-Blasco, Iñigo; Calvo, Maria Isabel; Cavero, Rita Yolanda; Astiasarán, Iciar; Ansorena, Diana

    2014-03-01

    Reduced-energy and reduced-fat Bologna products enriched with ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were formulated by replacing the pork back-fat by an oil-in-water emulsion containing a mixture of linseed-algae oil stabilized with a lyophilized Melissa officinalis extract. Healthier composition and lipid profile was obtained: 85 kcal/100 g, 3.6% fat, 0.6 g ALA and 0.44 g DHA per 100 g of product and ω-6/ω-3 ratio of 0.4. Technological and sensory problems were not detected in the new formulations. Reformulation did not cause oxidation problems during 32 days of storage under refrigeration. The results suggest that it is possible to obtain reduced-fat Bologna-type sausages rich in ALA and DHA and stabilized with natural antioxidants, applying the appropriate technology without significant effects on the sensory quality, yielding interesting products from a nutritional point of view. PMID:24334039

  17. Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of the Althaea officinalis L. leaf extract and its wound healing potency in the rat model of excision wound creation

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei, Maryam; Dadgar, Zeynab; Noori-Zadeh, Ali; Mesbah-Namin, Seyed Alireza; Pakzad, Iraj; Davodian, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Wound is defined simply as the disruption of the biochemical, cellular, and anatomic continuity of a tissue. Plants and their extracts known as phytomedicine have immense potential for the management and treatment of wounds. Materials and Methods: Due to the undesirable side effects, in the control and treatment of the wound infections, it is recommended to use natural materials such as phytochemicals instead of chemically synthesized drugs. Thus, the aim of this research was to study the anti-microbial and wound healing potential of Althaea officinalis L. hydroalchoholic extract in comparison with ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and penicillin antibiotics on clinical strains as well as pathogenic bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes under in vitro conditions using micro broth dilution and disc diffusion methods. Moreover, MIC and MBC of its hydroalchoholic extract was also evaluated. Results: The results showed that although Althaea officinalis L. extract was not effective on gram-negative bacteria but it was efficacious on gram-positive bacteria. The extract was also tested in the form of topical administration on excision wound model in rats. In the extract-treated wounds, the wound healing percent was significantly increased in comparison with controls. Conclusions: Based on this research, herbal extract of officinalis L. can be a great candidate for the treatment of gram-positive infections and merits further studies. PMID:25949951

  18. Comparison of Neuroprotective Effects of Melissa officinalis Total Extract and Its Acidic and Non-Acidic Fractions against A β-Induced Toxicity.

    PubMed

    Sepand, Mohammad Reza; Soodi, Maliheh; Hajimehdipoor, Homa; Soleimani, Masoud; Sahraei, Ehsan

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that was characterized with deposit of beta amyloid (Aβ) aggregate in senile plaque. Oxidative damage to neurons and loss of cholinergic neurons in forebrain region are observed in this disease. Melissa officinalis is a medicinal plant from Lamiaceae family, used traditionally in the treatment of cognitive disorders. It has cholinomimetic and potent antioxidant activity. In the present study, we investigated the possible neuroprotective effects of total ethanolic extract, acidic and nonacidic fraction of Melissa officinalis on Aβ-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in PC12 cells and also measured their in-vitro anticholinesterase activity. PC12 cells were incubated with the extract and fractions prior to the incubation with Aβ and cell toxicity was assessed by MTT assay. In addition, productions of reactive oxygen species (ROS), Malondialdehyde (MDA) as a biomarker of lipid peroxidation and glutathione peroxidase activity were measured. Pretreatment of cells with total extract and acidic fraction (not non-acidic fraction) had protective effect against Aβ-induced oxidative changes and cell death. In concentrations in which both total extracts of an acidic fraction showed neuroprotective effects, inhibition of cholinesterase activity was not significant. Then, the protective effects of Melissa officinalis total extract and acidic fraction were not attributed to their anticholinesterase activity. Acidic fraction showed more potent protective effect compared to the total extract, leading to the fact that polyphenolic compounds and terpenoic acids are the most effective components in the total extract concentrated in this fraction. PMID:24250617

  19. Toxicological Evaluation of Emblica officinalis Fruit Extract and its Anti-inflammatory and Free Radical Scavenging Properties

    PubMed Central

    Middha, Sushil Kumar; Goyal, Arvind Kumar; Lokesh, Prakash; Yardi, Varsha; Mojamdar, Lavanya; Keni, Deepthi Sudhir; Babu, Dinesh; Usha, Talambedu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Emblica officinalis (Euphorbiaceae), popularly known as Indian gooseberry or “Amla” in India, is used in Ayurveda as “rejuvenating herb” since ancient times. Objective: This study was carried out to estimate toxicity, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative activities of the methanolic extract of Emblica officinalis fruit (MEO) in an animal model. Materials and Methods: Antioxidative property of MEO was assessed by in vitro assays such as phosphomolybdenum assay (total antioxidant capacity), free radical scavenging assays 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2’-azino-bis and 3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (DPPH and ABTS method) and lipid peroxidation assay (LPO). The anti-inflammatory property was evaluated by carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in rats by measuring rat paw volume at different time intervals and toxicological analysis using mice. Results and Discussion: High performance liquid chromatography studies revealed the presence of gallic acid (2.10%), mucic acid (4.90%), ellagic acid (2.10%), quercetin (28.00%), rutin (3.89%), and β-glucogallin (1.46%). MEO showed highest antioxidant activities by using DPPH (17.33–89.00%), ABTS (23.03–94.16%), nitric oxide scavenging activity (12.94–70.16%), LPO (56.54%), and phosphomolybdenum assay (142 ± 6.09 μg/ml). The LD50 was found to be approximately 1125 mg/kg (p.o). High dose of MEO showed significant reduction (72.71%) in the inflammation after 4 h of treatment, which was comparable to diclofenac (10 mg/kg) (61.57%) treated group. Significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the inflammatory cytokine (interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α) markers were also observed (57.25% and 35.41%, respectively) in serum of MEO treated animals as compared to control. Conclusion: Taken together, phenolic compounds of MEO may serve as a potential herbal drug for amelioration of acute inflammation due to their modulatory action on free radicals. SUMMARY The methanolic extract of Emblica officinalis fruit (MEO) has potent antioxidant activity as assessed by DPPH, ABTS and LPO assaysMEO has potent anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced paw edema modelThe phenolic compounds of MEO might be a potential herbal drug for amelioration of acute inflammation. Abbreviations used: ROS, reactive oxygen species; RNS, reactive nitrogen species, LPO, lipid peroxidation, NO, nitric oxide, IL, interleukin; TNF α tumor necrosis factor alpha; NSAIDs, nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drugs; AA, ascorbic acid; MEO, methanolic extract of Emblica officinalis fruit; ABTS+; 2,2’ azino bis 3 ethylbenzthiazoline 6 sulphonic acid; DPPH, 1,1 diphenyl 2 picrylhydrazyl; HPLC, high performance liquid chromatography; MDA, malondialdehyde; DMSO, dimethyl sulphoxide; ELISA, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. PMID:26929577

  20. A clinical study: Melaleuca, Manuka, Calendula and green tea mouth rinse.

    PubMed

    Lauten, Jeffrey D; Boyd, Linda; Hanson, M Blair; Lillie, Dana; Gullion, Christina; Madden, Theresa E

    2005-11-01

    A novel mouthrinse (IND 61,164) containing essential oils and extracts from four plant species (Melaleuca alternifolia, Leptospermum scoparium, Calendula officinalis and Camellia sinensis) were tested. This study aimed to evaluate the safety, palatability and preliminary efficacy of the rinse. Fifteen subjects completed the Phase I safety study. Seventeen subjects completed the Phase II randomized placebo-controlled study. Plaque was collected, gingival and plaque indices were recorded (baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks). The relative abundance of two periodontal pathogens (Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Tanerella forsythensis) was determined utilizing digoxigenin-labeled DNA probes. ANCOVA was used at the p = 0.05 level of significance. Two subjects reported a minor adverse event. One subject withdrew from the study. Several subjects objected to the taste of the test rinse but continued treatment. Differences between gingival index, plaque index or relative abundance of either bacterial species did not reach statistical significance when comparing nine placebo subjects with eight test rinse subjects. Subjects exposed to the test rinse experienced no abnormal oral lesions, altered vital signs, changes in liver, kidney, or bone marrow function. Larger scale studies would be necessary to determine the efficacy and oral health benefits of the test rinse. PMID:16317652

  1. "High in omega-3 fatty acids" bologna-type sausages stabilized with an aqueous-ethanol extract of Melissa officinalis.

    PubMed

    Berasategi, Izaskun; Legarra, Sheila; de Ciriano, Mikel García-Íñiguez; Rehecho, Sheyla; Calvo, Maria Isabel; Cavero, Rita Yolanda; Navarro-Blasco, Iñigo; Ansorena, Diana; Astiasarán, Iciar

    2011-08-01

    A new formulation of bologna-type sausage enriched in ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (8.75% linseed oil) was developed, using a lyophilized aqueous-ethanolic extract of Melissa officinalis. A comparison with the effectiveness of butylhydroxy anisole (BHA) synthetic antioxidant to decrease the oxidation of PUFAs was performed. The formulation increased the ω-3 PUFAs content, especially α-linolenic acid, decreasing significantly the ω-6/ω-3 ratio from 17.3 to 1.9, and also the Atherogenic Index and Thrombogenic Index (0.38-0.31 and 1.03-0.54, respectively). Modified sausages with BHA and Melissa extract showed significantly lower peroxides value (2.62 and 6.11 meq O₂/kg) and thiobarbituric acid value (0.26 and 0.27 mg malondialdehyde/kg) and higher antioxidant capacity (hydrophilic fraction ABTS: 0.45 and 0.74 meq Trolox/g product; lipofilic fraction ABTS: 0.44 and 0.37 meq Trolox/g product) than those without these ingredients (16.49 meq O₂/kg, 2.08 mg malondialdehyde /kg, 0.26 and 0.27 meq Trolox/g product, respectively). Sensorial tests showed that acceptability of the new formulations was similar to control products. PMID:21439735

  2. Enzyme-treated Asparagus officinalis extract shows neuroprotective effects and attenuates cognitive impairment in senescence-accelerated mice.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Takuya; Ito, Tomohiro; Wakame, Koji; Kitadate, Kentaro; Arai, Takashi; Ogasawara, Junetsu; Kizaki, Takako; Sato, Shogo; Ishibashi, Yoshinaga; Fujiwara, Tomonori; Akagawa, Kimio; Ishida, Hitoshi; Ohno, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Increases in the number of patients with dementia involving Alzheimer's disease (AD) are seen as a grave public health problem. In neurodegenerative disorders involving AD, biological stresses, such as oxidative and inflammatory stress, induce neural cell damage. Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is a popular vegetable, and an extract prepared from this reportedly possesses various beneficial biological activities. In the present study, we investigated the effects of enzyme-treated asparagus extract (ETAS) on neuronal cells and early cognitive impairment of senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice. The expression of mRNAs for factors that exert cytoprotective and anti-apoptotic functions, such as heat-shock protein 70 and heme oxygenase-1, was upregulated in NG108-15 neuronal cells by treatment with ETAS. Moreover, when release of lactate dehydrogenase from damaged NG108-15 cells was increased for cells cultured in medium containing either the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside or the hypoxia mimic reagent cobalt chloride, ETAS significantly attenuated this cell damage. Also, when contextual fear memory, which is considered to be a hippocampus-dependent memory, was significantly impaired in SAMP8 mice, ETAS attenuated the cognitive impairment. These results suggest that ETAS produces cytoprotective effects in neuronal cells and attenuates the effects on the cognitive impairment of SAMP8 mice. PMID:24660475

  3. Rosmarinus officinalis L. leaf extract improves memory impairment and affects acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Ozarowski, Marcin; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L; Bogacz, Anna; Gryszczynska, Agnieszka; Kujawska, Malgorzata; Jodynis-Liebert, Jadwiga; Piasecka, Anna; Napieczynska, Hanna; Szulc, Micha?; Kujawski, Radoslaw; Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Joanna; Cichocka, Joanna; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, Teresa; Czerny, Boguslaw; Mrozikiewicz, Przemyslaw M

    2013-12-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis L. leaf as part of a diet and medication can be a valuable proposal for the prevention and treatment of dementia. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of subchronic (28-fold) administration of a plant extract (RE) (200 mg/kg, p.o.) on behavioral and cognitive responses of rats linked with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activity and their mRNA expression level in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. The passive avoidance test results showed that RE improved long-term memory in scopolamine-induced rats. The extract inhibited the AChE activity and showed a stimulatory effect on BuChE in both parts of rat brain. Moreover, RE produced a lower mRNA BuChE expression in the cortex and simultaneously an increase in the hippocampus. The study suggests that RE led to improved long-term memory in rats, which can be partially explained by its inhibition of AChE activity in rat brain. PMID:24080468

  4. Extraction and analysis of antioxidant compounds from the residues of Asparagus officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Fan, Rui; Yuan, Fang; Wang, Ning; Gao, Yanxiang; Huang, Yunxiang

    2015-05-01

    Asparagus residues were used as materials to obtain antioxidant compounds by solid-liquid extraction in this study. The effects of different extraction parameters including extraction solvents, time, temperature and liquid-solid ratio on the contents of total flavonoids, total phenolics and total antioxidant activity were investigated. Antioxidant activity of the extract from asparagus residues was evaluated by HPLC- ABTS · (+) and the bioactive components were identified by HPLC- MS/MS. The results showed that the extraction yield was significantly influenced (P < 0.05) by solvent composition, extraction time and temperature. The appropriate parameters were preferred as extraction solvent of 50 % ethanol with liquid-solid ratio of 30:1, extraction temperature of 80 °C and time of 2 h. Antioxidant activity evaluation of the extract indicated flavonoids and phenolics were dominant bioactive compounds. Five antioxidant compounds were identified as ferulic acid, kaempferol, quercetin, rutin and isorhamnetin. PMID:25892766

  5. The antibacterial effect of sage extract (Salvia officinalis) mouthwash against Streptococcus mutans in dental plaque: a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Beheshti-Rouy, Maryam; Azarsina, Mohadese; Rezaie-Soufi, Loghman; Alikhani, Mohammad Yousef; Roshanaie, Ghodratollah; Komaki, Samira

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical effects of a mouthwash containing Sage (Salvia officinalis) extracts on Streptococcus mutans (SM) causing dental plaque in school-aged children. Material and Methods: A double blind clinical trial study was conducted in a dormitory on 70 girls aged 11–14 years having the same socioeconomic and oral hygiene conditions. These students were randomly divided into 2 groups; the first group (N=35) using Sage mouthwash, and the second group (N=35) using placebo mouthwash without active any ingredients. At the baseline, plaque samples obtained from the buccal surfaces of teeth were sent to laboratory to achieve SM colony count. These tests were reevaluated after 21 days of using the mouthwashes. Statistical data analysis was performed using t-student tests with p<0.05 as the level of significance. Results: Sage mouthwash significantly reduced the colony count (P=0.001). Average number of colonies in test group was 3900 per plaque sample at the baseline, and 300 after mouthwash application. In the control group, pre-test colony count was 4400 that was reduced to 4000; although this reduction wasn't significant. Conclusion: The Sage mouthwash effectively reduced the number of Streptococcus mutans in dental plaque. PMID:26668706

  6. Experimental study on effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Emblica officinalis fruits on glucose homeostasis and metabolic parameters

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Snehal S.; Goyal, Ramesh K.; Shah, Rajendra S.; Tirgar, Pravin R.; Jadav, Pinakin D.

    2013-01-01

    Polyphenols from natural source are potential therapeutics that act alone or supplement anti-diabetic drugs in the prevention and treatment of diabetes. The present investigation was undertaken to study the effect of hydroalcoholic extract (HE) of fruits of Emblica officinalis on type 1 diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) (45 mg/kg i.v.). HE (100 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered for 4 weeks and at the end of treatment, blood samples were collected and analyzed for various biochemical parameters. STZ produced a diabetic state exhibiting all the cardinal symptoms such as loss of body weight, polydipsia, polyuria, glucosuria, polyphagia, hypoinsulinemia, and hyperglycemia associated with hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. Treatment with HE prevented cardinal symptoms and caused significant decrease in fasting serum glucose, AUCglucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and very LDL in diabetic rats. However, insulin, AUCinsulin, and serum high-density lipoprotein level were not significantly altered by treatment. Treatment also reduced lipid peroxidation and increased anti-oxidant parameters in the liver homogenates of diabetic rats. Polyphenol enriched fraction of HE significantly improved disarranged carbohydrate and lipid metabolism of chemically induced diabetes in rats. The mechanism of its anti-diabetic activity appears to be either improvement in peripheral glucose utilization, increased insulin sensitivity, or anti-oxidant property. PMID:24696584

  7. Negative Chronotropic and Antidysrhythmic Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Lemon Balm (Melissa Officinalis L.) on CaCl2-Induced Arrhythmias in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Akhondali, Zahra; Dianat*, Mahin; Radan, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background: In many cases, myocardial infarction leads to arrhythmia. Since antioxidant agents have an important protective role in heart disease, these compounds in medicinal plants are used in traditional medicine. Lemon balm extract, compared to other plants of the lamiaceae family, has been proven to have significant amounts of antioxidant compounds. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) on CaCl2-induced arrhythmias in rats. Methods: This research is an experimental study; male adult Sprague Dawley rats that weighed 200-250 g were divided randomly into three groups, i.e., 1) control (normal saline, 1 ml/kg/day), 2) extract (100 mg/kg), and 3) extract (200 mg/kg). The normal saline and the extracts were gavaged for 14 consecutive days. After anesthesia, lead II electrocardiograms were recorded for calculating the rats’ heart rates (HRs). Arrhythmia was induced by intravenous injection of CaCl2 solution (140 mg/kg), and the percentages of incidence of ventricular tachycardia (VT), ventricular fibrillation (VF), and ventricular premature beats (VPB) were recorded. The results were analyzed by using Fisher’s exact test and one-way ANOVA. P-values less than 0.05 were considered as significant level. Results: Heart rates and percentages of incidence of VPB, VT, and VF were reduced significantly in extract groups (with the highest activity at 200 mg/kg) in comparison with the control group. Conclusion: Melissa officinalis was considered to be an antiarrhythmic agent because it reduced the percentage of incidence of VPB, VT, and VF in the groups that received it. The results indicated that Melissa officinalis had a protective effect on the heart. PMID:26052407

  8. Anti-neoplastic activities of sepia officinalis ink and coelatura aegyptiaca extracts against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Amel M; Fahmy, Sohair R; El-Abied, Salma A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: With the development of sophisticated instruments for the isolation and elucidation of natural products structures from marine and freshwater organisms, major advances have been made in the discovery of aquatic derived therapeutics. Present investigations were carried out to evaluate cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) ink extract (IE) and freshwater clam (Coelatura aegyptiaca) extract (CE) for their anticancer and antioxidant activities as compared to 5-flurouracil (5-Fu), in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC). Methods: Sixty female Swiss albino mice were divided into five groups (n = 12). All groups except group I received EAC cells (5 × 106 cells/mouse i.p.) and this was taken as the 0th day. Group I served as saline control (5 ml/kg 0.9% NaCl w/v p.o). Group II served as EAC control. Rats of groups III, IV and V received IE, CE (200 mg/kg body weight i.p.), and reference drug (5-Fu, 20 mg/kg body weight i.p.), respectively. Results: The reduction in tumor volume, packed cell volume, tumor cell counts and increase in median survival time and percentage increase in life span in treated animals were observed. There was a significant increase in RBC count; Hb content in treated animals and reduction in total WBC count. There was a significant decrease in AST, ALT, ALP and liver MDA levels and increase in GSH, SOD and NO levels were observed in all treated animals. Conclusion: Both IE and CE were effective in inhibiting the tumor growth in ascitic tumor models. The biochemical, antioxidants and histopathological studies were also supported their antitumor properties. PMID:26097537

  9. Pilot trial of Melissa officinalis L. leaf extract in the treatment of volunteers suffering from mild-to-moderate anxiety disorders and sleep disturbances.

    PubMed

    Cases, Julien; Ibarra, Alvin; Feuillère, Nicolas; Roller, Marc; Sukkar, Samir G

    2011-12-01

    Botanicals are an alternative option to prescription drugs for the alleviation of symptoms due to anxiety disorders and insomnia. Melissa officinalis L. has been shown as an anti-stress and anxiolytic agent. We previously reported moderate stress improvement in mice in which Cyracos(®), a standardized Melissa officinalis L. extract, was administrated. Cyracos(®) contains phytochemicals that inhibit gamma-aminobutyric acid catabolism. This was a prospective, open-label, 15-day study to evaluate the efficacy of Cyracos(®) on stressed volunteers, who have mild-to-moderate anxiety disorders and sleep disturbances. Using clinician rating criteria, primary outcomes showed improvement of symptoms. Cyracos(®) reduced anxiety manifestations by 18% (p < 0.01), ameliorated anxiety-associated symptoms by 15% (p < 0.01) and lowered insomnia by 42% (p < 0.01). As much as 95% of subjects (19/20) responded to treatment, of which 70% (14/20) achieved full remission for anxiety, 85% (17/20) for insomnia, and 70% (14/20) for both. Our study demonstrates, for the first time that chronic administration of Melissa officinalis L. relieves stress-related effects. It is critical that further studies incorporate a placebo and investigate physiological stress markers. PMID:22207903

  10. Magnolia officinalis Extract Contains Potent Inhibitors against PTP1B and Attenuates Hyperglycemia in db/db Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jing; Wang, Yongsen; Fu, Xueqi; Chen, Yingli; Wang, Deli; Li, Wannan; Xing, Shu; Li, Guodong

    2015-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is an established therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory activity of Magnolia officinalis extract (ME) on PTP1B and its anti-T2DM effects. Inhibition assays and inhibition kinetics of ME were performed in vitro. 3T3-L1 adipocytes and C2C12 myotubes were stimulated with ME to explore its bioavailability in cell level. The in vivo studies were performed on db/db mice to probe its anti-T2DM effects. In the present study, ME inhibited PTP1B in a reversible competitive manner and displayed good selectivity against PTPs in vitro. Furthermore, ME enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation levels of cellular proteins, especially the insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylations of insulin receptor β-subunit (IRβ) and ERK1/2 in a dose-dependent manner in stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes and C2C12 myotubes. Meanwhile, ME enhanced insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation. More importantly, there was a significant decrease in fasting plasma glucose level of db/db diabetic mice treated orally with 0.5 g/kg ME for 4 weeks. These findings indicated that improvement of insulin sensitivity and hypoglycemic effects of ME may be attributed to the inhibition of PTP1B. Thereby, we pioneered the inhibitory potential of ME targeted on PTP1B as anti-T2DM drug discovery. PMID:26064877

  11. Effects of extract and essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis L. on TNBS-induced colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Minaiyan, M; Ghannadi, A R; Afsharipour, M; Mahzouni, P

    2011-01-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Family Lamiaceae) popularly named rosemary, is a common household plant grown around the world, including Iran. Rosemary aerial parts are used as flavoring agent in foods, beverages, and cosmetic preparations and have various traditional uses in ethnomedicine including: analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-rheumatic, spasmolytic, carminative and choleretic applications. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of rosemary leaves hydroalcoholic extract (RHE) and essential oil (REO) in a well-defined model of experimental colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) in rats. Different doses of RHE (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) and REO (100, 200 and 400 μl/kg) were administered orally and intraperitoneally (100, 400 mg/kg and 100, 400 μl/kg) to male Wistar rats (n=6), 6 h after colitis induction and continued for 5 days by intracolonic instillation of 0.25 ml TNBS (80 mg/kg)/ethanol 50% v/v. Wet colon weight/length ratio was measured and tissue damage scores as well as indices of colitis were evaluated both macroscopically and histopathologically. RHE and REO at all test doses used were effective to reduce colon tissue lesions and colitis indices while greater doses were significantly effective to diminish histopathologic parameters irrespective to the route of administration. Administration of oral prednisolone, Asacol(®) (mesalazine microgranules) and parenteral hydrocortisone acetate were effective to reduce colon tissue injures as well. These data suggest that RHE and REO are both effective to possess anti-colitic activity, and reinforce the use of this plant as a remedy for inflammatory bowel diseases in traditional medicine. PMID:22049274

  12. Quantitative HPLC Analysis of Rosmarinic Acid in Extracts of "Melissa officinalis" and Spectrophotometric Measurement of Their Antioxidant Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canelas, Vera; da Costa, Cristina Teixeira

    2007-01-01

    The students prepare tea samples using different quantities of lemon balm leaves ("Melissa officinalis") and measure the rosmarinic acid contents by an HPLC-DAD method. The antioxidant properties of the tea samples are evaluated by a spectrophotometric method using a radical-scavenging assay with DPPH. (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl). Finally the…

  13. Permeability of rosmarinic acid in Prunella vulgaris and ursolic acid in Salvia officinalis extracts across Caco-2 cell monolayers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rosmarinic acid (RA), a caffeic acid derivative found in high concentrations in Prunella vulgaris (self-heal), and ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpene acid concentrated in Salvia officinalis (sage), have been traditionally used to treat inflammation in the mouth, and may also be of benefit t...

  14. Quantitative HPLC Analysis of Rosmarinic Acid in Extracts of "Melissa officinalis" and Spectrophotometric Measurement of Their Antioxidant Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canelas, Vera; da Costa, Cristina Teixeira

    2007-01-01

    The students prepare tea samples using different quantities of lemon balm leaves ("Melissa officinalis") and measure the rosmarinic acid contents by an HPLC-DAD method. The antioxidant properties of the tea samples are evaluated by a spectrophotometric method using a radical-scavenging assay with DPPH. (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl). Finally the

  15. Antiviral activities of extracts isolated from Terminalis chebula Retz., Sanguisorba officinalis L., Rubus coreanus Miq. and Rheum palmatum L. against hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed

    Kim, T G; Kang, S Y; Jung, K K; Kang, J H; Lee, E; Han, H M; Kim, S H

    2001-12-01

    The antiviral effects of aqueous extracts of Terminalis chebula Retz., Sanguisorba officinalis L., Rubus coreanus Miq. and Rheum palmatum L. were examined by a cell culture system using a hepatitis B virus (HBV) producing cell line, HepG2 2.2.15. The extracts were assayed for the inhibition of HBV multiplication by measurement of HBV DNA and surface antigen (HBsAg) levels in the extracellular medium of HepG2 2.2.15 cells after an 8-day treatment. All extracts decreased the levels of extracellular HBV virion DNA at concentrations ranging from 64 to 128 microg/mL and inhibited the secretion of HBsAg dose dependently. Of the four tested plants, Terminalis chebula exhibited the most prominent anti-HBV activities. PMID:11746867

  16. Effects of Calendula Essential Oil-Based Cream on Biochemical Parameters of Skin of Albino Rats against Ultraviolet B Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Arun K.; Mishra, Amrita; Verma, Anurag; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh

    2012-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from UV-B radiation have the capacity to cause oxidative decomposition which leads to the formation of toxic components as well as lipid peroxidation. Considering this fact, the present study was performed to evaluate the effect of a cream (O/W) containing the essential oil of Calendula officinalis on biochemical parameters of the skin of albino rats against UV-B radiation. The fingerprint analysis of Calendula essential oil was performed by HPLC with special reference to 1,8-cineole and α-pinene. The results indicated that the treatment with creams containing 4% and 5% of Calendula essential oil caused a significant decrease in the malonyldialdehyde level, whereas the levels of catalase, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, ascorbic acid, and the total protein level were significantly increased after 1 month of daily irradiation and treatment when compared to untreated control groups. The results suggest that the cutaneous application of the essential oil of Calendula prevents UV-B-induced alterations in the level of antioxidants in skin tissue. PMID:23008814

  17. The Influence of Standardized Valeriana officinalis Extract on the CYP3A1 Gene Expression by Nuclear Receptors in In Vivo Model

    PubMed Central

    Mrozikiewicz, Przemyslaw M.; Karasiewicz, Monika; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L.; Ozarowski, Marcin; Grzeskowiak, Edmund

    2014-01-01

    Valeriana officinalis is one of the most popular medicinal plants commonly used as a sedative and sleep aid. It is suggested that its pharmacologically active compounds derived from the root may modulate the CYP3A4 gene expression by activation of pregnane X receptor (PXR) or constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and lead to pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of valerian on the expression level of CYP3A1 (homologue to human CYP3A4) as well as nuclear receptors PXR, CAR, RXR, GR, and HNF-4?. Male Wistar rats were given standardized valerian extract (300?mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 3 and 10 days. The expression in liver tissue was analyzed by using real-time PCR. Our result showed a decrease of CYP3A1 expression level by 35% (P = 0.248) and 37% (P < 0.001), respectively. Moreover, Valeriana exhibited statistically significant reduction in RXR (approximately 28%) only after 3-day treatment. We also demonstrated a decrease in the amount HNF-4? by 22% (P = 0.005) and 32% (P = 0.012), respectively. In case of CAR, the increase of expression level by 46% (P = 0.023) was noted. These findings suggest that Valeriana officinalis extract can decrease the CYP3A4 expression and therefore may lead to interactions with synthetic drugs metabolized by this enzyme. PMID:25302309

  18. Effect of Aqueous Extract from Morinda officinalis F. C. How on Microwave-Induced Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Testis Axis Impairment in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Song, Bin; Wang, Fengjuan; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess the protective effects of aqueous extract from Morinda officinalis F. C. How on microwave-induced reproductive impairment in male rats. Microwave exposure injury was induced by exposure of 900 MHz microwaves at 218 μm/cm2radiation densities, 24 hours/day for 10 days. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to: normal control, microwave exposure model, or water layer or ethyl acetate layer of aqueous extract 40 g/kg treatment groups. After 2 weeks of treatment, sexual performance, serum levels of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) or testosterone, morphological analysis of testis and epididymis, and GnRH protein expression in the hypothalamus were measured. Pretreatment with water layer of aqueous extract 40 g/kg significantly improved sexual performance, increased serum testosterone level, and decreased LH and GnRH level compared with microwave exposed model rats (all P < 0.05). Water layer of aqueous extract treatment significantly increased seminiferous cell or sperm number in testis and epididymis. Protein expression of GnRH in the hypothalamus significantly decreased in the water layer of aqueous extract treated group (P < 0.05). Ethyl acetate layer of aqueous extract did not show obvious effects on the measured parameters. These findings suggest that water layer of aqueous extract 40 g/kg ameliorates microwave-reduced reproductive impairment. PMID:26435724

  19. In vitro growth-inhibitory effect of Brazilian plants extracts against Paenibacillus larvae and toxicity in bees.

    PubMed

    Piana, Mariana; de Brum, Thiele F; Boligon, Aline A; Alves, Camilla F S; de Freitas, Robson B; Nunes, Letícia T; Mossmann, Natalia J; Janovik, Vanessa; Jesus, Roberta S; Vaucher, Rodrigo A; Santos, Roberto C V; Athayde, Margareth L

    2015-01-01

    American foulbrood (AFB) is a serious worldwide spreading disease in bees caused by Paenibacillus larvae. Plants extracts are known to decrease or inhibit the growth of these bacteria. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Calendula. officinalis, Cariniana domestica, and Nasturtium officinale extracts against the P. larvae and to evaluate the toxicity of the extracts in bees. In vitro activity against P. larvae of the extracts was evaluated by micro dilution method and the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were also determined. The concentrations used in the toxicity test were established based on the MIC values and by the spraying application method. The P. larvae was susceptible to the evaluated crude extract of C. officinalis and N. officinale. To C. domestica, only the ethyl acetate (EtAc) fraction and n-butanol (BuOH) fractions had activity against P. larvae. Toxicity analysis in bees showed no toxicity for N. officinale crude extract and for C. domestica BuOH fraction during 15 days of treatment, however, some deaths of bees occurred during the first three days of treatment with C. officinalis and C. domestica EtAc fraction. The results with these species were firstly described and showed that N. officinale crude extract and C. domestica BuOH fraction both presented not toxic effects in the concentration tested by the spraying application method, and can be a useful alternative for treatment or prevention of AFB. PMID:26062113

  20. Anti-inflammatory effect of rosmarinic acid and an extract of Rosmarinus officinalis in rat models of local and systemic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Joao; Eduardo-Figueira, Maria; Barateiro, Andreia; Fernandes, Adelaide; Brites, Dora; Bronze, Rosario; Duarte, Catarina M M; Serra, Ana Teresa; Pinto, Rui; Freitas, Marisa; Fernandes, Eduarda; Silva-Lima, Beatriz; Mota-Filipe, Helder; Sepodes, Bruno

    2015-05-01

    Rosmarinic acid is a polyphenolic compound and main constituent of Rosmarinus officinalis and has been shown to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory properties of rosmarinic acid and of an extract of R. officinalis in local inflammation (carrageenin-induced paw oedema model in the rat), and further evaluate the protective effect of rosmarinic acid in rat models of systemic inflammation: liver ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) and thermal injury models. In the local inflammation model, rosmarinic acid was administered at 10, 25 and 50 mg/kg (p.o.), and the extract was administered at 10 and 25 mg/kg (equivalent doses to rosmarinic acid groups) to male Wistar rats. Administration of rosmarinic acid and extract at the dose of 25 mg/kg reduced paw oedema at 6 hr by over 60%, exhibiting a dose-response effect, suggesting that rosmarinic was the main contributor to the anti-inflammatory effect. In the liver I/R model, rosmarinic acid was administered at 25 mg/kg (i.v.) 30 min. prior to the induction of ischaemia and led to the significant reduction in the serum concentration of transaminases (AST and ALT) and LDH. In the thermal injury model, rosmarinic acid was administered at 25 mg/kg (i.v.) 5 min. prior to the induction of injury and significantly reduced multi-organ dysfunction markers (liver, kidney, lung) by modulating NF-κB and metalloproteinase-9. For the first time, the anti-inflammatory potential of rosmarinic acid has been identified, as it causes a substantial reduction in inflammation, and we speculate that it might be useful in the pharmacological modulation of injuries associated to inflammation. PMID:25287116

  1. Preliminary insights into the incorporation of rosemary extract (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) in fish feed: influence on performance and physiology of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata).

    PubMed

    Hernández, A; García García, B; Caballero, M J; Hernández, M D

    2015-08-01

    Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) were fed a basal (control) diet and four experimental diets (R600, R1200, R1800 and R2400), containing 600, 1200, 1800 and 2400 mg kg(-1), respectively, of rosemary extract (Rosmarinus officinalis L.). At 4 and 12 weeks from the beginning of the ongrowing period, the fish were sacrificed, blood was drawn to obtain plasma and the liver and intestines were dissected. Growth and feed intake were unaffected by rosemary extract addition. A histological examination of the intestine revealed no differences among the dosages, while the liver showed a sharp decrease in hepatic steatosis in diets supplemented with rosemary extract. Furthermore, plasma alanine aminotransferase was lower with these diets at the end of the ongrowing period. Rosemary extract reduced the plasma levels of glucose and triglycerides on week 4 and glucose and HDL/LDL cholesterol ratio on week 12, suggesting better transport and energy metabolism of the lipids. Overall, the most evident effect of rosemary extract was observed with the 600 mg kg(-1) dose. PMID:25968936

  2. Photoprotective effect of a water-soluble extract of Rosmarinus officinalis L. against UV-induced matrix metalloproteinase-1 in human dermal fibroblasts and reconstructed skin.

    PubMed

    Martin, Richard; Pierrard, Cécile; Lejeune, François; Hilaire, Pascal; Breton, Lionel; Bernerd, Françoise

    2008-01-01

    Chronic UV exposure is responsible for long term clinical manifestations such as photoaging and photocancers. One of the major events involved in the development of skin photodamage is up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1). In this study, the effects of a water-soluble extract of Rosmarinus officinalis (Ro) on the expression of UV-induced MMP-1 were investigated. Using MMP-1 promoter-reporter gene constructs, Ro extract was shown to inhibit UV-induced up-regulation of MMP-1 gene transcription. The anti-MMP-1 effect was confirmed at the protein level in dermal human fibroblasts exposed either to UVB, UVA or Solar Simulated Radiation. Zymographic analysis on casein and gelatin gels revealed that Ro extract more specifically targeted MMP-1 compared to MMP-2. Using a 3D-skin model exposed to Solar Simulated Radiation, anti-MMP-1 activity was confirmed together with a photoprotective effect at the morphological level. Finally the release of cytokines IL1alpha and IL6 which participate in the up-regulation of MMP-1 induced by UV exposure could be prevented by the Ro extract. All together, from molecular to tissue level, these results illustrate the ability of the Ro water-soluble extract to inhibit UV-induced MMP-1 and its potential benefits in preventing cutaneous photodamage. PMID:18424370

  3. Evaluation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple juice with Cornus fruit (Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc.) extract by conventional media and thin agar layer method.

    PubMed

    Wu, Vivian C H; Qiu, Xujian; Peggy Hsieh, Y-H

    2008-02-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 survival in apple juice supplemented with Cornus fruit (Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc.) extract was studied. Inoculated samples with or without Cornus fruit extract were kept at 21 and 7 degrees C. Microbial analysis was conducted on days 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7. MacConkey sorbitol agar (MSA), tryptic soy agar (TSA), and thin agar layer (TAL) medium were used to compare the recovery of bacteria stressed under combination treatment. Influence of temperature, storage time, and Cornus fruit on survival of cells was evaluated. The most dramatic reduction of E. coli O157:H7 was observed in apple juice with Cornus fruit extract at 21 degrees C. At 7 degrees C, E. coli O157:H7 was reduced by 2.3logcfu/ml in the apple juice with Cornus fruit extract compared to the control sample on day 7. TAL and TSA were more efficient than MSA. Cornus fruit extract can be used in combination with temperature and storage time controls to inactivate E. coli O157:H7 in apple juice. This study has shown that TAL is a viable method of recovering and differentiating injured microorganisms and apple juice supplemented with Cornus fruit has potential as a value-added beverage with antimicrobial effects and potential health benefits. PMID:17993394

  4. Extraction of Antioxidants from Borage (Borago officinalis L.) Leaves—Optimization by Response Surface Method and Application in Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    PubMed Central

    Segovia, Francisco; Lupo, Bryshila; Peiró, Sara; Gordon, Michael H.; Almajano, María Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Borage (Borago officinalis L.) is a typical Spanish plant. During processing, 60% are leaves. The aim of this work is to model and optimize the extraction of polyphenol from borage leaves using the response surface method (RSM) and to use this extract for application in emulsions. The responses were: total polyphenol content (TPC), antioxidant capacity by ORAC, and rosmarinic acid by HPLC. The ranges of the variables temperature, ethanol content and time were 50–90 °C, 0%–30%–60% ethanol (v/v), and 10–15 min. For ethanolic extraction, optimal conditions were at 75.9 °C, 52% ethanol and 14.8 min, yielding activity of 27.05 mg GAE/g DW TPC; 115.96 mg TE/g DW in ORAC and 11.02 mg/L rosmarinic acid. For water extraction, optimal activity was achieved with extraction at 98.3 °C and 22 min, with responses of 22.3 mg GAE/g DW TPC; 81.6 mg TE/g DW in ORAC and 3.9 mg/L rosmarinic acid. The significant variables were ethanol concentration and temperature. For emulsions, the peroxide value was inhibited by 60% for 3% extract concentration; and 80% with 3% extract concentration and 0.2% of BSA. The p-anisidine value between the control and the emulsion with 3% extract was reduced to 73.6% and with BSA 86.3%, and others concentrations had similar behavior. PMID:26784875

  5. Extraction of Antioxidants from Borage (Borago officinalis L.) Leaves-Optimization by Response Surface Method and Application in Oil-in-Water Emulsions.

    PubMed

    Segovia, Francisco; Lupo, Bryshila; Peiró, Sara; Gordon, Michael H; Almajano, María Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Borage (Borago officinalis L.) is a typical Spanish plant. During processing, 60% are leaves. The aim of this work is to model and optimize the extraction of polyphenol from borage leaves using the response surface method (RSM) and to use this extract for application in emulsions. The responses were: total polyphenol content (TPC), antioxidant capacity by ORAC, and rosmarinic acid by HPLC. The ranges of the variables temperature, ethanol content and time were 50-90 °C, 0%-30%-60% ethanol (v/v), and 10-15 min. For ethanolic extraction, optimal conditions were at 75.9 °C, 52% ethanol and 14.8 min, yielding activity of 27.05 mg GAE/g DW TPC; 115.96 mg TE/g DW in ORAC and 11.02 mg/L rosmarinic acid. For water extraction, optimal activity was achieved with extraction at 98.3 °C and 22 min, with responses of 22.3 mg GAE/g DW TPC; 81.6 mg TE/g DW in ORAC and 3.9 mg/L rosmarinic acid. The significant variables were ethanol concentration and temperature. For emulsions, the peroxide value was inhibited by 60% for 3% extract concentration; and 80% with 3% extract concentration and 0.2% of BSA. The p-anisidine value between the control and the emulsion with 3% extract was reduced to 73.6% and with BSA 86.3%, and others concentrations had similar behavior. PMID:26784875

  6. Calendula

    MedlinePlus

    ... for 10 days improves diaper rash compared to aloe gel. Ear infections (otitis media). Early research shows ... dermatitis in people receiving radiation therapy for breast cancer. Thinning of the wall of the vagina (vaginal ...

  7. Salvia officinalis L. extract and its new food antioxidant formulations induce apoptosis through mitochondrial/caspase pathway in leukemia L1210 cells

    PubMed Central

    Jantová, Soňa; Sekretár, Stanislav; Kučerák, Juraj; Melušová, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Salvia officinalis, L. (Lamiaceae) is one of the most widespread herbal species used in the area of human health and in the food-processing industry. Salvia and its extracts are known to be a rich source of antioxidants. As shown previously, the crude ethanolic extract of salvia (SE) exerts lower anti-oxidative properties in lard compared to the new salvia food formulations No. 1 (SF1; 32% of SE + 68% of the emulsifier Dimodan S-T) and No. 2 (SF2; 32% of SE + 68% of the emulsifier Topcithin 50). The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the effects of the SE and its food formulations SF1 and SF2 on the toxicity and/or proliferation of L1210 leukemia cells. We found that SE and both SF1 and SF2 demonstrated different concentration- and time-dependent cytotoxic/antiproliferative cellular effects already within the first 24 h of the treatment. However, SE was nearly 10 times more effective than the new salvia food formulations SF1 and SF2. We investigated partially also the molecular mechanisms lying behind the action of SE, SF1 and SF2 induced apoptosis in our cell model. We found an apparent involvement of the mitochondrial/caspase-dependent pathway in the described processes. Nevertheless, further investigation is needed before salvia extract and its new antioxidant formulations can be included among the potential food antioxidants with protective properties against cancer. PMID:26109892

  8. The protective effect of Borago Officinalis extract on amyloid β (25-35)-induced long term potentiation disruption in the dentate gyrus of male rats.

    PubMed

    Zargooshnia, Somayeh; Shahidi, Siamak; Ghahremanitamadon, Fatemeh; Nikkhah, Ali; Mehdizadeh, Mehdi; Soleimani Asl, Sara

    2015-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) begins with impairment in synaptic functions before developing into later neurodegeneration and neural loss. In the present study we have examined the protective effects of Borago Officinalis (borage) extract on amyloid β (Aβ)--Induced long term potentiation (LTP) disruption in hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). Wistar male rats received intrahippocampal (IHP) injection of the Aβ (25-35) and borage extract throughout gestation (100 mg/kg). LTP in perforant path- DG synapses was assessed using electrophysiology method and field excitatory post- synaptic potential (fEPSP) slope and population spike (PS) amplitude were measured by 400 Hz tetanization. Finally, the total thiol content of hippocampus was measured using colorimetric reaction based on the Ellman's method. The results showed that Aβ (25-35) significantly decreased fEPSP slope and SP amplitude comparing with the control and sham group, whereas borage extract administration increased these parameters compared to the Aβ group. Aβ induced a remarkable decrease in total thiol content of hippocampus and borage prevented the decrease of the hippocampal total sulfhydryl (SH) groups. This data suggest that Aβ (25-35) can effectively inhibit LTP in the granular cells of the DG in hippocampus, and borage supplementation reverse the synaptic plasticity in DG following Aβ treatment and that borage consumption may lead to an improvement of AD-induced cognitive dysfunction. PMID:25060965

  9. Lapacho tea (Tabebuia impetiginosa) extract inhibits pancreatic lipase and delays postprandial triglyceride increase in rats.

    PubMed

    Kiage-Mokua, Beatrice Nyanchama; Roos, Nils; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen

    2012-12-01

    Earlier work in our laboratory indicated that ethanolic extracts of Tabebuia impetiginosa, Arctium lappa L., Calendula officinalis, Helianthus annuus, Linum usitatissimum and L. propolis, inhibit pancreatic lipase in vitro. In a follow-up study we assessed their effects on plasma triglycerides in rats fed on a fatty meal. Extracts, orlistat or only ethanol were given orally to the rats together with the test meal and the rate of increase of postprandial triglycerides was assessed over 4 h. Clearing of the triglycerides from the blood compartment was abolished by inhibiting lipoprotein lipase with Triton WR-1339. Our results showed that out of all the extracts, the bark of Tabebuia impetiginosa led to a significant delay in the postprandial increase of plasma triglycerides. However, lapachol, which is contained in the bark of Tabebuia impetiginosa and soluble in ethanol, had no lipase inhibitory effect in vitro and hence this substance did not seem to mediate the pertinent effect. PMID:22431070

  10. Influence of the Melissa officinalis Leaf Extract on Long-Term Memory in Scopolamine Animal Model with Assessment of Mechanism of Action

    PubMed Central

    Ozarowski, Marcin; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L.; Piasecka, Anna; Kachlicki, Piotr; Kujawski, Radoslaw; Bogacz, Anna; Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Joanna; Szulc, Michal; Kaminska, Ewa; Kujawska, Malgorzata; Jodynis-Liebert, Jadwiga; Gryszczynska, Agnieszka; Opala, Bogna; Lowicki, Zdzislaw; Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, Agnieszka; Czerny, Boguslaw

    2016-01-01

    Melissa officinalis (MO, English: lemon balm, Lamiaceae), one of the oldest and still most popular aromatic medicinal plants, is used in phytomedicine for the prevention and treatment of nervous disturbances. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of subchronic (28-fold) administration of a 50% ethanol extract of MO leaves (200 mg/kg, p.o.) compared with rosmarinic acid (RA, 10 mg/kg, p.o.) and huperzine A (HU, 0.5 mg/kg, p.o.) on behavioral and cognitive responses in scopolamine-induced rats. The results were linked with acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), and beta-secretase (BACE-1) mRNA levels and AChE and BuChE activities in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of rats. In our study, MO and HU, but not RA, showed an improvement in long-term memory. The results were in line with mRNA levels, since MO produced a decrease of AChE mRNA level by 52% in the cortex and caused a strong significant inhibition of BACE1 mRNA transcription (64% in the frontal cortex; 50% in the hippocampus). However, the extract produced only an insignificant inhibition of AChE activity in the frontal cortex. The mechanisms of MO action are probably more complicated, since its role as a modulator of beta-secretase activity should be taken into consideration.

  11. Protective effects of Borago officinalis extract on amyloid β-peptide(25-35)-induced memory impairment in male rats: a behavioral study.

    PubMed

    Ghahremanitamadon, Fatemeh; Shahidi, Siamak; Zargooshnia, Somayeh; Nikkhah, Ali; Ranjbar, Akram; Soleimani Asl, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder and most common form of dementia that leads to memory impairment. In the present study we have examined the protective effects of Borago officinalis (borage) extract on Amyloid β (A β)-Induced memory impairment. Wistar male rats received intrahippocampal (IHP) injection of the A β (25-35) and borage extract throughout gestation (100 mg/kg). Learning and memory functions in the rats were examined by the passive avoidance and the Morris water maze (MWM) tasks. Finally, the antioxidant capacity of hippocampus was measured using ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The results showed that A β (25-35) impaired step-through latency and time in dark compartment in passive avoidance task. In the MWM, A β (25-35) significantly increased escape latency and traveled distance. Borage administration attenuated the A β-induced memory impairment in both the passive avoidance and the MWM tasks. A β induced a remarkable decrease in antioxidant power (FRAP value) of hippocampus and borage prevented the decrease of the hippocampal antioxidant status. This data suggests that borage could improve the learning impairment and oxidative damage in the hippocampal tissue following A β treatment and that borage consumption may lead to an improvement of AD-induced cognitive dysfunction. PMID:25013802

  12. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extract modulates CHOP/GADD153 to promote androgen receptor degradation and decreases xenograft tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Petiwala, Sakina M; Berhe, Saba; Li, Gongbo; Puthenveetil, Angela G; Rahman, Ozair; Nonn, Larisa; Johnson, Jeremy J

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet has long been attributed to preventing or delaying the onset of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and various solid organ cancers. In this particular study, a rosemary extract standardized to carnosic acid was evaluated for its potential in disrupting the endoplasmic reticulum machinery to decrease the viability of prostate cancer cells and promote degradation of the androgen receptor. Two human prostate cancer cell lines, 22Rv1 and LNCaP, and prostate epithelial cells procured from two different patients undergoing radical prostatectomy were treated with standardized rosemary extract and evaluated by flow cytometry, MTT, BrdU, Western blot and fluorescent microscopy. A significant modulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress proteins was observed in cancer cells while normal prostate epithelial cells did not undergo endoplasmic reticulum stress. This biphasic response suggests that standardized rosemary extract may preferentially target cancer cells as opposed to "normal" cells. Furthermore, we observed standardized rosemary extract to decrease androgen receptor expression that appears to be regulated by the expression of CHOP/GADD153. Using a xenograft tumor model we observed standardized rosemary extract when given orally to significantly suppress tumor growth by 46% compared to mice not receiving standardized rosemary extract. In the last several years regulatory governing bodies (e.g. European Union) have approved standardized rosemary extracts as food preservatives. These results are especially significant as it is becoming more likely that individuals will be receiving standardized rosemary extracts that are a part of a natural preservative system in various food preparations. Taken a step further, it is possible that the potential benefits that are often associated with a "Mediterranean Diet" in the future may begin to extend beyond the Mediterranean diet as more of the population is consuming standardized rosemary extracts. PMID:24598693

  13. In vitro trematocidal effects of crude alcoholic extracts of Artemisia annua, A. absinthium, Asimina triloba, and Fumaria officinalis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trematode infections negatively affect human and livestock health, and threaten global food safety. The only approved human anthelmintics for trematodiasis are triclabendazole and praziquantel with no alternative drugs in sight. We tested six crude plant extracts against adult Schistosoma mansoni,...

  14. Use of natural antioxidants from lyophilized water extracts of Borago officinalis in dry fermented sausages enriched in ω-3 PUFA.

    PubMed

    Ciriano, Mikel García-Iñiguez de; García-Herreros, Cecilia; Larequi, Eduardo; Valencia, Idoia; Ansorena, Diana; Astiasarán, Iciar

    2009-10-01

    An evaluation of the capacity of a lyophilized water extract of borage leaves to delay the lipid oxidation process in dry fermented sausages enriched with ω-3 PUFAs has been performed. Lyophilized extract (340ppm) showed an antioxidant capacity equivalent to 200ppm of a butylhydroxyanisol (BHA) and butylhydroxytoluene (BHT) mixture. Two batches of dry fermented sausages enriched in ω-3 PUFA were developed. One of them was supplemented with a synthetic antioxidants mixture (200ppm of BHA+BHT) and the other one with natural antioxidants (340ppm of lyophilized water extract of borage leaves). Furthermore, a traditional formulation of this type of dry fermented sausage (Control), was also manufactured. The natural extract gave rise to lower amount of volatile compounds (including hexanal), than the mixture of synthetic antioxidants (2202 and 2713ng dodecane/g dry matter, respectively). TBARS and Cholesterol Oxidation Products (COPs) did not show significant differences between products with different antioxidants. The sensorial analysis showed that lyophilized water extracts of borage leaves did not affect the sensorial properties of the products. From the economical and safety standpoints, the use of a by-product (borage leaves) and water as extracting solvent are valuable alternatives for obtaining natural antioxidants to be added to dry fermented sausages enriched in ω-3 PUFA. PMID:20416739

  15. Two new secoiridoid glycosides from Verbena officinalis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Xin, Fei; Sha, Yi; Fang, Jin; Li, Yu-Shan

    2010-08-01

    Two new secoiridoid glycosides, verbenoside A (1) and verbenoside B (2), have been isolated from the ethanol extract of the aerial parts of Verbena officinalis L. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidences, especially 1D, 2D NMR, and MS experiments. PMID:20706899

  16. Comparison of some antioxidant properties of plant extracts from Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, Eleutherococcus senticosus and Stevia rebaudiana.

    PubMed

    Vaško, Ladislav; Vašková, Janka; Fejerčáková, Andrea; Mojžišová, Gabriela; Poráčová, Janka

    2014-08-01

    Phenolic compounds from plants are known for their antioxidant properties and have been proposed as therapeutic agents to counteract oxidative stress. However, under normal circumstances, the body only receives a very small amount of these substances in the diet. We have investigated the effect of extracts from known and frequently used plants as part of diet, food seasoning, medicinal tea, and sweetener at different concentrations on the ability to scavenge free radicals, to affect antioxidant enzymes, and finally in the survival of cancer cell lines. We found extract concentrations of about 100 μg.ml(-1) more indicative in the assessment of all parameters investigated. Ginseng possessed a very good ability to scavenge superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, while stevia also manifested significant effects against hydroxyl radicals. Both extracts also showed NO decomposition ability. The antioxidant defense system against the excessive production of radicals in mitochondria was sufficient. In contrast, the range of operating concentrations for sage and oregano mainly presented no significant effects against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Taken together with the significantly reduced activity of glutathione peroxidase, this led to the depletion of glutathione. The demonstrated modulation of redox state capability was sufficient to affect the viability of all tested cancer cell lines, but especially A-549, CEM and HeLa by oregano extract. Results support the promising role of the tested extracts as a source of compounds for further in vivo studies with the ability to powerfully interfere with or modify the redox state of cells according to the type of disease, which is expected to be associated with oxidative stress. PMID:24737278

  17. Mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of aqueous extract of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) on meristematic cells of Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Felicidade, I; Lima, J D; Pesarini, J R; Monreal, A C D; Mantovani, M S; Ribeiro, L R; Oliveira, R J

    2014-01-01

    Polyphenolic compounds present in rosemary were found to have antioxidant properties, anticarcinogenic activity, and to increase the detoxification of pro-carcinogens. The aim of the study was to determine the effect the aqueous extract of rosemary (AER) on mutagenicity induced by methylmethane sulfonate in meristematic cells of Allium cepa, as well as to describe its mode of action. Anti-mutagenicity experiments were carried out with 3 different concentrations of AER, which alone showed no mutagenic effects. In antimutagenicity experiments, AER showed chemopreventive activity in cultured meristematic cells of A. cepa against exposure to methylmethane sulfonate. Additionally, post-treatment and simultaneous treatment using pre-incubation protocols were the most effective. Evaluation of different protocols and the percent reduction in DNA indicated bioantimutagenic as well desmutagenic modes of action for AER. AER may be chemopreventive and antimutagenic. PMID:25501210

  18. [Chemical constituents of Nauclea officinalis].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fen-Xia; Wang, Jing-Jing; Song, Jie; Ding, Shu-Min; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2013-02-01

    In order to study the chemical constituents in the water extract of the stem of Nauclea officinalis, column chromatography over D101 macroporous resin and silica gel and an automatic purification system were used to isolate and purify the chemical constituents from the extract. Nine compounds were obtained. By analysis of the physicochemical properties and spectral data, their structures were identified as naucleamide G (1), 3, 4-dimethoxyphenol-beta-D-apiofuranosyl (1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), kelampayoside A (3), 3alpha, 5alpha-tetrahydrodeoxycordifoline lactam (4), naucleamide A-10-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (5), pumiloside (6), 3-epi-pumiloside (7), strictosamide (8) and vincosamide (9), separately. Among them, compound 1 is a new compound, compound 2 was found in plants of the genus Nauclea for the first time, and compounds 3 and 4 were isolated from this plant for the first time. PMID:23672026

  19. Comparison of antimicrobial activity of essential oils, plant extracts and methylparaben in cosmetic emulsions: 2 months study.

    PubMed

    Herman, Anna

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the preservative effectiveness of plant extracts (Matricaria chamomilla, Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis) and essential oils (Lavandulla officinalis, Melaleuca alternifolia, Cinnamomum zeylanicum) with methylparaben in cosmetic emulsions against skin microflora during 2 months of application by volunteers. Cosmetic emulsions with extracts (2.5 %), essential oils (2.5 %), methylparaben (0.4 %) or placebo were tested by 40 volunteers during 2 months of treatment. In order to determine microbial purity of the emulsions, the samples were taken after 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks of application. Throughout the trial period it was revealed that only cinnamon oil completely inhibited the growth of bacteria, yeast and mould, as compared to all other essential oils, plant extracts and methylparaben in the tested emulsions. This result shows that cinnamon oil could successfully replace the use of methylparaben in cosmetics, at the same time ensuring microbiological purity of a cosmetic product under its in-use and storage conditions. PMID:24891745

  20. Antioxidant and antifungal activity of Verbena officinalis L. leaves.

    PubMed

    Casanova, E; García-Mina, J M; Calvo, M I

    2008-09-01

    The scavenging activity against DPPH (1,1-diphenil-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical and the antifungal effect against chloroform, ethyl acetate and 50% methanolic extracts of Verbena officinalis leaves were investigated. The activity of different fractions of 50% methanolic extract and some isolated compounds were also investigated. The results suggest that 50% methanolic extract and caffeoyl derivatives could potentially be considered as excellent and readily available sources of natural antifungal and antioxidant compounds. PMID:18498054

  1. Essential oils and herbal extracts as antimicrobial agents in cosmetic emulsion.

    PubMed

    Herman, Anna; Herman, Andrzej Przemysław; Domagalska, Beata Wanda; Młynarczyk, Andrzej

    2013-06-01

    The cosmetic industry adapts to the needs of consumers seeking to limit the use of preservatives and develop of preservative-free or self-preserving cosmetics, where preservatives are replaced by raw materials of plant origin. The aim of study was a comparison of the antimicrobial activity of extracts (Matricaria chamomilla, Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis) and essential oils (Lavandulla officinallis, Melaleuca alternifolia, Cinnamomum zeylanicum) with methylparaben. Extracts (2.5 %), essential oils (2.5 %) and methylparaben (0.4 %) were tested against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Candida albicans ATCC 14053. Essentials oils showed higher inhibitory activity against tested microorganism strain than extracts and methylparaben. Depending on tested microorganism strain, all tested extracts and essential oils show antimicrobial activity 0.8-1.7 and 1-3.5 times stronger than methylparaben, respectively. This shows that tested extracts and essential oils could replace use of methylparaben, at the same time giving a guarantee of microbiological purity of the cosmetic under its use and storage. PMID:24426114

  2. Rapid analysis of multi-pesticides in Morinda officinalis by GC-ECD with accelerated solvent extraction assisted matrix solid phase dispersion and positive confirmation by GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongmei; Kong, Weijun; Gong, Bao; Miao, Qing; Qi, Yun; Yang, Meihua

    2015-01-01

    In this work, 33 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 9 pyrethroid pesticides (PYPs) in Morinda officinalis were effectively and selectively extracted and cleaned up by accelerated solvent extraction assisted matrix solid phase dispersion (ASE/MSPD) method, followed by gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD). Carbophenothion was selected as the internal standard and added into the final extracts to improve the precision and accuracy of the method. Parameters for ASE/MSPD procedure including ratio of acetone to n-hexane, temperature and amount of Florisil were optimized to improve the performance of the method through orthogonal experimental design. Under the optimized conditions, the average recoveries (six replicates) for all pesticides (spiked at 0.05, 0.5 and 1.0 mg kg(-1)) ranged from 69.3% to 112% with RSD less than 14.14%. A wide linear range of 10-1000 ng mL(-1) was observed with r values of 0.9963-0.9999. Meanwhile, the method gave high selectivity and sensitivity (LODs<3 μg kg(-1) and LOQs<8.0 μg kg (-1)), good repeatability (RSD of 9.64%, on average) and precision (RSD of 5.48%, averagely) and excellent stability (RSD <9.47%). The feasibility of the proposed method was demonstrated by applying it for preconcentration and determination of OCPs and PYPs in 40 batches of real samples. Four kinds of pesticides (beta-endosulfan, tecnazene, hexachlorobenzene and alpha-BHC) were detected in three batches of samples, which were successfully confirmed by GC-MS. The results indicated that ASE/MSPD is a reliable and half-automated extraction and purification technique, with many advantages over traditional techniques. The combination of ASE/MSPD and GC-ECD could be especially useful for trace analysis of pesticide residues in complex matrices. PMID:25463199

  3. Comparative pharmacokinetics and brain distribution of magnolol and honokiol after oral administration of Magnolia officinalis cortex extract and its compatibility with other herbal medicines in Zhi-Zi-Hou-Po Decoction to rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan; Wang, Dan; Yang, Gongjun; Shi, Qingshui; Feng, Fang

    2016-03-01

    Zhi-Zi-Hou-Po decoction (ZZHPD) is one of the famous antidepressant Chinese formulas and is composed of Magnolia officinalis cortex (HP), Gardenia jasminoides Ellis (ZZ) and Citrus aurantium L. (ZS). Magnolol (MN) and honokiol (HN) from HP are the major active ingredients responsible for the therapeutic effects of ZZHPD. The aim of this study is to compare the pharmacokinetics and rat brain distribution of MN and HN after oral administration of HP extract and its compatibility with other herbal medicines in ZZHPD by HPLC-FLD. Compared with the HP group, Tmax (time to reach peak drug concentration in plasma) and AUC(0-τ) significantly increased in the ZZHPD and HP-ZZ groups. There was little change in the HP-ZS group in comparison with the HP group, which indicated that ZZ promotes absorption extent and defers the absorption rate of MN. The different compatibility of ZZHPD had a different degree of impact on the concentration of MN and HN in brain. The concentration of MN significantly increased in the HP-ZZ group while it decreased in the HP-ZS group compared with the HP group, which explained the concentration of compounds being slightly greater in the ZZHPD group than in the HP group. HP mixed with other medicines resulted in a decrease in HN concentration in the brain, particularly HP compatible with ZS. The results could be helpful for revealing the compatibility mechanism and providing clinical medication guidance for ZZHPD. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26173910

  4. Effects of aqueous extract from Asparagus officinalis L. roots on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis hormone levels and the number of ovarian follicles in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Karimi Jashni, Hojatollah; Kargar Jahromi, Hossein; Ghorbani Ranjbary, Ali; Kargar Jahromi, Zahra; Khabbaz Kherameh, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Asparagus is a plant with high nutritional, pharmaceutical, and industrial values. Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of asparagus roots on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis hormones and oogenesis in female rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 adult female Wistar rats were divided into five groups, which consist 8 rats. Groups included control, sham and three experimental groups receiving different doses (100, 200, 400 mg/kg/bw) of aqueous extract of asparagus roots. All dosages were administered orally for 28 days. Blood samples were taken from rats to evaluate serum levels of Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), follicular stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinal hormone (LH), estrogen, and progesterone hormones. The ovaries were removed, weighted, sectioned, and studied by light microscope. Results: Dose-dependent aqueous extract of asparagus roots significantly increased serum levels of GnRH, FSH, LH, estrogen, and progestin hormones compared to control and sham groups. Increase in number of ovarian follicles and corpus luteum in groups treated with asparagus root extract was also observed (p<0.05). Conclusion: Asparagus roots extract stimulates secretion of hypothalamic- pituitary- gonadal axis hormones. This also positively affects oogenesis in female rats. PMID:27200420

  5. Ameliorative effects of Rosmarinus officinalis leaf extract and Vitamin C on cadmium-induced oxidative stress in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus.

