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1

PARAMETERS OF THE IMMUNOLOGICAL PROFILE IN CHICKENS TREATED WITH A CALENDULA OFFICINALIS EXTRACTION PARAMETRI AI PROFILULUI IMUNOLOGIC LA PUI DE GAINA TRATATI CU UN EXTRACT DIN CALENDULA OFFICINALIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tests were carried out on thirty, 42 days old Rock x Cornish chickens, divided into three experimental groups: I - control injected with saline, II - injected with a Calendula officinalis extraction supplemented with Bayol and III - treated with Bayol. The effects of the in vivo treatments and simultaneous antigen priming (0.5 ml of a 5 % suspension of

2

The effects of extraction method on recovery rutin from Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae)  

PubMed Central

Background: Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) is a Mediterranean specie, but in Europe and America it is cultivated for ornamental or medicinal purposes. This species is widely used for presenting activities, antiinflammatory antibacterial and antioxidant. However the therapeutic action is linked to the amount of assets of the extracted raw material. The extraction method of bioactive compounds is an important step in the manufacturing of herbal medicines, because secondary metabolites with therapeutic potential are usually found in small quantities in plant materials. Objective: Due the medical and commercial importance of C. officinalis, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of the extraction method on the quality of herbal extract and optimize the extraction of rutin from C. officinalis. Materials and Methods: The extraction of rutin was performed by ultrasound and shaker and the optimized conditions were determined by response surface methodology. Results: The results of ultrasound extraction assisted (UEA) and maceration dynamic (MD) showed that rutin yield ranged from 0.218 to 2.28% (w/w) when extract by ultrasound and 0.1-1.44% by MD. The optimal extraction condition for rutin (2.48% to UEA or 1.46% to MD) from C. officinalis by UEA or MD were a 19-22 min extraction, ethanol: water ratio of 35-40% and 0.05-0.056 mg/mL to raw material: solvent ratio. Conclusion: The UEA is more efficient to extraction rutin. PMID:25298676

Martins, Frederico Severino; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Bandeira, Elane Sousa; Silva, José Otávio Carréra; Costa, Roseane Maria Ribeiro

2014-01-01

3

Potential of extracts from Saponaria officinalis and Calendula officinalis to modulate in vitro rumen fermentation with respect to their content in saponins.  

PubMed

Saponins have the potential to favorably modulate rumen fermentation, but there is generally a lack of the chemical structures associated with the described effects. The activity of extracts from Calendula officinalis and Saponaria officinalis in the rumen was evaluated in vitro. The S. officinalis root extract, reduced CH? production by 8.5% and increased total VFA concentration by 25.2%. C. officinalis and S. officinalis root extracts and the S. officinalis aerial part extract decreased the acetate to propionate ratio from 8.6 to 17.4%, according to the extract. An HPLC-ELSD analysis indicated that the saponin content ranged from 43.6 to 57.6 mg/g of dry matter (DM) in the C. officinalis extracts and from 224.0 to 693.8 mg/g of DM in the S. officinalis extracts, expressed as the hederacoside C equivalent. Identification of the saponin compounds present in the extracts by HPLC-MS(n) suggested that the saponin profile modulated the biological activities, showing the importance of determining the structure of saponins when evaluating extracts. PMID:25036683

Budan, Alexandre; Bellenot, Denis; Freuze, Ingrid; Gillmann, Louisa; Chicoteau, Pierre; Richomme, Pascal; Guilet, David

2014-01-01

4

Antimicrobial activity of Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis and chlorhexidine against the adherence of microorganisms to sutures after extraction of unerupted third molars  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of this study was to compare the antimicrobial effect of mouthwashes containing Calendula officinalis L., Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze and 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate on the adherence of microorganisms to suture materials after extraction of unerupted third molars. Material and Methods Eighteen patients with unerupted maxillary third molars indicated for extraction were selected (n=6 per mouthwash). First, the patients were subjected to extraction of the left tooth and instructed not to use any type of antiseptic solution at the site of surgery (control group). After 15 days, the right tooth was extracted and the patients were instructed to use the Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis or chlorhexidine mouthwash during 1 week (experimental group). For each surgery, the sutures were removed on postoperative day 7 and placed in sterile phosphate-buffered saline. Next, serial dilutions were prepared and seeded onto different culture media for the growth of the following microorganisms: blood agar for total microorganism growth; Mitis Salivarius bacitracin sucrose agar for mutans group streptococci; mannitol agar for Staphylococcus spp.; MacConkey agar for enterobacteria and Pseudomonas spp., and Sabouraud dextrose agar containing chloramphenicol for Candida spp. The plates were incubated during 24-48 h at 37ºC for microorganism count (CFU/mL). Results The three mouthwashes tested reduced the number of microorganisms adhered to the sutures compared to the control group. However, significant differences between the control and experimental groups were only observed for the mouthwash containing 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate. Conclusions Calendula officinalis L. and Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze presented antimicrobial activity against the adherence of microorganisms to sutures but were not as efficient as chlorhexidine digluconate. PMID:21986652

FARIA, Raquel Lourdes; CARDOSO, Lincoln Marcelo Lourenço; AKISUE, Gokithi; PEREIRA, Cristiane Aparecida; JUNQUEIRA, Juliana Campos; JORGE, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; SANTOS JÚNIOR, Paulo Villela

2011-01-01

5

Antioxidant capacity of calendula officinalis flowers extract and prevention of radiation induced oropharyngeal mucositis in patients with head and neck cancers: a randomized controlled clinical study  

PubMed Central

This study was designed to determine the effect of Calendula officinalis flowers extract mouthwash as oral gel on radiation-induced oropharyngeal mucositis (OM) in patients with head-and-neck cancer. Forty patients with neck and head cancers under radiotherapy or concurrent chemoradiotherapy protocols were randomly assigned to receive either 2% calendula extract mouthwash or placebo (20 patients in each group). Patients were treated with telecobalt radiotherapy at conventional fractionation (200 cGy/fraction, five fractions weekly, 30–35 fractions within 4–7 weeks). The oropharyngeal mucositis was evaluated by two clinical investigators (a radiation oncologist and a dentist), using the oral mucositis assessment scale (OMAS). Trying to find out the possible mechanism of action of the treatment, total antioxidant, polyphenol and flavonoid contents, and quercetin concentration of the mouth wash were measured. Calendula mouthwash significantly decreased the intensity of OM compared to placebo at week 2 (score: 5.5 vs. 6.8, p?=?0.019), week 3 (score: 8.25 vs. 10.95, p?extract were 2353.4?±?56.5 ?M, 313.40?±?6.52 mg/g, 76.66?±?23.24 mg/g, and 19.41?±?4.34 mg/l, respectively. Calendula extract gel could be effective on decreasing the intensity of radiotherapy- induced OM during the treatment and antioxidant capacity may be partly responsible for the effect. PMID:23497687

2013-01-01

6

The effects of drying on the chemical components of essential oils of Calendula officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calendula officinalis is a medicinal plant whose essential oils are used for various purposes. The oils were extracted by hydrodistillation from fresh leaves, dry leaves and fresh flowers of the herb yielding 0.06, 0.03 and 0.09%, respectively. The analysis of the oils by GC-MS revealed a total of 30, 21 and 24 compounds from the fresh leaves, dry leaves and

Okoh O. O; Sadimenko A. P; Asekun O. T; Afolayan A. J

2008-01-01

7

Amelioration of myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury with Calendula officinalis.  

PubMed

Calendula officinalis of family Asteraceae, also known as marigold, has been widely used from time immemorial in Indian and Arabic cultures as an anti-inflammatory agent to treat minor skin wound and infections, burns, bee stings, sunburn and cancer. At a relatively high dose, calendula can lower blood pressure and cholesterol. Since inflammatory responses are behind many cardiac diseases, we sought to evaluate if calendula could be cardioprotective against ischemic heart disease Two groups of hearts were used: the treated rat hearts were perfused with calendula solution at 50 mM in KHB buffer (in mM: sodium chloride 118, potassium chloride 4.7, calcium chloride 1.7, sodium bicarbonate 25, potassium biphosphate 0.36, magnesium sulfate 1.2, and glucose 10) for 15 min prior to subjecting the heart to ischemia, while the control group was perfused with the buffer only. Calendula achieved cardioprotection by stimulating left ventricular developed pressure and aortic flow as well as by reducing myocardial infarct size and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Cardioprotection appears to be achieved by changing ischemia reperfusion-mediated death signal into a survival signal by modulating antioxidant and anti-inflammatory pathways as evidenced by the activation of Akt and Bcl2 and depression of TNF?. The results further strengthen the concept of using natural products in degeneration diseases like ischemic heart disease. PMID:20874690

Ray, Diptarka; Mukherjee, Subhendu; Falchi, Mario; Bertelli, Aldo; Das, Dipak K

2010-12-01

8

Topical Calendula officinalis L. successfully treated exfoliative cheilitis: a case report  

PubMed Central

Authors describe a case of recurrent exfoliative cheilitis that responded to treatment with a standardized topical preparation of Calendula officinalis L. An eighteen-year-old man was referred to UNESP - São Paulo State University, Department of Biosciences and Oral Diagnosis, São José dos Campos Dental School to investigate a chronic dry scaling lesion on his lips. The patient's main chief was aesthetic compromising. Corticoid therapy was suspended and Calendula officinalis ointment 10% for ad libitum use has been prescribed. The results presented allow the authors to consider Calendula officinalis L. as a potential therapy in cases of cheilitis exfoliative. PMID:20062714

2009-01-01

9

Wound Healing and Anti-Inflammatory Effect in Animal Models of Calendula officinalis L. Growing in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Calendula officinalis is an annual herb from Mediterranean origin which is popularly used in wound healing and as an anti-inflammatory agent. In this study, the ethanolic extract, the dichloromethane, and hexanic fractions of the flowers from plants growing in Brazil were produced. The angiogenic activity of the extract and fractions was evaluated through the chorioallantoic membrane and cutaneous wounds in rat models. The healing activity of the extract was evaluated by the same cutaneous wounds model through macroscopic, morphometric, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical analysis. The antibacterial activity of the extract and fractions was also evaluated. This experimental study revealed that C. officinalis presented anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities as well as angiogenic and fibroplastic properties acting in a positive way on the inflammatory and proliferative phases of the healing process. PMID:22315631

Parente, Leila Maria Leal; Lino Junior, Ruy de Souza; Tresvenzol, Leonice Manrique Faustino; Vinaud, Marina Clare; de Paula, Jose Realino; Paulo, Neusa Margarida

2012-01-01

10

Calendula officinalis—production potential and crop agronomy in southern England  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in Calendula officinalis L. as an industrial oil crop has developed from the discovery that it has a seed-oil content of around 20%, of which up to 60% is calendic acid, a useful industrial feedstock. An EU AIR project `vegetable oils with specific fatty acids', is in progress to further develop this and other species. The first 2 years

H. T. H Cromack; J. M Smith

1998-01-01

11

The Effects of Age on the Yield and Composition of the Essential Oils of Calendula officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variations in the yield and composition of the essential oils from Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) cultivated in Alice, Eastern Cape of South Africa are reported. Essential oils of this plant were obtained by hydrodistillation using the Clevenger apparatus and analysis was performed by GC-MS. The yield in essential oil showed a maximum at the full flowering stage (0.97%) and

O. O. Okoh; A. A. Sadimenko; A. J. Afolayan

2007-01-01

12

Carotenoid Isomerase Is Key Determinant of Petal Color of Calendula officinalis*  

PubMed Central

Orange petals of calendula (Calendula officinalis) accumulate red carotenoids with the cis-configuration at the C-5 or C-5? position (5-cis-carotenoids). We speculated that the orange-flowered calendula is a carotenoid isomerase (crtiso) loss-of-function mutant that impairs the cis-to-trans conversion of 5-cis-carotenoids. We compared the sequences and enzyme activities of CRTISO from orange- and yellow-flowered calendulas. Four types of CRTISO were expressed in calendula petals. The deduced amino acid sequence of one of these genes (CoCRTISO1) was different between orange- and yellow-flowered calendulas, whereas the sequences of the other three CRTISOs were identical between these plants. Analysis of the enzymatic activities of the CoCRTISO homologs showed that CoCRTISO1-Y, which was expressed in yellow petals, converted carotenoids from the cis-to-trans-configuration, whereas both CoCRTISO1-ORa and 1-ORb, which were expressed in orange petals, showed no activity with any of the cis-carotenoids we tested. Moreover, the CoCRTISO1 genotypes of the F2 progeny obtained by crossing orange and yellow lines linked closely to petal color. These data indicate that CoCRTISO1 is a key regulator of the accumulation of 5-cis-carotenoids in calendula petals. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that the deletion of Cys-His-His at positions 462–464 in CoCRTISO1-ORa and a Gly-to-Glu amino acid substitution at position 450 in CoCRTISO1-ORb abolished enzyme activity completely, indicating that these amino acid residues are important for the enzymatic activity of CRTISO. PMID:22069331

Kishimoto, Sanae; Ohmiya, Akemi

2012-01-01

13

Yield, essential oil and pigment content of Calendula officinalis L. flower heads cultivated under salt stress conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flower heads of Calendula officinalis L. are used for medicinal or culinary purposes. Since Egyptian agricultural lands contain salt, this study investigated the effects of saline irrigation water on yield (fresh and dry weights of flower heads), essential oil (EO) yield, chemical constituents of the EO and total flavonoids and carotenoids of flower heads at three flowering stages, i.e. initial

Khalid A. Khalid

2010-01-01

14

Evaluation of Calendula officinalis as an anti-plaque and anti-gingivitis agent  

PubMed Central

Background: Calendula officinalis (C. officinalis), commonly known as pot marigold, is a medicinal herb with excellent antimicrobial, wound healing, and anti-inflammatory activity. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of C. officinalis in reducing dental plaque and gingival inflammation. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and forty patients within the age group of 20-40 years were enrolled in this study with their informed consent. Patients having gingivitis (probing depth (PD) ?3 mm), with a complaint of bleeding gums were included in this study. Patients with periodontitis PD ? 4 mm, desquamative gingivitis, acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG), smokers under antibiotic coverage, and any other history of systemic diseases or conditions, including pregnancy, were excluded from the study. The subjects were randomly assigned into two groups – test group (n = 120) and control group (n = 120). All the test group patients were advised to dilute 2 ml of tincture of calendula with 6 ml of distilled water and rinse their mouths once in the morning and once in the evening for six months. Similarly, the control group patients were advised to use 8 ml distilled water (placebo) as control mouthwash and rinse mouth twice daily for six months. Clinical parameters like the plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), sulcus bleeding index (SBI), and oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S) were recorded at baseline (first visit), third month (second visit), and sixth month (third visit) by the same operator, to rule out variable results. During the second visit, after recording the clinical parameters, each patient was subjected to undergo a thorough scaling procedure. Patients were instructed to carry out regular routine oral hygiene maintenance without any reinforcement in it. Results: In the absence of scaling (that is, between the first and second visit), the test group showed a statistically significant reduction in the scores of PI, GI, SBI (except OHI-S) (P < 0.05), whereas, the control group showed no reduction in scores when the baseline scores were compared with the third month scores. Also, when scaling was performed during the third month (second visit), there was statistically significant reduction in the scores of all parameters, when the third month scores were compared with the sixth month scores in both groups (P < 0.05), but the test group showed a significantly greater reduction in the PI, GI, SBI, and OHI-S scores compared to those of the control group. Conclusion: Within the limits of this study, it can be concluded that calendula mouthwash is effective in reducing dental plaque and gingivitis adjunctive to scaling. PMID:24554883

Khairnar, Mayur Sudhakar; Pawar, Babita; Marawar, Pramod Parashram; Mani, Ameet

2013-01-01

15

Fatty acid composition of lipids in pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) seed genotypes  

PubMed Central

Background Calendula officinalis L. (pot marigold) is an annual aromatic herb with yellow or golden-orange flowers, native to the Mediterranean climate areas. Their seeds contain significant amounts of oil (around 20%), of which about 60% is calendic acid. For these reasons, in Europe concentrated research efforts have been directed towards the development of pot marigold as an oilseed crop for industrial purposes. Results The oil content and fatty acid composition of major lipid fractions in seeds from eleven genotypes of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) were determined. The lipid content of seeds varied between 13.6 and 21.7 g oil/100 g seeds. The calendic and linoleic acids were the two dominant fatty acids in total lipid (51.4 to 57.6% and 28.5 to 31.9%) and triacylglycerol (45.7 to 54.7% and 22.6 to 29.2%) fractions. Polar lipids were also characterised by higher unsaturation ratios (with the PUFAs content between 60.4 and 66.4%), while saturates (consisted mainly of palmitic and very long-chain saturated fatty acids) were found in higher amounts in sterol esters (ranging between 49.3 and 55.7% of total fatty acids). Conclusions All the pot marigold seed oils investigated contain high levels of calendic acid (more than 50% of total fatty acids), making them favorable for industrial use. The compositional differences between the genotypes should be considered when breeding and exploiting the pot marigold seeds for nutraceutical and pharmacological purposes. PMID:23327299

2013-01-01

16

Identification and Analysis of a Gene from Calendula officinalis Encoding a Fatty Acid Conjugase  

PubMed Central

Two homologous cDNAs, CoFad2 and CoFac2, were isolated from a Calendula officinalis developing seed by a polymerase chain reaction-based cloning strategy. Both sequences share similarity to FAD2 desaturases and FAD2-related enzymes. In C. officinalis plants CoFad2 was expressed in all tissues tested, whereas CoFac2 expression was specific to developing seeds. Expression of CoFad2 cDNA in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) indicated it encodes a ?12 desaturase that introduces a double bond at the 12 position of 16:1(9Z) and 18:1(9Z). Expression of CoFac2 in yeast revealed that the encoded enzyme acts as a fatty acid conjugase converting 18:2(9Z, 12Z) to calendic acid 18:3(8E, 10E, 12Z). The enzyme also has weak activity on the mono-unsaturates 16:1(9Z) and 18:1(9Z) producing compounds with the properties of 8,10 conjugated dienes. PMID:11161042

Qiu, Xiao; Reed, Darwin W.; Hong, Haiping; MacKenzie, Samuel L.; Covello, Patrick S.

2001-01-01

17

Biocontrol and Plant Growth Promotion Characterization of Bacillus Species Isolated from Calendula officinalis Rhizosphere.  

PubMed

The phenotypic and genotypic diversity of the plant growth promoting Bacillus genus have been widely investigated in the rhizosphere of various agricultural crops. However, to our knowledge this is the first report on the Bacillus species isolated from the rhizosphere of Calendula officinalis. 15 % of the isolated bacteria were screened for their important antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium cucumerinium and Alternaria alternata. The bacteria identification based on 16S r-RNA and gyrase-A genes analysis, revealed strains closely related to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, B. velezensis, B. subtilis sub sp spizezenii and Paenibacillus polymyxa species. The electro-spray mass spectrometry coupled to liquid chromatography (ESI-LC MS) analysis showed that most of the Bacillus isolates produced the three lipopeptides families. However, the P. polymyxa (18SRTS) didn't produce any type of lipopeptides. All the tested Bacillus isolates produced cellulase but the protease activity was observed only in the B. amyloliquefaciens species (9SRTS). The Salkowsky colorimetric test showed that the screened bacteria synthesized 6-52 ?g/ml of indole 3 acetic acid. These bacteria produced siderophores with more than 10 mm wide orange zones on chromazurol S. The greenhouse experiment using a naturally infested soil with Sclerotonia sclerotiorum showed that the B. amyloliquefaciens (9SRTS) had no significant (P > 0.05) effect on the pre-germination of the chickpea seeds. However, it increased the size of the chickpea plants and reduced the stem rot disease (P < 0.05).These results suggested that the Bacillus strains isolated in this work may be further used as bioinoculants to improve the production of C. officinalis and other crop systems. PMID:24426149

Ait Kaki, Asma; Kacem Chaouche, Noreddine; Dehimat, Laid; Milet, Asma; Youcef-Ali, Mounia; Ongena, Marc; Thonart, Philippe

2013-12-01

18

The Effects of Age on the Yield and Composition of the Essential Oils of Calendula officinalis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The variations in the yield and composition of the essential oils from Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) cultivated in Alice, Eastern Cape of South Africa are reported. Essential oils of this plant were obtained by hydrodistillation using the Clevenger apparatus and analysis was performed by GC-MS. The yield in essential oil showed a maximum at the full flowering stage (0.97%) and a minimum during the pre-flowering stage (0.13%). The compositions also showed different patterns at different phases of the vegetative cycle. Sesquiterpenes (?-cadinene, ?-cadinol, T-muurolol and epi-bicyclosesquiphellandrene) and monoterpenes (limonene, 1, 8-cineole and trans-?-ocimene) showed the highest correlations with the age of the plant. Aiming the use of essential oil as a food ingredient, the most interesting stage is the post-flowering period, the essential oil at this time being rich in ?-cadinene, ?-cadinol, t-muurolol, limonene, 1,8-cineole, with P-cymene present at lower levels. ?-cadinene is an important flavouring agent in baked foods, candy and chewing gum and also used as a fragrance in cosmetics and detergents. T-muurolol and ?-cadinol are important antimicrobial agents.

Okoh, O. O.; Sadimenko, A. A.; Afolayan, A. J.

19

Evaluation of Biologically Active Compounds from Calendula officinalis Flowers using Spectrophotometry  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed to quantify the active biological compounds in C. officinalis flowers. Based on the active principles and biological properties of marigolds flowers reported in the literature, we sought to obtain and characterize the molecular composition of extracts prepared using different solvents. The antioxidant capacities of extracts were assessed by using spectrophotometry to measure both absorbance of the colorimetric free radical scavenger 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) as well as the total antioxidant potential, using the ferric reducing power (FRAP) assay. Results Spectrophotometric assays in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) region enabled identification and characterization of the full range of phenolic and flavonoids acids, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to identify and quantify phenolic compounds (depending on the method of extraction). Methanol ensured more efficient extraction of flavonoids than the other solvents tested. Antioxidant activity in methanolic extracts was correlated with the polyphenol content. Conclusions The UV-VIS spectra of assimilator pigments (e.g. chlorophylls), polyphenols and flavonoids extracted from the C. officinalis flowers consisted in quantitative evaluation of compounds which absorb to wavelengths broader than 360 nm. PMID:22540963

2012-01-01

20

D-Glucose as a modifying agent in gelatin/collagen matrix and reservoir nanoparticles for Calendula officinalis delivery.  

PubMed

Gelatin/Collagen-based matrix and reservoir nanoparticles require crosslinkers to stabilize the formed nanosuspensions, considering that physical instability is the main challenge of nanoparticulate systems. The use of crosslinkers improves the physical integrity of nanoformulations under the-host environment. Aldehyde-based fixatives, such as formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde, have been widely applied to the crosslinking process of polymeric nanoparticles. However, their potential toxicity towards human beings has been demonstrated in many previous studies. In order to tackle this problem, D-glucose was used during nanoparticle formation to stabilize the gelatin/collagen-based matrix wall and reservoir wall for the deliveries of Calendula officinalis powder and oil, respectively. In addition, therapeutic selectivity between malignant and normal cells could be observed. The C. officinalis powder loaded nanoparticles significantly strengthened the anti-cancer effect towards human breast adenocarcinoma MCF7 cells and human hepatoma SKHep1 cells when compared with the free powder. On the contrary, the nanoparticles did not show significant cytotoxicity towards normal esophageal epithelial NE3 cells and human skin keratinocyte HaCaT cells. On the basis of these evidences, D-glucose modified gelatin/collagen matrix nanoparticles containing C. officinalis powder might be proposed as a safer alternative vehicle for anti-cancer treatments. PMID:24657927

Lam, P-L; Kok, S H-L; Bian, Z-X; Lam, K-H; Tang, J C-O; Lee, K K-H; Gambari, R; Chui, C-H

2014-05-01

21

Antiherpes effect of Melissa officinalis L. extracts.  

PubMed

Studies were carried out on the virucidal and antiviral effects of Melissa officinalis L. extracts (M1, M3, M3 and M4) with respect to Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Virucidal effect was registered within 3 and 6 hours of treatment using M4 administered in MTC. The remaining extracts inactivate the virus at the 12th and 24th hour. No significant values of inhibiting activity of M1, M2, and M3 on the same virus in vitro or in vivo were demonstrated. The presence of caffeic, rosmarinic and ferulic acids was demonstrated by thin-layer chromatography. Their role in the antiviral activity of M. officinalis L. is discussed. PMID:8390134

Dimitrova, Z; Dimov, B; Manolova, N; Pancheva, S; Ilieva, D; Shishkov, S

1993-01-01

22

Screening of radical scavenging activity of some medicinal and aromatic plant extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts of 12 medicinal and aromatic plants were investigated for their radical scavenging activity using DPPH and ABTS assays: Salvia sclarea, Salvia glutinosa, Salvia pratensis, Lavandula angustifolia, Calendula officinalis, Matricaria recutita, Echinacea purpurea, Rhaponticum carthamoides, Juglans regia, Melilotus officinalis, Geranium macrorrhizum and Potentilla fruticosa. Salvia officinalis was used as a reference plant with well documented antioxidant activity. G. macrorrhizum and

G. Miliauskas; P. R. Venskutonis; T. A. van Beek

2004-01-01

23

Extraction of valerenic acids from valerian (Valeriana officinalis L.) rhizomes.  

PubMed

Extraction of valerenic acids (valerenic, acetoxyvalerenic and hydroxyvalerenic) from dry ground rhizomes of valerian (Valeriana officinalis L.) was studied. The effect of ethanol concentration in the solvent, extraction temperature and drug particle size on extraction kinetics were investigated and the optimum values of these process parameters were determined for the case of intensively stirred two-phase dispersion. It was found that increased processing temperature favors extraction kinetics, but provokes moderate degradation of valerenic acids. PMID:15497760

Boyadzhiev, L; Kancheva, D; Gourdon, C; Metcheva, D

2004-09-01

24

[Immunostimulating activity of a saponin-containing extract of Saponaria officinalis].  

PubMed

The immunostimulating activity of saponin-containing extract of Saponaria officinalis has been studied. Use of an S. officinalis extract in a concentration close to the critical concentration of saponin micella formation increased the immunogenicity of viral glycoproteins. The immunogenicity of glycoprotein complexes with S. officinalis was higher than the immunogenicity of intact virus and micellae of purified glycoproteins and was comparable to that of glycoprotein complexes with Quil A glycoside. PMID:10544452

Bogoiavlenski?, A P; Berezin, V E; Ogneva, A V; Tolmacheva, V P; Digel', I E; Khudiakova, S S

1999-01-01

25

Snake venom neutralization by Indian medicinal plants ( Vitex negundo and Emblica officinalis) root extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methanolic root extracts of Vitex negundo Linn. and Emblica officinalis Gaertn. were explored for the first time for antisnake venom activity. The plant (V. negundo and E. officinalis) extracts significantly antagonized the Vipera russellii and Naja kaouthia venom induced lethal activity both in in vitro and in vivo studies. V. russellii venom-induced haemorrhage, coagulant, defibrinogenating and inflammatory activity was

M. I Alam; A Gomes

2003-01-01

26

Evaluation of two natural extracts ( Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Melissa officinalis L.) as antioxidants in cooked pork patties packed in MAP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two natural extracts, from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.; Nutrox) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.; Meliox) showing a potential antioxidant activity, have been evaluated and compared with a synthetic antioxidant (Butylated hydroxytoluene; BHT) and a control batch. Pork meat patties were made by addition of the mentioned compounds, cooked and packed in modified atmosphere and stored under illumination for 6days.

M. S. Lara; J. I. Gutierrez; M. Timón; A. I. Andrés

2011-01-01

27

Valeriana officinalis Dry Plant Extract for Direct Compression: Preparation and Characterization  

PubMed Central

Valeriana officinalis L. (Valerianaceae) is one of the most widely used plants for the treatment of anxiety and insomnia. Usually dry plant extracts, including V. officinalis, are hygroscopic materials with poor physico-mechanical properties that can be directly compressed. A V. officinalis dry extract with moderate hygroscocity is suitable for direct compression, and was obtained by using a simple and economical technique. The V. officinalis fluid extract was oven-dried with colloidal silicon dioxide as a drying adjuvant. The addition of colloidal silicon dioxide resulted in a dry plant extract with good physico-mechanical properties for direct compression and lower hygroscopicity than the dry extract without the carrier. The dry plant extract glass transition temperature was considerably above room temperature (about 72 °C). The colloidal silicon dioxide also produced an antiplasticizing effect, improving the powder’s physical stability. The pharmaceutical performance of the prepared V. officinalis dry extract was studied through the design of tablets. The manufactured tablets showed good compactability, friability, hardness, and disintegration time. Those containing a disintegrant (Avicel PH 101) exhibited the best pharmaceutical performance, having the lowest disintegration time of around 40 seconds. PMID:23264947

Gallo, Loreana; Ramirez-Rigo, Maria Veronica; Pina, Juliana; Palma, Santiago; Allemandi, Daniel; Bucala, Veronica

2012-01-01

28

Spermatotoxic effect of ochratoxin and its amelioration by Emblica officinalis aqueous extract.  

PubMed

The present study was carried out to evaluate the spermatotoxic effect of ochratoxin and it's amelioration by Emblica officinalis aqueous extract. When male albino mice were treated with ochratoxin (50 and 100 microg/0.2 mL of olive oil/animal/day for 45 days, orally) alterations in various reproductive parameters were observed (sperm count, sperm motility, sperm viability and fertility rate), when further treated with the aqueous extract of Emblica officinalis (2 mg/animal/day for 45 days) amelioration was noted in ochratoxin-induced spermatotoxic effect. Oral administration of ochratoxin for 45 days caused, as compared to vehicle control (Group 2), dose-dependent significant (p < 0.05) reduction in cauda epididymal sperm count, sperm motility, sperm viability and fertility rate (Groups 4, 5). Oral administration of aqueous extract of Emblica officinalis alone did not cause any significant changes in above mentioned parameters (Group 3). However, Emblica officinalis aqueous extract along with ochratoxin treatment caused significant recovery in all the sperm parameters as well as in fertility rate (Groups 6, 7) in comparison with ochratoxin alone treated animals (Groups 4, 5). Amelioration was higher in high dose ochratoxin plus extract treated animals than that of respective low dose. When normal human sperm cell suspension was treated with ochratoxin (in vitro), various morphological alterations were observed. These were mitigated further, when treated with aqueous extract of Emblica officinalis. PMID:20050533

Chakraborty, Devjani; Verma, Ramtej

2009-01-01

29

Solid–liquid extraction of protopine from Fumaria officinalis L.—Experimental study and process optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimization of the protopine batch extraction from Fumaria officinalis was studied by experimental design. Several parameters were first studied in order to measure their influence on batch extraction thus enabling to choose the most accurate model. A response surface method design that allows investigating the simultaneous variations of the three main parameters (percentage of ethanol in solvent, temperature, solid–liquid weight

Lovasoa Rakotondramasy-Rabesiaka; Jean-Louis Havet; Catherine Porte; Henri Fauduet

2008-01-01

30

Estimation of effective diffusion and transfer rate during the protopine extraction process from Fumaria officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of the solid–liquid extraction of protopine from Fumaria officinalis were examined in this study in order to deduce the diffusivity and explain the mass transfer. Extraction was carried out by varying the following operating conditions: temperature, solid\\/solvent ratio and percentage of ethanol in solvent. A simple method based on Fick's laws for predicting the effective diffusion coefficient and

Lovasoa Rakotondramasy-Rabesiaka; Jean-Louis Havet; Catherine Porte; Henri Fauduet

2010-01-01

31

Neurotropic action of the hydroalcoholic extract of Melissa officinalis in the mouse.  

PubMed

A lyophilised hydroalcoholic extract of Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) has been evaluated for behavioral effects in mice. According to the traditional use of M. officinalis, sedative properties have been confirmed for low doses by the decrease of behavioral parameters measured in a non-familiar environment test (staircase test) and in a familiar environment test (two compartment test). With high doses, a peripheral analgesic activity was obtained by reducing the acetic acid-induced pain (writhing test); moreover, the plant extract induced the sleep in mice after treatment with an infrahypnotic dose of pentobarbital and potentialised the sleep induced by a hypnotic dose of pentobarbital. PMID:1891490

Soulimani, R; Fleurentin, J; Mortier, F; Misslin, R; Derrieu, G; Pelt, J M

1991-04-01

32

Synergistic antibacterial activity of Salvia officinalis and Cichorium intybus extracts and antibiotics.  

PubMed

Synergistic activity of Salvia officinalis and Cichorium intybus extracts and commonly used antibiotics, amoxicillin and chloramphenicol, were evaluated. Interactions between plant extracts and antibiotics were tested by checkerboard method and interpreted as FIC index. Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and clinical isolates Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis were used. Salvia officinalis showed better synergistic capacity than Cichorium intybus. Synergistic interactions were observed between amoxicillin and acetone or ethyl acetate extract of Salvia officinalis and between chloramphenicol and ethyl acetate extract of Salvia officinalis. In the presence of sub-inhibitory concentration (1/4 MIC to 1/32 MIC) of sage extracts, the MIC values of antibiotics were decreased by 2- to 10-fold. Synergism was observed against all test bacteria, except Escherichia coli. The combinations of acetone and ethyl acetate extract from Cichorium intybus and antibiotics resulted in additive and indifferent effects against tested bacteria. PMID:22594260

Stefanovi?, Olgica D; Stanojevi?, Dragana D; Comi?, Ljiljana R

2012-01-01

33

Antimicrobial activities of methanol extracts and essential oils of Rosmarinus officinalis, depending on location and seasonal variations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rosmarinus officinalis is widely found in the lands of Aegean and Mediterranean regions of Turkey. The goal of this work was to test the antimicrobial activity of the essential oils and methanolic extracts of R. officinalis collected from three different regions at four different time intervals of the year against Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterococcus feacalis,

O. Yesil Celiktas; E. E. Hames Kocabas; E. Bedir; F. Vardar Sukan; T. Ozek; K. H. C. Baser

2007-01-01

34

Sesquiterpene Glycosides from Calendula persica.  

PubMed

The polar fractions of the extract of the aerial parts of CALENDULA PERSICA afforded eight sesquiterpene glycosides, five derived from viridiflorol, two of beta-eudesmol, and one of 4alpha-hydroxygermacra-1(10) E,5E-diene. In addition to fucopyranosides, also chinovopyranosides were present. The structures were elucidated by high field NMR techniques. PMID:17265265

Jakupovic, J; Grenz, M; Bohlmann, F; Rustaiyan, A; Koussari, S

1988-06-01

35

Radical scavenging, antibacterial, and antiproliferative activities of Melissa officinalis L. extracts.  

PubMed

The aromatic herb Melissa officinalis L. can be used as an easily accessible source of natural antioxidants and as a possible food supplement and as a phytochemical. Radical scavenging, antibacterial, and antiproliferative activities of petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water extracts of M. officinalis L. extracts were investigated. The results of antioxidative activity, obtained by electron spin resonance spectroscopy, confirmed that investigated extracts suppressed the formation of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl, and lipid peroxyl radicals in all investigated systems in a dose-dependent manner. The maximum DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities (SA(DPPH) = SA(OH) = 100%) were achieved in the presence of n-butanol extract at concentrations of 0.4 mg/mL and 0.5 mg/mL, respectively. The highest lipid peroxyl scavenging activity (93.20%) was observed at a higher concentration (5 mg/mL) of n-butanol extract in the lipid peroxidation system. The most effective antibacterial activities were expressed by petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts on Sarcina lutea. Chloroform extract showed the strongest antiproliferative effect with 50% inhibitory concentration values of 0.09 mg/mL and 0.10 mg/mL for HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines, respectively. The present study demonstrated the high phenolic content and radical scavenging, antibacterial, and antiproliferative activities of extracts of M. officinalis L. originating from Serbia. PMID:18361749

Canadanovi?-Brunet, Jasna; Cetkovi?, Gordana; Djilas, Sonja; Tumbas, Vesna; Bogdanovi?, Gordana; Mandi?, Anamarija; Markov, Sinisa; Cvetkovi?, Dragoljub; Canadanovi?, Vladimir

2008-03-01

36

Melissa officinalis Extract Inhibits Laser-Induced Choroidal Neovascularization in a Rat Model  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study investigated the effect of Melissa officinalis extract on laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in a rat model. The mechanism by which M. officinalis extract acted was also investigated. Methods Experimental CNV was induced by laser photocoagulation in Brown Norway rats. An active fraction of the Melissa leaf extract was orally administered (50 or 100 mg/kg/day) beginning 3 days before laser photocoagulation and ending 14 days after laser photocoagulation. Optical coherence tomography and fluorescein angiography were performed in vivo to evaluate the thickness and leakage of CNV. Choroidal flat mount and histological analysis were conducted to observe the CNV in vitro. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and MMP-9 expression were measured in retinal and choroidal-scleral lysates 7 days after laser injury. Moreover, the effect of M. officinalis extract on tertiary-butylhydroperoxide (t-BH)-induced VEGF secretion and mRNA levels of VEGF, MMP-2, and MMP-9 were evaluated in human retinal epithelial cells (ARPE-19) as well as in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Results The CNV thickness in M. officinalis-treated rats was significantly lower than in vehicle-treated rats by histological analysis. The CNV thickness was 33.93±7.64 µm in the high-dose group (P<0.001), 44.09±12.01 µm in the low-dose group (P?=?0.016), and 51.00±12.37 µm in the control group. The proportion of CNV lesions with clinically significant fluorescein leakage was 9.2% in rats treated with high-dose M. officinalis, which was significantly lower than in control rats (53.4%, P<0.001). The levels of VEGF, MMP-2, and MMP-9 were significantly lower in the high-dose group than in the control group. Meanwhile, M. officinalis extract suppressed t-BH-induced transcription of VEGF and MMP-9 in ARPE-19 cells and HUVECs. Conclusions Systemic administration of M. officinalis extract suppressed laser-induced CNV formation in rats. Inhibition of VEGF and MMP-9 via anti-oxidative activity may underlie this effect. PMID:25314292

Lee, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Young Joo; Kim, Jin Young; Song, Hyun Beom; Yu, Hyeong Gon

2014-01-01

37

Effects of Asparagus officinalis extracts on liver cell toxicity and ethanol metabolism.  

PubMed

Asparagus officinalis is a vegetable that is widely consumed worldwide and has also long been used as a herbal medicine for the treatment of several diseases. Although A. officinalis is generally regarded as a supplement for the alleviation of alcohol hangover, little is known about its effects on cell metabolism. Therefore, this study was conducted to analyze the constituents of the young shoots and the leaves of asparagus and to compare their biochemical properties. The amino acid and inorganic mineral contents were found to be much higher in the leaves than the shoots. In addition, treatment of HepG2 human hepatoma cells with the leaf extract suppressed more than 70% of the intensity of hydrogen peroxide (1 mM)-stimulated DCF fluorescence, a marker of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Cellular toxicities induced by treatment with hydrogen peroxide, ethanol, or tetrachloride carbon (CCl(4)) were also significantly alleviated in response to treatment with the extracts of A. officinalis leaves and shoots. Additionally, the activities of 2 key enzymes that metabolize ethanol, alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase, were upregulated by more than 2-fold in response to treatment with the leaf- and shoot extracts. Taken together, these results provide biochemical evidence of the method by which A. officinalis exerts its biological functions, including the alleviation of alcohol hangover and the protection of liver cells against toxic insults. Moreover, the results of this study indicate that portions of asparagus that are typically discarded, such as the leaves, have therapeutic use. PMID:19895471

Kim, B-Y; Cui, Z-G; Lee, S-R; Kim, S-J; Kang, H-K; Lee, Y-K; Park, D-B

2009-09-01

38

Solid–liquid extraction of protopine from Fumaria officinalis L.—Kinetic modelling of influential parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influences of such parameters as percentage of ethanol in solvent, solid–liquid weight ratio and pH of medium on the protopine extraction from Fumaria officinalis particles with mean radius of 0.4–0.5mm was studied. A mathematical model, describing the importance of each parameter on the extraction of protopine with pseudo-second-order kinetics was proposed and the results were discussed. A numerical solution

L. Rakotondramasy-Rabesiaka; J.-L. Havet; C. Porte; H. Fauduet

2009-01-01

39

In vitro amoebicidal activity of borage (Borago officinalis) extract on Entamoeba histolytica.  

PubMed

Borage (Borago officinalis) is a plant with nutritional value that is also used in traditional medicine to treat gastrointestinal disease. This study investigated the amoebicidal activity of a methanol extract of borage. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC??) of the extract for Entamoeba histolytica was 33 ?g/mL. The 50% lethal dose of the extract for brine shrimp was greater than 1,000??g/mL. The IC?? of the extract for Vero cells was 203.9??g/mL. These results support the use of borage to prevent diseases associated with E. histolytica infection. PMID:21476887

Leos-Rivas, Catalina; Verde-Star, M Julia; Torres, Lidia Osuna; Oranday-Cardenas, Azucena; Rivas-Morales, Catalina; Barron-Gonzalez, M Porfiria; Morales-Vallarta, Mario R; Cruz-Vega, Delia E

2011-01-01

40

Larvicidal activity of essential extract of Rosmarinus officinalis against Culex quinquefasciatus.  

PubMed

Constituents in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) have been shown to have larvicidal activity against invertebrates. In order to explore the properties of crude extract of rosemary further, we studied the chemical composition and its activity against dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)-susceptible, DDT-resistant, and field strains of Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. The major components of R. officinalis were found to be eucalyptol and camphor, with relative percentages of 10.93% and 5.51%, respectively. Minor constituents included limonene, (+)-4-carene, isoborneol, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethylidene)-cyclohexene, and pinene. The median lethal concentration (LC50) values of the essential oil of R. officinalis against DDT-susceptible, DDT-resistant, and field strains of larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were 30.6, 26.4, and 38.3 mg/liter, respectively. The single median lethal dose (LD50) in Kunming mice was 4752 mg/kg. Essential oils from R. officinalis may, therefore, provide an effective natural plant product for use in mosquito prevention and control. PMID:23687854

Yu, Jing; Liu, Xiang-Yi; Yang, Bin; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Fu-Qiang; Feng, Zi-Liang; Wang, Chen-Zhu; Fan, Quan-Shui

2013-03-01

41

Local therapy of herpes simplex with dried extract from Melissa officinalis.  

PubMed

An overt multicentric study involving 115 patients and another subsequent placebo-controlled double-blind study involving 116 patients contributed significantly to the corroborative evidence of the antiviral activity in vitro of a specially prepared dried extract from Melissa leaves (Melissa officinalis L.) against herpes simplex infections. The studies provided the proof that the ingredient gave protection against herpes simplex infections. The initiation of the treatment in the very early stages of the infection revealed itself as most effective. PMID:23195812

Wölbling, R H; Leonhardt, K

1994-06-01

42

Polyethylene glycol-based ultrasound-assisted extraction of magnolol and honokiol from Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis.  

PubMed

In this study, a kind of green solvent named polyethylene glycol (PEG) was developed for the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of magnolol and honokiol from Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis. The effects of PEG molecular weight, PEG concentration, sample size, pH, ultrasonic power and extraction time on the extraction of magnolol and honokiol were investigated to optimise the extraction conditions. Under the optimal extraction conditions, the PEG-based UAE supplied higher extraction efficiencies of magnolol and honokiol than the ethanol-based UAE and traditional ethanol-reflux extraction. Furthermore, the correlation coefficient (R(2)), repeatability (relative standard deviation, n = 6) and recovery confirmed the validation of the proposed extraction method, which were 0.9993-0.9996, 3.1-4.6% and 92.3-106.8%, respectively. PMID:25204856

He, Lei; Fan, Tao; Hu, Jianguo; Zhang, Lijin

2015-01-01

43

Optimization of ultrasonic circulating extraction of polysaccharides from Asparagus officinalis using response surface methodology.  

PubMed

Polysaccharides were extracted from Asparagus officinalis. A novel ultrasonic circulating extraction (UCE) technology was applied for the polysaccharide extraction. Three-factor-three-level Box-Behnken design was employed to optimize ultrasonic power, extraction time and the liquid-solid ratio to obtain a high polysaccharide yield. The optimal extraction conditions were as follows: ultrasonic power was 600 W, extraction time was 46 min, the liquid-solid ratio was 35 mL/g. Under these conditions, the experimental yield of polysaccharides was 3.134%, which was agreed closely to the predicted value. The average molecular weight of A. officinalis polysaccharide was about 6.18×10(4) Da. The polysaccharides were composed of glucose, fucose, arabinose, galactose and rhamnose in a ratio of 2.18:1.86:1.50:0.98:1.53. Compared with hot water extraction (HWE), UCE showed time-saving, higher yield and no influence on the structure of asparagus polysaccharides. The results indicated that ultrasonic circulating extraction technology could be an effective and advisable technique for the large scale production of plant polysaccharides. PMID:21549748

Zhao, Qingsheng; Kennedy, John F; Wang, Xiaodong; Yuan, Xiaofan; Zhao, Bing; Peng, Youshun; Huang, Yunxiang

2011-08-01

44

Protective effects of different marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) and rosemary cream preparations against sodium-lauryl-sulfate-induced irritant contact dermatitis.  

PubMed

In the present study, we evaluated the protective action of cream preparations containing seven different types of marigold and rosemary extracts in vivo in healthy volunteers with experimentally induced irritant contact dermatitis (ICD). Marigold and rosemary extracts in base cream DAC (Deutscher Arzneimittel-Codex = German Pharmaceutical Codex) were tested in a 4-day repetitive irritation test using sodium lauryl sulfate. The effect was evaluated visually and quantified by noninvasive bioengineering methods, namely chromametry and tewametry. When the test products were applied parallel to the induction period of ICD, a statistically significant protective effect of all cream preparations was observed by all methods. This effect, although not statistically significant, was superior to control by undyed marigold und faradiol ester-enriched extracts in chromametry and by dyed and undyed rosemary extracts in tewametry. The sequential treatment (postirritation) once a day for 5 days was without any effect. Thus, a protective effect of some marigold and rosemary extracts against ICD could be shown in the elicitation phase. PMID:15908760

Fuchs, S M; Schliemann-Willers, S; Fischer, T W; Elsner, P

2005-01-01

45

Valeriana officinalis root extracts have potent anxiolytic effects in laboratory rats.  

PubMed

Valerian root (Valeriana officinalis) is a popular and widely available herbal supplement, primarily used to treat insomnia and anxiety. Until recently, its mechanism of action has remained unknown. Neurobiological research has begun to show that the herb, with its active valerenic acid, interacts with the GABA(A)-ergic system, a mechanism of action similar to the benzodiazepine drugs. This series of experiments sought to corroborate these findings with behavioral measures, compare them to the benzodiazepine diazepam, and to analyze the chemical composition of Valeriana officinalis. Rats were administered either ethanol (1 ml/kg), diazepam (1mg/kg), valerian root extract (3 ml/kg), valerenic acid (3mg/kg), or a solution of valerenic acid and exogenous GABA (75 microg/kg and 3.6 microg/kg, respectively) and assessed for the number of entries and time spent on the open arms of an elevated plus maze. Results showed that there was a significant reduction in anxious behavior when valerian extract or valerenic acid exposed subjects were compared to the ethanol control group. The evidence supports Valeriana officinalis as a potential alternative to the traditional anxiolytics as measured by the elevated plus maze. PMID:20042323

Murphy, K; Kubin, Z J; Shepherd, J N; Ettinger, R H

2010-07-01

46

Solid–liquid extraction of protopine from Fumaria officinalis L.—Analysis determination, kinetic reaction and model building  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid–liquid extraction was performed in a batch extractor, from aerial parts of Fumaria officinalis, in order to obtain an extract containing protopine. This study relates the influences of the temperature and nature of the solvent on the kinetics and rates of extraction. A method to quantify the protopine contents by Reverse Phase-High Pressure Liquid Chromatography was initially perfected. Then, a

Lovasoa Rakotondramasy-Rabesiaka; Jean-Louis Havet; Catherine Porte; Henri Fauduet

2007-01-01

47

Evaluation of bioactive properties and phenolic compounds in different extracts prepared from Salvia officinalis L.  

PubMed

The therapeutic benefits of medicinal plants are well known. Nevertheless, essential oils have been the main focus of antioxidant and antimicrobial studies, remaining scarce the reports with hydrophilic extracts. Thus, the antioxidant and antifungal activities of aqueous (prepared by infusion and decoction) and methanol/water (80:20, v/v) extracts of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) were evaluated and characterised in terms of phenolic compounds. Decoction and methanol/water extract gave the most pronounced antioxidant and antifungal properties, being positively related with their phenolic composition. The highest concentration of phenolic compounds was observed in the decoction, followed by methanol/water extract and infusion. Fungicidal and/or fungi static effects proved to be dependent on the extracts concentration. Overall, the incorporation of sage decoction in the daily diet or its use as a complement for antifungal therapies, could provide considerable benefits, also being an alternative to sage essential oils that can display some toxic effects. PMID:25306360

Martins, Natália; Barros, Lillian; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Henriques, Mariana; Silva, Sónia; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2015-03-01

48

Degradation of malathion, in aqueous extracts of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis).  

PubMed

Malathion was incubated in water extracts of vegetables at various temperatures and pH, and the amount of malathion present over time was analyzed by a gas chromatograph with a flame photometric detector. Malathion was degraded to a nondetectable level in a 1% asparagus extract incubated at pH 7.4 and 37 degrees C for 4 h. Carrot extract showed the second highest rate of malathion degradation (76%), followed by kale extract (23.7%), spinach extract (9.7%), and broccoli extract (1.5%) under the same conditions. The highest degradation rates of malathion were observed at 37 degrees C, when three different temperatures were tested (5, 25, and 37 degrees C) at pH 7.4. Rate constants were 0.134 min(-)(1) from a 1% asparagus solution and 0.095 min(-)(1) from a 0.5% asparagus solution. The highest degradation rate of malathion was achieved at pH 9 among the pHs tested (pH 4, 7.4, and 9) in a 0.5% asparagus solution. The 0.5% asparagus solution degraded dicarboxylic acid esters by almost 100% for dimethyl succinate and diethyl adipate, by 64% for diethyl acetyl succinate, and 30% for diethyl benzyl malonate when incubated at pH 9 for 20 min. The results support the hypothesis that the enzyme that degrades malathion in the asparagus solutions is a carboxylesterase. PMID:15366843

Okamoto, Yasuko; Shibamoto, Takayuki

2004-09-22

49

Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Carnosic Acid and Rosmarinic Acid Using Ionic Liquid Solution from Rosmarinus officinalis  

PubMed Central

Ionic liquid based, ultrasound-assisted extraction was successfully applied to the extraction of phenolcarboxylic acids, carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid, from Rosmarinus officinalis. Eight ionic liquids, with different cations and anions, were investigated in this work and [C8mim]Br was selected as the optimal solvent. Ultrasound extraction parameters, including soaking time, solid–liquid ratio, ultrasound power and time, and the number of extraction cycles, were discussed by single factor experiments and the main influence factors were optimized by response surface methodology. The proposed approach was demonstrated as having higher efficiency, shorter extraction time and as a new alternative for the extraction of carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid from R. officinalis compared with traditional reference extraction methods. Ionic liquids are considered to be green solvents, in the ultrasound-assisted extraction of key chemicals from medicinal plants, and show great potential. PMID:23109836

Zu, Ge; Zhang, Rongrui; Yang, Lei; Ma, Chunhui; Zu, Yuangang; Wang, Wenjie; Zhao, Chunjian

2012-01-01

50

Modulatory role of Emblica officinalis fruit extract against arsenic induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice.  

PubMed

Arsenic, an important human toxin, is naturally occurring in groundwater and its accumulation in plants and animals have assumed a menacing proportion in a large part of the world, particularly Asia. Epidemiological studies have shown a strong association between chronic arsenic exposure and various adverse health effects, including cardiovascular diseases, neurological defects and cancer of lung, skin, bladder, liver and kidney. The protective role of the fruits of Emblica officinalis (500 mg/kg b.wt.) was studied in adult Swiss albino mice against arsenic induced hepatopathy. Arsenic treated group (NaAsO(2), 4 mg/kg b.wt.) had a significant increase in serum transaminases and lipid peroxidation (LPO) content in liver, whereas significant decrease was recorded in hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and serum alkaline phosphatase activity. Combined treatment of Emblica and arsenic (pre and post) declined the serum transaminases and LPO content in liver whereas significant increase was noticed in SOD, CAT, GST and serum alkaline phosphatase activities. Liver histopathology showed that Emblica fruit extract had reduced karyolysis, karyorrhexis, necrosis and cytoplasmic vacuolization induced by NaAsO(2) intoxication. Thus it can be concluded that pre- and post-supplementation of E. officinalis fruit extract significantly reduced arsenic induced oxidative stress in liver. PMID:19428342

Sharma, Ambika; Sharma, Mukesh Kumar; Kumar, Madhu

2009-06-15

51

Attachment and Penetration of Acyclovir-resistant Herpes Simplex Virus are Inhibited by Melissa officinalis Extract.  

PubMed

Medicinal plants are increasingly of interest as novel source of drugs for antiherpetic agents, because herpes simplex virus (HSV) might develop resistance to commonly used antiviral drugs. An aqueous extract of Melissa officinalis and the phenolic compounds caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid and rosmarinic acid were examined for their antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) acyclovir-sensitive and clinical isolates of acyclovir-resistant strains in vitro. When drugs were added during the intracellular replication of HSV-1 infected cells, no antiviral effect was observed by plaque reduction assay. However, Melissa extract interacted directly with free viral particles of two acyclovir-resistant HSV strains at low IC50 values of 0.13 and 0.23?µg/mL and high selectivity indices of 2692 and 1522, respectively. The Melissa extract and rosmarinic acid inhibited HSV-1 attachment to host cells in a dose-dependent manner for acyclovir-sensitive and acyclovir-resistant strains. These results indicate that mainly rosmarinic acid contributed to the antiviral activity of Melissa extract. Penetration of herpes viruses into cells was inhibited by Melissa extract at 80% and 96% for drug-sensitive and drug-resistant viruses, respectively. Melissa extract exhibits low toxicity and affects attachment and penetration of acyclovir-sensitive and acyclovir-resistant HSVs in vitro. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24817544

Astani, Akram; Heidary Navid, Mojdeh; Schnitzler, Paul

2014-10-01

52

Identification of pyrogallol as an antiproliferative compound present in extracts from the medicinal plant Emblica officinalis: effects on in vitro cell growth of human tumor cell lines.  