    PubMed

    Al-Anazi, Marim Saleh; Virk, Promy; Elobeid, Mai; Siddiqui, Muzammil Iqbal

    2015-11-01

    The present studywas undertaken to assess the bioaccumulation potential of cadmium in liver, kidney, gills and muscles of freshwater fish, Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and the changes in oxidative stress indices in liver and kidney with or without simultaneous treatment with waterborne vitamin C and rosemary leaf extract. Adult tilapia were divided into seven groups. Six groups were exposed to sublethal concentrations of Cd, three groups to 5 ppm, while other three to 10 ppm. Two groups from each of the Cd exposed groups were treated with Vitamin C (5ppm) and rosemary leaf extract (2.5 ppm) for a period of 21 days. Cadmium concentration in liver, kidneys and gills was significantly higher in the cadmium exposed groups being invariably high in the groups exposed to 10 ppm CdCl2.H2O.Treatment with Vitamin C and rosemary leaf extract significantly reduced cadmium concentration in comparison to non-treated Cd exposed groups. Treatment with Vitamin C and rosemary leaf extract significantly reduced oxidative stress in Cd exposed fish as evidenced from lower concentration of lipid peroxides and reduced activity of catalase and higher activity of superoxide dismutase in liver and kidney as compared to control fish. Reduction in Cd induced oxidative stress and bioaccumulation was comparable between the two antioxidant treatments, Vitamin C and rosemary leaf extract. The key findings suggest that both the antioxidants used showed ameliorative potential to reduce tissue accumulation of Cd and associated oxidative stress in fresh water fish, Nile tilapia. PMID:26688980

  6. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis and some other medicinal plants commonly used in South-East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Lai Wah; Cheah, Emily LC; Saw, Constance LL; Weng, Wanyu; Heng, Paul WS

    2008-01-01

    Background Eight medicinal plants were tested for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Different extraction methods were also tested for their effects on the bioactivities of the medicinal plants. Methods Eight plants, namely Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis (Laliaocao), Folium Murraya Koenigii (Jialiye), Rhizoma Arachis Hypogea (Huashenggen), Herba Houttuyniae (Yuxingcao), Epipremnum pinnatum (Pashulong), Rhizoma Typhonium Flagelliforme (Laoshuyu), Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis (Houpo) and Rhizoma Imperatae (Baimaogen) were investigated for their potential antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Results Extracts of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis had the strongest activities against M. Smegmatis, C. albicans, B. subtilis and S. aureus. Boiled extracts of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis, Folium Murraya Koenigii, Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis and Herba Houttuyniae demonstrated greater antioxidant activities than other tested medicinal plants. Conclusion Among the eight tested medicinal plants, Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis showed the highest antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Different methods of extraction yield different spectra of bioactivities. PMID:19038060

  7. Antioxidant effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extract in soybean lecithin-based semen extender following freeze-thawing process of ram sperm.

    PubMed

    Motlagh, Mahdi Khodaei; Sharafi, Mohsen; Zhandi, Mahdi; Mohammadi-Sangcheshmeh, Abdollah; Shakeri, Malak; Soleimani, Masoud; Zeinoaldini, Saeed

    2014-10-01

    The aim of current study was to evaluate effect of rosemary aqueous extract on post-thawed ram sperm quality in a soybean lecithin-based (SL) extender. Ram semen samples were obtained, extended with SL extender and supplemented with 0% (SL-R0), 2% (SL-R2), 4% (SL-R4), 6% (SL-R6), and 8% (SL-R8) rosemary aqueous extract. Following equilibration, the straws were frozen, and then plunged into the liquid nitrogen. After thawing, sperm motility and velocity parameters, plasma membrane functionality, viability, acrosomal and capacitation status were evaluated. Membrane lipid peroxidation was also analyzed through the malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration. Our results showed that SL-R4 and SL-R6 groups resulted in higher (p < 0.05) percentages of total motility, progressive motility, and plasma membrane functionality, as compared with other groups. Highest (p < 0.05) viable and lowest (p < 0.05) dead spermatozoa were observed in SL-R6 group compared to the other groups. The acrosomal and capacitation status were not affected (p > 0.05) by different levels of rosemary aqueous extract. Lower (p < 0.05) MDA concentration has been observed in SL-R4 and SL-R6 groups. The results of this study demonstrate that supplementation of SL extender with rosemary aqueous extract influences post-thawed ram sperm quality in a dose dependent manner. PMID:25050864

  8. Bio-active nanoemulsions enriched with gold nanoparticle, marigold extracts and lipoic acid: In vitro investigations.

    PubMed

    Guler, Emine; Barlas, F Baris; Yavuz, Murat; Demir, Bilal; Gumus, Z Pinar; Baspinar, Yucel; Coskunol, Hakan; Timur, Suna

    2014-09-01

    A novel and efficient approach for the preparation of enriched herbal formulations was described and their potential applications including wound healing and antioxidant activity (cell based and cell free) were investigated via in vitro cell culture studies. Nigella sativa oil was enriched with Calendula officinalis extract and lipoic acid capped gold nanoparticles (AuNP-LA) using nanoemulsion systems. The combination of these bio-active compounds was used to design oil in water (O/W) and water in oil (W/O) emulsions. The resulted emulsions were characterized by particle size measurements. The phenolic content of each nanoemulsion was examined by using both colorimetric assay and chromatographic analyses. Two different methods containing cell free chemical assay (1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method) and cell based antioxidant activity test were used to evaluate the antioxidant capacities. In order to investigate the bio-activities of the herbal formulations, in vitro cell culture experiments, including cytotoxicity, scratch assay, antioxidant activity and cell proliferation were carried out using Vero cell line as a model cell line. Furthermore, to monitor localization of the nanoemulsions after application of the cell culture, the cell images were monitored via fluorescence microscope after FITC labeling. All data confirmed that the enriched N. sativa formulations exhibited better antioxidant and wound healing activity than N. sativa emulsion without any enrichment. In conclusion, the incorporation of AuNP-LA and C. officinalis extract into the N. sativa emulsions significantly increased the bio-activities. The present work may support further studies about using the other bio-active agents for the enrichment of herbal preparations to strengthen their activities. PMID:25009101

  9. Rosmarinus officinalis L. extract and some of its active ingredients as potential emulsion stabilizers: a new approach to the formation of multiple (W/O/W) emulsion.

    PubMed

    Cizauskaite, Ugne; Ivanauskas, Liudas; Jakštas, Valdas; Marksiene, Ruta; Jonaitiene, Laimute; Bernatoniene, Jurga

    2016-09-01

    Nowadays, novel topical formulations loaded with natural functional actives are under intense investigations. Therefore, the aim of our study was to evaluate how the rosemary extract and some of its active ingredients [rosmarinic acid (RA), ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA)] affect technological characteristics of multiple emulsion. Formulation has been prepared by adding investigated solutions (10%) in water/oil/water (W/O/W) multiple emulsion consisting of different lipophilic phases: olive oil and liquid paraffin, with 0.5% emulsifying agent (complex of sodium polyacrylate and polysorbate 20) under constant stirring with mechanical stirrer at room temperature. The emulsion parameters were evaluated using centrifugation test, freeze-thaw cycle test, microscopical and texture analyses. Rosemary's triterpenic saponins UA and OA showed the highest emulsion stabilizing properties: they decreased CI from 3.26% to 10.23% (p < 0.05). According to obtained interfacial tension data, the effect of rosemary active ingredients is not surfactant-like. Even though emulsifier itself at low concentration intends to form directly the multiple emulsion, the obtained results indicate that rosemary extract containing active ingredients does not only serve as functional cosmetic agent due to a number of biological activities, but also offer potential advantages as a stabilizer and an enhancer of W/O/W emulsions formation for dermopharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations. PMID:26000558

  10. Does Melissa Officinalis Cause Withdrawal or Dependence?

    PubMed Central

    Demirci, Kadir; Akgönül, Mehmet; Demirdaş, Arif; Akpınar, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Melissa officinalis is a medical and aromatic plant that is used for its hypnotic, sedative, and spasmolytic effects. This report presents a case study of30-year-old patient who was admitted to an emergency department with restlessness, tremor, distractibility, and sweating following a discontinuation of Melissa officinalis consumption. Case report: In this case, withdrawal symptoms may be related to the dependence effect caused by long-term use of Melissa officinalis. Although Melissa officinalis, a plant, is preferred by many patients as an alternative to pharmaceutical drugs, patients should be made aware that it may have a risk of dependency and can lead to withdrawal symptoms. PMID:25870482

  11. The Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinalis) and Artichoke (Cynara cardunculus) Extract Supplementation on Functional Dyspepsia: A Randomised, Double-Blind, and Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Giacosa, Attilio; Guido, Davide; Grassi, Mario; Riva, Antonella; Morazzoni, Paolo; Bombardelli, Ezio; Faliva, Milena A.; Rondanelli, Mariangela

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a frequent clinical finding in western world. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of a ginger and artichoke supplementation versus placebo in the treatment of FD. Methods. A prospective multicentre, double blind, randomized, placebo controlled, parallel-group comparison of the supplement and placebo over a period of 4 weeks was performed. Two capsules/day were supplied (before lunch and dinner) to 126 FD patients (supplementation/placebo: 65/61). Results. After 14 days of treatment, only supplementation group (SG) showed a significant amelioration (SG: αS = +1.195 MCA score units (u), P = 0.017; placebo: αP = +0.347 u, P = 0.513). The intercept (α) resulted to be significantly higher in SG than in placebo (αS − αP = +0.848 u, P < 0.001). At the end of the study, the advantage of SG versus placebo persists without variation (βS − βP = +0.077 u, P = 0.542). In SG, a significant advantage is observed for nausea (βS − βP = −0.398 u, P < 0.001), epigastric fullness (βS − βP = −0.241, P < 0.001), epigastric pain (βS − βP = −0.173 u, P = 0.002), and bloating (βS − βP = −0.167 u, P = 0.017). Conclusions. The association between ginger and artichoke leaf extracts appears safe and efficacious in the treatment of FD and could represent a promising treatment for this disease. PMID:25954317

  12. The Effect of Ginger (Zingiber officinalis) and Artichoke (Cynara cardunculus) Extract Supplementation on Functional Dyspepsia: A Randomised, Double-Blind, and Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Giacosa, Attilio; Guido, Davide; Grassi, Mario; Riva, Antonella; Morazzoni, Paolo; Bombardelli, Ezio; Perna, Simone; Faliva, Milena A; Rondanelli, Mariangela

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a frequent clinical finding in western world. The aim of this study is to compare the efficacy of a ginger and artichoke supplementation versus placebo in the treatment of FD. Methods. A prospective multicentre, double blind, randomized, placebo controlled, parallel-group comparison of the supplement and placebo over a period of 4 weeks was performed. Two capsules/day were supplied (before lunch and dinner) to 126 FD patients (supplementation/placebo: 65/61). Results. After 14 days of treatment, only supplementation group (SG) showed a significant amelioration (SG: α S = +1.195 MCA score units (u), P = 0.017; placebo: α P = +0.347 u, P = 0.513). The intercept (α) resulted to be significantly higher in SG than in placebo (α S - α P = +0.848 u, P < 0.001). At the end of the study, the advantage of SG versus placebo persists without variation (β S - β P = +0.077 u, P = 0.542). In SG, a significant advantage is observed for nausea (β S - β P = -0.398 u, P < 0.001), epigastric fullness (β S - β P = -0.241, P < 0.001), epigastric pain (β S - β P = -0.173 u, P = 0.002), and bloating (β S - β P = -0.167 u, P = 0.017). Conclusions. The association between ginger and artichoke leaf extracts appears safe and efficacious in the treatment of FD and could represent a promising treatment for this disease. PMID:25954317

  13. Evaluation of Melissa officinalis (Lemon Balm) Effects on Heart Electrical System

    PubMed Central

    Joukar, Siyavash; Asadipour, Haleh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Melissa officinalis, an herbal drug, is well known and frequently applied in traditional and modern medicine. Yet, there is inadequate information regarding its effects on electrical properties of the heart. The present study attempted to elucidate the effects of Melissa officinalis aqueous extract on electrocardiogram (ECG) in rat. Objectives: ECG is an easy, fast and valuable tool to evaluate the safety of used materials and drugs on heart electrical and conductivity properties. Many drugs with no cardiovascular indication or any overt cardiovascular effects of therapeutic dosing become cardiotoxic when overdosed (16). On the other hand, there are numerous substances and drugs that can cause ECG changes, even in patients without a history of cardiac disease. Therefore, this study was conducted to elucidate safety and outcome of one-week administration of M. officinalis aqueous extract on blood pressure and ECG parameters of rats. Materials and Methods: Four animal groups received tap water (control group), aqueous extracts of Melissa officinalis 50 (M50), 100 (M100) and 200 (M200) mg/kg/day, respectively and orally for a week. ECG and blood pressure were recorded on the eighth day of experiment. Results: Consumption of Melissa officinalis extract associated with prolonged QRS interval (P < 0.05 for M50 and M100 groups and P < 0.01 for M200 group versus the control group, respectively), prolonged QTc and JT intervals (P < 0.01 for different M groups versus the control group) and prolonged TpTe interval (P < 0.001 when M groups compared with the control group) of ECG. However, different doses of the extract had no significant effect on RR interval, PR interval, amplitudes of ECG waves, heart rate and blood pressure. Conclusions: For the first time, this study revealed that consumption of Melissa officinalis extract is associated with significant ECG alterations in rat. Future studies are necessary to determine potential clinical outcomes. PMID:26396973

  14. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain Co1-6, a Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium of Calendula officinalis.

    PubMed

    Köberl, Martina; White, Richard A; Erschen, Sabine; Spanberger, Nora; El-Arabi, Tarek F; Jansson, Janet K; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    The genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain Co1-6, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) with broad-spectrum antagonistic activity against plant-pathogenic fungi, bacteria, and nematodes, consists of a single 3.9-Mb circular chromosome. The genome reveals genes putatively responsible for its promising biocontrol and PGP properties. PMID:26272562

  15. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain Co1-6, a Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium of Calendula officinalis

    PubMed Central

    White, Richard A.; Erschen, Sabine; Spanberger, Nora; El-Arabi, Tarek F.; Jansson, Janet K.; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    The genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain Co1-6, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) with broad-spectrum antagonistic activity against plant-pathogenic fungi, bacteria, and nematodes, consists of a single 3.9-Mb circular chromosome. The genome reveals genes putatively responsible for its promising biocontrol and PGP properties. PMID:26272562

  16. Complete genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain Co1-6, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium of Calendula officinalis

    SciTech Connect

    Koeberl, Martina; White, Richard A.; Erschen, Sabine; Spanberger, Nora; El-Arabi, Tarek F.; Jansson, Janet K.; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-08-13

    The genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain Co1-6, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) with broad-spectrum antagonistic activities against plant pathogenic fungi, bacteria and nematodes, consists of a single 3.9 Mb circular chromosome. The genome reveals genes putatively responsible for its promising biocontrol and PGP properties.

  17. Complete genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain Co1-6, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium of Calendula officinalis

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Köberl, Martina; White, Richard A.; Erschen, Sabine; Spanberger, Nora; El-Arabi, Tarek F.; Jansson, Janet K.; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-08-13

    The genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain Co1-6, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) with broad-spectrum antagonistic activity against plant-pathogenic fungi, bacteria, and nematodes, consists of a single 3.9-Mb circular chromosome. The genome reveals genes putatively responsible for its promising biocontrol and PGP properties.

  18. A SCAR marker for the analysis of chloroplast DNA from different cultivars of Cornus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Liu, R X; Wang, J; Zhang, T; Li, J; Shi, J H; Kang, B Y; Chen, S Q

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to establish a random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprint database of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) from different cultivars of Cornus officinalis and to convert RAPD markers to sequence characterized amplified regions (SCAR) markers. A method of extraction was established that was suitable for obtaining cpDNA from samples rapidly dried in silicone; an RAPD fingerprint database was built; and the genetic distance between samples was used as statistical clustering variables for calculating DICE genetic similarity coefficients and for building a kinship tree chart. RAPD markers were converted to SCAR markers to design specific primers, and samples from C. officinalis cultivars, plants of the same family, and its adulterants, were used for amplification and identification. Fifteen amplified primers with stable polymorphisms were screened for amplification of 130 copies of materials. In total, 57 sites were achieved, 40 of which were polymorphic, and the polymorphic rate was up to 70.18%. A genetic tree was built based on seven cultivars. SCAR markers of C. officinalis cpDNA were successfully converted into RAPD markers. cpDNA samples from hawthorn, C. officinalis, Cornus wood, and grape were used for SCAR amplification, and their bands were distinctly different. In conclusion, SCAR markers and cpDNA may be used for research on C. officinalis and its adulterants, and the results may provide a basis for identifying germplasm and screening fine varieties at a molecular level. PMID:26681064

  19. Isolation of alpha-glusosidase inhibitors from hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis).

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Hideyuki; Miyazaki, Hiroyuki; Asakawa, Chikako; Amano, Midori; Yoshihara, Teruhiko; Mizutani, Junya

    2004-01-01

    alpha-Glucosidase inhibitory activity was found in aqueous methanol extracts of dried hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis) leaves. Active principles against alpha-glucosidase, prepared from rat small intestine acetone powders, were isolated and characterized. The structures of these isolated compounds were determined to be (7S, 8S)-syringoylglycerol-9-O-(6'-O-cinnamoyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside and (7S, 8S)-syringoylglycerol 9-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside by analysis of physical and spectroscopic data (FDMS, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, HMQC, and HMBC experiments) together with chemical syntheses. PMID:14697274

  20. Detection of kestoses and kestose-related oligosaccharides in extracts of Festuca arundinacea, Dactylis glomerate L. , and Asparagus officinalis L. root cultures and invertase by sup 13 C and sup 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Forsythe, K.L.; Feather, M.S.; Gracz, H.; Wong, T.C. )

    1990-04-01

    Previous studies show that {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy can be used to detect and identify mixtures of 1-kestose and neokestose after conversion to the acetate derivatives. In this study, unequivocal assignments are made for the anomeric carbon and proton signals for the above two trisaccharide acetates as well as for 6-kestose hendecaacetate and for nystose tetradecaacetate (a 1-kestose-derived tetrasaccharide). A number of oligosaccharide fractions were isolated from several plant species, converted to the acetates, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra obtained. Using the above reference data, the following information was obtained. The trisaccharide fraction from Dactylis gomerata L. stem tissue and Asparagus officinalis L. roots contain both 1-kestose and neokestose, and the tetrasaccharide fractions contain three components, one of which is nystose. Penta- and hexasaccharide acetates were also isolated from A. officinalis L. roots and were found to contain, respectively, four and at least five components. All components of both of the above species appear to contain a kestose residue and to be produced by the sequential addition of fructofuranosyl units to these. The trisaccharide fraction from Festuca arundinacea is complex, and contains at least five different components, two of which appear to be 1-kestose and neokestose.

  1. [A survey of Cornus officinalis varieties].

    PubMed

    Chen, Suiqing; Dong, Chengming; Yang, Jin; Ji, Chunru; Zhang, Yundian

    2002-05-01

    According to the survey of Cornus officinalis in the main planting areas of Henan, Zhejiang and Shanxi province, the fruit shape can be divided into seven types, cylindricform, ellipticform, long pear-shape, short pear-shape, long cylindricform, short cylindricform and spindlefrom. These fruit types, growth habit and dried pulp productivity can provide scientific basis for breeding cultivation of Cornus officinalis varietis. PMID:12583184

  2. The essential oil of Zingiber officinalis Linn (Zingiberaceae) as a mosquito larvicidal and repellent agent against the filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Pushpanathan, Thambusamy; Jebanesan, Arulsamy; Govindarajan, Marimuthu

    2008-05-01

    Essential oils extracted by steam distillation from Zingiber officinalis was evaluated for larvicidal and repellent activity against the filarial mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h treated for late third instar. The LC50 value was 50.78 ppm. Skin repellent test at 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 mg/cm2 concentration of Z. officinalis gave 100% protection up to 15, 30, 60, and 120 min. These results clearly reveal that the essential oil of Z. officinalis served as a potential larvicidal and repellent agent against filarial vector C. quinquefasciatus. PMID:18278511

  3. Antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities of polysaccharides from the roots of Sanguisorba officinalis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Koyyalamudi, Sundar Rao; Jeong, Sang Chul; Reddy, Narsimha; Smith, Paul T; Ananthan, R; Longvah, T

    2012-12-01

    The roots of Sanguisorba officinalis are used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of diseases such as inflammation and internal haemorrhage. Several scientific investigations involving extraction and pharmacological studies of terpenoids and triterpenoid glycosides from this herb have been carried out. However, little is known regarding the immunomodulatory and antioxidant properties of polysaccharides from S. officinalis. Hence the polysaccharides from this herb have been investigated here. The hot water extract of S. officinalis has been fractionated using size-exclusion chromatography to obtain four polysaccharide fractions designated as SOP-1, SOP-2, SOP-3 and SOP-4. The range of molecular masses of these fractions were from 280 Da to 2000 kDa, and their sugar compositions consisted mainly of fructose, glucose, xylose, arabinose, and rhamnose. The antioxidant activities of the crude polysaccharide fractions were evaluated in a biological assay using Saccharomyces cerevisiae, whereas the radical scavenging activity was measured using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. Analysis of the immunomodulatory activities of these polysaccharide fractions were measured by using mouse macrophages. Most of the polysaccharide fractions have stimulated the production of nitric oxide and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and also displayed antioxidant activities. These results suggest that the roots of S. officinalis are likely to have therapeutic value for the treatment of cancer. PMID:22944198

  4. Evaluation of the antibacterial potential of Petroselinum crispum and Rosmarinus officinalis against bacteria that cause urinary tract infections

    PubMed Central

    Petrolini, Fernanda Villas Boas; Lucarini, Rodrigo; de Souza, Maria Gorete Mendes; Pires, Regina Helena; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes

    2013-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the antibacterial activity of the crude hydroalcoholic extracts, fractions, and compounds of two plant species, namely Rosmarinus officinalis and Petroselinum crispum, against the bacteria that cause urinary tract infection. The microdilution method was used for determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The crude hydroalcoholic extract of R. officinalis displayed in vitro activity against Gram-positive bacteria, with satisfactory MBC for the clinical isolate S. saprophyticus. The fractions and the pure compound rosmarinic acid did not furnish promising results for Gram-negative bacteria, whereas fractions 2, 3, and 4 gave encouraging results for Gram-positive bacteria and acted as bactericide against S. epidermidis as well as E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) and its clinical isolate. R. officinalis led to promising results in the case of Gram-positive bacteria, resulting in a considerable interest in the development of reliable alternatives for the treatment of urinary infections. PMID:24516424

  5. The effects of Bentonite and Calendula on the improvement of infantile diaper dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Mahmoudi, Mansoreh; Mashaiekhi, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diaper dermatitis is one of the most common skin disorders of infancy and childhood. The present study aimed to compare the effects of Bentonite and Calendula on the improvement of diaper dermatitis in infants. Materials and Methods: A double-blind randomized controlled trial, which was conducted on 60 out-patient infants referred to health care centers or pediatric clinics in Khomein city and diagnosed with diaper dermatitis. Data were collected by checklist and observation, and analyzed using t-test, Chi-square, and Fisher's exact test. Results: Mean (standard error) age of the total sample was 6.55 0.69 months. Totally, 93.3% of lesions in the Bentonite group started its recovery in the first 6 h, while this rate was 40% in Calendula group (P < 0.001). Furthermore, 90% of infants in the Bentonite group and 36.7% in the Calendula group were improved completely in the first 3 days (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Bentonite was effective on the improvement of diaper dermatitis, and also had faster effects compared with Calendula. PMID:25097603

  6. Antiscalant properties of Spergularia rubra and Parietaria officinalis aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheap-Charpentier, Hélène; Gelus, Dominique; Pécoul, Nathalie; Perrot, Hubert; Lédion, Jean; Horner, Olivier; Sadoun, Jonathan; Cachet, Xavier; Litaudon, Marc; Roussi, Fanny

    2016-06-01

    The formation of calcium carbonate in water has important implications in industry. Chemical antiscalant is usually used to control scale depositions. Plant extracts have been recently used as new green antiscalant agents, as they can be easily prepared and are environmentally friendly. In this study, stock aqueous solutions of Spergularia rubra and Parietaria officinalis, two plants used in traditional medicine to treat or prevent urolithiasis, were obtained by infusion. The antiscaling properties of these extracts towards CaCO3 formation were tested by using chronoamperometry and Fast Controlled Precipitation methods. The aqueous solution of S. rubra was further fractionated to isolate compounds of lower polarity. Their efficiency towards CaCO3 precipitation was characterized by Fast Controlled Precipitation method. The inhibiting efficiency of this fractionated solution was greater than that of the stock aqueous solution.

  7. New Insights into Sepsis Therapy Using Sepia Officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Amel M.; Fahmy, Sohair R.; Sayed, Amany A.; Abd El-Latif, Asmaa A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sepsis remains a major problem for both scientists and clinicians. Cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) is considered the gold standard for animal models of sepsis. The undesirable side effects of certain antibiotics have forced scientists to discover new, natural, and safe antimicrobial agents, such as cephalopods, which are known to display significant antimicrobial activity. Objectives: The present investigation aims to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo antibacterial and antiseptic efficacy of Sepia officinalis body tissue (SOBT) extract and S. officinalis polysaccharide (SOP) from its cuttlebone. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight rats were divided into 4 groups, and starting 2 hours after CLP, treatments were given for 2 days as follows: sham control rats treated orally with distilled water, septic rats treated orally distilled water, septic rats treated orally methanolic extract of SOBT (500 mg/kg b.wt) suspended in distilled water, and septic rats treated orally SOP extract (200 mg /kg b.wt) dissolved in distilled water. On the third day, half of the rats in each group were euthanized for blood collection. The other half were kept alive and used for the survival study. Results: The present study revealed that the SOBT and SOP extracts showed in vitro bactericidal activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Furthermore, administration of SOBT and SOP increased the rats’ survival rates by 66.7% and 83.33%, respectively, as compared to the untreated CLP-septic rats. Treatment of the CLP-septic rats with SOBT and SOP significantly alleviated alterations in procalcitonin levels and in some hematological parameters induced by CLP. Conclusions: SOBT and SOP had profound antiseptic efficacy. PMID:27099690

  8. Quality control of herbs: determination of amino acids in Althaea officinalis, Matricaria chamomilla and Taraxacum officinale.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Muhammad Nasimullah; Stecher, Guenther; Bonn, Guenther Karl

    2014-05-01

    Analysis of raw materials and final products need reliable methods for the standardization of natural product drugs. Legal guideline also emphasizes on the qualitative and quantitative analyses of the plant constituents in an herbal product. In this study, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and amino acid analyzer was used for the determination of amino acids in plant extracts. Samples for this study were standards and aqueous extracts from Althaea officinalis, Matricaria chamomilla and Taraxacum officinale. Different amino acids in the extracts were detected through TLC. An automatic amino acid analyzer was used for the quantification of amino acids in the plant extracts under study. PMID:24811801

  9. In Vivo Potential Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Melissa officinalis L. Essential Oil.

    PubMed

    Bounihi, Amina; Hajjaj, Ghizlane; Alnamer, Rachad; Cherrah, Yahia; Zellou, Amina

    2013-01-01

    Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) had been reported in traditional Moroccan medicine to exhibit calming, antispasmodic, and strengthening heart effects. Therefore, this study is aimed at determining the anti-inflammatory activities of M. officinalis L. leaves. The effect of the essential oil of the leaves of this plant was investigated for anti-inflammatory properties by using carrageenan and experimental trauma-induced hind paw edema in rats. The essential oil extracted from leaves by hydrodistillation was characterized by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). M. officinalis contained Nerol (30.44%), Citral (27.03%), Isopulegol (22.02%), Caryophyllene (2.29%), Caryophyllene oxide (1.24%), and Citronella (1.06%). Anti-inflammatory properties of oral administration of essential oil at the doses of 200, 400 mg/kg p.o., respectively, showed significant reduction and inhibition of edema with 61.76% and 70.58%, respectively, (P < 0.001) induced by carrageenan at 6 h when compared with control and standard drug (Indomethacin). On experimental trauma, M. officinalis L. essential oil showed pronounced reduction and inhibition of edema induced by carrageenan at 6 h at 200 and 400 mg/kg with 91.66% and 94.44%, respectively (P < 0.001). We can conclude that the essential oil of M. officinalis L. possesses potential anti-inflammatory activities, supporting the traditional application of this plant in treating various diseases associated with inflammation and pain. PMID:24381585

  10. Metabolism of monoterpanes: metabolic fate of (+)-camphor in sage (Salvia officinalis). [Salvia officinalis

    SciTech Connect

    Croteau, R.; El-Bialy, H.; Dehal, S.S.

    1987-07-01

    The bicyclic monoterpene ketone (+)-camphor undergoes lactonization to 1,2-campholide in mature sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leaves followed by conversion to the ..beta..-D-glucoside-6-O-glucose ester of the corresponding hydroxy acid (1-carboxymethyl-3-hydroxy-2,2,3-trimethyl cyclopentane). Analysis of the disposition of (+)-(G-/sup 3/H)camphor applied to midstem leaves of intact flowering plants allowed the kinetics of synthesis of the bis-glucose derivative and its transport from leaf to root to be determined, and gave strong indication that the transport derivative was subsequently metabolized in the root. Root extracts were shown to possess ..beta..-glucosidase and acyl glucose esterase activities, and studies with (+)-1,2(U-/sup 14/C)campholide as substrate, using excised root segments, revealed that the terpenoid was converted to lipid materials. Localization studies confirmed the radiolabeled lipids to reside in the membranous fractions of root extracts, and analysis of this material indicated the presence of labeled phytosterols and labeled fatty acids (C/sub 14/ to C/sub 20/) of acyl lipids. Although it was not possible to detail the metabolic steps between 1,2-campholide and the acyl lipids and phytosterols derived therefrom because of the lack of readily detectable intermediates, it seemed likely that the monoterpene lactone was degraded to acetyl CoA which was reincorporated into root membrane components via standard acyl lipid and isoprenoid biosynthetic pathways. Monoterpene catabolism thus appears to represent a salvage mechanism for recycling mobile carbon from senescing oil glands on the leaves to the roots.

  11. Pharmacological perspectives from Brazilian Salvia officinalis (Lamiaceae): antioxidant, and antitumor in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Charlene S C; Menti, Caroline; Lambert, Ana Paula F; Barcellos, Thiago; Moura, Sidnei; Calloni, Caroline; Branco, Cátia S; Salvador, Mirian; Roesch-Ely, Mariana; Henriques, João A P

    2016-03-01

    Salvia officinalis (Lamiaceae) has been used in south of Brazil as a diary homemade, in food condiment and tea-beverage used for the treatment of several disorders. The objective of this study was to characterize chemical compounds in the hydroalcoholic (ExtHS) and aqueous (ExtAS) extract from Salvia officinalis (L.) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and by high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-QTOF MS/MS), evaluate in vitro ability to scavenge the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS•+), catalase (CAT-like) and superoxide dismutase (SOD-like) activity, moreover cytotoxic by MTT assay, alterations on cell morphology by giemsa and apoptotic-induced mechanism for annexin V/propidium iodide. Chemical identification sage extracts revealed the presence of acids and phenolic compounds. In vitro antioxidant analysis for both extracts indicated promising activities. The cytotoxic assays using tumor (Hep-2, HeLa, A-549, HT-29 and A-375) and in non-tumor (HEK-293 and MRC-5), showed selectivity for tumor cell lines. Immunocytochemistry presenting a majority of tumor cells at late stages of the apoptotic process and necrosis. Given the results presented here, Brazilian Salvia officinalis (L.) used as condiment and tea, may protect the body against some disease, in particularly those where oxidative stress is involved, like neurodegenerative disorders, inflammation and cancer. PMID:26839997

  12. Evaluation of the genotoxic and antigenotoxic potential of Melissa officinalis in mice

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Natália Cassettari; Corrêa-Angeloni, Maria Júlia Frydberg; Leffa, Daniela Dimer; Moreira, Jeverson; Nicolau, Vanessa; de Aguiar Amaral, Patrícia; Rossatto, Ângela Erna; de Andrade, Vanessa Moraes

    2011-01-01

    Melissa officinalis (L.) (Lamiaceae), a plant known as the lemon balm, is native to the east Mediterranean region and west Asia. Also found in tropical countries, such as Brazil, where it is popularly known as “erva-cidreira” or “melissa”, it is widely used in aqueous- or alcoholic-extract form in the treatment of various disorders. The aim was to investigate in vivo its antigenotoxicity and antimutagenicity, as well as its genotoxic/mutagenic potential through comet and micronucleus assaying. CF-1 male mice were treated with ethanolic (Mo-EE) (250 or 500 mg/kg) or aqueous (Mo-AE) (100 mg/kg) solutions of an M. officinalis extract for 2 weeks, prior to treatment with saline or Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) doses by intraperitoneal injection. Irrespective of the doses, no genotoxic or mutagenic effects were observed in blood and bone-marrow samples. Although Mo-EE exerted an antigenotoxic effect on the blood cells of mice treated with the alkylating agent (MMS) in all the doses, this was not so with Mo-AE. Micronucleus testing revealed the protector effect of Mo-EE, but only when administered at the highest dose. The implication that an ethanolic extract of M. officinalis has antigenotoxic/antimutagenic properties is an indication of its medicinal relevance. PMID:21734832

  13. Cytotoxic triterpene glycosides from the roots of Sanguisorba officinalis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jiang; Song, Yan; Li, Hui; Yang, Benshou; Mao, Xia; Zhao, Yongmao; Shi, Xiaodong

    2015-06-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the ethanol extract of the roots of Sanguisorba officinalis resulted in the isolation of three new triterpene glycosides, 3β-[(α-L-arabinopyranosyl)oxy]-19α,23-dihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid 28-[6-O-acetyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl] ester (1), 2α,3β,19α,23-tetrahydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid 28-[6-O-acetyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl] ester (2), and 3β-[(α-L-arabinopyranosyl)oxy]-19α-hydroxyurs-12,20(30)-dien-28-oic acid 28-[6-O-acetyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl] ester (3). All the triterpene glycosides exhibited the significant cytotoxic potential with low IC50 values (IC50 < 5.0 μM) against six tumor cell lines (MCF-7, HeLa, HepG2, SGC-7901, NCI-H460, and BGC-823). PMID:25193625

  14. In vitro amoebicidal activities of Satureja cuneifolia and Melissa officinalis on Acanthamoeba castellanii cysts and trophozoites.

    PubMed

    Malatyali, E; Tepe, B; Degerli, S; Berk, S

    2012-06-01

    Amoebic keratitis is difficult to treat without total efficacy in some patients because of cysts, which are less susceptible than trophozoites to the usual treatments. The aim of this study is to evaluate the in vitro amoebicidal activity of the methanolic extracts of Satureja cuneifolia and Melissa officinalis. In the presence of methanolic extracts (ranging from 1.0 to 32.0 mg/ml), numbers of the viable Acanthamoe castellanii trophozoites and cysts were decreased during the experimental process. Both extracts showed a time- and dose-dependent amoebicidal action on the trophozoites and cysts. Among the extracts tested, S. cuneifolia showed the strongest amoebicidal effect on the trophozoites and cysts. In the presence of 32 mg/ml extract, no viable trophozoites were observed within 24 h. At the same concentration value, the extract was found effective against the cysts at a rate of 46.3% within 72 h of the experimental process. At 16 mg/ml extract concentration, no viable trophozoites were also observed in the 24th hour of the experiment. At the end of the experimental process, 34.7% of the cysts were killed by the extract. M. officinalis showed moderate amoebicidal effect. At the concentration of 32 mg/ml, 44.3% and 30.0% of the trophozoites and cysts were killed by the extract, respectively. Results obtained from these concentration values were found statistically different in terms of their actions both on trophozoites and cysts (p<0.05). PMID:22160280

  15. Carnosol and Carnosic Acids from Salvia officinalis Inhibit Microsomal Prostaglandin E2 Synthase-1

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Julia; Kuehnl, Susanne; Rollinger, Judith M.; Scherer, Olga; Northoff, Hinnak; Stuppner, Hermann; Werz, Oliver; Koeberle, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), the most relevant eicosanoid promoting inflammation and tumorigenesis, is formed by cyclooxygenases (COXs) and PGE2 synthases from free arachidonic acid. Preparations of the leaves of Salvia officinalis are commonly used in folk medicine as an effective antiseptic and anti-inflammatory remedy and possess anticancer activity. Here, we demonstrate that a standard ethyl acetate extract of S. officinalis efficiently suppresses the formation of PGE2 in a cell-free assay by direct interference with microsomal PGE2 synthase (mPGES)-1. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the extract yielded closely related fractions that potently suppressed mPGES-1 with IC50 values between 1.9 and 3.5 μg/ml. Component analysis of these fractions revealed the diterpenes carnosol and carnosic acid as potential bioactive principles inhibiting mPGES-1 activity with IC50 values of 5.0 μM. Using a human whole-blood assay as a robust cell-based model, carnosic acid, but not carnosol, blocked PGE2 generation upon stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (IC50 = 9.3 μM). Carnosic acid neither inhibited the concomitant biosynthesis of other prostanoids [6-keto PGF1α, 12(S)-hydroxy-5-cis-8,10-trans-heptadecatrienoic acid, and thromboxane B2] in human whole blood nor affected the activities of COX-1/2 in a cell-free assay. Together, S. officinalis extracts and its ingredients carnosol and carnosic acid inhibit PGE2 formation by selectively targeting mPGES-1. We conclude that the inhibitory effect of carnosic acid on PGE2 formation, observed in the physiologically relevant whole-blood model, may critically contribute to the anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties of S. officinalis. PMID:22511203

  16. Evaluation of the effectiveness of Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae) in the alleviation of carbon tetrachloride-induced acute hepatotoxicity in the rat.

    PubMed

    Sotelo-Félix, J I; Martinez-Fong, D; Muriel, P; Santillán, R L; Castillo, D; Yahuaca, P

    2002-07-01

    The effect of oral administration of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) on CCl(4)-induced acute liver injury was investigated. Rats were daily treated with the plant extract at a dose of 200 mg/kg corresponding to 6.04 mg/kg of carnosol as determined by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The treatment was initiated 1 h after CCl(4) administration and Rosmarinus officinalis fully prevented CCl(4) effect on hepatic lipid peroxidation after 24 h of CCl(4) administration. The increase in bilirubin level and alanine aminotransferase activity in plasma induced by CCl(4) was completely normalized by Rosmarinus officinalis. The treatment also produced a significant recovery of CCl(4)-induced decrease in liver glycogen content. CCl(4) did not modify the activity of liver cytosolic glutathione S-transferase (GST) compared with that of control groups. However, Rosmarinus officinalis increased liver cytosolic GST activity and produced an additional increment in plasma GST activity in rats treated with CCl(4). Histological evaluation showed that Rosmarinus officinalis partially prevented CCl(4)-induced inflammation, necrosis and vacuolation. Rosmarinus officinalis might exert a dual effect on CCl(4)-induced acute liver injury, acting as an antioxidant and improving GST-dependent detoxification systems. PMID:12065145

  17. Rosmarinus Officinalis Leaves as a Natural Source of Bioactive Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Borrás-Linares, Isabel; Stojanović, Zorica; Quirantes-Piné, Rosa; Arráez-Román, David; Švarc-Gajić, Jaroslava; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    In an extensive search for bioactive compounds from plant sources, the composition of different extracts of rosemary leaves collected from different geographical zones of Serbia was studied. The qualitative and quantitative characterization of 20 rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) samples, obtained by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), was determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC–ESI-QTOF-MS). The high mass accuracy and true isotopic pattern in both MS and MS/MS spectra provided by the QTOF-MS analyzer enabled the characterization of a wide range of phenolic compounds in the extracts, including flavonoids, phenolic diterpenes and abietan-type triterpenoids, among others. According to the data compiled, rosemary samples from Sokobanja presented the highest levels in flavonoids and other compounds such as carnosol, rosmaridiphenol, rosmadial, rosmarinic acid, and carnosic acid. On the other hand, higher contents in triterpenes were found in the extracts of rosemary from Gložan (Vojvodina). PMID:25391044

  18. Rosmarinus officinalis leaves as a natural source of bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Borrs-Linares, Isabel; Stojanovi?, Zorica; Quirantes-Pin, Rosa; Arrez-Romn, David; varc-Gaji?, Jaroslava; Fernndez-Gutirrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    In an extensive search for bioactive compounds from plant sources, the composition of different extracts of rosemary leaves collected from different geographical zones of Serbia was studied. The qualitative and quantitative characterization of 20 rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) samples, obtained by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), was determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS). The high mass accuracy and true isotopic pattern in both MS and MS/MS spectra provided by the QTOF-MS analyzer enabled the characterization of a wide range of phenolic compounds in the extracts, including flavonoids, phenolic diterpenes and abietan-type triterpenoids, among others. According to the data compiled, rosemary samples from Sokobanja presented the highest levels in flavonoids and other compounds such as carnosol, rosmaridiphenol, rosmadial, rosmarinic acid, and carnosic acid. On the other hand, higher contents in triterpenes were found in the extracts of rosemary from Gloan (Vojvodina). PMID:25391044

  19. Antioxidant evaluation for Urtica urens, Rumex cyprius and Borago officinalis edible wild plants in Palestine.

    PubMed

    Jaradat, Nidal Amin; Damiri, Basma; Abualhasan, Murad N

    2016-01-01

    Natural plants products are one of the famous and commonly utilized remedies used in fighting diseases. This study was conducted to evaluate antioxidant activity of plants commonly used in Palestine (Urtica urens, Rumex cyprius and Borago officinalis). Free radical scavenging activity method was evaluated by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate. The result show that the overall antioxidant activity of Rumex cyprius was the highest among the plants, followed by Urtica urens, and Borago officinalis; respectively. The (IC50) values of the methanolic extracts were 29.70±0.60μg/ml, 5.07±0.49μg/ml, 39.92± 0.52 μg/ml for Urtica urens, Rumex cyprius and Borago officinalis respectively. The results of this study revealed that these edible plants have high antioxidant activity and therefore they can provide natural sources of antioxidants and can be useful in preventing various diseases including cancer. These exhibited properties propose that such plants extracts can possibly be used as natural preservatives in the food and pharmaceutical industries and further characterization of Rumex cyprius constituents is needed. PMID:27005499

  20. A new triterpenoid from Verbena officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Shu, Ji-Cheng; Liu, Jian-Qun; Chou, Gui-Xin

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the chemical constituents of Verbena officinalis L., five triterpenoid constituents were isolated and elucidated as 3α,19,23-trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid, namely, 4-epi-barbinervic acid (1), 2α,3β-dihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (2), 3α,24-dihydroxyurs-12-en- 28-oic acid (3), 3α,24-dihydroxy-olean-12-en-28-oic acid (4), ursolic acid (5), using spectroscopic methods and comparing with published data. Compounds 2 and 4 were obtained from V. officinalis for the first time, and compound 1 is a new triterpenoid compound, which exhibits significantly higher antitumor activity against human hepatoma cell line Bel 7402 in vitro than the blank control. PMID:23061751

  1. Antioxidant and anticancer evaluation of Scindapsus officinalis (Roxb.) Schott fruits

    PubMed Central

    Shivhare, Shaktikumar C.; Patidar, Arjun O.; Malviya, K. G.; Shivhare-Malviya, K. K.

    2011-01-01

    Several methods exist for the treatment of cancer in modern medicine. These include chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery; most cancer chemotherapeutants severely affect the host normal cells. Hence the use of natural products now has been contemplated of exceptional value in the control of cancer. Plant-derived natural products such as flavonoids, terpenes, alkaloids, etc., have received considerable attention in recent years due to their diverse pharmacological properties including cytotoxic and cancer chemopreventive effects. Looking into this, the antioxidant and anticancer evaluation of Scindapsus officinalis (Roxb.) Schott fruits has been attempted to investigate its antitumor activity. The collection and authentication of the plant material mainly fruits and their various extractions was done. Identification of plant's active constituents by preliminary phytochemical screening was carried out. An in-vitro cytotoxic assay using the brine shrimp lethality assay with brine shrimp eggs (Artemia salina) at a dose of 1–10 μg/ml with the fruit extract was performed by the method described by Mayer et al. Cell viability using the Trypan blue dye exclusion test at a dose of 20, 40, 80, 120, and 160 μg/ml dissolved in DMSO (final concentration 0.1%), and cytotoxicity using the MTT assay where viable cells convert MTT into a formazan salt were performed. All pharmacological screening for acute toxicity and anti tumour studies using EAC 1 × 106 cells/mouse treated Swiss albino mice at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg/day orally was carried out. Biochemical and antioxidants predictions from various parameters like hematological, RBC, WBC count, PVC, total protein, Tissue Lipid Peroxidation, SOD, CATALASE, GPx, GST levels and anti tumour activity of Scindapsus officinalis were observed. The data was statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's and Tukey's multiple comparison test. The antitumor effect of the extract is evident from the increase in mean survival time (MST) lifespan, reduction in the solid tumor volume, and also the reversal of altered hematological parameters almost equal to normal. The methanolic extract (100–200 mg/kg/day orally) was found to be cytotoxic on human cancer cell lines. In addition, the methanolic extract had an antioxidant effect as reflected by a decrease in LPO, GST, and GPx (oxidant enzymes), and an increase in SOD and catalase. PMID:22529657

  2. Two new acetylenic compounds from Asparagus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Mei; Cai, Jin-Long; Wang, Wen-Xiang; Ai, Hong-Lian; Mao, Zi-Chao

    2016-04-01

    Two new acetylenic compounds, asparoffins A (1) and B (2), together with two known compounds, nyasol (3) and 3″-methoxynyasol (4), were isolated from stems of Asparagus officinalis. The structures of two new compounds were elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analyses (UV, IR, MS, 1D, and 2D NMR). All compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicities against three human cancer cell lines. PMID:26558641

  3. Comparing the effects of Bentonite & Calendula on the improvement of infantile diaper dermatitis: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudi, Mansoreh; Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Mashaiekhi, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Infantile diaper dermatitis is a common, acute inflammatory reaction of the skin around diaper among infants. This study was undertaken to compare the effect of topical application of Bentonite and Calendula creams on the improvement of infantile diaper dermatitis. Methods: This double blind randomized controlled trial was undertaken on 100 patients of infantile diaper dermatitis. The 100 participants were randomly assigned into two groups of 50 each, and were prescribed the coded medicine. The mothers were trained to apply the cream and level of improvement was judged by observing the affected area on the first visit and then after three days of receiving treatment. Results: The mean age of infants was 6.45±5.53 months in Calendula group and 7.35±6.28 months in Bentonite group. Overall, 88 per cent of lesions in the Bentonite group started improving in the first six hours while this rate was 54 per cent in Calendula group (P<0.001). The risk ratio for the improvement in the first six hours was 2.99 folds in the Bentonite group. Also, lesions in 86 per cent infants in the Bentonite group and 52 per cent in the Calendula group were completely improved in the first three days after treatment (P<0.001). Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that in comparison with Calendula, Bentonite had faster healing effect and was more effective on the improvement of infantile diaper dermatitis (IRCT ID: IRCT 2012112811593N1). PMID:26831423

  4. Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents of oregano (Origanum vulgare), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) from Romania.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Spiridon I; Colceru S; Anghel N; Teaca CA; Bodirlau R; Armatu A

    2011-10-01

    The study reported here presents a comparative screening of three medicinal plants including oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) having the same geographical origin, the Southeast region of Romania, and growing in the same natural conditions. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids for the extracts of these were determined. Furthermore, the total antioxidant capacity was also evaluated. It was found that Origanum vulgare and Melissa officinalis extracts present the most effective antioxidant capacity in scavenging DPPH radicals, while Lavandula angustifolia is less active. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was used to identify the components of extracts. Major phenolic acids identified in the analysed species were ferulic, rosmarinic, p-coumaric and caffeic, while predominant flavonoids were quercetin, apigenin kaempherol, which were present as glucosides.

  5. Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents of oregano (Origanum vulgare), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) from Romania.

    PubMed

    Spiridon, Iuliana; Colceru, Svetlana; Anghel, Narcis; Teaca, Carmen Alice; Bodirlau, Ruxanda; Armatu, Alice

    2011-10-01

    The study reported here presents a comparative screening of three medicinal plants including oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) having the same geographical origin, the Southeast region of Romania, and growing in the same natural conditions. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids for the extracts of these were determined. Furthermore, the total antioxidant capacity was also evaluated. It was found that Origanum vulgare and Melissa officinalis extracts present the most effective antioxidant capacity in scavenging DPPH radicals, while Lavandula angustifolia is less active. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was used to identify the components of extracts. Major phenolic acids identified in the analysed species were ferulic, rosmarinic, p-coumaric and caffeic, while predominant flavonoids were quercetin, apigenin kaempherol, which were present as glucosides. PMID:21707233

  6. Hybrid magnetite nanoparticles/ Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil nanobiosystem with antibiofilm activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chifiriuc, Carmen; Grumezescu, Valentina; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Saviuc, Crina; Lazăr, Veronica; Andronescu, Ecaterina

    2012-04-01

    Biofilms formed by fungal organisms are associated with drastically enhanced resistance against most antimicrobial agents, contributing to the persistence of the fungi despite antifungal therapy. The purpose of this study is to combine the unique properties of nanoparticles with the antimicrobial activity of the Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil in order to obtain a nanobiosystem that could be pelliculised on the surface of catheter pieces, in order to obtain an improved resistance to microbial colonization and biofilm development by Candida albicans and C. tropicalis clinical strains. The R. officinalis essential oils were extracted in a Neo-Clevenger type apparatus, and its chemical composition was settled by GC-MS analysis. Functionalized magnetite nanoparticles of up to 20 nm size had been synthesized by precipitation method adapted for microwave conditions, with oleic acid as surfactant. The catheter pieces were coated with suspended core/shell nanoparticles (Fe3O4/oleic acid:CHCl3), by applying a magnetic field on nanofluid, while the CHCl3 diluted essential oil was applied by adsorption in a secondary covering treatment. The fungal adherence ability was investigated in six multiwell plates, in which there have been placed catheters pieces with and without hybrid nanoparticles/essential oil nanobiosystem pellicle, by using culture-based methods and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The R. officinalis essential oil coated nanoparticles strongly inhibited the adherence ability and biofilm development of the C. albicans and C. tropicalis tested strains to the catheter surface, as shown by viable cell counts and CLSM examination. Due to the important implications of C andida spp. in human pathogenesis, especially in prosthetic devices related infections and the emergence of antifungal tolerance/resistance, using the new core/shell/coated shell based on essential oil of R. officinalis to inhibit the fungal adherence could be of a great interest for the biomedical field, opening new directions for the design of film-coated surfaces with antibiofilm properties.

  7. Hybrid magnetite nanoparticles/Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil nanobiosystem with antibiofilm activity.

    PubMed

    Chifiriuc, Carmen; Grumezescu, Valentina; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Saviuc, Crina; Lazăr, Veronica; Andronescu, Ecaterina

    2012-01-01

    Biofilms formed by fungal organisms are associated with drastically enhanced resistance against most antimicrobial agents, contributing to the persistence of the fungi despite antifungal therapy. The purpose of this study is to combine the unique properties of nanoparticles with the antimicrobial activity of the Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil in order to obtain a nanobiosystem that could be pelliculised on the surface of catheter pieces, in order to obtain an improved resistance to microbial colonization and biofilm development by Candida albicans and C. tropicalis clinical strains. The R. officinalis essential oils were extracted in a Neo-Clevenger type apparatus, and its chemical composition was settled by GC-MS analysis. Functionalized magnetite nanoparticles of up to 20 nm size had been synthesized by precipitation method adapted for microwave conditions, with oleic acid as surfactant. The catheter pieces were coated with suspended core/shell nanoparticles (Fe3O4/oleic acid:CHCl3), by applying a magnetic field on nanofluid, while the CHCl3 diluted essential oil was applied by adsorption in a secondary covering treatment. The fungal adherence ability was investigated in six multiwell plates, in which there have been placed catheters pieces with and without hybrid nanoparticles/essential oil nanobiosystem pellicle, by using culture-based methods and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The R. officinalis essential oil coated nanoparticles strongly inhibited the adherence ability and biofilm development of the C. albicans and C. tropicalis tested strains to the catheter surface, as shown by viable cell counts and CLSM examination. Due to the important implications of Candida spp. in human pathogenesis, especially in prosthetic devices related infections and the emergence of antifungal tolerance/resistance, using the new core/shell/coated shell based on essential oil of R. officinalis to inhibit the fungal adherence could be of a great interest for the biomedical field, opening new directions for the design of film-coated surfaces with antibiofilm properties. PMID:22490675

  8. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of Hyssopus officinalis L. from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Fathiazad, Fatemeh; Mazandarani, Masoumeh; Hamedeyazdan, Sanaz

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Hyssopus officinalis (L) (Hyssop, Family: Lamiaceae), one of the endemic Iranian perennial herb with a long history of medicinal use, was studied to detect some biologically active chemical constituents of the plant. Methods: The flavonoids of the hydromethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Hyssopus officinalis (L.) were studied by VLC and crystalisation of the major compound in subsequent fractions. Furthermore, the composition of its essential oil, total phenolic content and antioxidant activities were studied by GC-MS, Folin–Ciocalteau and DPPH reagents respectively. Results: Apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucuronide was isolated as the major flavonoid. All structural elucidation was performed by spectral means. A total of 20 compounds representing 99.97% of the oil have been identified. Myrtenylacetate, Camphor, Germacrene, Spathulenol were the main compounds The total phenol content of the n-butanol and ethylacetate extracts were determined spectrophotometrically according to the Folin–Ciocalteau procedure to be 246 mgGAE g-1 and 51 mgGAE g-1 in the aerial parts of Hyssopus officinalis . The antioxidant activities of apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucuronide, ethylacetate and n-butanol extracts were also determined by DPPH radical scavenging assay with IC50 values of 116×10-3, 103×10-3, 25×10-3 mg mL-1 respectively. The purified flavonoid showed weak radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 116×10-3mg mL-1). N-butanol extract, because of the highest content of total phenolic compounds (246 mgGAE100-1g) had the best antioxidant activity (IC50 = 25mg mL-1). Conclusion: On the whole, the findings of the study revealed that Hyssop possesses valuable antioxidant properties for culinary and possible medicinal use. PMID:24312758

  9. Two new iridoids from Verbena officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Shu, Jicheng; Chou, Guixin; Wang, Zhengtao

    2014-01-01

    Two new iridoids, 3-(5-(methoxycarbonyl)-2-oxo-2H-pyran-3-yl)butanoic acid, named verbeofflin I (1), and 7-hydroxydehydrohastatoside (2), were isolated from the aerial part of Verbena officinalis L, along with three known iridoids, verbenalin (3), 3,4-dihydroverbenalin (4), hastatoside (5) by means of various column chromatography steps. The structures of these compounds were elucidated through analysis of their spectroscopic data obtained using 1D and 2D NMR and MS techniques. Verbeofflin I (1) is the new class of secoiridoid in the family Verbenaceae. PMID:25045888

  10. Cytotoxic indole alkaloids from Tabernaemontana officinalis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing-Jie; Teng, Xi-Feng; Bao, Mei-Fen; Zhong, Xiu-Hong; Ni, Ling; Cai, Xiang-Hai

    2015-12-01

    Continued interest in cytotoxic alkaloids resulted in the isolation of 37 alkaloids including 29 known monoterpenoid indole alkaloids from the aerial parts of Tabernaemontana officinalis. Of the remaining 8 alkaloids, six were bisindole alkaloids named taberdivarines A-F (1-6) and the two were monomers named taberdivarines G and H (7-8). Alkaloids 1 and 2 are voaphylline-vobasinyl type bisindole alkaloids, a structural type previously unknown, while 3-6 exhibited cytotoxicity against three human cancer cell lines HeLa, MCF-7, and SW480 with IC50 values ranging from 1.42 to 11.35 ?M. PMID:25687604

  11. Antimicrobial activity of Rosmarinus officinalis against oral pathogens: relevance of carnosic acid and carnosol.

    PubMed

    Bernardes, Wagner A; Lucarini, Rodrigo; Tozatti, Marcos G; Souza, Maria G M; Silva, Márcio L Andrade; Filho, Ademar A da Silva; Martins, Carlos H Gomes; Crotti, Antonio E Miller; Pauletti, Patricia M; Groppo, Milton; Cunha, Wilson R

    2010-07-01

    The in vitro inhibitory activity of crude EtOH/H2O extracts from the leaves and stems of Rosmarinus officinalis L. was evaluated against the following microorganisms responsible for initiating dental caries: Streptococcus mutans, S. salivarius, S. sobrinus, S. mitis, S. sanguinis, and Enterococcus faecalis. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined with the broth microdilution method. The bioassay-guided fractionation of the leaf extract, which displayed the higher antibacterial activity than the stem extract, led to the identification of carnosic acid (2) and carnosol (3) as the major compounds in the fraction displaying the highest activity, as identified by HPLC analysis. Rosmarinic acid (1), detected in another fraction, did not display any activity against the selected microorganisms. HPLC Analysis revealed the presence of low amounts of ursolic acid (4) and oleanolic acid (5) in the obtained fractions. The results suggest that the antimicrobial activity of the extract from the leaves of R. officinalis may be ascribed mainly to the action of 2 and 3. PMID:20658673

  12. Efficacy of E. officinalis on the Cariogenic Properties of Streptococcus mutans: A Novel and Alternative Approach to Suppress Quorum-Sensing Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Sadaf; Singh, Kunal; Verma, Praveen K.; Khan, Asad U.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was focused on evaluating the potential of Emblica officinalis against cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans, a causative microorganism for caries. The effect of crude extract and ethanolic fraction from Emblica officinalis fruit was analysed against S. mutans. The sub-MIC concentrations of crude and ethanolic fraction of E. officinalis were evaluated for its cariogenic properties such as acid production, biofilm formation, cell-surface hydrophobicity, glucan production, sucrose-dependent and independent adherence. Its effect on biofilm architecture was also investigated with the help of confocal and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, expression of genes involved in biofilm formation was also studied by quantitative RT- PCR. This study showed 50% reduction in adherence at concentrations 156 µg/ and 312.5 µg/ml of crude extract and ethanolic fraction respectively. However, the biofilm was reduced to 50% in the presence of crude extract (39.04 µg/ml) and ethanolic fraction (78.08 µg/ml). Furthermore, effective reduction was observed in the glucan synthesis and cell surface hydrophobicity. The qRT-PCR revealed significant suppression of the genes involved in its virulence. Confocal and scanning electron microscopy clearly depicted the obliteration of biofilm structure with reference to control. Hence, this study reveals the potential of E. officinalis fruit extracts as an alternative and complementary medicine for dental caries by inhibiting the virulence factors of Streptococcus mutans. PMID:22792279

  13. Efficacy of E. officinalis on the cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans: a novel and alternative approach to suppress quorum-sensing mechanism.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Sadaf; Danishuddin, Mohd; Adil, Mohd; Singh, Kunal; Verma, Praveen K; Khan, Asad U

    2012-01-01

    The present study was focused on evaluating the potential of Emblica officinalis against cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans, a causative microorganism for caries. The effect of crude extract and ethanolic fraction from Emblica officinalis fruit was analysed against S. mutans. The sub-MIC concentrations of crude and ethanolic fraction of E. officinalis were evaluated for its cariogenic properties such as acid production, biofilm formation, cell-surface hydrophobicity, glucan production, sucrose-dependent and independent adherence. Its effect on biofilm architecture was also investigated with the help of confocal and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, expression of genes involved in biofilm formation was also studied by quantitative RT- PCR. This study showed 50% reduction in adherence at concentrations 156 g/ and 312.5 g/ml of crude extract and ethanolic fraction respectively. However, the biofilm was reduced to 50% in the presence of crude extract (39.04 g/ml) and ethanolic fraction (78.08 g/ml). Furthermore, effective reduction was observed in the glucan synthesis and cell surface hydrophobicity. The qRT-PCR revealed significant suppression of the genes involved in its virulence. Confocal and scanning electron microscopy clearly depicted the obliteration of biofilm structure with reference to control. Hence, this study reveals the potential of E. officinalis fruit extracts as an alternative and complementary medicine for dental caries by inhibiting the virulence factors of Streptococcus mutans. PMID:22792279

  14. Antioxidant activity and physicochemical properties of an acidic polysaccharide from Morinda officinalis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hualin; Li, Jun; Xia, Jingmin; Lin, Sanqing

    2013-07-01

    An acidic polysaccharide APMO was isolated from Morinda officinalis by alkaline solvent extraction followed by fractionation treatments. Its antioxidant activities were evaluated by various methods in vitro, APMO presented excellent capability in scavenging DPPH radicals, chelating ferrous ions and inhibiting hemolysis of rats erythrocyte induced by H2O2, which was stronger than those of Vc at high concentration. Moreover, APMO displayed moderate reducing power. Physicochemical characteristics of APMO were observed by a combination of chemical and instrumental analysis. APMO predominantly consisted of galacturonic acid, arabinose and galactose. Galacturonic acid was assigned to be 1?4 glycosyl linkage in the skeleton of APMO. PMID:23511058

  15. Insecticidal compounds against Drosophila melanogaster from Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, Mitsuo; Anzai, Jun; Fujioka, Jun; Isikawa, Yukio

    2003-10-01

    Dimethyl malate (1) and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (2) were isolated as insecticidal compounds by bioassay-guided fractionation from MeOH extract of the fruits of Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc. Insecticidal activity against larvae of D. melanogaster was demonstrated: 1 and 2 gave the LC50 value of 6.15 and 11.8 micromol/mL of diet concentration, respectively. Acute toxicity against adults of D. melanogaster, 1 and 2 had the insecticidal activity, with the LD50 value of 21.5 and 34.0 microg/adult. PMID:14526912

  16. SUR1 Receptor Interaction with Hesperidin and Linarin Predicts Possible Mechanisms of Action of Valeriana officinalis in Parkinson.