PubMed

In this study we compared the in vitro antiproliferative activity of extracts from medicinal plants toward human tumor cell lines, including human erythromyeloid K562, B-lymphoid Raji, T-lymphoid Jurkat, erythroleukemic HEL cell lines. Extracts from Emblica officinalis were the most active in inhibiting in vitro cell proliferation, after comparison to those from Terminalia arjuna, Aphanamixis polystachya, Oroxylum indicum, Cuscuta reflexa, Aegle marmelos, Saraca asoka, Rumex maritimus, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Red Sandalwood. Emblica officinalis extracts have been studied previously, due to their hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antifungal, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory medicinal activities. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses allowed to identify pyrogallol as the common compound present both in unfractionated and n-butanol fraction of Emblica officinalis extracts. Antiproliferative effects of pyrogallol were therefore determined on human tumor cell lines thus identifying pyrogallol as an active component of Emblica officinalis extracts. PMID:12063567

Khan, Mahmud Tareq Hassan; Lampronti, Ilaria; Martello, Dino; Bianchi, Nicoletta; Jabbar, Shaila; Choudhuri, Mohammad Shahabuddin Kabir; Datta, Bidduyt Kanti; Gambari, Roberto

2002-07-01

53

Inhibitory activity of Melissa officinalis L. extract on Herpes simplex virus type 2 replication.  

PubMed

Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (lemon balm) is used in folk medicine for nervous complaints, lower abdominal disorders and, more recently, for treating Herpes simplex lesions. In this work the antiviral activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of lemon balm leaves against the Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was assessed by the cytopathic effect inhibition assay on Vero cells (ATCC CCL-81), in comparison with acyclovir. The cytotoxicity of the extract on Vero cells was previously tested by evaluating the cellular death and was confirmed by the Trypan blue test. Lemon balm showed to reduce the cytopathic effect of HSV-2 on Vero cells, in the range of non-toxic concentrations of 0.025-1 mg mL(-1) (with reference to the starting crude herbal material). The maximum inhibiting effect (60%) was obtained with 0.5 mg mL(-1). The viral binding assay showed that the extract does not prevent the entry of HSV-2 in the cells, thus suggesting a mechanism of action subsequent to the penetration of the virus in the cell. The extract was also chemically characterised by NMR and HPLC analysis; it showed to contain cinnamic acid-like compounds, mainly rosmarinic acid (4.1% w/w). Our experiments support the use of lemon balm for treating Herpes simplex lesions and encourage clinical trials on this medicinal plant. PMID:19023806

Mazzanti, G; Battinelli, L; Pompeo, C; Serrilli, A M; Rossi, R; Sauzullo, I; Mengoni, F; Vullo, V

2008-01-01

54

Antibacterial activity of medicinal plant extracts against periodontopathic bacteria.  

PubMed

This study was performed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Althaea officinalis L. roots, Arnica montana L. flowers, Calendula officinalis L. flowers, Hamamelis virginiana L. leaves, Illicium verum Hook. fruits and Melissa officinalis L. leaves, against anaerobic and facultative aerobic periodontal bacteria: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella spp., Fusobacterium nucleatum, Capnocytophaga gingivalis, Veilonella parvula, Eikenella corrodens, Peptostreptococcus micros and Actinomyces odontolyticus. The methanol extracts of H. virginiana and A. montana and, to a lesser extent, A. officinalis were shown to possess an inhibiting activity (MIC < or = 2048 mg/L) against many of the species tested. In comparison, M. officinalis and C. officinalis extracts had a lower inhibiting activity (MIC > or = 2048 mg/L) against all the tested species with the exception of Prevotella sp. Illicium verum methanol extract was not very active though it had a particular good activity against E. corrodens. The results suggest the use of the alcohol extracts of H. virginiana, A. montana and A. officinalis for topical medications in periodontal prophylactics. PMID:12820224

Iauk, L; Lo Bue, A M; Milazzo, I; Rapisarda, A; Blandino, G

2003-06-01

55

Protective role of Melissa officinalis L. extract on liver of hyperlipidemic rats: a morphological and biochemical study.  

PubMed

In this study, the effects of Melissa officinalis L. extract on hyperlipidemic rats were investigated, morphologically and biochemically. The animals were fed a lipogenic diet consisting of 2% cholesterol, 20% sunflower oil and 0.5% cholic acid added to normal chow and were given 3% ethanol for 42 days. The plant extract was given by gavage technique to rats to a dose of 2 g/kg every day for 28, 14 days after experimental animals done hyperlipidemia. The degenerative changes were observed in hyperlipidemic rats, light and electron microscopically. There was a significant increase in the levels of serum cholesterol, total lipid, alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), a significant decrease in the levels of liver tissue glutathione (GSH), a significant increase in the levels of tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO) in this group. On the other hand, the administration of Melissa officinalis L. extract reduced total cholesterol, total lipid, ALT, AST and ALP levels in serum, and LPO levels in liver tissue, moreover increased glutathione levels in the tissue. As a result, it was suggested that Melissa officinalis L. extract exerted an hypolipidemic effect and showed a protective effect on the liver of hyperlipidemic rats. PMID:15946812

Bolkent, S; Yanardag, R; Karabulut-Bulan, Omur; Yesilyaprak, B

2005-07-14

56

Anticonvulsant and analgesic activities of crude extract and its fractions of the defensive secretion from the Mediterranean sponge, Spongia officinalis  

PubMed Central

This study progresses in the direction of identifying component(s) from the Mediterranean sponge, Spongia officinalis with anticonvulsant and analgesic activities. We investigated the efficacy of crude extract and its semi-purified fractions (F1-F3) of the defensive secretion from Spongia officinalis for their in vivo anticonvulsant activity using the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) seizure model and analgesic activity using the writhing test in mice. Among the series the crude extract exhibited interesting analgesic activity in a dose dependent manner. Similarly the fraction F2 showed a partial protection of mice from PTZ-induced seizure and interesting analgesic activity in a dose dependent manner. The purification and the determination of chemical structure(s) of compound(s) of this active fraction are under investigation. PMID:22494441

2012-01-01

57

Evaluation of an Aqueous-Ethanolic Extract from Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) for its Activity on the Hormonal and Cellular Function of Testes in Adult Male Rat  

PubMed Central

Rosmarinus officinalis has been used in traditional medicine extensively. This study evaluated the hormonal and cellular effects of Rosmarinus officinalis extract on testes of adult rats. Thirty male Wistar rats (in three groups) received 50 or 100 mg/Kg b.w of Rosmarinus officinalis extract (made from the plant’s leaves, flower and stem) (treatment groups) and 10 mL/Kg b.w normal saline (control group) respectively, on a daily bases by gavage route for 60 days. Then, spermatological properties, histometric parameters and sperm dynamics, testis and body weight, testicular cell population and serum testosterone level were analyzed by an acceptable method. Results showed that the mean serum testosterone level was decreased significantly in both treatment groups (50 and 100 mg/Kg b.w) during the experiment time, compared with control group (p < 0.05). However, Rosmarinus officinalis did not change the total count, motility and viability of sperm. In addition, Rosmarinus officinalis at both doses did not change body and testes weight and their ratio. Furthermore, Rosmarinus officinalis increased the number of Spermatogonia at both doses, Spermatocyte at doses of 50 mg/Kg b.w, Leydig cell and Spermatid at dose of 100 mg/Kg b.w significantly (p < 0.05). Rosmarinus officinalis did not significantly affect the number of Spermatozoid and Sertoli cells. In conclusion, it seems that Rosmarinus officinalis may have some hormonal and cellular effects on the testes which can contribute the spermatogenesis process in rat. Rosmarinus officinalis may have antiandrogenic effect potentially indicating the possibility of developing herbal male contraceptive. PMID:24250620

Heidari-Vala, Hamed; Ebrahimi Hariry, Reza; Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Ghaffari Novin, Marefat; Heidari, Mahnaz

2013-01-01

58

Comparison of different extraction methods for the determination of ?- and ?-thujone in sage (Salvia officinalis L.) herbal tea.  

PubMed

Salvia officinalis L. (sage) is an important industrial plant used both for food and pharmaceutical purposes. The terpene fraction of this plant is responsible for many of its therapeutic and culinary properties. We used different extraction methods Tenax TA® purge and trap, headspace (HS) solid-phase microextraction, HS sorptive extraction, and stir bar sorptive extraction to analyze the terpene fraction extracted from sage tea by GC-MS. Twenty compounds were identified, including ?-, ?-thujone, and several other oxygenated monoterpenes (1,8-cineole, linalool, camphor, boneol, and bornyl acetate) and oxygenated sesquiterpenes (caryophyllene oxide, viridiflorol, humulene epoxide I, II, and III). Tenax TA® and HS sorptive extraction extracted a lower number of identified compounds, whereas HS solid-phase microextraction allowed the complete extraction of volatiles with particular reference to ?- and ?-thujone. The importance of the determination of thujones content in sage herbal tea is also discussed. PMID:23843295

Arceusz, Agnieszka; Occhipinti, Andrea; Capuzzo, Andrea; Maffei, Massimo E

2013-09-01

59

Effects of Melissa officinalis L. (Lemon Balm) Extract on Neurogenesis Associated with Serum Corticosterone and GABA in the Mouse Dentate Gyrus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lemon balm, leaves of Melissa officinalis L., has been used for anti-anxiety and spasmolytics. We observed the extract of Melissa officinalis L. (MOE) on cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) of middle-aged mice (12 months\\u000a of age) using Ki67 and doublecortin (DCX), respectively. We also observed changes in corticosterone, GAD67 and GABA-transaminase\\u000a (GABA-T) to check their

Dae Young Yoo; Jung Hoon Choi; Woosuk Kim; Ki-Yeon Yoo; Choong Hyun Lee; Yeo Sung Yoon; Moo-Ho Won; In Koo Hwang

2011-01-01

60

Pilot trial of Melissa officinalis L. leaf extract in the treatment of volunteers suffering from mild-to-moderate anxiety disorders and sleep disturbances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Botanicals are an alternative option to prescription drugs for the alleviation of symptoms due to anxiety disorders and insomnia.\\u000a Melissa officinalis L. has been shown as an anti-stress and anxiolytic agent. We previously reported moderate stress improvement in mice in which\\u000a Cyracos®, a standardized Melissa officinalis L. extract, was administrated. Cyracos® contains phytochemicals that inhibit gamma-aminobutyric acid catabolism. This was

Julien Cases; Alvin Ibarra; Nicolas Feuillère; Marc Roller; Samir G. Sukkar

61

Protective effect of an extract of Emblica officinalis against radiation-induced damage in mice.  

PubMed

The radioprotective effect of Emblica officinalis extract (EOE) was studied in mice. Swiss albino mice were exposed to gamma rays (5 Gy) in the absence (control) or presence (experimental) of EOE, orally 100 mg/kg body weight, once daily for 7 consecutive days. A specimen of small intestine (jejunum) was removed from the mice and studied at different autopsy intervals from 12 hours to 30 days. In control animals, crypt cell population, mitotic figures, and villus length were markedly reduced on day 1; these later started to increase progressively but did not attain the normal level even at the last autopsy interval. The animals receiving EOE prior to irradiation had a higher number of crypt cells and mitotic figures when compared with non-drug-treated control at all the autopsy intervals. Irradiation of animals resulted in a dose-dependent elevation in lipid peroxidation and a reduction in glutathione as well as catalase concentration in the intestine at 1 hour post-irradiation. In contrast, EOE treatment before irradiation caused a significant depletion in lipid peroxidation and elevation in glutathione and catalase levels. PMID:19223372

Jindal, Archana; Soyal, Dhanraj; Sharma, Abhilasha; Goyal, P K

2009-03-01

62

Microwave-assisted extraction of coumarin and related compounds from Melilotus officinalis (L.) Pallas as an alternative to Soxhlet and ultrasound-assisted extraction.  

PubMed

Soxhlet extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction (USAE) and microwaves-assisted extraction (MAE) in closed system have been investigated to determine the content of coumarin, o-coumaric and melilotic acids in flowering tops of Melilotus officinalis. The extracts were analyzed with an appropriate HPLC procedure. The reproducibility of extraction and of chromatographic analysis was proved. Taking into account the extraction yield, the cost and the time, we studied the effects of extraction variables on the yield of the above-mentioned compounds. Better results were obtained with MAE (50% v/v aqueous ethanol, two heating cycles of 5 min, 50 degrees C). On the basis of the ratio extraction yield/extraction time, we therefore propose MAE as the most efficient method. PMID:16769080

Martino, Emanuela; Ramaiola, Ilaria; Urbano, Mariangela; Bracco, Francesco; Collina, Simona

2006-09-01

63

Asparagus officinalis extract controls blood glucose by improving insulin secretion and ?-cell function in streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-diabetic mechanism of Asparagus officinalis, a dietary agent used for the management of diabetes. Streptozotocin (90 mg/kg) was injected in 2-d-old Wistar rat pups to induce non-obese type 2 diabetes. After confirmation of diabetes on the 13th week, diabetic rats were treated with a methanolic extract of A. officinalis seeds (250 and 500 mg/kg per d) or glibenclamide for 28 d. After the treatment, fasting blood glucose, serum insulin and total antioxidant status were measured. The pancreas was examined by haematoxylin-eosin staining and immunostained ?- and ?-cells were observed using a fluorescence microscope. Treatment of the diabetic rats with the A. officinalis extract at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg suppressed the elevated blood glucose in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The 500 mg/kg, but not 250 mg/kg, dose significantly improved serum insulin levels in the diabetic rats. The insulin:glucose ratio was significantly increased at both doses in the A. officinalis-treated rats. Both qualitative and quantitative improvements in ?-cell function were found in the islets of the A. officinalis-treated rats. The extract showed potent antioxidant activity in an in vitro assay and also improved the total antioxidant status in vivo. In most cases, the efficacy of A. officinalis (500 mg/kg) was very similar to a standard anti-diabetic drug, glibenclamide. Thus, the present study suggests that A. officinalis extract exerts anti-diabetic effects by improving insulin secretion and ?-cell function, as well as the antioxidant status. PMID:22221560

Hafizur, Rahman Md; Kabir, Nurul; Chishti, Sidra

2012-11-14

64

Kinetin applications alleviate salt stress and improve the antioxidant composition of leaf extracts in Salvia officinalis.  

PubMed

A pot experiment was carried out under glasshouse conditions with common sage (Salvia officinalis L.) to investigate the interactive effects of salt stress and kinetin on growth attributes and the abundance of pigments, ions, phenolic diterpenes and ?-tocopherol in leaf extracts of this species. The plants were subjected to the following four treatments: (i) control (nutrient solution), (ii) control + 10 ?M kinetin, (iii) salt stress (nutrient solution + 100 mM NaCl), and (iv) salt stress + 10 ?M kinetin. Kinetin was applied as a foliar fertilizer. Salt stress reduced water contents, photosynthetic activity and pigment contents of sage leaves. In addition, it increased Na(+) contents, and reduced those of Ca(2+) and K(+) in leaves. Salt stress reduced carnosic acid and 12-O-methyl carnosic acid contents in leaves, while it did not affect carnosol and ?-tocopherol contents. Foliar applications of kinetin seemed to counterbalance or alleviate the stress symptoms induced by salinity, improving ion and pigment contents, while leaf phenolic diterpene (mainly carnosol) and ?-tocopherol contents also increased in both control and NaCl-treated plants; still this effect was much more obvious in salt-treated plants. A similar effect was also obtained when plants were sprayed with KNO(3) or Ca(NO(3))(2), thus suggesting that kinetin effects were at least partly due to an improvement of ion homeostasis. Kinetin applications resulted in increased transcript levels of the isoprenoid and tocopherol biosynthetic genes, DXPRI and VTE2 and VTE4 in control plants, but not in NaCl-treated plants. We conclude that kinetin can alleviate the negative impact of salt on sage plants cultivated under arid environments with salinity problems. PMID:21856165

Tounekti, Taïeb; Hernández, Iker; Müller, Maren; Khemira, Habib; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

2011-10-01

65

Comparative study of the antioxidant and reactive oxygen species scavenging properties in the extracts of the fruits of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cellular damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in several diseases, and hence natural antioxidants have significant importance in human health. The present study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and reactive oxygen species scavenging activities of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis fruit extracts. METHODS: The 70% methanol extracts were studied

Bibhabasu Hazra; Rhitajit Sarkar; Santanu Biswas; Nripendranath Mandal

2010-01-01

66

Essential oil composition of Valeriana officinalis L. roots cultivated in Iran. Comparative analysis between supercritical CO2 extraction and hydrodistillation.  

PubMed

The composition of essential oil extracted from Valeriana officinalis L. roots growing wild in Iran was studied by hydrodistillation and supercritical CO2 extraction. Forty-seven components representing 89.3% and 35 constituents varying from 86.1% to 95.1% of the oil obtained by hydrodistillation and supercritical CO2 were identified, respectively. The major components in the extracted oil from supercritical CO2 were isovaleric acid (18.7-41.8%), valerenic acid (8.2-11.8%), acetoxyvaleranone (5.6-9.6%), (Z)-valernyl acetate (4.5-6.5%), bornyl acetate (2.3-7.7%) and valerenol (3.7-5.2%), whereas by hydrodistillation were bornyl acetate (11.6%), valerenic acid (8.0%), (Z)-valernyl acetate (7.9%) and acetoxyvaleranone (7.6%). The analysis of the extracts was performed by capillary GC and GC/MS. PMID:18164718

Safaralie, Asghar; Fatemi, Shohreh; Sefidkon, Fatemeh

2008-02-01

67

Protective effect of a 50% hydroalcoholic fruit extract of Emblica officinalis against anti-tuberculosis drugs induced liver toxicity.  

PubMed

The present report showed the hepatoprotective property of a 50% hydroalcoholic extract of the fruits of Emblica officinalis (fruit) (EO-50) against antituberculosis (anti-TB) drugs-induced hepatic injury. The biochemical manifestations of hepatotoxicity induced by rifampicin (RIF), isoniazid (INH) and pyrazinamide (PZA), either given alone or in combination were evaluated. In vitro studies were done on suspension cultures of rat hepatocytes while sub-acute studies were carried out in rats. The hepatoprotective activity of EO-50 was found to be due to its membrane stabilizing, antioxidative and CYP 2E1 inhibitory effects. PMID:15934014

Tasduq, S A; Kaisar, P; Gupta, D K; Kapahi, B K; Maheshwari, H S; Jyotsna, S; Johri, R K

2005-03-01

68

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of antioxidants from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) leaves for use in edible vegetable oils.  

PubMed

Supercritical extraction was employed to produce rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extracts with different composition and antioxidant activity. CO? was utilized as supercritical solvent and diverse extraction conditions (temperature, pressure, amount of cosolvent and fractionation scheme) were applied. The extracts with higher antioxidant content were selected to study their capability as natural antioxidant of several commercial edible vegetable oils. Linseed oil (LO), grape seed oil (GO) and sesame oil (SO) were oxidized under Rancimat conditions in presence of 0, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg of selected extracts. Antioxidant activity index (AAI) was estimated as the ratio of induction time in presence of extracts to induction time in absence of extract. Induction time in absence of extracts was 3.3, 7.9 and 23.4 h for LO, GO and SO, respectively. Regardless of these different susceptibilities, the highest AAI for the three oils was obtained for the extract with the highest antioxidant-enrichment (33.25% carnosic acid plus carnosol) and added at the highest level (300 mg/kg). However, at such conditions, the AAI was significantly higher (p<0.001) for LO (3.5), followed by SO (2.2) and the poorest value was for GO (1.1). Therefore, the magnitude of the AAI depended on the antioxidant-enrichment of the extracts, the level of addition within the oils, but also on the own individual oils. PMID:23196869

Vicente, Gonzalo; Martín, Diana; García-Risco, Mónica R; Fornari, Tiziana; Reglero, Guillermo

2012-01-01

69

Testing and enhancing the in vitro bioaccessibility and bioavailability of Rosmarinus officinalis extracts with a high level of antioxidant abietanes.  

PubMed

An antioxidant-enriched extract (RE) was obtained from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) by supercritical fluid extraction to be used as an ingredient to design functional foods. The optimized mixture (42 mg RE g(-1) sunflower oil) was submitted to in vitro digestion and absorption tests (using Caco2 cells) to investigate the effect of these processes on its DPPH scavenging activity and also whether its major abietanes (tricyclic diterpenes) might be bioaccessible and bioavailable. Results indicated that supplementation of the rosemary extract with sunflower oil and lecithin (37 mg g(-1)) enhanced abietanes micellation (almost 2-fold). In vitro digestion of the mixture including RE, sunflower oil, and lecithin reduced 50% the bioaccesibility in terms of antioxidant activity. Bioavailability was 31%. It was evidenced that this activity was not due to the original levels of carnosol, carnosic acid, and methyl carnosate (which only 47% remained after digestion) but due to their derivatives and digestion products. PMID:20038145

Soler-Rivas, Cristina; Marín, Francisco R; Santoyo, Susana; García-Risco, Mónica R; Señoráns, F Javier; Reglero, Guillermo

2010-01-27

70

Selective Interactions of Valeriana officinalis Extracts and Valerenic Acid with [H]Glutamate Binding to Rat Synaptic Membranes.  

PubMed

Although GABA neurotransmission has been suggested as a mechanism for Valeriana officinalis effects, CNS depression can also be evoked by inhibition of ionotropic (iGluR) and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR). In this study, we examined if aqueous valerian extract interacted with glutamatergic receptors. Freshly prepared aqueous valerian extract was incubated with rat cortical synaptic membranes in presence of 20?nM [(3)H]Glutamate. Aqueous valerian extract increased [(3)H]Glutamate binding from 1 × 10(-7) to 1 × 10(-3)?mg/mL. In the presence of (2S,1'S,2'S)-2-(Carboxycyclopropyl)glycine (LCCG-I) and (2S,2'R,3'R)-2-(2',3'-Dicarboxycyclopropyl)glycine (DCG-IV), Group II mGluR agents, valerian extract markedly decreased [(3)H]Glutamate binding, while (2S)-2-amino-3-(3,5-dioxo-1,2,4-oxadiazolidin-2-yl) propanoic acid) (quisqualic acid, QA), Group I mGluR agonist, increased [(3)H]Glutamate binding. At 0.05?mg/mL aqueous valerian extract specifically interacted with kainic acid NMDA and AMPA receptors. Valerenic acid, a marker compound for Valeriana officinalis, increased the [(3)H]Glutamate binding after 1.6 × 10(-2)?mg/mL, and at 0.008?mg/mL it interacted only with QA (Group I mGluR). The selective interactions of valerian extract and valerenic acid with Group I and Group II mGluR may represent an alternative explanation for the anxiolytic properties of this plant. PMID:21584239

Del Valle-Mojica, Lisa M; Ayala-Marín, Yoshira M; Ortiz-Sanchez, Carmen M; Torres-Hernández, Bianca A; Abdalla-Mukhaimer, Safa; Ortiz, José G

2011-01-01

71

Selective Interactions of Valeriana officinalis Extracts and Valerenic Acid with [3H]Glutamate Binding to Rat Synaptic Membranes  

PubMed Central

Although GABA neurotransmission has been suggested as a mechanism for Valeriana officinalis effects, CNS depression can also be evoked by inhibition of ionotropic (iGluR) and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR). In this study, we examined if aqueous valerian extract interacted with glutamatergic receptors. Freshly prepared aqueous valerian extract was incubated with rat cortical synaptic membranes in presence of 20?nM [3H]Glutamate. Aqueous valerian extract increased [3H]Glutamate binding from 1 × 10?7 to 1 × 10?3?mg/mL. In the presence of (2S,1?S,2?S)-2-(Carboxycyclopropyl)glycine (LCCG-I) and (2S,2?R,3?R)-2-(2?,3?-Dicarboxycyclopropyl)glycine (DCG-IV), Group II mGluR agents, valerian extract markedly decreased [3H]Glutamate binding, while (2S)-2-amino-3-(3,5-dioxo-1,2,4-oxadiazolidin-2-yl) propanoic acid) (quisqualic acid, QA), Group I mGluR agonist, increased [3H]Glutamate binding. At 0.05?mg/mL aqueous valerian extract specifically interacted with kainic acid NMDA and AMPA receptors. Valerenic acid, a marker compound for Valeriana officinalis, increased the [3H]Glutamate binding after 1.6 × 10?2?mg/mL, and at 0.008?mg/mL it interacted only with QA (Group I mGluR). The selective interactions of valerian extract and valerenic acid with Group I and Group II mGluR may represent an alternative explanation for the anxiolytic properties of this plant. PMID:21584239

Del Valle-Mojica, Lisa M.; Ayala-Marin, Yoshira M.; Ortiz-Sanchez, Carmen M.; Torres-Hernandez, Bianca A.; Abdalla-Mukhaimer, Safa; Ortiz, Jose G.

2011-01-01

72

Biosynthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles using Emblica Officinalis fruit extract, their phase transfer and transmetallation in an organic solution.  

PubMed

The design, synthesis and characterization of biologically synthesized nanomaterials have become an area of significant interest. In this paper, we report the extracellular synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles using Emblica Officinalis (amla, Indian Gooseberry) fruit extract as the reducing agent to synthesize Ag and Au nanoparticles, their subsequent phase transfer to an organic solution and the transmetallation reaction of hydrophobized silver nanoparticles with hydrophobized chloroaurate ions. On treating aqueous silver sulfate and chloroauric acid solutions with Emblica Officinalis fruit extract, rapid reduction of the silver and chloroaurate ions is observed leading to the formation of highly stable silver and gold nanoparticles in solution. Transmission Electron Microscopy analysis of the silver and gold nanoparticles indicated that they ranged in size from 10 to 20 nm and 15 to 25 nm respectively. Ag and Au nanoparticles thus synthesized were then phase transferred into an organic solution using a cationic surfactant octadecylamine. Transmetallation reaction between hydrophobized silver nanoparticles and hydrophobized chloroaurate ions in chloroform resulted in the formation of gold nanoparticles. PMID:16245525

Ankamwar, Balaprasad; Damle, Chinmay; Ahmad, Absar; Sastry, Murali

2005-10-01

73

Antiulcerogenic effect of methanolic extract of Emblica officinalis: an experimental study.  

PubMed

The ulcer protective potential of methanolic extract of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (EOE) was assessed in different acute gastric ulcer models in rats induced by aspirin, ethanol, cold restraint stress and pyloric ligation and healing effect in chronic gastric ulcers induced by acetic acid in rats. EOE, 10-50 mg/kg administered orally, twice daily for 5 days showed dose-dependent ulcer protective effects in all the above acute ulcer models (36.0-98.3% protection, P < 0.2 to P < 0.001) and significant ulcer healing effect in dose of 20 mg/kg after 5 (control ulcer index: 20.2+/-2.3 mm(2)/rat, % healing 59.6%, P < 0.001) and 10 (control UI: 11.0+/-1.7, % healing 65.5%, P < 0.01) days treatment. Further study on gastric mucosal factors showed that it significantly decreased the offensive factors like acid (acid output-control 118.7+/-12.1 microEq/4 h, EOE% decrease 65.9%, P < 0.01) and pepsin (peptic output-control 738.8 micromol/4 h, EOE% decrease 46.2%, P < 0.001) and increased the defensive factors like mucin secretion (TC:P ratio-control 1.21+/-0.15, EOE% increase 95.0%, P < 0.01), cellular mucus (TC:P ratio-control 1.16+/-0.13, EOE% increase 53.4%, P < 0.05) and life span of mucosal cells (DNA content of gastric juice-control 77.3+/-8.7 microg/m per 100 g body weight, EOE% decrease 42.1%, P < 0.05). EOE showed significant antioxidant effect in stressed animals (control UI 35.8+/-2.5, antioxidant status: LPO 0.58+/-0.03 nmol MDA/mg protein, SOD and CAT 227.8+/-6.3 and 18.4+/-1.2 U/mg protein respectively; EOE% decrease in UI 88.2%, mucosal LPO 69.0%, SOD 53.1% and increase in mucosal CAT 59.8%, P < 0.001 respectively) and did not have any effect on cell proliferation in terms of DNA microg/mg protein or glandular weight. The results showed that EOE had significant ulcer protective and healing effects and this might be due to its effects both on offensive and defensive mucosal factors. PMID:12169398

Sairam, K; Rao, Ch V; Babu, M Dora; Kumar, K Vijay; Agrawal, V K; K Goel, R K

2002-09-01

74

Hydroalcoholic extract of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and its constituent carnosol inhibit formalin-induced pain and inflammation in mice.  

PubMed

The anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive properties of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (ROL) extract and its major constituent, carnosol in male NMRI mice (W:25-30 g) have been evaluated in the present study. Formalin (2%, 20 microL) was injected into the plantar portion of the hind paw and resulting pain and inflammation was studied for 60 min. The plant extract, carnosol and other drugs were administered intraperitoneally or subcutaneously 30 min before formalin injection. In a separate experiment, the effects of the extract and carnosol on plasma corticosterone levels and activity of the enzymes cyclooxygenase type 1 and 2 (COX1 and COX2) were investigated. Injection of different doses of ROL and carnosol reduced pain in the phase 2 of the formalin test, which was not inhibited by naloxone and/or memantine. In addition, pretreatment of the animals with ROL and/or carnosol reduces the formalin-induced inflammation. Furthermore, the extract and carnosol did not affect plasma corticosterone levels compared with the control group. Interestingly, both the extract and carnosol inhibited COX1 and COX2 activity. It could be concluded that ROL extract and carnosol suppressed pain and inflammation induced by formalin injection, which may be due to inhibition of COX1 and COX2 enzymes activity. PMID:24498797

Emami, F; Ali-Beig, H; Farahbakhsh, S; Mojabi, N; Rastegar-Moghadam, B; Arbabian, S; Kazemi, M; Tekieh, E; Golmanesh, L; Ranjbaran, M; Jalili, C; Noroozzadeh, A; Sahraei, H

2013-04-01

75

GC-MS analysis of essential oils from Salvia officinalis L.: comparison of extraction methods of the volatile components.  

PubMed

In this paper, comparison of the volatile components composition in the samples obtained by hydrodistillation and solid-phase microextraction of Salvia officinalis was described. Different sample preparation techniques showed considerable differences in volatiles composition, especially with respect to sesqui- and diterpenoids. The comparison of the sage essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation in the Deryng and Clevenger type apparatus, according to the pharmacopoeial methods (FP VI and VII), showed the presence of the same terpenoids in both essential oils, however, the relative percentage composition of the components were different. These differences are caused by the different extraction times used in both methods. Since each essential oil to be admitted to medicinal use should meet requirements regarding the composition of major chemical components, the minimum time for the hydrodistillation of the essential oils from sage should be 1 h. PMID:23610957

Baj, Tomasz; Ludwiczuk, Agnieszka; Sieniawska, Elwira; Skalicka-Wo?niak, Krystyna; Widelski, Jaros?aw; Zieba, Krzysztof; G?owniak, Kazimierz

2013-01-01

76

A clinical study: Melaleuca, Manuka, Calendula and green tea mouth rinse.  

PubMed

A novel mouthrinse (IND 61,164) containing essential oils and extracts from four plant species (Melaleuca alternifolia, Leptospermum scoparium, Calendula officinalis and Camellia sinensis) were tested. This study aimed to evaluate the safety, palatability and preliminary efficacy of the rinse. Fifteen subjects completed the Phase I safety study. Seventeen subjects completed the Phase II randomized placebo-controlled study. Plaque was collected, gingival and plaque indices were recorded (baseline, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks). The relative abundance of two periodontal pathogens (Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Tanerella forsythensis) was determined utilizing digoxigenin-labeled DNA probes. ANCOVA was used at the p = 0.05 level of significance. Two subjects reported a minor adverse event. One subject withdrew from the study. Several subjects objected to the taste of the test rinse but continued treatment. Differences between gingival index, plaque index or relative abundance of either bacterial species did not reach statistical significance when comparing nine placebo subjects with eight test rinse subjects. Subjects exposed to the test rinse experienced no abnormal oral lesions, altered vital signs, changes in liver, kidney, or bone marrow function. Larger scale studies would be necessary to determine the efficacy and oral health benefits of the test rinse. PMID:16317652

Lauten, Jeffrey D; Boyd, Linda; Hanson, M Blair; Lillie, Dana; Gullion, Christina; Madden, Theresa E

2005-11-01

77

Effects of Lavandula officinalis and Equisetum arvense dry extracts and isoquercitrin on the fermentation of diets varying in forage contents by rumen microorganisms in batch culture.  

PubMed

The short-term actions of Lavandula officinalis and Equisetum arvense dry extracts, and of isoquercitrin, flavonoid present in Equisetum arvense, on in vitro fermentation by rumen microbes were studied in batch culture. The orchard grass hay:barley ratios in the three experimental diets were 100:0, 75:25, 50:50 on a DM basis. The production rates of all volatile fatty acids except isobutyrate were strongly influenced by the composition of the diet and to a lesser extent, by plant extracts, with significant interactions between both factors. When hay was the only substrate, the addition of L. officinalis and E. arvense enhanced the fermentation rate by 50%, through an increased release of acetate and propionate. On the contrary, with the two other diets, the fermentation rate was strongly lowered by isoquercitrin. Gas outputs were not significantly influenced by plant extracts. PMID:11140815

Broudiscou, L P; Lassalas, B

2000-01-01

78

In vitro trematocidal effects of crude alcoholic extracts of Artemisia annua, A. absinthium, Asimina triloba, and Fumaria officinalis: trematocidal plant alcoholic extracts.  

PubMed

Trematode infections negatively affect human and livestock health, and threaten global food safety. The only approved human anthelmintics for trematodiasis are triclabendazole and praziquantel with no alternative drugs in sight. We tested six crude plant extracts against adult Schistosoma mansoni, Fasciola hepatica, and Echinostoma caproni in vitro. Mortality was best achieved by ethanolic extracts of Artemisia annua (sweet Annie), Asimina triloba (paw-paw), and Artemisia absinthium (wormwood) which, at 2 mg/mL, killed S. mansoni and E. caproni in 20 h or less (except for wormwood), F. hepatica between 16 and 23 h (sweet Annie), or 40 h (paw-paw). Some extracts were active at 0.2 mg/mL and 20 ?g/mL, although more time was required to kill trematodes. However, aqueous A. annua and methanol extracts of Fumaria officinalis had no activity. Chromatographic analysis of the three best extracts established that A. annua and A. triloba extracts contained bioactive artemisinin and acetogenins (asimicin and bullatacin), respectively. The anthelmintic activity of our extracts at such low doses indicates that their anthelmintic activity deserves further testing as natural alternative controls for parasites of both animals and humans. Our results also support recent evidence that synergistic effects of multiple bioactive compounds present in crude plant extracts is worth exploring. PMID:21562762

Ferreira, Jorge F S; Peaden, Paul; Keiser, Jennifer

2011-12-01

79

In vitro study on the interaction of Valeriana officinalis L. extracts and their amino acids on GABAA receptor in rat brain.  

PubMed

This work studied in vitro the interaction of aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of Valeriana officinalis L. and compounds that are present in the extracts (amino acids and valerenic acid) with the GABAA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) receptor, using the [3H] muscimol binding technique to crude synaptic membranes from rat brain cortices. Both extracts displaced [3H]muscimol bound and this effect is probably due only to their amino acid content, specially GABA. This fact explains the in vitro effect of valerian extracts on GABAA receptor but not their sedative effect. PMID:8573216

Cavadas, C; Araújo, I; Cotrim, M D; Amaral, T; Cunha, A P; Macedo, T; Ribeiro, C F

1995-07-01

80

Anti-inflammatory effects of supercritical carbon dioxide extract and its isolated carnosic acid from Rosmarinus officinalis leaves.  

PubMed

Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) leaves possess a variety of bioactivities. Previous studies have shown that the extract of rosemary leaves from supercritical fluid extraction inhibits the expression of inflammatory mediators with apparent dose-dependent responses. In this study, three different extraction conditions (5000 psi at 40, 60, and 80 °C) of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO(2)) toward the extraction of antioxidants from rosemary were investigated. Furthermore, simultaneous comparison of the anti-inflammatory properties between rosemary extract prepared from SC-CO(2) under optimal conditions (5,000 psi and 80 °C) and its purified carnosic acid (CA) using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated murine RAW 264.7 macrophage cells was also presented. Results showed that the yield of 3.92% and total phenolics of 213.5 mg/g extract obtained from the most effective extraction conditions showed a high inhibitory effect on lipid peroxidation (IC(50) 33.4 ?g/mL). Both the SC-CO(2) extract and CA markedly suppressed the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), as well as the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), phosphorylated inhibitor-kappaB (P-I?B), and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B)/p65 in a dose-dependent manner. The five major compounds of verbenone, cirsimaritin, salvigenin, carnosol, and CA existing in the SC-CO(2) extract were isolated by semipreparative HPLC and identified by HPLC-MS/MS analysis. CA was the most abundant recorded compound and the most important photochemical with an anti-inflammatory effect with an IC(50) of 22.5 ?M or 7.47 ?g/mL presented to the best inhibitory activity on NO production better than that of the 14.50 ?g/mL dosage prepared from the SC-CO(2) extract. Nevertheless, the effective inhibition of LPS-induced NF-?B signaling in RAW 264.7 cells from the SC-CO(2) extract extends the potential application of nutraceutical formulation for the prevention of inflammatory diseases. PMID:21375325

Kuo, Chia-Feng; Su, Jeng-De; Chiu, Chun-Hung; Peng, Chiung-Chi; Chang, Chi-Huang; Sung, Tzu-Ying; Huang, Shiau-Huei; Lee, Wen-Chin; Chyau, Charng-Cherng

2011-04-27

81

An in vitro and in silico approach to cholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant effects of the methanol extract, furanocoumarin fraction, and major coumarins of Angelica officinalis L. fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant activities of the methanol extract, furanocoumarin fraction, and major coumarins (imperatorin, xanthotoxin, and bergapten) of the fruits of Angelica officinalis L. growing in Poland were determined in the current study. Cholinesterase inhibition was tested against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) at 12.5, 25, 50, and 100?gmL?1 using ELISA microplate reader. Antioxidant activity of the samples was

Fatma Sezer Senol; Krystyna Skalicka Wo?niak; Mahmud Tareq Hassan Khan; Ilkay Erdogan Orhan; Bilge Sener; Kazimierz G?owniak

82

Enzyme-treated Asparagus officinalis extract shows neuroprotective effects and attenuates cognitive impairment in senescence-accelerated mice.  

PubMed

Increases in the number of patients with dementia involving Alzheimer's disease (AD) are seen as a grave public health problem. In neurodegenerative disorders involving AD, biological stresses, such as oxidative and inflammatory stress, induce neural cell damage. Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is a popular vegetable, and an extract prepared from this reportedly possesses various beneficial biological activities. In the present study, we investigated the effects of enzyme-treated asparagus extract (ETAS) on neuronal cells and early cognitive impairment of senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice. The expression of mRNAs for factors that exert cytoprotective and anti-apoptotic functions, such as heat-shock protein 70 and heme oxygenase-1, was upregulated in NG108-15 neuronal cells by treatment with ETAS. Moreover, when release of lactate dehydrogenase from damaged NG108-15 cells was increased for cells cultured in medium containing either the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside or the hypoxia mimic reagent cobalt chloride, ETAS significantly attenuated this cell damage. Also, when contextual fear memory, which is considered to be a hippocampus-dependent memory, was significantly impaired in SAMP8 mice, ETAS attenuated the cognitive impairment. These results suggest that ETAS produces cytoprotective effects in neuronal cells and attenuates the effects on the cognitive impairment of SAMP8 mice. PMID:24660475

Sakurai, Takuya; Ito, Tomohiro; Wakame, Koji; Kitadate, Kentaro; Arai, Takashi; Ogasawara, Junetsu; Kizaki, Takako; Sato, Shogo; Ishibashi, Yoshinaga; Fujiwara, Tomonori; Akagawa, Kimio; Ishida, Hitoshi; Ohno, Hideki

2014-01-01

83

Rosmarinus officinalis L. leaf extract improves memory impairment and affects acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities in rat brain.  

PubMed

Rosmarinus officinalis L. leaf as part of a diet and medication can be a valuable proposal for the prevention and treatment of dementia. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of subchronic (28-fold) administration of a plant extract (RE) (200 mg/kg, p.o.) on behavioral and cognitive responses of rats linked with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activity and their mRNA expression level in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. The passive avoidance test results showed that RE improved long-term memory in scopolamine-induced rats. The extract inhibited the AChE activity and showed a stimulatory effect on BuChE in both parts of rat brain. Moreover, RE produced a lower mRNA BuChE expression in the cortex and simultaneously an increase in the hippocampus. The study suggests that RE led to improved long-term memory in rats, which can be partially explained by its inhibition of AChE activity in rat brain. PMID:24080468

Ozarowski, Marcin; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L; Bogacz, Anna; Gryszczynska, Agnieszka; Kujawska, Malgorzata; Jodynis-Liebert, Jadwiga; Piasecka, Anna; Napieczynska, Hanna; Szulc, Micha?; Kujawski, Radoslaw; Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Joanna; Cichocka, Joanna; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, Teresa; Czerny, Boguslaw; Mrozikiewicz, Przemyslaw M

2013-12-01

84

Aqueous and Ethanolic Valeriana officinalis Extracts Change the Binding of Ligands to Glutamate Receptors  

PubMed Central

The effects of two valerian extracts (aqueous and hydroalcoholic) were investigated through [3H]Glutamate ([3H]Glu) and [3H]Fluorowillardine ([3H]FW) receptor binding assays using rat synaptic membranes in presence of different receptor ligands. In addition, the extract stability was monitored spectrophotometrically. Both extracts demonstrated interaction with ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs). However, the extracts displayed considerable differences in receptor selectivity. The hydroalcoholic extract selectively interacted with quisqualic acid (QA), group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) ligand, while the aqueous extract did not alter the binding of QA. The stability of the extracts was examined during several weeks. Freshly prepared extract inhibited 38–60% of [3H]FW binding (AMPA). After 10 days, the aqueous extract inhibited 85% of [3H]FW binding while the hydroalcoholic extract markedly potentiated (200%) [3H]FW binding to AMPA receptors. Thus, our results showed that factors such as extraction solvent and extract stability determine the selectivity for glutamate receptor (GluR) interactions. PMID:21151614

Del Valle-Mojica, Lisa M.; Cordero-Hernandez, Jose M.; Gonzalez-Medina, Giselle; Ramos-Velez, Igmeris; Berrios-Cartagena, Nairimer; Torres-Hernandez, Bianca A.; Ortiz, Jose G.

2011-01-01

85

Experimental study on effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Emblica officinalis fruits on glucose homeostasis and metabolic parameters  

PubMed Central

Polyphenols from natural source are potential therapeutics that act alone or supplement anti-diabetic drugs in the prevention and treatment of diabetes. The present investigation was undertaken to study the effect of hydroalcoholic extract (HE) of fruits of Emblica officinalis on type 1 diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) (45 mg/kg i.v.). HE (100 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered for 4 weeks and at the end of treatment, blood samples were collected and analyzed for various biochemical parameters. STZ produced a diabetic state exhibiting all the cardinal symptoms such as loss of body weight, polydipsia, polyuria, glucosuria, polyphagia, hypoinsulinemia, and hyperglycemia associated with hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. Treatment with HE prevented cardinal symptoms and caused significant decrease in fasting serum glucose, AUCglucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and very LDL in diabetic rats. However, insulin, AUCinsulin, and serum high-density lipoprotein level were not significantly altered by treatment. Treatment also reduced lipid peroxidation and increased anti-oxidant parameters in the liver homogenates of diabetic rats. Polyphenol enriched fraction of HE significantly improved disarranged carbohydrate and lipid metabolism of chemically induced diabetes in rats. The mechanism of its anti-diabetic activity appears to be either improvement in peripheral glucose utilization, increased insulin sensitivity, or anti-oxidant property. PMID:24696584

Patel, Snehal S.; Goyal, Ramesh K.; Shah, Rajendra S.; Tirgar, Pravin R.; Jadav, Pinakin D.

2013-01-01

86

Hypolipidemic effect of n-butanol Extract from Asparagus officinalis L. in mice fed a high-fat diet.  

PubMed

During industrial processing of Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.), around half of each spear is discarded. However, these discarded asparagus (by-products) might be used as food supplements for their potential therapeutic effects. This study evaluated the hypolipidemic effect of n-butanol extract (BEA) from asparagus by-products in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Continuous HFD feeding caused hyperlipidemia, oxidative stress and liver damage in mice. Interestingly, while BEA significantly decreased the levels of body weight gain, serum total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, it dramatically increased the high density lipoprotein level when administered at three different doses (40, 80 or 160?mg/kg body weight) for 8 weeks in hyperlipidemic mice. In addition, BEA decreased the levels of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and alkaline phosphatase in serum. Finally, superoxide dismutase activity and the total antioxidation capacity were evidently increased, while the malondialdehyde level and the distribution of lipid droplets were reduced in liver cells of BEA-treated mice. Taken together, the findings of this study suggested that BEA had a strong hypolipidemic function and could be used as a supplement in healthcare foods and drugs or in combination with other hypolipidemic drugs. PMID:21280112

Zhu, Xinglei; Zhang, Wen; Pang, Xiufeng; Wang, Jiesi; Zhao, Jingjing; Qu, Weijing

2011-08-01

87

Antioxidant effect rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) extracts on TBARS and colour of model raw pork batters.  

PubMed

Herbs and spices are traditional used as food ingredients as well as for their antioxidant properties. The objective of this work was to study the concentration of carnosol, rosmarinic and carnosic acids in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and oregano leaves (Origanum vulgare L.), and their effect on the oxidation and colour of model pork batters. Extracts were obtained by maceration with ethanol and reflux with chloroform. Rosemary extracts showed higher antioxidant activity, even more than the phenol compounds separately. These extracts also showed the highest antioxidant capacity, possibly due to the presence of high concentrations of carnosic acid and carnosol and unidentified active compounds. However, ethanol oregano extracts containing high concentrations of phenols, mainly rosmarinic acid, efficiently prevented colour deterioration. The antioxidant effect of the studied extracts depends, not only on the concentration of phenol compounds (rosmarinic acid, carnosol and carnosic acid), but also on the extraction method and solvent. PMID:22064182

Hernández-Hernández, E; Ponce-Alquicira, E; Jaramillo-Flores, M E; Guerrero Legarreta, I

2009-02-01

88

The Influence of Standardized Valeriana officinalis Extract on the CYP3A1 Gene Expression by Nuclear Receptors in In Vivo Model  

PubMed Central

Valeriana officinalis is one of the most popular medicinal plants commonly used as a sedative and sleep aid. It is suggested that its pharmacologically active compounds derived from the root may modulate the CYP3A4 gene expression by activation of pregnane X receptor (PXR) or constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and lead to pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of valerian on the expression level of CYP3A1 (homologue to human CYP3A4) as well as nuclear receptors PXR, CAR, RXR, GR, and HNF-4?. Male Wistar rats were given standardized valerian extract (300?mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 3 and 10 days. The expression in liver tissue was analyzed by using real-time PCR. Our result showed a decrease of CYP3A1 expression level by 35% (P = 0.248) and 37% (P < 0.001), respectively. Moreover, Valeriana exhibited statistically significant reduction in RXR (approximately 28%) only after 3-day treatment. We also demonstrated a decrease in the amount HNF-4? by 22% (P = 0.005) and 32% (P = 0.012), respectively. In case of CAR, the increase of expression level by 46% (P = 0.023) was noted. These findings suggest that Valeriana officinalis extract can decrease the CYP3A4 expression and therefore may lead to interactions with synthetic drugs metabolized by this enzyme. PMID:25302309

Mrozikiewicz, Przemyslaw M.; Karasiewicz, Monika; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L.; Ozarowski, Marcin; Grzeskowiak, Edmund

2014-01-01

89

Temperature-dependent oxygen extraction from the ventilatory current and the costs of ventilation in the cephalopod Sepia officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earlier work found cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) ventilatory muscle tissue to progressively switch to an anaerobic mode of energy production at critical temperatures (T\\u000a c) of 7.0 and 26.8°C. These findings suggested that oxygen availability limits thermal tolerance. The present study was designed to elucidate whether it is the ventilatory apparatus that sets critical temperature thresholds during acute thermal stress. Routine

Frank Melzner; Christian Bock; Hans O. Pörtner

2006-01-01

90

The detection of radical scavenging compounds in crude extract of borage (Borago officinalis L.) by using an on-line HPLC-DPPH method.  

PubMed

The rapid evaluation of antioxidant activity of crude borage (Borago officinalis L.) extract was determined by using DPPH free radical method. This borage extract resulted in a rapid decrease of the absorbance and showed very high hydrogen-donating capacity towards the 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. A new HPLC-DPPH on-line method was applied for a screening of several radical scavenging components in this borage extract as well as for quantitative analysis. This on-line HPLC-DPPH method was developed using a methanolic solution of DPPH-stable radical. The HPLC-separated analytes reacted post-column with the DPPH solution in methanol. The induced bleaching was detected as a negative peak photometrically at 515 nm. The separation of antioxidative components was carried out by gradient HPLC with mobile-phase composition ranging from 2% to 80% acetonitrile with 2% acetic acid in water, UV detection was carried out at 280 nm. The HPLC analysis of borage extract revealed the presence of several radical scavenging components in the borage extract. The results obtained from the chromatograms suggest that some compounds present in the extract possess high radical quenching ability. The dominant antioxidative compound in the crude extract of borage leaves was identified as rosmarinic acid. PMID:12406585

Bandoniene, Donata; Murkovic, Michael

2002-01-01

91

Protective effect of Emblica officinalis ethanolic extract against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a) anthracene (DMBA) induced genotoxicity in Swiss albino mice.  

PubMed

Ethanolic extract of Emblica officinalis (EO) fruit extract was evaluated for protection against genotoxicity induced by the rodent carcinogen, 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA). Oral administration of EO fruit extract in various concentrations (100, 250, 500 mg/kg b.wt) for seven consecutive days prior to a single intraperitoneal injection of DMBA decreased the frequency of bone marrow micronuclei induced in Swiss albino mice. Significant increases in the liver antioxidants, such as glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and detoxifying enzyme glutathione-S-transferase (GST), were found in the fruit extract treated group. The extract also reduced the hepatic levels of the activating enzymes cytochrome (Cyt) P450 and Cyt b5. These increased in the carcinogen treated group, which emphasizes its protective effect against the carcinogen. There was a dose-dependent effect of the extract against the genotoxin with the maximum effect at 500 mg/kg b.wt. The protection afforded by EO may be associated with its antioxidant capacity and through its modulatory effect on hepatic activation and detoxifying enzymes. PMID:15625778

Banu, S Mumtaz; Selvendiran, K; Singh, J Prince Vijeya; Sakthisekaran, D

2004-11-01

92

Calendula  

MedlinePLUS

... the skin (used topically) for nosebleeds, varicose veins, hemorrhoids, inflammation of the rectum (proctitis), and inflammation of ... follows:Muscle spasms. Fever. Cancer. Nosebleeds. Varicose veins. Hemorrhoids. Promoting menstruation. Treating mouth and throat soreness. Wounds. ...

93

Original article Effects of Lavandula officinalis and Equisetum arvense  

E-print Network

Original article Effects of Lavandula officinalis and Equisetum arvense dry extracts August 2000) Abstract -- The short-term actions of Lavandula officinalis and Equisetum arvense dry extracts, and of isoquercitrin, flavonoid present in Equisetum arvense, on in vitro fermentation by rumen

Boyer, Edmond

94

[Uterotonic action of extracts from a group of medicinal plants].  

PubMed

Water extracts (infusions) from a group of medicinal plants were studied in terms of their activity enhancing the uterine tonus in a series of experiments with a preparation of an isolated rabbit and guinea pig uterine horn. In a final extract concentration of 1 to 2 mg crude drug per 1 cm3 the plants ranked in the following descending order with regard to their tonus-raising effect on the uterus: camomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), potmarigold calendula (Calendula officinalis L.) cockscomb (Celosia cristata L.), plantain (Plantago lanceolata L. et Plantago major L.), symphytum (Symphytum officinale L.), shepherdspurse (Capsella bursa pastoris L.), St.-John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.). No effect showed the infusions of flax seeds (Linum usitatissimum L.) and bearberry leaves (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi L.). The combined preparation 'Antiinflamin', consisting of a pooled freeze-dried extract from three plants and chemotherapeutic agents produced a good enhancing effect, in the form of 'comprets' for intrauterine application at the rate of one compret per 2500 cm3. PMID:7314446

Shipochliev, T

1981-01-01

95

Lapacho tea (Tabebuia impetiginosa) extract inhibits pancreatic lipase and delays postprandial triglyceride increase in rats.  

PubMed

Earlier work in our laboratory indicated that ethanolic extracts of Tabebuia impetiginosa, Arctium lappa L., Calendula officinalis, Helianthus annuus, Linum usitatissimum and L. propolis, inhibit pancreatic lipase in vitro. In a follow-up study we assessed their effects on plasma triglycerides in rats fed on a fatty meal. Extracts, orlistat or only ethanol were given orally to the rats together with the test meal and the rate of increase of postprandial triglycerides was assessed over 4?h. Clearing of the triglycerides from the blood compartment was abolished by inhibiting lipoprotein lipase with Triton WR-1339. Our results showed that out of all the extracts, the bark of Tabebuia impetiginosa led to a significant delay in the postprandial increase of plasma triglycerides. However, lapachol, which is contained in the bark of Tabebuia impetiginosa and soluble in ethanol, had no lipase inhibitory effect in vitro and hence this substance did not seem to mediate the pertinent effect. PMID:22431070

Kiage-Mokua, Beatrice Nyanchama; Roos, Nils; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen

2012-12-01

96

[The hypolipidemic action of the complex emulgator-stabilizer on the basis of laminal and a water extract from roots of alien Saponaria officinalis L. in experiment on the rat].  