    PubMed

    Santos, Gesivaldo; Giraldez-Alvarez, Lisandro Diego; Ávila-Rodriguez, Marco; Capani, Francisco; Galembeck, Eduardo; Neto, Aristóteles Gôes; Barreto, George E; Andrade, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders. A theoretical approach of our previous experiments reporting the cytoprotective effects of the Valeriana officinalis compounds extract for PD is suggested. In addiction to considering the PD as a result of mitochondrial metabolic imbalance and oxidative stress, such as in our previous in vitro model of rotenone, in the present manuscript we added a genomic approach to evaluate the possible underlying mechanisms of the effect of the plant extract. Microarray of substantia nigra (SN) genome obtained from Allen Brain Institute was analyzed using gene set enrichment analysis to build a network of hub genes implicated in PD. Proteins transcribed from hub genes and their ligands selected by search ensemble approach algorithm were subjected to molecular docking studies, as well as 20 ns Molecular Dynamics (MD) using a Molecular Mechanic Poison/Boltzman Surface Area (MMPBSA) protocol. Our results bring a new approach to Valeriana officinalis extract, and suggest that hesperidin, and probably linarin are able to relieve effects of oxidative stress during ATP depletion due to its ability to binding SUR1. In addition, the key role of valerenic acid and apigenin is possibly related to prevent cortical hyperexcitation by inducing neuronal cells from SN to release GABA on brain stem. Thus, under hyperexcitability, oxidative stress, asphyxia and/or ATP depletion, Valeriana officinalis may trigger different mechanisms to provide neuronal cell protection. PMID:27199743

  17. SUR1 Receptor Interaction with Hesperidin and Linarin Predicts Possible Mechanisms of Action of Valeriana officinalis in Parkinson

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Gesivaldo; Giraldez-Alvarez, Lisandro Diego; Ávila-Rodriguez, Marco; Capani, Francisco; Galembeck, Eduardo; Neto, Aristóteles Gôes; Barreto, George E.; Andrade, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders. A theoretical approach of our previous experiments reporting the cytoprotective effects of the Valeriana officinalis compounds extract for PD is suggested. In addiction to considering the PD as a result of mitochondrial metabolic imbalance and oxidative stress, such as in our previous in vitro model of rotenone, in the present manuscript we added a genomic approach to evaluate the possible underlying mechanisms of the effect of the plant extract. Microarray of substantia nigra (SN) genome obtained from Allen Brain Institute was analyzed using gene set enrichment analysis to build a network of hub genes implicated in PD. Proteins transcribed from hub genes and their ligands selected by search ensemble approach algorithm were subjected to molecular docking studies, as well as 20 ns Molecular Dynamics (MD) using a Molecular Mechanic Poison/Boltzman Surface Area (MMPBSA) protocol. Our results bring a new approach to Valeriana officinalis extract, and suggest that hesperidin, and probably linarin are able to relieve effects of oxidative stress during ATP depletion due to its ability to binding SUR1. In addition, the key role of valerenic acid and apigenin is possibly related to prevent cortical hyperexcitation by inducing neuronal cells from SN to release GABA on brain stem. Thus, under hyperexcitability, oxidative stress, asphyxia and/or ATP depletion, Valeriana officinalis may trigger different mechanisms to provide neuronal cell protection. PMID:27199743

  18. Volatile constituents of Melissa officinalis leaves determined by plant age.

    PubMed

    Nurzyńska-Wierdak, Renata; Bogucka-Kocka, Anna; Szymczak, Grazyna

    2014-05-01

    The present study investigated changes in the content and chemical composition of the essential oil extracted by hydrodistillation from air-dried Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) leaves in the first and second year of plant growth. The lemon balm oil was analysed by GC-MS and GC-FID. The presence of 106 compounds, representing 100% of the oil constituents, was determined in the oil. The predominant components were geranial (45.2% and 45.1%) and neral (32.8% and 33.8%); their proportions in the examined samples of the oil obtained from one- and two-year-old plants were comparable. However, the age of lemon balm plants affected the concentration of other constituents and the proportions of the following compounds were subject to especially high fluctuations: citronellal (8.7% and 0.4%), geraniol (trace amounts and 0.6%), and geranyl acetate (0.5% and 3.0%), as well as, among others, isogeranial, E-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, germacrene D, and carvacrol. The essential oil of two-year-old plants was characterized by a richer chemical composition than the oil from younger plants. PMID:25026727

  19. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of the topical preparation of Verbena officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Calvo, M I

    2006-10-11

    Verbena officinalis has traditionally been used in herbal medicine in Navarra, Spain, in the treatment of topical inflammation. Due to the anti-inflammatory activity of Verbena officinalis 50% methanolic extract in i.p. and topical administration, the effects of several formulations were prepared and studied using carrageenan-induced edema and formalin testing. Piroxicam gel and methyl salicylate ointment were studied as positive control for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity, respectively. The edema inhibition of the preparations containing extract at the doses of 1-3% w/w were significantly different from the control group. The anti-inflammatory effect of VO-3% was similar to the effect of piroxicam gel 3 h after carrageenan injection. The analgesic activity of topical preparation with more than 2.5% w/w was observed in the early phase. This activity was observed in concentrations of more than 2% w/w in the late phase. The topical analgesic activity of the extract was less than the analgesic activity of methyl salicylate ointment. PMID:16723201

  20. Salvia officinalis L. induces alveolar bud growing in adult female rat mammary glands

    PubMed Central

    Monsefi, Malihezaman; Abedian, Mehrnaz; Azarbahram, Zahra; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: In traditional medicine Salvia officinalis (sage) has been used as menstrual cycle regulator. In the present study the effects of sage extract on breast tissue were examined. Materials and Methods: Fourteen female rats were divided into two groups: 1) Distilled water-treated rats (Con) that were gavaged with 1ml distilled water and 2) Saliva officinalis hydroalcoholic extract (SHE)-treated rats that were gavaged with 30mg/kg/body weight of sage extract for 30 days. The estrus cycle changes were monitored by daily examination of vaginal smear. Whole mounts of right pelvic breast were spread on the slide and stained by carmine. The number of alveolar buds (ABs) type 1 and 2 and lobules of mammary gland were scored. Tissue sections of left pelvic mammary gland were prepared and its histomorphometrical changes were measured. Blood samples were taken from dorsal aorta and estradiol and progesterone concentrations were measured using radioimmunoassay. Results: Estrous cycles decreased significantly in SHE-treated animals. The number of alveolar buds and lobules in mammary gland whole mount of SHE-treated group were higher than the Con group. The number and diameter of ducts in histological section of mammary gland in SHE-treated group increased as compared to the Con group. Conclusion: Sage promotes alveologenesis of mammary glands and it can be used as a lactiferous herb. PMID:26693413

  1. A rapid and highly specific method to evaluate the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Borago officinalis seed oil.

    PubMed

    Vacillotto, Giulio; Favretto, Donata; Seraglia, Roberta; Pagiotti, Rita; Traldi, Pietro; Mattoli, Luisa

    2013-10-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are complex molecules, present in plants as free bases and N-oxides. They are known for their hepatotoxicity, and consequently there is a health risk associated with the use of medicinal herbs that contain PAs. Unfortunately, there is no international regulation of PAs in foods, unlike those for herbs and medicines: in particular, for herbal preparation or herbal extracts, the total PA content must not exceed 1 µg/kg or 1 µg/l, respectively. Borago officinalis seed oil is a source of γ-linolenic acid, and its use is increased in both pharmaceutical and health food industries. Even if studies based on gas chromatography and TLC methods showed that PAs are not co-extracted with oil, the development of a rapid and sensitive method able to evaluate the presence of PAs in commercially available products is surely of interest. The presence of PAs in a commercially available Borago officinalis seed oil was tested either in the oil sample diluted with tetrahydrofuran/methanol (MeOH)/H2 O (85/10/5 v:v:v) or after extraction with MeOH/H2 O (50/50 v:v) solution The samples were analysed by electrospray ionization in positive ion mode and in high mass resolution (60,000) conditions. In both cases to evaluate the effectiveness of the method, spiking experiments were performed adding known amount of two PA standards to the borage seed oil. A limit of detection in the order of 200 ppt was determined for these two compounds, strongly analogous to Borago officinalis seed oil PAs. Consequently, if present, PAs level in Borago officinalis seed oil must lower than 200 ppt. PMID:24130010

  2. Effects of Rosmarinus officinalis on the survivability of random-patterned skin flaps: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Ince, Bilsev; Yildirim, Alpagan Mustafa; Okur, Mehmet Ihsan; Dadaci, Mehmet; Yoruk, Ebru

    2015-04-01

    Improving survival of skin flaps used in soft-tissue reconstruction is clinically an important goal, and several systemic and local agents have been used for this purpose. However, a substance that prevents the flap necrosis has not yet been defined. This study aimed to investigate whether a Rosmarinus officinalis extract could improve the skin flap survival. In this study, 21 Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups. Rectangular 8 × 2 cm random-pattern flaps were elevated from the back of the rats. Group I was considered the control group. In Group II, a 0.5-cc of Rosmarinus officinalis oil was applied with an ear bud to the flap area 30 minutes before the flap elevation. After suturing the flaps to their location, the oil was administered twice a day for a week. In Group III, 0.5 cc of the oil was applied twice a day to the area that was elevated for a week until surgery. At the end of the week, the flaps were sutured to their location, and wiped postoperatively twice a day for a week with the oil. Mean percentage of these areas was found to be 29.81%, 58.99%, and 67.68% in Group I, Group II, and Group III, respectively. The mean percentage of the flap survival areas and vessel diameters were significantly greater in the Groups II and III than in the control group (p < 0.05). The results revealed that the topical use of the Rosmarinus officinalis extract can increase the flap survivability. PMID:24702647

  3. Iboga-Type Alkaloids from Ervatamia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ben-Qin; Wang, Wen-Jing; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Li, Guo-Qiang; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Ren-Wang; Yang, Ting-Ting; Shi, Lei; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Ye, Wen-Cai

    2014-08-22

    Seven new iboga-type alkaloids, ervaoffines A-D (1-4), (7S)-3-oxoibogaine hydroxyindolenine (5), ibogaine-5,6-dione (6), and 19-epi-5-oxovoacristine (7), and 10 known alkaloids were isolated from Ervatamia officinalis. The absolute configurations of 1-7 were determined through X-ray diffraction and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) analyses. Ervaoffines A and B represent the first iboga-type pseudoindoxyl alkaloids in which the C-2 spiro carbon configuration is opposite to that of other members of this class, such as iboluteine (8). The relationship between the absolute configuration of the spiro carbons and the Cotton effect in the ECD spectrum is established for the first time for iboga-type pseudoindoxyl and oxindole alkaloids. Additionally, a plausible biogenetic pathway for these alkaloids is proposed. PMID:25093992

  4. Monoterpene synthases from common sage (Salvia officinalis)

    DOEpatents

    Croteau, Rodney Bruce; Wise, Mitchell Lynn; Katahira, Eva Joy; Savage, Thomas Jonathan

    1999-01-01

    cDNAs encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase from common sage (Salvia officinalis) have been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequences has been determined. Accordingly, isolated DNA sequences (SEQ ID No:1; SEQ ID No:3 and SEQ ID No:5) are provided which code for the expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase (SEQ ID No:2), 1,8-cineole synthase (SEQ ID No:4) and (+)-sabinene synthase SEQ ID No:6), respectively, from sage (Salvia officinalis). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase, or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of the aforementioned recombinant monoterpene synthases that may be used to facilitate their production, isolation and purification in significant amounts. Recombinant (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase may be used to obtain expression or enhanced expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of monoterpenoids, or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase, or the production of their products.

  5. Complete genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain Co1-6, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium of Calendula officinalis

    SciTech Connect

    Köberl, Martina; White, Richard A.; Erschen, Sabine; Spanberger, Nora; El-Arabi, Tarek F.; Jansson, Janet K.; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-08-13

    The genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain Co1-6, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) with broad-spectrum antagonistic activity against plant-pathogenic fungi, bacteria, and nematodes, consists of a single 3.9-Mb circular chromosome. The genome reveals genes putatively responsible for its promising biocontrol and PGP properties.

  6. Evaluation of nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of Borage (Echium amoenum) and Valerian (Valerian officinalis).

    PubMed

    Adel Pilerood, Shirin; Prakash, Jamuna

    2014-05-01

    The nutritional composition and antioxidant activity (in aqueose and solvent extracts) of two medicinal plants of Iranian origin Borage (Echium amoenum) and Valerian (Valerian officinalis) used as tea were determined. Samples were analyzed for antioxidant components viz. polyphenols, vitamin C, β carotene, flavonoids, anthocyanins and tannins. Antioxidant assays such as free radical scavenging activity, reducing power and total antioxidant activity were carried out for ethanol, methanol, acetone, 80% methanol and 80% ethanolic extracts. In borage highest and least activity was observed in water and acetone extract respectively in all assays. In Valerian, 80% methanolic extract showed highest activity in reducing power and free radical scavenging activity assay. Total polyphenols in borage and valerian were 1,220 and 500 mg in ethanolic extracts and 25 and 130 mg in acetonic extracts respectively. Total carotenoids and vitamin C contents were 31.6 and 133.69 mg and 51.2 and 44.87 mg for borage and valerian respectively. Highest amount of tannins were extracted in 80% methanolic extract. It can be concluded that borage and valerian exhibited antioxidant activity in all extracts. The antioxidant activity could be attributed to their polyphenol and tannin and flavonoids contents. In all assays borage showed higher activity than valerian. PMID:24803690

  7. Antibacterial, allelopathic and antioxidant activities of essential oil of Salvia officinalis L. growing wild in the Atlas Mountains of Morocco.

    PubMed

    Bouajaj, S; Benyamna, A; Bouamama, H; Romane, A; Falconieri, D; Piras, A; Marongiu, B

    2013-01-01

    Salvia officinalis (Common sage, Culinary sage) is an aromatic plant that is frequently used as a spice in Mediterranean cookery and in the food industry and as a traditional medicine for the treatment of several infectious diseases. The essential oils were obtained by two different methods [hydrodistillation (HD) and microwave (Mw)] from the aerial part of S. officinalis L. growing wild in Ourika-Marrakech in Morocco. Ourika is a large zone of the Atlas Mountains which is considered as a large reserve of Flora, especially medicinal and aromatic plants. The obtained oils were analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compared with that of Tunisia. Thirty-six compounds were identified from the Mw-extracted oil which accounted for 97.32% of the total oil composition. However, 33 compounds obtained by HD representing 98.67%. The major components were trans-thujone (14.10% and 29.84%), 1,8-cineole (5.10% and 16.82%), camphor (4.99% and 9.14%), viridiflorol (16.42% and 9.92%), β-caryophyllene (19.83% and 5.20%) and α-humulene (13.54% and 4.02%). Antibacterial, allelopathic (% germination in lettuce seeds and inhibited root growth obtained after treatment with S. officinalis oils) and antioxidant (IC₅₀ values 22 mg/mL) activities were studied. PMID:23240623

  8. An in-depth review on the medicinal flora Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Begum, Asia; Sandhya, Subarda; Shaffath Ali, Syed; Vinod, Kombath Ravindran; Reddy, Swapna; Banji, David

    2013-01-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) is a common household plant which belongs to the family Lamiaceae and is grown in many parts of the world. It is a woody, perennial herb with fragrant, evergreen, needle-like leaves and white, pink, purple or blue flowers. The two most commonly grown hardy Rosemaries are Rosmarinus officinalis 'Arp' and R. officinalis 'Madelene Hill' (syn. 'Hill Hardy'). The other cultivars of the plant are R. officinalis 'Albus', R. officinalis 'Bendenen Blue', R. officinalis 'Goodwin Creek', R. officinalis 'Herb Cottage', R. officinalis 'Logee's Light Blue', R. officinalis 'Miss Jessup's Upright', R. officinalis 'Russian River', R. officinalis 'Salem'. The chemical constituents include bitter principle, resin, tannic acid, volatile oils and fl avonoids. The volatile oil consists of borneol, bornyl acetate, camphene, cineol, pinene and camphor. It is used for problems involved in central nervous system, cardio vascular system, genito urinary conditions, liver treatments, reproductive system and respiratory system. The volatile oil of the plant is used in oils and lotions for the treatment of various ailments like arthritis, gout, muscular pain, neuralgia, wound and rubbed into hair for stimulating the hair bulbs to renewed activity, to prevent premature baldness. PMID:24584866

  9. Bioactivity of essential oils of Zingiber officinalis and Achyranthes aspera against mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Khandagle, Abhay J; Tare, Vrushali S; Raut, Kishor D; Morey, Rashmi A

    2011-08-01

    Due to the global health problems associated with mosquito-borne diseases, over two million people primarily in the tropical countries are at risk. The widely and commonly used chemical method though effective, has some major disadvantages making insect control practically difficult. In view of the above, it is unavoidable to search for new molecules, which are eco-friendly, cheaper, and safer. The present study deals with evaluation of bioactive potential of two commonly occurring plants against mosquitoes presenting an alternative to the conventional chemical methods. Essential oils extracted by steam distillation from rhizome of Zingiber officinalis and leaf and stem of Achyranthes aspera were evaluated for larvicidal, attractant/repellent, and oviposition attractant/deterrent activity against two mosquito species viz. Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. The highest larvicidal activity, i.e., LC(50) = 154 ppm and LC(50) = 197 ppm for A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus, respectively was shown by Z. officinalis. This oil also offers 5-h protection at the concentration of 0.5 mg/cm² from both mosquito species. The highest oviposition deterrence activity was exhibited by A. aspera stem oil, i.e., 100% and 85.71%, in case of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus, respectively, at the concentration of 0.1%. These results reveal that both these oils have control potential against A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. PMID:21311910

  10. Chemical composition analysis of the essential oil of Melissa officinalis L. from Kurdistan, Iran by HS/SPME method and calculation of the biophysicochemical coefficients of the components.

    PubMed

    Taherpour, Avat Arman; Maroofi, Hossein; Rafie, Zeinab; Larijani, Kambiz

    2012-01-01

    The volatile constituents of the essential oil of wild Melissa officinalis L. obtained from the Kurdistan province of Iran were extracted by headspace/solid-phase micro-extraction and were analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Of a total of 14 compounds in the oil, 12 (85.7%) were identified. The main components were as follows: (E)-citral (37.2%), neral (23.9%) and citronellal (20.3%). Some physicochemical properties, such as the logarithm of calculated octanol-water partitioning coefficients (log K (ow))(,) total biodegradation (TB (d) in mol h(-1) and g h(-1)), water solubility (S (w), mg L(-1) at 25°C) and median lethal concentration 50 (LC(50)), were calculated for compounds 1-14 from M. officinalis L. PMID:21809949

  11. Three New Isomeric Indole Alkaloids from Nauclea officinalis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Yang; Wang, Ru-Xia; Zhao, Yan-Xia; Liu, Ke; Wang, Feng-Ling; Sun, Jing-Yong

    2015-08-01

    Three new isomeric monoterpene indole alkaloids, naucleofficines I-III (1-3, resp.) were isolated from the stems (with bark) of Nauclea officinalis. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods and single-crystal diffraction analyses. The cytotoxic activities of 1-3 against human colon cancer, human gastric cancer, and human hepatoma cells were also investigated. PMID:26265577

  12. Top-down Targeted Metabolomics Reveals a Sulfur-Containing Metabolite with Inhibitory Activity against Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme in Asparagus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Nakabayashi, Ryo; Yang, Zhigang; Nishizawa, Tomoko; Mori, Tetsuya; Saito, Kazuki

    2015-05-22

    The discovery of bioactive natural compounds containing sulfur, which is crucial for inhibitory activity against angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), is a challenging task in metabolomics. Herein, a new S-containing metabolite, asparaptine (1), was discovered in the spears of Asparagus officinalis by targeted metabolomics using mass spectrometry for S-containing metabolites. The contribution ratio (2.2%) to the IC50 value in the crude extract showed that asparaptine (1) is a new ACE inhibitor. PMID:25922884

  13. Redox activity of melanin from the ink sac of Sepia officinalis by means of colorimetric oxidative assay.

    PubMed

    Srisuk, Pathomthat; Correlo, Vitor M; Leonor, Isabel B; Palladino, Pasquale; Reis, Rui L

    2016-04-01

    The redox properties of natural extract from cuttlefish ink sac (Sepia officinalis) and synthetic melanin used as a biomimetic in melanin structural investigation were determined by comparison of this phenol-based heterogeneous pigment with gallic acid used as a standard in Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric assay widely employed for characterisation of oxidative properties of biomaterials. Reactivity of sepia melanin reported here is much higher than previously indicated and this protocol should allow the redox characterisation of all melanins irrespective of their origin and composition. PMID:26299816

  14. Chlorinated Coumarins from the Polypore Mushroom, Fomitopsis officinalis, and their Activity Against Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Chang Hwa; Jaki, Birgit U.; Klein, Larry L.; Lankin, David C.; McAlpine, James B.; Napolitano, José G.; Fryling, Nicole A.; Franzblau, Scott G.; Cho, Sang Hyun; Stamets, Paul E.; Wang, Yuehong; Pauli, Guido F.

    2013-01-01

    An EtOH extract of the polypore mushroom, Fomitopsis officinalis afforded two new naturally occurring chlorinated coumarins which were identified as the previously synthesized compounds, 6-chloro-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-2-one (1) and ethyl 6-chloro-2-oxo-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-3-carboxylate (2). The structures of the two isolates were deduced ab initio by spectroscopic methods and confirmed by chemical synthesis. In addition, an analogue of each was synthesized as of 7-chloro-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-2-one (3) and ethyl 7-chloro-2-oxo-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-3-carboxylate (4). All four compounds were characterized physicochemically, and their antimicrobial activity profiles revealed a narrow spectrum of activity with lowest MICs against the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. PMID:24087924

  15. Anti-proliferative effect of Melissa officinalis on human colon cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Encalada, Manuel Alejandro; Hoyos, Kelly Melissa; Rehecho, Sheyla; Berasategi, Izaskun; de Ciriano, Mikel García-Íñiguez; Ansorena, Diana; Astiasarán, Iciar; Navarro-Blasco, Iñigo; Cavero, Rita Yolanda; Calvo, María Isabel

    2011-11-01

    Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) is consumed as a traditional herbal tea in the Mediterranean region. The cytotoxic effect of the 50% ethanolic and aqueous extract, determined by the MTT and NR assays, was evaluated in vitro on Human Colon Cancer Cell Line (HCT-116), using Triton 10% as positive control. The 50% ethanolic extract showed significant differences after 72 h of treatment, reducing cell proliferation to values close to 40%, even the lowest dose tested (5 μg/ml). In the MTT assay, the same extract caused the lowest cell viability with 13% at a concentration of 1,000 μg/ml after 72 h of treatment, being a value lower than Triton 10%. The antioxidant activity was also confirmed evaluating the capacity of the extracts to scavenge ABTS and DPPH radicals, and IC(50) values were highly correlated with the total phenolic and flavonoid content. Bioassay guided fractionation led to the isolation of an anti-proliferative compound, rosmarinic acid. Its structural elucidation was performed by HPLC/DAD/ESI/MS analysis. High dose of rosmarinic acid (1,000 μg/ml) was clearly cytotoxic against HCT-116 cells, with a significant decrease in cell number since the earliest time point (24 h). PMID:21964875

  16. Diversity and Biological Activities of Endophytic Fungi of Emblica officinalis, an Ethnomedicinal Plant of India

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Archana; Raghunatha, Prajwal

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, an attempt to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of fungal endophytes inhabiting Emblica officinalis has been made keeping in view the medicinal importance of the selected host plant in Indian traditional practices. A total of four endophytic fungi belonging to Phylum Ascomycetes were isolated from different parts of the plant which were characterized morphologically and by using rDNA-internal transcribed spacer. The most frequently isolated endophyte was Phomopsis sp. The antioxidant activity by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and reducing power assay, and total phenol were evaluated using ethanolic extract of endophytic fungi. DPPH activities in all the ethanolic extract increased with the increase in concentrations. Endophytes, Phomopsis sp. and Xylaria sp. showed highest antioxidant activity and also had the higher levels of phenolics. Antimicrobial activity of fungal extract were tested against four bacteria namely, Escherichia coli MTCC730, Enteroccocus faecalis MTCC2729, Salmonella enterica ser. paratyphi MTCC735 and Streptococcus pyogenes MTCC1925, and the fungus Candida albicans MTCC183. In general, the fungal extracts inhibited the growth of test organisms except E. coli. PMID:22783128

  17. [Separation and identification of the flavonoids from Buddleia officinalis Maxim].

    PubMed

    Li, J S; Zhao, Y Y; Wang, B; Li, X L; Ma, L B

    1996-01-01

    The flowers of Buddleia officinalis Maxim have been used to cure eye inflammation in China. Eight flavonoid compounds were isolated from them. Their structures were characterized as acacetin (1), apigenin (2), luteolin (3), neobudofficide (4), linarin (acaciin 5), luteolin-7-O-rutinoside (6), luteolin-7-O-glucoside (7) and cosmosiin (8), on the basis of chemical and spectral evidences. The new compound 4 was identified as 5,7-dihydroxy-4'-O-methoxyflavone-7-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->2)-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->6)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside and named neobudofficide. All the compounds were isolated from B. officinalis for the first time, except linarin and acacetin. PMID:9863256

  18. Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea infusion as physiological stress decreaser.

    PubMed

    Feliú-Hemmelmann, Karina; Monsalve, Francisco; Rivera, César

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea infusion on the severity of physiological chronic stress induced by movement restriction in CF-1 mice. 40 CF-1 male mice, six weeks of age, were divided into 4 groups (n = 10 for each group): (1) Group RS/MP received two treatments, induced stress through movement restriction and a infusion of Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea in a dose of 200 mg/kg, (2) RS group with induced stress using movement restriction, (3) MP group, which received only a infusion, and (4) a CONTROL group that received no treatment. The severity of the stress was obtained by analysis of the physical parameters of body weight, thymus and spleen, and associated biomarkers with stress, corticosterone, and glucose. Animals that consumed Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea infusion had lower plasma corticosterone levels (Student's t test, Welch, p = 0.05), which is the most important biomarker associated with physiological stress, demonstrating a phytotherapy effect. PMID:23844268

  19. Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea infusion as physiological stress decreaser

    PubMed Central

    Feliú-Hemmelmann, Karina; Monsalve, Francisco; Rivera, César

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea infusion on the severity of physiological chronic stress induced by movement restriction in CF-1 mice. 40 CF-1 male mice, six weeks of age, were divided into 4 groups (n = 10 for each group): (1) Group RS/MP received two treatments, induced stress through movement restriction and a infusion of Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea in a dose of 200 mg/kg, (2) RS group with induced stress using movement restriction, (3) MP group, which received only a infusion, and (4) a CONTROL group that received no treatment. The severity of the stress was obtained by analysis of the physical parameters of body weight, thymus and spleen, and associated biomarkers with stress, corticosterone, and glucose. Animals that consumed Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea infusion had lower plasma corticosterone levels (Student’s t test, Welch, p = 0.05), which is the most important biomarker associated with physiological stress, demonstrating a phytotherapy effect. PMID:23844268

  20. Bioactive compounds, antioxidant and binding activities and spear yield of Asparagus officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Won; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Yu, In Ho; Gorinstein, Shela; Bae, Jong Hyang; Ku, Yang Gyu

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this investigation was to find a proper harvesting period and establishing fern number, which effects the spear yield, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities of Asparagus officinalis L. Spears were harvested at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after sprouting. Control for comparison was used without harvest. Spears and total yield increased with prolonged spear harvest period. In harvest of 6 weeks long optimum spear yield was the highest and fern numbers were 5 ~ 8. Bioactive compounds (polyphenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins and ascorbic acid) and the levels of antioxidant activities by ferric-reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) assays in asparagus ethanol extracts significantly differed in the investigated samples and were the highest at 6 weeks harvest period (P < 0.05). The first and the second segments from the tip significantly increased with the increase of catalase (CAT). It was interesting to investigate in vitro how human serum albumin (HSA) interacts with polyphenols extracted from investigated vegetables. Therefore the functional properties of asparagus were studied by the interaction of polyphenol ethanol extracts with HSA, using 3D- FL. In conclusion, antioxidant status (bioactive compounds, binding and antioxidant activities) improved with the harvesting period and the first segment from spear tip. Appropriate harvesting is effective for higher asparagus yield and its bioactivity. PMID:24793354

  1. Effect of Melissa officinalis supplementation on growth performance and meat quality characteristics in organically produced broilers.

    PubMed

    Kasapidou, E; Giannenas, I; Mitlianga, P; Sinapis, E; Bouloumpasi, E; Petrotos, K; Manouras, A; Kyriazakis, I

    2014-01-01

    1. A trial was conducted to study the effect of Melissa officinalis supplementation on organic broiler performance and meat chemical, microbiological, sensory and nutritional quality. 2. Male and female day-old Ross 308 chicks were fed on a standard commercial diet containing 0, 2.5, 5 or 10 g/kg feed ground M. officinalis for 84 d before slaughter. 3. Weight gain and feed conversion ratio were significantly improved in the broilers receiving either 5 or 10 mg M. officinalis/kg feed. 4. Inclusion of M. officinalis did not affect muscle chemical and fatty acid composition. 5. On the basis of microbiological and sensory experimental data and subsequent extension of meat shelf life, M. officinalis did not reduce the microbial populations of the meat, but was effective in limiting lipid oxidation. PMID:25299877

  2. Bioactivity of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils against Apis mellifera, Varroa destructor and Paenibacillus larvae related to the drying treatment of the plant material.

    PubMed

    Maggi, M; Gende, L; Russo, K; Fritz, R; Eguaras, M

    2011-02-01

    In this study, chemical composition, physicochemical properties and bioactivity of two essential oils of Rosmarinus officinalis extracted from plant material with different drying treatments against Apis mellifera, Varroa destructor and Paenibacillus larvae were assessed. The lethal concentration 50 (LC50) for mites and bees was estimated using a complete exposure method test. The broth microdilution method was followed in order to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the essential oils against P. larvae. Physicochemical properties were similar in both the essential oils, but the percentage of components showed certain differences according to their drying treatment. β-Myrcene and 1,8-cineole were the main constituents in the oils. The LC50 for complete exposure method at 24, 48 and 72 h was minor for mites exposed to R. officinalis essential oil dried in oven conditions. MIC values were 700-800 µg mL(-1) and 1200 µg mL(-1) for R. officinalis dried in air and oven conditions, respectively. The results reported in this research show that oil toxicity against V. destructor and P. larvae differed depending on the drying treatment of the plant material before the distillation of essential oil. PMID:20623426

  3. Chemical composition and anticancer activity of essential oils of Mediterranean sage (Salvia officinalis L.) grown in different environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Russo, Alessandra; Formisano, Carmen; Rigano, Daniela; Senatore, Felice; Delfine, Sebastiano; Cardile, Venera; Rosselli, Sergio; Bruno, Maurizio

    2013-05-01

    Salvia officinalis L. can be found worldwide and its leaves are commonly used as ingredient in food industry. Sage essential oil is applied in the treatment of a range of diseases and has been shown to possess different biological activities. The objectives of our research were to study the effects of environment on crop, chemical composition and anticancer activity on S. officinalis essential oil. Sage was cultivated at eighteen experimental sites in south-central Italy (Molise) in different growing environments. The essential oils (S1-S18), extracted by hydrodistillation, were analyzed by GC and CG/MS. Results show that the main components were α-thujone, camphor, borneol, γ-muurolene and sclareol for all the samples, but the percentages of these compounds varied depending on environmental factors such as altitude, water availability and pedo-climatic conditions. The growth-inhibitory and proapoptotic effects of the eighteen sage essential oils were evaluated in three human melanoma cell lines, A375, M14, and A2058. PMID:23291326

  4. Modulatory role of Emblica officinalis against alcohol induced biochemical and biophysical changes in rat erythrocyte membranes.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Vaddi Damodara; Padmavathi, Pannuru; Paramahamsa, Maturu; Varadacharyulu, Nallanchakravarthula

    2009-08-01

    This study investigated the protective effect of Emblica officinalis against alcohol-induced biochemical and biophysical changes in rat erythrocyte membranes. Thirty-two male rats were divided into four groups (n=8 in each group): control (C), alcohol (A), alcohol plus Emblica fruit extract (A+EFE) and Emblica fruit extract (EFE) alone. Administration of twenty percent alcohol (5 g/kg body weight) to rats significantly increased cholesterol/phospholipid (C/P) ratio, lipid peroxidation and the activities of Na(+)/K(+) and Mg(2+) ATPases in erythrocyte membranes as well as augmented nitric oxide (NO) levels. However, membrane fluidity studies using the fluorescent probe DPH (1,6 diphenyl 1,3 hexatriene) reveals that alcohol administration significantly (p<0.05) increased membrane anisotropic values and altered membrane individual phospholipid content. Administration of EFE (250 mg/kg body weight) to alcoholic rats resulted in significant (p<0.05) reduction of NO levels, erythrocyte membrane lipid peroxidation, C/P ratio, activities of Na(+)/K(+) and Mg(2+) ATPases and fluorescent anisotropic values. Further, EFE administration to alcoholic rats beneficially modulated membrane properties as evidenced from the contents of total phospholipids as well individual phospholipid classes. The tannoid principles present in Emblica offers protection against alcohol induced adverse effects in rats. PMID:19454300

  5. Protective effect of Calamintha officinalis Moench leaves against alcohol-induced gastric mucosa injury in rats. Macroscopic, histologic and phytochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Monforte, M T; Lanuzza, F; Pergolizzi, S; Mondello, F; Tzakou, O; Galati, E M

    2012-06-01

    Calamintha officinalis Moench (Lamiaceae) is an aromatic plant used since ancient times for its preservative and medicinal properties. The plant, known as 'Mentuccia' in Central Italy, is used in cooking as an aromatizant and to impart aroma and flavour to food. The methanol extract of the leaves was subjected to phytochemical and biological investigations. The extract contains polyphenols, catechic tannins and terpenes and shows radical scavenger activity. By means of HPLC analysis, eriocitrin, eriodyctiol, acacetin, linarin, benzoic acid and some phenolic acids, such as caffeic, chlorogenic, p-coumaric, were determined. The gastroprotective activity of the extract was investigated using ethanol-induced ulcer in rats, with sucralfate as a reference drug. Samples of gastric mucosa, stained by PAS and haematoxylin/eosin, were observed by light microscopy. The efficacy of the extract was comparable to that of the reference drug. Probably the gastroprotective effect depends on a synergistic action of all the compounds occurring in C. officinalis leaves, even if the antioxidant potential of the leaves plays an important role by removing damaging agents from the gastric mucosa. PMID:22076933

  6. DNA isolation protocol for the medicinal plant lemon balm (Melissa officinalis, Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Ghaffariyan, S; Mohammadi, S A; Aharizad, S

    2012-01-01

    Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) is a medicinal plant that is widely used as a sedative or calmant, spasmolytic and antibacterial agent and sleep aid. This has led to a high demand for lemon balm products, resulting in the extinction of this species in some of its natural habitats. Molecular techniques have increasingly been used in plant diversity conservation and isolation of PCR amplifiable genomic DNA is an important pre-requisite. Lemon balm contains high levels of polyphenols and polysaccharides, which pose a major challenge for the isolation of high-quality DNA. We compared different genomic DNA extraction protocols, including traditional phenol-chloroform DNA extraction protocols and two commercial kits for DNA purification for their ability to produce good-quality DNA from fresh leaves of five lemon balm genotypes. Quality and quantity of the DNA samples were determined using 0.8% agarose gel electrophoresis and a spectrophotometer. The DNA purity was further confirmed by PCR amplification using barley retrotransposon LTR base primers. The spectral quality of DNA as measured by the A(260)/A(280) ratio ranged from 1.46 to 2.37. The Fermentase genomic DNA purification kit and the CTAB extraction protocol using PVP and ammonium acetate to overcome the high levels of polyphenols and polysaccharides yielded high-quality DNA with a mean A(260)/A(280) ratio of 1.87. The quantity of DNA and its PCR purity were similar with all the protocols, but considering the time and cost required for extraction of DNA from a large number of samples, the CTAB protocol using PVP and ammonium acetate is suitable for lemon balm. PMID:22614273

  7. New triterpenoid saponins from the roots of Saponaria officinalis.

    PubMed

    Moniuszko-Szajwaj, Barbara; Pecio, Lukasz; Kowalczyk, Mariusz; Simonet, Ana M; Macias, Francisco A; Szumacher-Strabel, Malgorzata; Cieslak, Adam; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Stochmal, Anna

    2013-12-01

    Three new triterpenoid saponins (1-3), along with nine known saponins, were isolated from the roots of Saponaria officinalis L. Two of them: vaccaroside D (4) and dianchinenoside B (5) are known, but not previously reported for S. officinalis, and seven others: saponarioside C (6), D (7), F (8), G (9), I (10), K (11), and L (12) have been previously isolated from this plant. The structures of the new saponins were established as 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-16alpha-hydroxygypsogenic acid-28-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 -->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-16alpha-hydroxygypsogenic acid-28-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-[alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->6)-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2) and 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-gypsogenic acid-28-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-[6-O-(3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3). Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods, including 1D- (1H, 13C) and 2D-NMR (D QF-COSY, TOCSY, ROESY, HSQC and HMBC) experiments, as well as high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS), ESI-MS/MS and acid hydrolysis. PMID:24555273

  8. Ecophysiological and antioxidant traits of Salvia officinalis under ozone stress.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Elisa; Francini, Alessandra; Lorenzini, Giacomo; Nali, Cristina

    2015-09-01

    Ecophysiological and antioxidant traits were evaluated in sage (Salvia officinalis) plants exposed to 120 ppb of ozone for 90 consecutive days (5 h day(-1)). At the end of fumigation, plants showed slight leaf yellowing that could be considered the first visual symptom of leaf senescence. Ozone-stressed leaves showed (1) reduced photosynthetic activity (-70 % at the end of exposure), (2) chlorophyll loss (-59 and -56 % of chlorophyll a and b concentrations, starting from 30 days from the beginning of exposure), and (3) cellular water deficit (-12 % of the relative water content at the end of the fumigation). These phenomena are indicative of oxidative stress in the chloroplasts (as confirmed by the strong degradation of β-carotene) despite the photoprotection conferred by xanthophyll cycle [as demonstrated by the significant rise of de-epoxidation index, reaching the maximum value at the end of the treatment (+69 %)], antioxidant compounds [as confirmed by the increase of phenols (in particular caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid)], and water-soluble carbohydrates (especially monosaccharides). By means of combined ecophysiological and biochemical approaches, this study demonstrates that S. officinalis is able to activate an adaptive survival mechanism allowing the plant to complete its life cycle even under oxidative stressful conditions. PMID:25925147

  9. Assessment of rosmarinic acid content in six Lamiaceae species extracts and their antioxidant and antimicrobial potential.

    PubMed

    Benedec, Daniela; Hanganu, Daniela; Oniga, Ilioara; Tiperciuc, Brindusa; Olah, Neli-Kinga; Raita, Oana; Bischin, Cristina; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Radu; Vlase, Laurian

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, six indigenous species of Lamiaceae family (Origanum vulgare L., Melissa officinalis L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ocimum basilicum L., Salvia officinalis L. and Hyssopus officinalis L.), have been analyzed to assess the rosmarinic acid, phenyl propane derivatives and polyphenolic contents and their antioxidant and antimicrobial potential. HPLC-MS method has been used for the analysis ofrosmarinicacid. The phenyl propane derivatives and total phenolic contents were determined using spectrophotometric method. The ethanolic extracts were screened for antioxidant activities by DPPH radical scavenging, HAPX (hemoglobin ascorbate per oxidase activity inhibition), and EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance) methods. The ethanolic extracts revealed the presence of rosmarinic acid in the largest amount in O. vulgare (12.40mg/g) and in the lowest in R. officinalis (1.33 mg/g). O. vulgare extracts exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity, in line with the rosmarinic acid and polyphenolic contents. The antimicrobial testing showed a significant activity against L. monocytogenes, S. aureus and C. albicans for all six extracts. PMID:26687747

  10. Preliminary study on mercury uptake by Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Rosemary) in a mining area (Mt. Amiata, Italy)

    SciTech Connect

    Barghigiani, C.; Ristori, T.

    1995-04-01

    Among the different plants analyzed to assess environmental mercury contamination of mining areas, lichens are those most studied, followed by brooms together with pine, which was also used in other areas, and spruce. Other species, both naturally occurring and cultivated, have also been studied. This work reports on the results of mercury uptake and accumulation in rosemary in relation to metal concentrations in both air and soil. R. officinalis is a widespread endemic Mediterranean evergreen shrub, which in Italy grows naturally and is also cultivated as a culinary herb. This research was carried out in Tuscany (Italy), in the Mt. Amiata area, which is characterized by the presence of cinnabar (HgS) deposits and has been used for mercury extraction and smelting from Etruscan times until 1980, and in the country near the town of Pisa, 140 km away from Mt. Amiata. 16 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Flavonoids from Emblica officinalis and Mangifera indica-effectiveness for dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Anila, L; Vijayalakshmi, N R

    2002-01-01

    Flavonoids from Emblica officinalis and Mangifera indica effectively reduce lipid levels in serum and tissues of rats induced hyperlipidemia. Hepatic HMG CoA reductase activity was significantly inhibited in rats fed E. officinalis flavonoids. But increase of this enzyme was observed in rats administered M. indica flavonoids. LCAT showed elevated levels in rats fed flavonoids from E. officinalis and M. indica. The degradation and elimination of cholesterol was highly enhanced in both the groups. In E. officinalis, the mechanism of hypolipidemic action is by the concerted action of inhibition of synthesis and enhancement of degradation. In the other group (M. indica) inhibition of cholesterogenesis was not encountered but highly significant degradation of cholesterol was noted, which may be the pivotal factor for hypolipidemic activity in this case. Though the mechanisms differ in the two cases, the net effect is to lower lipid levels. PMID:11744299

  12. Copper phytoremediation potential of Calandula officinalis L. and the role of antioxidant enzymes in metal tolerance.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Sunayana; Das, Suchismita

    2016-04-01

    Cu phytoremediation potential of an ornamental plant, Calandula officinalis, was explored in terms of growth responses, photosynthetic activities and antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, CAT and GPX. The results showed that this plant had high Cu tolerance of up to 400mg/kg, which is far above the phytotoxic range for non hyperaccumulators. It grew normally in soils at all the doses (150-400mg/kg) without showing external signs of phytotoxicity. At 150mg/kg, flowering was augmented; root and shoot biomass, root lengths and leaf soluble protein contents remained same as that of the control. However, chlorophyll and carotenoid pigment contents declined significantly along with significant elevations in lipid peroxidation, at all the doses. Elevations of antioxidant enzymes reflected stress as well as probable mitigation of reactive oxygen species due to Cu stress. Except for the highest conc. (400mg/kg), leaf accumulation of Cu was higher than root accumulations. The Cu accumulation peaked at 300mg/kg Cu in soil, with leaf and root accumulations to be respectively, 4675 and 3995µg/g dry wt., far more than the minimum of 1000µg/g dry wt. for a Cu hyperaccumulator. The plant root at all the doses tolerated Cu, with the tolerance index ranging from 94-62.7. The soil to plant metal uptake capacity, indicated by extraction coefficient and the root to shoot translocation, indicated by translocation factor, at all the doses of Cu were >1, pointed towards efficient phytoremediation potential. PMID:26773830

  13. Metabolism of monoterpenes in cell cultures of common sage (Salvia officinalis)

    SciTech Connect

    Falk, K.L.; Gershenzon, J.; Croteau, R. )

    1990-08-01

    Leaves of common sage (Salvia officinalis) accumulate monoterpenes in glandular trichomes at levels exceeding 15 milligrams per gram fresh weight at maturity, whereas sage cells in suspension culture did not accumulate detectable levels of monoterpenes (<0.3 nanograms per gram fresh weight) at any stage of the growth cycle, even in the presence of a polystyrene resin trap. Monoterpene biosynthesis from (U-{sup 14}C)sucrose was also virtually undetectable in this cell culture system. In vitro assay of each of the enzymes required for the sequential conversion of the ubiquitous isoprenoid precursor geranyl pyrophosphate to (+){minus}camphor (a major monoterpene product of sage) in soluble extracts of the cells revealed the presence of activity sufficient to produce (+){minus}camphor at a readily detectable level (>0.3 micrograms per gram fresh weight) at the late log phase of growth. Other monoterpene synthetic enzymes were present as well. In vivo measurement of the ability to catabolize (+){minus}camphor in these cells indicated that degradative capability exceeded biosynthetic capacity by at least 1,000-fold. Therefore, the lack of monoterpene accumulation in undifferentiated sage cultures could be attributed to a low level of biosynthetic activity (relative to the intact plant) coupled to a pronounced capacity for monoterpene catabolism.

  14. Toxicity of some plant extracts against vector of lymphatic filariasis, Culex pipiens.

    PubMed

    Hasaballah, Ahmed I

    2015-04-01

    Many insecticides are generally used as larvicides to control Culex pipiens, vector of lymphatic filariasis. This study was undertaken to evaluate the larvicidal activity of some potential larvicidal plants extracts against C. pipiens larvae. The toxic effects of both ethanolic and petroleum ether plant extracts were evaluated under laboratory conditions against 3rd instar larvae of C. pipiens. Forty ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts of 10 plants namely Echinochloa stagninum, Phragmites australis, Eichhornia crassipes, Rhizophora mucronata, Cichorium intybus, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum majorana, Azadirachta indica, Rosmarinus officinalis and Nigella sativa. On the basis of LC50, the toxic effect of the plant extracts tested varied depending on the plant species, part, solvent used in extraction and the extract concentrations. The petroleum ether extraction was more effective against mosquito as compared with ethanolic extraction. The most effective plant extract was A. indica followed by Ph. australis, N. sativa, C. intybus, R. officinalis, O. basilicum, O. majorana, E. stagninum, Rh. Mucronata and E. crassipes. PMID:26012233

  15. Identification of Verbena officinalis based on ITS sequence analysis and RAPD-derived molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Ruzicka, Joana; Lukas, Brigitte; Merza, Lina; Göhler, Irina; Abel, Gudrun; Popp, Michael; Novak, Johannes

    2009-09-01

    Verbenae herba is a widely used drug and consists of the aerial parts of Verbena officinalis (Verbenaceae). Until now, the identification has been performed based on morphological and phytochemical analyses, which are not reliable enough to distinguish Verbena officinalis from other relevant species of the genus Verbena. Hence, impurities and adulterants, negatively influencing the therapeutic effect of the drug, may remain undetected. In an attempt to generate an accurate authentication method we used two different DNA-based approaches: comparison of ITS sequences and molecular markers (RAPD). Both approaches generally enabled discrimination of V. officinalis from the rest of the genus despite the intraspecific variation existing within V. officinalis. The application of the two independent methods, supporting each other, increases the security of identification. For better reproducibility and faster analysis, however, a SCAR marker and primers for HRM were derived from the RAPD results. The SCAR marker could distinguish V. officinalis from all other verbena species except its closest relative V. hastata, while discrimination of V. officinalis even from V. hastata was unproblematic with HRM. PMID:19350481

  16. Anti-inflammatory neolignans from the roots of Magnolia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Shih, Hung-Cheng; Kuo, Ping-Chung; Wu, Shwu-Jen; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Hung, Hsin-Yi; Shen, De-Yang; Shieh, Po-Chuen; Liao, Yu-Ren; Lee, E-Jian; Gu, Qiong; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Wu, Tian-Shung

    2016-04-01

    Nine neolignan derivatives (1-9) were characterized from the roots of Magnolia officinalis, and their structures were elucidated based on spectroscopic and physicochemical analyses. Among them, houpulins E (1) and M (9) possess novel homo- and trinor-neolignan skeletons. In addition, 15 known compounds (10-24) were identified by comparison of their spectroscopic and physical data with those reported in the literature. Some of the purified constituents were examined for anti-inflammatory activity and, among the tested compounds, houpulins G (3), I (5), J (6), and 2,2'-dihydroxy-3-methoxy-5,5'-di-(2-propenylbiphenyl) (19) significantly inhibited superoxide anion generation and elastase release with IC50 values ranging from 3.54 to 5.48μM and 2.16 to 3.39μM, respectively. Therefore, these neolignan derivatives have tremendous potential to be explored as anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:26928286

  17. [Effects of primary processing on quality of cortex Magnolia officinalis].

    PubMed

    Yu, Shengxian; Zhang, Chunxia; Chen, Chengyu; Yan, Renyi; Yang, Bin; Liao, Chaolin; You, Jinwen

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, the changes of volatile oil and non-volatile ingredients in Cortex Magnolia Officinalis before and after primary processing were determined by an HPLC and a GC-MS method. The method is based on quantitative determination of three index ingredients, beta-eudesmol, honokiol and magnolol, and on qualitative fingerprinting analysis using HPLC and GC. Big differences were observed between processed and unprocessed samples according to their chromatographic fingerprinting data calculated by statistic software. Compared with unprocessed samples, the contents of honokiol and magnolol in processed samples increased, whereas the contents of beta-eudesmol and magnoloside A in processed samples decreased. Magnoloside A was isolated from this plant for the first time. PMID:20939279

  18. Sterols and triterpenes in cell culture of Hyssopus officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Skrzypek, Zuzanna; Wysokińska, Halina

    2003-01-01

    Cell suspension cultures from hypocotyl-derived callus of Hyssopus officinalis were found to produce two sterols i. e. beta-sitosterol (1) and stigmasterol (2), as well as several known pentacyclic triterpenes with an oleanene and ursene skeleton. The triterpenes were identified as oleanolic acid (3), ursolic acid (4), 2alpha,3beta-dihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (5), 2alpha,3beta-dihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (6), 2alpha,3beta,24-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (7), and 2alpha,3beta,24-trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (8). Compounds 5-8 were isolated as their acetates (6, 8) or bromolactone acetates (5, 7). PMID:12872919

  19. Officinalioside, a new lignan glucoside from Borago officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Samy, Mamdouh Nabil; Hamed, Ashraf Nageeb El-Sayed; Sugimoto, Sachiko; Otsuka, Hideaki; Kamel, Mohamed Salah; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi

    2016-04-01

    A new lignan glucoside, officinalioside (1), was isolated from n-BuOH fraction of the aerial parts of Borago officinalis L., together with four known compounds: actinidioionoside (2), roseoside (3), crotalionoside C (4) and kaempferol 3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside (5). The structure of the new compound was established by means of spectroscopic and chemical analyses. Compounds 1 and 2 showed a moderate DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50: 52.6 ± 1.70 and 41.3 ± 0.25 μM, respectively) comparable with that of the standard trolox (16.6 ± 2.2 μM) without any significant cytotoxicity towards human cell line A549 (IC50 > 100 μM). PMID:26382913

  20. Camouflage during movement in the European cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis).

    PubMed

    Josef, Noam; Berenshtein, Igal; Fiorito, Graziano; Sykes, António V; Shashar, Nadav

    2015-11-01

    A moving object is considered conspicuous because of the movement itself. When moving from one background to another, even dynamic camouflage experts such as cephalopods should sacrifice their extraordinary camouflage. Therefore, minimizing detection at this stage is crucial and highly beneficial. In this study, we describe a background-matching mechanism during movement, which aids the cuttlefish to downplay its presence throughout movement. In situ behavioural experiments using video and image analysis, revealed a delayed, sigmoidal, colour-changing mechanism during movement of Sepia officinalis across uniform black and grey backgrounds. This is a first important step in understanding dynamic camouflage during movement, and this new behavioural mechanism may be incorporated and applied to any dynamic camouflaging animal or man-made system on the move. PMID:26385328

  1. Comparison between effects of different doses of Melissa officinalis and atorvastatin on the activity of liver enzymes in hypercholesterolemia rats

    PubMed Central

    Zarei, Ali; Changizi Ashtiyani, Saeed; Taheri, Soheila; Rasekh, Fateme

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Liver is one of the most sensitive tissues to oxidant damage. Hence, the present study was conducted to compare the effects of Melissa officinalis (MO) extract and Atorvastatin on the activity of liver enzymes in rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 60 male Wistar rats were selected and allocated to six groups (n=10). The control group received a normal diet, sham group received a fatty diet while other groups received a fatty diet and the alcoholic extract of MO, at minimum (25 mg/kg), moderate (50 mg/kg), and maximum (75 mg/kg) doses (i.p.). The last group received Atorvastatin (10 mg/kg) through gavage with a fatty diet over a 21-day period. At the end of this 21-day period, blood samples were drawn and the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), activity of liver enzymes as well as cholesterol in the samples were measured. Results: The obtained results showed that the activity of liver enzymes in the treatment groups receiving MO extract and the group receiving Atorvastatin decreased significantly. MO extract reduced the level of liver enzymes. Conclusion: Therefore, further studies for obtaining a better understanding of the mechanism of effect of MO for treating liver diseases are recommended. PMID:25050297

  2. Effect of plant extracts on Alzheimer's disease: An insight into therapeutic avenues

    PubMed Central

    Obulesu, M; Rao, Dowlathabad Muralidhara

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastative neurodegenerative disorder which needs adequate studies on effective treatment options. The extracts of plants and their effect on the amelioration of AD symptoms have been extensively studied. This paper summarizes the mechanisms like acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, modification of monoamines, antiamyloid aggregation effect, and antioxidant activity which are actively entailed in the process of amelioration of AD symptoms. These effects are induced by extracts of a few plants of different origin like Yizhi Jiannao, Moringa oleifera (Drumstick tree), Ginkgo Biloba (Ginkgo/Maidenhair tree), Cassia obtisufolia (Sicklepod), Desmodium gangeticum (Sal Leaved Desmodium), Melissa officinalis (Lemon Balm), and Salvia officinalis (Garden sage, common sage). PMID:21716802

  3. [Investigation of variation of the production of biological and chemical compounds of Hyssopus officinalis L].