PubMed

Within the limits of experimental supervision the estimation of hypolipidemic action of the complex emulgator-stabilizer (CES) on the basis of a water extract from roots of strange (alien) Saponaria officinalis L and laminal in the ratio 1:1,5 has been made. The received results allow to recommend the CES as a complex food additive at infringements of lipide exchange, especially connected with development hyper-cholesterinemia. PMID:18505106

Iudina, T P; Cherevach, E I; Tsybul'ko, E I; Maslennikova, E V; Plaksen, N V; Khil'chenko, N S

2008-01-01

97

Protective Effects of Borago officinalis Extract on Amyloid ?-Peptide(25-35)-Induced Memory Impairment in Male Rats: A Behavioral Study  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder and most common form of dementia that leads to memory impairment. In the present study we have examined the protective effects of Borago officinalis (borage) extract on Amyloid ? (A?)-Induced memory impairment. Wistar male rats received intrahippocampal (IHP) injection of the A?(25–35) and borage extract throughout gestation (100?mg/kg). Learning and memory functions in the rats were examined by the passive avoidance and the Morris water maze (MWM) tasks. Finally, the antioxidant capacity of hippocampus was measured using ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The results showed that A?(25–35) impaired step-through latency and time in dark compartment in passive avoidance task. In the MWM, A?(25–35) significantly increased escape latency and traveled distance. Borage administration attenuated the A?-induced memory impairment in both the passive avoidance and the MWM tasks. A? induced a remarkable decrease in antioxidant power (FRAP value) of hippocampus and borage prevented the decrease of the hippocampal antioxidant status. This data suggests that borage could improve the learning impairment and oxidative damage in the hippocampal tissue following A? treatment and that borage consumption may lead to an improvement of AD-induced cognitive dysfunction. PMID:25013802

Ghahremanitamadon, Fatemeh; Shahidi, Siamak; Zargooshnia, Somayeh; Nikkhah, Ali; Ranjbar, Akram; Soleimani Asl, Sara

2014-01-01

98

Hepatoprotective activity of Emblica officinalis and Chyavanaprash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatoprotective activity of Emblica officinalis (EO) and Chyavanaprash (CHY) extracts were studied using carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver injury model in rats. EO and CHY extracts were found to inhibit the hepatotoxicity produced by acute and chronic CCl4 administration as seen from the decreased levels of serum and liver lipid peroxides (LPO), glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (GPT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Chronic

Jeena K Jose; Ramadasan Kuttan

2000-01-01

99

Antioxidant activities of rosemary ( Rosmarinus Officinalis L .) extract, blackseed ( Nigella sativa L .) essential oil, carnosic acid, rosmarinic acid and sesamol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antioxidant activities of three pure compounds: carnosic acid, rosmarinic acid and sesamol, as well as two plant extracts: rosemary extract and blackseed essential oil, were examined by applying DPPH and ABTS+ radical-scavenging assays and the ferric thiocyanate test. All three test methods proved that rosemary extract had a higher antioxidant activity than blackseed essential oil. The order of antioxidant activity

Naciye Erkan; Guler Ayranci; Erol Ayranci

2008-01-01

100

Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) Extract Modulates CHOP/GADD153 to Promote Androgen Receptor Degradation and Decreases Xenograft Tumor Growth  

PubMed Central

The Mediterranean diet has long been attributed to preventing or delaying the onset of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and various solid organ cancers. In this particular study, a rosemary extract standardized to carnosic acid was evaluated for its potential in disrupting the endoplasmic reticulum machinery to decrease the viability of prostate cancer cells and promote degradation of the androgen receptor. Two human prostate cancer cell lines, 22Rv1 and LNCaP, and prostate epithelial cells procured from two different patients undergoing radical prostatectomy were treated with standardized rosemary extract and evaluated by flow cytometry, MTT, BrdU, Western blot and fluorescent microscopy. A significant modulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress proteins was observed in cancer cells while normal prostate epithelial cells did not undergo endoplasmic reticulum stress. This biphasic response suggests that standardized rosemary extract may preferentially target cancer cells as opposed to “normal” cells. Furthermore, we observed standardized rosemary extract to decrease androgen receptor expression that appears to be regulated by the expression of CHOP/GADD153. Using a xenograft tumor model we observed standardized rosemary extract when given orally to significantly suppress tumor growth by 46% compared to mice not receiving standardized rosemary extract. In the last several years regulatory governing bodies (e.g. European Union) have approved standardized rosemary extracts as food preservatives. These results are especially significant as it is becoming more likely that individuals will be receiving standardized rosemary extracts that are a part of a natural preservative system in various food preparations. Taken a step further, it is possible that the potential benefits that are often associated with a “Mediterranean Diet” in the future may begin to extend beyond the Mediterranean diet as more of the population is consuming standardized rosemary extracts. PMID:24598693

Petiwala, Sakina M.; Berhe, Saba; Li, Gongbo; Puthenveetil, Angela G.; Rahman, Ozair; Nonn, Larisa; Johnson, Jeremy J.

2014-01-01

101

In vitro trematocidal effects of crude alcoholic extracts of Artemisia annua , A. absinthium , Asimina triloba , and Fumaria officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trematode infections negatively affect human and livestock health, and threaten global food safety. The only approved human\\u000a anthelmintics for trematodiasis are triclabendazole and praziquantel with no alternative drugs in sight. We tested six crude\\u000a plant extracts against adult Schistosoma mansoni, Fasciola hepatica, and Echinostoma caproni in vitro. Mortality was best achieved by ethanolic extracts of Artemisia annua (sweet Annie), Asimina

Jorge F. S. Ferreira; Paul Peaden; Jennifer Keiser

102

Emblica officinalis extract induces autophagy and inhibits human ovarian cancer cell proliferation, angiogenesis, growth of mouse xenograft tumors.  

PubMed

Patients with ovarian cancer (OC) may be treated with surgery, chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy, although none of these strategies are very effective. Several plant-based natural products/dietary supplements, including extracts from Emblicaofficinalis (Amla), have demonstrated potent anti-neoplastic properties. In this study we determined that Amla extract (AE) has anti-proliferative effects on OC cells under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. We also determined the anti-proliferative effects one of the components of AE, quercetin, on OC cells under in vitro conditions. AE did not induce apoptotic cell death, but did significantly increase the expression of the autophagic proteins beclin1 and LC3B-II under in vitro conditions. Quercetin also increased the expression of the autophagic proteins beclin1 and LC3B-II under in vitro conditions. AE also significantly reduced the expression of several angiogenic genes, including hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF-1?) in OVCAR3 cells. AE acted synergistically with cisplatin to reduce cell proliferation and increase expression of the autophagic proteins beclin1 and LC3B-II under in vitro conditions. AE also had anti-proliferative effects and induced the expression of the autophagic proteins beclin1 and LC3B-II in mouse xenograft tumors. Additionally, AE reduced endothelial cell antigen - CD31 positive blood vessels and HIF-1? expression in mouse xenograft tumors. Together, these studies indicate that AE inhibits OC cell growth both in vitro and in vivo possibly via inhibition of angiogenesis and activation of autophagy in OC. Thus AE may prove useful as an alternative or adjunct therapeutic approach in helping to fight OC. PMID:24133573

De, Alok; De, Archana; Papasian, Chris; Hentges, Shane; Banerjee, Snigdha; Haque, Inamul; Banerjee, Sushanta K

2013-01-01

103

Degradation study of carnosic acid, carnosol, rosmarinic acid, and rosemary extract (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) assessed using HPLC.  

PubMed

Rosemary, whose major caffeoyl-derived and diterpenoid ingredients are rosmarinic acid, carnosol, and carnosic acid, is an important source of natural antioxidants and is being recognized increasingly as a useful preservative, protectant, and even as a potential medicinal agent. Understanding the stability of these components and their mode of interaction in mixtures is important if they are to be utilized to greatest effect. A study of the degradation of rosmarinic acid, carnosol, carnosic acid, and a mixture of the three was conducted in ethanolic solutions at different temperatures and light exposure. As expected, degradation increased with temperature. Some unique degradation products were formed with exposure to light. Several degradation products were reported for the first time. The degradation products were identified by HPLC/MS/MS, UV, and NMR. The degradation of rosemary extract in fish oil also was investigated, and much slower rates of degradation were observed for carnosic acid. In the mixture of the three antioxidants, carnosic acid serves to maintain levels of carnosol, though it does so at least in part at the cost of its own degradation. PMID:22881034

Zhang, Ying; Smuts, Jonathan P; Dodbiba, Edra; Rangarajan, Rekha; Lang, John C; Armstrong, Daniel W

2012-09-12

104

Comparison of antimicrobial activity of essential oils, plant extracts and methylparaben in cosmetic emulsions: 2 months study.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to compare the preservative effectiveness of plant extracts (Matricaria chamomilla, Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis) and essential oils (Lavandulla officinalis, Melaleuca alternifolia, Cinnamomum zeylanicum) with methylparaben in cosmetic emulsions against skin microflora during 2 months of application by volunteers. Cosmetic emulsions with extracts (2.5 %), essential oils (2.5 %), methylparaben (0.4 %) or placebo were tested by 40 volunteers during 2 months of treatment. In order to determine microbial purity of the emulsions, the samples were taken after 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks of application. Throughout the trial period it was revealed that only cinnamon oil completely inhibited the growth of bacteria, yeast and mould, as compared to all other essential oils, plant extracts and methylparaben in the tested emulsions. This result shows that cinnamon oil could successfully replace the use of methylparaben in cosmetics, at the same time ensuring microbiological purity of a cosmetic product under its in-use and storage conditions. PMID:24891745

Herman, Anna

2014-09-01

105

Rosmarinic acid derivatives from Salvia officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sagerinic acid, a novel cyclobutane and salvianolic acid K, derived from rosmarinic acid,were isolated together with the parent compound from polar solvent extracts of Salvia officinalis.Their chemical structures were elucidated by NMR and, for sagerinic acid, the stereochemistry ofthe substituents on the cyclobutane moiety was established as 3?,4a-diaryl-1a,2?-dicarboxylicacid diester (m-truxinate form).

Yinrong Lu; L. Yeap Foo

1999-01-01

106

Regulation of obesity and lipid disorders by herbal extracts from Morus alba, Melissa officinalis, and Artemisia capillaris in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.  

PubMed

Melissa officinalis L. (Labiatae), Morus alba L. (Moraceae), and Artemisia capillaris Thunb. (Compositae) are suggested to be involved in the regulation of hyperlipidemia. We hypothesized that Ob-X, a mixture of three herbs, Morus alba, Melissa officinalis and Artemisia capillaris [corrected] improves lipid metabolism, body weight gain and adiposity and that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) is associated with these events. Mice fed a high-fat diet for 12 weeks exhibited increases in body weight gain and adipose tissue mass compared with mice fed a low fat diet. However, feeding a high-fat diet supplemented with Ob-X significantly reduced these effects. Ob-X treatment also decreased the circulating levels of triglycerides and total cholesterol, and inhibited hepatic lipid accumulation. Ob-X supplementation was found to increase the hepatic mRNA levels of PPARalpha target enzymes responsible for fatty acid beta-oxidation. Moreover, Ob-X elevated the endogenous expression of a luciferase reporter gene containing three copies of a PPAR response element (PPRE) in NMu2Li liver cells. These data demonstrate that Ob-X regulates body weight gain, adipose tissue mass, and lipid metabolism in part through changes in the expression of hepatic PPARalpha target genes. PMID:18023310

Lee, Jinmi; Chae, Kyungsil; Ha, Juran; Park, Byung-Young; Lee, Hee Suk; Jeong, Sunhyo; Kim, Min-Young; Yoon, Michung

2008-01-17

107

Valeriana officinalis extract and its main component, valerenic acid, ameliorate D-galactose-induced reductions in memory, cell proliferation, and neuroblast differentiation by reducing corticosterone levels and lipid peroxidation.  

PubMed

Valeriana officinalis is used in herbal medicine of many cultures as mild sedatives and tranquilizers. In this study, we investigated the effects of extract from valerian root extracts and its major component, valerenic acid on memory function, cell proliferation, neuroblast differentiation, serum corticosterone, and lipid peroxidation in adult and aged mice. For the aging model, D-galactose (100 mg/kg) was administered subcutaneously to 6-week-old male mice for 10 weeks. At 13 weeks of age, valerian root extracts (100 mg/kg) or valerenic acid (340 ?g/kg) was administered orally to control and D-galactose-treated mice for 3 weeks. The dosage of valerenic acid (340 ?g/kg), which is the active ingredient of valerian root extract, was determined by the content of valerenic acid in valerian root extract (3.401±0.066 mg/g) measured by HPLC. The administration of valerian root extract and valerenic acid significantly improved the preferential exploration of new objects in novel object recognition test and the escape latency, swimming speeds, platform crossings, and spatial preference for the target quadrant in Morris water maze test compared to the D-galactose-treated mice. Cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation were significantly decreased, while serum corticosterone level and lipid peroxidation in hippocampus were significantly increased in the D-galactose-treated group compared to that in the control group. The administration of valerian root extract significantly ameliorated these changes in the dentate gyrus of both control and D-galactose-treated groups. In addition, valerenic acid also mitigated the D-galactose-induced reduction of these changes. These results indicate that valerian root extract and valerenic acid enhance cognitive function, promote cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation, and reduce serum corticosterone and lipid peroxidation in aged mice. PMID:24055511

Nam, Sung Min; Choi, Jung Hoon; Yoo, Dae Young; Kim, Woosuk; Jung, Hyo Young; Kim, Jong Whi; Kang, Soo-Yong; Park, Jaeil; Kim, Dong-Woo; Kim, Wan Jae; Yoon, Yeo Sung; Hwang, In Koo

2013-11-01

108

Oligosaccharides of Saponaria officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  It has been found that the roots ofSaponaria officinalis L. contain three oligosaccharides.\\u000a \\u000a Two of them have been isolated: gentiobiose and the pentasaccharide saponarose. It has been shown that the latter is O-?-D-galactopyranosyl-(1\\u000a ? 3)-O-?-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 ? 3)-O-?-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 ? 3)-O-?-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 ? 1)-?-D-glucopyranoside.

V. G. Bukharov; S. P. Shcherbak

1969-01-01

109

Thesinine-4'-O-beta-D-glucoside the first glycosylated plant pyrrolizidine alkaloid from Borago officinalis.  

PubMed

The glycosylated pyrrolizidine alkaloid, thesinine-4'-O-beta-D-glucoside, has been isolated from the aqueous methanol extract of dried, defatted seeds of Borago officinalis (Boraginaceae). The structure was established by means of spectroscopic and chemical analysis. PMID:12031432

Herrmann, Martina; Joppe, Holger; Schmaus, Gerhard

2002-06-01

110

Partition chromatography and countercurrent distribution of alcaloids of Fumaria officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkaloid extract of Fumaria officinalis was analysed by the “moist buffered paper” technique using 15 water — immiscible solvents of various molecular structures and donor — acceptor properties. The RF vs·pH curves were sigmoid in shape, in accordance with equations derived for ideal buffered paper chromatography and were arranged along the pH axis in two families: that of protopine (protopine,

T. Wawrzynowicz; A. Waksmundzki; E. Soczewi?ski

1968-01-01

111

Gastroprotective constituents of Salvia officinalis L.  

PubMed

The gastrointestinal activity of hydroalcoholic extract (HE) of Salvia officinalis was evaluated in a model of ethanol-induced gastric lesion. HE showed excellent activity, with ID(50) 84.0 (54.8-128.9) mg/kg. The acetic acid-induced ulcer and the total acidity of the gastric secretion were also reduced by HE, and, in vitro experiments, the H(+),K(+)-ATPase activity was inhibited. Carnosol was identified as a possible active constituent for the gastroprotective effect of HE. PMID:19481590

Mayer, Bárbara; Baggio, Cristiane Hatsuko; Freitas, Cristina Setim; dos Santos, Ana Cristina; Twardowschy, André; Horst, Heros; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu; Heller, Melina; dos Santos, Elide Pereira; Otuki, Michel Fleith; Marques, Maria Consuelo Andrade

2009-10-01

112

Neuroprotective and neurological properties of Melissa officinalis.  

PubMed

Melissa officinalis has traditionally been used due to its effects on nervous system. Both methanolic and aqueous extracts were tested for protective effects on the PC12 cell line, free radical scavenging properties and neurological activities (inhibition of MAO-A and acetylcholinesterase enzymes and affinity to the GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor). The results suggest that the plant has a significant (P < 0.05) protective effect on hydrogen peroxide induced toxicity in PC12 cells. The radical scavenging properties were also investigated in cells and in cell free systems, where this plant was shown to be a good free radical scavenger. The MAO-A bioassay was also performed to detect possible antidepressant activities demonstrating that both extracts inhibited this enzyme, which has a key role in neurotransmitters metabolism. However, no activity was detected in the acetylcholinesterase and GABA assays. In general, the methanolic extract was more effective than the aqueous. PMID:19760174

López, Víctor; Martín, Sara; Gómez-Serranillos, Maria Pilar; Carretero, Maria Emilia; Jäger, Anna K; Calvo, Maria Isabel

2009-11-01

113

Three phases hollow fiber LPME combined with HPLC-UV for extraction, preconcentration and determination of valerenic acid in Valeriana officinalis.  

PubMed

In the present work, the applicability of hollow fiber-based liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME) was evaluated for the extraction and preconcentration of valerenic acid prior to its determination by reversed-phase HPLC/UV. The target drug was extracted from 5.0 mL of aqueous solution with pH 3.5 into an organic extracting solvent (dihexyl ether) impregnated in the pores of a hollow fiber and finally back extracted into 10 ? L of aqueous solution with pH 9.5 located inside the lumen of the hollow fiber. In order to obtain high extraction efficiency, the parameters affecting the HF-LPME, including pH of the donor and acceptor phases, type of organic phase, ionic strength, the volume ratio of donor to acceptor phase, stirring rate and extraction time were studied and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, enrichment factor up to 446 was achieved and the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the method was 4.36% (n = 9). The linear range was 7.5-850 ?g L?¹ with correlation coefficient (r²=0.999), detection limits was 2.5 ?g L?¹ and the LOQ was 7.5 ?g L?¹. The proposed method was evaluated by extraction and determination of valerenic acid in some Iranian wild species of Valerianaceae. PMID:21641881

Mirzaei, Mohamad; Dinpanah, Hossein

2011-07-01

114

Isolation and characterization of phytotoxic compounds from asparagus ( Asparagus officinalis L.) roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential allelochemicals from aqueous extracts of dried asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) roots were isolated and characterized. Active fractions separated by HPLC included ferulic, isoferulic, malic, citric, and fumaric acids. Soxhlet extraction of the residues also produced phytotoxic caffeic acid. Although none of these compounds, when applied singly, was active enough to account for the phytotoxicity of asparagus extracts, their combined

A. C. Hartung; M. G. Nair; A. R. Putnam

1990-01-01

115

A study on genetic variability of pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila strains and the varied responses of the strains towards phyto-extracts.  

PubMed

The present study evaluated genetic variation in Aeromonas hydrophila strains using PCR-RAPD and their varied susceptibility to phyto-extract. Four strains of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from skin infections of common freshwater fish, Cyprinus carpio were characterized by various biochemical methods, physiological tests and PCR- RAPD. Antimicrobial activity of the leaf extracts of three medicinal plants, Ocimum sanctum, Adathoda vasica and Calendula officinalis were tested against the four strains of A. hydrophila by disc diffusion (Kirby-Bauer) method. Antagonistic effects of leaf extracts against A. hydrophila strains were assessed by co-culture method. RAPD analysis showed that all the microbes isolated from skin infection belong to the same species but there was no 100% genetic similarity among them Dendrogram constructed by UPGMA clearly supported the PCR pattern of genetic variability among the strains. This study revealed that Aeromonas hydophila exhibits genetic variability and varied susceptibility towards phyto-extracts. Results indicated that phyto-extracts offers a promising alternative to the use of antibiotics in controlling Aeromonas hydrophila. PMID:24511738

Balasundaram, A; Kumari, P Rathna; Kolanchinathan, P; Masilamani, V; John, George

2013-11-01

116

Relevance of carnosic acid, carnosol, and rosmarinic acid concentrations in the in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Rosmarinus officinalis (L.) methanolic extracts.  

PubMed

The importance of the diterpenic and rosmarinic acid content in the biological activities of rosemary extracts has been studied previously, but how the relationship between the concentration of these components affects their antioxidant and antibacterial activities has received little attention. Accordingly, from a total of 150 plants, 27 methanolic extracts were selected, for their similar diterpene contents but different ratios between carnosic acid and carnosol concentrations. In extracts with similar rosmarinic acid contents but differing proportions between carnosic acid and carnosol, the two diterpenes were seen to equally affect the in vitro antioxidant activity; however, and related with the antibacterial efficiency, this biological activity improved when carnosol was the major diterpene component. PMID:22957812

Jordán, Maria J; Lax, Vanesa; Rota, Maria C; Lorán, Susana; Sotomayor, José A

2012-09-26

117

Antioxidant effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extract in soybean lecithin-based semen extender following freeze-thawing process of ram sperm.  

PubMed

The aim of current study was to evaluate effect of rosemary aqueous extract on post-thawed ram sperm quality in a soybean lecithin-based (SL) extender. Ram semen samples were obtained, extended with SL extender and supplemented with 0% (SL-R0), 2% (SL-R2), 4% (SL-R4), 6% (SL-R6), and 8% (SL-R8) rosemary aqueous extract. Following equilibration, the straws were frozen, and then plunged into the liquid nitrogen. After thawing, sperm motility and velocity parameters, plasma membrane functionality, viability, acrosomal and capacitation status were evaluated. Membrane lipid peroxidation was also analyzed through the malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration. Our results showed that SL-R4 and SL-R6 groups resulted in higher (p<0.05) percentages of total motility, progressive motility, and plasma membrane functionality, as compared with other groups. Highest (p<0.05) viable and lowest (p<0.05) dead spermatozoa were observed in SL-R6 group compared to the other groups. The acrosomal and capacitation status were not affected (p>0.05) by different levels of rosemary aqueous extract. Lower (p<0.05) MDA concentration has been observed in SL-R4 and SL-R6 groups. The results of this study demonstrate that supplementation of SL extender with rosemary aqueous extract influences post-thawed ram sperm quality in a dose dependent manner. PMID:25050864

Motlagh, Mahdi Khodaei; Sharafi, Mohsen; Zhandi, Mahdi; Mohammadi-Sangcheshmeh, Abdollah; Shakeri, Malak; Soleimani, Masoud; Zeinoaldini, Saeed

2014-10-01

118

Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis and some other medicinal plants commonly used in South-East Asia  

PubMed Central

Background Eight medicinal plants were tested for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Different extraction methods were also tested for their effects on the bioactivities of the medicinal plants. Methods Eight plants, namely Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis (Laliaocao), Folium Murraya Koenigii (Jialiye), Rhizoma Arachis Hypogea (Huashenggen), Herba Houttuyniae (Yuxingcao), Epipremnum pinnatum (Pashulong), Rhizoma Typhonium Flagelliforme (Laoshuyu), Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis (Houpo) and Rhizoma Imperatae (Baimaogen) were investigated for their potential antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Results Extracts of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis had the strongest activities against M. Smegmatis, C. albicans, B. subtilis and S. aureus. Boiled extracts of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis, Folium Murraya Koenigii, Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis and Herba Houttuyniae demonstrated greater antioxidant activities than other tested medicinal plants. Conclusion Among the eight tested medicinal plants, Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis showed the highest antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Different methods of extraction yield different spectra of bioactivities. PMID:19038060

Chan, Lai Wah; Cheah, Emily LC; Saw, Constance LL; Weng, Wanyu; Heng, Paul WS

2008-01-01

119

Antiviral activity of the volatile oils of Melissa officinalis L. against Herpes simplex virus type-2.  

PubMed

Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) has been used in a variety of practical applications in medical science. Our objective in the current study was to determine the effects of the volatile oil components of M. officinalis on Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) replication in HEp-2 cells. Four different concentrations (25, 50, 100, 150 and 200 microg/ml) of volatile oils were examined. Experiments were carried out using HEp-2 cells. M. officinalis volatile oil was found to be non-toxic to HEp-2 cells up to a concentration of 100 micro/ml. It was, however, found to be slightly toxic at a concentration over of 100 microg/ml. The antiviral activity of non-toxic concentrations against HSV-2 was tested. The replication of HSV-2 was inhibited, indicating that the M. officinalis L. extract contains an anti-HSV-2 substance. PMID:15636181

Allahverdiyev, A; Duran, N; Ozguven, M; Koltas, S

2004-11-01

120

NF-kappaB modulators from Valeriana officinalis.  

PubMed

Valeriana officinalis (Valerianaceae) has been of great interest for its therapeutic uses for treating mild nervous tension and temporary sleeping problems. In traditional European medicine it has been also reported as an antiinflammatory remedy. This study reports that the EtOAc extract of the underground parts of V. officinalis showed inhibitory activity against NF-kappaB at 100 microg/mL in the IL-6/Luc assay on HeLa cells and provided protection against excitotoxicity in primary brain cell cultures at micromolar concentrations. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the EtOAc extract led to the isolation of three known sesquiterpenes: acetylvalerenolic acid (1), valerenal (2) and valerenic acid (3), 1 and 3 were active as inhibitors of NF-kappaB at a concentration of 100 microg/mL. Acetylvalerenolic acid (1) reduced NF-kappaB activity to 4%, whereas valerenic acid (3) reduced NF-kappaB activity to 25%. PMID:16909443

Jacobo-Herrera, Nadia J; Vartiainen, Nina; Bremner, Paul; Gibbons, Simon; Koistinaho, Jari; Heinrich, Michael

2006-10-01

121

(-)-3 beta,4 beta-epoxyvalerenic acid from Valeriana officinalis.  

PubMed

Chemical investigation of the root extract of Valeriana officinalis afforded a new bicyclic sesquiterpene acid, (-)-3 beta,4 beta-epoxyvalerenic acid together with valerenic acid and hexadecanoic acid. The structure of the new compound was elucidated by spectroscopic data and confirmed by partial synthesis of its methyl ester from valerenic acid. Methyl (-)-3 alpha,4 alpha-epoxyvalerenate was obtained as a minor product from the above reaction. PMID:12143008

Dharmaratne, H Ranjith; Nanayakkara, N P; Khan, Ikhlas A

2002-07-01

122

Type I Ribosome-Inactivating Proteins from Saponaria officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Saporins are ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) extracted from different tissues of the soapwort plant (Saponaria officinalis L.). While the biosynthesis of these proteins and their roles in planta have received little attention, saporins have been\\u000a extensively used for the production of targeted toxins for therapeutical and research applications. The biochemical features\\u000a of one group of closely related saporin isoforms, collectively named

Alessio Lombardi; Richard Marshall; Carmelinda Savino; Maria Fabbrini; Aldo Ceriotti

123

Triterpene glycosides from Saponaria officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  The roots ofSaponaria officinalis L. have yielded the known triterpene glycoside gypsoside and the first glycoside of gypsogenic acid, which has been named\\u000a saponaroside. Saponaroside is the 3-?-D-xylopyranoside of gypsogenic acid.

V. G. Bukharov; S. P. Shcherbak

1969-01-01

124

Inheritance of bipyridyl herbicide resistance in Arctotheca calendula and Hordeum leporinum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mode of inheritance of resistance to bipyridyl herbicides in bipyridyl-resistant biotypes of Arctotheca calendula and of Hordeum leporinum was investigated. F1 plants from reciprocal crosses between diquat-resistant and -susceptible plants of A. calendula showed an intermediate response to diquat application that was nuclearly inherited. Treatment of F2 plants with 100 g ai ha-1 of diquat or 800 g ai

E. Purba; C. Preston; S. B. Powles

1993-01-01

125

Capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of volatile and semi-volatile compounds of Salvia officinalis.  

PubMed

The essential oil and infusion of Salvia officinalis leaves have been widely applied in traditional medicine since ancient times and nowadays subjected to extensive research of their antibacterial, antiviral and cytotoxic properties. This paper shows chemical composition data of S. officinalis leaves essential oil isolated by steam distillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus. Also, the paper presents the chemical content of volatile and semi-volatile compounds of S. officinalis leaves infusion. The volatile and semi-volatile compounds of S. officinalis leaves infusion were isolated by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid-liquid extraction with hexane and dichloromethane. SPE was carried out on 500 mg octadecylsilane (C18) cartridges and elution with dichloromethane. Liquid-liquid extraction was performed with hexane and dichloromethane. The essential oil in dichloromethane and infusion extracts in hexane and dichloromethane were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The quantitative results obtained by solid-phase extraction and liquid-liquid extraction showed that SPE on C18 performed the highest recovery of the volatile compounds from infusion sample. PMID:14971492

Radulescu, Valeria; Chiliment, Silvia; Oprea, Eliza

2004-02-20

126

Sedative and sleep-enhancing properties of linarin, a flavonoid-isolated from Valeriana officinalis.  

PubMed

We have recently reported the presence of the anxiolytic flavone 6-methylapigenin (MA) and of the sedative and sleep-enhancing flavanone glycoside 2S (-) hesperidin (HN) in Valeriana officinalis and Valeriana wallichii. MA, in turn, was able to potentiate the sleep-inducing properties of HN. The present paper reports the identification in V. officinalis of the flavone glycoside linarin (LN) and the discovery that it has, like HN, sedative and sleep-enhancing properties that are potentiated by simultaneous administration of valerenic acid (VA). These effects should be taken into account when considering the pharmacological actions of valeriana extracts. PMID:14751470

Fernández, Sebastián; Wasowski, Cristina; Paladini, Alejandro C; Marder, Mariel

2004-02-01

127

Detection of kestoses and kestose-related oligosaccharides in extracts of Festuca arundinacea, Dactylis glomerate L. , and Asparagus officinalis L. root cultures and invertase by sup 13 C and sup 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies show that {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy can be used to detect and identify mixtures of 1-kestose and neokestose after conversion to the acetate derivatives. In this study, unequivocal assignments are made for the anomeric carbon and proton signals for the above two trisaccharide acetates as well as for 6-kestose hendecaacetate and for nystose tetradecaacetate (a 1-kestose-derived tetrasaccharide). A number of oligosaccharide fractions were isolated from several plant species, converted to the acetates, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra obtained. Using the above reference data, the following information was obtained. The trisaccharide fraction from Dactylis gomerata L. stem tissue and Asparagus officinalis L. roots contain both 1-kestose and neokestose, and the tetrasaccharide fractions contain three components, one of which is nystose. Penta- and hexasaccharide acetates were also isolated from A. officinalis L. roots and were found to contain, respectively, four and at least five components. All components of both of the above species appear to contain a kestose residue and to be produced by the sequential addition of fructofuranosyl units to these. The trisaccharide fraction from Festuca arundinacea is complex, and contains at least five different components, two of which appear to be 1-kestose and neokestose.

Forsythe, K.L.; Feather, M.S.; Gracz, H.; Wong, T.C. (Univ. of Missouri, Columbia (USA))

1990-04-01

128

The reproductive strategies of the heterocarpic annual Calendula arvensis (Asteraceae)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Achene polymorphism and various aspects of the reproductive biology of the annual Calendula arvensis L. (Field marigold), were studied to determine the reproductive strategies of the plant. This species normally produces three types of achene: rostrate, cymbiform and annular. Rostrate and cymbiform achenes are larger and heavier than annular achenes, and are adapted to long-range dispersal (by epizoochory and anemochory, respectively). In contrast, annular achenes are smaller in size and weight, and are adapted to short-range dispersal. Achenes germinate over a broad range of temperatures (both in light and in darkness), exhibiting cymbiform achenes the highest germination percentages and annular achenes the lowest under all conditions tested. A fraction of the three types of achenes exhibit dormancy and presumably enter the soil seedbank. Achene types adapted for long-range dispersal (rostrate and cymbiform achenes) produce seedlings that are best able to emerge from deeper burial depths, and that are initially stronger and exhibit earlier flowering than the plants from the annular achenes (which are likely to disperse over shorter distances). These features, together with the fact that fruiting occurs even in the absence of pollinators (automatic geitonogamy), the different mechanisms for achene dispersal (zoochory, anemochory and myrmerochory), and the extended germination, flowering and fruiting periods, facilitate establishment and expansion of this species in unpredictable and disturbed habitats.

Ruiz De Clavijo, E.

2005-09-01

129

The essential oil of Zingiber officinalis Linn (Zingiberaceae) as a mosquito larvicidal and repellent agent against the filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils extracted by steam distillation from Zingiber officinalis was evaluated for larvicidal and repellent activity against the filarial mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h treated for late third instar. The LC50 value was 50.78 ppm. Skin repellent test at 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 mg\\/cm2 concentration of Z. officinalis gave 100% protection up to 15, 30, 60,

Thambusamy Pushpanathan; Arulsamy Jebanesan; Marimuthu Govindarajan

2008-01-01

130

Tunisian Salvia officinalis L. and Schinus molle L. essential oils: Their chemical compositions and their preservative effects against Salmonella inoculated in minced beef meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oils (EOs) extracted from the aerial parts of cultivated Salvia officinalis L. and the berries of Schinus molle L. were analysed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and 68 and 67 constituents were identified, respectively. The major constituents were 1,8-cineole (33.27%), ?-thujone (18.40%), ?-thujone (13.45%), borneol (7.39%) in S. officinalis oil and ?-phellandrene (35.86%), ?-phellandrene (29.3%), ?-pinene (15.68%), p-cymene

El Akrem Hayouni; Imed Chraief; Manaf Abedrabba; Marielle Bouix; Jean-Yves Leveau; Hammami Mohammed; Moktar Hamdi

2008-01-01

131

Evaluation of the antibacterial potential of Petroselinum crispum and Rosmarinus officinalis against bacteria that cause urinary tract infections  

PubMed Central

In this study we evaluated the antibacterial activity of the crude hydroalcoholic extracts, fractions, and compounds of two plant species, namely Rosmarinus officinalis and Petroselinum crispum, against the bacteria that cause urinary tract infection. The microdilution method was used for determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The crude hydroalcoholic extract of R. officinalis displayed in vitro activity against Gram-positive bacteria, with satisfactory MBC for the clinical isolate S. saprophyticus. The fractions and the pure compound rosmarinic acid did not furnish promising results for Gram-negative bacteria, whereas fractions 2, 3, and 4 gave encouraging results for Gram-positive bacteria and acted as bactericide against S. epidermidis as well as E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) and its clinical isolate. R. officinalis led to promising results in the case of Gram-positive bacteria, resulting in a considerable interest in the development of reliable alternatives for the treatment of urinary infections. PMID:24516424

Petrolini, Fernanda Villas Boas; Lucarini, Rodrigo; de Souza, Maria Gorete Mendes; Pires, Regina Helena; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes

2013-01-01

132

Antileishmanial activity of some plants growing in Algeria: Juglans regia, Lawsonia inermis and Salvia officinalis.  

PubMed

The current study was undertaken to evaluate in vitro the antileishmanial activity of three plants growing wild in Algeria : Juglans regia, Lawsonia inermis and Salvia officinalis. The hydroalcoholic extracts of these plants were tested on the growth of the promastigotes of Leishmania major. The plant extract effects were compared with three controls : CRL1 composed of 1 ml RPMI inoculated with 10(6) of promastigotes, CRL2 composed of 1 ml RPMI inoculated with 10(6) of promastigotes and 100 µl of hydroalcoholic solvent, CRL3 composed of 1 ml RPMI inoculated with 10(6) of promastigotes and 100 µl of Glucantim as a reference drug in the management of leishmaniasis. The results showed that both J. regia and L. inermis extracts reduced the promastigotes number significantly (P<0.01). however, S. officinalis showed a total inhibition of the Leishmania major growth. PMID:24146470

Serakta, M; Djerrou, Z; Mansour-Djaalab, H; Kahlouche-Riachi, F; Hamimed, S; Trifa, W; Belkhiri, A; Edikra, N; Hamdi Pacha, Y

2013-01-01

133

Quality control of herbs: determination of amino acids in Althaea officinalis, Matricaria chamomilla and Taraxacum officinale.  

PubMed

Analysis of raw materials and final products need reliable methods for the standardization of natural product drugs. Legal guideline also emphasizes on the qualitative and quantitative analyses of the plant constituents in an herbal product. In this study, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and amino acid analyzer was used for the determination of amino acids in plant extracts. Samples for this study were standards and aqueous extracts from Althaea officinalis, Matricaria chamomilla and Taraxacum officinale. Different amino acids in the extracts were detected through TLC. An automatic amino acid analyzer was used for the quantification of amino acids in the plant extracts under study. PMID:24811801

Qureshi, Muhammad Nasimullah; Stecher, Guenther; Bonn, Guenther Karl

2014-05-01

134

The components of Melissa officinalis L. that influence protein biosynthesis in-vitro.  

PubMed

An investigation of an inhibiting activity of a substance(s) in a tanninless extract from Melissa officinalis leaves on protein biosynthesis in-vitro has been made. At least two components which inhibited protein biosynthesis were present in the extract; these were caffeic acid and an unidentified glycoside. Freshly prepared buffered solutions of caffeic acid inhibited protein biosynthesis less than solutions stored for several days at room temperature (20 degrees C). In this case derivatives of caffeic acid were formed, which may be responsible for the increase in the inhibitory effect of stored caffeic acid solution. An inhibitor, in the homogeneous state, was also isolated from the glycoside fraction of M. officinalis. Studies on the mechanism of the action of this inhibitor revealed its effect is to use the result of a direct interaction with elongation factor EF-2, and the blocking of the binding reaction of EF-2 with ribosomes. PMID:2879007

Chlabicz, J; Ga?asi?ski, W

1986-11-01

135

Seasonal variation of the lipoidal matters and hypolipidaemic activity of the red alga Corallina officinalis L.  

PubMed

The lipoidal matters of Corallina officinalis L. showed a seasonal nonsignificant quantitative variation. However, the fatty acids revealed a relative increase in the summer and winter, while unsaponifiable matter exhibited a slight increase in the spring. The GC/MS analysis of saponifiable and unsaponifiable matter of the algal samples collected in different seasons revealed that samples collected in the spring contained a low cholesterol content and high steroidal compounds as well as high polyunsaturated fatty acids. The alcohol extract, hexane extract and fatty acid fraction of this algal sample exhibited a significant hypolipidaemic activity. Also, two biologically active fractions of hydrocarbons were isolated by CC technique from the hexane fraction of C. officinalis L. and identified by GC/MS. PMID:12557241

Awad, N E; Selim, M A; Saleh, M M; Matloub, A A

2003-01-01

136

Effects of S. officinalis L. radix triterpene glycosides on innate immunity factors.  

PubMed

The effects of triterpene glycosides (saponins) extracted from Saponaria officinalis L. radices, on the cellular and humoral innate immunity factors were studied. Saponins stimulated the phagocytic, bactericidal, and adhesion activities of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Optimal conditions of saponin treatment (dose and duration) were determined for mice. Saponins promoted the maturation of human peripheral blood dendritic cells, which was proven by high expression of CD83 (terminal differentiation marker) and CD86 (bone-stimulating molecule) and of HLA-DR and HLA-ABC molecules on the cell membrane. Saponins modulated the production of TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-4, IL-6, and IFN-? in cultured peripheral blood intact cells. The results help to understand some mechanisms of the effects of saponins extracted from Saponaria officinalis L. radix on the cellular and humoral factors of innate immunity and demonstrate good prospects of their practical use. PMID:24771377

Kuznetsova, T A; Ivanushko, L A; Makarenkova, I D; Cherevach, E I; Ten'kovskaya, L A

2014-01-01

137

Isolation of a Novel Deoxyribonuclease with Antifungal Activity from Asparagus officinalis Seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A deoxyribonuclease distinct from the previously isolated asparagus ribosome-inactivating proteins, possessing a molecular weight of 30 kDa and requiring a pH of 7.5 for optimum hydrolytic activity toward herring sperm DNA, was isolated from Asparagus officinalis seeds. The isolation procedure involved extraction with saline, (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE–cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion-exchange chromatography on CM-Sepharose,

Hexiang Wang; T. B. Ng

2001-01-01

138

Saporin production from in vitro cultures of the soapwort Saponaria officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report here the successful establishment of callus, cell and root cultures from explants of in-vitro-grown plantlets of\\u000a the soapwort Saponaria officinalis L. The production of saporin in the different tissue systems was evaluated by determining the capability of crude extracts\\u000a to inactivate protein synthesis and by Western blotting analysis. Protein synthesis inhibition varied in callus and derived\\u000a cell suspensions

A. Di Cola; C. Di Domenico; A. Poma; L. Spanò

1997-01-01

139

Yield potential of Asparagus officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yield of individual plants of Asparagus officinalis L. cv. ‘Mary Washington 500W’ grown from seed is very variable. Yield can be improved by selection on plant sex, specific vegetative characters, or yield itself. A study of yield variation among plants in an experimental population showed that an all-male population would yield 35% more than a population with about equal numbers

D. M. Moon

1976-01-01

140

Adsorption chromatography of alkaloids of fumaria officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven alkaloids of Fumaria officinalis, difficult to separate by partition chromatography and countercurrent distribution, were separated by column chromatography using silica gel developed with mixtures of propanol or methanol with nonpolar solvents. Suitable solvent systems for column chromatography were chosen on the basis of thin layer chromatography data.

W. Golkiewicz; T. Wawrzynowicz

1970-01-01

141

Antibacterial activity of plant extracts and phytochemicals on antibiotic-resistant bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antimicrobial activity of plant extracts and phytochemicals was evaluated with antibiotic susceptible and resistant microorganisms. In addition, the possible synergistic effects when associated with antibiotics were studied. Extracts from the following plants were utilized: Achillea millifolium (yarrow), Caryophyllus aromaticus (clove), Melissa offficinalis (lemon-balm), Ocimun basilucum (basil), Psidium guajava (guava), Punica granatum (pomegranate), Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary), Salvia officinalis (sage), Syzygyum

Gislene G. F. Nascimento; Juliana Locatelli; Paulo C. Freitas; Giuliana L. Silva

2000-01-01

142

Carnosol and carnosic acids from Salvia officinalis inhibit microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1.  

PubMed

Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), the most relevant eicosanoid promoting inflammation and tumorigenesis, is formed by cyclooxygenases (COXs) and PGE(2) synthases from free arachidonic acid. Preparations of the leaves of Salvia officinalis are commonly used in folk medicine as an effective antiseptic and anti-inflammatory remedy and possess anticancer activity. Here, we demonstrate that a standard ethyl acetate extract of S. officinalis efficiently suppresses the formation of PGE(2) in a cell-free assay by direct interference with microsomal PGE(2) synthase (mPGES)-1. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the extract yielded closely related fractions that potently suppressed mPGES-1 with IC(50) values between 1.9 and 3.5 ?g/ml. Component analysis of these fractions revealed the diterpenes carnosol and carnosic acid as potential bioactive principles inhibiting mPGES-1 activity with IC(50) values of 5.0 ?M. Using a human whole-blood assay as a robust cell-based model, carnosic acid, but not carnosol, blocked PGE(2) generation upon stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (IC(50) = 9.3 ?M). Carnosic acid neither inhibited the concomitant biosynthesis of other prostanoids [6-keto PGF(1?), 12(S)-hydroxy-5-cis-8,10-trans-heptadecatrienoic acid, and thromboxane B(2)] in human whole blood nor affected the activities of COX-1/2 in a cell-free assay. Together, S. officinalis extracts and its ingredients carnosol and carnosic acid inhibit PGE(2) formation by selectively targeting mPGES-1. We conclude that the inhibitory effect of carnosic acid on PGE(2) formation, observed in the physiologically relevant whole-blood model, may critically contribute to the anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties of S. officinalis. PMID:22511203

Bauer, Julia; Kuehnl, Susanne; Rollinger, Judith M; Scherer, Olga; Northoff, Hinnak; Stuppner, Hermann; Werz, Oliver; Koeberle, Andreas

2012-07-01

143

Rosmarinus officinalis leaves as a natural source of bioactive compounds.  

PubMed

In an extensive search for bioactive compounds from plant sources, the composition of different extracts of rosemary leaves collected from different geographical zones of Serbia was studied. The qualitative and quantitative characterization of 20 rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) samples, obtained by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), was determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS). The high mass accuracy and true isotopic pattern in both MS and MS/MS spectra provided by the QTOF-MS analyzer enabled the characterization of a wide range of phenolic compounds in the extracts, including flavonoids, phenolic diterpenes and abietan-type triterpenoids, among others. According to the data compiled, rosemary samples from Sokobanja presented the highest levels in flavonoids and other compounds such as carnosol, rosmaridiphenol, rosmadial, rosmarinic acid, and carnosic acid. On the other hand, higher contents in triterpenes were found in the extracts of rosemary from Gložan (Vojvodina). PMID:25391044

Borrás-Linares, Isabel; Stojanovi?, Zorica; Quirantes-Piné, Rosa; Arráez-Román, David; Svarc-Gaji?, Jaroslava; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

2014-01-01

144

Antioxidant and anticancer evaluation of Scindapsus officinalis (Roxb.) Schott fruits.  

PubMed

Several methods exist for the treatment of cancer in modern medicine. These include chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery; most cancer chemotherapeutants severely affect the host normal cells. Hence the use of natural products now has been contemplated of exceptional value in the control of cancer. Plant-derived natural products such as flavonoids, terpenes, alkaloids, etc., have received considerable attention in recent years due to their diverse pharmacological properties including cytotoxic and cancer chemopreventive effects. Looking into this, the antioxidant and anticancer evaluation of Scindapsus officinalis (Roxb.) Schott fruits has been attempted to investigate its antitumor activity. The collection and authentication of the plant material mainly fruits and their various extractions was done. Identification of plant's active constituents by preliminary phytochemical screening was carried out. An in-vitro cytotoxic assay using the brine shrimp lethality assay with brine shrimp eggs (Artemia salina) at a dose of 1-10 ?g/ml with the fruit extract was performed by the method described by Mayer et al. Cell viability using the Trypan blue dye exclusion test at a dose of 20, 40, 80, 120, and 160 ?g/ml dissolved in DMSO (final concentration 0.1%), and cytotoxicity using the MTT assay where viable cells convert MTT into a formazan salt were performed. All pharmacological screening for acute toxicity and anti tumour studies using EAC 1 × 10(6) cells/mouse treated Swiss albino mice at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg/day orally was carried out. Biochemical and antioxidants predictions from various parameters like hematological, RBC, WBC count, PVC, total protein, Tissue Lipid Peroxidation, SOD, CATALASE, GPx, GST levels and anti tumour activity of Scindapsus officinalis were observed. The data was statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's and Tukey's multiple comparison test. The antitumor effect of the extract is evident from the increase in mean survival time (MST) lifespan, reduction in the solid tumor volume, and also the reversal of altered hematological parameters almost equal to normal. The methanolic extract (100-200 mg/kg/day orally) was found to be cytotoxic on human cancer cell lines. In addition, the methanolic extract had an antioxidant effect as reflected by a decrease in LPO, GST, and GPx (oxidant enzymes), and an increase in SOD and catalase. PMID:22529657

Shivhare, Shaktikumar C; Patidar, Arjun O; Malviya, K G; Shivhare-Malviya, K K

2011-07-01

145

[Fumaria officinalis (fumitory)--clinical applications].  

PubMed

Fumaria officinalis-fumitory or earth smoke-is a medicinal plant which has long had a role to play in empirical medicine in numerous countries. A review of the literature, however, reveals very few studies that support its use for dermatological indications (milk crust, eczema, scabies, etc.) or as a diuretic or laxative. This contrasts with its use to treat functional diseases of the biliary system. Although no placebo-controlled studies have been done, a number of empirical reports, clinical case reports and animal experimental studies have been published. Accordingly, in Germany, Fumaria officinalis is approved for the indication "colicky pain affecting the gallbladder and biliary system, together with the gastrointestinal tract". PMID:7672742

Hentschel, C; Dressler, S; Hahn, E G

1995-07-10

146

[Studies on chemical constituents of Valeriana officinalis].  

PubMed

From Valeriana officinalis L., 4 compounds were isolated and identified by various spectral analysis and chemical conversion, as valerenic acid, beta-sitosterol, ursolic acid, 4, 4', 8, 8'-tetrahydroxy-3, 3'-dimethoxyl-dibenzyl-ditetrahydrofuran and caryophyllene acide,valerane, naphthalene, linoleic acid, ethyl ester, myrtenyl acetate were identified by GC-MS. Ursolic acid and 4, 4', 8, 8'-tetrahydroxy-3, 3'-dimethoxyl-dibenzyl-ditetrahydrofuran were discovered in this plant for the first time. PMID:18323205

Jiang, Xia; Zhang, Jian-chao; Liu, Yan-wen; Fang, Yin

2007-11-01

147

Effect of Salvia officinalis on diabetic patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Herbs are rich sources of natural antioxidants, and are used in traditional medicine for the control and treatment of many diseases. The reducing effect of a large number of these plants on blood glucose has been approved in animal models and clinical studies. Objectives: This study was therefore, performed to investigate the hypoglycemic effect of Salvia officinalis on blood glucose, Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), lipid profile, liver and kidney function tests.Patients and Methods: A double-blind clinical trial was carried out on 80 type II diabetic patients who had not reached the ideal control of the disease. Patients were randomly divided into two equal groups of case and control. The case group received Salvia officinalis and the control group received placebo tablets three times a day for three months. The fasting blood sugar (FBS) and 2 hours postprandial (2hpp) glucose were checked at the beginning and every 2 weeks, for three months Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), lipid profile, liver and kidney function tests were also measured at the beginning and at the end of trial and compared in two mentioned groups. Results: The 2hpp blood sugar and cholesterol levels were significantly decreased in Salvia officinalis treated patients compared to control group (p<0.05). There were no significant changes in glycosylated hemoglobin and FBS between the two groups. Conclusion: Results showed that Salvia officinalis might be beneficial in diabetic patients to reduce 2hpp and cholesterol. However higher doses might be needed to decrease fasting blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin. PMID:25340127

Behradmanesh, Saeed; Derees, Fatemeh; Rafieian-kopaei, Mahmoud

2013-01-01

148

Identification of indole alkaloids in Nauclea officinalis using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap and time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Indole alkaloids from Nauclea officinalis (Pierra ex Pitard) Merr are prospective agents for inflammation- related diseases. To speed up the process of discovering such bioactive compounds from natural origins, a mass spectrometry-based method was developed to screen N. officinalis for the presence of indole alkaloids. First, representative alkaloids were purified from herbs and analyzed using an ion trap (IT) mass spectrometer. Multi-stage mass spectra (MS(n))were utilized to establish the characteristic fragmentation pathways of indole alkaloids. It was shown that their fragmentation behaviors were correlated with the degree of unsaturation on ring-D of such alkaloids: if there is a double bond between C-3 and C-14, no fragments of ring cleavage are observed; otherwise, a fragment ion after reverse Diels-Alder cleavage of ring-D is observed as the base peak in their tandem mass spectrometry data. Then, herbal extracts of N. officinalis were analyzed using a combination of high- performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/IT and HPLC/time-of-flight (ToF) systems. The structures of suspected alkaloids were deduced based on the accurate mass information from ToF and MS(n) from IT. Finally, a total of 10 indole and one indolizidine alkaloids were identified or tentatively characterized in extracts of N. officinalis. This work has demonstrated that the combination of MS(n) and ToF-MS can be used for rapid identification of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids in N. officinalis. PMID:21828417

Li, Qin; Zhang, Yufeng; Wu, Bin; Qu, Habin

2011-01-01

149

Efficacy of Naturopathic Extracts in the Management of Ear Pain Associated With Acute Otitis Media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the efficacy and tolerance of Otikon Otic Solution (Healthy-On Ltd, Petach- Tikva, Israel), a naturopathic herbal extract (con- taining Allium sativum, Verbascum thapsus, Calendula flores, and Hypericum perforatum in olive oil), com- pared with Anaesthetic (Vitamed Pharmaceutical Ltd, Benyamina, Israel) ear drops (containing ameto- caine and phenazone in glycerin) in the management of e ar p ain

E. Michael Sarrell; Avigdor Mandelberg; Herman Avner Cohen

2001-01-01

150

BOTANICAL EXTRACTS EXHIBIT DUAL ACTION AGAINST CULEX PIPIENS LARVAE AND BIOMPHALARIA ALEXANDRINA SNAILS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some extracts of Euphorbia helioscopia (Euphorbiaceae), Calendula micrantha (Compositae) and Azadriachta indica (Meliaceae) were screened for the control of Culex pipiens larvae, the vector of Filariasis and Biomphalaria alexandrina snails the vector of Schistosomiasis in Egypt. These plants exhibit dual effect on both pests which share the same aquatic breeding habitat and are of medical importance. B. alexandrina snails were

W. M. ELYASSAKI; M. M. EL-SAYED

151

Protective effects of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. in cyclophosphamide-treated mice.  

PubMed

Cyclophosphamide (CP) is one of the most popular alkylating anticancer drugs in spite of its toxic side effects including immunotoxicity, hematotoxicity, mutagenicity and a host of others. The present study was undertaken to assess the protective effects of total aqueous extract of a medicinal plant, Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) in mice treated with CP. These protective effects were studied on immunological parameters and kidney and liver antioxidants. Plant extract treatment at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight per os (p.o.) for 10 days resulted in the modulation of these parameters in normal as well as CP (50 mg/kg)-treated animals. Plant extract in particular was very effective in reducing CP-induced suppression of humoral immunity. Plant extract treatment in normal animals modulated certain antioxidants of kidney and liver. In CP-exposed animals, plant pretreatment provided protection to antioxidants of kidney. Not only were the reduced glutathione levels significantly (p<0.001) increased but plant extract treatment resulted in restoration of antioxidant enzymes in CP-treated animals. It is suggested that E. officinalis or its medicinal preparations may prove to be useful as a component of combination therapy in cancer patients under CP treatment regimen. PMID:11936579

Haque, R; Bin-Hafeez, B; Ahmad, I; Parvez, S; Pandey, S; Raisuddin, S

2001-12-01

152

Hybrid magnetite nanoparticles/ Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil nanobiosystem with antibiofilm activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biofilms formed by fungal organisms are associated with drastically enhanced resistance against most antimicrobial agents, contributing to the persistence of the fungi despite antifungal therapy. The purpose of this study is to combine the unique properties of nanoparticles with the antimicrobial activity of the Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil in order to obtain a nanobiosystem that could be pelliculised on the surface of catheter pieces, in order to obtain an improved resistance to microbial colonization and biofilm development by Candida albicans and C. tropicalis clinical strains. The R. officinalis essential oils were extracted in a Neo-Clevenger type apparatus, and its chemical composition was settled by GC-MS analysis. Functionalized magnetite nanoparticles of up to 20 nm size had been synthesized by precipitation method adapted for microwave conditions, with oleic acid as surfactant. The catheter pieces were coated with suspended core/shell nanoparticles (Fe3O4/oleic acid:CHCl3), by applying a magnetic field on nanofluid, while the CHCl3 diluted essential oil was applied by adsorption in a secondary covering treatment. The fungal adherence ability was investigated in six multiwell plates, in which there have been placed catheters pieces with and without hybrid nanoparticles/essential oil nanobiosystem pellicle, by using culture-based methods and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The R. officinalis essential oil coated nanoparticles strongly inhibited the adherence ability and biofilm development of the C. albicans and C. tropicalis tested strains to the catheter surface, as shown by viable cell counts and CLSM examination. Due to the important implications of C andida spp. in human pathogenesis, especially in prosthetic devices related infections and the emergence of antifungal tolerance/resistance, using the new core/shell/coated shell based on essential oil of R. officinalis to inhibit the fungal adherence could be of a great interest for the biomedical field, opening new directions for the design of film-coated surfaces with antibiofilm properties.