    PubMed

    Varga, E; Hajdú, Z; Veres, K; Máthé, I; Németh, E; Pluhár, Z; Bernáth, J

    1998-05-01

    Hyssopus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae family) has been cultivated in Central Europe for a long time. This essential oil containing species serves not only as spice but in many countries including Hungary, it is used as a folk medicine against certain respiratory diseases. Despite this fact, little is known about the variation of its productivity under Central European climatic conditions. The cultivated populations of hyssop can be characterised by a significant heterogenity. In the course of its breeding the uniformity of flower colour (e.g. blue form), and increase in the oil content are the main achievable purposes. The purpose of this work was to investigate both the variability of strains of different crigin and the time-dependent variations of its production parameters. The optimum of phytomass was obtained at the beginning of July. The essential oil content as well as compounds of the non volatile fractions were also investigated. The non volatile fractions for rosmarinic, caffeic acids were analysed mainly by TLC and densitometry. Both compounds were present in all samples and they are suitable for the characterisation of the plant. The essential oils were gained with Water Steam Distillation (WSD) and Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) with CO2. The oils were analysed by GC, GC-MS techniques. In the essential oil composition of the populations studied significant heterogenity could be observed. In the case of applying SFE extraction the oil composition is more uniform, similarly to the obtained by WSD adding hexane. The heterogenity can be experienced in the offsprings, too. If only the main four components (beta-pinene, limonene, pinocamphone, isopinocamphone) are regarded, among the offsprings clear and mixed lines alike can be found. Results of these experiments justify the necessity and usefulness of selection which is going on. PMID:9703705

  4. Oxidative stress modulation by Rosmarinus officinalis in creosote-induced hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    El-Demerdash, Fatma M; Abbady, Ehab A; Baghdadi, Hoda H

    2016-01-01

    Coal tar is a significant product generated from coal pyrolysis. Coal tar can be utilized as raw materials for various industries. It is also a type of raw material from which phenols, naphthalenes, and anthracene can be extracted. The present study was designed to investigate the possibility of coal tar creosote to induce oxidative stress and biochemical perturbations in rat liver and the role of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) in ameliorating its toxic effects. Male Wister Albino rats were randomly divided into four groups of seven each, group I served as control; group II treated with rosemary (10 mL of water extract/kg BW for 21 days), group III received coal tar creosote (200 mg/4 mL olive oil/kg BW for 3 days), and group IV treated with both rosemary and coal tar creosote. The administration of coal tar creosote significantly caused elevation in lipid peroxidation (LPO) and reduction in the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione S-transferase (GST). A significant decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) content was also observed. Liver aminotransferases aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT)] and alkaline phosphatase (AlP) were significantly decreased while lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was increased. Rosemary pretreatment to coal tar creosote-treated rats decreased LPO level and normalized GPx, GR, SOD, CAT, and GST activities, while GSH content was increased. Also, liver AST, ALT, AlP, and LDH were maintained near normal level due to rosemary treatment. In conclusion, rosemary has beneficial effects and could be able to antagonize coal tar creosote toxicity. PMID:25044495

  5. Cytotoxic effect of some medicinal plants from Asteraceae family on J-45.01 leukemic cell line--pilot study.

    PubMed

    Wegiera, Magdalena; Smolarz, Helena D; Jedruch, Marcin; Korczak, Magdalena; Koproń, Kamila

    2012-01-01

    In this study the in vitro cytotoxic properties of ethanol extracts from the herbs, inflorescents and roots of selected Asteraceae species: Arctium lappa, Artemisia absinthium, Calendula officinalis, Centaurea cyanus, Tanacetum vulgare and Tragopogon pratensis on J-45.01 human acute T leukemia cell line was examined. All tested samples possess antileukemic properties and induce cells death via apoptosis. The correlation between antileukemic activity and total polyphenol content was determined. PMID:22568040

  6. Phytochemical Characterization of Veronica officinalis L., V. teucrium L. and V. orchidea Crantz from Romania and Their Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties

    PubMed Central

    Mocan, Andrei; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Vlase, Laurian; Crișan, Ovidiu; Gheldiu, Ana-Maria; Crișan, Gianina

    2015-01-01

    Aerial parts of Veronica species are used in Romanian traditional medicine for the treatment of various conditions like kidney diseases, cough, and catarrh, and are known for their wound-healing properties. In the present study, the phenolic and sterolic content and the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of three Veronica species (Plantaginaceae), V. officinalis L., V. teucrium L. and V. orchidea Crantz, were studied. The identification and quantification of several phenolic compounds and phytosterols were performed using LC/MS techniques and the main components were p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, luteoline, hispidulin and β-sitosterol. More than that, hispidulin, eupatorin and eupatilin were detected for the first time in the Veronica genus. Nevertheless, representatives of the Veronica genus were never investigated in terms of their phytosterol content. The antioxidant potential investigated by Trolox equivelents antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and EPR spectroscopy revealed that V. officinalis and V. orchidea extracts presented similar antioxidant capacities, whilst the values registered for V. teucrium extract are lower. Regarding the antimicrobial activity of the investigated species, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii were the most sensitive strains with MIC values between 3.9 and 15.62 mg/mL. The results obtained by this study may serve to promote better use of representatives from the genus Veronica as antioxidant and antimicrobial agents. PMID:26404257

  7. Phytochemical Characterization of Veronica officinalis L., V. teucrium L. and V. orchidea Crantz from Romania and Their Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties.

    PubMed

    Mocan, Andrei; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Vlase, Laurian; Crișan, Ovidiu; Gheldiu, Ana-Maria; Crișan, Gianina

    2015-01-01

    Aerial parts of Veronica species are used in Romanian traditional medicine for the treatment of various conditions like kidney diseases, cough, and catarrh, and are known for their wound-healing properties. In the present study, the phenolic and sterolic content and the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of three Veronica species (Plantaginaceae), V. officinalis L., V. teucrium L. and V. orchidea Crantz, were studied. The identification and quantification of several phenolic compounds and phytosterols were performed using LC/MS techniques and the main components were p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, luteoline, hispidulin and β-sitosterol. More than that, hispidulin, eupatorin and eupatilin were detected for the first time in the Veronica genus. Nevertheless, representatives of the Veronica genus were never investigated in terms of their phytosterol content. The antioxidant potential investigated by Trolox equivelents antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and EPR spectroscopy revealed that V. officinalis and V. orchidea extracts presented similar antioxidant capacities, whilst the values registered for V. teucrium extract are lower. Regarding the antimicrobial activity of the investigated species, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii were the most sensitive strains with MIC values between 3.9 and 15.62 mg/mL. The results obtained by this study may serve to promote better use of representatives from the genus Veronica as antioxidant and antimicrobial agents. PMID:26404257

  8. Quality consistency evaluation of Melissa officinalis L. commercial herbs by HPLC fingerprint and quantitation of selected phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Arceusz, Agnieszka; Wesolowski, Marek

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the quality consistency of commercial medicinal herbs, a simple and reliable HPLC method with UV-vis detector was developed, both for fingerprint analysis and quantitation of some pharmacologically active constituents (marker compounds). Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) was chosen for this study because it is widely used as an aromatic, culinary and medicine remedy. About fifty peaks were found in each chromatogram of a lemon balm extract, including twelve satisfactorily resolved characteristic peaks. A reference chromatographic fingerprint for the studied medicinal herb was calculated using Matlab 9.1 software as a result of analysing all the 19 lemon balm samples obtained from 12 Polish manufacturers. The similarity values and the results of principal component analysis revealed that all the samples were highly correlated with the reference fingerprint and could be accurately classified in relation to their quality consistency. Next, a quantitation of selected phenolic acids in the studied samples was performed. The results have shown that the levels of phenolic acids, i.e. gallic, chlorogenic, syringic, caffeic, ferulic and rosmarinic were as follows (mg/g of dry weight): 0.001-0.067, 0.010-0.333, 0.007-0.553, 0.047-0.705, 0.006-1.589 and 0.158-48.608, respectively. Statistical analysis indicated that rosmarinic acid occurs in M. officinalis at the highest level, whereas gallic acid in the lowest. A detailed inspection of these data has also revealed that reference chromatographic fingerprints combined with quantitation of pharmacologically active constituents of the plant could be used as an efficient strategy for monitoring of the lemon balm quality consistency. PMID:23770780

  9. Effects of cholinesterase inhibiting sage (Salvia officinalis) on mood, anxiety and performance on a psychological stressor battery.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, David O; Pace, Sonia; Haskell, Crystal; Okello, Edward J; Milne, Anthea; Scholey, Andrew B

    2006-04-01

    Salvia officinalis (sage) has previously been shown both to possess in vitro cholinesterase inhibiting properties, and to enhance mnemonic performance and improve mood in healthy young participants. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, 30 healthy participants attended the laboratory on three separate days, 7 days apart, receiving a different treatment in counterbalanced order on each occasion (placebo, 300, 600 mg dried sage leaf). On each day mood was assessed predose and at 1 and 4 h postdose. Each mood assessment comprised completion of Bond-Lader mood scales and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) before and after 20 min performance of the Defined Intensity Stress Simulator (DISS) computerized multitasking battery. In a concomitant investigation, an extract of the sage leaf exhibited dose-dependent, in vitro inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and, to a greater extent, butyrylcholinesterase. Both doses of sage led to improved ratings of mood in the absence of the stressor (that is, in pre-DISS mood scores) postdose, with the lower dose reducing anxiety and the higher dose increasing 'alertness', 'calmness' and 'contentedness' on the Bond-Lader mood scales. The reduced anxiety effect following the lower dose was, however, abolished by performing the DISS, with the same dose also being associated with a reduction of alertness during performance. Task performance on the DISS battery was improved for the higher dose at both postdose sessions, but reduced for the lower dose at the later testing session. The results confirm previous observations of the cholinesterase inhibiting properties of S. officinalis, and improved mood and cognitive performance following the administration of single doses to healthy young participants. PMID:16205785

  10. Evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and phenolic profile for Hyssopus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum and Teucrium chamaedrys.

    PubMed

    Vlase, Laurian; Benedec, Daniela; Hanganu, Daniela; Damian, Grigore; Csillag, Ioan; Sevastre, Bogdan; Mot, Augustin C; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Radu; Tilea, Ioan

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and to characterize the polyphenolic composition of the ethanolic extracts of Hyssopus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum and Teucrium chamaedrys. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major phenolic compounds were conducted using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The total polyphenols, caffeic acid derivatives and flavonoids content was spectrophotometrically determined. The phenolic profile showed the presence of phenolic acid derivatives (caftaric, gentisic, caffeic, p-coumaric, chlorogenic and ferulic acids), flavonoid glycosides (rutin, isoquercitrin and quercitrin) and free flavonoid aglycons (luteolin, quercetin), in different concentrations. DPPH radical scavenging assay, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) method, hemoglobin ascorbate peroxidase activity inhibition (HAPX) assay, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) radicals detection were employed, revealing several aspects of the antioxidant activities of these species. The antimicrobial tests were performed using the disk diffusion assay. These extracts contained a large amount of the polyphenolic compounds (77.72, 175.57, and 243.65 mg/g, respectively), and they showed a good antioxidant activity, as witnessed by a number of methods. T. chamaedrys had a high antimicrobial activity. Besides their antioxidant activity, the antimicrobial effect of these extracts confirms the biological activities of these herbal medicinal products. PMID:24786688

  11. Drought-tolerant rice germplasm developed from an Oryza officinalis transformation-competent artificial chromosome clone.

    PubMed

    Liu, R; Zhang, H H; Chen, Z X; Shahid, M Q; Fu, X L; Liu, X D

    2015-01-01

    Oryza officinalis has proven to be a natural gene reservoir for the improvement of domesticated rice as it carries many desirable traits; however, the transfer of elite genes to cultivated rice by conventional hybridization has been a challenge for rice breeders. In this study, the conserved sequence of plant stress-related NAC transcription factors was selected as a probe to screen the O. officinalis genomic transformation-competent artificial chromosome library by Southern blot; 11 positive transformation-competent artificial chromosome clones were subsequently detected. By Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, an indica rice variety, Huajingxian 74 (HJX74), was transformed with a TAC clone harboring a NAC gene-positive genomic fragment from O. officinalis. Molecular analysis revealed that the O. officinalis genomic fragment was integrated into the genome of HJX74. The transgenic lines exhibited high tolerance to drought stress. Our results demonstrate that the introduction of stress-related transformation-competent artificial chromosome clones, coupled with a transgenic validation approach, is an effective method of transferring agronomically important genes from O. officinalis to cultivated rice. PMID:26535682

  12. Cancer Prevention and Health Benefices of Traditionally Consumed Borago officinalis Plants

    PubMed Central

    Lozano-Baena, María-Dolores; Tasset, Inmaculada; Muñoz-Serrano, Andrés; Alonso-Moraga, Ángeles; de Haro-Bailón, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, healthy eating is increasing the demand of functional foods by societies as sources of bioactive products with healthy qualities. For this reason, we tested the safety of the consumption of Borago officinalis L. and its main phenolic components as well as the possibility of its use as a nutraceutical plant to help in cancer prevention. The in vivo Drosophila Somatic Mutation and Recombination Test (SMART) and in vitro HL-60 human cell systems were performed, as well-recognized methods for testing genotoxicity/cytotoxicity of bioactive compounds and plant products. B. officinalis and the tested compounds possess antigenotoxic activity. Moreover, B. officinalis wild type cultivar exerts the most antigenotoxic values. Cytotoxic effect was probed for both cultivars with IC50 values of 0.49 and 0.28 mg·mL−1 for wild type and cultivated plants respectively, as well as their constituent rosmarinic acid and the assayed phenolic mixture (IC50 = 0.07 and 0.04 mM respectively). B. officinalis exerts DNA protection and anticarcinogenic effects as do its component rosmarinic acid and the mixture of the main phenolics presented in the plant. In conclusion, the results showed that B. officinalis may represent a high value plant for pleiotropic uses and support its consumption as a nutraceutical plant. PMID:26797631

  13. Cancer Prevention and Health Benefices of Traditionally Consumed Borago officinalis Plants.

    PubMed

    Lozano-Baena, María-Dolores; Tasset, Inmaculada; Muñoz-Serrano, Andrés; Alonso-Moraga, Ángeles; de Haro-Bailón, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, healthy eating is increasing the demand of functional foods by societies as sources of bioactive products with healthy qualities. For this reason, we tested the safety of the consumption of Borago officinalis L. and its main phenolic components as well as the possibility of its use as a nutraceutical plant to help in cancer prevention. The in vivo Drosophila Somatic Mutation and Recombination Test (SMART) and in vitro HL-60 human cell systems were performed, as well-recognized methods for testing genotoxicity/cytotoxicity of bioactive compounds and plant products. B. officinalis and the tested compounds possess antigenotoxic activity. Moreover, B. officinalis wild type cultivar exerts the most antigenotoxic values. Cytotoxic effect was probed for both cultivars with IC50 values of 0.49 and 0.28 mg · mL(-1) for wild type and cultivated plants respectively, as well as their constituent rosmarinic acid and the assayed phenolic mixture (IC50 = 0.07 and 0.04 mM respectively). B. officinalis exerts DNA protection and anticarcinogenic effects as do its component rosmarinic acid and the mixture of the main phenolics presented in the plant. In conclusion, the results showed that B. officinalis may represent a high value plant for pleiotropic uses and support its consumption as a nutraceutical plant. PMID:26797631

  14. Effect of Cornus Officinalis on Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappaB Ligand (RANKL)-induced Osteoclast Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Young; Kim, Yun-Kyung; Choi, Min Kyu; Oh, Jaemin; Kwak, Han Bok

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Osteoporosis is a disease of bones that is thought to result from an imbalance between bone resorption and bone formation. Although osteoporosis itself has no symptoms, osteoporosis caused by osteoclasts leads to an increased risk of fracture. Here we examined the effects of cornus officinalis on receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL)-mediated osteoclast differentiation. Methods We evaluated the effects of cornus officinalis on RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation from bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) and performed a cytotoxicity assay, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and Western blot analysis. Results Cornus officinalis significantly inhibits RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation in a dose-dependent manner, but without cytotoxicity against BMMs. The mRNA expression of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR), c-Fos, and nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) in BMMs treated with RANKL was considerably inhibited by cornus officinalis treatment. Also, cornus officinalis inhibits the protein expression of c-Fos and NFATc1. Cornus officinalis greatly inhibits RANKL-induced phosphorylation of p38 and c-JUN N-terminal kinase (JNK). Also, cornus officinalis significantly suppresses RANKL-induced degradation of I-κB. Conclusions Taken together, our results suggest that cornus officinalis may be a useful the treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:24524042

  15. Stand establishment and yield potential of organically grown seeded and transplanted medicinal herbs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field studies were conducted at Las Cruces, N.M., and Alcalde, N.M., to compare direct seeding to transplanting for stand establishment and yield estimates of calendula (Calendula officinalis L.), catnip (Nepeta cataria L.), lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.), stinging nettles (Urtica dioica L.), a...

  16. Bacteriostatic effect of copaiba oil (Copaifera officinalis) against Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Pieri, Fábio Alessandro; Mussi, Maria Carolina Martins; Fiorini, João Evangelista; Moreira, Maria Aparecida Scatamburlo; Schneedorf, José Mauricio

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the inhibitory activity of copaiba oil (Copaifera officinalis against the cariogenic microorganism, Streptococcus mutans. For such purpose, a minimum inhibition concentration test of copaiba oil against S. mutans was performed, using the serial dilution in broth technique, with a negative control, a positive control (0.12% chlorhexidine) and a 10% copaíba oil solution as a test. A minimum bactericidal concentration test with tubes presenting microbial inhibition was also conduced. In the minimum inhibitory concentration test, copaiba oil showed inhibition of bacterial growth at all concentrations tested up to 0.78 µL/mL of the 10% copaiba oil solution in the broth. In addition, the negative control had no inhibition, and the 0.12% chlorhexidine solution was effective up to 6.25 µL/mL in the broth. Copaiba oil showed a bacteriostatic activity against S. mutans at low concentrations, and could be a an option of phytotherapic agent to be used against cariogenic bacteria in the prevention of caries disease. PMID:22460312

  17. Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis: Cephalopoda) hunting behavior and associative learning.

    PubMed

    Cole, Patricia D; Adamo, Shelley A

    2005-01-01

    Because most learning studies in cephalopods have been performed on octopods, it remains unclear whether such abilities are specific to octopus, or whether they correlate with having a larger and more centrally organized brain. To investigate associative learning in a different cephalopod, six sexually mature cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) participated in a counterbalanced, within-subjects, appetitive, classical conditioning procedure. Two plastic spheres (conditioned stimuli, CSs), differing in brightness, were presented sequentially. Presentation of the CS+ was followed 5 s later by a live feeder fish (unconditioned stimulus, US). Cuttlefish began to attack the CS+ with the same type of food-acquisition seizures used to capture the feeder fish. After seven blocks of training (42 presentations of each CS) the difference in seizure probability between CS+ and CS- trials more than doubled; and was found to be significantly higher in late versus early blocks. These results indicate that cuttlefish exhibit autoshaping under some conditions. The possible ecological significance of this type of learning is briefly discussed. PMID:15592760

  18. On the respiratory flow in the cuttlefish sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Bone, Q; Brown, E; Travers, G

    1994-09-01

    The respiratory flow of water over the gills of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis at rest is produced by the alternate activity of the radial muscles of the mantle and the musculature of the collar flaps; mantle circular muscle fibres are not involved. Inspiration takes place as the radial fibres contract, thinning the mantle and expanding the mantle cavity. The rise in mantle cavity pressure (up to 0.15 kPa), expelling water via the siphon during expiration, is brought about by inward movement of the collar flaps and (probably) mainly by elastic recoil of the mantle connective tissue network 'wound up' by radial fibre contraction during inspiration. Sepia also shows a second respiratory pattern, in which mantle cavity pressures during expiration are greater (up to 0.25 kPa). Here, the mantle circular fibres are involved, as they are during the large pressure transients (up to 10 kPa) seen during escape jetting. Active contraction of the muscles of the collar flaps is seen in all three patterns of expulsion of water from the mantle cavity, electrical activity increasing with increasing mantle cavity pressures. Respiratory expiration in the resting squid Loligo vulgaris is probably driven as in Sepia, whereas in the resting octopus Eledone cirrhosa, the mantle circular musculature is active during expiration. The significance of these observations is discussed. PMID:9317534

  19. Antibacterial activity of a plant extract and its potential for disinfecting gutta-percha cones.

    PubMed

    Brito-Júnior, Manoel; Nobre, Sérgio A M; Freitas, Juliana C P; Camilo, Carla C; Faria-e-Silva, André L

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the antibacterial activity of Rosmarinus officinalis extract and its potential for disinfecting guttapercha (GP) cones. In the first experiment, a hydro-alcoholic extract of Rosmarinus officinalis (leaves) in a dilution ratio of 10% m/v was tested against Enterococcus faecalis by using the disk diffusion method. Positive and negative controls were 70% cereal alcohol and antibiotics, respectively. The procedures were performed in triplicate, and the diameters of the zones of growth inhibition were measured with a caliper after 24 h at 37 degrees C. In the second experiment, the disinfection procedures were evaluated on GP cones artificially contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis. The R. officinalis extract was compared with 2% chlorhexidine digluconate and 2.5% sodium hypochlorite, using a direct exposure test (5 min treatment). Sterilized and non-disinfected cones were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. After 24 h of incubation, bacterial counts were taken. For both experiments, the data were statistically analyzed by Kruskall-Wallis and Tukey's tests (p < 0.05). The plant extract produced zones of inhibition comparable to those of tested antibiotics. Significant GP cone disinfection was verified with all disinfectant solutions, with no significant difference between them. R. officinalis extract showed bactericidal effect on Enterococcus faecalis and capacity to disinfect GP cones contamined with it. PMID:22928375

  20. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and chemical characterization of essential oils of Thymusvulgaris, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Origanum majorana from northeastern México.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Boone, Laura; Alvarez-Román, Rocío; Alvarez-Román, Rocío; Salazar-Aranda, Ricardo; Torres-Cirio, Anabel; Rivas-Galindo, Verónica Mayela; de-Torres, Noemí Waksman; González, Gloria; Pérez-López, Luis Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    There have been no reports of antifungal activity and composition of extracts from Thymus vulgaris, Rosmarinus officinalis or Origanum majorana from northeastern México. Antifungal activity of these oils against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum canis and Epidermophyton floccosum was measured by diffusion assay. Additionally, antibacterial and antioxidant activities were evaluated. Antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes was examined by microdilution. Antioxidant activity was assessed by 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidracil reduction test. The plant oils were characterized by both GC/MS and GC/FID. Oils of T. vulgaris and O. majorana showed growth inhibition activity against dermatophytes, especially T. vulgaris oil, which completely inhibited growth of all tested dermatophytes. The oils also showed bioactivity against bacteria, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values between 62.5 and 500 μg/mL. The antioxidant activity of the oils was low, with effective concentration (EC50) values <250μg/mL. The major components in the oils were as follows: T. vulgaris, o-cymene, μ-terpinene, thymol and carvacrol; R. officinalis, terpinen-4-ol and 1,8-cineole; O. majorana, terpinen-4-ol and thymol. PMID:25631514

  1. Evaluation of Repellency Effect of Essential Oils of Satureja khuzestanica (Carvacrol), Myrtus communis (Myrtle), Lavendula officinalis and Salvia sclarea using Standard WHO Repellency Tests

    PubMed Central

    Kayedi, Mohammad Hassan; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Salehnia, Ali; Khamisabadi, Kiumars

    2014-01-01

    Background Using special lotions and repellent sprays on skin is one of the effective methods to prevent Arthropods biting which was verified in this study. Methods: Essential oils of four plants (Satureja khuzestanica, Salvia sclarea, Lavendula officinalis and Myrtus communis) were separately extracted by Clevenger used hydro distillation method. Then separated solutions with 10%, 20% and 40% concentrations of essential oils of plants in 99.6 % ethanol were prepared. WHO guidelines for efficacy testing of mosquito repellents for human skin were used on different concentrations of essential oils of plants, traditional repellents (DEET, 50% and 33%) as positive control, and ethanol 99.6% and naked hands as negative controls. Results: In negative control groups, the number of bits were comparable (P= 0.42) and had decreasing time trends (naked hands P= 0.011, ethanol P< 0.001). In all time points, minimum bites were observed in traditional repellents and it was significantly less than the other groups (P< 0.001). The time trend in the number of bites in the other groups was positive and showed minimum number of bites in time zero in all groups. We also found that the concentration of repellents had association with the number of bites. The maximum and minimum numbers of bites were observed with 10% and 40% concentrations respectively in all groups. Conclusion: Essential oils of Salvia sclarea, Lavendula officinalis and Myrtus communis have repellency effect, even with 10% concentration of essential oils. PMID:25629066

  2. A Preliminary Analysis of Sleep-Like States in the Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Marcos G.; Waldrop, Robert H.; Dumoulin, Michelle; Aton, Sara; Boal, Jean G.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep has been observed in several invertebrate species, but its presence in marine invertebrates is relatively unexplored. Rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep has only been observed in vertebrates. We investigated whether the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis displays sleep-like states. We find that cuttlefish exhibit frequent quiescent periods that are homeostatically regulated, satisfying two criteria for sleep. In addition, cuttlefish transiently display a quiescent state with rapid eye movements, changes in body coloration and twitching of the arms, that is possibly analogous to REM sleep. Our findings thus suggest that at least two different sleep-like states may exist in Sepia officinalis. PMID:22701609

  3. Antihepatic Fibrosis Effect of Active Components Isolated from Green Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) Involves the Inactivation of Hepatic Stellate Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Chunge; Jiang, Chunyu; Xia, Xichun; Mu, Teng; Wei, Lige; Lou, Yuntian; Zhang, Xiaoshu; Zhao, Yuqing; Bi, Xiuli

    2015-07-01

    Green asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) is a vegetable with numerous nutritional properties. In the current study, a total of 23 compounds were isolated from green asparagus, and 9 of these compounds were obtained from this genus for the first time. Preliminary data showed that the ethyl acetate (EtOAc)-extracted fraction of green asparagus exerted a stronger inhibitory effect on the growth of t-HSC/Cl-6 cells, giving an IC50 value of 45.52 μg/mL. The biological activities of the different compounds isolated from the EtOAc-extracted fraction with respect to antihepatic fibrosis were investigated further. Four compounds, C3, C4, C10, and C12, exhibited profound inhibitory effect on the activation of t-HSC/Cl-6 cells induced by TNF-α. The activation t-HSC/Cl-6 cells, which led to the production of fibrotic matrix (TGF-β1, activin C) and accumulation of TNF-α, was dramatically decreased by these compounds. The mechanisms by which these compounds inhibited the activation of hepatic stellate cells appeared to be associated with the inactivation of TGF-β1/Smad signaling and c-Jun N-terminal kinases, as well as the ERK phosphorylation cascade. PMID:26089141

  4. Antimicrobial Activity of Copaiba (Copaifera officinalis) and Pracaxi (Pentaclethra macroloba) Oils against Staphylococcus Aureus: Importance in Compounding for Wound Care.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Anna Luísa Aguijar; Cunha, Elisa Alves; Matias, Fernanda Oliveira; Garcia, Patrícia Guedes; Danopoulos, Panagiota; Swikidisa, Rosita; Pinheiro, Vanessa Alves; Nogueira, Rodrigo José Lupatini

    2016-01-01

    The Amazon rainforest is the largest reserve of natural products in the world. Its rich biodiversity of medicinal plants has been utilized by local populations for hundreds of years for the prevention and treatment of various diseases and ailments. Oil extracts from plant species such as Copaifera officinalis and Pentaclethra macroloba are used in compounded formulations for their antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, emollient, moisturizing, and wound-healing activities. The objective of this study was to investigate the in vitro bacteriostatic effect of two Amazonian oils, Copaiba and Pracaxi, against Staphylococcus aureus, a clinically important microorganism responsible for wound infection, to support the use of these oils as novel natural products for compounded wound-treatment modalities. The antibacterial activity of Copaiba and Pracaxi oils against a standard strain of Staphylococcus aureus was assessed using broth microdilution to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration of the oil extracts. Copaiba oil demonstrated antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, with a Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of 0.3125 mg/mL and a Minimum Bactericidal Concentration of 0.3125 mg/mL. Conversely, Pracaxi oil failed to inhibit Staphylococcus aureus growth. While additional studies are required to further evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Pracaxi oil, even low concentrations of Copaiba oil effectively inhibited Staphylococcus aureus growth, supporting its potential use as a promising adjuvant in compounded topical formulations for wound and scar healing. PMID:27125055

  5. Role of invasive Melilotus officinalis in two native plant communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Riper, Laura C.; Larson, Diane L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the impact of the exotic nitrogen-fixing legume Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam. on native and exotic species cover in two Great Plains ecosystems in Badlands National Park, South Dakota. Melilotus is still widely planted and its effects on native ecosystems are not well studied. Melilotus could have direct effects on native plants, such as through competition or facilitation. Alternatively, Melilotus may have indirect effects on natives, e.g., by favoring exotic species which in turn have a negative effect on native species. This study examined these interactions across a 4-year period in two contrasting vegetation types: Badlands sparse vegetation and western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii) mixed-grass prairie. Structural equation models were used to analyze the pathways through which Melilotus, native species, and other exotic species interact over a series of 2-year time steps. Melilotus can affect native and exotic species both in the current year and in the years after its death (a lag effect). A lag effect is possible because the death of a Melilotus plant can leave an open, potentially nitrogen-enriched site on the landscape. The results showed that the relationship between Melilotus and native and exotic species varied depending on the habitat and the year. In Badlands sparse vegetation, there was a consistent, strong, and positive relationship between Melilotus cover and native and exotic species cover suggesting that Melilotus is acting as a nurse plant and facilitating the growth of other species. In contrast, in western wheatgrass prairie, Melilotus was acting as a weak competitor and had no consistent effect on other species. In both habitats, there was little evidence for a direct lag effect of Melilotus on other species. Together, these results suggest both facilitative and competitive roles for Melilotus, depending on the vegetation type it invades.

  6. Flower Size Variation in Rosmarinus officinalis: Individuals, Populations and Habitats

    PubMed Central

    HERRERA, JAVIER

    2004-01-01

    Background and Aims Flowers are relatively invariant organs within species, but quantitative variation often exists among conspecifics. These variations represent the raw material that natural selection can magnify, eventually resulting in morphological divergence and diversification. This paper investigates floral variability in Rosmarinus officinalis, a Mediterranean shrub. Methods Nine populations were selected in three major southern Spanish habitats (coast, lowland and mountains) along an elevation gradient. Flower samples from randomly chosen plants were collected from each population, and a total of 641 flowers from 237 shrubs were weighed while still fresh to the nearest 01 mg. Leaves from the same plants were also measured. Variations among habitats, sites and plants were explored with general linear model ANOVA. Leafflower covariation was also investigated. Key Results Most (58 %) mass in flowers was accounted for by the corolla, whose linear dimensions correlated directly with flower mass. Averaged over plants, the mass of a flower varied between 12 mg and 38 mg. Habitat, site (within habitat) and shrub identity had significant effects on mass variance. Flowers from the coast were the smallest (17 mg) and those from the mountains the largest (25 mg on average). A pattern of continuously increasing flower size with elevation emerged which was largely uncoupled from the geographical pattern of leaf size variation. Conclusions As regards flower size, a great potential to local differentiation exists in Rosmarinus. Observed divergences accord with a regime of large-bodied pollinator selection in the mountains, but also with resourcecost hypotheses on floral evolution that postulate that reduced corollas are advantageous under prevailingly stressful conditions. PMID:15585545

  7. How sensitive is Melissa officinalis to realistic ozone concentrations?

    PubMed

    Döring, Anne Sarah; Pellegrini, Elisa; Campanella, Alessandra; Trivellini, Alice; Gennai, Clizia; Petersen, Maike; Nali, Cristina; Lorenzini, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis, L.; Lamiaceae) was exposed to realistic ozone (O3) dosages (80 ppb for 5 h), because high background levels of O3 are considered to be as harmful as episodic O3 regimes. Temporal alterations of different ecophysiological, biochemical and structural parameters were investigated in order to test if this species can be considered as an O3-bioindicator regarding changes in background concentrations. At the end of ozone exposure, the plants did not exhibit any visible foliar symptoms, as only at microscopic level a small number of dead cells were found. Photosynthetic processes, however, were significantly affected. During and after the treatment, ozone induced a reduction in CO2 fixation capacity (up to 52% after 12 h from the beginning of the treatment) due to mesophyllic limitations. Intercellular CO2 concentration significantly increased in comparison to controls (+90% at the end of the post-fumigation period). Furthermore impairment of carboxylation efficiency (-71% at the end of the post-fumigation period compared to controls in filtered air) and membrane damage in terms of integrity (as demonstrated by a significant rise in solute leakage) were observed. A regulatory adjustment of photosynthetic processes was highlighted during the post-fumigation period by the higher values of qNP and (1-q(P)) and therefore suggests a tendency to reduce the light energy used in photochemistry at the expense of the capacity to dissipate the excess as excitation energy. In addition, the chlorophyll a/b ratio and the de-epoxidation index increased, showing a rearrangement of the pigment composition of the photosynthetic apparatus and a marked activation of photoprotective mechanisms. PMID:24321873

  8. An Evaluation of Root Phytochemicals Derived from Althea officinalis (Marshmallow) and Astragalus membranaceus as Potential Natural Components of UV Protecting Dermatological Formulations.

    PubMed

    Curnow, Alison; Owen, Sara J

    2016-01-01

    As lifetime exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation has risen, the deleterious effects have also become more apparent. Numerous sunscreen and skincare products have therefore been developed to help reduce the occurrence of sunburn, photoageing, and skin carcinogenesis. This has stimulated research into identifying new natural sources of effective skin protecting compounds. Alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) was employed to assess aqueous extracts derived from soil or hydroponically glasshouse-grown roots of Althea officinalis (Marshmallow) and Astragalus membranaceus, compared with commercial, field-grown roots. Hydroponically grown root extracts from both plant species were found to significantly reduce UVA-induced DNA damage in cultured human lung and skin fibroblasts, although initial Astragalus experimentation detected some genotoxic effects, indicating that Althea root extracts may be better suited as potential constituents of dermatological formulations. Glasshouse-grown soil and hydroponic Althea root extracts afforded lung fibroblasts with statistically significant protection against UVA irradiation for a greater period of time than the commercial field-grown roots. No significant reduction in DNA damage was observed when total ultraviolet irradiation (including UVB) was employed (data not shown), indicating that the extracted phytochemicals predominantly protected against indirect UVA-induced oxidative stress. Althea phytochemical root extracts may therefore be useful components in dermatological formulations. PMID:26953144

  9. Modeling of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction for determination of essential oil from Borago officinalis L. by using combination of artificial neural network and genetic algorithm method.

    PubMed

    Khajeh, Mostafa; Moghaddam, Zahra Safaei; Bohlooli, Mousa; Khajeh, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) coupled with gas chromatography was applied for the extraction and determination of essential oil constituents of the Borago officinalis L. In this study, an experimental data-based artificial neural network (ANN) model was constructed to describe the performance of DLLME method for various operating conditions. The volume of extraction and dispersive solvents, extraction time and salt effect were the input variables of this process, whereas the extraction efficiency was the output. The ANN method was found to be capable of modeling this procedure accurately. The overall agreement between the experimental data and ANN predictions was satisfactory showing a determination coefficient of 0.982. The optimum operating condition was then determined by the genetic algorithm method. The optimal conditions were 248 µL volume of extraction solvent, 260 µL volume of dispersive solvent, 2.5 min extraction time and 0.16 mol L(-1) of salt. The limit of detection and linear dynamic range were 0.15-24.0 and 1.2-1,800 ng mL(-1), respectively. The main components of the essential oil were δ-cadinene (31.02%), carvacrol (24.91%), α-pinene (20.89%) and α-cadinol (16.47%). PMID:26045584

  10. An Evaluation of Root Phytochemicals Derived from Althea officinalis (Marshmallow) and Astragalus membranaceus as Potential Natural Components of UV Protecting Dermatological Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Curnow, Alison; Owen, Sara J.

    2016-01-01

    As lifetime exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation has risen, the deleterious effects have also become more apparent. Numerous sunscreen and skincare products have therefore been developed to help reduce the occurrence of sunburn, photoageing, and skin carcinogenesis. This has stimulated research into identifying new natural sources of effective skin protecting compounds. Alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) was employed to assess aqueous extracts derived from soil or hydroponically glasshouse-grown roots of Althea officinalis (Marshmallow) and Astragalus membranaceus, compared with commercial, field-grown roots. Hydroponically grown root extracts from both plant species were found to significantly reduce UVA-induced DNA damage in cultured human lung and skin fibroblasts, although initial Astragalus experimentation detected some genotoxic effects, indicating that Althea root extracts may be better suited as potential constituents of dermatological formulations. Glasshouse-grown soil and hydroponic Althea root extracts afforded lung fibroblasts with statistically significant protection against UVA irradiation for a greater period of time than the commercial field-grown roots. No significant reduction in DNA damage was observed when total ultraviolet irradiation (including UVB) was employed (data not shown), indicating that the extracted phytochemicals predominantly protected against indirect UVA-induced oxidative stress. Althea phytochemical root extracts may therefore be useful components in dermatological formulations. PMID:26953144

  11. Effect of essential oil of Hyssopus officinalis on the lipid composition of Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Ghfir, B; Fonvieille, J L; Koulali, Y; Ecalle, R; Dargent, R

    1994-06-01

    Addition of the essential oil of Hyssopus officinalis to the culture medium of Aspergillus fumigatus induced alterations in both growth and lipid composition of this mould. Total lipids and sterols were reduced, whereas total phospholipids were increased. There were alterations in the proportions of fatty acids, neutral lipid and phospholipid fractions. PMID:7935731

  12. Evaluation of Emblica officinalis fruit powder as a growth promoter in commercial broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Patel, A. P.; Bhagwat, S. R.; Pawar, M. M.; Prajapati, K. B.; Chauhan, H. D.; Makwana, R. B.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the dietary addition of Emblica officinalis (Amla) fruit powder as a growth promoter in commercial broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: An experiment was conducted on 135 commercial broiler chicks (Ven-Cobb 400 strain) divided into three groups with three replicates of 15 chicks each. Three treatment groups were as follows – T1: Basal diet as per BIS standards; T2: Basal diet supplemented with 0.4% of E. officinalis fruit powder; and T3: Basal diet supplemented with 0.8% of E. officinalis fruit powder. Results: The average body weights at the end of the 6th week were significantly higher (p<0.05) in groups T2 and T3 compared to group T1. Feed intake, feed conversion ratio and feed cost per kg live weight production were similar among the treatment groups. The net profit per bird was the highest in group T2 (Rs. 19.22/bird) followed by group T3 (Rs. 17.86/bird) and the lowest in group T1 (Rs. 14.61/bird). Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, it was concluded that dietary addition of E. officinalis (Amla) fruit powder had a positive effect on growth performance and net profit per bird in commercial broiler chickens. PMID:27051210

  13. Antimycotoxigenic characteristics of Rosmarinus officinalis and Trachyspermum copticum L. essential oils.

    PubMed

    Rasooli, Iraj; Fakoor, Mohammad Hadi; Yadegarinia, Davod; Gachkar, Latif; Allameh, Abdolamir; Rezaei, Mohammad Bagher

    2008-02-29

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolite produced by Aspergillus species on food and agricultural commodities. Natural products may regulate the cellular effects of aflatoxins and evidence suggests that aromatic organic compounds of spices can control the production of aflatoxins. With a view to controlling aflatoxin production, the essential oils from Rosmarinus officinalis and Trachyspermum copticum L. were obtained by hydrodistillation. Antifungal activities of the oils were studied with special reference to the inhibition of Aspergillus parasiticus growth and aflatoxin production. Minimal inhibitory (MIC) and minimal fungicidal (MFC) concentrations of the oils were determined. T. copticum L. oil showed a stronger inhibitory effect than R. officinalis on the growth of A. parasiticus. Aflatoxin production was inhibited at 450 ppm of both oils with that of R. officinalis being stronger inhibitor. The oils were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The major components of R. officinalis and T. copticum L. oils were Piperitone (23.65%), alpha-pinene (14.94%), Limonene (14.89%), 1,8-Cineole (7.43%) and Thymol (37.2%), P-Cymene (32.3%), gamma-Terpinene (27.3%) respectively. It is concluded that the essential oils could be safely used as preservative materials on some kinds of foods to protect them from toxigenic fungal infections. PMID:18190993

  14. In vitro effects of Salvia officinalis L. essential oil on Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Sookto, Tularat; Srithavaj, Theerathavaj; Thaweboon, Sroisiri; Thaweboon, Boonyanit; Shrestha, Binit

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the anticandidal activities of Salvia officinalis L. (S. officinalis) essential oil against Candida albicans (C. albicans) and the inhibitory effects on the adhesion of C. albicans to polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) resin surface. Methods Disc diffusion method was first used to test the anticandidal activities of the S. officinalis L. essential oil against the reference strain (ATCC 90028) and 2 clinical strains of C. albicans. Then the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were determined by modified membrane method. The adhesion of C. albicans to PMMA resin surface was assessed after immersion with S. officinalis L. essential oil at various concentrations of 1×MIC, 0.5×MIC and 0.25×MIC at room temperature for 30 min. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the Candida cell adhesion with the pretreatment agents and Tukey's test was used for multiple comparisons. Results S. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited anticandidal activity against all strains of C. albicans with inhibition zone ranging from 40.5 mm to 19.5 mm. The MIC and MLC of the oil were determined as 2.780 g/L against all test strains. According to the effects on C. albicans adhesion to PMMA resin surface, it was found that immersion in the essential oil at concentrations of 1×MIC (2.780 g/L), 0.5×MIC (1.390 g/L) and 0.25×MIC (0.695 g/L) for 30 min significantly reduced the adhesion of all 3 test strains to PMMA resin surface in a dose dependent manner (P<0.05). Conclusions S. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited anticandidal activities against C. albicans and had inhibitory effects on the adhesion of the cells to PMMA resin surface. With further testing and development, S. officinalis essential oil may be used as an antifungal denture cleanser to prevent candidal adhesion and thus reduce the risk of candida-associated denture stomatitis. PMID:23646301

  15. De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing of Oryza officinalis Wall ex Watt to Identify Disease-Resistance Genes.

    PubMed

    He, Bin; Gu, Yinghong; Tao, Xiang; Cheng, Xiaojie; Wei, Changhe; Fu, Jian; Cheng, Zaiquan; Zhang, Yizheng

    2015-01-01

    Oryza officinalis Wall ex Watt is one of the most important wild relatives of cultivated rice and exhibits high resistance to many diseases. It has been used as a source of genes for introgression into cultivated rice. However, there are limited genomic resources and little genetic information publicly reported for this species. To better understand the pathways and factors involved in disease resistance and accelerating the process of rice breeding, we carried out a de novo transcriptome sequencing of O. officinalis. In this research, 137,229 contigs were obtained ranging from 200 to 19,214 bp with an N50 of 2331 bp through de novo assembly of leaves, stems and roots in O. officinalis using an Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. Based on sequence similarity searches against a non-redundant protein database, a total of 88,249 contigs were annotated with gene descriptions and 75,589 transcripts were further assigned to GO terms. Candidate genes for plant-pathogen interaction and plant hormones regulation pathways involved in disease-resistance were identified. Further analyses of gene expression profiles showed that the majority of genes related to disease resistance were all expressed in the three tissues. In addition, there are two kinds of rice bacterial blight-resistant genes in O. officinalis, including two Xa1 genes and three Xa26 genes. All 2 Xa1 genes showed the highest expression level in stem, whereas one of Xa26 was expressed dominantly in leaf and other 2 Xa26 genes displayed low expression level in all three tissues. This transcriptomic database provides an opportunity for identifying the genes involved in disease-resistance and will provide a basis for studying functional genomics of O. officinalis and genetic improvement of cultivated rice in the future. PMID:26690414

  16. De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing of Oryza officinalis Wall ex Watt to Identify Disease-Resistance Genes

    PubMed Central

    He, Bin; Gu, Yinghong; Tao, Xiang; Cheng, Xiaojie; Wei, Changhe; Fu, Jian; Cheng, Zaiquan; Zhang, Yizheng

    2015-01-01

    Oryza officinalis Wall ex Watt is one of the most important wild relatives of cultivated rice and exhibits high resistance to many diseases. It has been used as a source of genes for introgression into cultivated rice. However, there are limited genomic resources and little genetic information publicly reported for this species. To better understand the pathways and factors involved in disease resistance and accelerating the process of rice breeding, we carried out a de novo transcriptome sequencing of O. officinalis. In this research, 137,229 contigs were obtained ranging from 200 to 19,214 bp with an N50 of 2331 bp through de novo assembly of leaves, stems and roots in O. officinalis using an Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. Based on sequence similarity searches against a non-redundant protein database, a total of 88,249 contigs were annotated with gene descriptions and 75,589 transcripts were further assigned to GO terms. Candidate genes for plant–pathogen interaction and plant hormones regulation pathways involved in disease-resistance were identified. Further analyses of gene expression profiles showed that the majority of genes related to disease resistance were all expressed in the three tissues. In addition, there are two kinds of rice bacterial blight-resistant genes in O. officinalis, including two Xa1 genes and three Xa26 genes. All 2 Xa1 genes showed the highest expression level in stem, whereas one of Xa26 was expressed dominantly in leaf and other 2 Xa26 genes displayed low expression level in all three tissues. This transcriptomic database provides an opportunity for identifying the genes involved in disease-resistance and will provide a basis for studying functional genomics of O. officinalis and genetic improvement of cultivated rice in the future. PMID:26690414

  17. Chemical composition and biological activity of essential oils of Dracocephalum heterophyllum and Hyssopus officinalis from Western Himalaya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The essential oils of two representatives of the Lamiaceae-family, Dracocephalum heterophyllum Benth. and Hyssopus officinalis L., are described for their antifungal, antibacterial and larvicidal as well as biting deterrent activities. Additionally, the essential oils’ chemical compositions, analyze...

  18. Studies on Emblica officinalis derived tannins for their immunostimulatory and protective activities against coccidiosis in industrial broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kaleem, Qari Muhammad; Akhtar, Masood; Awais, Mian Muhammad; Saleem, Muhammad; Zafar, Muddassar; Iqbal, Zafar; Muhammad, Faqir; Anwar, Muhammad Irfan

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports the effect of Emblica officinalis (EO) derived tannins on humoral immune responses and their protective efficacy against Eimeria infection in chickens. Tannins were extracted from EO and characterized by HPLC. EO derived tannins (EOT) and commercial tannins (CT) were orally administered in broiler chicks in graded doses for three consecutive days, that is, 5th-7th days of age. On day 14 after administration of tannins, humoral immune response was detected against sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) by haemagglutination assay. Protective efficacy of tannins was measured against coccidial infection, induced by Eimeria species. Results revealed higher geomean titers against SRBCs in chickens administered with EOT as compared to those administered with CT and control group. Mean oocysts per gram of droppings were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in EOT administered chickens as compared to control group. Lesion scoring also showed the lowest caecal and intestinal lesion score of mild to moderate intensity in chickens administered with EOT. Further, significantly higher (P < 0.05) daily body weight gains and antibody titers were detected in EOT administered chickens as compared to those of CT administered and control groups. EOT showed the immunostimulatory properties in broilers and their administration in chickens boost the protective immunity against coccidiosis. PMID:24578631

  19. Studies on Emblica officinalis Derived Tannins for Their Immunostimulatory and Protective Activities against Coccidiosis in Industrial Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Kaleem, Qari Muhammad; Akhtar, Masood; Awais, Mian Muhammad; Saleem, Muhammad; Zafar, Muddassar; Iqbal, Zafar; Muhammad, Faqir

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports the effect of Emblica officinalis (EO) derived tannins on humoral immune responses and their protective efficacy against Eimeria infection in chickens. Tannins were extracted from EO and characterized by HPLC. EO derived tannins (EOT) and commercial tannins (CT) were orally administered in broiler chicks in graded doses for three consecutive days, that is, 5th-7th days of age. On day 14 after administration of tannins, humoral immune response was detected against sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) by haemagglutination assay. Protective efficacy of tannins was measured against coccidial infection, induced by Eimeria species. Results revealed higher geomean titers against SRBCs in chickens administered with EOT as compared to those administered with CT and control group. Mean oocysts per gram of droppings were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in EOT administered chickens as compared to control group. Lesion scoring also showed the lowest caecal and intestinal lesion score of mild to moderate intensity in chickens administered with EOT. Further, significantly higher (P < 0.05) daily body weight gains and antibody titers were detected in EOT administered chickens as compared to those of CT administered and control groups. EOT showed the immunostimulatory properties in broilers and their administration in chickens boost the protective immunity against coccidiosis. PMID:24578631

  20. Effect of ionising radiation on polyphenolic content and antioxidant potential of parathion-treated sage (Salvia officinalis) leaves.

    PubMed

    Ben Salem, Issam; Fekih, Sana; Sghaier, Haitham; Bousselmi, Mehrez; Saidi, Mouldi; Landoulsi, Ahmed; Fattouch, Sami

    2013-11-15

    The γ-irradiation effects on polyphenolic content and antioxidant capacity of parathion-pretreated leaves of Salvia officinalis plant were investigated. The analysis of phenolic extracts of sage without parathion showed that irradiation decreased polyphenolic content significantly (p<0.05) by 30% and 45% at 2 and 4kGy, respectively, compared to non-irradiated samples. The same trend was observed for the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), as assessed by the anionic DPPH and cationic ABTS radical-scavenging assays. The antioxidant potential decreased significantly (p<0.01) at 2 and 4kGy, by 11-20% and 40-44%, respectively. The results obtained with a pure chlorogenic acid solution confirmed the degradation of phenols; however, its TEAC was significantly (p<0.01) increased following irradiation. Degradation products of parathion formed by irradiation seem to protect against a decline of antioxidant capacity and reduce polyphenolic loss. Ionising radiation was found to be useful in breaking down pesticide residues without inducing significant losses in polyphenols. PMID:23790930

  1. Antimicrobial potential of some plant extracts against Candida species.

    PubMed

    Hfling, J F; Anibal, P C; Obando-Pereda, G A; Peixoto, I A T; Furletti, V F; Foglio, M A; Gonalves, R B

    2010-11-01

    The increase in the resistance to antimicrobial drugs in use has attracted the attention of the scientific community, and medicinal plants have been extensively studied as alternative agents for the prevention of infections. The Candida genus yeast can become an opportunistic pathogen causing disease in immunosuppressive hosts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate dichloromethane and methanol extracts from Mentha piperita, Rosmarinus officinalis, Arrabidaea chica, Tabebuia avellanedae, Punica granatum and Syzygium cumini against Candida species through the analysis of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). Results presented activity of these extracts against Candida species, especially the methanol extract. PMID:21180915

  2. Antioxidant Studies on Ethanol Extracts from Two Selected Genera of Indian Lamiaceae

    PubMed Central

    Ramu, G.; Dhanabal, S. P.

    2015-01-01

    The present work is targeted to evaluate antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts from the leaves of Plectranthus mollis and Salvia officinalis belonging to family Lamiaceae using nitric oxide scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power assay and lipid peroxidation methods. The results of the study indicate that the leaf extracts of both the plants possess in vitro antioxidant activity. The higher amount of flavanoids and phenolic compounds may correspond to their greater antioxidant activity.

  3. FTIR spectroscopic evaluation of changes in the cellular biochemical composition of the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata induced by extracts of some Greek medicinal and aromatic plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skotti, Efstathia; Kountouri, Sophia; Bouchagier, Pavlos; Tsitsigiannis, Dimitrios I.; Polissiou, Moschos; Tarantilis, Petros A.

    2014-06-01

    In this study, the biological activity of aquatic extracts of selected Greek medicinal and aromatic plants to the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata was investigated. Lamiaceae species (Hyssopus officinalis L., Melissa officinalis L., Origanum dictamnus L., Origanum vulgare L. and Salvia officinalis L.) were found to enhance significantly the mycelium growth whereas Crocus sativus appears to inhibit it slightly. M. officinalis and S. officinalis caused the highest stimulation in mycelium growth (+97%) and conidia production (+65%) respectively. In order to further investigate the bioactivity of plant extracts to A. alternata, we employed Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Differences of original spectra were assigned mainly to amides of proteins. The second derivative transformation of spectra revealed changes in spectral regions corresponding to absorptions of the major cellular constituents such as cell membrane and proteins. Principal component analysis of the second derivative transformed spectra confirmed that fatty acids of the cell membranes, amides of proteins and polysaccharides of the cell wall had the major contribution to data variation. FTIR band area ratios were found to correlate with fungal mycelium growth.

  4. FTIR spectroscopic evaluation of changes in the cellular biochemical composition of the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata induced by extracts of some Greek medicinal and aromatic plants.

    PubMed

    Skotti, Efstathia; Kountouri, Sophia; Bouchagier, Pavlos; Tsitsigiannis, Dimitrios I; Polissiou, Moschos; Tarantilis, Petros A

    2014-06-01

    In this study, the biological activity of aquatic extracts of selected Greek medicinal and aromatic plants to the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata was investigated. Lamiaceae species (Hyssopus officinalis L., Melissa officinalis L., Origanum dictamnus L., Origanum vulgare L. and Salvia officinalis L.) were found to enhance significantly the mycelium growth whereas Crocus sativus appears to inhibit it slightly. M. officinalis and S. officinalis caused the highest stimulation in mycelium growth (+97%) and conidia production (+65%) respectively. In order to further investigate the bioactivity of plant extracts to A. alternata, we employed Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Differences of original spectra were assigned mainly to amides of proteins. The second derivative transformation of spectra revealed changes in spectral regions corresponding to absorptions of the major cellular constituents such as cell membrane and proteins. Principal component analysis of the second derivative transformed spectra confirmed that fatty acids of the cell membranes, amides of proteins and polysaccharides of the cell wall had the major contribution to data variation. FTIR band area ratios were found to correlate with fungal mycelium growth. PMID:24657421

  5. An innovative approach to the recovery of phenolic compounds and volatile terpenes from the same fresh foliar sample of Rosmarinus officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Bellumori, Maria; Michelozzi, Marco; Innocenti, Marzia; Congiu, Federica; Cencetti, Gabriele; Mulinacci, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis L. is a plant of relevant commercial interest because of its volatile fraction and also its phenolic constituents which are both well known for their numerous properties. Nevertheless, an extractive method suitable to recovering both the aromatic and phenolic fractions from the same fresh foliar tissue has not yet been reported. In this work we have optimized a two-step procedure able to recover first the phenolic compounds and successively the volatile terpenes from the same foliar sample. The recovery of the whole phenolic fraction, partially degraded using a traditional extractive method, was guaranteed and we observed a significant increment in the amount of volatile terpenes compared to a traditional extraction procedure. We also highlight crucial information on the enzymatic activity of the endogenous oxidases that rapidly transform the phenolic substrates, mainly the rosmarinic acid. Our results suggest that this extractive procedure could also be used for other aromatic plants, thus providing a useful tool for more complete analyses of the main phytochemicals available in fresh foliar samples and creating the possibility of incrementing yields of volatile compounds. PMID:25281076

  6. Effects of Salvia officinalis and Thymus vulgaris on oxidant-induced DNA damage and antioxidant status in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Kozics, Katarna; Klusov, Veronika; Sran?kov, Annamria; Mu?aji, Pavol; Slame?ov, Darina; Hunkov, Lubica; Kusznierewicz, Barbara; Horvthov, Eva

    2013-12-01

    Salvia officinalis (SO) and Thymus vulgaris (TV) are medicinal plants well known for their curative powers. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for these abilities of sage and thyme have not been fully understood yet. In this study we investigated the composition and the quantitative estimation of plant extracts, the protective effects of plant extracts against hydrogen peroxide- and 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone-induced DNA damage, and levels of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione) in human HepG2 cells. To measure antioxidative activity of plant extracts we used three assays: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS). The results showed that the oxidant-induced DNA lesions were significantly reduced in cells pre-treated with the plant extracts studied. The observed DNA-protective activity could be explained by both elevation of GPx activity in cells pre-treated with SO and TV and antioxidant activity of SO and TV. PMID:23870948

  7. Purification and spectroscopic studies on catechol oxidase from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis).

    PubMed

    Rompel, Annette; Büldt-Karentzopoulos, Klaudia; Molitor, Christian; Krebs, Bernt

    2012-09-01

    A catechol oxidase from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) moCO which only catalyzes the oxidation of catechols to quinones without hydroxylating tyrosine was purified. The molecular mass of the M. officinalis enzyme of 39,370 Da was obtained by MALDI mass spectrometry and the isoelectric point was determined to be 3.4. Addition of 2 eq. H(2)O(2) to the enzyme leads to oxy catechol oxidase. In the UV/Vis spectrum two new absorption bands occur at 343 nm (ε=8510 M(-1)cm(-1)) and 580 nm (ε=580 M(-1)cm(-1)) due to O(2)(2-)Cu (II) charge transfer transitions in accordance with the oxy forms of other type 3 copper proteins. The N-terminal sequence has been determined by Edman degradation to NPVQAPELDKCGTAT, exhibiting a proline at the second and sixth position conserved in other polyphenol oxidases. PMID:22727580

  8. Melissa officinalis L. decoctions as functional beverages: a bioactive approach and chemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Carocho, Márcio; Barros, Lillian; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Ćirić, Ana; Soković, Marina; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Morales, Patricia; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-07-01

    Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) is a member of the Lamiaceae family with a long story of human consumption. It has been consumed for decades, directly in food and as a decoction or an infusion for its medicinal purposes. In this manuscript, a detailed chemical characterization of the decoction of this plant is described, encompassing antimicrobial, antioxidant and antitumor activities. Rosmarinic acid and lithospermic acid A were the most abundant phenolic compounds. Quinic acid, fructose, glucose and γ-tocopherol were the most abundant within their groups of molecules. M. officinalis decoctions were active against a wide range of microorganisms, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhimurium, and Penicillium funiculosum being the most sensitive bacteria and fungi, respectively. The growth inhibition of different human tumor cell lines (mainly MCF-7 and HepG2) was also observed, as also high free radical scavenging activity and reducing power. This manuscript highlights some beneficial effects of these functional beverages. PMID:26075899

  9. Phytochemical Variations and Enhanced Efficiency of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Ingredients in Salvia officinalis as Inoculated with Different Rhizobacteria.

    PubMed

    Ghorbanpour, Mansour; Hatami, Mehrnaz; Kariman, Khalil; Abbaszadeh Dahaji, Payman

    2016-03-01

    Plants produce a variety of secondary metabolites to improve their performance upon exposure to pathogens, pests, herbivores, or environmental stresses. Secondary metabolism in plants is, therefore, highly regulated by presence of biotic or abiotic elicitors in the environment. The present research was undertaken to characterize plant growth-promoting attributes of four plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) including two Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf Ap1, Pf Ap18) and two P. putida (Pp Ap9, Pp Ap14) strains, and to determine their role (individually or in consortium) on growth of Salvia officialis, and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites such as essential oils (EOs), total phenolics, and flavonoids. The antioxidant and antibacterial properties of the extracts and EOs obtained from the inoculated plants were also investigated. The PGPR inoculum was applied to soil, cuttings, and foliage. Results indicated that different PGPR strains varied in their efficiency for production of auxin, siderophore, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase, and phosphate solubilization. All individually inoculated plants had significantly higher shoot and root biomass, leaf P content, EOs yield, total phenolics, and flavonoids content compared to uninoculated control plants. The major constituents of EOs, cis-thujene, camphor, and 1,8-cineol, increased following inoculation with reference PGPRs. Although the extract from all inoculated plants had improved antioxidant activity, it was remarkable for the Pf Ap18 strain, which had the lowest IC50 value across treatments. Antibacterial assay of various EOs and their major constituents against pathogenic bacteria showed that the highest activity was observed against Staphylococcus aureus using EOs of Pp Ap14 source. Based on our findings, we suggest that individual inoculation with effective PGPR strains can substantially improve plant growth and secondary metabolism in S. officinalis plants. PMID:26916832

  10. Systemic administration of Rosmarinus officinalis attenuates the inflammatory response induced by carrageenan in the mouse model of pleurisy.