Chifiriuc, Carmen; Grumezescu, Valentina; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Saviuc, Crina; Laz?r, Veronica; Andronescu, Ecaterina

2012-04-01

153

Hybrid magnetite nanoparticles/Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil nanobiosystem with antibiofilm activity.  

PubMed

Biofilms formed by fungal organisms are associated with drastically enhanced resistance against most antimicrobial agents, contributing to the persistence of the fungi despite antifungal therapy. The purpose of this study is to combine the unique properties of nanoparticles with the antimicrobial activity of the Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil in order to obtain a nanobiosystem that could be pelliculised on the surface of catheter pieces, in order to obtain an improved resistance to microbial colonization and biofilm development by Candida albicans and C. tropicalis clinical strains. The R. officinalis essential oils were extracted in a Neo-Clevenger type apparatus, and its chemical composition was settled by GC-MS analysis. Functionalized magnetite nanoparticles of up to 20 nm size had been synthesized by precipitation method adapted for microwave conditions, with oleic acid as surfactant. The catheter pieces were coated with suspended core/shell nanoparticles (Fe3O4/oleic acid:CHCl3), by applying a magnetic field on nanofluid, while the CHCl3 diluted essential oil was applied by adsorption in a secondary covering treatment. The fungal adherence ability was investigated in six multiwell plates, in which there have been placed catheters pieces with and without hybrid nanoparticles/essential oil nanobiosystem pellicle, by using culture-based methods and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The R. officinalis essential oil coated nanoparticles strongly inhibited the adherence ability and biofilm development of the C. albicans and C. tropicalis tested strains to the catheter surface, as shown by viable cell counts and CLSM examination. Due to the important implications of Candida spp. in human pathogenesis, especially in prosthetic devices related infections and the emergence of antifungal tolerance/resistance, using the new core/shell/coated shell based on essential oil of R. officinalis to inhibit the fungal adherence could be of a great interest for the biomedical field, opening new directions for the design of film-coated surfaces with antibiofilm properties. PMID:22490675

Chifiriuc, Carmen; Grumezescu, Valentina; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Saviuc, Crina; Laz?r, Veronica; Andronescu, Ecaterina

2012-01-01

154

Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of Hyssopus officinalis L. from Iran  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Hyssopus officinalis (L) (Hyssop, Family: Lamiaceae), one of the endemic Iranian perennial herb with a long history of medicinal use, was studied to detect some biologically active chemical constituents of the plant. Methods: The flavonoids of the hydromethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Hyssopus officinalis (L.) were studied by VLC and crystalisation of the major compound in subsequent fractions. Furthermore, the composition of its essential oil, total phenolic content and antioxidant activities were studied by GC-MS, Folin–Ciocalteau and DPPH reagents respectively. Results: Apigenin 7-O-?-D-glucuronide was isolated as the major flavonoid. All structural elucidation was performed by spectral means. A total of 20 compounds representing 99.97% of the oil have been identified. Myrtenylacetate, Camphor, Germacrene, Spathulenol were the main compounds The total phenol content of the n-butanol and ethylacetate extracts were determined spectrophotometrically according to the Folin–Ciocalteau procedure to be 246 mgGAE g-1 and 51 mgGAE g-1 in the aerial parts of Hyssopus officinalis . The antioxidant activities of apigenin 7-O-?-D-glucuronide, ethylacetate and n-butanol extracts were also determined by DPPH radical scavenging assay with IC50 values of 116×10-3, 103×10-3, 25×10-3 mg mL-1 respectively. The purified flavonoid showed weak radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 116×10-3mg mL-1). N-butanol extract, because of the highest content of total phenolic compounds (246 mgGAE100-1g) had the best antioxidant activity (IC50 = 25mg mL-1). Conclusion: On the whole, the findings of the study revealed that Hyssop possesses valuable antioxidant properties for culinary and possible medicinal use. PMID:24312758

Fathiazad, Fatemeh; Mazandarani, Masoumeh; Hamedeyazdan, Sanaz

2011-01-01

155

The Impact of Aloe vera and Calendula on Perineal Healing after Episiotomy in Primiparous Women: A Randomized Clinical Trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Episiotomy is used for enlarging the perineum. Aloe vera and Calendula have been used for treating different diseases from ancient times, limited researches have been done regarding the healing of these plants. Since the effect of their ointment on episiotomy healing has not been studied, this study is being done for determining the impact of Aloe vera and Calendula on episiotomy healing in primiparous women. Methods: This clinical trial involves 111 qualified primiparous women admitted in Lolagar hospital. They were randomly categorized into three groups of control (n=1) and experimental (n=2) groups. The women in experimental group used Aloe vera and Calendula Ointment every 8 hours and the control group used hospital routine on episiotomy for 5 days. The data were collected by demographic questionnaire and redness, edema, ecchymosis, discharge and approximation scale (REEDA) which investigated the episiotomy healing before and five days after intervention in two groups. ANOVA, Tukey test, Kruskal-wallis, Chi-square were used for data analysis. Results: The three groups do not have statistically significant different regarding demographic and other intervening variables. Comparing the mean of REEDA in five days after delivery showed statistically significant difference between control and experimental groups. Conclusion: According to the results, using Aloe vera and Calendula ointment considerably increases the speed of episiotomy wound healing so it can be used for quickening the episiotomy healing.

Eghdampour, Farideh; Jahdie, Fereshteh; Kheyrkhah, Masomeh; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Naghizadeh, Somayeh; Hagani, Hamid

2013-01-01

156

Investigation of the Effect of Rice Wine on the Metabolites of the Main Components of Herbal Medicine in Rat Urine by Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole/Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry: A Case Study on Cornus officinalis  

PubMed Central

Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS) was developed for rapid and sensitive analysis of the effect of rice wine on the metabolites of the main components of herbal medicine in rat urine. Using Cornus officinalis as a model of herbal medicine, the metabolite profiles of crude and processed (steaming the crude drug presteeped in rice wine) Cornus officinalis extracts in rat urine were investigated. The metabolites of Cornus officinalis were identified by using dynamic adjustment of the fragmentor voltage to produce structure-relevant fragment ions. In this work, we identified the parent compounds and metabolites of crude and processed Cornus officinalis in rats. In total, three parent compounds and seventeen new metabolites of Cornus officinalis were found in rats. The contents of the parent compounds and metabolites in vivo varied significantly after intragastric (i.g.) administration of aqueous extracts of crude and processed Cornus officinalis. Data from this study suggests that UPLC-QTOF/MS could be used as a potential tool for uncovering the effects of excipients found in the metabolites of the main components of herbal medicine, in vivo, to predict and discover the processing mechanisms of herbal medicine. PMID:23737825

Cao, Gang; Cai, Hao; Yue, Xianke; Tu, Sicong; Cai, Baochang; Xu, Zhiwei

2013-01-01

157

Antimicrobial activity of Rosmarinus officinalis against oral pathogens: relevance of carnosic acid and carnosol.  

PubMed

The in vitro inhibitory activity of crude EtOH/H2O extracts from the leaves and stems of Rosmarinus officinalis L. was evaluated against the following microorganisms responsible for initiating dental caries: Streptococcus mutans, S. salivarius, S. sobrinus, S. mitis, S. sanguinis, and Enterococcus faecalis. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined with the broth microdilution method. The bioassay-guided fractionation of the leaf extract, which displayed the higher antibacterial activity than the stem extract, led to the identification of carnosic acid (2) and carnosol (3) as the major compounds in the fraction displaying the highest activity, as identified by HPLC analysis. Rosmarinic acid (1), detected in another fraction, did not display any activity against the selected microorganisms. HPLC Analysis revealed the presence of low amounts of ursolic acid (4) and oleanolic acid (5) in the obtained fractions. The results suggest that the antimicrobial activity of the extract from the leaves of R. officinalis may be ascribed mainly to the action of 2 and 3. PMID:20658673

Bernardes, Wagner A; Lucarini, Rodrigo; Tozatti, Marcos G; Souza, Maria G M; Silva, Márcio L Andrade; Filho, Ademar A da Silva; Martins, Carlos H Gomes; Crotti, Antonio E Miller; Pauletti, Patricia M; Groppo, Milton; Cunha, Wilson R

2010-07-01

158

Efficacy of E. officinalis on the Cariogenic Properties of Streptococcus mutans: A Novel and Alternative Approach to Suppress Quorum-Sensing Mechanism  

PubMed Central

The present study was focused on evaluating the potential of Emblica officinalis against cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans, a causative microorganism for caries. The effect of crude extract and ethanolic fraction from Emblica officinalis fruit was analysed against S. mutans. The sub-MIC concentrations of crude and ethanolic fraction of E. officinalis were evaluated for its cariogenic properties such as acid production, biofilm formation, cell-surface hydrophobicity, glucan production, sucrose-dependent and independent adherence. Its effect on biofilm architecture was also investigated with the help of confocal and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, expression of genes involved in biofilm formation was also studied by quantitative RT- PCR. This study showed 50% reduction in adherence at concentrations 156 µg/ and 312.5 µg/ml of crude extract and ethanolic fraction respectively. However, the biofilm was reduced to 50% in the presence of crude extract (39.04 µg/ml) and ethanolic fraction (78.08 µg/ml). Furthermore, effective reduction was observed in the glucan synthesis and cell surface hydrophobicity. The qRT-PCR revealed significant suppression of the genes involved in its virulence. Confocal and scanning electron microscopy clearly depicted the obliteration of biofilm structure with reference to control. Hence, this study reveals the potential of E. officinalis fruit extracts as an alternative and complementary medicine for dental caries by inhibiting the virulence factors of Streptococcus mutans. PMID:22792279

Hasan, Sadaf; Singh, Kunal; Verma, Praveen K.; Khan, Asad U.

2012-01-01

159

Protective Effect of Emblica officinalis Against Alcohol-Induced Hepatic Injury by Ameliorating Oxidative Stress in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of Emblica officinalis fruit extract (EFE) against alcohol-induced hepatic damage in rats was investigated in the present study. In vitro studies\\u000a showed that EFE possesses antioxidant as well nitric oxide (NO) scavenging activity. In vivo administration of alcohol (5 g\\/kg\\u000a b.wt\\/day) for 60 days resulted increased liver lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls, nitrite plus nitrate levels. Alcohol\\u000a administration also significantly lowers

V. Damodara Reddy; P. Padmavathi; S. Gopi; M. Paramahamsa; N. Ch. Varadacharyulu

2010-01-01

160

Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of the alkaloids of Amlaki (Emblica officinalis).  

PubMed

Alkaloids are important sources of drug that's why we have conducted our research to find out the biological activity of the alkaloids of a plant that is the Amlaki. Alkaloids were extracted from the methanolic extract of the fresh ripe fruits of Amlaki (Emblica officinalis) through solvent-solvent partitioning method with n-hexane and chloroform. The chloroform soluble fraction of the crude methanolic extract of the ripe fruits of Amlaki containing alkaloids was subjected to antimicrobial activity and brine shrimp lethality bioassay for observing cytotoxic activity. The chloroform soluble fraction of the methanolic extract exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against some Gram positive and Gram negative pathogenic bacteria and strong cytotoxicity having a LC50 of 10.257 +/- 0.770 microg mL(-1). It is concluded that the chloroform soluble fraction of the ripe fruits of Amlaki containing alkaloids are biologically active. PMID:19899327

Rahman, S; Akbor, M M; Howlader, A; Jabbar, A

2009-08-15

161

Gastroprotective effects of 'Amla' Emblica officinalis on in vivo test models in rats.  

PubMed

An ethanol extract of 'Amla' Emblica officinalis Gaertn. was examined for its antisecretory and antiulcer activities employing different experimental models in rats, including pylorus ligation Shay rats, indomethacin, hypothermic restraint stress-induced gastric ulcer and necrotizing agents (80% ethanol, 0.2 M NaOH and 25% NaCl). Oral administration of Amla extract at doses 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg significantly inhibited the development of gastric lesions in all test models used. It also caused significant decrease of the pyloric-ligation induced basal gastric secretion, titratable acidity and gastric mucosal injury. Besides, Amla extract offered protection against ethanol-induced depletion of stomach wall mucus and reduction in nonprotein sulfhydryl concentration. Histopathological analyses are in good agreement with pharmacological and biochemical findings. The results indicate that Amla extract possesses antisecretory, antiulcer, and cytoprotective properties. PMID:12403160

Al-Rehaily, A J; Al-Howiriny, T A; Al-Sohaibani, M O; Rafatullah, S

2002-09-01

162

Identification of Sensory-Active Phytochemicals in Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.).  

PubMed

Sensory-directed fractionation of extracts prepared from raw and cooked asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.), respectively, followed by LC-TOF-MS, LC-MS/MS, and 1D/2D-NMR experiments revealed the chemical structures of nine bitter tasting mono- and bidesmotic saponins as well as the previously not reported 1,2-dithiolan-4-carboxylic acid 6-D-?/?-glucopyranose ester exhibiting an interesting buttery mouth-coating effect. Sensory studies showed that the orosensation imparted by this sulfur compound was reminiscent to that of melting butter and revealed an orosensory recognition threshold of 276.8 ?mol/L. PMID:23136992

Dawid, Corinna; Hofmann, Thomas

2012-12-01

163

Comparative inhibitory properties of some Indian medicinal plant extracts against photosensitization-induced lipid damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protective activities of Emblica officinalis, Terminalia bellerica and Terminalia chebula ethanol extracts against photosensitization-induced oxidation of rat liver mitochondrial lipid were assessed. All the extracts could effectively prevent lipid peroxidation, as assessed by measuring thiobarbituric acid-reactive substrates, lipid hydroperoxide, conjugated diene and 4-hydroxynonenal. The E. officinalis extract was the most potent, revealing its superior ability to scavenge 1O2. The

Sayanti Bhattacharya; Jaya P. Kamat; Sandip K. Bandyopadhyay; Subrata Chattopadhyay

2009-01-01

164

Economical viability of SFE from peach almond, spearmint and marigold  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) applies near critical carbon dioxide (CO2) for the extraction of aromatic and bioactive products such as peach (Prunus persica) almond oil, spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) essential oil and marigold (Calendula officinalis L., Asteraceae) oleoresin. Due to the cost intensive nature of SFE, the estimation of process cost is necessary to appraise operation viability. Therefore, this work

Natália Mezzomo; Julian Martínez; Sandra R. S. Ferreira

2011-01-01

165

A rapid and highly specific method to evaluate the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Borago officinalis seed oil.  

PubMed

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are complex molecules, present in plants as free bases and N-oxides. They are known for their hepatotoxicity, and consequently there is a health risk associated with the use of medicinal herbs that contain PAs. Unfortunately, there is no international regulation of PAs in foods, unlike those for herbs and medicines: in particular, for herbal preparation or herbal extracts, the total PA content must not exceed 1 µg/kg or 1 µg/l, respectively. Borago officinalis seed oil is a source of ?-linolenic acid, and its use is increased in both pharmaceutical and health food industries. Even if studies based on gas chromatography and TLC methods showed that PAs are not co-extracted with oil, the development of a rapid and sensitive method able to evaluate the presence of PAs in commercially available products is surely of interest. The presence of PAs in a commercially available Borago officinalis seed oil was tested either in the oil sample diluted with tetrahydrofuran/methanol (MeOH)/H2 O (85/10/5 v:v:v) or after extraction with MeOH/H2 O (50/50 v:v) solution The samples were analysed by electrospray ionization in positive ion mode and in high mass resolution (60,000) conditions. In both cases to evaluate the effectiveness of the method, spiking experiments were performed adding known amount of two PA standards to the borage seed oil. A limit of detection in the order of 200 ppt was determined for these two compounds, strongly analogous to Borago officinalis seed oil PAs. Consequently, if present, PAs level in Borago officinalis seed oil must lower than 200 ppt. PMID:24130010

Vacillotto, Giulio; Favretto, Donata; Seraglia, Roberta; Pagiotti, Rita; Traldi, Pietro; Mattoli, Luisa

2013-10-01

166

Glycoside of hypsogenic acid from Saponaria officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

A glycoside of hypsogenic acid called saponaroside has been isolated for the first time from the roots ofSaponaria officinalis L. It was shown that the glycoside isß-D-xylopyranoside-3-hypsogenic acid.

V. G. Bukharov; S. P. Shcherbak

1969-01-01

167

Variations in essential oil, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity of tunisian cultivated Salvia officinalis L.  

PubMed

The variation in the chemical composition of the essential oil of Salvia officinalis , growing in different habitats, was studied. GC-MS analysis revealed 57 compounds representing 94.68-96.80% of total oils. The major components were alpha-thujone (11.55-19.23%), viridiflorol (9.94-19.46%), 1,8-cineole (8.85-15.60%), camphor (5.08-15.06%), manool (5.52-13.06%), beta-caryophyllene (2.63-9.24%), alpha-humulene (1.93-8.94%), and beta-thujone (5.45-6.17%), showing significant differences between different collection sites. Analysis of some representative polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity was performed using postdistilled dry samples. Rosmarinic acid, carnosol, and carnosic acid were the prevalent compounds of S. officinalis methanolic extracts. The results revealed differences in the polyphenolic composition and also exhibited antioxidant and radical-scavenging activities at different magnitudes of potency. However, within the used methods, only the DPPH(*) assay showed significant differences (p < 0.05) in free radical scavenging activity among samples collected in different regions. Plants collected in the coastal regions Soliman and Kelibia accumulate more polyphenolic compounds, known to be responsible for the main antioxidant activity of sage (rosmarinic acid, carnosol, and carnosic acid), than those growing inland at Bou Arada and Sers. Moreover, the former presented a higher radical-scavenging activity. The methanolic extracts of postdistilled S. officinalis might be valuable antioxidant natural sources and seemed to be applicable in both the health medicine and food industries. PMID:19886685

Ben Farhat, Mouna; Jordán, María J; Chaouech-Hamada, Rym; Landoulsi, Ahmed; Sotomayor, Jose A

2009-11-11

168

Chemical composition analysis of the essential oil of Melissa officinalis L. from Kurdistan, Iran by HS\\/SPME method and calculation of the biophysicochemical coefficients of the components  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volatile constituents of the essential oil of wild Melissa officinalis L. obtained from the Kurdistan province of Iran were extracted by headspace\\/solid-phase micro-extraction and were analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry. Of a total of 14 compounds in the oil, 12 (85.7%) were identified. The main components were as follows: (E)-citral (37.2%), neral (23.9%) and citronellal (20.3%).

Avat Taherpour; Hossein Maroofi; Zeinab Rafie; Kambiz Larijani

2012-01-01

169

Chemical composition analysis of the essential oil of Melissa officinalis L. from Kurdistan, Iran by HS\\/SPME method and calculation of the biophysicochemical coefficients of the components  

Microsoft Academic Search

The volatile constituents of the essential oil of wild Melissa officinalis L. obtained from the Kurdistan province of Iran were extracted by headspace\\/solid-phase micro-extraction and were analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry. Of a total of 14 compounds in the oil, 12 (85.7%) were identified. The main components were as follows: (E)-citral (37.2%), neral (23.9%) and citronellal (20.3%).

Avat Taherpour; Hossein Maroofi; Zeinab Rafie; Kambiz Larijani

2011-01-01

170

Major anthocyanins from purple asparagus (Asparagus officinalis).  

PubMed

Two major anthocyanins (A1 and A2) were isolated from peels of the spears of Asparagus officinalis cv. Purple Passion. They were purified by column, paper and high-performance liquid chromatographic separations, and their structures were elucidated by high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (HR-FT-ICR MS), 1H, 13C and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic analyses and either acid or alkaline hydrolysis, respectively. A1 was identified as cyanidin 3-[3''-(O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl)-6''-(O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl)-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside], whereas A2 was cyanidin 3-rutinoside, which is widely distributed in higher plants. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays proved their high antioxidant activities. PMID:18406435

Sakaguchi, Yumi; Ozaki, Yukio; Miyajima, Ikuo; Yamaguchi, Masaatsu; Fukui, Yuko; Iwasa, Keiko; Motoki, Satoru; Suzuki, Takashi; Okubo, Hiroshi

2008-05-01

171

Production of extracellular exoinulinase from Kluyveromyces marxianus YS-1 using root tubers of Asparagus officinalis.  

PubMed

Root tubers of Asparagus officinalis were used as a source of raw inulin for the production of exoinulinase (EC 3.2.1.7) from Kluyveromyces marxianus YS-1. Root extract prepared at 10kg/cm2 pressure for 10min showed maximum inulinase production. Medium components and process parameters were standardized to improve the enzyme production. Inulinase yield of 40.2IU/mL in a medium containing raw inulin (3.5%), beef extract (2%), SDS (0.001%), Mn2+ (2.0mM), Mg2+ (1.5mM), Co2+ (2mM) and pH 6.5 has been obtained under agitation (150rpm) after 60h of incubation at 30 degrees C at shake flask level. After optimization, the enzyme production was 4.8 times more than the basal medium. To test the feasibility of raw inulin from A. officinalis for the production of inulinase, trials were also made in a bioreactor (1.5L). Inulinase activity of 50.2IU/mL was obtained from raw inulin (4.0%) under agitation (200rpm) and aeration (0.75vvm) at 30 degrees C after 60h of fermentation. Inulinase yield in bioreactor was almost six times higher than the basal medium used initially in shake flask. PMID:18280145

Singh, R S; Bhermi, H K

2008-10-01

172

Evaluation of nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of Borage (Echium amoenum) and Valerian (Valerian officinalis).  

PubMed

The nutritional composition and antioxidant activity (in aqueose and solvent extracts) of two medicinal plants of Iranian origin Borage (Echium amoenum) and Valerian (Valerian officinalis) used as tea were determined. Samples were analyzed for antioxidant components viz. polyphenols, vitamin C, ? carotene, flavonoids, anthocyanins and tannins. Antioxidant assays such as free radical scavenging activity, reducing power and total antioxidant activity were carried out for ethanol, methanol, acetone, 80% methanol and 80% ethanolic extracts. In borage highest and least activity was observed in water and acetone extract respectively in all assays. In Valerian, 80% methanolic extract showed highest activity in reducing power and free radical scavenging activity assay. Total polyphenols in borage and valerian were 1,220 and 500 mg in ethanolic extracts and 25 and 130 mg in acetonic extracts respectively. Total carotenoids and vitamin C contents were 31.6 and 133.69 mg and 51.2 and 44.87 mg for borage and valerian respectively. Highest amount of tannins were extracted in 80% methanolic extract. It can be concluded that borage and valerian exhibited antioxidant activity in all extracts. The antioxidant activity could be attributed to their polyphenol and tannin and flavonoids contents. In all assays borage showed higher activity than valerian. PMID:24803690

Adel Pilerood, Shirin; Prakash, Jamuna

2014-05-01

173

Antioxidant, Antimicrobial Activity and Total Phenolic Content within the Aerial Parts of Artemisia absinthum, Artemisia santonicum and Saponaria officinalis.  

PubMed

Three native Turkish medicinal and aromatic plants (Artemisia absinthum, Artemisia santonicum and Saponaria officinalis) were investigated to analyze their antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and antimicrobial activity. Their total antioxidant activity was determined by using a ?-carotene bleaching assay and their antimicrobial activity was determined by utilizing an agar disc diffusion assay. Methanol extracts of the three species analyzed showed high antioxidant activity and among them Artemisia absinthum possessed the highest quantity (71.78%). The total phenolic content (Folin-Ciocalteu assay) was shown to be between 6.57 ?gGAE/mg dry weight basis (Saponaria officinalis) and 8.86 ?gGAE/mg dry weight basis (Artemisia absinthum). There was a positive correlation (R = 0.819) between the total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity measured in the plant samples. The aqueous and methanol extracts of the aerial parts of the species showed antibacterial activities against a number of microorganisms. The methanol extracts were found to inhibit the growth of microorganisms more than the aqueous extracts. These findings suggest that the methanol extracts of the plants tested contain compounds with antimicrobial properties. These exhibited properties propose that such plant extracts can possibly be used as natural preservatives in the food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:24363680

Sengul, Memnune; Ercisli, Sezai; Yildiz, Hilal; Gungor, Neva; Kavaz, Arzu; Cetin, Bülent

2011-01-01

174

Antioxidant, Antimicrobial Activity and Total Phenolic Content within the Aerial Parts of Artemisia absinthum, Artemisia santonicum and Saponaria officinalis  

PubMed Central

Three native Turkish medicinal and aromatic plants (Artemisia absinthum, Artemisia santonicum and Saponaria officinalis) were investigated to analyze their antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and antimicrobial activity. Their total antioxidant activity was determined by using a ?-carotene bleaching assay and their antimicrobial activity was determined by utilizing an agar disc diffusion assay. Methanol extracts of the three species analyzed showed high antioxidant activity and among them Artemisia absinthum possessed the highest quantity (71.78%). The total phenolic content (Folin-Ciocalteu assay) was shown to be between 6.57 ?gGAE/mg dry weight basis (Saponaria officinalis) and 8.86 ?gGAE/mg dry weight basis (Artemisia absinthum). There was a positive correlation (R = 0.819) between the total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity measured in the plant samples. The aqueous and methanol extracts of the aerial parts of the species showed antibacterial activities against a number of microorganisms. The methanol extracts were found to inhibit the growth of microorganisms more than the aqueous extracts. These findings suggest that the methanol extracts of the plants tested contain compounds with antimicrobial properties. These exhibited properties propose that such plant extracts can possibly be used as natural preservatives in the food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:24363680

Sengul, Memnune; Ercisli, Sezai; Yildiz, Hilal; Gungor, Neva; Kavaz, Arzu; Çetin, Bülent

2011-01-01

175

Antibacterial, allelopathic and antioxidant activities of essential oil of Salvia officinalis L. growing wild in the Atlas Mountains of Morocco.  

PubMed

Salvia officinalis (Common sage, Culinary sage) is an aromatic plant that is frequently used as a spice in Mediterranean cookery and in the food industry and as a traditional medicine for the treatment of several infectious diseases. The essential oils were obtained by two different methods [hydrodistillation (HD) and microwave (Mw)] from the aerial part of S. officinalis L. growing wild in Ourika-Marrakech in Morocco. Ourika is a large zone of the Atlas Mountains which is considered as a large reserve of Flora, especially medicinal and aromatic plants. The obtained oils were analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compared with that of Tunisia. Thirty-six compounds were identified from the Mw-extracted oil which accounted for 97.32% of the total oil composition. However, 33 compounds obtained by HD representing 98.67%. The major components were trans-thujone (14.10% and 29.84%), 1,8-cineole (5.10% and 16.82%), camphor (4.99% and 9.14%), viridiflorol (16.42% and 9.92%), ?-caryophyllene (19.83% and 5.20%) and ?-humulene (13.54% and 4.02%). Antibacterial, allelopathic (% germination in lettuce seeds and inhibited root growth obtained after treatment with S. officinalis oils) and antioxidant (IC?? values 22 mg/mL) activities were studied. PMID:23240623

Bouajaj, S; Benyamna, A; Bouamama, H; Romane, A; Falconieri, D; Piras, A; Marongiu, B

2013-01-01

176

[Treatment with acyclovir combined with a new Romanian product from plants].  