    PubMed

    da Rosa, Julia Salvan; Facchin, Bruno Matheus; Bastos, Juliana; Siqueira, Mariana Araújo; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu; Dalmarco, Eduardo Monguilhott; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Fröde, Tânia Silvia

    2013-11-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis, also named rosemary, is a native plant from the Mediterranean region that is useful for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Studies using experimental models and/or in vitro tests have shown the important biological effects of rosemary. In this context, the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory activity of rosemary must be investigated to support the discovery of new substances with anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of crude extract oil free obtained from the leaves of rosemary in an animal model of inflammation, thus evaluating its medicinal use for the treatment of inflammatory conditions. Also its ethanol, hexane, and ethyl acetate fractions, as well as its isolated compounds carnosol and rosmarinic acid were analyzed. Swiss mice were used for the in vivo experiments. The effect of this herb on the inhibition of the leukocytes, exudation, myeloperoxidase, and adenosine-deaminase activities, nitrite/nitrate, interleukin 17A, and interleukin 10 levels and mRNA expression was determined. The crude extract and its derived fractions, in addition to its isolated compounds, inhibited leukocytes and decreased exudation and myeloperoxidase and adenosine-deaminase activities, as well as nitrite/nitrate and interleukin 17A levels and mRNA expression, besides increasing interleukin 10 levels and mRNA expression. Rosemary showed important anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting leukocytes and decreasing exudation. These effects were associated with a decrease in the proinflammatory parameters (myeloperoxidase, adenosine-deaminase, nitrite/nitrate, and interleukin 17A) and an increase in the anti-inflammatory cytokine (interleukin 10). This study confirms the anti-inflammatory properties of rosemary and validates its use in folk medicine to treat inflammatory diseases such as rheumatism and asthma. PMID:24288274

  11. Distribution of flavone glycoside diosmin in Hyssopus officinalis plants: changes during growth.

    PubMed

    Marin, F R; Ortuño, A; Benavente-Garcia, O; Del Rio, J A

    1998-03-01

    A study of the flavonoid composition of Hyssopus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) plants using high-performance liquid chromatography and NMR spectroscopy revealed the presence of diosmin as the major flavone. The maximum levels of this secondary compound are located in sepals and leaves, which represent 51 and 40.5%, respectively, of the total content of diosmin in whole plant. The presence of isoferulyl D-glucose ester in this plant material was also revealed. PMID:17253233

  12. Volvalerine A, an unprecedented N-containing sesquiterpenoid dimer derivative from Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng-Cheng; Ran, Xin-Hui; Luo, Huai-Rong; Ma, Qing-Yun; Zhou, Jun; Hu, Jiang-Miao; Zhao, You-Xing

    2016-03-01

    Volvalerine A (1), a novel N-containing bisesquiterpenoid derivative with a dihydroisoxazole ring, and its possible biosynthetic precursor, 1-hydroxy-1,11,11-trimethyldecahydrocyclopropane azulene-10-one (2), were isolated from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia. Their structures and relative configurations were identified using spectroscopic data and X-ray crystallography. A plausible biosynthetic pathway for 1 is also presented. PMID:26779941

  13. Evaluating the effect of zingiber officinalis on nausea and vomiting in patients receiving Cisplatin based regimens.

    PubMed

    Fahimi, Fanak; Khodadad, Kian; Amini, Somayeh; Naghibi, Farzaneh; Salamzadeh, Jamshid; Baniasadi, Shadi

    2011-01-01

    Ginger, the rhizome of Zingiber officinalis, has long been used as herbal medicine for its antiemetic effect. For evaluating the effect of zingiber officinalis on nausea and vomiting (N and V) in patients receiving cisplatin based regimens, a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over clinical trial was carried out in patients receiving cisplatin in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents. The patients were randomly assigned to receive ginger capsules (rhizome of zingiber officinalis) or placebo in their first cycle of the study. All patients received standard antiemetics for chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). The patients were crossed-over to receive ginger or placebo in their next cycle of chemotherapy. Among 36 eligible patients who received both cycles of treatment, there were no difference in prevalence, severity, and duration of both acute and delayed N and V. Addition of ginger to the standard antiemetic regimen has shown no advantage in reducing acute and delayed N and V in patients with cisplatin-based regimen in this study. PMID:24250368

  14. Evaluating the Effect of Zingiber Officinalis on Nausea and Vomiting in Patients Receiving Cisplatin Based Regimens

    PubMed Central

    Fahimi, Fanak; Khodadad, Kian; Amini, Somayeh; Naghibi, Farzaneh; Salamzadeh, Jamshid; Baniasadi, Shadi

    2011-01-01

    Ginger, the rhizome of Zingiber officinalis, has long been used as herbal medicine for its antiemetic effect. For evaluating the effect of zingiber officinalis on nausea and vomiting (N and V) in patients receiving cisplatin based regimens, a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over clinical trial was carried out in patients receiving cisplatin in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents. The patients were randomly assigned to receive ginger capsules (rhizome of zingiber officinalis) or placebo in their first cycle of the study. All patients received standard antiemetics for chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). The patients were crossed-over to receive ginger or placebo in their next cycle of chemotherapy. Among 36 eligible patients who received both cycles of treatment, there were no difference in prevalence, severity, and duration of both acute and delayed N and V. Addition of ginger to the standard antiemetic regimen has shown no advantage in reducing acute and delayed N and V in patients with cisplatin-based regimen in this study. PMID:24250368

  15. Color blindness and contrast perception in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) determined by a visual sensorimotor assay.

    PubMed

    Mäthger, Lydia M; Barbosa, Alexandra; Miner, Simon; Hanlon, Roger T

    2006-05-01

    We tested color perception based upon a robust behavioral response in which cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) respond to visual stimuli (a black and white checkerboard) with a quantifiable, neurally controlled motor response (a body pattern). In the first experiment, we created 16 checkerboard substrates in which 16 grey shades (from white to black) were paired with one green shade (matched to the maximum absorption wavelength of S. officinalis' sole visual pigment, 492 nm), assuming that one of the grey shades would give a similar achromatic signal to the tested green. In the second experiment, we created a checkerboard using one blue and one yellow shade whose intensities were matched to the cuttlefish's visual system. In both assays it was tested whether cuttlefish would show disruptive coloration on these checkerboards, indicating their ability to distinguish checkers based solely on wavelength (i.e., color). Here, we show clearly that cuttlefish must be color blind, as they showed non-disruptive coloration on the checkerboards whose color intensities were matched to the Sepia visual system, suggesting that the substrates appeared to their eyes as uniform backgrounds. Furthermore, we show that cuttlefish are able to perceive objects in their background that differ in contrast by approximately 15%. This study adds support to previous reports that S. officinalis is color blind, yet the question of how cuttlefish achieve "color-blind camouflage" in chromatically rich environments still remains. PMID:16376404

  16. Cloning, prokaryotic expression and functional analysis of squalene synthase (SQS) in Magnolia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Zha, Liangping; Liu, Shuang; Su, Ping; Yuan, Yuan; Huang, Luqi

    2016-04-01

    Magnolia officinalis Rehder et Wilson is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine that is used to treat various diseases such as neurosis, anxiety, and stroke. The main secondary metabolites in magnolia bark are phenolic compounds and terpenoids. Squalene synthase plays a significant role in catalyzing two farnesyl diphosphate molecules to form squalene, the first precursor of triterpenoid, phytosterol, and cholesterol biosynthesis. In this study, a full-length cDNA of squalene synthase was cloned from M. officinalis and designated MoSQS (GenBank accession no. KT223496). The gene contains a 1240-bp open reading frame and it encodes a protein with 409 amino acids. Bioinformatic and phylogenetic analysis clearly suggested that MoSQS shared high similarity with squalene synthases among other plants. Prokaryotic expression showed that a transmembrane domain-deleted (385-409 aa) MoSQS mutant (MoSQSΔTM) could be expressed in its soluble form in Escherichia coli Transetta (DE3). GC-MS analysis showed that squalene was detected in an in vitro reaction mixture. These results indicated that MoSQSΔTM was functional, thereby establishing an important foundation for the study of triterpenoid biosynthesis in M. officinalis. PMID:26696600

  17. Suppression of COX-2, IL-1β and TNF-α expression and leukocyte infiltration in inflamed skin by bioactive compounds from Rosmarinus officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Mengoni, Eleonora S; Vichera, Gabriel; Rigano, Luciano A; Rodriguez-Puebla, Marcelo L; Galliano, Silvia R; Cafferata, Eduardo E; Pivetta, Omar H; Moreno, Sivia; Vojnov, Adrián A

    2011-04-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the effects of extracts and purified compounds from fresh leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Pretreatment with the major anti-inflammatory compounds, carnosic acid (CA) and carnosol (CS), inhibited phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced ear inflammation in mice with an EC(50) of 10.20 μg/cm(2) and 10.70 μg/cm(2), respectively. To further understand the anti-inflammatory mechanism of these compounds, we analyzed the in vivo expression of several inflammation-associated genes in mouse skin by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Our data showed that CA and CS reduced the expression of IL-1β and TNF-α but had less effect on fibronectin and ICAM-1 expression. Interestingly, both compounds selectively inhibited COX-2 but not COX-1. Histopathological analysis of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained tissue revealed a marked reduction in leukocyte infiltration and epidermal ulceration of PMA-treated ears when ears were pretreated with ethanolic extracts or pure CA. In vitro, we showed that ethanolic extract, carnosic acid and carnosol significantly inhibited the overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) in a dose-dependent manner in the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line. For the first time in vivo, we showed that CA and CS differentially regulate the expression of inflammation-associated genes, thus demonstrating the pharmacological basis for the anti-inflammatory properties reported for CA and CS. PMID:21129455

  18. Herbicides for Calendula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rising need for replacements for volatile organic compounds (VOC), which are used in the manufacture of paints, plastics, pesticides, etc., has placed demands on drying oils that may not be met by current sources. The primary source is eleostearic acid, or tung oil, which is derived from the see...

  19. In Vitro Antibacterial and Antibiotic Resistance Modifying Effect of Bioactive Plant Extracts on Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis

    PubMed Central

    Chovanová, Romana; Vaverková, Štefánia

    2013-01-01

    The crude extracts of plants from Asteraceae and Lamiaceae family and essential oils from Salvia officinalis and Salvia sclarea were studied for their antibacterial as well as antibiotic resistance modifying activity. Using disc diffusion and broth microdilution assays we determined higher antibacterial effect of three Salvia spp. and by evaluating the leakage of 260 nm absorbing material we detected effect of extracts and, namely, of essential oils on the disruption of cytoplasmic membrane. The evaluation of in vitro interactions between plant extracts and oxacillin described in terms of fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices revealed synergistic or additive effects of plant extracts and clearly synergistic effects of essential oil from Salvia officinalis with oxacillin in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis. PMID:24222768

  20. The Isolation and Characterization of β-Glucogallin as a Novel Aldose Reductase Inhibitor from Emblica officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Puppala, Muthenna; Ponder, Jessica; Suryanarayana, Palla; Reddy, Geereddy Bhanuprakash; Petrash, J. Mark; LaBarbera, Daniel V.

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is recognized as a leading cause of new cases of blindness. The prevalence of diabetic eye disease is expected to continue to increase worldwide as a result of the dramatic increase in the number of people with diabetes. At present, there is no medical treatment to delay or prevent the onset and progression of cataract or retinopathy, the most common causes of vision loss in diabetics. The plant Emblica officinalis (gooseberry) has been used for thousands of years as a traditional Indian Ayurvedic preparation for the treatment of diabetes in humans. Extracts from this plant have been shown to be efficacious against the progression of cataract in a diabetic rat model. Aldose reductase (ALR2) is implicated in the development of secondary complications of diabetes including cataract and, therefore, has been a major drug target for the development of therapies to treat diabetic disease. Herein, we present the bioassay-guided isolation and structure elucidation of 1-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose (β-glucogallin), a major component from the fruit of the gooseberry that displays selective as well as relatively potent inhibition (IC50 = 17 µM) of AKR1B1 in vitro. Molecular modeling demonstrates that this inhibitor is able to favorably bind in the active site. Further, we show that β-glucogallin effectively inhibits sorbitol accumulation by 73% at 30 µM under hyperglycemic conditions in an ex-vivo organ culture model of lenses excised from transgenic mice overexpressing human ALR2 in the lens. This study supports the continued development of natural products such as β-glucogallin as therapeutic leads in the development of novel therapies to treat diabetic complications such as cataract. PMID:22485126

  1. The isolation and characterization of β-glucogallin as a novel aldose reductase inhibitor from Emblica officinalis.

    PubMed

    Puppala, Muthenna; Ponder, Jessica; Suryanarayana, Palla; Reddy, Geereddy Bhanuprakash; Petrash, J Mark; LaBarbera, Daniel V

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is recognized as a leading cause of new cases of blindness. The prevalence of diabetic eye disease is expected to continue to increase worldwide as a result of the dramatic increase in the number of people with diabetes. At present, there is no medical treatment to delay or prevent the onset and progression of cataract or retinopathy, the most common causes of vision loss in diabetics. The plant Emblica officinalis (gooseberry) has been used for thousands of years as a traditional Indian Ayurvedic preparation for the treatment of diabetes in humans. Extracts from this plant have been shown to be efficacious against the progression of cataract in a diabetic rat model. Aldose reductase (ALR2) is implicated in the development of secondary complications of diabetes including cataract and, therefore, has been a major drug target for the development of therapies to treat diabetic disease. Herein, we present the bioassay-guided isolation and structure elucidation of 1-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose (β-glucogallin), a major component from the fruit of the gooseberry that displays selective as well as relatively potent inhibition (IC(50) = 17 µM) of AKR1B1 in vitro. Molecular modeling demonstrates that this inhibitor is able to favorably bind in the active site. Further, we show that β-glucogallin effectively inhibits sorbitol accumulation by 73% at 30 µM under hyperglycemic conditions in an ex-vivo organ culture model of lenses excised from transgenic mice overexpressing human ALR2 in the lens. This study supports the continued development of natural products such as β-glucogallin as therapeutic leads in the development of novel therapies to treat diabetic complications such as cataract. PMID:22485126

  2. A study of the electrical polarization of Sepia officinalis yolk envelope, a role for Na+/K+-ATPases in osmoregulation?

    PubMed Central

    Bonnaud, Laure; Franko, Delphine; Vouillot, Léna; Bouteau, François

    2013-01-01

    The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis mate and spawn in the intertidal zone where eggs are exposed during low tide to osmotic stress. Embryonic outer yolk sac is a putative site for osmoregulation of young S. officinalis embryos. By using electrophysiological recordings and immunostaining we showed, (i) that the chorion is only a passive barrier for ions, since large molecules could not pass through it, (ii) that a complex transepithelial potential difference occurs through the yolk epithelium, (iii) that ionocyte-like cells and Na+/K+-ATPases were localized in the yolk epithelium and (iv) that ouabain sensitive Na+/K+-ATPase activity could participate to this yolk polarization. These data warrant further study on the role of ion transport systems of this epithelium in the osmoregulation processes in S. officinalis embryos. PMID:24505501

  3. Chemical composition and biological activity of essential oils of Dracocephalum heterophyllum and Hyssopus officinalis from Western Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Stappen, Iris; Wanner, Jürgen; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Wedge, David E; Ali, Abbas; Kaul, Vijay K; Lal, Brij; Jaitak, Vikas; Gochev, Velizar K; Schmidt, Erich; Jirovetz, Leopold

    2015-01-01

    The essential oils of two representatives of the Lamiaceae, Dracocephalum heterophyllum Benth. and Hyssopus officinalis L., are described for their antifungal, antibacterial, larvicidal and inect biting deterrent activities. Additionally, the chemical compositions of the essential oils, analyzed by simultaneous GC-MS and GC-FID, and odor descriptions are given. The main components of H. officinalis oil were pinocarvone, cis-pinocamphone, and β-pinene. Citronellol was found as the main compound of D. heterophyllum essential oil. Antibacterial testing by agar dilution assay revealed greater activity of D. heterophyllum against Staphylococcus aureus compared with H. officinalis. D. heterophyllum essential oil also showed promising antifungal activity against Colletotrichum species and was more toxic to Aedes aegypti larvae in a larvicial bioassay. Both essential oils showed high activity in the biting deterrent bioassay. PMID:25920235

  4. Antiplasmodial activity of ethanolic extracts of some selected medicinal plants from the northwest of Iran.

    PubMed

    Sangian, Hadi; Faramarzi, Hossein; Yazdinezhad, Alireza; Mousavi, Seyed Javad; Zamani, Zahra; Noubarani, Maryam; Ramazani, Ali

    2013-11-01

    The effectiveness of antimalarial drugs is declining at an ever accelerating rate, with consequent increase in malaria-related morbidity and mortality. The newest antiplasmodial drug from plants is needed to overcome this problem. The aim of this study was to assess antimalarial activity of the ethanolic extracts of 10 different medicinal plants from eight families against Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 strain. The selection of the hereby studied plants was based on the existing information on their local ethnobotanic history. Plants were dried, powdered, and macerated in a hydroalcoholic solution. Resulting extracts have been assessed for in vitro and in vivo antimalarial and brine shrimp toxicity activities. Of 10 plant species tested, four plants: Althea officinalis L. (Malvaceae), Myrtus communis Linn (Myrtaceae), Plantago major (Plantaginaceae), and Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Papilionaceae) displayed promising antimalarial activity in vitro (50% inhibitory concentration values of 62.77, 42.18, 40.00, and 13.56 ?g/mL, respectively) with no toxicity against brine shrimp larvae. The crude extracts of three active plants, G. glabra, M. communis, and A. officinalis, also significantly reduced parasitemia in vivo in female Swiss albino mice at a dose of 400 mg/kg compared to no treatment. Antiplasmodial activities of extracts of A. officinalis and M. communis are reported for the first time. PMID:23922204

  5. Emergence of sensory structures in the developing epidermis in sepia officinalis and other coleoid cephalopods.

    PubMed

    Buresi, Auxane; Croll, Roger P; Tiozzo, Stefano; Bonnaud, Laure; Baratte, Sébastien

    2014-09-01

    Embryonic cuttlefish can first respond to a variety of sensory stimuli during early development in the egg capsule. To examine the neural basis of this ability, we investigated the emergence of sensory structures within the developing epidermis. We show that the skin facing the outer environment (not the skin lining the mantle cavity, for example) is derived from embryonic domains expressing the Sepia officinalis ortholog of pax3/7, a gene involved in epidermis specification in vertebrates. On the head, they are confined to discrete brachial regions referred to as "arm pillars" that expand and cover Sof-pax3/7-negative head ectodermal tissues. As revealed by the expression of the S. officinalis ortholog of elav1, an early marker of neural differentiation, the olfactory organs first differentiate at about stage 16 within Sof-pax3/7-negative ectodermal regions before they are covered by the definitive Sof-pax3/7-positive outer epithelium. In contrast, the eight mechanosensory lateral lines running over the head surface and the numerous other putative sensory cells in the epidermis, differentiate in the Sof-pax3/7-positive tissues at stages ∼24-25, after they have extended over the entire outer surfaces of the head and arms. Locations and morphologies of the various sensory cells in the olfactory organs and skin were examined using antibodies against acetylated tubulin during the development of S. officinalis and were compared with those in hatchlings of two other cephalopod species. The early differentiation of olfactory structures and the peculiar development of the epidermis with its sensory cells provide new perspectives for comparisons of developmental processes among molluscs. PMID:24549606

  6. Apoptosis-inducing effects of Melissa officinalis L. essential oil in glioblastoma multiforme cells.

    PubMed

    Queiroz, Rafaela Muniz de; Takiya, Christina Maeda; Guimarães, Lívia Paes Tavares Pacheco; Rocha, Gleice da Graça; Alviano, Daniela Sales; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Gattass, Cerli Rocha

    2014-07-01

    Current therapies for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) are not effective. This study investigated the activity of the M. officinalis essential oil (EO) and its major component (citral) in GBM cell lines. Both EO and citral decreased the viability and induced apoptosis of GBM cells as demonstrated by DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activation. Antioxidant prevented citral-induced death, indicating its dependence on the production of reactive oxygen species. Citral downmodulated the activity and inhibited the expression of multidrug resistance associated protein 1 (MRP1). These results show that EO, through its major component, citral, may be of potential interest for the treatment of GBM. PMID:24745610

  7. Cytotoxicity and DNA topoisomerase inhibitory activity of constituents isolated from the fruits of Evodia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ming-Lu; Li, Gao; Moon, Dong-Cheol; Lee, Chong-Soon; Woo, Mi-Hee; Lee, Eung Seok; Jahng, Yurngdong; Chang, Hyeun-Wook; Lee, Seung-Ho; Son, Jong-Keun

    2006-07-01

    Four alkaloids (1-4), three quinolone alkaloids (5-7), and three flavanoid glucosides (8-10) were isolated from the fruits of Evodia officinalis Dode, and their structures were determined from chemical and spectral data. Compounds, 3, 8, 9 and 10 were isolated from this plant for the first time. Of these compounds, 1-3 and 5-7 exhibited moderate cytotoxicities against cultured human colon carcinoma (HT-29), human breast carcinoma (MCF-7), and human hepatoblastoma (HepG-2). Compound 8 showed strong inhibitory effects on DNA topoisomerases I and II (70 and 96% inhibition at a concentration of 20 microM, respectively). PMID:16903072

  8. A congenital malformation of the systemic heart complex in Sepia officinalis L. (Cephalopoda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schipp, R.; von Boletzky, S.; Jakobs, P.; Labourg, P. J.

    1998-03-01

    In semi-adult Sepia officinalis L. (Cephalopoda) from the Bay of Arcachon (France) a congenital malformation of the systemic heart is described by macro-and microscopical methods. It concerns an atypical doubling of the site of insertion at the cephalic aorta at the apical ventricle. Its comparison with the paired anlagen of the systemic heart complex in normal embryogenesis and the central circulatory system of Nautilus gives rise to interpret it as a form of atavism. The possible causal role of mutagenic antifoulings is discussed.

  9. Two new flavonoid glycosides from the whole herbs of Hyssopus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nan; Yang, Xiu-Wei

    2010-12-01

    Two new flavonoid glycosides, quercetin 7-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-xylopyranoside (1) and quercetin 7-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-xylopyranoside 3'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), together with nine known flavonoids were isolated from the whole herbs of Hyssopus officinalis L. cultivated in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China. All structures were characterized by the spectroscopic methods including UV, IR, ESI-MS, 1D, and 2D NMR. Their potent free radical scavenging activity against the stable 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical was evaluated. PMID:21128145

  10. De novo assembly and characterization of Oryza officinalis leaf transcriptome by using RNA-seq.

    PubMed

    Bao, Ying; Xu, Si; Jing, Xiang; Meng, Lu; Qin, Zongyan

    2015-01-01

    Although endeavors have been made to identify useful wild rice genes that can be used to improve cultivated rice, the virtual reservoir of genetic variation hidden within the wild relatives of cultivated rice is largely untapped. Here, using next-generation sequencing technology, we investigated the leaf transcriptome of a wild rice O. officinalis with CC genome. Approximately 23 million reads were produced in the species leaf transcriptome analysis and de novo assembly methods constructed 68,132 unigenes. Functional annotations for the unigenes were conducted using sequence similarity comparisons against the following databases: the nonredundant nucleotide database, the nonredundant protein database, the SWISS-PROT database, the Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins database, the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database, the Gene Ontology Consortium database, and the InterPro domains database. In addition, a total of 476 unigenes related to disease resistance were identified in O. officinalis, and these unigenes can serve as important genetic resources for cultivated rice breeding and quality improvement. The present study broadens our understanding of the genetic background of non-AA genomic wild rice species and it also provides a bridge to extend studies to other Oryza species with CC genomes. PMID:25713814

  11. How do background ozone concentrations affect the biosynthesis of rosmarinic acid in Melissa officinalis?

    PubMed

    Döring, Anne S; Pellegrini, Elisa; Della Batola, Michele; Nali, Cristina; Lorenzini, Giacomo; Petersen, Maike

    2014-03-01

    Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis; Lamiaceae) plants were exposed to background ozone (O3) dosages (80ppb for 5h), because high background levels of O3 are considered to be as harmful as episodic O3 peaks. Immediately at the end of fumigation the plants appeared visually symptomless, but necrotic lesions were observed later. The biosynthesis of rosmarinic acid (RA) comprises eight enzymes, among them phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL), tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) and rosmarinic acid synthase (RAS). The transcript levels of these genes have been investigated by quantitative RT-PCR. There was a quick up-regulation of all genes at 3h of O3 exposure, but at 24h from beginning of exposure (FBE) only RAS and PAL were up-regulated. The specific activity of RAS was closely correlated with a decrease of RA concentration in lemon balm leaves. The specific activity of PAL increased at 12h FBE to 163% in comparison to control levels. This work provides insight into the effect of O3 stress on the formation of the main phenolic ingredient of the pharmaceutically important plant M. officinalis. PMID:24484956

  12. A new haemocyanin in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) eggs: sequence analysis and relevance during ontogeny

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Haemocyanin is the respiratory protein of most of the Mollusca. In cephalopods and gastropods at least two distinct isoforms are differentially expressed. However, their physiological purpose is unknown. For the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, three isoforms are known so far, whereas for only two of them the complete mRNA sequences are available. In this study, we sequenced the complete mRNA of the third haemocyanin isoform and measured the relative expression of all three isoforms during embryogenesis to reveal a potential ontogenetic relevance. Results The cDNA of isoform 3 clearly correlates to the known Sepia officinalis haemocyanin subunits consisting of eight functional units and an internal duplicated functional unit d. Our molecular phylogenetic analyses reveal the third isoform representing a potentially ancestral haemocyanin isoform, and the analyses of the expression of haemocyanin type 3 reveal that haemocyanin type 3 only can be observed within eggs and during early development. Isoforms 1 and 2 are absent at these stages. After hatching, isoform 3 is downregulated, and isoform 1 and 2 are upregulated. Conclusions Our study clearly shows an embryonic relevance of the third isoform, which will be further discussed in the light of the changes in the physiological function of haemocyanin during ontogeny. Taken together with the fact that it could also be the isoform closest related to the common ancestor of cuttlefish haemocyanin, the phylogeny of cuttlefish haemocyanin may be recapitulated during its ontogeny. PMID:24499521

  13. Prophenoloxidase system, lysozyme and protease inhibitor distribution in the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Le Pabic, Charles; Safi, Georges; Serpentini, Antoine; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Robin, Jean-Paul; Koueta, Noussithé

    2014-01-01

    The immune system of cephalopods remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine the specific activity of immune enzymes in epithelial barriers, circulatory and digestive systems of the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. Three enzyme groups with putative functions in immunity were investigated: phenoloxidases (POs), lysozymes and protease inhibitors (PIs). Consistent with a role in immunity, highest PO activities were found in the integument as well as the respiratory and circulatory organs under zymogenic (proPO) and active form. Surprisingly, high PO activities were also found in the digestive gland and its appendages. Similarly, high lysozyme activities were detected in the integument and circulatory organs, but also in the posterior salivary glands, highlighting the implication of this antibacterial enzyme group in most tissues exposed to the environment but also within the circulatory system. Albeit highest in digestive organs, the ubiquitous detection of PI activity in assayed compartments suggests immune function(s) in a wide range of tissues. Our study reports proPO/PO, lysozyme and PI distributions in S. officinalis body compartments for the first time, and thus provides the fundamental basis for a better understanding of the humoral immune system in cephalopods as well as invertebrates. PMID:24813822

  14. Muscle relaxing activity of Hyssopus officinalis essential oil on isolated intestinal preparations.

    PubMed

    Lu, Mei; Battinelli, Lucia; Daniele, Claudia; Melchioni, Cristiana; Salvatore, Giuseppe; Mazzanti, Gabriela

    2002-03-01

    The muscle relaxing activity of the essential oil of Hyssopus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) and some of its main components (isopinocamphone, limonene and beta-pinene) was studied on isolated preparations of guinea-pig and rabbit intestine. The essential oil and isopinocamphone inhibited the acetylcholine- and BaCl2-induced contractions in guinea-pig ileum in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 42.4 microg/ml and 61.9 microg/ml to acetylcholine; 48.3 microg/ml and 70.4 microg/ml to BaCl2) whereas limonene or beta-pinene left tissue contraction unchanged. In guinea-pig ileum H. officinalis essential oil also blocked the contractions induced by CaCl2. In isolated rabbit jejunum the essential oil reduced the amplitude of spontaneous movements and decreased the basal tone; neither haemoglobin, methylene blue, N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) or propranolol blocked the myorelaxant effect. PMID:11914956

  15. Egg attachment of the asparagus beetle Crioceris asparagi to the crystalline waxy surface of Asparagus officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Voigt, Dagmar; Gorb, Stanislav

    2010-01-01

    Plant surfaces covered with crystalline epicuticular waxes are known to be anti-adhesive, hardly wettable and preventing insect attachment. But there are insects that are capable of gluing their eggs to these surfaces by means of proteinaceous secretions. In this study, we analysed the bonding region between the eggs of Crioceris asparagi and the plant surface of Asparagus officinalis using light and cryo-scanning electron microscopy. The wettability of the plant surface by egg secretion was compared with that by Aqua Millipore water, aqueous sugar solution and chicken egg white. Furthermore, the force required to remove C. asparagi eggs from the plant surface was measured, in order to evaluate the egg's bonding strength. Mean pull-off force was 14.7 mN, which is about 8650 times higher than the egg weight. Egg glue was observed spreading over the wax crystal arrays on the plant cladophyll and wetting them. Similar wetting behaviour on the A. officinalis surface was observed for chicken egg white. Our results support the hypothesis that the mechanism of insect egg adhesion on micro- and nanostructured hydrophobic plant surfaces is related to the proteinaceous nature of adhesive secretions of insect eggs. The secretion wets superhydrophobic surfaces and after solidifying builds up a composite, consisting of the solidified glue and wax crystals, at the interface between the egg and plant cuticle. PMID:19923132

  16. Egg attachment of the asparagus beetle Crioceris asparagi to the crystalline waxy surface of Asparagus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Dagmar; Gorb, Stanislav

    2010-03-22

    Plant surfaces covered with crystalline epicuticular waxes are known to be anti-adhesive, hardly wettable and preventing insect attachment. But there are insects that are capable of gluing their eggs to these surfaces by means of proteinaceous secretions. In this study, we analysed the bonding region between the eggs of Crioceris asparagi and the plant surface of Asparagus officinalis using light and cryo-scanning electron microscopy. The wettability of the plant surface by egg secretion was compared with that by Aqua Millipore water, aqueous sugar solution and chicken egg white. Furthermore, the force required to remove C. asparagi eggs from the plant surface was measured, in order to evaluate the egg's bonding strength. Mean pull-off force was 14.7 mN, which is about 8650 times higher than the egg weight. Egg glue was observed spreading over the wax crystal arrays on the plant cladophyll and wetting them. Similar wetting behaviour on the A. officinalis surface was observed for chicken egg white. Our results support the hypothesis that the mechanism of insect egg adhesion on micro- and nanostructured hydrophobic plant surfaces is related to the proteinaceous nature of adhesive secretions of insect eggs. The secretion wets superhydrophobic surfaces and after solidifying builds up a composite, consisting of the solidified glue and wax crystals, at the interface between the egg and plant cuticle. PMID:19923132

  17. Regulation of sesquiterpenoid metabolism in recombinant and elicited Valeriana officinalis hairy roots.

    PubMed

    Ricigliano, Vincent; Kumar, Santosh; Kinison, Scott; Brooks, Christopher; Nybo, S Eric; Chappell, Joe; Howarth, Dianella G

    2016-05-01

    The medicinal properties of Valerian (Valeriana officinalis) root preparations are attributed to the anxiolytic sesquiterpenoid valerenic acid and its biosynthetic precursors valerenal and valerenadiene, as well as the anti-inflammatory sesquiterpenoid β-caryophyllene. In order to study and engineer the biosynthesis of these pharmacologically active metabolites, a binary vector co-transformation system was developed for V. officinalis hairy roots. The relative expression levels and jasmonate-inducibility of a number of genes associated with sesquiterpenoid metabolism were profiled in roots: farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (VoFPS), valerendiene synthase (VoVDS), germacrene C synthase (VoGCS), and a cytochrome P450 (CYP71D442) putatively associated with terpene metabolism based on sequence homology. Recombinant hairy root lines overexpressing VoFPS or VoVDS were generated and compared to control cultures. Overexpression of the VoFPS cDNA increased levels of the corresponding transcript 4- to 8-fold and sesquiterpene hydrocarbon accumulation by 1.5- to 4-fold. Overexpression of the VoVDS cDNA increased the corresponding transcript levels 5- to 9-fold and markedly increased yields of the oxygenated sesquiterpenoids valerenic acid and valerenal. Our findings suggest that the availability of cytoplasmic farnesyl diphosphate and valerenadiene are potential bottlenecks in Valeriana-specific sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis, which is also subject to regulation by methyl jasmonate elicitation. PMID:26920719

  18. Sponging up metals: bacteria associated with the marine sponge Spongia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Bauvais, Cléa; Zirah, Séverine; Piette, Laurie; Chaspoul, Florence; Domart-Coulon, Isabelle; Chapon, Virginie; Gallice, Philippe; Rebuffat, Sylvie; Pérez, Thierry; Bourguet-Kondracki, Marie-Lise

    2015-03-01

    The present study explored the bacteria of the sponge Spongia officinalis in a metal-polluted environment, using PCR-DGGE fingerprinting, culture-dependent approaches and in situ hybridization. The sponge samples collected over three consecutive years in the Western Mediterranean Sea contained high concentrations of zinc, nickel, lead and copper determined by ICP-MS. DGGE signatures indicated a sponge specific bacterial association and suggested spatial and temporal variations. The bacterial culturable fraction associated with S. officinalis and tolerant to heavy metals was isolated using metal-enriched microbiological media. The obtained 63 aerobic strains were phylogenetically affiliated to the phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. All isolates showed high tolerances to the selected heavy metals. The predominant genus Pseudovibrio was localized via CARD-FISH in the sponge surface tissue and validated as a sponge-associated epibiont. This study is the first step in understanding the potential involvement of the associated bacteria in sponge's tolerance to heavy metals. PMID:25575352

  19. De Novo Assembly and Characterization of Oryza officinalis Leaf Transcriptome by Using RNA-Seq

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Ying; Xu, Si; Jing, Xiang; Meng, Lu; Qin, Zongyan

    2015-01-01

    Although endeavors have been made to identify useful wild rice genes that can be used to improve cultivated rice, the virtual reservoir of genetic variation hidden within the wild relatives of cultivated rice is largely untapped. Here, using next-generation sequencing technology, we investigated the leaf transcriptome of a wild rice O. officinalis with CC genome. Approximately 23 million reads were produced in the species leaf transcriptome analysis and de novo assembly methods constructed 68,132 unigenes. Functional annotations for the unigenes were conducted using sequence similarity comparisons against the following databases: the nonredundant nucleotide database, the nonredundant protein database, the SWISS-PROT database, the Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins database, the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database, the Gene Ontology Consortium database, and the InterPro domains database. In addition, a total of 476 unigenes related to disease resistance were identified in O. officinalis, and these unigenes can serve as important genetic resources for cultivated rice breeding and quality improvement. The present study broadens our understanding of the genetic background of non-AA genomic wild rice species and it also provides a bridge to extend studies to other Oryza species with CC genomes. PMID:25713814

  20. Analysis of transposable elements in the genome of Asparagus officinalis from high coverage sequence data.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu-Fen; Gao, Wu-Jun; Zhao, Xin-Peng; Dong, Tian-Yu; Deng, Chuan-Liang; Lu, Long-Dou

    2014-01-01

    Asparagus officinalis is an economically and nutritionally important vegetable crop that is widely cultivated and is used as a model dioecious species to study plant sex determination and sex chromosome evolution. To improve our understanding of its genome composition, especially with respect to transposable elements (TEs), which make up the majority of the genome, we performed Illumina HiSeq2000 sequencing of both male and female asparagus genomes followed by bioinformatics analysis. We generated 17 Gb of sequence (12×coverage) and assembled them into 163,406 scaffolds with a total cumulated length of 400 Mbp, which represent about 30% of asparagus genome. Overall, TEs masked about 53% of the A. officinalis assembly. Majority of the identified TEs belonged to LTR retrotransposons, which constitute about 28% of genomic DNA, with Ty1/copia elements being more diverse and accumulated to higher copy numbers than Ty3/gypsy. Compared with LTR retrotransposons, non-LTR retrotransposons and DNA transposons were relatively rare. In addition, comparison of the abundance of the TE groups between male and female genomes showed that the overall TE composition was highly similar, with only slight differences in the abundance of several TE groups, which is consistent with the relatively recent origin of asparagus sex chromosomes. This study greatly improves our knowledge of the repetitive sequence construction of asparagus, which facilitates the identification of TEs responsible for the early evolution of plant sex chromosomes and is helpful for further studies on this dioecious plant. PMID:24810432

  1. Dietary Intake of Curcuma longa and Emblica officinalis Increases Life Span in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Rawal, Shilpa; Singh, Pavneet; Gupta, Ayush; Mohanty, Sujata

    2014-01-01

    Intake of food and nutrition plays a major role in affecting aging process and longevity. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the ageing process are still unclear. To this respect, diet has been considered to be a determinant of ageing process. In order to better illustrate this, we used Drosophila melanogaster as a model and fed them orally with different concentrations of two commonly used Indian medicinal plant products, Curcuma longa (rhizome) and Emblica officinalis (fruit). The results revealed significant increase in life span of Drosophila flies on exposure to both the plant products, more efficiently by C. Longa than by E. officinalis. In order to understand whether the increase in lifespan was due to high-antioxidant properties of these medicinal plants, we performed enzymatic assays to assess the SOD and catalase activities in case of both treated and control Drosophila flies. Interestingly, the results support the free radical theory of aging as both these plant derivatives show high reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activities. PMID:24967413

  2. In vitro screening for anti-cholinesterase and antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts of ayurvedic medicinal plants used for cognitive disorders.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Maya; Subramanian, Sarada

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is still considered as the main therapeutic strategy against Alzheimer's disease (AD). Many plant derived phytochemicals have shown AChE inhibitory activity in addition to the currently approved drugs for AD. In the present study, methanolic extracts of 20 plants used in Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine for improving cognitive function were screened for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity by Ellman's microplate colorimetric method. Out of 20 extracts, Emblica officinalis, Nardostachys jatamansi, Nelumbo nucifera, Punica granatum and Raulfia Serpentina showed IC50 values <100 µg/ml for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Antioxidant activities of these plants were assessed by DPPH scavenging assay. Among the extracts used, antioxidant activity was highest for Terminalia chebula and Emblica officinalis with IC50 values <10 µg/ml. Considering the complex multifactorial etiology of AD, these plant extracts will be safer and better candidates for the future disease modifying therapies against this devastating disease. PMID:24466247

  3. In Vitro Screening for Anti-Cholinesterase and Antioxidant Activity of Methanolic Extracts of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants Used for Cognitive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Maya; Subramanian, Sarada

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is still considered as the main therapeutic strategy against Alzheimers disease (AD). Many plant derived phytochemicals have shown AChE inhibitory activity in addition to the currently approved drugs for AD. In the present study, methanolic extracts of 20 plants used in Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine for improving cognitive function were screened for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity by Ellmans microplate colorimetric method. Out of 20 extracts, Emblica officinalis, Nardostachys jatamansi, Nelumbo nucifera, Punica granatum and Raulfia Serpentina showed IC50 values <100 g/ml for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Antioxidant activities of these plants were assessed by DPPH scavenging assay. Among the extracts used, antioxidant activity was highest for Terminalia chebula and Emblica officinalis with IC50 values <10 g/ml. Considering the complex multifactorial etiology of AD, these plant extracts will be safer and better candidates for the future disease modifying therapies against this devastating disease. PMID:24466247

  4. Antiangiogenic-Like Properties of Fermented Extracts of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants.

    PubMed

    Rabhi, Chérif; Arcile, Guillaume; Cariel, Léon; Lenoir, Christine; Bignon, Jérome; Wdzieczak-Bakala, Joanna; Ouazzani, Jamal

    2015-09-01

    The three ayurvedic medicinal plants, Withania somnifera, Emblica officinalis, and Bacopa monnieri, were extracted by high-pressure static extraction using the Zippertex(®) technology. The extracts were mixed to reach quantifiable amounts of active compounds identified by high-pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) analysis. The mixture of extracts was incubated with resting cells of the fungus Beauveria bassiana ATCC 7159. The fermentation promoted the fluidization of the starting dense mixture, while HPLC monitoring evidenced the disappearance of glucogallin from E. officinalis extract and the concomitant increase in gallic acid content. Topical exposure of the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) to the nonfermented extract led to the extensive necrosis and destruction of the treated membrane. However, the fermented extract was shown to be free of any toxicity. Furthermore, compared with the untreated CAM, the fermented sample reduced CAM vascularization, suggesting its antiangiogenic potency. The innocuity of the fermented extract was demonstrated using the in vivo LD50 test, the morphological examination of internal organs of treated rats, as well as the evaluation of blood biomarkers of liver damage (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase). The fermented extract was developed as a nutraceutical antiangiogenic treatment of age-related macular degeneration and commercialized in an oral form named Ethnodyne-Visio™. PMID:25608021

  5. Effect of Melissa officinalis Capsule on the Intensity of Premenstrual Syndrome Symptoms in High School Girl Students

    PubMed Central

    Akbarzadeh, Marzieh; Dehghani, Mansoore; Moshfeghy, Zeinab; Emamghoreishi, Masoumeh; Tavakoli, Pouran; Zare, Najaf

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies are conducted on Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS). However, a few herbal surveys exist on the treatment of PMS in Iran. Due to the sedative effects of Melissa officinalis (M. officinalis), this question comes to mind that “can it be used in the treatment of PMS symptoms?” Objectives: The current study aimed to assess the effect of M. officinalis capsule on the intensity of PMS in high-school girls. Materials and Methods: A double-blind randomized, placebo-controlled trial was performed on 100 high school girls from 2013 to 2014. The intervention group (n = 50) received 1200 mg of M. officinalis essence daily from the first to the last day of their menstrual cycle for three consecutive cycles. The second group (n = 50) received the placebo. The premenstrual symptoms screening tool was used to assess the intensity of PMS symptoms in the two groups before and one, two, and three months after the intervention. The data were analyzed using paired t-test and repeated measures analysis of variance. Results: The results of repeated measures test revealed a significant reduction (P < 0.001) in PMS symptoms. Overall, the mean score of PMS intensity in the intervention group was 42.56 + 15.73 before the intervention and changed to 32.72 ± 13.24, 30.02 ± 12.08, and 13.90 ± 10.22 at the three consecutive months after the intervention, respectively (P = 0.001). Conclusions: M. officinalis capsules were effective in reduction of the PMS symptoms. Yet, application of this medication requires further investigations. PMID:26339667

  6. Effect of Hyssopus officinalis L. on inhibiting airway inflammation and immune regulation in a chronic asthmatic mouse model.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaojuan; Ma, Xiumin; Ma, Zhixing; Wang, Jing; Sun, Zhan; Yu, Wenyan; Li, Fengsen; Ding, Jianbing

    2014-11-01

    The Uygur herb, Hyssopus officinalis L., has been demonstrated to affect the levels of a number of cytokines in asthmatic mice, including interleukin-4, -6 and -17 and interferon-γ. In the present study, the effect of Hyssopus officinalis L. on airway immune regulation and airway inflammation was investigated in a mouse model of chronic asthma. A total of 32 BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups, which included the normal, chronic asthmatic, dexamethasone treatment and Hyssopus officinalis L.treatment groups. Mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin to establish an asthma model and the ratio of eosinophils (EOS) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was determined. In addition, the levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)E and IgG were detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The degree of airway mucus secretion was observed using the periodic acid-Schiff stain method. The results demonstrated that the ratio of EOS in the BALF and the level of serum IgE in the chronic asthmatic and dexamethasone treatment groups increased, while the level of serum IgG decreased, when compared with the normal group. In addition, excessive secretion of airway mucus was observed in these two groups. However, the EOS ratio in the BALF and the levels of serum IgE and IgG in the Hyssopus officinalis L. treatment group were similar to the results observed in the normal group. In conclusion, Hyssopus officinalis L. not only plays an anti-inflammatory role by inhibiting the invasion of EOS and decreasing the levels of IgE, but also affects immune regulation. PMID:25289025

  7. Effect of Hyssopus officinalis L. on inhibiting airway inflammation and immune regulation in a chronic asthmatic mouse model

    PubMed Central

    MA, XIAOJUAN; MA, XIUMIN; MA, ZHIXING; WANG, JING; SUN, ZHAN; YU, WENYAN; LI, FENGSEN; DING, JIANBING

    2014-01-01

    The Uygur herb, Hyssopus officinalis L., has been demonstrated to affect the levels of a number of cytokines in asthmatic mice, including interleukin-4, -6 and -17 and interferon-γ. In the present study, the effect of Hyssopus officinalis L. on airway immune regulation and airway inflammation was investigated in a mouse model of chronic asthma. A total of 32 BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups, which included the normal, chronic asthmatic, dexamethasone treatment and Hyssopus officinalis L.treatment groups. Mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin to establish an asthma model and the ratio of eosinophils (EOS) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was determined. In addition, the levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)E and IgG were detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The degree of airway mucus secretion was observed using the periodic acid-Schiff stain method. The results demonstrated that the ratio of EOS in the BALF and the level of serum IgE in the chronic asthmatic and dexamethasone treatment groups increased, while the level of serum IgG decreased, when compared with the normal group. In addition, excessive secretion of airway mucus was observed in these two groups. However, the EOS ratio in the BALF and the levels of serum IgE and IgG in the Hyssopus officinalis L. treatment group were similar to the results observed in the normal group. In conclusion, Hyssopus officinalis L. not only plays an anti-inflammatory role by inhibiting the invasion of EOS and decreasing the levels of IgE, but also affects immune regulation. PMID:25289025

  8. Sesquiterpenes and a monoterpenoid with acetylcholinesterase (AchE) inhibitory activity from Valeriana officinalis var. latiofolia in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chen, Heng-Wen; He, Xuan-Hui; Yuan, Rong; Wei, Ben-Jun; Chen, Zhong; Dong, Jun-Xing; Wang, Jie

    2016-04-01

    Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor (AchEI) is the most extensive in all anti-dementia drugs. The extracts and isolated compounds from the Valeriana genus have shown anti-dementia bioactivity. Four new sesquiterpenoids (1-4) and a new monoterpenoid (5) were isolated from the root of Valeriana officinalis var. latiofolia. The acetylcholinesterase (AchE) inhibitory activity of isolates was evaluated by modified Ellman method in vitro. Learning and memory ability of compound 4 on mice was evaluated by the Morris water maze. The contents of acetylcholine (Ach), acetylcholine transferase (ChAT) and AchE in mice brains were determined by colorimetry. The results showed IC50 of compound 4 was 0.161μM in vitro. Compared with the normal group, the learning and memory ability of mice and the contents of Ach and ChAT decreased in model group mice (P<0.01), while the AchE increased (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, Ach and ChAT in the positive control group, the high-dose group and the medium-dose group increased (P<0.01), while the AchE decreased (P<0.01). Compound 4 can improve the learning and memory abilities of APPswe/PSΔE9 double-transgenic mice, and the mechanism may be related to the regulation of the relative enzyme in the cholinergic system. PMID:26976216

  9. Anxiolytic-like effect of inhalation of essential oil from Lavandula officinalis: investigation of changes in 5-HT turnover and involvement of olfactory stimulation.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Mizuho; Yamanaka, Ayako; Asanuma, Chihiro; Asano, Hiroko; Satou, Tadaaki; Koike, Kazuo

    2014-07-01

    Essential oil extracted from Lavandula officinalis (LvEO) has a long history of usage in anxiety alleviation with good evidence to support its use. However, findings and information regarding the exact pathway involved and mechanism of action remain inconclusive. Therefore, we aimed to (1) reveal the influence of olfactory stimulation, and (2) determine whether the serotonergic system is involved in the anxiolytic effect of LvEO when it is inhaled. To this end, we first compared the anxiety-related behaviors of normosmic and anosmic mice. LvEO inhalation caused notable elevation in anxiety-related parameters with or without olfactory perception, indicating that olfactory stimulation is not necessarily required for LvEO to be effective. Neurochemical analysis of the serotonin (5-HT) turnover rate, accompanied by EPM testing, was then performed. LvEO significantly increased the striatal and hippocampal levels of 5-HT and decreased turnover rates in accordance with the anxiolytic behavioral changes. These results, together with previous findings, support the hypothesis that serotonergic neurotransmission plays a certain role in the anxiolytic properties of LvEO. PMID:25230519

  10. Inhibitory effects of 16-hydroxy-9-oxo-10E,12E,14E-octadecatrienoic acid (Corchorifatty acid B) isolated from Melissa officinalis Linné on melanogenesis.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Hideaki; Hongo, Maya; Mochizuki, Mayu; Yokoyama, Kouji; Tanaka, Yoshitaka

    2011-05-01

    16-hydroxy-9-oxo-10E,12E,14E-octadecatrienoic acid, also known as Corchorifatty acid B (CFAB), is isolated from the ethanol extracts of the aerial parts of Melissa officinalis Linné (Labiatae) and exhibits inhibitory effects on cellular pigmentation in both human melanocytes and mouse melanoma B16 cells. CFAB specifically decreases cellular melanin by most likely inducing rapid degradation of tyrosinase in B16 cells. Interestingly, unlike other reagents that promote degradation of tyrosinase in proteasomes or lysosomes, neither proteasomal nor lysosomal inhibitors can halt CFAB-induced tyrosinase degradation. Only brefeldin A, which specifically inhibits protein transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi complex, can effectively impede CFAB-induced tyrosinase decrease. These results suggest that CFAB-induced tyrosinase decrease occurs in post-Golgi compartments but not in proteasomal or lysosomal compartments. Taken together, CFAB is a unique reagent that primarily accelerates tyrosinase decrease by a mechanism that differs from those considered for other hypopigmentation reagents currently reported. PMID:21410768

  11. Hydrological modification, saltwater intrusion, and tree water use of a Pterocarpus officinalis swamp in Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colón-Rivera, Ricardo J.; Feagin, Rusty A.; West, Jason B.; López, Natalia B.; Benítez-Joubert, Rafael J.

    2014-06-01

    Tidal freshwater forested wetlands occupy a narrow ecological space determined by the balance between saltwater and freshwater inputs to the system. However, this balance is not well understood. In the Caribbean, tidal freshwater-forested wetlands dominated by Pterocarpus officinalis are vulnerable to changes in tidal influence and freshwater inputs. In this setting, the seasonal interactions of saltwater and freshwater inputs create less than ideal conditions for these forests to survive. Hence, it is crucial to have a better understanding of the hydrologic context of these and other tidal freshwater forested wetlands. We examined the extent of tidal forcing and saltwater influence in the largest Pterocarpus swamp of Puerto Rico by installing automated water level and conductivity recorders across a tidal creek transect at four different distances from the ocean, and by using water stable isotopes ratios (δD, δ18O) as natural tracers to determine the most important freshwater sources for tree transpiration. Records of water level and salinity revealed that the amount of rainfall was most influential on saltwater wedge migration in the creek for locations at the front and back of the tidal network, but that tidal dynamics were most influential at the middle section of the tidal network. Saltwater intrusion into the deepest parts of the tidal network was most prominent during sustained dry periods. Isotopic ratios of the surface water samples in the forest revealed that most of the water there was derived from freshwater runoff, but there was a seasonal change in its relative contribution to the forest hydrology. During the dry season, high δ values suggested the presence of runoff-derived water that had undergone evaporation, and saline influences were found in locations where past deforestation created preferential pathways for this water. During both seasons, δ 18O values of groundwater revealed the influence of saline water at depths 60 cm and greater near the adjacent tidal creek. Nonetheless, 18O-enriched stem water and low d-excess values suggested that Pterocarpus officinalis relies primarily on water accessed from unsaturated soil mounds that surround the tree and that are subject to evaporation, as opposed to groundwater at depth. This observation provides further insight to the adaptation mechanisms of Pterocarpus officinalis to survive in flooded ecosystems. In summary, our work demonstrates that for preventing saltwater intrusion, the amount of rainfall and freshwater inflow is more important than the sea level or the existence of an overland hydrological connection to the ocean.

  12. Simultaneous quantification of verbenalin and verbascoside in Verbena officinalis by ATR-IR and NIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Schönbichler, S A; Bittner, L K H; Pallua, J D; Popp, M; Abel, G; Bonn, G K; Huck, C W

    2013-10-01

    Attenuated-total-reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (NIR) in hyphenation with multivariate analysis was utilized to quantify verbenalin and verbascoside in Verbena officinalis. A new high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method as a reference was established and validated. For both vibrational spectroscopic methods test-set and cross validation were performed. Different data-pre-treatments like SNV, 1st and 2nd derivative were applied to remove systematic errors and were evaluated. Quality parameters obtained for the test-set validation revealed that ATR-IR (verbenalin: R(2)=0.94, RPD=4.23; verbascoside: R(2)=0.93, RPD=3.63) has advantages over NIR (verbenalin: R(2)=0.91, RPD=3.75; verbascoside: R(2)=0.80, RPD=2.35) in the given application. PMID:23810849

  13. Effects of macronutrients on growth and rosmarinic acid formation in cell suspension cultures of Anchusa officinalis.

    PubMed

    De-Eknamkul, W; Ellis, B E

    1985-04-01

    The influence of various macronutrients on growth and RA formation in cell suspension cultures of Anchusa officinalis has been investigated. Factors tested included sucrose concentration, alternate carbon sources, nitrate, phosphate and calcium concentration. The optimum concentration of sucrose was 3%. Fructose, glucose or their 1:1 mixture were also suitable carbon sources. The optimum concentrations of nitrate (15 mM), phosphate (3 mM) and calcium (0.25 mM) were, respectively, 3/5, 3x, and 1/4 those in normal B5 medium, when tested separately. These concentrations improved not only the yield of RA but also cell growth to a similar degree (10%-50%). Studies on the combined effects of these optimum macronutrient concentrations in B5 medium showed that RA production is inhibited by 2,4-D-containing revised medium but stimulated by NAA-containing revised medium. PMID:24253681

  14. Relationship of Camphor Biosynthesis to Leaf Development in Sage (Salvia officinalis) 12

    PubMed Central

    Croteau, Rodney; Felton, Mark; Karp, Frank; Kjonaas, Robert

    1981-01-01

    The camphor content of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leaves increases as the leaves expand, and the increase is roughly proportional to the number of filled peltate oil glands which appear on the leaf surface during the expansion process. 14CO2 is more rapidly incorporated into camphor and its direct progenitors in expanding leaves than in mature leaves, and direct in vitro measurement of the key enzymes involved in the conversion of geranyl pyrophosphate to camphor indicates that these enzymes, including the probable rate-limiting cyclization step, are at the highest levels during the period of maximum leaf expansion. These results clearly demonstrate that immature sage leaves synthesize and accumulate camphor most rapidly. Images PMID:16661761

  15. Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopic Study of Size-Controlled Ink Particles Isolated from Sepia officinalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toshihiko Matsuura,; Shingo Watanabe,; Sei-ichi Akutagawa,; Yuhei Shimoyama,; Takanori Kobayashi,; Yoshihiro Taya,; Takashi Ueno,

    2010-06-01

    The paramagnetic properties of size-controlled ink particles isolated from the ink sacs of Sepia officinalis were studied by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Both the size-controlled ink particles and synthetic melanins seemingly yielded similar ESR spectra consisting of a singlet with a slightly asymmetrical signal. However, the progressive microwave power saturation revealed a clear difference between their paramagnetic behaviors. In comparison with synthetic melanins, the ESR spectra of the ink particles readily reached saturation, indicating a long spin-lattice relaxation time. On the other hand, the ESR linewidth depended on particle size. This implies that the particle size is related to the distance between paramagnetic species in the particles. Hence, it is reasonable that the large ink particle has the weakest spin-spin interaction among these samples. The employment of the size-controlled ink particles enabled us to determine precisely the paramagnetic parameters of Sepia inks.

  16. Hemocyte morphology and phagocytic activity in the common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis).

    PubMed

    Le Pabic, Charles; Goux, Didier; Guillamin, Maryline; Safi, Georges; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Koueta, Noussithé; Serpentini, Antoine

    2014-10-01

    Little is known about the immune system of cephalopods, in spite of their many highly derived characters within the molluscan clade, including a vertebrate-like high-pressure closed circulatory system. Further the economic importance of cephalopod fisheries, potential for aquaculture, and use as ecotoxicology models demand a thorough understanding of their immune system. In this study, we present a comprehensive characterization of hemocytes in the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. Cytological stainings, electron microscopy- and flow cytometry-observations highlight a single granulocyte population with various densities of eosinophilic granules and unstained vesicles. These hemocytes contain acid phosphatase-, lysozyme- and proPO system enzymes, and have high activity in bead phagocytosis assays. Interestingly, bead pre-incubation in plasma results in time-dependent aggregation perhaps resulting from hemocyanin-coating, and decrease in phagocytosis. This study provides the basis for understanding hemocyte-mediated immunity in the common cuttlefish, and essential background for future studies on cephalopod immunity. PMID:25066968

  17. Octopuses (Octopus bimaculoides) and cuttlefishes (Sepia pharaonis, S. officinalis) can conditionally discriminate.

    PubMed

    Hvorecny, Lauren M; Grudowski, Jessica L; Blakeslee, Carrie J; Simmons, Tiffany L; Roy, Paula R; Brooks, Jennifer A; Hanner, Rachel M; Beigel, Marie E; Karson, Miranda A; Nichols, Rachel H; Holm, Johanna B; Boal, Jean Geary

    2007-10-01

    In complex navigation using landmarks, an animal must discriminate between potential cues and show context (condition) sensitivity. Such conditional discrimination is considered a form of complex learning and has been associated primarily with vertebrates. We tested the hypothesis that octopuses and cuttlefish are capable of conditional discrimination. Subjects were trained in two maze configurations (the conditions) in which they were required to select one of two particular escape routes within each maze (the discrimination). Conditional discrimination could be demonstrated by selecting the correct escape route in each maze. Six of ten mud-flat octopuses (Octopus bimaculoides), 6 of 13 pharaoh cuttlefish (Sepia pharaonis), and one of four common cuttlefish (S. officinalis) demonstrated conditional discrimination by successfully solving both mazes. These experiments demonstrate that cephalopods are capable of conditional discrimination and extend the limits of invertebrate complex learning. PMID:17437139

  18. Antiproliferative quillaic acid and gypsogenin saponins from Saponaria officinalis L. roots.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuping; Van, Dang; Deibert, Leah; Bishop, Greg; Balsevich, John

    2015-05-01

    Nine quillaic acid and five gypsogenin bisdesmosides were isolated from roots of Saponaria officinalis L. (Caryophyllaceae). Seven of the quillaic acid saponins possessed a 3-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-[β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl unit, but differed from each other in oligosaccharide units linked to the C-28 ester. The five gypsogenin saponins isolated from the roots all possessed the 3-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-[β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl unit, with their oligosaccharide units linked to the C-28 ester differing. Structures were elucidated by extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The saponins were evaluated for growth inhibitory activity in two human cancer cell lines and hemolytic activity in sheep red blood cells. PMID:25534953

  19. Development and Essential Oil Content of Secretory Glands of Sage (Salvia officinalis) 1

    PubMed Central

    Venkatachalam, K. V.; Kjonaas, Robert; Croteau, Rodney

    1984-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leaves confirmed the presence of two basic types of glandular trichomes consisting of a capitate stalked form containing a multicellular stalk and surmounted by a unicellular secretory head, and a capitate sessile form containing a unicellular stalk and unicellular, or multicellular, secretory head. In the latter type, secretory activity and filling of the subcuticular cavity may begin at virtually any stage of the division cycle affording fully developed glands containing from one to twelve cells in the secretory head. Gas liquid chromatographic analysis of the oil content of the most numerous gland species (capitate stalked, capitate sessile with one and with eight secretory cells) indicated only minor quantitative differences in essential oil composition. Thus, each gland type is capable of producing the four major monoterpene families (p-menthanes, pinanes, bornanes and thujanes) characteristic of sage. Images Fig. 1 PMID:16663786

  20. Photoprotective implications of leaf variegation in E. dens-canis L. and P. officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Esteban, Raquel; Fernández-Marín, Beatriz; Becerril, José María; García-Plazaola, José Ignacio

    2008-08-25

    Variegated leaves occur rarely in nature, but there are some species, primarily in the forest understory, that possess this characteristic. We recently studied two variegated plants: Erytronium dens-canis L., which is characterised by a pattern of red patches and Pulmonaria officinalis L., with light green spots. These non-green areas could attenuate light reaching mesophyll cells with respect to green sections. The aim of the study was to verify whether such red and light green parts are more photoprotected than green ones and if this trait could be of adaptive value. Red patches in E. dens-canis were due to a single layer of red cells in the upper parenchyma, which accumulated anthocyanins. Light green spots in P. officinalis were caused by the presence of loosely arranged cells instead of a well-established layer of packed cells in the palisade parenchyma. Chlorophyll fluorescence imaging was performed under light treatment, showing a greater decrease of photochemical efficiency in red and light green patches than in green sections. Differences in the extent of photochemical efficiency among patches were not attributable to different activation of the xanthophyll cycle. These observations failed to confirm our initial hypothesis, but they questioned the physiological reason for this higher sensitivity in red and light green patches of photosynthetic tissues. Chlorophyll fluorescence imaging was therefore performed in the field. The same pattern of photochemical efficiency was maintained only in E. dens-canis. The current results demonstrate that in both species the benefits of variegation, if any, are different from enhanced photosynthetic performance. PMID:18180073

  1. Arm regeneration in two species of cuttlefish Sepia officinalis and Sepia pharaonis.

    PubMed

    Tressler, Jedediah; Maddox, Francis; Goodwin, Eli; Zhang, Zhuobin; Tublitz, Nathan J

    2014-03-01

    To provide quantitative information on arm regeneration in cuttlefish, the regenerating arms of two cuttlefish species, Sepia officinalis and Sepia pharaonis, were observed at regular intervals after surgical amputation. The third right arm of each individual was amputated to ~10-20 % starting length. Arm length, suction cup number, presence of chromatophores, and behavioral measures were collected every 2-3 days over a 39-day period and compared to the contralateral control arm. By day 39, the regenerating arm reached a mean 95.5 ± 0.3 % of the control for S. officinalis and 94.9 ± 1.3 % for S. pharaonis. The process of regeneration was divided into five separate stages based on macroscopic morphological events: Stage I (days 0-3 was marked by a frayed leading edge; Stage II (days 4-15) by a smooth hemispherical leading edge; Stage III (days 16-20) by the appearance of a growth bud; Stage IV (days 21-24) by the emergence of an elongated tip; and Stage V (days 25-39) by a tapering of the elongated tip matching the other intact arms. Behavioral deficiencies in swimming, body postures during social communication, and food manipulation were observed immediately after arm amputation and throughout Stages I and II, returning to normal by Stage III. New chromatophores and suction cups in the regenerating arm were observed as early as Stage II and by Stage IV suction cup number equaled that of control arms. New chromatophores were used in the generation of complex body patterns by Stage V. These results show that both species of cuttlefish are capable of fully regenerating lost arms, that the regeneration process is predictable and consistent within and across species, and provide the first quantified data on the rate of arm lengthening and suction cup addition during regeneration. PMID:23982859

  2. In Vitro efficacy of antimicrobial extracts against the atypical ruminant pathogen Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mycoplasmosis is a common infection in human and veterinary medicine, and is associated with chronic inflammation and high morbidity. Mycoplasma species are often intrinsically resistant to many conventional antimicrobial therapies, and the resistance patterns of pathogenic mycoplasmas to commonly used medicinal (antimicrobial) plant extracts are currently unknown. Methods Aqueous extracts, ethanol extracts, or oils of the targeted plant species and colloidal silver were prepared or purchased. Activity against the wall-less bacterial pathogen Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri was determined and compared to activities measured against Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by broth microdilution assays. The lethal or inhibitory nature of each extract was determined by subculture into neat growth medium. Results Growth of M. mycoides capri, E. coli, and B. subtilis was inhibited by elderberry extract, oregano oil, ethanol extract of oregano leaves, and ethanol extract of goldenseal root. No inhibition was seen with aqueous extract of astragalus or calendula oil. Growth of M. mycoides capri and B. subtilis was inhibited by ethanol extract of astragalus, whereas growth of E. coli was not. Similarly, M. mycoides capri and E. coli were inhibited by aqueous extract of thyme, but B. subtilis was unaffected. Only B. subtilis was inhibited by colloidal silver. Measured MICs ranged from 0.0003 mg/mL to 3.8 mg/mL. Bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects differed by species and extract. Conclusions The atypical pathogen M. mycoides capri was sensitive to extracts from many medicinal plants commonly used as antimicrobials in states of preparation and concentrations currently available for purchase in the United States and Europe. Variation in bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities between species and extracts indicates that multiple effecter compounds are present in these plant species. PMID:23031072

  3. Effects of IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3 on rooting and morphological features of Melissa officinalis L. stem cuttings.

    PubMed

    Sevik, Hakan; Guney, Kerim

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed the potential of producing Melissa officinalis L. using stem cuttings. Four different hormones (IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3) were applied to the cuttings, with and without buds, in two doses (1000 mg/L and 5000 mg/L), and after 60 days, 10 morphological characteristics of newly generated plants were detected, and a statistical analysis was carried out. The results of the study show that the cuttings with at least one bud must be used in order to produce M. officinalis using stem cuttings. Even though the auxin group hormones (IAA, IBA, and NAA) do not have an apparent effect on rooting percentage, these hormones were detected to affect the morphological characteristics of the newly generated plants, especially root generation. GA3 application has a considerable effect on stem height. PMID:23818834

  4. Biotransformation of artemisinin using cell suspension cultures of Catharanthus roseus (L.) G.Don and Lavandula officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Patel, Suman; Gaur, Rashmi; Verma, Priyanka; Bhakuni, Rajendra S; Mathur, Archana

    2010-08-01

    Artemisinin, an antimalarial compound, at 5 mg/40 ml, was transformed by cell suspension cultures of Catharanthus roseus (L.) G.Don and Lavandula officinalis L. into deoxyartemisinin with yields >78% (3.93 mg deoxyartemisinin from 5 mg artemisinin). Maximum conversion (78.6 and 78%) occurred after 6 and 7 days of adding artemisinin to 20 and 9 days old cultures of C. roseus and L. officinalis, respectively. The procedure was scaled up by and 500 mg artemisinin was transformed into 390 mg deoxyartemisinin. Addition of artemisinin at the beginning of the culture cycle resulted in >50% reduction in dry biomass production with no bioconversion. Conversion of artemisinin occurred intracellularly followed by leaching of the product into the medium. PMID:20369274

  5. Effects of IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3 on Rooting and Morphological Features of Melissa officinalis L. Stem Cuttings

    PubMed Central

    Guney, Kerim

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed the potential of producing Melissa officinalis L. using stem cuttings. Four different hormones (IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3) were applied to the cuttings, with and without buds, in two doses (1000 mg/L and 5000 mg/L), and after 60 days, 10 morphological characteristics of newly generated plants were detected, and a statistical analysis was carried out. The results of the study show that the cuttings with at least one bud must be used in order to produce M. officinalis using stem cuttings. Even though the auxin group hormones (IAA, IBA, and NAA) do not have an apparent effect on rooting percentage, these hormones were detected to affect the morphological characteristics of the newly generated plants, especially root generation. GA3 application has a considerable effect on stem height. PMID:23818834

  6. Changes in antioxidant enzymes activities and proline, total phenol and anthocyanine contents in Hyssopus officinalis L. plants under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Jahantigh, Omolbanin; Najafi, Farzaneh; Badi, Hassanali Naghdi; Khavari-Nejad, Ramazan Ali; Sanjarian, Forough

    2016-06-01

    The relationships between salt stress and antioxidant enzymes activities, proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents in Hyssopus officinalis L. plants in growth stage were investigated. The plants were subjected to five levels of saline irrigation water, 0.37 (tap water as control) with 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 dSm(-1) of saline water. After two months the uniform plants were harvested for experimental analysis. Antioxidant enzymes activities and proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents of the plants were examinated. Enhanced activities of peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase were determined by increasing salinity that plays an important protective role in the ROS-scavenging process. Proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents increased significantly with increasing salinity. These results suggest that salinity tolerance of Hyssopus officinalis plants might be closely related with the increased capacity of antioxidative system to scavenge reactive oxygen species and with the accumulation of osmoprotectant proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents under salinity conditions. PMID:27165530

  7. Investigation on the hypoglycaemic effects of extracts of four Mexican medicinal plants in normal and alloxan-diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Alarcon-Aguilar, F J; Roman-Ramos, R; Flores-Saenz, J L; Aguirre-Garcia, F

    2002-06-01

    The hypoglycaemic activities of four water ethanol extracts (WEE) prepared from Bidens pilosa L., Salvia officinalis L., Psacalium peltatum H.B.K. (Cass) and Turnera diffusa Willd. were investigated in healthy and alloxan-diabetic mice. The WEE of S. officinalis significantly reduced the blood glucose of fasting normal mice 120 (15.7%) and 240 min (30.2%) after intraperitoneal administration (p < 0.05). The WEE of P. peltatum and B. pilosa also significantly diminished glycaemia in healthy mice at 240 min (19.6% and 13.8%, respectively). In mildly diabetic mice, the WEE of P. peltatum lowered the basal blood glucose level 120 (16%) and 240 min (54%) after intraperitoneal administration (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). The WEE of B. pilosa and S. officinalis also significantly diminished the hyperglycaemia in mildly diabetic mice at 240 mins (32.6% and 22.7%, respectively). The administration of these three extracts to animals with severe hyperglycaemia did not cause a significant decrease. The WEE of T. diffusa did not show any hypoglycaemic activity. Thus, three of the WEE studied conserved the hypoglycaemic activity originally detected in the traditional preparations of the studied antidiabetic plants. It appears that these extracts require the presence of insulin to show hypoglycaemic activity. PMID:12112298

  8. Effect of Rosemarinus officinalis L. on MMP-9, MCP-1 Levels, and Cell Migration in RAW 264.7 and Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chae, In Gyeong; Yu, Mi Hee; Im, Nam-Kyung; Jung, Young Tae; Lee, Jinho; Chun, Kyung-Soo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Atherosclerosis is a chronic and progressive inflammatory disease. Novel anti-inflammatory therapies may have promise as treatment strategies for cardiovascular risk reduction. Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis L.) has been used in folk medicine to treat headaches, epilepsy, poor circulation, and many other ailments. It was found that rosemary could act as a stimulant and mild analgesic and could reduce inflammation. However, the mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory and antiatherosclerotic effects of rosemary need more study. This study investigated effects of the rosemary components, carnosic acid (CA), and carnosol (CAR), on cell migration. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) were determined by Western blot and gelatin zymography, respectively, in RAW 264.7 macrophages and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). VSMC migration was assessed by a Matrigel migration assay. Active compounds of rosemary extracts were also analyzed using a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. MMP-9 and MCP-1 activities were markedly diminished with methanol extract (RM), n-hexane fraction (RH), and CA in RAW 264.7 cells. RM, RH, CA, and CAR suppressed tumor necrosis factor-alpha–induced VSMC migration by inhibiting MMP-9 expression. Chromatograms of RM- and RH-containing CA and CAR revealed higher CA contents of RM (9.4%, 93.85 μg/mg dry wt.) and, especially, RH (18.4%, 184.00 μg/mg dry wt.), which were appreciably elevated compared with the similar CAR content in RM and RH (3.7%, 37.30 μg/mg dry wt.; and 2.5%, 25.05 μg/mg dry wt., respectively). Rosemary, especially its CA component, has potential antiatherosclerosis effects related to cell migration. PMID:22985398

  9. Verbena officinalis essential oil and its component citral as apoptotic-inducing agent in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    De Martino, L; D'Arena, G; Minervini, M M; Deaglio, S; Fusco, B M; Cascavilla, N; De Feo, V

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the pro-apoptotic activity of Verbena officinalis essential oil and of its main component citral, on lymphocytes collected from normal blood donors and patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The number of apoptotic cells was greater in CLL patients than in healthy subjects at all different times of incubation (4, 8 and 24 hours) for samples treated with Verbena officinalis essential oil (A) and citral (B) as well vs controls at different concentrations (0.1% and 0.01%). The greater pro-apoptotic ability was shown by both essential oil of Verbena officinalis and citral at lower concentrations (after 4 h A 0.1%: 17.8% vs 37.1%; A 0.01%: 15.8% vs 52%; B 0.1%: 18.4% vs 46.4%; B 0.01%: 15.8% vs 54.2%; after 8 h A 0.1%: 23% vs 38%; A 0.01%: 22.2% vs 55%; B 0.1%: 32% vs 42.2%; B 0.01%: 22% vs 54.3%; after 24 h A 0.1%: 5% vs 20.7%; A 0.01%: 25.8% vs 47.2%; B 0.1%: 18.4% vs 46.4%; B 0.01%: 15.8% vs 54.2%). Patients carrying deletion 17p13 (p53 mutation) showed a reduced ability to undergo apoptosis with respect to patients with other genomic aberrations or normal karyotype. The proapoptotic activity of Verbena officinalis essential oil and citral is thought to be due to a direct procaspase 3 activation. These data further support evidence that indicate natural compounds as a possible lead structure to develop new therapeutic agents. PMID:20074474

  10. Data in support of the proteomic analysis of plasma membrane and tonoplast from the leaves of mangrove plant Avicennia officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurthy, Pannaga; Tan, Xing Fei; Lim, Teck Kwang; Lim, Tit-Meng; Kumar, Prakash P.; Loh, Chiang-Shiong; Lin, Qingsong

    2015-01-01

    The data provides information in support of the research article, Proteomics 2014, 14, 2545–2557 [1]. Raw data is available from the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partnerRepository [2] with the dataset identifier PXD000837. Plasma membrane and tonoplast proteins from the leaves of Avicennia officinalis were identified using gel electrophoresis (one and two dimensional) combined with LC–MS analysis. Based on GO annotation, identified proteins were predicted to be involved in various biological processes. PMID:26649327

  11. In vitro propagation of the Garden Heliotrope, Valeriana officinalis L.: influence of pre-chilling and light on seed germination.

    PubMed

    Bhat, B; Sharma, V D

    2015-03-01

    Valeriana officinalis is an important medicinal herb commonly found in Kashmir valley. This study forms an important preliminary step for in-vitro micro propagation of V. officinalis from breaking the seed dormancy, inducing rapid seed germination and its subsequent micro propagation. We investigated the influence of pretreatment of V. officinalis seeds with reduced temperature and light on seed germination and in-vitro propagation. Culture of explants from cultivated seeds have demonstrated its potential for in vitro propagation and plantlet regeneration. Individual as well as combinations of treatments such as temperature and light availability influenced the germination of seeds variedly. Unchilled seeds of V. officinalis were given dip in GA3 (200 ppm) for 24, 48 and 120 h. Seeds treated with GA3 for 24 h and kept in darkness showed the best results, i.e. 48%. Seeds pretreated with GA3 for 120 h and incubated in dark showed 40% germination. Pre-chilling up to 72 h and kept in light showed maximum germination of 60% followed by 40% kept in darkness. Pre-chilling for 48 h resulted in 40 and 25% seed germination in light and darkness, respectively. GA3 pre-treatment for 72 h and 24 h pre chilling were most effective in inducing seed germination. Maximum shoot response was obtained on MS enriched with BAP (1 mg/L) + IAA (0.1 mg/L) combinations using shoot tips as explants. Multiple shoot regeneration from shoot apices was recorded on BAP (1 mg/L) and BAP (1 mg/L) + IAA (0.1 mg/L). PMID:25872250

  12. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil of Thymus schimperi, Matricaria chamomilla, Eucalyptus globulus, and Rosmarinus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Mekonnen, Awol; Yitayew, Berhanu; Tesema, Alemnesh; Taddese, Solomon

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the in vitro antimicrobial activities of four plant essential oils (T. schimperi, E. globulus, R. officinalis, and M. Chamomilla) were evaluated against bacteria and fungi. The studies were carried out using agar diffusion method for screening the most effective essential oils and agar dilution to determine minimum inhibitory concentration of the essential oils. Results of this study revealed that essential oils of T. schimperi, E. globulus, and R. officinalis were active against bacteria and some fungi. The antimicrobial effect of M. chamomilla was found to be weaker and did not show any antimicrobial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of T. schimperi were <15.75 mg/mL for most of the bacteria and fungi used in this study. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of the other essential oils were in the range of 15.75-36.33 mg/mL against tested bacteria. This study highlighted the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of E. globulus, M. chamomilla, T. Schimperi, and R. officinalis. The results indicated that T. schimperi have shown strong antimicrobial activity which could be potential candidates for preparation of antimicrobial drug preparation. PMID:26880928

  13. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil of Thymus schimperi, Matricaria chamomilla, Eucalyptus globulus, and Rosmarinus officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Mekonnen, Awol; Yitayew, Berhanu; Tesema, Alemnesh; Taddese, Solomon

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the in vitro antimicrobial activities of four plant essential oils (T. schimperi, E. globulus, R. officinalis, and M. Chamomilla) were evaluated against bacteria and fungi. The studies were carried out using agar diffusion method for screening the most effective essential oils and agar dilution to determine minimum inhibitory concentration of the essential oils. Results of this study revealed that essential oils of T. schimperi, E. globulus, and R. officinalis were active against bacteria and some fungi. The antimicrobial effect of M. chamomilla was found to be weaker and did not show any antimicrobial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of T. schimperi were <15.75 mg/mL for most of the bacteria and fungi used in this study. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of the other essential oils were in the range of 15.75–36.33 mg/mL against tested bacteria. This study highlighted the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of E. globulus, M. chamomilla, T. Schimperi, and R. officinalis. The results indicated that T. schimperi have shown strong antimicrobial activity which could be potential candidates for preparation of antimicrobial drug preparation. PMID:26880928

  14. Water repellency and soil moisture variations under Rosmarinus officinalis in a burned soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimeno-García, E.; Pascual-Aguilar, J. A.; Llovet, J.

    2009-04-01

    Mediterranean semi-arid landscapes are characterised by the patchiness of the vegetation cover, in which variations in the distribution pattern of soil water repellency (SWR) can be of major importance for their hydrological and geomorphological effects in burned areas, and also for their ecological implications concerning to the re-establishment of their plant cover. Within a broader research framework, the present work studies the influence of Rosmarinus officinalis vegetated patches on SWR in burned and unburned soils and its relationship with the field soil moisture content (SMC). The results presented here are the first step analysing the spatial pattern of sink and source runoff areas in a burned hillslope. The study area is located in the municipality of Les Useres, 40 km from Castellón city (E Spain), where a wildfire occurred in August 2007. We selected a burned SSE facing hillslope, located at 570 m a.s.l., with 12 ° slope angle, in which it was possible to identify the presence of two unique shrub species: Quercus coccifera L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L., which were distributed in a patchy mosaic. Twenty microsites with burned R. officinalis and eight at the nearest unburned area were selected. At the burned microsites, it was possible to distinguish three concentric zones (I, II and III) around the stumps showing differences on their soil surface appearance, which indicate a gradient of fire severity. Those differences were considered for soil sampling (1 sample per zone at each microsite, n= 84, form the first 2 cm of the mineral A horizon) and field soil moisture measurements determined by means of the moisture meter HH2 with ThetaProbe sensor type ML2x (5 measurements per zone at each microsite, n= 420), which were taken one day after the first rainfall event after fire, when 11 mm were registered in the study area. Results showed that the largest repellency persistence (measured by means of the Water Drop Penetration Time test, WDPT) was found close to the burned R. officinalis stumps, where all soil samples showed water repellency, with mean WDPT of 68 seconds. Generally, we observed a sharp hydrophobic/hydrophilic boundary between the zones I (stump) and II (intermediate). Soil samples from bare soil (zone III) were entirely wettable. At control microsites, SWR was present only in one of the unburned R. officinalis samples. On the basis that unburned microsites are representative of the pre-fire conditions at the burned ones, these results imply that fire caused a significant increase in SWR occurrence at the soil surface. Field SMC showed statistically significant differences between the three zones. Both control and burned microsites showed the same trend, with an increasing gradient towards the outer zone. Furthermore, burned microsites showed larger differences in SMC between zone I and zone III (18% and 27%, respectively) than the unburned ones. It could be explained because at burned stumps, the largest persistence of water repellency and the highest SOM content might decrease the wettability of aggregates, slowing their rates of wetting, which might not occur at all during the rainstorms. In fact, there was obtained a significant and negative Pearson's correlation coefficients between SMC and WDPT, and between SMC and SOM at burned microsites. However, no correlation between field SMC and WDPT was found from control microsites. Moreover, at the burned microsites, the partial correlation analysis with SOM as control variable revealed that SMC and WDPT were influenced by the SOM. In addition, it is necessary to consider the existence of root channels with the development of preferential flow pathways, which could enhance deeper water infiltration in the stump areas. These results provide evidences of the importance of microsite soil surface properties on SMC variability on semiarid burned slopes. The existence of SWR and lowest SMC detected at burned stumps opposite to the highest SMC after rainfall and the absence of SWR in burned bare soil zones could be key factors for the differences in overland flow and erosional response of burned areas characterised by the patchiness of the vegetation cover.

  15. Pharmacogenomic Characterization of Cytotoxic Compounds from Salvia officinalis in Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Kadioglu, Onat; Efferth, Thomas

    2015-04-24

    Salvia officinalis is used as a dietary supplement with diverse medicinal activity (e.g. antidiabetic and antiatherosclerotic effects). The plant also exerts profound cytotoxicity toward cancer cells. Here, we investigated possible modes of action to explain its activity toward drug-resistant tumor cells. Log10IC50 values of two constituents of S. officinalis (ursolic acid, pomolic acid) were correlated to the expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters (P-glycoprotein/ABCB1/MDR1, MRP1/ABCC1, BCRP/ABCG2) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) or mutations in RAS oncogenes and the tumor suppressor gene TP53 of the NCI panel of cell lines. Gene expression profiles predicting sensitivity and resistance of tumor cells to these compounds were determined by microarray-based mRNA expressions, COMPARE, and hierarchical cluster analyses. Furthermore, the binding of both plant acids to key molecules of the NF-κB pathway (NF-κB, I-κB, NEMO) was analyzed by molecular docking. Neither expression nor mutation of ABC transporters, oncogenes, or tumor suppressor genes correlated with log10IC50 values for ursolic acid or pomolic acid. In microarray analyses, many genes involved in signal transduction processes correlated with cellular responsiveness to these compounds. Molecular docking indicated that the two plant acids strongly bound to target proteins of the NF-κB pathway with even lower free binding energies than the known NF-κB inhibitor MG-132. They interacted more strongly with DNA-bound NF-κB than free NF-κB, pointing to inhibition of DNA binding by these compounds. In conclusion, the lack of cross-resistance to classical drug resistance mechanisms (ABC-transporters, oncogenes, tumor suppressors) may indicate a promising role of the both plant acids for cancer chemotherapy. Genes involved in signal transduction may contribute to the sensitivity or resistance of tumor cells to ursolic and pomolic acids. Ursolic and pomolic acid may target different steps of the NF-κB pathway to inhibit NF-κB-mediated functions. PMID:25713926

  16. Efficacy of crude extract of Emblica officinalis (amla) in arsenic-induced oxidative damage and apoptosis in splenocytes of mice

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Manish Kumar; Yadav, Suraj Singh; Yadav, Rajesh Singh; Singh, Uma Shanker; Shukla, Yogeshwar; Pant, Kamlesh Kumar; Khattri, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Arsenic, an environmental contaminant naturally occurred in groundwater and has been found to be associated with immune-related health problems in humans. Objective: In view of increasing risk of arsenic exposure due to occupational and non-occupational settings, the present study has been focused to investigate the protective efficacy of amla against arsenic-induced spleenomegaly in mice. Results: Arsenic exposures (3 mg/kg body weight p.o for 30 days) in mice caused an increase production of ROS (76%), lipid peroxidation (84%) and decrease in the levels of superoxide dismutase (53%) and catalase (54%) in spleen as compared to controls. Arsenic exposure to mice also caused a significant increase in caspases-3 activity (2.8 fold) and decreases cell viability (44%), mitochondrial membrane potential (47%) linked with apoptosis assessed by the cell cycle analysis (subG1-28.72%) and annexin V/PI binding in spleen as compared to controls. Simultaneous treatment of arsenic and amla (500 mg/kg body weight p.o for 30 days) in mice decreased the levels of lipid peroxidation (33%), ROS production (24%), activity of caspase-3 (1.4 fold), apoptosis (subG1 12.72%) and increased cell viability (63%), levels superoxide dismutase (80%), catalase (77%) and mitochondrial membrane potential (66%) as compared to mice treated with arsenic alone. Conclusions: Results of the present study indicate that the effect of arsenic is mainly due to the depletion of glutathione in liver associated with enhanced oxidative stress that has been found to be protected following simultaneous treatment of arsenic and amla. PMID:24748729

  17. Phenylethanoid glycosides and phenolic glycosides from stem bark of Magnolia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zhenzhen; Yan, Renyi; Yang, Bin

    2016-07-01

    An investigation of the hydrophilic constituents of the stem bark of Magnolia officinalis was performed and which led to isolation and identification of twenty-one previously unreported glycosides. These included eleven phenylethanoid glycosides, magnolosides F-P, and ten phenolic glycosides, magnolosides Q-Z, along with eight known compounds. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses and chemical hydrolysis methods, as well as by comparison with literature data. Most of the phenylethanoid glycosides contained an allopyranose moiety, which is rare in the plant kingdom. Magnolosides I and K as well as 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) ethanol 1-O-[4-O-caffeoyl-2-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-6-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl]-β-d-glucopyranoside showed more potent α-glucosidase inhibitory effects (IC50 values of 0.13, 0.27, and 0.29mM, respectively) than the positive control, acarbose (IC50 value of 1.09mM) in vitro. Magnolosides H, E and D also showed moderate cytotoxicity against MGC-803 and HepG2 cells with IC50 values of 13.59-17.16μM and 29.53-32.46μM, respectively. PMID:27086163

  18. Effect of bioclimatic area on the composition and bioactivity of Tunisian Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils.

    PubMed

    Ben Jemia, Mariem; Tundis, Rosa; Pugliese, Alessandro; Menichini, Francesco; Senatore, Felice; Bruno, Maurizio; Kchouk, Mohamed Elyes; Loizzo, Monica Rosa

    2015-02-01

    The chemical composition of eight Tunisian Rosmarinus officinalis L. populations (A-H) from different bioclimatic areas has been examined by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry. The essential oils are characterised by high amounts of oxygenated monoterpenes (58.2-71.7%) followed by monoterpene hydrocabons (15.1-26.7%). 1,8-Cineole, camphor, α-pinene and borneol are the main representative components. The antioxidant activity was investigated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), ferric reducing ability power assay and β-carotene bleaching test. Samples showed antiradical activity by inhibiting DPPH radical with IC50 values ranging from 375.3 to 592.8 μg mL(- 1) for samples F and A, respectively. Sample A also showed the most promising activity in β-carotene bleaching test (IC50 of 31.9 μg mL(- 1)). The essential oils were also screened for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activity. Sample G showed the highest activity against AChE (IC50 of 64.7 μg mL(- 1)) while sample D (IC50 of 29.5 μg mL(- 1)) exhibited the most potent activity against BChE. PMID:25104041

  19. Study of quantitative and qualitative variations in essential oils of Sicilian Rosmarinus officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Tuttolomondo, Teresa; Dugo, Giacomo; Ruberto, Giuseppe; Leto, Claudio; Napoli, Edoardo M; Cicero, Nicola; Gervasi, Teresa; Virga, Giuseppe; Leone, Raffaele; Licata, Mario; La Bella, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    In this study the chemical characterisation of 10 Sicilian Rosmarinus officinalis L. biotypes essential oils is reported. The main goal of this work was to analyse the relationship between the essential oils yield and the geographical distribution of the species plants. The essential oils were analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis statistical methods were used to cluster biotypes according to the essential oils chemical composition. The essential oil yield ranged from 0.8 to 2.3 (v/w). In total 82 compounds have been identified, these represent 96.7-99.9% of the essential oil. The most represented compounds in the essential oils were 1.8-cineole, linalool, α-terpineol, verbenone, α-pinene, limonene, bornyl acetate and terpinolene. The results show that the essential oil yield of the 10 biotypes is affected by the environmental characteristics of the sampling sites while the chemical composition is linked to the genetic characteristics of different biotypes. PMID:25674824

  20. Sex-biased gene expression in dioecious garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis).

    PubMed

    Harkess, Alex; Mercati, Francesco; Shan, Hong-Yan; Sunseri, Francesco; Falavigna, Agostino; Leebens-Mack, Jim

    2015-08-01

    Sex chromosomes have evolved independently in phylogenetically diverse flowering plant lineages. The genes governing sex determination in dioecious species remain unknown, but theory predicts that the linkage of genes influencing male and female function will spur the origin and early evolution of sex chromosomes. For example, in an XY system, the origin of an active Y may be spurred by the linkage of female suppressing and male promoting genes. Garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) serves as a model for plant sex chromosome evolution, given that it has recently evolved an XX/XY sex chromosome system. In order to elucidate the molecular basis of gender differences and sex determination, we used RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) to identify differentially expressed genes between female (XX), male (XY) and supermale (YY) individuals. We identified 570 differentially expressed genes, and showed that significantly more genes exhibited male-biased than female-biased expression in garden asparagus. In the context of anther development, we identified genes involved in pollen microspore and tapetum development that were specifically expressed in males and supermales. Comparative analysis of genes in the Arabidopsis thaliana, Zea mays and Oryza sativa anther development pathways shows that anther sterility in females probably occurs through interruption of tapetum development before microspore meiosis. PMID:25817071

  1. Perception of edges and visual texture in the camouflage of the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Zylinski, S.; Osorio, D.; Shohet, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    The cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, provides a fascinating opportunity to investigate the mechanisms of camouflage as it rapidly changes its body patterns in response to the visual environment. We investigated how edge information determines camouflage responses through the use of spatially high-pass filtered ‘objects’ and of isolated edges. We then investigated how the body pattern responds to objects defined by texture (second-order information) compared with those defined by luminance. We found that (i) edge information alone is sufficient to elicit the body pattern known as Disruptive, which is the camouflage response given when a whole object is present, and furthermore, isolated edges cause the same response; and (ii) cuttlefish can distinguish and respond to objects of the same mean luminance as the background. These observations emphasize the importance of discrete objects (bounded by edges) in the cuttlefish's choice of camouflage, and more generally imply that figure–ground segregation by cuttlefish is similar to that in vertebrates, as might be predicted by their need to produce effective camouflage against vertebrate predators. PMID:18990667

  2. Wildly Growing Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) Hosts Pathogenic Fusarium Species and Accumulates Their Mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Stępień, Łukasz; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Urbaniak, Monika

    2016-05-01

    Asparagus officinalis L. is an important crop in many European countries, likely infected by a number of Fusarium species. Most of them produce mycotoxins in plant tissues, thus affecting the physiology of the host plant. However, there is lack of information on Fusarium communities in wild asparagus, where they would definitely have considerable environmental significance. Therefore, the main scientific aim of this study was to identify the Fusarium species and quantify their typical mycotoxins present in wild asparagus plants collected at four time points of the season. Forty-four Fusarium strains of eight species-Fusarium acuminatum, Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium equiseti, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium sporotrichioides, and Fusarium tricinctum-were isolated from nine wild asparagus plants in 2013 season. It is the first report of F. sporotrichioides isolated from this particular host. Fumonisin B1 was the most abundant mycotoxin, and the highest concentrations of fumonisins B1-B3 and beauvericin were found in the spears collected in May. Moniliformin and enniatins were quantified at lower concentrations. Mycotoxins synthesized by individual strains obtained from infected asparagus tissues were assessed using in vitro cultures on sterile rice grain. Most of the F. sporotrichioides strains synthesized HT-2 toxin and F. equiseti strains were found to be effective zearalenone producers. PMID:26687343

  3. Phenolic profiles of cultivated, in vitro cultured and commercial samples of Melissa officinalis L. infusions.

    PubMed

    Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Dias, Maria Inês; Sousa, Maria João; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2013-01-01

    Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) is normally consumed as an infusion and presents therapeutic properties, such as sedative, carminative and antispasmodic, also being included in some pharmaceutical preparations. The phenolic profiles of different samples of lemon balm, prepared as infusions, were evaluated by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS. The profiles were compared in order to understand the differences between cultivated, in vitro cultured and commercial (bags and granulated) samples. All the samples showed a similar phenolic profile, presenting differences only in the quantities found of each compound. Rosmarinic acid was the most abundant compound, being higher in commercial samples, especially in tea bag sample (55.68mg/g of infusion) and lower in in vitro cultured sample (15.46mg/g). Moreover, dimers, trimers and tetramers of caffeic acid were identified and quantified for the first time in lemon balm. Only one flavonoid, luteolin-3'-O-glucuronide was found in all the samples, ranging from 8.43mg/g in commercial granulate sample to 1.22mg/g in in vitro cultured sample. Overall, cultivated and in vitro cultured samples presented the lowest amounts of phenolic compounds (59.59 and 30.21mg/g, respectively); otherwise, commercial samples showed the highest contents (109.24mg/g for tea bag and 101.03mg/g for granulate sample). The present study shows that infusion of lemon balm can be a source of phenolic compounds, known for their bioactive effects. PMID:23017385

  4. Can Ozone Alter the Terpenoid Composition and Membrane Integrity of in vitro Melissa officinalis Shoots?

    PubMed

    D'Angiolillo, Francesca; Tonelli, Mariagrazia; Pellegrini, Elisa; Nali, Cristina; Lorenzini, Giacomo; Pistelli, Luisa; Pistelli, Laura

    2015-06-01

    Ozone affects volatile organic compounds that protect plants from biotic and abiotic stress. In vitro Melissa officinalis shoots were exposed to ozone (200 ppb, 3 h) in controlled environmental conditions: leaf pigments, membrane integrity and headspace composition were assayed during fumigation and after the recovery period (3 h from the beginning of the exposure, FBE). At the end of the exposure, no injury was observed in untreated and treated shoots, although an evident increase in lipid peroxidation was reported (+38.5 and +37.2% of TBARS levels in comparison with controls, respectively after 1 and 3 h FBE). The levels of total carotenoids significantly rose as a normal response mechanism to oxidative stress. SPME-GS-MS analysis showed that, as a consequence of the fumigation, the trends in non-terpenoid compounds increased after 1 and 3 h FBE. This suggests that the concentration and the duration of the treatment were enough to cause a breakdown of cells (as evidenced by increased TBARS levels) and involves an association between volatile products of the lipoxygenase pathway (LOX products) and membrane degradation. PMID:26197550

  5. Effect of pasteurized egg and Rosmarinus officinalis supplementation on quality of cryopreserved ram semen.

    PubMed

    Mascaro, F; Gil, L; Malo, C; Gonzales, N; Martinez, F; de Blas, I

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to assess the in vitro effect of pasteurized egg (PE) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) on frozen-thawed ram semen. Ejaculates from three mature rams of the Rasa Aragonesa breed were cryopreserved using a 2-step dilution method (Fraction 1: F1; Fraction 2: F2). In Experiment 1, semen was frozen in egg yolk (EY) or PE extenders. After thawing, similar results were obtained in terms of total and progressive motility, viability, hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST) and acrosome integrity after 2 h incubation. In Experiment 2, addition of rosemary to F1, F2 or both fractions to EY extenders was evaluated. Rosemary in F1 decreased progressive motility (p = 0.013) after 2 h incubation. Finally, PE can be used as a substitute for EY to reduce hygienic risks in extenders and is easier to standardize. Supplementation of EY extender with rosemary in F1 reduced progressive motility. Rosemary supplementation in F2 does not affect semen quality. PMID:23995410

  6. The Therapeutic Potential of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) Diterpenes for Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Habtemariam, Solomon

    2016-01-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is one of the most economically important species of the family Lamiaceae. Native to the Mediterranean region, the plant is now widely distributed all over the world mainly due to its culinary, medicinal, and commercial uses including in the fragrance and food industries. Among the most important group of compounds isolated from the plant are the abietane-type phenolic diterpenes that account for most of the antioxidant and many pharmacological activities of the plant. Rosemary diterpenes have also been shown in recent years to inhibit neuronal cell death induced by a variety of agents both in vitro and in vivo. The therapeutic potential of these compounds for Alzheimer's disease (AD) is reviewed in this communication by giving special attention to the chemistry of the compounds along with the various pharmacological targets of the disease. The multifunctional nature of the compounds from the general antioxidant-mediated neuronal protection to other specific mechanisms including brain inflammation and amyloid beta (Aβ) formation, polymerisation, and pathologies is discussed. PMID:26941822

  7. Studies on bio-chemical profiling of Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis) for genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Pandey, G; Pandey, D; Tripathi, Mritynjay; Singh, Achal; Mishra, Maneesh

    2016-03-01

    Biochemical profiling of physiologically mature fruits of 51 diverse Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Gaertn) germplasm accessions was collected from Vindhyan hill region of Madhya Pradesh, with a view to select nutraceutically rich genotypes based on important biochemical traits. The mean ascorbic acid and total phenol (tannin) content amongst different accessions was recorded as 496.47 mg 100 g⁻¹ and 4.88% with highest value found in CISH A-12 (654.50 mg 100 g⁻¹) and CISH A-30 (7.18%), respectively. Apart from the above, wide range of variability in the composition of other important biochemical attributes viz., total soluble solids (8.60-17.70°Brix), acidity (1.61-2.94%), total sugar (4.15-9.17), reducing sugar (2.19-4.45%) and TSS/acid ratio (3.89-8.33) was also recorded. Highest significant and positive correlation was observed between total sugar and TSS (0.895) followed by reducing sugar and TSS (0.882). Significant positive correlation between ascorbic acid and tannins (0.551) was an indication to be associated with binding capacity of ascorbic acid over a longer period of storage. PMID:27097435

  8. Physiological perturbations in juvenile cuttlefish Sepia officinalis induced by subchronic exposure to dissolved zinc.

    PubMed

    Le Pabic, Charles; Caplat, Christelle; Lehodey, Jean-Paul; Dallas, Lorna; Koueta, Noussithé

    2015-06-30

    Although cephalopod early life stage development often occurs in coastal areas where contamination is real and continuous, the physiological perturbations induced by contaminants have been rarely investigated. This study focused on the Zn as it is one of the trace metals the most concentrated in coastal waters, worldwide. As Zn-tolerance limits were unknown in juvenile Sepia officinalis, the aim of this study was to estimate the threshold inducing mortality during the 2-first weeks post-hatching, and to determine its sensitivity using digestive and immune enzymatic assays, as well as growth and behavior follow-up during the first 5weeks post-hatching. Our study highlighted a Zn-mortality threshold lying between 185 and 230μgl(-1), and growth reductions occurring after 5-week at 108μgl(-1) and above, associated with enzymatic perturbations. These results underline a relatively important sensitivity of juvenile cuttlefish to Zn, pointed out by a wide diversity of biomarkers. PMID:25749315

  9. Different drying technologies and alternation of mycobiots in the raw material of Hyssopus officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Raila, Algirdas; Lugauskas, Albinas; Kemzūraite, Aurelija; Zvicevicius, Egidijus; Ragazinskiene, Ona; Railiene, Marija

    2009-01-01

    Contamination of medicinal plant mass with mycobiots is one of the negative factors deteriorating the quality of raw material. In order to evaluate the impact of the yield processing technologies upon the changes of mycobiots in raw material, the mycobiotic conditions of herb hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) raw material were evaluated under various regimes of active ventilation and optimization of the drying parameters. The impact of ventilation intensity and temperature of drying agent upon the changes and abundance of mycobiota species in medicinal raw material was determined. Irrespective of the temperature of the airflow, the strongest suppressive effect upon the mycobiotic contamination in Hyssopi herba was produced by the 5,000 m3 x (t x h)(-1) airflow. Analysis of the isolated fungi revealed the prevalence of Penicillium, Aspergillus, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Mucor, Rhizopus species in the raw material. In separate samples Botrytis cinerea, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Aureobasidium pullulans, Chrysosporium merdarium, Cladorrhinum foecundissimum, Ulocladium consortiale, Trichoderma hamatum, T. harzianum, Gilmaniella humicola, Talaromyces flavus, Rhizomucor pusillus, Hansfordia ovalispora, Verticicladium trifi dum, Trichosporiella cerebriformis micromycetes were also rather abundant. Detection of the above-mentioned micromycetes in herb hyssop samples differed, and partially depended upon the medium used for their isolation. PMID:19630202

  10. The chemical composition, botanical characteristic and biological activities of Borago officinalis: a review.

    PubMed

    Asadi-Samani, Majid; Bahmani, Mahmoud; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2014-09-01

    Borage (Borago officinalis) is an annual herb which is cultivated for medicinal and culinary uses, although it is commercially cultivated for borage seed oil. Borage seed oil is the plant rich in the gamma-linolenic acid (26%-38%) which is used as dietary or food supplement. Other than seed oil it contains a lot of fatty acids such as linoleic acid (35%-38%), oleic acid (16%-20%), palmitic acid (10%-11%), stearic acid (3.5%-4.5%), eicosenoic acid (3.5%-5.5%) and erucic acid (1.5%-3.5%). It is used for the treatment of various diseases such as multiple sclerosis, diabetes, heart diseases, arthritis and eczema. In this study different aspects of borage such as plant characteristics, production, applications in traditional medicine, clinical considerations, its effects on patients' blood and urine biochemistry, and also the effect of the its products on liver and kidney performance tests are presented using published articles in scientific sites. PMID:25312125

  11. Compositions of the seed oil of the Borago officinalis from Iran.

    PubMed

    Morteza, Elham; Akbari, Gholam-Ali; Moaveni, Payam; Alahdadi, Iraj; Bihamta, Mohammad-Reza; Hasanloo, Tahereh; Joorabloo, Ali

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the composition of borage (Borago officinalis L.) seed oil, this research was performed under the field conditions at Shahriyar and Garmsar zones, Iran during the 2012 planting year. The oil yield of borage was 31.46% and 33.7% at Shahriyar and Garmsar zone, respectively, and nine and eight fatty acids were identified in the seed oil of borage at Shahriyar and Garmsar, respectively - palmitic, linoleic, stearic and γ-linolenic acids were dominant in the seed oil of borage from both zones. Unsaturated fatty acid content was more than the saturated fatty acids in both zones. The ratio of linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid in the borage cultivated at Shahriyar and Garmsar zones was 2.13 and 2.29. The fatty acid profile of Garmsar borage, oleic and oleic/linoleic acid ratio, increased. Locations with different ecological conditions resulted in changes in both seed oil content and fatty acid profile of borage. PMID:25360856

  12. Terpene glycosides from the roots of Sanguisorba officinalis L. and their hemostatic activities.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Zhang, Zi-Long; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Shuang; He, Lu; Wang, Zhe; Wang, Guang-Shu

    2012-01-01

    Guided by a hemostasis bioassay, seven terpene glycosides were isolated from the roots of Sanguisorba officinalis L. by silica gel column chromatography and preparative HPLC. On the grounds of chemical and spectroscopic methods, their structures were identified as citronellol-1-O-α-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), geraniol-1-O-α-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), geraniol-1-O-α-Larabinopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), 3β-[(α-L-arabinopyranosyl)oxy]-19α-hydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid 28-β-D-glucopyranoside (4), 3β-[(α-L-arabinopyranosyl)-oxy]-19α-hydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid 28-β-D-glucopyranoside (ziyu-glycoside I, 5), 3β,19α-hydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid 28-β-D-glucopyranoside (6) and 3β,19α-dihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid 28-β-D-glucopyranoside (7). Compound 1 is a new mono-terpene glycoside and compounds 2, 3 and 5 were isolated from the Sanguisorba genus for the first time. Compounds 1–7 were assayed for their hemostatic activities with a Goat Anti-Human α2-plasmin inhibitor ELISA kit, and ziyu-glycoside I (5) showed the strongest hemostatic activity among the seven terpene glycosides. This is the first report that ziyu-glycoside Ι has strong hemostatic activity. PMID:22732879

  13. Taurine depresses cardiac contractility and enhances systemic heart glucose utilization in the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    MacCormack, Tyson J; Callaghan, N I; Sykes, A V; Driedzic, W R

    2016-02-01

    Taurine is the most abundant amino acid in the blood of the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, where levels can exceed 200 mmol L(-1). In mammals, intracellular taurine modulates cardiac Ca(2+) handling and carbohydrate metabolism at much lower concentrations but it is not clear if it exerts similar actions in cephalopods. Blood Ca(2+) levels are high in cephalopods and we hypothesized that taurine would depress cardiac Ca(2+) flux and modulate contractility in systemic and branchial hearts of cuttlefish. Heart performance was assessed with an in situ perfused systemic heart preparation and contractility was evaluated using isometrically contracting systemic and branchial heart muscle rings. Stroke volume, cardiac output, and Ca(2+) sensitivity were significantly lower in systemic hearts perfused with supplemental taurine (100 mmol L(-1)) than in controls. In muscle ring preparations, taurine impaired relaxation at high contraction frequencies, an effect abolished by supra-physiological Ca(2+) levels. Taurine did not affect oxygen consumption in non-contracting systemic heart muscle, but extracellular glucose utilization was twice that of control preparations. Collectively, our results suggest that extracellular taurine depresses cardiac Ca(2+) flux and potentiates glucose utilization in cuttlefish. Variations in taurine levels may represent an important mechanism for regulating cardiovascular function and metabolism in cephalopods. PMID:26644087

  14. Ambispora granatensis, a new arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, associated with Asparagus officinalis in Andalucia (Spain).

    PubMed

    Palenzuela, Javier; Barea, José-Miguel; Ferrol, Nuria; Oehl, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    A new dimorphic fungal species in the arbuscular mycorrhiza-forming Glomeromycota, Ambispora granatensis, was isolated from an agricultural site in the province of Granada (Andalucía, Spain) growing in the rhizosphere of Asparagus officinalis. It was propagated in pot cultures with Trifolium pratense and Sorghum vulgare. The fungus also colonized Ri T-DNA transformed Daucus carota roots but did not form spores in these root organ cultures. The spores of the acaulosporoid morph are 90-150 μm diam and hyaline to white to pale yellow. They have three walls and a papillae-like rough irregular surface on the outer surface of the outer wall. The irregular surface might become difficult to detect within a few hours in lactic acid-based mountings but are clearly visible in water. The structural central wall layer of the outer wall is only 0.8-1.5 μm thick. The glomoid spores are formed singly or in small, loose spore clusters of 2-10 spores. They are hyaline to pale yellow, (25)40-70 μm diam and have a bilayered spore wall without ornamentation. Nearly full length sequences of the 18S and the ITS regions of the ribosomal gene place the new fungus in a separate clade next to Ambispora fennica and Ambispora gerdemannii. The acaulosporoid spores of the new fungus can be distinguished easily from all other spores in genus Ambispora by the conspicuous thin outer wall. PMID:20952800

  15. The Therapeutic Potential of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) Diterpenes for Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Habtemariam, Solomon

    2016-01-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is one of the most economically important species of the family Lamiaceae. Native to the Mediterranean region, the plant is now widely distributed all over the world mainly due to its culinary, medicinal, and commercial uses including in the fragrance and food industries. Among the most important group of compounds isolated from the plant are the abietane-type phenolic diterpenes that account for most of the antioxidant and many pharmacological activities of the plant. Rosemary diterpenes have also been shown in recent years to inhibit neuronal cell death induced by a variety of agents both in vitro and in vivo. The therapeutic potential of these compounds for Alzheimer's disease (AD) is reviewed in this communication by giving special attention to the chemistry of the compounds along with the various pharmacological targets of the disease. The multifunctional nature of the compounds from the general antioxidant-mediated neuronal protection to other specific mechanisms including brain inflammation and amyloid beta (Aβ) formation, polymerisation, and pathologies is discussed. PMID:26941822

  16. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil from leaves of Algerian Melissa officinalis L.

    PubMed Central

    Abdellatif, Fahima; Boudjella, Hadjira; Zitouni, Abdelghani; Hassani, Aicha

    2014-01-01

    The essential oil obtained from leaves of Melissa officinalis L. (Family of Lamiaceae) growing in Algeria, was investigated for its chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial activity. The chemical composition was determined by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS and GC-FID. Sixty-three compounds were identified in the essential oil, representing 94.10 % of the total oil and the yields were 0.34 %. The major component was geranial (44.20 %). Other predominant components were neral (30.20 %) and citronellal (6.30 %). The in vitro antimicrobial activity was determined by paper disk agar diffusion testing and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using 7 bacteria (3 Gram-positive and 4 Gram-negative), 2 yeasts and 3 fungi. The results showed that the essential oil presented high antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms targeted mainly against five human pathogenic bacteria, one yeast Candida albicans and two phytopathogenic fungi tested. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranged from 1.00 to 5.00 µL/mL. PMID:26417300

  17. Proteomic Characterisation of the Salt Gland-Enriched Tissues of the Mangrove Tree Species Avicennia officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Wee-Kee; Lim, Teck-Kwang; Loh, Chiang-Shiong; Kumar, Prakash; Lin, Qingsong

    2015-01-01

    Plant salt glands are natures desalination devices that harbour potentially useful information pertaining to salt and water transport during secretion. As part of the program toward deciphering secretion mechanisms in salt glands, we used shotgun proteomics to compare the protein profiles of salt gland-enriched (isolated epidermal peels) and salt gland-deprived (mesophyll) tissues of the mangrove species Avicennia officinalis. The purpose of the work is to identify proteins that are present in the salt gland-enriched tissues. An average of 2189 and 977 proteins were identified from the epidermal peel and mesophyll tissues, respectively. Among these, 2188 proteins were identified in salt gland-enriched tissues and a total of 1032 selected proteins were categorized by Gene Ontology (GO) analysis. This paper reports for the first time the proteomic analysis of salt gland-enriched tissues of a mangrove tree species. Candidate proteins that may play a role in the desalination process of the mangrove salt glands and their potential localization were identified. Information obtained from this study paves the way for future proteomic research aiming at elucidating the molecular mechanism underlying secretion in plant salt glands. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000771. PMID:26193361

  18. Identification and expression of two oxytocin/vasopressin-related peptides in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Henry, Joël; Cornet, Valerie; Bernay, Benoit; Zatylny-Gaudin, Céline

    2013-08-01

    Two novel members of the oxytocin/vasopressin superfamily have been identified in the cephalopod Sepia officinalis. Oxytocin/vasopressin gene sequences were cloned by Race PCR. The two precursors we identified exhibit the classical organization of OT/VP superfamily precursors: a signal peptide followed by a nonapeptide and a neurophysin domain. The neurophysin domain is entirely conserved for the cuttlefish precursors, but the nonapeptides and the signal peptides differ. The first nonapeptide, called sepiatocin, is highly homologous to Octopus vulgaris octopressin. The second nonapeptide, called pro-sepiatocin, shows sequence homologies with a Crustacean oxytocin/vasopressin-like peptide identified in Daphnia culex and with a novel form of oxytocin described in New World monkeys. The expression of pro-sepiatocin is restricted to the supraesophageal and subesophageal masses of the brain whereas sepiatocin is expressed in the entire central nervous system. Sepiatocin, as described for octopressin, modulates the contractile activity of several muscles such as penis, oviduct and vena cava muscles; this suggests its involvement in reproduction and blood circulation. Pro-sepiatocin is released in the hemolymph; it is a neurohormone able to target numerous peripheral organs. PMID:23764263

  19. Acaricidal effect of essential oils from Lippia graveolens (Lamiales: Verbenaceae), Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiales: Lamiaceae), and Allium sativum (Liliales: Liliaceae) against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Martinez-Velazquez, M; Rosario-Cruz, R; Castillo-Herrera, G; Flores-Fernandez, J M; Alvarez, A H; Lugo-Cervantes, E

    2011-07-01

    Acaricidal effects of three essential oils extracted from Mexican oregano leaves (Lippia graveolens Kunth), rosemary leaves (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), and garlic bulbs (Allium sativum L.) on 10-d-old Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini) tick larvae were evaluated by using the larval packet test bioassay. Serial dilutions of the three essential oils were tested from a starting concentration of 20 to 1.25%. Results showed that both Mexican oregano and garlic essential oils had very similar activity, producing high mortality (90-100%) in all tested concentrations on 10-d-old R. microplus tick larvae. Rosemary essential oil produced >85% larval mortality at the higher concentrations (10 and 20%), but the effect decreased noticeably to 40% at an oil concentration of 5%, and mortality was absent at 2.5 and 1.25% of the essential oil concentration. Chemical composition of the essential oils was elucidated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. Mexican oregano essential oil included thymol (24.59%), carvacrol (24.54%), p-cymene (13.6%), and y-terpinene (7.43%) as its main compounds, whereas rosemary essential oil was rich in a-pinene (31.07%), verbenone (15.26%), and 1,8-cineol (14.2%), and garlic essential oil was rich in diallyl trisulfide (33.57%), diallyl disulfide (30.93%), and methyl allyl trisulfide (11.28%). These results suggest that Mexican oregano and garlic essential oils merit further investigation as components of alternative approaches for R. microplus tick control. PMID:21845941

  20. Global profiling of ultraviolet-induced metabolic disruption in Melissa officinalis by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sooah; Yun, Eun Ju; Hossain, Md Aktar; Lee, Hojoung; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2012-08-01

    Melissa officinalis contains various secondary metabolites that have health benefits. Generally, irradiating plants with ultraviolet (UV)-B induces the accumulation of secondary metabolites in plants. To understand the effect of UV-B irradiation on the metabolism of M. officinalis, metabolomics based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used in this study. The GC-MS analysis revealed 37 identified metabolites from various chemical classes, including alcohols, amino acids, inorganic acids, organic acids, and sugars. The metabolite profiles of the groups of M. officinalis irradiated with UV-B were separated and differentiated according to their irradiation times (i.e., 0, 1, and 2 h), using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA), respectively. The PCA score plots of PC1 and PC2 showed that the three groups with different irradiation times followed a certain trajectory with increasing UV-B irradiation. HCA revealed that metabolic patterns differed among the three groups, and the 1 h-irradiated group was more similar to the control group (0 h) than the 2 h-irradiated group. In particular, UV-B irradiation of plants led to a decrease in sugars such as fructose, galactose, sucrose, and trehalose and an increase in metabolites in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the proline-linked pentose phosphate pathway, and the phenylpropanoid pathway. This study demonstrated that metabolite profiling with GC-MS is useful for gaining a holistic understanding of UV-induced changes in plant metabolism. PMID:22729379

  1. Elevated CO2 levels affect the activity of nitrate reductase and carbonic anhydrase in the calcifying rhodophyte Corallina officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Laurie C.

    2013-01-01

    The concentration of CO2 in global surface ocean waters is increasing due to rising atmospheric CO2 emissions, resulting in lower pH and a lower saturation state of carbonate ions. Such changes in seawater chemistry are expected to impact calcification in calcifying marine organisms. However, other physiological processes related to calcification might also be affected, including enzyme activity. In a mesocosm experiment, macroalgal communities were exposed to three CO2 concentrations (380, 665, and 1486 µatm) to determine how the activity of two enzymes related to inorganic carbon uptake and nutrient assimilation in Corallina officinalis, an abundant calcifying rhodophyte, will be affected by elevated CO2 concentrations. The activity of external carbonic anhydrase, an important enzyme functioning in macroalgal carbon-concentrating mechanisms, was inversely related to CO2 concentration after long-term exposure (12 weeks). Nitrate reductase, the enzyme responsible for reduction of nitrate to nitrite, was stimulated by CO2 and was highest in algae grown at 665 µatm CO2. Nitrate and phosphate uptake rates were inversely related to CO2, while ammonium uptake was unaffected, and the percentage of inorganic carbon in the algal skeleton decreased with increasing CO2. The results indicate that the processes of inorganic carbon and nutrient uptake and assimilation are affected by elevated CO2 due to changes in enzyme activity, which change the energy balance and physiological status of C. officinalis, therefore affecting its competitive interactions with other macroalgae. The ecological implications of the physiological changes in C. officinalis in response to elevated CO2 are discussed. PMID:23314813

  2. Characterization of some plant extracts by GC-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iordache, A.; Culea, M.; Gherman, C.; Cozar, O.

    2009-01-01

    Different types of herbs often used in pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industry were extracted and then analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The method validation parameters showed good linearity, precision and recovery for a standard mixture. Herbs from different zones of Romania were studied: melissa (Melissa officinalis), nettle (Urtica dioica, Lamium album), camomile (Matricaria chamomilla). The study was applied for fingerprint chromatograms to characterize the flavors extracted from herb plants of different sources. The identity and quantity of the measured active compounds was correlated with the expected therapeutic effects. The active principles content was determined for the same herb, and different amounts of the active principles were determined for plants of different origin.

  3. Comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography with evaporative light-scattering detection for the analysis of triacylglycerols in Borago officinalis.

    PubMed

    Mondello, Luigi; Beccaria, Marco; Donato, Paola; Cacciola, Francesco; Dugo, Giovanni; Dugo, Paola

    2011-03-01

    An optimized 2-D liquid chromatography (LC×LC) set-up, based on the different selectivities of a silver ion (Ag) and a non-aqueous reversed phase (NARP), employed in the first (D1) and the second dimension (D2), respectively, in combination with evaporative light-scattering detection (ELSD), has been developed for the analysis of the triacylglycerol (TAG) fraction in a Borago officinalis oil. The 2-D set-up, thanks to the complementary separation selectivity provided by the two columns, allowed to distribute 78 TAGs throughout the 2-D LC retention plane otherwise unachievable by 1-D LC. PMID:21413146

  4. Evaluation of antioxidant capacity of 13 plant extracts by three different methods: cluster analyses applied for selection of the natural extracts with higher antioxidant capacity to replace synthetic antioxidant in lamb burgers.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, R P P; Trindade, M A; Tonin, F G; Lima, C G; Pugine, S M P; Munekata, P E S; Lorenzo, J M; de Melo, M P

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were: to evaluate the total equivalent antioxidant capacities (TEAC) and phenolic contents of 13 plants extracts; to select the most promising extracts regarding reducing activity using cluster analysis multivariate statistical technique; and to analyse evaluate sensory acceptance of lamb burgers produced with the most promising natural antioxidants replacing sodium erythorbate. Plant extracts were evaluated regarding TEAC by DPPH(•) and FRAP methods, and total phenolics contents by Folin-Ciocalteau assay. The TEAC values ranged from 0.50 to 9.06 g trolox/100 g dry weight (dw) and from 43.6 to 472.32 μmol trolox/g dw for DPPH(•) and FRAP methods, respectively, and the total phenolic contents from 5.98 to 74.01 mg GAE/g dw. Extracts from Origanum vulgare, Melissa officinalis, Origanum majorana L. and Rosmarinus officinalis were grouped as the ones with higher antioxidant capacities by cluster analysis. All burgers produced with each one of these four plant extracts or with sodium erythorbate showed no differences (P > 0.05) regarding consumers' sensory acceptance. In conclusion, it is possible to replace sodium erythorbate in lamb burgers by any of the four natural extracts selected without compromising sensory acceptance of this meat product. PMID:26787964

  5. High performance thin layer chromatography fingerprinting, phytochemical and physico-chemical studies of anti-diabetic herbal extracts

    PubMed Central

    Itankar, Prakash R.; Sawant, Dattatray B.; Tauqeer, Mohd.; Charde, Sonal S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Herbal medicines have gained increasing popularity in the last few decades, and this global resurgence of herbal medicines increases their commercial value. However, this increasing demand has resulted in a decline in their quality, primarily due to a lack of adequate regulations pertaining to herbal medicines. Aim: To develop an optimized methodology for the standardization of herbal raw materials. Materials and Methods: The present study has been designed to examine each of the five herbal anti-diabetic drugs, Gymnema sylvester R. Br., Pterocarpus marsupium Roxburgh., Enicostema littorale Blume., Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels. and Emblica officinalis Gaertn. The in-house extracts and marketed extracts were evaluated using physicochemical parameters, preliminary phytochemical screening, quantification of polyphenols (Folin–Ciocalteu colorimetric method) and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprint profiling with reference to marker compounds in plant extracts. Results: All the plants mainly contain polyphenolic compounds and are quantified in the range of 3.6–21.72% w/w. E. officinalis contain the highest and E. littorale contain the lowest content of polyphenol among plant extracts analyzed. HPTLC fingerprinting showed that the in-house extracts were of better quality than marketed extracts. Conclusion: The results obtained from the study could be utilized for setting limits for the reference phytoconstituents (biomarker) for the quality control and quality assurance of these anti-diabetic drugs. PMID:27011722

  6. Antioxidative/acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of some Asteraceae plants.

    PubMed

    Mekinić, Ivana Generalić; Burcul, Franko; Blazević, Ivica; Skroza, Danijela; Kerum, Daniela; Katalinić, Visnja

    2013-04-01

    The extracts obtained by 80% EtOH from some Asteraceae plants (Calendula officinalis, Inula helenium, Arctium lappa, Artemisia absinthium and Achillea millefolium) were studied. Rosmarinic acid, one of the main compounds identified in all extracts, was determined quantitatively by using HPLC. In addition, spectrophotometric methods were evaluated as an alternative for rosmarinic acid content determination. Total phenolic content was also established for all extracts. A. millefolium extract was found to have the highest content of rosmarinic acid as well as total phenols. All extracts were tested for antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. A. millefolium was shown to possess the best antioxidant activity (for all tested methods) as well as acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Highly positive linear relationships were obtained between antioxidant/acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity and the determined rosmarinic acid content indicating its significance for the observed activities. PMID:23738456

  7. Effects of carbon dioxide, water supply, and seasonality on terpene content and emission by Rosmarinus officinalis

    SciTech Connect

    Penuelas, J.; Llusia, J.

    1997-04-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis L. plants were grown under carbon dioxide concentrations of 350 and 700 {mu}mol (atmospheric CO{sub 2} and elevated CO{sub 2}) and under two levels of irrigation (high water and low water) from October 1, 1994 to May 31, 1996. Elevated CO{sub 2} led on increasingly larger monthly growth rates than the atmospheric CO{sub 2} treatments. The increase was 9.5% in spring 1995, 23% in summer 1995, and 53% in spring 1996 in the high-water treatments, whereas in low-water treatments the growth response to elevated CO{sub 2} was constrained until the second year spring, when there was a 47% increase. The terpene concentrations was slightly larger in the elevated CO{sub 2} treatments than in atmospheric CO{sub 2} treatments and reached a maximum 37% difference in spring 1996. There was no significant effect of water treatment, likely as a result of a mild low water treatment for a Mediterranean plant. Terpene concentrations increased throughout the period of study, indicating possible age effects. The most abundant terpenes were {alpha}-pinene, cineole, camphor, borneol, and verbenone, which represented about 75% of the total. No significant differences were found in the terpene composition of the plants in the different treatments or seasons. The emission of volatile terpenes was much larger in spring (about 75 {mu}g/dry wt/hr) than in autumn (about 10 {mu}g/dry wt/hr), partly because of higher temperature and partly because of seasonal effect, but no significant differences was found because of CO{sub 2} or water treatment. The main terpene emitted was {alpha}-pinene, which represented about 50% of the total. There was no clear correlation between content and emission, either quantitatively or qualitatively. More volatile terpenes were proportionally more important in the total emission than in total content and in autumn than in spring.

  8. Fine structure of the blood-brain interface in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (Mollusca, Cephalopoda).

    PubMed

    Bundgaard, M; Abbott, N J

    1992-04-01

    The blood-brain interface was studied in a cephalopod mollusc, the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, by thin-section electron microscopy. Layers lining blood vessels in the optic and vertical lobes of the brain, counting from lumen outwards, include a layer of endothelial cells and associated basal lamina, a layer of pericytes and a second basal lamina, and perivascular glial cells. The distinction between endothelial cells and pericytes breaks down in small vessels. In the smallest microvessels, equivalent to capillaries, and in venous channels, and endothelial and pericyte layers are discontinuous, but a layer of glial cells is always interposed between blood and neural tissue, except where neurosecretory endings reach the second basal lamina. In microvessels in which cell membranes of the entire perivascular glial sheath could be followed, the glial layer was apparently 'seamless', not interrupted by an intercellular cleft, in ca 90% (27/30) of the profiles. Where a cleft did occur, it showed an elongated overlap zone between adjacent cells. The walls of venous channels are formed by lamellae of overlapping glial processes. In arterial vessels, the pericyte layer is thicker and more complete, with characteristic sinuous intercellular clefts. Arterioles are defined as vessels containing 'myofilaments' within pericytes, and arteries those in which the region of the second basal lamina is additionally expanded into a wide collagenous zone containing fibroblast-like cells and cell processes enclosing myofilaments. The 'glio-vascular channels' observed in Octopus brain are not a prominent feature of Sepia optic and vertical lobe. The organization of cell layers at the Sepia blood-brain interface suggests that it is designed to restrict permeability between blood and brain. PMID:1588346

  9. Graded behavioral responses and habituation to sound in the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Samson, Julia E; Mooney, T Aran; Gussekloo, Sander W S; Hanlon, Roger T

    2014-12-15

    Sound is a widely available and vital cue in aquatic environments, yet most bioacoustic research has focused on marine vertebrates, leaving sound detection in invertebrates poorly understood. Cephalopods are an ecologically key taxon that likely use sound and may be impacted by increasing anthropogenic ocean noise, but little is known regarding their behavioral responses or adaptations to sound stimuli. These experiments identify the acoustic range and levels that elicit a wide range of secondary defense behaviors such as inking, jetting and rapid coloration change. Secondarily, it was found that cuttlefish habituate to certain sound stimuli. The present study examined the behavioral responses of 22 cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) to pure-tone pips ranging from 80 to 1000 Hz with sound pressure levels of 85-188 dB re. 1 μPa rms and particle accelerations of 0-17.1 m s(-2). Cuttlefish escape responses (inking, jetting) were observed between frequencies of 80 and 300 Hz and at sound levels above 140 dB re. 1 μPa rms and 0.01 m s(-2) (0.74 m s(-2) for inking responses). Body patterning changes and fin movements were observed at all frequencies and sound levels. Response intensity was dependent upon stimulus amplitude and frequency, suggesting that cuttlefish also possess loudness perception with a maximum sensitivity around 150 Hz. Cuttlefish habituated to repeated 200 Hz tone pips, at two sound intensities. Total response inhibition was not reached, however, and a basal response remained present in most animals. The graded responses provide a loudness sensitivity curve and suggest an ecological function for sound use in cephalopods. PMID:25394634

  10. Intramolecular localization of the functional units of Sepia officinalis hemocyanin by immunoelectron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lamy, J; You, V; Taveau, J C; Boisset, N; Lamy, J N

    1998-12-11

    The quaternary structure of Sepia officinalis hemocyanin (Hc) as studied in immunoelectron microscopy with rabbit IgGs and Fab fragments raised against functional units (FU) Soc, Sod, Soe, Sof, Sog, and Soh and fragment Soab. The architecture of immunocomplexes shows that (i) epitopes characteristic of FUs Soc and Sog and of fragment Soab are located in the two external tiers of FUs, (ii) FUs Soh and Soe or Sod are located in arches. These results were confirmed using immunocomplexes made up of Sepia Hc and IgGs or Fab fragments purified from antisera raised against FUs of Octopus vulgaris and Octopus dofleini. Frozen-hydrated immunocomplexes containing one Hc molecule and at least one FU-specific Fab fragment were observed in the electron microscope and submitted to image processing. When the Hc molecule is viewed along its 5-fold axis (i) anti-Soc Fab fragments project on a radius passing through the arch's pillar, (ii) anti-Sof Fabs project slightly out of the arches, and (iii) anti-Soh Fabs project between neighboring arches. When applied to a recent three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction volume, these results allow us to deduce the intramolecular location of five of the eight FUs. For the last three FUs limited uncertainties remain: (i) Soc can be located in two positions in the external tier of FUs; (ii) Soa and Sob can both occupy three positions in the external tiers; and (iii) because of an immunological cross-reactivity Sod may be located in the wall and Soe in the arch, or vice versa. An analysis of the quaternary structure considering the possible locations of the 80 FUs and postulating a single type of subunit shows that 80 possibilities of paths still exist for the polypeptide chain. To solve definitely these 80 possibilities only five questions remain to be answered. PMID:9837726

  11. Partial purification and biochemical characterization of peroxidase from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) leaves

    PubMed Central

    Aghelan, Zahra; Shariat, Seyed Ziyaedin Samsam

    2015-01-01

    Background: In this study, it is aimed to purify POD from leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis L. and determine its some biochemical properties. PODs are a group of oxidoreductase enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of a wide variety of phenolic compounds in the presence of hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor. Materials and Methods: In this investigation, POD was purified 9.3-fold with a yield of 32.1% from the leaves of Rosemary by ammonium sulfate precipitation and ion-exchange chromatography. The enzyme biochemical properties, including the effect of pH, temperature and ionic strength were investigated with guaiacol as an electron donor. For substrate specificity investigation of the enzyme, Michaelis constant and the maximum velocity of an enzymatic reaction values for substrates guaiacol and 3,3’, 5,5’-TetraMethyle-Benzidine were calculated from the Lineweaver–Burk graphs. Results: The POD optimum pH and temperature were 6.0 and 40°C. The POD activity was maximal at 0.3 M of sodium phosphate buffer concentration (pH 6.0). Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was performed for molecular weight (Mw) determination and Mw of the enzyme was found to be 33 kDa. To investigate the homogeneity of the POD, native-PAGE was done and a single band was observed. Conclusion: The stability against high temperature and extreme pH demonstrated that the enzyme could be a potential POD source for various applications in the medicine, chemical and food industries. PMID:26380244

  12. Hepatoprotective properties of the Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Gaertn): a review.

    PubMed

    Thilakchand, Karadka Ramdas; Mathai, Rashmi Teresa; Simon, Paul; Ravi, Rithin T; Baliga-Rao, Manjeshwar Poonam; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

    2013-10-01

    Liver diseases characterized by inflammation or tissue damage affect the optimal functioning and increase the morbidity and mortality of the affected individual. Liver diseases are a largely neglected health issue and recent reports indicate that they affect over 10% of the world population, with the highest burden in low and middle income countries that have minimal medical resources. To complicate matters the currently available pharmacological therapies are not optimal and when used for extended periods of time impart systemic toxicity. Diet can modify pathophysiological processes, including those of hepatotoxins, and studies have shown that some dietary constituents can afford heptoprotection. Emblica officinalis Gaertn or Phyllanthus emblica Linn, commonly known as the Indian gooseberry in English or amla in Hindi, is one of the most important medicinal and dietary plants in the Indian subcontinent. The fruits are of dietary and medicinal use and have wide applications in both traditional and folk systems of medicine. Scientific studies have shown amla to be effective in preventing/ameliorating the toxic effects of hepatotoxic agents like ethanol, paracetamol, carbon tetrachloride, heavy metals, ochratoxins, hexachlorocyclohexane, antitubercular drugs and hepatotoxicity resulting from iron overload. Amla is also reported to impart beneficial effects on liver function and to mitigate hyperlipidemia and metabolic syndrome. Amla possesses protective effects against chemical-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in animal models of study. Additionally, the phytochemicals quercetin, gallic acid, corilagin and ellagic acid are also reported to protect against the cytotoxic effects of paracetamol, microcystins, galactosamine and lipopolysaccharide. The hepatoprotective actions of amla appear to be mediated by its free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and modulation of the xenobiotic detoxification process and lipid metabolism. PMID:23978895

  13. Life table and consumption capacity of corn earworm, Helicoverpa armigera, fed asparagus, Asparagus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Jha, Ratna Kumar; Tuan, Shu-Jen; Chi, Hsin; Tang, Li-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    The life table and consumption rate of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) reared on asparagus, Asparagus officinalis L. (Asparagales: Asparagaceae) were studied under laboratory conditions to assess their interaction. Development, survival, fecundity, and consumption data were analyzed by the age-stage, twosex life table. This study indicated that asparagus is a natural host of H. armigera. However, the poor nutritional content in asparagus foliage and the poor fitness of H. armigera that fed on asparagus indicated that asparagus is a suboptimal host in comparison to hybrid sweet corn. The uncertainty associated with life table parameters was estimated by using jackknife and bootstrap techniques, and the results were compared for statistical inference. The intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate of increase (λ), net reproductive rate (R0), and mean generation time (T) were estimated by the jackknife technique to be 0.0780 day(-1), 1.0811 day(-1), 67.4 offspring, and 54.8 days, respectively, while those estimated by the bootstrap technique were 0.0752 day(-1), 1.0781 day(-1), 68.0 offspring, and 55.3 days, respectively. The net consumption rate of H. armigera, as estimated by the jackknife and bootstrap technique, was 1183.02 and 1132.9 mg per individual, respectively. The frequency distribution of sample means obtained by the jackknife technique failed the normality test, while the bootstrap results fit the normal distribution well. By contrast, the relationship between the mean fecundity and the net reproductive rate, as estimated by the bootstrap technique, was slightly inconsistent with the relationship found by mathematical proof. The application of the jackknife and bootstrap techniques in estimating population parameters requires further examination. PMID:25373181

  14. Quantitation and bitter taste contribution of saponins in fresh and cooked white asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.).

    PubMed

    Dawid, Corinna; Hofmann, Thomas

    2014-02-15

    A sensitive HPLC-MS/MS method was developed enabling the simultaneous quantification of bitter-tasting mono- and bidesmosidic saponins in fresh and processed asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.). Based on quantitative data and bitter taste recognition thresholds, dose-over-threshold factors were determined for the first time to determine the bitter impact of the individual saponins. Although 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25R/S)-spirost-5-ene-3β-ol was found based on dose-over-threshold factors to be the predominant bitter saponin in raw asparagus spears, 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)}-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-26-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25R)-22-hydroxyfurost-5-ene-3β,26-diol, 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)}-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-26-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25S)-22-hydroxyfurost-5-ene-3β,26-diol, and (25R)- and (25S)-furost-5-en-3β,22,26-triol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside were found as key bitter contributors after cooking. Interestingly, the monodesmosidic saponins 5a/b were demonstrated for the first time to be the major contributor to the bitter taste of fresh asparagus spears, while the bidesmosides 1a/b and 2a/b may be considered the primary determinants for the bitter taste of cooked asparagus. PMID:24128498

  15. Classification of Sunflower Oil Blends Stabilized by Oleoresin Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) Using Multivariate Kinetic Approach.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Rohit; Mishra, Hari Niwas

    2015-08-01

    The sunflower oil-oleoresin rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) blends (SORB) at 9 different concentrations (200 to 2000 mg/kg), sunflower oil-tertiary butyl hydroquinone (SOTBHQ ) at 200 mg/kg and control (without preservatives) (SO control ) were oxidized using Rancimat (temperature: 100 to 130 °C; airflow rate: 20 L/h). The oxidative stability of blends was expressed using induction period (IP), oil stability index and photochemiluminescence assay. The linear regression models were generated by plotting ln IP with temperature to estimate the shelf life at 20 °C (SL20 ; R(2) > 0.90). Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was used to classify the oil blends depending upon the oxidative stability and kinetic parameters. The Arrhenius equation adequately described the temperature-dependent kinetics (R(2) > 0.90, P < 0.05) and kinetic parameters viz. activation energies, activation enthalpies, and entropies were calculated in the range of 92.07 to 100.50 kJ/mol, 88.85 to 97.28 kJ/mol, -33.33 to -1.13 J/mol K, respectively. Using PCA, a satisfactory discrimination was noted among SORB, SOTBHQ , and SOcontrol samples. HCA classified the oil blends into 3 different clusters (I, II, and III) where SORB1200 and SORB1500 were grouped together in close proximity with SOTBHQ indicating the comparable oxidative stability. The SL20 was estimated to be 3790, 6974, and 4179 h for SO control, SOTBHQ, and SORB1500, respectively. The multivariate kinetic approach effectively screened SORB1500 as the best blend conferring the highest oxidative stability to sunflower oil. This approach can be adopted for quick and reliable estimation of the oxidative stability of oil samples. PMID:26148221

  16. GnRH in the brain and ovary of Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Di Cristo, Carlo; De Lisa, Emilia; Di Cosmo, Anna

    2009-03-01

    We have cloned from brain, ovary and eggs of the cephalopod Sepia officinalis a 269-bp PCR product, which shares 100% sequence identity with the open reading frame of GnRH isoform isolated from Octopus vulgaris. Similar to Octopus, this sequence encodes a peptide that is organized as a preprohormone from which, after enzymatic cleavage, a dodecapeptide is released. Apart from its length, this peptide shares all the common features of vertebrate GnRHs. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses followed by sequencing have confirmed that the same peptide transcript is also present in the ovary, as well as in eggs released in the mantle cavity. The use of an antibody made specifically against the oct-GnRH has revealed that the peptide is localized in the dorso-lateral basal and olfactory lobes, the two neuropeptidergic centers controlling the activity of the gonadotropic optic gland. Immunoreactive nerve endings are also present on the glandular cells of the optic glands. These results confirm the fact that, regardless of the evolutionary distances among animal phyla, GnRH is an ancient peptide present also in invertebrates, and also reinforce the notion that, despite the name "gonadotropin releasing-hormone" was attributed according to its role in vertebrates, probably this family of peptides always had a role in the broad context of animal reproduction. The divergence and spread of several different isoforms of this peptide among animals seem to be balanced, in both invertebrates and vertebrates, by the class-specificity of the GnRH isoform involved in reproductive processes. PMID:18692104

  17. Inhibition of HIV-1 infection by aqueous extracts of Prunella vulgaris L.

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The mint family (Lamiaceae) produces a wide variety of constituents with medicinal properties. Several family members have been reported to have antiviral activity, including lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.), sage (Salvia spp.), peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.), hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.), basil (Ocimum spp.) and self-heal (Prunella vulgaris L.). To further characterize the anti-lentiviral activities of Prunella vulgaris, water and ethanol extracts were tested for their ability to inhibit HIV-1 infection. Results Aqueous extracts contained more anti-viral activity than did ethanol extracts, displaying potent antiviral activity against HIV-1 at sub μg/mL concentrations with little to no cellular cytotoxicity at concentrations more than 100-fold higher. Time-of-addition studies demonstrated that aqueous extracts were effective when added during the first five hours following initiation of infection, suggesting that the botanical constituents were targeting entry events. Further analysis revealed that extracts inhibited both virus/cell interactions and post-binding events. While only 40% inhibition was maximally achieved in our virus/cell interaction studies, extract effectively blocked post-binding events at concentrations similar to those that blocked infection, suggesting that it was targeting of these latter steps that was most important for mediating inhibition of virus infectivity. Conclusions We demonstrate that aqueous P. vulgaris extracts inhibited HIV-1 infectivity. Our studies suggest that inhibition occurs primarily by interference of early, post-virion binding events. The ability of aqueous extracts to inhibit early events within the HIV life cycle suggests that these extracts, or purified constituents responsible for the antiviral activity, are promising microbicides and/or antivirals against HIV-1. PMID:21513560

  18. Antibacterial Activity of Various Plants Extracts Against Antibiotic-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila

    PubMed Central

    Al Laham, Shaza Anwar; Al Fadel, Frdoos Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aeromonas hydrophila cause one of the most important diseases in fishes and lead to economic losses, and may be contaminated human beings. Objectives: The current research aimed to investigate the anti-bacterial activity shown by the extracts prepared from different parts of Olea europea, Myrtus communis, Thymus vulgaris, Rosmarinuis officinalis, and Achillea falcata that grow in Syria against A. hydrophila that causes the most dangerous bacterial diseases in fish. Materials and Methods: The study was performed in four stages: First of all, the presence of A. hydrophila was investigated in 450 Samples of Cyprinus Carpio fish using blood agar, Trypticase soya agar, and Analytical Profile Index (API20E). Secondly, the plants extract was obtained using water, absolute alcohol, then ether using Soxhlet extraction apparatus and rotary vacuum evaporator. Thirdly, the antibacterial activity of some antibiotics on these bacteria was evaluated by disk diffusion method. Finally, the antibacterial effect of the extracts was determined by disk diffusion method. Results: The studied antibiotics showed no antibacterial activity against these bacteria, except amikacin which had an acceptable effectiveness. However, the ethanol extracts of the studied plants revealed different antibacterial effects against A. hydrophila which showed antibiotic resistant. T. vulgaris extract had the strongest effect, whereas O. europea extract had the weakest activity. The water and ether petroleum extracts had no antibacterial activities. Conclusions: Ethanol extracts of the studied plants had different antibacterial effects against antibiotic-resistant A. hydrophila. T. vulgaris had the highest activity, R. officinalis had the second, and M. communis and A. falcate were in the third place, while the O. europea had the weakest antibacterial activity. PMID:25368797

  19. Ultraviolet irradiation induced oxidative stress and response of antioxidant system in an intertidal macroalgae Corallina officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Li, Lixia; Zhao, Jiqiang; Tang, Xuexi

    2010-01-01

    The response of the antioxidant defense system of an intertidal macroalgae Corallina officinalis L. to different dosages of UV-B irradiation was investigated. Results showed that superoxide dimutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POX) increased and then maintained at a relatively stable level when subjected to UV-B irradiation. Catalase (CAT) activity under medium dosage of UV-B irradiation (Muv) and high dosage of UV-B irradiation (Huv) treatments were significantly decreased. Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity first remained unaltered and then increased in Huv treatment. In addition, the assay on isozymes was carried out using non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). The activities of some SOD isoforms were altered by UV-B. Two new bands (POX V and POX VII) appeared upon exposure to all three UV-B dosages. CAT III activity was increased by low dosage of UV-B irradiation (Luv), whereas CAT III and CAT IV disappeared when the alga was exposed to Muv and Huv. Two bands of APX (APX VI and APX VII) were increased and a new band (APX X) was observed under Huv exposure. H2O2 and thiobarbituric acid reacting substance (TBARS) increased under Muv and Huv treatments. Overall, UV-B protection mechanisms are partly inducible and to a certain extent sufficient to prevent the accumulation of damage in C. officinalis. PMID:20608508

  20. Molecular analysis of FMRFamide- and FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPS) in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Loi, P K; Tublitz, N

    1997-05-01

    The display of complex color patterns of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis is under the regulation of the FMRFamide-related peptide (FaRP) family, but their exact identities are unknown. We report the isolation and characterization of a full-length FaRP cDNA from the brain of S. officinalis. This cDNA is 1850 base pairs long, including an open reading frame of 996 base pairs. The cDNA encodes a precursor protein containing four FaRPs: ALSGDAFLRF, FIRF, FLRF and FMRF. Each propeptide has a C-terminal glycine residue that is presumably converted post-translationally to an amide. Every FaRP propeptide is also flanked by basic amino acid residues at the amino and carboxy termini, indicative of putative cleavage sites during post-translational processing. Each of the four FaRPs encoded by this cDNA causes chromatophore expansion when assayed in an in vitro chromatophore bioassay. Thus, it is likely that one or more of the FaRPs identified in this study are involved in controlling chromatophore activity in cuttlefish. PMID:9192498

  1. Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis Preferentially Respond to Bottom Rather than Side Stimuli When Not Allowed Adjacent to Tank Walls

    PubMed Central

    Taniguchi, Darcy A. A.; Gagnon, Yakir; Wheeler, Benjamin R.; Johnsen, Sönke; Jaffe, Jules S.

    2015-01-01

    Cuttlefish are cephalopods capable of rapid camouflage responses to visual stimuli. However, it is not always clear to what these animals are responding. Previous studies have found cuttlefish to be more responsive to lateral stimuli rather than substrate. However, in previous works, the cuttlefish were allowed to settle next to the lateral stimuli. In this study, we examine whether juvenile cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) respond more strongly to visual stimuli seen on the sides versus the bottom of an experimental aquarium, specifically when the animals are not allowed to be adjacent to the tank walls. We used the Sub Sea Holodeck, a novel aquarium that employs plasma display screens to create a variety of artificial visual environments without disturbing the animals. Once the cuttlefish were acclimated, we compared the variability of camouflage patterns that were elicited from displaying various stimuli on the bottom versus the sides of the Holodeck. To characterize the camouflage patterns, we classified them in terms of uniform, disruptive, and mottled patterning. The elicited camouflage patterns from different bottom stimuli were more variable than those elicited by different side stimuli, suggesting that S. officinalis responds more strongly to the patterns displayed on the bottom than the sides of the tank. We argue that the cuttlefish pay more attention to the bottom of the Holodeck because it is closer and thus more relevant for camouflage. PMID:26465786

  2. Salvia officinalis L. essential oils: effect of hydrodistillation time on the chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Miguel, G; Cruz, C; Faleiro, M L; Simões, M T F; Figueiredo, A C; Barroso, J G; Pedro, L G

    2011-03-01

    Salvia officinalis L. oils were isolated from the plant's commercial dried aerial parts, by hydrodistillation, with different distillation times. The essential oils were analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The antioxidant ability was measured using a free radical scavenging activity assay using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), a thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay, a deoxyribose assay for the scavenging of hydroxyl radical, an assay for site-specific actions and a 5-lipoxygenase assay. Antibacterial activity was determined by the agar diffusion method. 1,8-Cineole, α-pinene and camphor were the dominant components of all the essential oils. The different hydrodistillation times did not affect the oil yield nor the relative amount of the oil components. The time of hydrodistillation influenced the antioxidant activity. With the DPPH method, the oils isolated for 2 and 3 h were stronger free radical scavengers, while with the TBARS method, the highest antioxidant values were obtained in the oils isolated for 30 min, 2 and 3 h. Hydroxyl radical scavenging and lipoxygenase activity assays showed the best results with oils isolated for 1 and 3 h. With the deoxyribose method, sage oils at concentrations <1000 mg L(-1) showed better activity than mannitol. The essential oil of S. officinalis showed very weak antimicrobial activity. PMID:21391115

  3. Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis Preferentially Respond to Bottom Rather than Side Stimuli When Not Allowed Adjacent to Tank Walls.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Darcy A A; Gagnon, Yakir; Wheeler, Benjamin R; Johnsen, Sönke; Jaffe, Jules S

    2015-01-01

    Cuttlefish are cephalopods capable of rapid camouflage responses to visual stimuli. However, it is not always clear to what these animals are responding. Previous studies have found cuttlefish to be more responsive to lateral stimuli rather than substrate. However, in previous works, the cuttlefish were allowed to settle next to the lateral stimuli. In this study, we examine whether juvenile cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) respond more strongly to visual stimuli seen on the sides versus the bottom of an experimental aquarium, specifically when the animals are not allowed to be adjacent to the tank walls. We used the Sub Sea Holodeck, a novel aquarium that employs plasma display screens to create a variety of artificial visual environments without disturbing the animals. Once the cuttlefish were acclimated, we compared the variability of camouflage patterns that were elicited from displaying various stimuli on the bottom versus the sides of the Holodeck. To characterize the camouflage patterns, we classified them in terms of uniform, disruptive, and mottled patterning. The elicited camouflage patterns from different bottom stimuli were more variable than those elicited by different side stimuli, suggesting that S. officinalis responds more strongly to the patterns displayed on the bottom than the sides of the tank. We argue that the cuttlefish pay more attention to the bottom of the Holodeck because it is closer and thus more relevant for camouflage. PMID:26465786

  4. Apoptotic activities of ethanol extracts from some Apiaceae on human leukaemia cell lines.

    PubMed

    Bogucka-Kocka, A; Smolarz, H D; Kocki, J

    2008-12-01

    Apiaceae are a family of medicinal plants widely used in traditional medicine. The apoptotic activities of seven ethanol extracts from fruits of seven species of Apiaceae, Eryngium planum, Archangelica officinalis, Pastinaca sativa, Heracleum sibiricum, Carum carvi, Foeniculum vulgare, Levisticum officinale against ML-1--human acute myeloblastic leukaemia, J-45.01--human acute T cell leukaemia, EOL--human eosinophilic leukaemia, HL-60--human Caucasian promyelocytic leukaemia, 1301--human T cell leukaemia lymphoblast, C-8166--human T cell leukaemia, U-266B1--human myeloma, WICL--human Caucasian normal B cell, and H-9--human T cell, were investigated. PMID:18672039

  5. The influence of purge times on the yields of essential oil components extracted from plants by pressurized liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Wianowska, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    The influence of different purge times on the yield of the main essential oil constituents of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), and chamomile (Chamomilla recutita L.) was investigated. The pressurized liquid extraction process was performed by applying different extraction temperatures and solvents. The results presented in the paper show that the estimated yield of essential oil components extracted from the plants in the pressurized liquid extraction process is purge time-dependent. The differences in the estimated yields are mainly connected with the evaporation of individual essential oil components and the applied solvent during the purge; the more volatile an essential oil constituent is, the greater is its loss during purge time, and the faster the evaporation of the solvent during the purge process is, the higher the concentration of less volatile essential oil components in the pressurized liquid extraction receptacle. The effect of purge time on the estimated yield of individual essential oil constituents is additionally differentiated by the extraction temperature and the extraction ability of the applied solvent. PMID:25902980

  6. Variation of volatile oil concentration of Mediterranean aromatic shrubs Thymus capitatus hoffmag et link, Satureja thymbra L., Teucrium polium L. and Rosmarinus officinalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vokou, D.; Margaris, N. S.

    1986-06-01

    The volatile oil content of four Labiatae aromatic plants, viz. Thymus capitatus, Satureja thymbra, Teucrium polium and Rosmarinus officinalis has been estimated throughout the year; leaves, braches, flowers and leaf litter were analysed. The pattern of changes in the volatile oil concentration is not the same in all four plants; it corresponds to the major adaptive strategy towards summer drought, which each has evolved.

  7. Evaluation of electromyographic signals in children with bruxism before and after therapy with Melissa Officinalis L—a randomized controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Bortoletto, Carolina Carvalho; Cordeiro da Silva, Fernanda; Salgueiro, Monica da Consolação Canuto; Motta, Lara Jansiski; Curiki, Lucia Maria; Mesquita-Ferarri, Raquel Agnelli; Fernandes, Kristianne Porta Santos; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Bruxism is a repetitive muscle activity involving the clenching or grinding of one’s teeth during sleep or waking hours. Melissa officinalis L. may be employed as a natural therapy due to the sedative, anxiolytic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-spasm properties of the chemical constituents of the essential oil obtained from its leaves. The aim of the present study was to evaluate electromyographic signals in the temporal muscle using the BiteStrip® test on children with sleep bruxism before and after therapy with Melissa officinalis L. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were randomly allocated to two groups. Group 1 (n = 12) ingested a tincture containing Melissa officinalis L. for 30 days. Group 2 (n = 12) received a placebo solution with the same dose and frequency as Group 1. The Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests were employed for statistical analysis. [Results] The sample was made up of 24 children aged 6 to 10 years. No statistically significant differences were found between initial and final muscle activity in either group or in an intergroup comparison. [Conclusion] Use of the Melissa officinalis L. tincture at the dose employed did not lead to a reduction in muscle activity in children with bruxism. PMID:27134350

  8. Evaluation of antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory activities of methanol extract and its fractions from the Mediterranean sponge

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Without doubt, natural products have been, and still are, the cornerstone of the health care armamentarium. Of all natural sources, the marine environment is clearly the last great frontier for pharmaceutical and medical research. Methods This work progresses in the direction of identifying component(s) from the Mediterranean sponge, Spongia officinalis with pharmacological activities. In the present study we investigated the efficacy of methanol extract and its semi-purified fractions (F2, F3) from Spongia officinalis for their in vivo anti-inflammatory activity using the carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats and their in vitro antiproliferative effects by their potential cytotoxic activity using the MTT colorimetric method and clonogenic inhibition against three human cancer cell lines (A549, lung cell carcinoma, HCT15, colon cell carcinoma and MCF7, breast adenocarcinoma). Results The fractions F2 and F3 showed interesting anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative activities in a dose dependent manner. Conclusions The present study indicates that the methanolic extrac and its fractions from Spongia officinalis are a significant source of compounds with the antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory activities, and this may be useful for developing potential chemopreventive substances. PMID:22587650

  9. Trace metal concentrations in post-hatching cuttlefish Sepia officinalis and consequences of dissolved zinc exposure.

    PubMed

    Le Pabic, Charles; Caplat, Christelle; Lehodey, Jean-Paul; Milinkovitch, Thomas; Koueta, Noussithé; Cosson, Richard Philippe; Bustamante, Paco

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the changes of 13 trace metal and metalloid concentrations (i.e. Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, V, Zn) and their subcellular fractionation in juvenile cuttlefish Sepia officinalis reared in controlled conditions between hatching and 2 months post-hatching. In parallel, metallothionein concentrations were determined. Our results highlighted contrasting changes of studied metals. Indeed, As and Fe concentrations measured in hatchlings suggested a maternal transfer of these elements in cuttlefish. The non-essential elements Ag and Cd presented the highest accumulation during our study, correlated with the digestive gland maturation. During the 6 first weeks of study, soluble fractions of most of essential trace metals (i.e. Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Se, Zn) slowly increased consistently with the progressive needs of cuttlefish metabolism during this period. In order to determine for the first time in a cephalopod how metal concentrations and their subcellular distributions are impacted when the animals are trace metal-exposed, we studied previously described parameters in juveniles exposed to dissolved Zn at environmental (i.e. 50 μg l(-1)) and sublethal (i.e. 200 μg l(-1)) levels. Moreover, oxidative stress (i.e. glutathione S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities, and lipid peroxidation (LPO)) was assessed in digestive gland and gills after 1 and 2 months exposures. Our results highlighted no or low ability of this stage of life to regulate dissolved Zn accumulation during the studied period, consistently with high sensitivity of this organism. Notably, Zn exposures caused a concentration-dependent Mn depletion in juvenile cuttlefish, and an increase of soluble fraction of Ag, Cd, Cu without accumulation modifications, suggesting substitution of these elements (i.e. Mn, Ag, Cd, Cu) by Zn. In parallel, metallothionein concentrations decreased in individuals most exposed to Zn. Finally, no perturbations in oxidative stress management were detected in gills, whereas modifications of GST, SOD and catalase activity levels were recorded in digestive gland, resulting in an increase of LPO content after a 6-week exposure to low Zn concentration. Altogether, these perturbations are consistent with previously described high sensitivity of juvenile cuttlefish towards Zn. Our results underlined the need to study deeply contamination impact on this animal at this stage of life. PMID:25500620

  10. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of cultivated oregano (Origanum vulgare), sage (Salvia officinalis), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) against clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Fournomiti, Maria; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Mantzourani, Ioanna; Plessas, Stavros; Theodoridou, Irene; Papaemmanouil, Virginia; Kapsiotis, Ioannis; Panopoulou, Maria; Stavropoulou, Elisavet; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia E.; Alexopoulos, Athanasios

    2015-01-01

    Background Oregano (Origanum vulgare), sage (Salvia officinalis), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) are aromatic plants with ornamental, culinary, and phytotherapeutic use all over the world. In Europe, they are traditionally used in the southern countries, particularly in the Mediterranean region. The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils (EOs) derived from those plants have captured the attention of scientists as they could be used as alternatives to the increasing resistance of traditional antibiotics against pathogen infections. Therefore, significant interest in the cultivation of various aromatic and medicinal plants is recorded during the last years. However, to gain a proper and marketable chemotype various factors during the cultivation should be considered as the geographical morphology, climatic, and farming conditions. In this frame, we have studied the antimicrobial efficiency of the EOs from oregano, sage, and thyme cultivated under different conditions in a region of NE Greece in comparison to the data available in literature. Methods Plants were purchased from a certified supplier, planted, and cultivated in an experimental field under different conditions and harvested after 9 months. EOs were extracted by using a Clevenger apparatus and tested for their antibacterial properties (Minimum inhibitory concentration – MIC) against clinical isolates of multidrug resistant Escherichia coli (n=27), Klebsiella oxytoca (n=7), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=16) strains by using the broth microdilution assay. Results Our results showed that the most sensitive organism was K. oxytoca with a mean value of MIC of 0.9 µg/mL for oregano EOs and 8.1 µg/mL for thyme. The second most sensitive strain was K. pneumoniae with mean MIC values of 9.5 µg/mL for thyme and 73.5 µg/mL for oregano EOs. E. coli strains were among the most resistant to EOs antimicrobial action as the observed MICs were 24.8–28.6 µg/mL for thyme and above 125 µg/mL for thyme and sage. Most efficient were the EOs from thyme followed by those of oregano. Conclusions With MIC values above 150 µg/mL, sage EOs did not show any antibacterial efficiency against the majority of the strains. However, no significant differences were observed concerning the antimicrobial action of all EOs originating from irrigated versus non-irrigated cultivated aromatic plants. PMID:25881620

  11. Investigations into the antibacterial activities of phytotherapeutics against Helicobacter pylori and Campylobacter jejuni.

    PubMed

    Cwikla, C; Schmidt, K; Matthias, A; Bone, K M; Lehmann, R; Tiralongo, E

    2010-05-01

    The prevalence of gastric diseases is increasing with H. pylori, the causative agent of acute and chronic gastritis, being a major predisposing factor for peptic ulcer disease and gastric carcinoma. C. jejuni is the most common cause of enteric infections, particularly among children, resulting in severe diarrhoea. Increasing drug resistance of these bacteria against standard antibiotics, and the more widespread use of herbal medicines, favours investigations into additional anti-Helicobacter and anti-Campylobacter effects of phytotherapeutics that are already used for their beneficial effects on bowel and digestive functions. Twenty-one hydroethanol herbal extracts and four essential oils were screened for antibacterial activity using a modification of a previously described micro-dilution assay and compared with the inhibitory effects of antibiotics. The herbal extracts showing the highest growth inhibition of C. jejuni were Calendula officinalis, Matricaria recutita, Zingiber officinale, Salvia officinalis, Foeniculum vulgare and Silybum marianum. Agrimonia eupatoria, Hydrastis canadensis, Filipendula ulmaria and Salvia officinalis were the most active herbal extracts in inhibiting the growth of H. pylori. This study provides evidence for additional beneficial effects of phytotherapeutics marketed for their gastrointestinal effects and identifies new beneficial antibacterial effects for some herbal medicines not currently recommended for gastrointestinal problems. PMID:19653313

  12. Supplementation of Rosemary extract in the diet of Nero Siciliano pigs: evaluation of the antioxidant properties on meat quality.

    PubMed

    Liotta, L; Chiofalo, V; D'Alessandro, E; Lo Presti, V; Chiofalo, B

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, the effect of Rosmarinus officinalis L. dietary supplementation on meat quality and oxidative stability of Nero Siciliano pigs was examined. During the growing-fattening period, 32 Nero Siciliano pigs were allotted into two treatment groups consisting of 8 replicates with 2 pigs per pen. For 90 days, the animals received a basal diet: one group (CTR) was not dietary supplemented, whereas the other group received (1 g/kg) rosemary extract (ROX). Supplementation with rosemary extract significantly improved the polyunsaturated fatty acid content of the meat, which showed higher values in the meat of the ROX group compared with the CTR group (P0.05). Color measurement performed in the present study on meat samples from the two dietary treatments showed that redness decreased (P=0.046) and hue values increased (P=0.036), indicating that a deterioration of the initial color occurred and that the rosemary extract was ineffective in preventing color deterioration. Nevertheless, the lightness, yellowness and chroma color descriptors showed similar values in relation to dietary treatment (P>0.05). Considering the nutritional value of meat as an important contributor to the overall quality, the results obtained in this study support the possibility of the dietary supplementation with R. officinalis L. extract in pigs as a functional additive in livestock feeding. PMID:25997531

  13. Genetic diversity and population structure of Sepia officinalis from the Tunisian cost revealed by mitochondrial COI sequences.

    PubMed

    Meriam, Tir; Wafa, Tombari; Khawla, Telahigue; Tarek, Hajji; Abdeljelil, Ghram; Mhamed, Elcafsi

    2015-01-01

    Population substructure of Sepia officinalis sampled along the Tunisian coastline was studied. We have scored the genetic variation of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase 1. A total of 20 specimens from four sampling sites were analysed and revealed 12 different haplotypes. Haplotype diversity showed a decreasing north to south gradient which may be explained by the hydrogeography of the study area. The overall estimate of genetic divergence (FST) revealed significant genetic differentiation between the pair-wise population comparisons supported by the AMOVA analysis which reveals significant genetic divergence. Finally, populations showed an excess of rare haplotypes. The mismatch distribution and several population genetic statistics indicate that the excess of rare variants is due to a recent expansion for Djerba and Kelibia populations. For Rades and Bizerte populations a constant population size was detected. These findings are important for fisheries management to preserve this marine resource for long-term utilization. PMID:25249225

  14. Effect of time of harvesting on yield and quality of melissa officinalis L. In doon valley, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, S; Haider, S Z; Chauhan, N K; Lohani, H; Sah, S; Yadav, R K

    2014-09-01

    A field experiment on the effect of time of harvesting on yield and quality of Melissa officinalis L. was conducted under the agroclimatic conditions of Doon valley, Uttarakhand in order to assess the performance of four harvesting times (H1-120 days, H2-140 days, H3-160 days and H4-180 days after planting). The fresh and dry herbage and oil yield of the aerial parts showed greater response in H3 i.e. harvesting at 160 days after planting, followed by H2 harvesting time. The quality of essential oil was evaluated using GC and GC-MS analysis. Geranial (24.53 %) and neral (18.80 %) were the major constituents found in the essential oil followed by trans-caryophyllene (7.70 %). PMID:25425760

  15. Influence of essential oil of Hyssopus officinalis on the chemical composition of the walls of Aspergillus fumigatus (Fresenius).

    PubMed

    Ghfir, B; Fonvieille, J L; Dargent, R

    1997-07-01

    The cell walls of the growing hyphae of Aspergillus fumigatus (Fresenius) cultured in the presence or absence of the essential oil of Hyssopus officinalis were isolated and their chemical composition analysed. The presence of the essential oil led to a reduction in levels of neutral sugars, uronic acid and proteins, whereas amino sugars, lipids and phosphorus levels were increased. HPLC analysis of the neutral sugars showed that they consisted mainly of glucose, mannose and galactose, while the amino sugars consisted of glucosamine and galactosamine. The presence of the essential oil in the culture medium induced marked changes in the content of galactose and galactosamine. Cell walls were fractionated by treatment with alkali and acid. The essential oil induced similar alterations in the various fractions with a more marked effect on the major constituents. The alterations were related to changes in the structure of the cells. PMID:16333566

  16. Dichloromethane fraction of Melissa officinalis induces apoptosis by activation of intrinsic and extrinsic pathways in human leukemia cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimnezhad Darzi, Salimeh; Amirghofran, Zahra

    2013-06-01

    Various components from medicinal plants are currently used in cancer therapy because of their apoptosis-inducing effects. The present study has aimed to investigate the growth inhibitory and apoptotic effects of Melissa officinalis on tumor cells. We prepared different fractions of this plant to investigate their inhibitory effects on two leukemia cell lines, Jurkat and K562. Fractions with the highest inhibitory effects were examined for induction of apoptosis by the annexin V/propidium iodide assay and cell cycle changes by flow cytometry. Real-time polymerase chain reaction evaluated the changes in expression of apoptosis-related genes. Among different fractions, dichloromethane and n-hexane dose-dependent showed the strongest inhibitory effects on both K562 and Jurkat cells. The dichloromethane fraction significantly induced apoptosis at concentration of 50 µg/ml on Jurkat (85.66 ± 4.9%) and K562 cells (65.04 ± 0.93%) at 24 h after treatment (p < 0.002). According to cell cycle analysis, more than 70% of the cells accumulated in the sub-G1 phase when cultured in the presence of the dichloromethane fraction. This fraction up-regulated Fas and Bax mRNA expression as well as the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio according to cell type, showing its effect on the activation of both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of apoptosis. The expression of apoptosis-related genes did not significantly change following treatment with the n-hexane fraction. These data indicated that the dichloromethane fraction of M. officinalis had the ability to induce apoptosis and change apoptosis-related gene expression in leukemia cells. PMID:23432355

  17. Sexual dimorphism of staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers of Saponaria officinalis (bouncing bet) affects pollinator behavior and seed set.

    PubMed

    Davis, Sandra L; Dudle, Dana A; Nawrocki, Jenna R; Freestone, Leah M; Konieczny, Peter; Tobin, Michael B; Britton, Michael M

    2014-01-01

    The sequential separation of male and female function in flowers of dichogamous species allows for the evolution of differing morphologies that maximize fitness through seed siring and seed set. We examined staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers of protandrous Saponaria officinalis for dimorphism in floral traits and their effects on pollinator attraction and seed set. Pistillate-phase flowers have larger petals, greater mass, and are pinker in color, but due to a shape change, pistillate-phase flowers have smaller corolla diameters than staminate-phase flowers. There was no difference in nectar volume or sugar content one day after anthesis, and minimal evidence for UV nectar guide patterns in staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers. When presented with choice arrays, pollinators discriminated against pistillate-phase flowers based on their pink color. Finally, in an experimental garden, in 2012 there was a negative correlation between seed set of an open-pollinated, emasculated flower and pinkness (as measured by reflectance spectrometry) of a pistillate-phase flower on the same plant in plots covered with shade cloth. In 2013, clones of genotypes chosen from the 2012 plants that produced pinker flowers had lower seed set than those from genotypes with paler flowers. Lower seed set of pink genotypes was found in open-pollinated and hand-pollinated flowers, indicating the lower seed set might be due to other differences between pink and pale genotypes in addition to pollinator discrimination against pink flowers. In conclusion, staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers of S. officinalis are dimorphic in shape and color. Pollinators discriminate among flowers based on these differences, and individuals whose pistillate-phase flowers are most different in color from their staminate-phase flowers make fewer seeds. We suggest morphological studies of the two sex phases in dichogamous, hermaphroditic species can contribute to understanding the evolution of sexual dimorphism in plants without the confounding effects of genetic differences between separate male and female individuals. PMID:24690875

  18. Evaluation of benzaldehyde derivatives from Morinda officinalis as anti-mite agents with dual function as acaricide and mite indicator

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Min-Gi; Park, Jun-Hwan; Hong, Seong-Tshool; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2014-01-01

    Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease caused by SFTS virus with 12–30% fatality rate. Despite severity of the disease, any medication or treatment for SFTS has not developed yet. One approach to prevent SFTS spreading is to control the arthropod vector carrying SFTS virus. We report that 2–methylbenzaldehyde analogues from M. officinalis have a dual function as acaricide against Dermatophagoides spp. and Haemaphysalis longicornis and indicator (color change) against Dermatophagoides spp. Based on the LD50 values, 2,4,5–trimethylbenzaldehyde (0.21, 0.19, and 0.68 μg/cm3) had the highest fumigant activity against D. farinae, D. pteronyssinus, and H. longicornis, followed by 2,3–dimethylbenzaldehyde (0.46, 0.44, and 0.79 μg/cm3), 2,4–dimethylbenzaldehyde (0.66, 0.59, and 0.95 μg/cm3), 2,5–dimethylbenzaldehyde (0.65, 0.68, and 0.88 μg/cm3), 2–methylbenzaldehyde (0.95, 0.87, and 1.28 μg/cm3), 3–methylbenzaldehyde (0.99, 0.93, and 1.38 μg/cm3), 4–methylbenzaldehyde (1.17, 1.15, and 3.67 μg/cm3), and M. officinalis oil (7.05, 7.00, and 19.70 μg/cm3). Furthermore, color alteration of Dermatophagoides spp. was shown to be induced, from colorless to dark brown, by the treatment of 2,3–dihydroxybenzaldehyde. These finding indicated that 2–methylbenzaldehyde analogues could be developed as functional agent associated with the arthropod vector of SFTS virus and allergen. PMID:25434408

  19. Sexual Dimorphism of Staminate- and Pistillate-Phase Flowers of Saponaria officinalis (Bouncing Bet) Affects Pollinator Behavior and Seed Set

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Sandra L.; Dudle, Dana A.; Nawrocki, Jenna R.; Freestone, Leah M.; Konieczny, Peter; Tobin, Michael B.; Britton, Michael M.

    2014-01-01

    The sequential separation of male and female function in flowers of dichogamous species allows for the evolution of differing morphologies that maximize fitness through seed siring and seed set. We examined staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers of protandrous Saponaria officinalis for dimorphism in floral traits and their effects on pollinator attraction and seed set. Pistillate-phase flowers have larger petals, greater mass, and are pinker in color, but due to a shape change, pistillate-phase flowers have smaller corolla diameters than staminate-phase flowers. There was no difference in nectar volume or sugar content one day after anthesis, and minimal evidence for UV nectar guide patterns in staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers. When presented with choice arrays, pollinators discriminated against pistillate-phase flowers based on their pink color. Finally, in an experimental garden, in 2012 there was a negative correlation between seed set of an open-pollinated, emasculated flower and pinkness (as measured by reflectance spectrometry) of a pistillate-phase flower on the same plant in plots covered with shade cloth. In 2013, clones of genotypes chosen from the 2012 plants that produced pinker flowers had lower seed set than those from genotypes with paler flowers. Lower seed set of pink genotypes was found in open-pollinated and hand-pollinated flowers, indicating the lower seed set might be due to other differences between pink and pale genotypes in addition to pollinator discrimination against pink flowers. In conclusion, staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers of S. officinalis are dimorphic in shape and color. Pollinators discriminate among flowers based on these differences, and individuals whose pistillate-phase flowers are most different in color from their staminate-phase flowers make fewer seeds. We suggest morphological studies of the two sex phases in dichogamous, hermaphroditic species can contribute to understanding the evolution of sexual dimorphism in plants without the confounding effects of genetic differences between separate male and female individuals. PMID:24690875

  20. Screening botanical extracts for quinoid metabolites.

    PubMed

    Johnson, B M; Bolton, J L; van Breemen, R B

    2001-11-01

    Botanical dietary supplements represent a significant share of the growing market for alternative medicine in the USA, where current regulations do not require assessment of their safety. To help ensure the safety of such products, an in vitro assay using pulsed ultrafiltration and LC-MS-MS has been developed to screen botanical extracts for the formation of electrophilic and potentially toxic quinoid species upon bioactivation by hepatic cytochromes P450. Rat liver microsomes were trapped in a flow-through chamber by an ultrafiltration membrane, and samples containing botanical extracts, GSH and NADP(H), were flow-injected into the chamber. Botanical compounds that were metabolized to reactive intermediates formed stable GSH adducts mimicking a common in vivo detoxification pathway. If present in the ultrafiltrate, GSH conjugates were detected using LC-MS-MS with precursor ion scanning followed by additional characterization using product ion scanning and comparison to standard compounds. As expected, no GSH adducts of reactive metabolites were found in extracts of Trifolium pratense L. (red clover), which are under investigation as botanical dietary supplements for the management of menopause. However, extracts of Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees (sassafras), Symphytum officinale L. (comfrey), and Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary), all of which are known to contain compounds that are either carcinogenic or toxic to mammals, produced GSH adducts during this screening assay. Several compounds that formed GSH conjugates including novel metabolites of rosmarinic acid were identified using database searching and additional LC-MS-MS studies. This assay should be useful as a preliminary toxicity screen during the development of botanical dietary supplements. A positive test suggests that additional toxicological studies are warranted before human consumption of a botanical product. PMID:11712913

  1. Solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from aromatic herbs: from laboratory to pilot and industrial scale.

    PubMed

    Filly, Aurore; Fernandez, Xavier; Minuti, Matteo; Visinoni, Francesco; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Chemat, Farid

    2014-05-01

    Solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) has been proposed as a green method for the extraction of essential oil from aromatic herbs that are extensively used in the food industry. This technique is a combination of microwave heating and dry distillation performed at atmospheric pressure without any added solvent or water. The isolation and concentration of volatile compounds is performed in a single stage. In this work, SFME and a conventional technique, hydro-distillation HD (Clevenger apparatus), are used for the extraction of essential oil from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and are compared. This preliminary laboratory study shows that essential oils extracted by SFME in 30min were quantitatively (yield and kinetics profile) and qualitatively (aromatic profile) similar to those obtained using conventional hydro-distillation in 2h. Experiments performed in a 75L pilot microwave reactor prove the feasibility of SFME up scaling and potential industrial applications. PMID:24360439

  2. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of rosemary extracts linked to their polyphenol composition.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Silvia; Scheyer, Tamara; Romano, Catalina S; Vojnov, Adrián A

    2006-02-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis extracts were investigated by a combination of bioassays and biochemical analysis to identify bioactive compounds. The 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydracyl hydrate (DPPH) radical scavenging method, Folin-Ciocaulteau method and HPLC chromatography were used to study the distribution and levels of antioxidants (AOXs). Antimicrobial activity analysis was carried out using the disk diffusion and broth dilution techniques. A good correlation between the AOX activities and total phenol content in the extracts was found. Although all rosemary extracts showed a high radical scavenging activity, a different efficacy as antimicrobial agent was observed. Methanol extract containing 30% of carnosic acid, 16% of carnosol and 5% of rosmarinic acid was the most effective antimicrobial against Gram positive bacteria (minimal inhibition concentration, MIC, between 2 and 15 mug/ml), Gram negative bacteria (MIC between 2 and 60 mug/ml) and yeast (MIC of 4 mug/ml). By contrast, water extract containing only 15% of rosmarinic acid showed a narrow activity. MIC value of the methanol and water extracts is in a good correlation with the values obtained with pure carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid, respectively. Therefore, our results suggested that the antimicrobial rosemary extracts efficacy was associated with their specific phenolic composition. Carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid may be the main bioactive antimicrobial compounds present in rosemary extracts. From a practical point of view, rosemary extract may be a good candidate for functional foods as well as for pharmaceutical plant-based products. PMID:16390832

  3. Expression Analysis of Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase Gene and Rosmarinic Acid Production in Salvia officinalis and Salvia virgata Shoots Under Salicylic Acid Elicitation.

    PubMed

    Ejtahed, Roghayeh Sadat; Radjabian, Tayebeh; Hoseini Tafreshi, Sayed Ali

    2015-08-01

    Partial fragments of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) genes were cloned and characterized from Salvia officinalis (SoPAL) and Salvia virgata (SvPAL). Different concentrations (250 and 500 μM) of exogenous salicylic acid (SA) were used when correlation between PAL expression and rosmarinic acid (RA) accumulation was compared. The results showed that the deduced cDNA sequences of the partial genes had high similarities with those of known PAL gene from other plant species. Semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analysis revealed that exogenous application of SA led to up-regulating of the PAL expression. Further analysis showed that in S. virgata, at higher concentration of SA, higher accumulation of RA was achieved, while in S. officinalis, the higher RA accumulation was observed at lower concentration of SA. It was concluded that there was no positive correlation between the intensity of PAL transcription and the RA accumulation in the studied species. Therefore, despite of the increase in transcription rate of the PAL at the higher concentration of SA, the lower amounts of RA were accumulated in the case of S. officinalis. Consequently, the hypothesis that PAL is the rate-determining step in RA biosynthesis is not always valid and probably some other unknown factors participate in the synthesis of phenolics. PMID:26041056

  4. Validation of Armadillo officinalis Dumèril, 1816 (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) as a bioindicator: in vivo study of air benzene exposure.

    PubMed

    Agodi, A; Oliveri Conti, G; Barchitta, M; Quattrocchi, A; Lombardo, B M; Montesanto, G; Messina, G; Fiore, M; Ferrante, M

    2015-04-01

    This study tests the potential for using Armadillo officinalis as a bioindicator of exposure to and activation of benzene metabolic pathways using an in vivo model. A. officinalis specimens collected in a natural reserve were divided into a control and three test groups exposed to 2.00, 5.32 or 9.09 µg/m(3) benzene for 24h. Three independent tests were performed to assess model reproducibility. Animals were dissected to obtain three pooled tissue samples per group: hepatopancreas (HEP), other organs and tissues (OOT), and exoskeleton (EXO). Muconic acid (MA), S-phenylmercapturic acid (S-PMA), two human metabolites of benzene, and changes in mtDNA copy number, a human biomarker of benzene exposure, were determined in each sample; benzene was determined only in EXO. MA was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet (UV) detection, S-PMA by triple quadrupole mass spectrometer liquid chromatography with electro spray ionization (LC-MS-ESI-TQD), mtDNA by real-time quantitative PCR and end-point PCR, and benzene by quadrupole mass spectrometer head-space gas chromatography (HSGC-MS). MA and S-PMA levels rose both in HEP and OOT; EXO exhibited increasing benzene concentrations; and mtDNA copy number rose in HEP but not in OOT samples. Overall, our findings demonstrate that A. officinalis is a sensitive bioindicator of air benzene exposure and show for the first time its ability to reproduce human metabolic dynamics. PMID:25638523

  5. Fluid extraction

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M.; Laintz, Kenneth E.

    1999-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated .beta.-diketone. In especially preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide, and the chelating agent comprises a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate, or a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkylphosphine oxide. Although a trialkyl phosphate can extract lanthanides and actinides from acidic solutions, a binary mixture comprising a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate or a trialkylphosphine oxide tends to enhance the extraction efficiencies for actinides and lanthanides. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides and lanthanides from acidic solutions. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  6. Sage (Salvia officinalis) and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) improve cryopreserved boar epididymal semen quality study.

    PubMed

    Monton, A; Gil, L; Malo, C; Olaciregui, M; Gonzalez, N; de Blas, I

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fennel and sage extracts and the influence of the egg yolk source (fresh or pasteurized) on the success of freezing boar epididymal spermatozoa. In experiment 1, epididymal sperm was recovered by flushing and cryopreserved in a lactose-egg yolk solution supplemented with various concentrations (10, 5 and 2.5 g/L) of sage or fennel. Sperm quality was evaluated (motility, viability, HOST and acrosome integrity) at 0 h and 2 h after thawing. Fennel 10 g/L and sage 5 g/L and control (no extracts) were selected for experiment 2 which also compared fresh or pasteurized egg yolk in the freezing extender and measured DNA integrity of the frozen sperm. Results showed that the interaction between fennel and sage antioxidants with fresh egg yolk significantly improved post thaw sperm quality and protected boar epididymal spermatozoa from cryopreservation damage as a result of oxidative stress. PMID:26017296

  7. Spatial and temporal variations of soil moisture under Rosmarinus officinalis and Quercus coccifera in a burned soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimeno-García, E.; Pascual-Aguilar, J. A.; Llovet, J.

    2009-04-01

    When studying surface runoff processes, measurement of the soil moisture content (SMC) at the surface could be used to identify sinks and sources areas of runoff. Surface soil moisture patterns variability have been studied in a burned Mediterranean semi-arid area. Since surface SMC and soil water repellency (SWR) are influenced by fire and vegetation (see previous abstract), and soil water dynamics and vegetation dynamics are functionally related, it could be expected to find some changes during the following months after fire when vegetation starts to recover. The identification of these changes is the main goal of this research. The study area is located at the municipality of Les Useres, 40 km from Castellón city (E Spain), where a wildfire occured in August 2007. We selected a burned SSE facing hillslope, located at 570 m a.s.l., with 12° slope angle, in which it was possible to identify the presence of two unique shrub species: Quercus coccifera L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L., which were distributed in a patchy mosaic. Twenty microsites with burned R. officinalis and eight microsites with burned Q. coccifera were selected in an area of 7 m wide by 14 m long. At the burned microsites, it was possible to distinguish three concentric zones (I, II and III) around the stumps showing differences on their soil surface appearance, which indicate a gradient of fire severity. Those differences were considered for field soil moisture measurements. Five measurements of SMC separated approximately 10 cm per zone at each microsite (n= 420) were carried out after different rainfall events. Volumetric soil moisture was measured by means of the moisture meter HH2 with ThetaProbe sensor type ML2x, 6 cm long. SMC was monitored on three occasions, always one day after the following rainfall events: (1) the first rainfall event after fire, when 11 mm were registered (Oct-07); (2) four months later than fire (Dec-07), after six consecutive raining days with a total rain volume of 172 mm; and (3) ten months after fire (Jun-08), when 50 mm were registered in the previous ten days. The spatial pattern of SMC was determined trough geostatistical analysis using GS+ software, calculating the semivariograms, to analyse the spatial correlation scale, interpolating data to estimate values of SMC at unsampled locations by means of kriging and finally, the results of kriging were displayed as different contour maps. Results showed that spatial pattern of SMC was highly variable, with important differences recorded within short distances. In fact, the range of spatial correlation (a0), which is the distance at that spatial correlation exists, varied between 0.5 to 1.4 m. A0 also varied according to the time from fire, with values of 0.5 m in the first rainfall after fire, 0.9 m four months later and 1.4 m ten months after fire occurs. This result suggests that the extent of the wettest areas increase as the vegetation recover. After the first rainfall, the SMC spatial pattern seems to be related to the soil microsite characteristics, mainly organic matter content, presence of hydrophobicity and soil clay content. Generally, the highest SMC (26-31%) appears at the burned bare soil areas. Four months later, as the same time as Q. coccifera resprouts, and in the R. officinalis microsites an important regrowth of Brachypodium resutum is observed, the spatial pattern of SMC changed according this plant cover distribution. This pattern is more clearly observed ten months after fire, when the highest SMC values were located at Q. coccifera and B. resutum areas (28-33%). At this time, no evidence of germination of R. officinalis (obligate seeder specie) was found. The lowest SMC (19-22%) appeared at the half lower part of the plot, where there was a central strip dominated by bare soil, with scarce presence of resprouter species. These results showed that at detailed working scale, the soil moisture pattern in this burned area was highly heterogeneous and the microsite characteristics (mainly soil properties and vegetation regrowth) seem to control the SMC spatial pattern. The interaction of soil-plant-water is more complex that the few environmental factors analysed here, and future research is needed to consider other site factors, such as microtopography, surface stoniness and outcrops, root density, between others. However, the obtained results reflect the capacity of vegetated patches to act as moisture holding areas ten months after fire occurs.

  8. Antifungal activity and inhibition of fumonisin production by Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil in Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg.

    PubMed

    da Silva Bomfim, Natalia; Nakassugi, Lydiana Polis; Faggion Pinheiro Oliveira, Jessica; Kohiyama, Cassia Yumie; Mossini, Simone Aparecida Galerani; Grespan, Renata; Nerilo, Samuel Botião; Mallmann, Carlos Augusto; Alves Abreu Filho, Benicio; Machinski, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil (REO) was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The main compounds of the REO were 1.8 cineole (52.2%), camphor (15.2%) and α-pinene (12.4%). The mycelial growth of Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg was reduced significantly by 150 μg/mL of REO. Significant microscopic morphological changes were visualised, such as the rupture of the cell wall and the leakage of cytoplasm at 300 μg/mL of REO. At lower concentrations of REO, the effects on the production of ergosterol and the biomass of mycelium varied, as did the effects on the production of fumonisins, but at ≥300 μg/mL of REO, these processes were significantly inhibited, showing the effectiveness of the REO as an antifungal agent. The results suggested that the REO acts against F. verticillioides by disrupting the cell wall and causing the loss of cellular components, subsequently inhibiting the production of fumonisins and ergosterol. PMID:25053064

  9. Effect of water supply on growth and polyphenols of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Németh-Zámbori, Éva; Pluhár, Zsuzsanna; Szabó, Krisztina; Malekzadeh, Mahmoud; Radácsi, Péter; Inotai, Katalin; Komáromi, Bonifác; Seidler-Lozykowska, Katarzyna

    2016-03-01

    A pot experiment was carried out with lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.). Different water supply was applied: 25%, 40% and 70% saturation of soil water capacity (SWC). Morphological traits, biomass and phenolic type active ingredients were investigated. Among the two species, main differences were registered in biomass and TPC. Lower SWC resulted in reduced biomass production of lemon balm, while the applied stress treatments did not effect the biomass of thyme. In lemon balm, highest TPC contents were measured in control plants both in shoots and roots but in thyme, the shoots showed a significantly increased TPC at the 25% SWC conditions. Neither the content of total flavonoids nor that of the rosmarinic acid was affected by the treatments. The antioxidant capacity proved to be in tight connection with the TPC in both species (r = 0.766-0.883). The rosmarinic acid content of lemon balm plants contributed to the antioxidant capacity, as well (r = 0.679-0.869). PMID:26960357

  10. Induction and characterization of a cytochrome P-450-dependent camphor hydroxylase in tissue cultures of common sage (Salvia officinalis)

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, C.; Croteau, R. )

    1993-04-01

    (+)-Camphor, a major monoterpene of the essential oil of common sage (Salvia officinalis), is catabolized in senescent tissue, and the pathway for the breakdown of this bicyclic ketone has been previously elucidated in sage cell-suspension cultures. In the initial step of catabolism, camphor is oxidized to 6-exo-hydroxycamphor, and the corresponding NADPH- and O[sub 2]-dependent hydroxylase activity was demonstrated in microsomal preparations of sage cells. Several well-established inhibitors of cytochrome P-450-dependent reactions, including cytochrome c, clotrimazole, and CO, inhibited the hydroxylation of camphor, and CO-dependent inhibition was partially reversed by blue light. Upon treatment of sage suspension cultures with 30 mM MnCl[sub 2], camphor-6-hydroxylase activity was induced up to 7-fold. A polypeptide with estimated molecular mass of 58 kD from sage microsomal membranes exhibited antigenic cross-reactivity in western blot experiments with two heterologous polyclonal antibodies raised against cytochrome P-450 camphor-5-exo-hydroxylase from Pseudomonas putida and cytochrome P-450 limonene-6S-hydroxylase from spearmint (Mentha spicata). Dot blotting indicated that the concentration of this polypeptide increased with camphor hydroxylase activity in microsomes of Mn[sup 2+]-induced sage cells. These results suggest that camphor-6-exo-hydroxylase from sage is a microsomal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase that may share common properties and epitopes with bacterial and other plant monoterpene hydroxylases. 44 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Systematic comparison of nutraceuticals and antioxidant potential of cultivated, in vitro cultured and commercial Melissa officinalis samples.

    PubMed

    Dias, Maria Inês; Barros, Lillian; Sousa, Maria João; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2012-06-01

    Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) infusions are used worldwide for digestive, analgesic and other pharmaceutical applications. Herein, the nutraceuticals production and antioxidant potential in garden cultivated, in vitro cultured and two commercial samples (bags and granulated) of lemon balm was compared. The profile of in vitro cultured lemon balm is closer of garden cultivated sample than of both commercial samples (bag or granulate). It presented the highest levels of proteins and ash, and the lowest energetic value. The most favorable n6/n3 ration, as also the highest PUFA (mostly α-linolenic acid), tocopherols (including α-, γ- and δ-isoforms) and ascorbic acid contents were also observed in this sample. Nevertheless, it was the commercial bag lemon balm that gave the highest antioxidant activity and the highest levels of phenolics and flavonoids. As far as we kwon, this is the first comparison of nutraceuticals and antioxidant potential of cultivated, in vitro cultured and commercial lemon balm samples. Moreover, it proved that in vitro culture might be used to stimulate vitamins production. PMID:22445737

  12. Characterization of Homeobox Genes Reveals Sophisticated Regionalization of the Central Nervous System in the European Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Focareta, Laura; Sesso, Salvatore; Cole, Alison G.

    2014-01-01

    Cephalopod mollusks possess a number of anatomical traits that often parallel vertebrates in morphological complexity, including a centralized nervous system with sophisticated cognitive functionality. Very little is known about the genetic mechanisms underlying patterning of the cephalopod embryo to arrive at this anatomical structure. Homeodomain (HD) genes are transcription factors that regulate transcription of downstream genes through DNA binding, and as such are integral parts of gene regulatory networks controlling the specification and patterning of body parts across lineages. We have used a degenerate primer strategy to isolate homeobox genes active during late-organogenesis from the European cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. With this approach we have isolated fourteen HD gene fragments and examine the expression profiles of five of these genes during late stage (E24-28) embryonic development (Sof-Gbx, Sof-Hox3, Sof-Arx, Sof-Lhx3/4, Sof-Vsx). All five genes are expressed within the developing central nervous system in spatially restricted and largely non-overlapping domains. Our data provide a first glimpse into the diversity of HD genes in one of the largest, yet least studied, metazoan clades and illustrate how HD gene expression patterns reflect the functional partitioning of the cephalopod brain. PMID:25286399

  13. Assessment of the effect of the climate variations of coastal surface water and study of Sepia officinalis spawing.

    PubMed

    Giansante, Carla; Conte, Annamaria; Giovannini, Armando; Castriota, Luca; Andaloro, Franco; Ferri, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish whether climate change affected migratory behaviour of Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus, 1758), which is an important resource for small-scale fishermen of Abruzzo region (Italy). Starting at the beginning of March until the end of April, the cuttlefish in this area migrates from deep cold water towards warmer coastal waters, where they spawn. Small-scale fishing of cuttlefish is permitted in costal waters from March to September. During the study period, between March and September 2008, both cuttlefish traps and trammel nets were used in 5 sampling areas along the Abruzzo coast to test their relative efficiency in catching cuttlefish. Trapped specimens were counted, weighed and measured, their gender and sexual maturity were also determined. The data obtained from the sampling were correlated to surface water temperature to assess possible changes in migration behaviours. The obtained data show that during the first months of migration (March and April), a greater percentage of large males was caught, while females and smaller males predominated later in the year. The study also showed that surface water temperature did not reveal any significant shifts from the trend over the last 10 years. As for the efficiency of the fishing methods, traps were found to be more effective than trammel nets. PMID:25110776

  14. Characterization of homeobox genes reveals sophisticated regionalization of the central nervous system in the European cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Focareta, Laura; Sesso, Salvatore; Cole, Alison G

    2014-01-01

    Cephalopod mollusks possess a number of anatomical traits that often parallel vertebrates in morphological complexity, including a centralized nervous system with sophisticated cognitive functionality. Very little is known about the genetic mechanisms underlying patterning of the cephalopod embryo to arrive at this anatomical structure. Homeodomain (HD) genes are transcription factors that regulate transcription of downstream genes through DNA binding, and as such are integral parts of gene regulatory networks controlling the specification and patterning of body parts across lineages. We have used a degenerate primer strategy to isolate homeobox genes active during late-organogenesis from the European cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. With this approach we have isolated fourteen HD gene fragments and examine the expression profiles of five of these genes during late stage (E24-28) embryonic development (Sof-Gbx, Sof-Hox3, Sof-Arx, Sof-Lhx3/4, Sof-Vsx). All five genes are expressed within the developing central nervous system in spatially restricted and largely non-overlapping domains. Our data provide a first glimpse into the diversity of HD genes in one of the largest, yet least studied, metazoan clades and illustrate how HD gene expression patterns reflect the functional partitioning of the cephalopod brain. PMID:25286399

  15. Relations between total mercury, methylmercury and selenium in five tissues of Sepia officinalis captured in the south Portuguese coast.

    PubMed

    Raimundo, Joana; Pereira, Patrícia; Vale, Carlos; Canário, João; Gaspar, Miguel

    2014-08-01

    Mercury, methylmercury and selenium were determined in digestive gland, branchial hearts, mantle, kidney and gills of Sepia officinalis from two areas of the south Portuguese coast. To the best of our knowledge these are the first data on Hg, MeHg and Se in branchial hearts, kidney and gills of cuttlefish. Digestive gland, branchial hearts and kidney presented higher levels of Hg and Se than mantle and gills. Methylmercury was significantly higher in digestive gland, branchial hearts and mantle. The enhanced levels of Hg in digestive gland and branchial heart reinforce the elevated storage capacity of these two tissues. The percentage of MeHg varied from 6.1% in gills to 92% in mantle. Linear and positive MeHg-Hg relations were obtained for the five tissues, being the better relation and higher slope observed for mantle, followed by branchial hearts, digestive gland, kidney and gills. The Se:Hg molar ratios showed a surplus of Se in all tissues. Calculations based on the equimolarity of Se:Hg point that 95-99% of Se are not linked to Hg (Se free). The negligible quantity of Se associated with Hg suggests that the mechanism of MeHg demethylation was not triggered in none of the tissues, presumably because the threshold for MeHg toxicity was not achieved. PMID:24582035

  16. Induction and Characterization of a Cytochrome P-450-Dependent Camphor Hydroxylase in Tissue Cultures of Common Sage (Salvia officinalis).

    PubMed Central

    Funk, C.; Croteau, R.

    1993-01-01

    (+)-Camphor, a major monoterpene of the essential oil of common sage (Salvia officinalis), is catabolized in senescent tissue, and the pathway for the breakdown of this bicyclic ketone has been previously elucidated in sage cell-suspension cultures. In the initial step of catabolism, camphor is oxidized to 6-exo-hydroxycamphor, and the corresponding NADPH- and O2-dependent hydroxylase activity was demonstrated in microsomal preparations of sage cells. Several well-established inhibitors of cytochrome P-450-dependent reactions, including cytochrome c, clotrimazole, and CO, inhibited the hydroxylation of camphor, and CO-dependent inhibition was partially reversed by blue light. Upon treatment of sage suspension cultures with 30 mM MnCl2, camphor-6-hydroxylase activity was induced up to 7-fold. A polypeptide with estimated molecular mass of 58 kD from sage microsomal membranes exhibited antigenic cross-reactivity in western blot experiments with two heterologous polyclonal antibodies raised against cytochrome P-450 camphor-5-exo-hydroxylase from Pseudomonas putida and cytochrome P-450 limonene-6S-hydroxylase from spearmint (Mentha spicata). Dot blotting indicated that the concentration of this polypeptide increased with camphor hydroxylase activity in microsomes of Mn2+-induced sage cells. These results suggest that camphor-6-exo-hydroxylase from sage is a microsomal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase that may share common properties and epitopes with bacterial and other plant monoterpene hydroxylases. PMID:12231778

  17. Neuropeptidome of the Cephalopod Sepia officinalis: Identification, Tissue Mapping, and Expression Pattern of Neuropeptides and Neurohormones during Egg Laying.

    PubMed

    Zatylny-Gaudin, Céline; Cornet, Valérie; Leduc, Alexandre; Zanuttini, Bruno; Corre, Erwan; Le Corguillé, Gildas; Bernay, Benoît; Garderes, Johan; Kraut, Alexandra; Couté, Yohan; Henry, Joël

    2016-01-01

    Cephalopods exhibit a wide variety of behaviors such as prey capture, communication, camouflage, and reproduction thanks to a complex central nervous system (CNS) divided into several functional lobes that express a wide range of neuropeptides involved in the modulation of behaviors and physiological mechanisms associated with the main stages of their life cycle. This work focuses on the neuropeptidome expressed during egg-laying through de novo construction of the CNS transcriptome using an RNAseq approach (Illumina sequencing). Then, we completed the in silico analysis of the transcriptome by characterizing and tissue-mapping neuropeptides by mass spectrometry. To identify neuropeptides involved in the egg-laying process, we determined (1) the neuropeptide contents of the neurohemal area, hemolymph (blood), and nerve endings in mature females and (2) the expression levels of these peptides. Among the 38 neuropeptide families identified from 55 transcripts, 30 were described for the first time in Sepia officinalis, 5 were described for the first time in the animal kingdom, and 14 were strongly overexpressed in egg-laying females as compared with mature males. Mass spectrometry screening of hemolymph and nerve ending contents allowed us to clarify the status of many neuropeptides, that is, to determine whether they were neuromodulators or neurohormones. PMID:26632866

  18. Analysis of novel angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory peptides from enzymatic hydrolysates of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) muscle proteins.

    PubMed

    Balti, Rafik; Nedjar-Arroume, Naima; Adjé, Estelle Yaba; Guillochon, Didier; Nasri, Moncef

    2010-03-24

    The angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activities of protein hydrolysates prepared from cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) proteins by treatment with various bacterial proteases were investigated. The hydrolysate generated by the crude enzyme from Bacillus mojavensis A21 displayed the highest ACE inhibitory activity, and the higher inhibition activity (87.11 +/- 0.92% at 2 mg/mL) was obtained with hydrolysis degree of 16%. This hydrolysate was fractionated by size exclusion chromatography on a Sephadex G-25 into eight major fractions (P(1)-P(8)). Fraction P(6), which exhibited the highest ACE inhibitory activity, was then fractionated by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Eleven ACE inhibitory peptides were isolated, and their molecular masses and amino acids sequences were determined using ESI-MS and ESI-MS/MS, respectively. The structures of the most potent peptides were identified as Ala-His-Ser-Tyr, Gly-Asp-Ala-Pro, Ala-Gly-Ser-Pro and Asp-Phe-Gly. The first peptide displayed the highest ACE inhibitory activity with an IC(50) of 11.6 microM. The results of this study suggest that cuttlefish protein hydrolysates are a good source of ACE inhibitory peptides. PMID:20180574

  19. Effects of Rosemary extracts on oxidative stability of chikkis fortified with microalgae biomass.

    PubMed

    Babuskin, Srinivasan; Radhakrishnan, Kesavan; Azhagu Saravana Babu, Packirisamy; Sukumar, Muthusamy; Fayidh, Mohammed Abbas; Sabina, Kalleary; Archana, Ganesan; Sivarajan, Meenakshisundaram

    2015-06-01

    The present study evaluates the oxidative stability in chikkis enriched with omega 3 fatty acids using natural antioxidant from Rosmarinus officinalis. The best condition for the extraction of phenolic compounds from Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) was established, and the antioxidant activity was demonstrated based on inhibition of DPPH free radical formation. Nannochloropsis oculata and Isochrysis galbana are rich sources of Eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Biomass of these microalgae were incorporated in chikkis as omega 3 fatty acid source. Effects of addition of natural and synthetic antioxidants (BHA) on oxidative stability of chikkis were analyzed for storage period of 2 months. Evaluation of peroxide value (PV) and fatty acid profile showed that the process of oxidation slowed down. Natural antioxidant was found to be more effective when compared to synthetic antioxidant (BHA). Omega-3 PUFA levels (EPA+DHA) of 75 and 240 mg/100 g chikkis were observed if enriched with 1 and 3 % Nannochloropsis oculata biomass respectively. Similarly, Omega-3 PUFA levels (EPA+DHA) of 102 and 320 mg/100 g chikkis were observed if enriched with 1 and 3 % Isochrysis galbana biomass respectively. The effects of microalgae and antioxidant incorporation on the chikkis showed that color values remained stable during storage period of 2 months with no significant change (P < 0.05) in texture. Sensory evaluation revealed that up to 3 % microalgal biomass incorporation was positively classified and accepted. PMID:26028763

  20. Green processes for the extraction of bioactives from Rosemary: Chemical and functional characterization via ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and in-vitro assays.

    PubMed

    Herrero, M; Plaza, M; Cifuentes, A; Ibáñez, E

    2010-04-16

    In this contribution, the performance of three different extraction procedures towards the extraction of antioxidants from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) is presented. Namely, pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), using water and ethanol as solvents, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), using neat CO(2) and supercritical CO(2) modified with ethanol, as well as a novel extraction process called Water Extraction and Particle formation On-line (WEPO) are directly compared. Different extraction conditions including temperatures, times and pressures have been studied. The produced extracts have been characterized in terms of extraction yield, antioxidant activity (using the DPPH radical scavenging method) and total phenols (using the Folin method). Besides, all the extracts have been chemically characterized using a new quantitative UPLC-MS/MS method. This method allowed the determination of the main antioxidants present in rosemary, including, among others, rosmarinic acid, carnosic acid and carnosol, attaining detection limits as low as 2ng/mL. The results obtained in this study show that PLE using ethanol at high temperatures (200 degrees C) was able to produce extracts with high antioxidant activity (EC(50) 8.8microg/mL) and high yield (ca. 40%) while efficiently extracting antioxidants of diverse polarity, among them, carnosic and rosmarinic acids, regarded as the most important antioxidants present in rosemary. Nevertheless, in this work, the ability of the three studied environmentally friendly extraction techniques to obtain bioactives from natural sources is demonstrated. PMID:19945706

  1. Using sheath-liquid reagents for capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry: application to the analysis of phenolic plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Maringer, Leila; Ibáñez, Elena; Buchberger, Wolfgang; Klampfl, Christian W; Causon, Tim J

    2015-01-01

    The combination of CE and MS is now a widely used tool that can provide a combination of high resolution separations with detailed structural information. Recently, we highlighted the benefits of an approach to add further functionality to this well-established hyphenated technique, namely the possibility to perform chemical reactions within the sheath-liquid of the CE-MS interface . Apart from using hydrogen/deuterium exchange for online determination of numbers of exchangeable protons, the addition of DPPH• (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) to the sheath-liquid can be used as a fast screening tool for studying antioxidant characteristics of individual components. Such a CE-MS methodology allows rapid and information-rich analysis with minimal reagent and sample consumption to be performed. In the present work, we demonstrate the applicability of this approach for the characterization of phenolic plant extracts from the Labiatae family, namely Rosmarinus officinalis and Melissa officinalis. Using the described approach, a wide range of compounds (15 and 13 phenolic compounds, respectively) could be confidently identified using a combination of high resolution CE-MS separations with implementation of online deuterium exchange and DPPH• reactions. These compounds included polyphenols, phenolic acids, and triterpene acids. In conjunction with online MS/MS experiments, extensive structural information for aglyconic and glycosylated antioxidants present in the extracts could be obtained using simple experimental changes, which can be carried out prior to the purchasing of expensive chemical standards or the time-consuming preparative isolation of individual compounds. PMID:25308871

  2. Extractant composition

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Barbara F.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Ryan, Robert R.

    1990-01-01

    An organic extracting solution useful for separating elements of the actinide series of the periodic table from elements of the lanthanide series, where both are in trivalent form. The extracting solution consists of a primary ligand and a secondary ligand, preferably in an organic solvent. The primary ligand is a substituted monothio-1,3-dicarbonyl, which includes a substituted 4-acyl-2-pyrazolin-5-thione, such as 4-benzoyl-2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-thione (BMPPT). The secondary ligand is a substituted phosphine oxide, such as trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO).

  3. Diterpenes from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis): Defining their potential for anti-cancer activity.

    PubMed

    Petiwala, Sakina M; Johnson, Jeremy J

    2015-10-28

    Recently, rosemary extracts standardized to diterpenes (e.g. carnosic acid and carnosol) have been approved by the European Union (EU) and given a GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) status in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Incorporation of rosemary into our food system and through dietary selection (e.g. Mediterranean Diet) has increased the likelihood of exposure to diterpenes in rosemary. In consideration of this, a more thorough understanding of rosemary diterpenes is needed to understand its potential for a positive impact on human health. Three agents in particular have received the most attention that includes carnosic acid, carnosol, and rosmanol with promising results of anti-cancer activity. These studies have provided evidence of diterpenes to modulate deregulated signaling pathways in different solid and blood cancers. Rosemary extracts and the phytochemicals therein appear to be well tolerated in different animal models as evidenced by the extensive studies performed for approval by the EU and the FDA as an antioxidant food preservative. This mini-review reports on the pre-clinical studies performed with carnosic acid, carnosol, and rosmanol describing their mechanism of action in different cancers. PMID:26170168

  4. Extractable resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The use of information from space systems in the operation of extractive industries, particularly in exploration for mineral and fuel resources was reviewed. Conclusions and recommendations reported are based on the fundamental premise that survival of modern industrial society requires a continuing secure flow of resources for energy, construction and manufacturing, and for use as plant foods.

  5. [Damage-loss relationships and integrated control of 3rd instar larvae of Actias selene nigpoana Felder in planting area of Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc].

    PubMed

    Chen, S; Wang, C; Zhang, Q; Cheng, X

    1997-08-01

    In the present paper, the damage-loss model of Actias selene ningpoana to Cornus officinalis was tested and the results indicated that the yield loss rates obeyed the equation Y = 100 - EXP(4.6042 - 0.0315X). The economic threshold of the 2hd and 3rd instar larvae of A. selene nigpoana was then determined as 22 and 8 insects per tree respecitively. Suggestions for integrated control have been made based on the research of activities of A. selene ningpoana in the forest. PMID:11038910

  6. An intramolecular C-N cross-coupling of β-enaminones: a simple and efficient way to precursors of some alkaloids of Galipea officinalis.

    PubMed

    Doušová, Hana; Horák, Radim; Růžičková, Zdeňka; Šimůnek, Petr

    2015-01-01

    2-Aroylmethylidene-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolines with the appropriate substituents can be suitable precursors for the synthesis of alkaloids from Galipea officinalis (cuspareine, galipeine, galipinine, angustureine). However, only two, rather low-yielding procedures for their synthesis are described in the literature. We have developed a simple and efficient protocol for an intramolecular, palladium or copper-catalysed amination of both chloro- and bromo-substituted 3-amino-1,5-diphenylpent-2-en-1-ones leading to the above-mentioned tetrahydroquinoline moiety. The methodology is superior to the methods published to date. PMID:26124890

  7. An intramolecular CN cross-coupling of ?-enaminones: a simple and efficient way to precursors of some alkaloids of Galipea officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Douov, Hana; Hork, Radim; R?i?kov, Zde?ka

    2015-01-01

    Summary 2-Aroylmethylidene-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolines with the appropriate substituents can be suitable precursors for the synthesis of alkaloids from Galipea officinalis (cuspareine, galipeine, galipinine, angustureine). However, only two, rather low-yielding procedures for their synthesis are described in the literature. We have developed a simple and efficient protocol for an intramolecular, palladium or copper-catalysed amination of both chloro- and bromo-substituted 3-amino-1,5-diphenylpent-2-en-1-ones leading to the above-mentioned tetrahydroquinoline moiety. The methodology is superior to the methods published to date. PMID:26124890

  8. Characterization of two genes for the biosynthesis of abietane-type diterpenes in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) glandular trichomes.

    PubMed

    Brckner, Kathleen; Boi?, Dragana; Manzano, David; Papaefthimiou, Dimitra; Pateraki, Irini; Scheler, Ulschan; Ferrer, Albert; de Vos, Ric C H; Kanellis, Angelos K; Tissier, Alain

    2014-05-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) produces the phenolic diterpenes carnosic acid and carnosol, which, in addition to their general antioxidant activities, have recently been suggested as potential ingredients for the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Little is known about the biosynthesis of these diterpenes. Here we show that the biosynthesis of phenolic diterpenes in rosemary predominantly takes place in the glandular trichomes of young leaves, and used this feature to identify the first committed steps. Thus, a copalyl diphosphate synthase (RoCPS1) and two kaurene synthase-like (RoKSL1 and RoKSL2) encoding genes were identified and characterized. Expression in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and Nicotiana benthamiana demonstrate that RoCPS1 converts geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGDP) to copalyl diphosphate (CDP) of normal stereochemistry and that both RoKSL1 and RoKSL2 use normal CDP to produce an abietane diterpene. Comparison to the already characterized diterpene synthase from Salvia miltiorrhiza (SmKSL) demonstrates that the product of RoKSL1 and RoKSL2 is miltiradiene. Expression analysis supports a major contributing role for RoKSL2. Like SmKSL and the sclareol synthase from Salvia sclarea, RoKSL1/2 are diterpene synthases of the TPS-e group which have lost the internal gamma-domain. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis indicates that RoKSL1 and RoKSL2 belong to a distinct group of KSL enzymes involved in specialized metabolism which most likely emerged before the dicot-monocot split. PMID:24569175

  9. Roles of glutamate and FMRFamide-related peptides at the chromatophore neuromuscular junction in the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Loi, P K; Tublitz, N J

    2000-05-15

    Body patterning behavior, the expression of highly intricate patterns, is ubiquitous among all unshelled cephalopods. These body patterns are in part generated by the coordinated activity of millions of skin chromatophore organs, each of which is regulated by a set of chromatophore muscles directly innervated by centrally located chromatophore motoneurons. This study addresses the question of the identity and function of the transmitter(s) at the chromatophore neuromuscular junction (NMJ) in the European cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. Glutamate application causes a rapid contraction of the chromatophore muscles, resulting in chromatophore expansion. Pharmacological studies demonstrate that the chromatophore muscles contain receptors blocked by glutamate-specific antagonists. Glutamate-like immunoreactivity is also present in the somata of putative chromatophore motoneurons. These findings suggest that glutamate likely acts as a neurotransmitter at the chromatophore NMJ. Evidence is also presented suggesting that FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs) also function as neurotransmitters at the Sepia chromatophore NMJ. FMRFamide application causes contraction of chromatophore muscles; however, the FMRFamide effect is slower and longer lasting than that of glutamate. Pharmacological data show that FMRFamide acts directly on the chromatophore muscles. FMRFamide-immunopositive cells are present in the posterior chromatophore lobe, the putative location of the chromatophore motoneuron somata. A combination of immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization shows that some putative chromatophore motoneurons express FaRP-like immunoreactivity and an FaRP-coding mRNA transcript. Many FMRFamide-immunopositive cells in the posterior chromatophore lobes also express glutamate-like immunoreactivity. We conclude that glutamate and FaRPs likely function as fast and slow transmitters, respectively, at the Sepia chromatophore NMJ. PMID:10805923

  10. A review of the factors influencing spawning, early life stage survival and recruitment variability in the common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis).

    PubMed

    Bloor, Isobel S M; Attrill, Martin J; Jackson, Emma L

    2013-01-01

    Global landings of cephalopods (cuttlefish, squid and octopus) have increased dramatically over the past 50 years and now constitute almost 5% of the total world's fisheries production. At a time when landings of many traditional fin-fish stocks are continuing to experience a global decline as a result of over-exploitation, it is expected that fishing pressure on cephalopod stocks will continue to rise as the fishing industry switch their focus onto these non-quota species. However, long-term trends indicate that landings may have begun to plateau or even decrease. In European waters, cuttlefish are among the most important commercial cephalopod resource and are currently the highest yielding cephalopod group harvested in the north-east Atlantic, with the English Channel supporting the main fishery for this species. Recruitment variability in this short-lived species drives large fluctuations in landings. In order to provide sustainable management for Sepia officinalis populations, it is essential that we first have a thorough understanding of the ecology and life history of this species, in particular, the factors affecting spawning, early life stage (ELS) survival and recruitment variability. This review explores how and why such variability exists, starting with the impact of maternal effects (e.g. navigation, migration and egg laying), moving onto the direct impact of environmental variation on embryonic and ELSs and culminating on the impacts that these variations (maternal and environmental) have at a population level on annual recruitment success. Understanding these factors is critical to the effective management of expanding fisheries for this species. PMID:23763891

  11. Influence of environmental parameters on the life-history and population dynamics of cuttlefish Sepia officinalis in the western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Stefanie; Valls, Maria; Hidalgo, Manuel; Quetglas, Antoni

    2014-05-01

    The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis constitutes an important fishery resource in the Mediterranean, where it is exploited by both the bottom trawl and small-scale fleet. However, there is currently scarce information on the Mediterranean stocks, since most studies on the population dynamics of this species have been undertaken in the northeast Atlantic. In this work we first analysed different aspects of the cuttlefish life-history from the western Mediterranean such as population structure, reproduction and the trade-offs between somatic condition and reproduction investments. Secondly, we investigated the effects of different environmental parameters (e.g. climate indices, sea surface temperature (SST), rainfall, chlorophyll-a concentration (Chla) and moon phase) on these populations, analysing several landing time series spanning the last 45 years. Our results revealed that Mediterranean cuttlefish populations exhibit strong seasonal variations owing to a reproductive migration towards coastal waters. The positive relationships between somatic and reproductive condition pointed to an income breeder strategy; this was reinforced by the percentage of empty stomachs, which was lowest just before the reproductive period peak. Despite the putative high sensitivity of cephalopod populations to external abiotic factors, our results showed that Mediterranean cuttlefish populations were not affected by most of the environmental parameters investigated. Significant effects were found for SST and a local climatic index, but no or very weak influences were evident for other parameters such as large-scale climatic phenomena (e.g. North Atlantic Oscillation, Mediterranean Oscillation) or other locally-related variables (e.g. rainfall, Chla). Our results revealed a shift in the cuttlefish population dynamics in the early 1980s, which could be related to important changes in the local hydroclimatology reported by previous authors.

  12. Monotropein isolated from the roots of Morinda officinalis increases osteoblastic bone formation and prevents bone loss in ovariectomized mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Qiaoyan; Yang, Hua; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Naidan; Qin, Luping; Xin, Hailiang

    2016-04-01

    Monotropein is a natural iridoid glycoside enriched in Morinda officinalis and has been used for medicinal purposes in China. In the present study, we systematically examined its effects on ovariectomy (OVX)-induced osteoporosis in mice and osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells for the first time. Eight-week-old female C57/BL6 mice were used to evaluate the osteoprotective effect of monotropein. Results showed that administration of monotropein (40 or 80mg/kg/day) for four weeks exerted good bone protective effects as evidenced by the increase of bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD), bone volume fraction (BVF) and improvement of bone microstructure. Monotropein also enhanced the parameters of biomechanical properties, including maximum load, maximum stress and elastic modulus of femur in OVX mice. In addition, monotropein treatment decreased the serum levels of interleukin 1 (IL-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and soluble receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (sRANKL) in OVX mice. In this study, we also assessed the effects of monotropein on the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells in vitro. After incubation for 48h, the cell proliferation was increased at the concentration of 10μM, 25μM, 50μM and 100μM. ALP activities were significantly increased after treatment with monotropein for 72h. Quantitative analyses with alizarin red staining showed significantly increased mineralization of MC3T3-E1 cells after treatment with monotropein for 28days. Based on these results, monotropein may serve as a new candidate or a leading compound for antiosteoporosis. PMID:26996879

  13. Anti-oxidant supplementation improves boar sperm characteristics and fertility after cryopreservation: comparison between cysteine and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis).

    PubMed

    Malo, C; Gil, L; Gonzalez, N; Martínez, F; Cano, R; de Blas, I; Espinosa, E

    2010-08-01

    Anti-oxidants partially ameliorated the detrimental effects of reactive oxidative substances produced during cryopreservation. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of anti-oxidant addition to the freezing extender on boar semen qualities and fertility capacity. Ejaculates were collected from a previously selected boar and semen samples were processed using the straw freezing procedure. In experiment 1, semen samples were cryopreserved in lactose-egg yolk solution supplemented with various concentrations of cysteine (0, 5 and 10mM) to determinate a cysteine concentration capable of producing a protective effect during cryopreservation. Semen quality (total motility, progressive motility, viability, acrosome integrity and hypoosmotic swelling test) was evaluated after freezing and thawing and then every hour for 3h. In experiment 2, ejaculates were cryopreserved with lactose-egg yolk extender with or without the following anti-oxidants: cysteine, rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and cysteine plus rosemary. Semen quality was evaluated. In the experiment 3, fertility capacity of semen frozen in anti-oxidant supplementation extenders was examined in vitro. A total of 2232 oocytes were in vitro matured and inseminated with frozen-thawed sperm. In summary: (i) the effective concentration of cysteine in freezing extender was 10mM; (ii) the addition of exogenous rosemary or cysteine to the freezing extender positively affected post-thawed viability and acrosome integrity. Only rosemary supplementation improved total motility at 3h and progressive motility at any time; (iii) the inclusion of rosemary into the extender was effective in penetration and cleavage rate and also in the efficiency of the fertilization system. PMID:20599883

  14. Accumulation, transformation and tissue distribution of domoic acid, the amnesic shellfish poisoning toxin, in the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Costa, Pedro R; Rosa, Rui; Duarte-Silva, Alexandra; Brotas, Vanda; Sampayo, Maria Antnia M

    2005-08-15

    Domoic acid (DA) is a phycotoxin produced by some diatoms, mainly from the Pseudo-nitzschia genus, and has been detected throughout the marine food web. Although DA has been frequently found in cephalopod prey such as crustaceans and fish, little is known about DA accumulation in these molluscs. This study presents the first data showing relevant concentrations of DA detected in the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, which is one of the most studied cephalopod species in the world. Domoic acid was consistently found throughout 2003 and 2004 in the digestive gland of cuttlefish reaching concentrations of 241.7 microg DA g(-1). The highest DA values were detected during spring and summer months, periods when Pseudo-nitzschia occur in the plankton. In fact, Pseudo-nitzschia blooms preceded the highest DA concentrations in cuttlefish. Evaluation of DA tissue distribution showed elevated DA concentrations in the digestive gland and branchial hearts. Further, DA isomers comprised a relevant percentage of the toxin profile, indicating degradation and biotransformation of the toxin in the branchial hearts. The common cuttlefish, like other cephalopod species, plays a central position in the food web and might be a new DA vector to top predators like marine mammals. Human intoxications are not expected since DA was only seldom detected in the mantle and even then in very low levels (max 0.7 microg DA g(-1)). However, in some countries whole juvenile animals are consumed (i.e. without evisceration) and in this case they might represent a risk to human health. This study contributes to understanding the occurrence of phycotoxins in cephalopods and reveals a new member of the marine food web able to accumulate DA. PMID:15961171

  15. Differences in fine-scale spatial genetic structure across the distribution range of the distylous forest herb Pulmonaria officinalis (Boraginaceae)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Geographical ranges of plants and their pollinators do not always entirely overlap and it has been suggested that the absence of specialized pollinators at range margins may induce changes in mating systems. Because a species’ mating system is known to have a considerable effect on within-population pollen movement, the extent of fine-scale spatial genetic structure (SGS) can be expected to differ between populations located at different parts of their geographical range. To test this prediction, we compared the fine-scale SGS between two core and two disjunct populations of the distylous forest herb Pulmonaria officinalis. Because in disjunct populations of this species the heteromorphic self-incompatibility system showed relaxation in the long-styled morph, but not in the short-styled morph, we also hypothesized that the extent of fine-scale SGS and clustering differed between morphs. Results Spatial autocorrelation analyses showed a significant decrease in genetic relatedness with spatial distance for both core and disjunct populations with the weakest SGS found in one of the core populations (Sp = 0.0014). No evidence of stronger SGS in the long-styled morph was found in the center of the range whereas one disjunct population showed a significantly (P = 0.029) higher SGS in the long-styled morph (SpL = 0.0070) than in the short-styled morph (SpS = 0.0044). Conclusions Consistent with previous analyses on distylous plant species, we found weak, but significant spatial genetic structure. However, the extent of SGS varied substantially between populations within regions, suggesting that population characteristics other than mating system (e.g. local pollinator assemblages, population history) may be as important in determining variation in SGS. PMID:24134743

  16. Assessment of Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis L.) Hydrogels: Quality and Bioactivity in Skin Cells.

    PubMed

    Ramanauskienė, Kristina; Stelmakiene, Ada; Majienė, Daiva

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to design gels with lemon balm extract, assess their quality, and investigate the effect of rosmarinic acid on skin cells in normal conditions and under oxidative stress. Methods. The quantities of rosmarinic acid (RA) released from gels were evaluated by applying the HPLC technique. HaCaT cell viability was assessed by using the MTT method. ROS generation was measured using DCFH-DA dye. The results showed that the gelling material affected the release of RA content from gels. Lower and slower RA content release was determined in carbomer-based gels. After 6 hours of biopharmaceutical research in vitro, at least 4% of RA was released from the gel. The results of the biological studies on HaCaT cells demonstrated that, in the oxidative stress conditions, RA reduced intracellular ROS amounts to 28%; 0.25-0.5 mg/mL of RA increased cell viability by 10-24% and protected cells from the damage caused by H2O2. Conclusions. According to research results, it is appropriate to use a carbomer as the main gelling material, and its concentration should not exceed 1.0%. RA, depending on the concentration, reduces the amount of intracellular ROS and enhances cell viability in human keratinocytes in oxidative stress conditions. PMID:26600864

  17. Assessment of Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis L.) Hydrogels: Quality and Bioactivity in Skin Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ramanauskienė, Kristina; Stelmakiene, Ada; Majienė, Daiva

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to design gels with lemon balm extract, assess their quality, and investigate the effect of rosmarinic acid on skin cells in normal conditions and under oxidative stress. Methods. The quantities of rosmarinic acid (RA) released from gels were evaluated by applying the HPLC technique. HaCaT cell viability was assessed by using the MTT method. ROS generation was measured using DCFH-DA dye. The results showed that the gelling material affected the release of RA content from gels. Lower and slower RA content release was determined in carbomer-based gels. After 6 hours of biopharmaceutical research in vitro, at least 4% of RA was released from the gel. The results of the biological studies on HaCaT cells demonstrated that, in the oxidative stress conditions, RA reduced intracellular ROS amounts to 28%; 0.25–0.5 mg/mL of RA increased cell viability by 10–24% and protected cells from the damage caused by H2O2. Conclusions. According to research results, it is appropriate to use a carbomer as the main gelling material, and its concentration should not exceed 1.0%. RA, depending on the concentration, reduces the amount of intracellular ROS and enhances cell viability in human keratinocytes in oxidative stress conditions. PMID:26600864

  18. Quality evaluation of the leaves of Magnolia officinalis var. biloba using high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprint analysis of phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jun; Wu, Jian-Guo; Wu, Jin-Yu; Wu, Yan-Bin

    2016-02-01

    The high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprint method is a simple and reliable technique to evaluate the quality of leaves of Magnolia officinalis Rehd.et Wils. var. biloba Rehd.et Wils. We used the following bioactive phenolic constituents as reference compounds: rutin, afzelin, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, quercetin-3-O-α-l-rhamnoside, honokiol and magnolol. The conditions of an Agilent 1200 HPLC were: YMC-Pack-ODS-AQ column (250 × 4.6 mm id S-5 μm, 12 nm), mobile phase acetonitrile and 0.2% phosphoric acid in a gradient elute mode, flow rate 1.0 mL/min, detection wavelength 280 nm and column temperature 30°C. The analytical method was validated in terms of linearity, stability, repeatability, precision and recovery tests. While performing fingerprint analysis, we identified 11 peaks as characteristic peaks and assessed the similarities of 17 samples collected from different geological regions of China. The peak areas were used to evaluate the variation in the chemical composition of the tested samples. For this purpose, we performed hierarchical cluster analysis of the peak areas. Our results indicate that simultaneous determination of multiple ingredients could be done through chromatographic fingerprint analysis. Therefore, this high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprint method was readily utilized to evaluate the quality of leaves of M. officinalis var.biloba, which are used in several traditional herbal preparations. PMID:26681396

  19. Molecular analysis of a novel FMRFamide-related peptide gene (SOFaRP(2)) and its expression pattern in the brain of the European cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhuobin; Goodwin, Eli; Loi, Poh Kheng; Tublitz, Nathan J

    2012-03-01

    FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs) are among several neurotransmitters known to regulate the chromatophore function in the European cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. Here we report the cloning and sequencing of a novel S. officinalis FaRP gene (SOFaRP(2)). The complete 835-base pair cDNA sequence of the SOFaRP(2) gene contains an open reading frame of 567 base pairs encoding 188 amino acids and four putative FaRPs, NSLFRFamide, GNLFRFamide, TIFRFamide and PHTPFRFamide. All except TIFRFamide cause chromatophore expansion when assayed in an in vitro chromatophore bioassay. To investigate the expression pattern of SOFaRP(2) gene in the cuttlefish brain, in situ hybridization was performed using a full length RNA probe. The SOFaRP(2) gene was expressed primarily in the posterior chromatophore, anterior chromatophore, lateral basal and optic lobes among other brain locations. The SOFaRP(2) gene appears to be expressed in all brain regions involved in chromatophore regulation. These data suggests that some or all of the four FaRPs encoded by SOFaRP(2) might be involved in controlling chromatophore activity in cuttlefish. PMID:21802466

  20. Comparative antimicrobial efficacy of herbal alternatives (Emblica officinalis, Psidium guajava), MTAD, and 2.5% sodium hypochlorite against Enterococcus faecalis: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Aim The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of herbal alternatives (Emblica officinalis, Psidium guajava), BioPure MTAD, and 2.5% sodium hypochlorite against Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and method The testing of the antimicrobial efficacy of selected medicaments against E. faecalis was done by the agar disk-diffusion method. Whatman paper discs of 6 mm diameter were prepared and soaked with the test solution. These discs were then placed onto the previously seeded agar Petri plates. Later, these plates were incubated for 48 h at 37 °C under the appropriate gaseous conditions in a CO2 incubator. A zone of inhibition was recorded in millimeter for each plate and the results were analyzed statistically. Result MTAD was found to be superior in its antibacterial abilities against E. faecalis compared with the other irrigants used. All the other tested irrigants showed significant zone of inhibition. Conclusions BioPure MTAD offers better antibacterial efficacy than NaOCl. E. officinalis and P. guajava are effective antibacterial agents against E. faecalis and can be used to reduce root canal microflora and root canal failures. PMID:26937369

  1. Differential response of terpenes and anthraquinones derivatives in Rumex dentatus and Lavandula officinalis to harsh winters across north-western Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Jan, Sumira; Kamili, Azra N; Parray, Javid A; Bedi, Yashbir S

    2016-01-01

    Herbs adapted to diverse climates exhibit distinct variability to fluctuating temperatures and demonstrate various metabolic and physiological adaptations to harsh environments. In this research, Rumex dentatus L. and Lavandula officinalis L. were collected before snowfall in September-November to evaluate variability in major phytoconstituents to diverse seasonal regime. LC-MS was used for simultaneous determination of eight anthraquinone derivatives in R. dentatus, i.e. emodin, physcion, chrysophanol, physcion glucoside, endocrocin, emodin glucoside, chrysophanol glucoside and chromone derivatives and monoterpenes in L. officinalis i.e. (Z)-β-ocimene, (E)-β-ocimene, terpene alcohol, terpin-4-ol, acetate ester-linalyl acetate and bicyclic sesquiterpene (E)-caryophyllene. The correlation analysis confirmed significant variation in anthraquinone glucoside and terpene content within Rumex and Lavender, respectively, and altitude was established as the determinant factor in secondary metabolism of both herbs. The study concludes the propagation of herbs in bioclimatic belts which favour accumulation of major constituents and validate their greater pharmacological activity. PMID:25868521

  2. Effects of 12 years' operation of a sewage treatment plant on trace metal occurrence within a Mediterranean commercial sponge (Spongia officinalis, Demospongiae).

    PubMed

    Perez, Thierry; Longet, David; Schembri, Thérèse; Rebouillon, Pierre; Vacelet, Jean

    2005-03-01

    The present field study uses Spongia officinalis for assessing trace metals occurrence in time and space within Mediterranean rocky communities. Nine sites were selected in the Marseille area for studying spatial trends in 12 metal concentrations. Long term changes in 8 metal concentrations were assessed at sites that had been sampled before and 12 years after the opening of a treatment plant. Spongia officinalis highly concentrated all the trace metal surveyed excepted Hg and Cd. The overall contamination level registered provided a classification of the study sites which is congruent with that given by other studies on pollutant accumulation in neighbouring sandy-bottoms or benthic assemblages. Among the metals studied, Fe, Pb, Cr are those that best highlighted a pollution gradient. In the present study, only Cd concentration did not vary in space. Except for Ni, all pollutant concentrations clearly decreased between 1984 and 1999. This very impressive decrease in heavy metal concentrations within the Marseille area represents an indisputable evidence of the improvement of the seawater quality resulting from 12 years' operation of the Marseille sewage plant. Moreover, the significant decrease also recorded in the reference population at Port-Cros might reflect an overall improvement in the seawater quality of the NW Mediterranean. PMID:15757693

  3. Contrasting Extraction Types.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postal, Paul M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper grounds a novel typology yielding three major types of English (L(eft)-extraction, defined by their relationship to resumptive pronouns (RPs): (1) B-extractions, which require RPs in their extraction sites, (2) A1-extractions, which allow RPs in their extraction sites, and (3) A2-extractions, which forbid RPs in their extraction sites.

  4. Activity of Six Essential Oils Extracted from Tunisian Plants against Legionella pneumophila.

    PubMed

    Chaftar, Naouel; Girardot, Marion; Quellard, Nathalie; Labanowski, Jérôme; Ghrairi, Tawfik; Hani, Khaled; Frère, Jacques; Imbert, Christine

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the composition of six essential oils extracted from Tunisian plants, i.e., Artemisia herba-alba Asso, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck, Juniperus phoenicea L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ruta graveolens L., and Thymus vulgaris L., and to evaluate their activity against Legionella pneumophila (microdilution assays). Eight Legionella pneumophila strains were studied, including the two well-known serogroup 1 Lens and Paris strains as controls and six environmental strains isolated from Tunisian spas belonging to serogroups 1, 4, 5, 6, and 8. The essential oils were generally active against L. pneumophila. The activities of the A. herba-alba, C. sinensis, and R. officinalis essential oils were strain-dependent, whereas those of the J. phoenicea and T. vulgaris oils, showing the highest anti-Legionella activities, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) lower than 0.03 and lower than or equal to 0.07 mg/ml, respectively, were independent of the strains' serogroup. Moreover, the microorganisms treated with T. vulgaris essential oil were shorter, swollen, and less electron-dense compared to the untreated controls. Isoborneol (20.91%), (1S)-α-pinene (18.30%) β-phellandrene (8.08%), α-campholenal (7.91%), and α-phellandrene (7.58%) were the major components isolated from the J. phoenicea oil, while carvacrol (88.50%) was the main compound of the T. vulgaris oil, followed by p-cymene (7.86%). This study highlighted the potential interest of some essential oils extracted from Tunisian plants as biocides to prevent the Legionella risk. PMID:26460561

  5. Conjugated fatty acids accumulate to high levels in phospholipids of metabolically engineered soybean and Arabidopsis seeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Expression of FAD2-related fatty acid conjugases from Calendula officinalis, Momordica charantia, and Vernicia fordii in seeds of soybean (Glycine max) or an Arabidopsis thaliana FAD3/FAE1 mutant was accompanied by the accumulation of the unusual conjugated fatty acids calendic acid or alpha-eleost...

  6. Lemon balm extract causes potent antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects in insulin-resistant obese mice.

    PubMed

    Weidner, Christopher; Wowro, Sylvia J; Freiwald, Anja; Kodelja, Vitam; Abdel-Aziz, Heba; Kelber, Olaf; Sauer, Sascha

    2014-04-01

    Over the last decades polyetiological metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes have emerged as a global epidemic. Efficient strategies for prevention and treatment include dietary intervention and the development of validated nutraceuticals. Safe extracts of edible plants provide a resource of structurally diverse molecules that can effectively interfere with multifactorial diseases. In this study, we describe the application of ethanolic lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) leaves extract for the treatment of insulin-resistance and dyslipidemia in mice. We show that lemon balm extract (LBE) activates the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), which have key roles in the regulation of whole body glucose and lipid metabolism. Application of LBE (0.6 mg/mL) to human primary adipocytes resulted in specific peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor target gene expression. LBE treatment of insulin-resistant high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6 mice (200 mg/kg/day) for 6 weeks considerably reduced hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, plasma triacylglycerol, nonesterified fatty acids and LDL/VLDL cholesterol levels. Taken together, ethanolic lemon balm extract can potentially be used to prevent or concomitantly treat type 2 diabetes and associated disorders such as dyslipidemia and hypercholesterolemia. PMID:24272914

  7. Effects of a multi-herbal extract on type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background An aqueous extract of multi-hypoglycemic herbs of Panax ginseng C.A.Meyer, Pueraria lobata, Dioscorea batatas Decaisne, Rehmannia glutinosa, Amomum cadamomum Linné, Poncirus fructus and Evodia officinalis was investigated for its anti-diabetic effects in cell and animal models. Methods Activities of PPARγ agonist, anti-inflammation, AMPK activator and anti-ER stress were measured in cell models and in db/db mice (a genetic animal model for type 2 diabetes). Results While the extract stimulated PPARγ-dependent luciferase activity and activated AMPK in C2C12 cells, it inhibited TNF-α-stimulated IKKβ/NFkB signaling and attenuated ER stress in HepG2 cells. The db/db mice treated with the extract showed reduced fasting blood glucose and HbA1c levels, improved postprandial glucose levels, enhanced insulin sensitivity and significantly decreased plasma free fatty acid, triglyceride and total cholesterol. Conclusion The aqueous extract of these seven hypoglycemic herbs demonstrated many therapeutic effects for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in cell and animal models. PMID:21375727

  8. Towards Elucidating Carnosic Acid Biosynthesis in Lamiaceae: Functional Characterization of the Three First Steps of the Pathway in Salvia fruticosa and Rosmarinus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Božić, Dragana; Papaefthimiou, Dimitra; Brückner, Kathleen; de Vos, Ric C H; Tsoleridis, Constantinos A; Katsarou, Dimitra; Papanikolaou, Antigoni; Pateraki, Irini; Chatzopoulou, Fani M; Dimitriadou, Eleni; Kostas, Stefanos; Manzano, David; Scheler, Ulschan; Ferrer, Albert; Tissier, Alain; Makris, Antonios M; Kampranis, Sotirios C; Kanellis, Angelos K

    2015-01-01

    Carnosic acid (CA) is a phenolic diterpene with anti-tumour, anti-diabetic, antibacterial and neuroprotective properties that is produced by a number of species from several genera of the Lamiaceae family, including Salvia fruticosa (Cretan sage) and Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary). To elucidate CA biosynthesis, glandular trichome transcriptome data of S. fruticosa were mined for terpene synthase genes. Two putative diterpene synthase genes, namely SfCPS and SfKSL, showing similarities to copalyl diphosphate synthase and kaurene synthase-like genes, respectively, were isolated and functionally characterized. Recombinant expression in Escherichia coli followed by in vitro enzyme activity assays confirmed that SfCPS is a copalyl diphosphate synthase. Coupling of SfCPS with SfKSL, both in vitro and in yeast, resulted in the synthesis miltiradiene, as confirmed by 1D and 2D NMR analyses (1H, 13C, DEPT, COSY H-H, HMQC and HMBC). Coupled transient in vivo assays of SfCPS and SfKSL in Nicotiana benthamiana further confirmed production of miltiradiene in planta. To elucidate the subsequent biosynthetic step, RNA-Seq data of S. fruticosa and R. officinalis were searched for cytochrome P450 (CYP) encoding genes potentially involved in the synthesis of the first phenolic compound in the CA pathway, ferruginol. Three candidate genes were selected, SfFS, RoFS1 and RoFS2. Using yeast and N. benthamiana expression systems, all three where confirmed to be coding for ferruginol synthases, thus revealing the enzymatic activities responsible for the first three steps leading to CA in two Lamiaceae genera. PMID:26020634

  9. Towards Elucidating Carnosic Acid Biosynthesis in Lamiaceae: Functional Characterization of the Three First Steps of the Pathway in Salvia fruticosa and Rosmarinus officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Božić, Dragana; Papaefthimiou, Dimitra; Brückner, Kathleen; de Vos, Ric C. H.; Tsoleridis, Constantinos A.; Katsarou, Dimitra; Papanikolaou, Antigoni; Pateraki, Irini; Chatzopoulou, Fani M.; Dimitriadou, Eleni; Kostas, Stefanos; Manzano, David; Scheler, Ulschan; Ferrer, Albert; Tissier, Alain; Makris, Antonios M.; Kampranis, Sotirios C.; Kanellis, Angelos K.

    2015-01-01

    Carnosic acid (CA) is a phenolic diterpene with anti-tumour, anti-diabetic, antibacterial and neuroprotective properties that is produced by a number of species from several genera of the Lamiaceae family, including Salvia fruticosa (Cretan sage) and Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary). To elucidate CA biosynthesis, glandular trichome transcriptome data of S. fruticosa were mined for terpene synthase genes. Two putative diterpene synthase genes, namely SfCPS and SfKSL, showing similarities to copalyl diphosphate synthase and kaurene synthase-like genes, respectively, were isolated and functionally characterized. Recombinant expression in Escherichia coli followed by in vitro enzyme activity assays confirmed that SfCPS is a copalyl diphosphate synthase. Coupling of SfCPS with SfKSL, both in vitro and in yeast, resulted in the synthesis miltiradiene, as confirmed by 1D and 2D NMR analyses (1H, 13C, DEPT, COSY H-H, HMQC and HMBC). Coupled transient in vivo assays of SfCPS and SfKSL in Nicotiana benthamiana further confirmed production of miltiradiene in planta. To elucidate the subsequent biosynthetic step, RNA-Seq data of S. fruticosa and R. officinalis were searched for cytochrome P450 (CYP) encoding genes potentially involved in the synthesis of the first phenolic compound in the CA pathway, ferruginol. Three candidate genes were selected, SfFS, RoFS1 and RoFS2. Using yeast and N. benthamiana expression systems, all three where confirmed to be coding for ferruginol synthases, thus revealing the enzymatic activities responsible for the first three steps leading to CA in two Lamiaceae genera. PMID:26020634

  10. Integration of sediment contamination with multi-biomarker responses in a novel potential bioindicator (Sepia officinalis) for risk assessment in impacted estuaries.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, A P; Costa, P M; Costa, M H; Caeiro, S

    2013-12-01

    For the purpose of biomonitoring, species that combine ecological and commercial importance may provide a link between ecological and human health risk. The common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, holds both characteristics in south-western Europe, albeit remaining unsurveyed in ecotoxicological studies. Cuttlefish collected from an impacted estuary in SW Portugal and a reference location off the coast were analysed for a battery of biomarker responses in the digestive gland and gills. The contrast to reference animals revealed that biomarker responses, especially those related to oxidative stress, were consistent with sediment contamination by PAHs, even in a situation that combines complex toxicant mixtures, moderate levels of contamination and high ecotoxicological diversity. However, environmental parameters related to the differences between shore and estuarine habitats should not be overruled. Also, digestive gland metallothionein retained significant specificity to metals even though previous studies in the area with clams and fish failed to trigger a conclusive response. The highest net differences in biomarker responses were detected in the gills, likely indicating higher sensitivity to environmental stressors. Still, the digestive gland responses were overall the most consistent with sediment contamination and effectively differentiated between estuarine industrial- and rural-impacted sites. The results indicate that S. officinalis may be a candidate to meet the European Union's requirements for efficient biomonitoring programmes, with the additional importance of being cosmopolitan, abundant, commercially valuable and combining the molluscan biology that has been granting bivalves their high value for biomonitoring with foraging behaviour, thus better able to reflect anthropogenic stressors impacting a wider area than sedentary organisms. Nevertheless, further investigations in unpolluted sites are needed to better evaluate the background levels of biomarker responses in the species. PMID:24142132

  11. Apparatus for hydrocarbon extraction

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2013-03-19

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  12. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using plant extracts as reducing agents

    PubMed Central

    Elia, Paz; Zach, Raya; Hazan, Sharon; Kolusheva, Sofiya; Porat, Ze’ev; Zeiri, Yehuda

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were prepared using four different plant extracts as reducing and stabilizing agents. The extracts were obtained from the following plants: Salvia officinalis, Lippia citriodora, Pelargonium graveolens and Punica granatum. The size distributions of the GNPs were measured using three different methods: dynamic light scattering, nanoparticle-tracking analysis and analysis of scanning electron microscopy images. The three methods yielded similar size distributions. Biocompatibility was examined by correlation of L-cell growth in the presence of different amounts of GNPs. All GNPs showed good biocompatibility and good stability for over 3 weeks. Therefore, they can be used for imaging and drug-delivery applications in the human body. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to view the shapes of the larger GNPs, while infrared spectroscopy was employed to characterize the various functional groups in the organic layer that stabilize the particles. Finally, active ingredients in the plant extract that might be involved in the formation of GNPs are proposed, based on experiments with pure antioxidants that are known to exist in that plant. PMID:25187704

  13. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using plant extracts as reducing agents.

    PubMed

    Elia, Paz; Zach, Raya; Hazan, Sharon; Kolusheva, Sofiya; Porat, Ze'ev; Zeiri, Yehuda

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were prepared using four different plant extracts as reducing and stabilizing agents. The extracts were obtained from the following plants: Salvia officinalis, Lippia citriodora, Pelargonium graveolens and Punica granatum. The size distributions of the GNPs were measured using three different methods: dynamic light scattering, nanoparticle-tracking analysis and analysis of scanning electron microscopy images. The three methods yielded similar size distributions. Biocompatibility was examined by correlation of L-cell growth in the presence of different amounts of GNPs. All GNPs showed good biocompatibility and good stability for over 3 weeks. Therefore, they can be used for imaging and drug-delivery applications in the human body. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to view the shapes of the larger GNPs, while infrared spectroscopy was employed to characterize the various functional groups in the organic layer that stabilize the particles. Finally, active ingredients in the plant extract that might be involved in the formation of GNPs are proposed, based on experiments with pure antioxidants that are known to exist in that plant. PMID:25187704

  14. Flavonoids and Phenolic Acids in Methanolic Extracts, Infusions and Tinctures from Commercial Samples of Lemon Balm.

    PubMed

    Arceusz, Agnieszka; Wesolowski, Marek; Ulewicz-Magulska, Beata

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the levels of flavonoids (rutin, myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol) and phenolic acids (gallic, p-coumaric, rosmarinic, syringic, caffeic, chlorogenic, ellagic, ferulic) in lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) commonly used as a culinary, aromatic and medicinal herb. A rapid and reliable HPLC procedure was developed to determine the phenolic compounds in methanolic extrac