PubMed

The paper presents a study of the associated effect of acyclovir and a plant extract from Calendula officinalis, Actium lappa and Geranium robertianum. We studied a number of 52 patients suffering of herpetic keratitis. Better results in resolving complains and faster healing of ulceration were obtained using the associated treatment then the usual acyclovir treatment only. PMID:10641087

Corina, P; Dimitris, S; Emanuil, T; Nora, R

1999-01-01

177

Steroidal saponins from roots of Asparagus officinalis.  

PubMed

Sarsasapogenin M (1) and sarsasapogenin N (2), two new oligospirostanosides with a unique aglycone moiety, (25S)-5beta-spirostan-3beta, 17alpha-diol, along with seven known compounds (25S)-5beta-spirostan-3beta-ol-3-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1,2)-[beta-d-xylopyranosyl-(1,4)]-beta-d-glucopyranoside (3), (25S)-5beta-spirostan-3beta-ol-3-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1,2)-beta-d-glucopyranoside (4), (25S)-5beta-spirostan-3beta-ol-3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1,2)-[alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1,4)]-beta-d-glucopyranoside (5), (25S)26-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-5beta-furost-20 (22)-ene-3beta,26-diol-3-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1,2)-beta-d-glucopyranoside (6), yamogenin (7), beta-sitosterol (8), and sitosterol-beta-d-glucoside (9) were isolated from the roots of Asparagus officinalis L. Their structures were determined by spectral analysis, including extensive 1D and 2D NMR experiments. PMID:16280142

Huang, Xuefeng; Kong, Lingyi

2006-02-01

178

Flavonoids and phenolic compounds from Rosmarinus officinalis.  

PubMed

A new flavonoid, 6''-O-(E)-feruloylhomoplantaginin (1), and 14 known compounds, 6''-O-(E)-feruloylnepitrin (2), 6''-O-(E)-p-coumaroylnepitrin (3), 6-methoxyluteolin 7-glucopyranoside (4), luteolin 3'-O-beta-D-glucuronide (5), luteolin 3'-O-(3''-O-acetyl)-beta-D-glucuronide (6), kaempferol (7), luteolin (8), genkwanin (9), and ladanein (10), together with 1-O-feruloyl-beta-D-glucopyranose (11), 1-O-(4-hydroxybenzoyl)-beta-D-glucopyranose (12), rosmarinic acid (13), carnosic acid (14), and carnosol (15), were isolated from the leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis . The structures were established on the basis of NMR spectroscopic methods supported by HRMS. All isolated compounds were tested for cytotoxicity in human cancer cell lines (HepG2, COLO 205, and HL-60) and for anti-inflammatory activities in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Among them, compounds 14 and 15 were modestly active in the inhibition of nitrite production in macrophages, followed by compounds 8 and 5. Compounds 14 and 15 were more effective as an antiproliferative agent in HL-60 cells with IC(50) values of 1.7 and 5.5 microM, followed by compounds 8 and 7 with IC(50) of 39.6 and 82.0 microM, respectively. In addition, compounds 14 and 15 showed potent antiproliferative effects on COLO 205 cells with IC(50) values of 32.8 and 29.9 microM, respectively. PMID:20397728

Bai, Naisheng; He, Kan; Roller, Marc; Lai, Ching-Shu; Shao, Xi; Pan, Min-Hsiung; Ho, Chi-Tang

2010-05-12

179

Major triterpenoid saponins from saponaria officinalis  

PubMed

Two major triterpenoid saponins, named saponariosides A and B, were isolated from the whole plants of Saponaria officinalis and were respectively defined to be 3-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->2)-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-be ta-D-glucuronopyranosyl quillaic acid 28-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->3)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->4)-alpha- L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->3)-beta-D-4-O-ac etylquinovopyranosyl-(1-->4)]-beta-D-fucopyranoside (1); 3-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->2)-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-be ta-D-glucuronopyranosyl quillaic acid 28-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->3)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->4)-alpha- L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-[beta-D-4-O-acetylquinovopyranosyl-(1-->4)] -beta-D-fucopyranoside (2). Their structures were established on the basis of extensive NMR (DEPT, DQF-COSY, HOHAHA, HETCOR, HMBC, and NOESY) and MS studies as well as chemical degradation. PMID:9834154

Jia; Koike; Nikaido

1998-11-01

180

Bioactivity of essential oils of Zingiber officinalis and Achyranthes aspera against mosquitoes.  

PubMed

Due to the global health problems associated with mosquito-borne diseases, over two million people primarily in the tropical countries are at risk. The widely and commonly used chemical method though effective, has some major disadvantages making insect control practically difficult. In view of the above, it is unavoidable to search for new molecules, which are eco-friendly, cheaper, and safer. The present study deals with evaluation of bioactive potential of two commonly occurring plants against mosquitoes presenting an alternative to the conventional chemical methods. Essential oils extracted by steam distillation from rhizome of Zingiber officinalis and leaf and stem of Achyranthes aspera were evaluated for larvicidal, attractant/repellent, and oviposition attractant/deterrent activity against two mosquito species viz. Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. The highest larvicidal activity, i.e., LC(50) = 154 ppm and LC(50) = 197 ppm for A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus, respectively was shown by Z. officinalis. This oil also offers 5-h protection at the concentration of 0.5 mg/cm² from both mosquito species. The highest oviposition deterrence activity was exhibited by A. aspera stem oil, i.e., 100% and 85.71%, in case of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus, respectively, at the concentration of 0.1%. These results reveal that both these oils have control potential against A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. PMID:21311910

Khandagle, Abhay J; Tare, Vrushali S; Raut, Kishor D; Morey, Rashmi A

2011-08-01

181

Melissa officinalis L. essential oil: antitumoral and antioxidant activities.  

PubMed

Melissa officinalis L (lemon balm) is a traditional herbal medicine used widely as a mild sedative, spasmolytic and antibacterial agent. This paper focuses on the analysis of the chemical composition and the biological activities of M. officinalis essential oil obtained under controlled harvesting and drying conditions. An in-vitro cytotoxicity assay using MTT indicated that this oil was very effective against a series of human cancer cell lines (A549, MCF-7, Caco-2, HL-60, K562) and a mouse cell line (B16F10). This oil possessed antioxidant activity, as evidenced by reduction of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH). These results pointed to the potential use of M. officinalis essential oil as an antitumoral agent. PMID:15142347

de Sousa, Allyne Carvalho; Alviano, Daniela Sales; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Gattass, Cerli Rocha

2004-05-01

182

Experimental Evidence for Spatial Learning in Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory mazes were used to study spatial-learning capabilities in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), using escape for reinforcement. In preliminary observations, cuttlefish in an artificial pond moved actively around the environment and appeared to learn about features of their environment. In laboratory experiments, cuttlefish exited a simple alley maze more quickly with experience and retained the learned information. Similar improvement was not

Miranda A. Karson; Jean Geary Boal; Roger T. Hanlon

2003-01-01

183

Partition chromatography and countercurrent distribution of alkaloids of Fumaria officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Component alkaloids of Fumaria officinalis were partly separated on a preprative scale by the countercurrent distribution technique, using selective solvent systems of the type chloroform\\/buffer solution and benzene\\/buffer solution, the optimal pH of the aqueous phase being estimated from paper chromatographic data. Good agreement between predicted and experimental separations and sequences of the bands was observed.

T. Wawrzynowicz; A. Waksmundzki

1968-01-01

184

Über kalkoxalatkristalle in der Samenschale von Fumaria officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Entgegen der bisherigen Ansicht, daß die Früchte vonFumaria im Gegensatz zu den übrigen Papaveraceen keine Bildung von Kalziumoxalatkristallen in der Samenschale aufweisen, haben die vorliegenden Untersuchungen anFumaria officinalis L. ergeben, daß vor dem Eintritt der Fruchtreife im Außenintegument der Samenschale von den frühesten Entwicklungsstadien an wohlausgebildete Kalziumoxalatkristalle des monoklinen Systems ausgeschieden werden. Eine quantitativ bedeutende Anreicherung erfolgt in der

J. Greger

1930-01-01

185

Seasonal variations of phenolic compounds and biological properties in sage (Salvia officinalis L.).  

PubMed

The aim was to investigate the phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, and antibacterial activity of Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leaves collected during different vegetation periods. Separation and quantification of the individual phenols were performed by reversed-phase (RP)-HPLC coupled with a PDA (photodiode array) detector and using an internal standard, while the contents of total phenols, flavonoids, flavones, and flavonols were determined spectrophotometrically. The antioxidant properties of the sage leaf extracts were evaluated using five different antioxidant assays (FRAP, DPPH, ABTS, Briggs-Rauscher reaction, and ?-carotene bleaching). The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was tested against two Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus) and two Gram-negative (Salmonella Infantis and Escherichia coli) bacterial reference strains. All extracts were extremely rich in phenolic compounds, and provided good antioxidant and antibacterial properties, but the phenophase in which the leaves were collected affected the phenolic composition of the sage extracts and consequently their biological activity. The May Extract, the richest in total flavonoids, showed the best antioxidant properties and the highest antimicrobial activity. Thus, collection of the plants during May seems the best choice for further use of them in the pharmaceutical and food industry. PMID:22344920

Generali?, Ivana; Skroza, Danijela; Surjak, Jana; Možina, Sonja Smole; Ljubenkov, Ivica; Katalini?, Ana; Simat, Vida; Katalini?, Višnja

2012-02-01

186

Chlorinated coumarins from the polypore mushroom Fomitopsis officinalis and their activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

An EtOH extract of the polypore mushroom Fomitopsis officinalis afforded two new naturally occurring chlorinated coumarins, which were identified as the previously synthesized compounds 6-chloro-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-2-one (1) and ethyl 6-chloro-2-oxo-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-3-carboxylate (2). The structures of the two isolates were deduced by ab initio spectroscopic methods and confirmed by chemical synthesis. In addition, an analogue of each was synthesized as 7-chloro-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-2-one (3) and ethyl 7-chloro-2-oxo-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-3-carboxylate (4). All four compounds were characterized physicochemically, and their antimicrobial activity profiles revealed a narrow spectrum of activity with lowest MICs against the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. PMID:24087924

Hwang, Chang Hwa; Jaki, Birgit U; Klein, Larry L; Lankin, David C; McAlpine, James B; Napolitano, José G; Fryling, Nicole A; Franzblau, Scott G; Cho, Sang Hyun; Stamets, Paul E; Wang, Yuehong; Pauli, Guido F

2013-10-25

187

Chlorinated Coumarins from the Polypore Mushroom, Fomitopsis officinalis, and their Activity Against Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

An EtOH extract of the polypore mushroom, Fomitopsis officinalis afforded two new naturally occurring chlorinated coumarins which were identified as the previously synthesized compounds, 6-chloro-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-2-one (1) and ethyl 6-chloro-2-oxo-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-3-carboxylate (2). The structures of the two isolates were deduced ab initio by spectroscopic methods and confirmed by chemical synthesis. In addition, an analogue of each was synthesized as of 7-chloro-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-2-one (3) and ethyl 7-chloro-2-oxo-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-3-carboxylate (4). All four compounds were characterized physicochemically, and their antimicrobial activity profiles revealed a narrow spectrum of activity with lowest MICs against the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. PMID:24087924

Hwang, Chang Hwa; Jaki, Birgit U.; Klein, Larry L.; Lankin, David C.; McAlpine, James B.; Napolitano, Jose G.; Fryling, Nicole A.; Franzblau, Scott G.; Cho, Sang Hyun; Stamets, Paul E.; Wang, Yuehong; Pauli, Guido F.

2013-01-01

188

Constituents of sage (Salvia officinalis) with in vitro affinity to human brain benzodiazepine receptor.  

PubMed

Benzodiazepine receptor binding assay-guided fractionation of the methanol extract from sage leaves ( Salvia officinalis L.) revealed three flavones and two abietane diterpenes functioning as benzodiazepine receptor-active components. Structural elucidation of the isolated pure compounds was performed by UV, EI-MS, ESI(pos)-MS/MS, as well as 1H- and 13C-NMR techniques. The flavones apigenin, hispidulin and cirsimaritin competitively inhibited 3H-flumazenil binding to the benzodiazepine receptor with IC50 values of 30, 1.3 and 350 microM, respectively. In addition, the affinities of the newly discovered diterpene receptor ligands, i. e., 7-methoxyrosmanol and galdosol, were characterized. 7-Methoxyrosmanol exhibited an IC50 value of 7.2 microM and galdosol showed the strongest binding activity to the benzodiazepine receptor with an IC50 value of 0.8 microM. PMID:12624814

Kavvadias, Dominique; Monschein, Vanessa; Sand, Philipp; Riederer, Peter; Schreier, Peter

2003-02-01

189

Quantification of Fumaria officinalis isoquinoline alkaloids by nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ion trap mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A capillary electrophoresis (CE) method using non-aqueous (NA) separation solutions combined with an ion trap mass spectrometer (MS and MS/MS) as detection device is presented for the separation, identification and quantification of isoquinoline alkaloids from Fumaria officinalis. The best results were obtained with a mixture of acetonitrile-methanol (9:1, v/v) containing 60mM ammonium acetate and 2.2M acetic acid as running electrolyte and an applied voltage of 30 kV. Electrospray MS measurements were performed in the positive ionization mode with isopropanol-water (1:1, v/v) as sheath liquid at a flow rate of 3 microl/min. Alkaloids were detected as [M+H](+)-ions and showed typical fragmentation patterns in MS/MS experiments. The developed assay was used for the quantification of seven isoquinoline alkaloids representing different structural subtypes in Fumariae herba extracts and F. herba containing phytopharmaceuticals. PMID:16378615

Sturm, Sonja; Strasser, Eva-Maria; Stuppner, Hermann

2006-04-21

190

The amino acid sequence of a ribosome-inactivating protein from Saponaria officinalis seeds.  

PubMed

The complete primary structure of saporin SO-6, a ribosome-inactivating protein extracted from Saponaria officinalis seeds, has been determined. The sequence was reconstructed following purification and analysis of peptides obtained after digestion of the protein with different proteolytic agents. The protein is composed of 253 amino acids, corresponding to a molecular weight of 28,621 Da. Comparison of the primary structure of SO-6 with the sequence deduced from cDNA, shows amino acid substitutions in 11 positions, suggesting a tissue-related genetic variability. When the sequence of saporin is compared to those of two related proteins, ricin A chain and trichosanthin, a low degree of similarity (12%) is found; nevertheless some considerations about structure-function relationships and evolution of RIPs are possible. PMID:2256945

Maras, B; Ippoliti, R; De Luca, E; Lendaro, E; Bellelli, A; Barra, D; Bossa, F; Brunori, M

1990-08-01

191

Effect of Emblica officinalis, Phyllanthus amarus and Picrorrhiza kurroa on N-nitrosodiethylamine induced hepatocarcinogenesis.  

PubMed

Extracts of Emblica officinalis (EO), Phyllanthus amarus (P. amarus) and Picrorrhiza kurroa (P. kurroa) significantly inhibited hepatocarcinogenesis induced by N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) in a dose dependent manner. The anticarcinogenic activity of these extracts were evaluated by their effect on tumour incidence, levels of carcinogen metabolizing enzymes, levels of liver cancer markers and liver injury markers. Animals treated with NDEA alone showed 100% tumour incidence and significantly elevated tissue levels of drug metabolizing enzymes such as glutathione S-transferase (GST) and aniline hydroxylase (AH). Treatment of extracts significantly reduced these levels. Levels of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) were also found to be elevated both in serum and tissues of tumour bearing animals, while they were significantly reduced in the treated group. Similar reduction was seen in tissue levels of reduced glutathione. Serum levels of lipid peroxide (LPO), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (OPT), which are markers of liver injury, were also elevated. Morphology of liver tissue and levels of marker enzymes indicated that these extracts offered protection against chemical carcinogenesis. PMID:10211933

Jeena, K J; Joy, K L; Kuttan, R

1999-02-01

192

Aqueous extracts from peppermint, sage and lemon balm leaves display potent anti-HIV-1 activity by increasing the virion density  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Aqueous extracts from leaves of well known species of the Lamiaceae family were examined for their potency to inhibit infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). RESULTS: Extracts from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.), peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.), and sage (Salvia officinalis L.) exhibited a high and concentration-dependent activity against the infection of HIV-1 in T-cell lines,

Silvia Geuenich; Christine Goffinet; Stephanie Venzke; Silke Nolkemper; Ingo Baumann; Peter Plinkert; Jürgen Reichling; Oliver T Keppler

2008-01-01

193

Color matching on natural substrates in cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The camouflaging abilities of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) are remarkable and well known. It is commonly believed that cuttlefish—although color blind—actively match various colors\\u000a of their immediate surroundings, yet no quantitative data support this notion. We assembled several natural substrates chosen\\u000a to evoke the three basic types of camouflaged body patterns that cuttlefish express (uniform\\/stipple, mottle, and disruptive)\\u000a and measured the

Lydia M. Mäthger; Chuan-Chin Chiao; Alexandra Barbosa; Roger T. Hanlon

2008-01-01

194

AFLPs Represent Highly Repetitive Sequences in Asparagus Officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chromosomal and genomic organization of 5 cloned AFLP fragments in asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) were investigated. Two of the 5 AFLP loci were sex-linked. The fragments, amplified with EcoRI\\/MseI primers, ranged from 107 to 267 bp and were AT-rich. Southern hybridization gave interspersed, middle repetitive to high copy sequence signals. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) exhibited hybridization signals on all

Stella Marie Reamon-Büttner; Thomas Schmidt; Christian Jung

1999-01-01

195

[Type I and type IV sensitization to Asparagus officinalis].  

PubMed

Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis),a member of the Liliaceae family, is a popular vegetable, most commonly eaten in May. A 55-year-old cook presented with seasonal (always in May) recurrent dyshidrosiform hand eczema which prevented him from working. He also reported developing dyspnea and dysphagia after consuming asparagus. Diagnostic allergy testing revealed positive reactions against asparagus in prick-to-prick and epicutaneous patch tests. PMID:15146878

Rieker, J; Ruzicka, T; Neumann, N J; Bielicky, P; Homey, B

2004-04-01

196

Bioactive compounds, antioxidant and binding activities and spear yield of Asparagus officinalis L.  

PubMed

The aim of this investigation was to find a proper harvesting period and establishing fern number, which effects the spear yield, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities of Asparagus officinalis L. Spears were harvested at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after sprouting. Control for comparison was used without harvest. Spears and total yield increased with prolonged spear harvest period. In harvest of 6 weeks long optimum spear yield was the highest and fern numbers were 5?~?8. Bioactive compounds (polyphenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins and ascorbic acid) and the levels of antioxidant activities by ferric-reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) assays in asparagus ethanol extracts significantly differed in the investigated samples and were the highest at 6 weeks harvest period (P?extracted from investigated vegetables. Therefore the functional properties of asparagus were studied by the interaction of polyphenol ethanol extracts with HSA, using 3D- FL. In conclusion, antioxidant status (bioactive compounds, binding and antioxidant activities) improved with the harvesting period and the first segment from spear tip. Appropriate harvesting is effective for higher asparagus yield and its bioactivity. PMID:24793354

Lee, Jong Won; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Yu, In Ho; Gorinstein, Shela; Bae, Jong Hyang; Ku, Yang Gyu

2014-06-01

197

Preservative properties of Calamintha officinalis essential oil with and without EDTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: This study was focused on the preserving properties of Calamintha officinalis essential oil, a plant known for its diaphoretic, expectorant and aromatic properties. Methods and Results: The commercial aerial parts of C. officinalis Moench were hydrodistilled and the essential oil analysed by Gas chromatography\\/Electron impact mass spectrometry (GC ? EIMS). The inhibition efficacy of this essence, alone (0Æ5 and

A. Nostro; M. A. Cannatelli; I. Morelli; P. L. Cioni; A. Bader; A. Marino; V. Alonzo

2002-01-01

198

Production and entomofauna associated to lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) cultivated with synthetic mulch  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: Produção e entomofauna associada à melissa (Melissa officinalis, L.) cultivada com mulch sintético. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de produção de M. officinalis e a entomofauna associada, em dois sistemas de cultivo. As plantas foram cultivadas com mulch de plástico preto e em sistema convencional (terra nua). As variáveis avaliadas foram alturas de planta (cm), rendimento

R. A. SIMÕES; R. SILVA-MANN; J. Rosa Elze

2005-01-01

199

Capillary gas chromatography–mass spectrometry of volatile and semi-volatile compounds of Salvia officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil and infusion of Salvia officinalis leaves have been widely applied in traditional medicine since ancient times and nowadays subjected to extensive research of their antibacterial, antiviral and cytotoxic properties. This paper shows chemical composition data of S. officinalis leaves essential oil isolated by steam distillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus. Also, the paper presents the chemical content of

Valeria Radulescu; Silvia Chiliment; Eliza Oprea

2004-01-01

200

Production of interspecific somatic hybrid plants between Asparagus officinalis and A. macowanii through electrofusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interspecific somatic hybridization was performed between embryogenic callus protoplasts of Asparagus officinalis cv. Mary Washington and callus protoplasts of A. macowanii by electrofusion. By utilizing iodoacetamide (IOA) inactivation treatment for A. officinalis protoplasts and the difference of cell division capacity between the two species, one callus line, which had an ability to produce somatic embryos, was selected as a putative

Hisato Kunitake; Toshiki Nakashima; Kinya Mori; Masanobu Tanaka; Akira Saito; Masahiro Mii

1996-01-01

201

Identification biochimique de clones et de lignes d'asperge (Asparagus officinalis L., Liliaces)  

E-print Network

Identification biochimique de clones et de lignées d'asperge (Asparagus officinalis L., Liliacées lines or clones of Asparagus officinalis L. have been characterized by the study of the isoenzymes tissus étudiés sont retenues comme éléments descripteurs. SUMMARY Asparagus, Identification, Electro

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

202

Beneficial effects of flavonoids from Sesamum indicum, Emblica officinalis and Momordica charantia.  

PubMed

Flavonoids from Sesamum indicum (gingili), Emblica officinalis (gooseberry) and Momordica charantia (bittergourd) were analysed for their biological activities. Of the three sources, flavonoids isolated from Emblica officinalis exerted the maximum beneficial action by eliciting highly potent hypolipidaemic and hypoglycaemic activities. Moreover these flavonoids were effective in raising the haemoglobin levels in rats. PMID:11113993

Anila, L; Vijayalakshmi, N R

2000-12-01

203

New pharmacological properties of Medicago sativa and Saponaria officinalis saponin-rich fractions addressed to Candida albicans.  

PubMed

The antifungal activity of the saponin-rich fractions (SFs) from Medicago sativa (aerial parts and roots) and Saponaria officinalis (used as a well-known source of plant saponins) against Candida albicans reference and clinical strains, their yeast-to-hyphal conversion, adhesion, and biofilm formation was investigated. Direct fungicidal/fungistatic properties of the tested phytochemicals used alone, as well as their synergy with azoles (probably resulting from yeast cell wall instability) were demonstrated. Here, to the best of our knowledge, we report for the first time the ability of saponin-rich extracts of M. sativa and S. officinalis to inhibit C. albicans germ tube formation, limit hyphal growth, reduce yeast adherence and biofilm formation, and eradicate mature (24 h) Candida biofilm. Moreover, M. sativa SFs (mainly obtained from aerial parts), in the range of concentrations which were active modulators of Candida virulence factors, exhibited low cytotoxicity against the mouse fibroblast line L929. These properties seem to be very promising in the context of using plant-derived SFs as potential novel antifungal therapeutics supporting classic drugs or as ingredients of disinfectants. PMID:24850879

Sadowska, Beata; Budzy?ska, Aleksandra; Wi?ckowska-Szakiel, Marzena; Paszkiewicz, Ma?gorzata; Stochmal, Anna; Moniuszko-Szajwaj, Barbara; Kowalczyk, Mariusz; Ró?alska, Barbara

2014-08-01

204

Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Emblica officinalis in Rodent Models of Acute and Chronic Inflammation: Involvement of Possible Mechanisms.  

PubMed

Emblica officinalis, commonly known as amla in Ayurveda, is unarguably the most important medicinal plant for prevention and treatment of various ailments. The present study investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Emblica officinalis (HAEEO). Acute inflammation in rats was induced by the subplantar injection of carrageenan, histamine, serotonin, and prostaglandin E2 and chronic inflammation was induced by the cotton pellet granuloma. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of HAEEO at all the tested doses (300, 500, and 700?mg/kg) significantly (P < 0.001) inhibited rat paw edema against all phlogistic agents and also reduced granuloma formation. However, at the dose of 700?mg/kg, HAEEO exhibited maximum anti-inflammatory activity in all experimental models, and the effects were comparable to that of the standard anti-inflammatory drugs. Additionally, in paw tissue the antioxidant activity of HAEEO was also measured and it was found that HAEEO significantly (P < 0.001) increased glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activity and subsequently reduced lipid peroxidation evidenced by reduced malondialdehyde. Taken all together, the results indicated that HAEEO possessed potent anti-inflammatory activity and it may hold therapeutic promise in the management of acute and chronic inflammatory conditions. PMID:25215258

Golechha, Mahaveer; Sarangal, Vikas; Ojha, Shreesh; Bhatia, Jagriti; Arya, Dharmveer S

2014-01-01

205

Antidepressant-like effects of fractions, essential oil, carnosol and betulinic acid isolated from Rosmarinus officinalis L.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the antidepressant-like effect of fractions from Rosmarinus officinalis L.: ethyl acetate 1 and 2 (AcOEt1 and 2), hexane (HEX), ethanolic (ET), and essential oil-free (EOF) fractions, as well as essential oil, the isolated compounds carnosol and betulinic acid in the tail suspension test, a predictive test of antidepressant activity. Swiss mice were acutely administered by oral route (p.o.) with fractions, essential oil or isolated compounds, 60 min before the tail suspension test or open-field test. All of them produced a significant antidepressant-like effect: AcOEt1, ET, EOF fractions and essential oil (0.1-100mg/kg, p.o); HEX (0.1-10mg/kg, p.o) and AcOEt2 fraction (0.1-1mg/kg, p.o), carnosol (0.01-0.1mg/kg, p.o.) isolated from the HEX fraction and betulinic acid (10mg/kg, p.o.), isolated from the AcOEt1 and AcOEt2 fractions. No psychostimulant effect was shown in the open-field test, indicating that the effects in the tail suspension test are specific. This study suggests that carnosol and betulinic acid could be responsible for the anti-immobility effect of extracts from R. officinalis. PMID:23122155

Machado, Daniele G; Cunha, Mauricio P; Neis, Vivian B; Balen, Grasiela O; Colla, André; Bettio, Luis E B; Oliveira, Agatha; Pazini, Francis Leonardo; Dalmarco, Juliana B; Simionatto, Edésio Luiz; Pizzolatti, Moacir G; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S

2013-01-15

206

[Antioxidant properties of plant extracts].  

PubMed

Investigation of antioxidant properties of some plants was carried out. A group of plants exhibited antimicrobial activity was studied in detail. Efficiency of plants as antioxidants was tested by the influence of their extracts on the yield of photochemiluminescence of Gly-Trp solutions. Antioxidant properties were examined under conditions when their own absorption was minimized. Riboflavin as additional sensitizer was used in this experiment for superoxide generation. The antioxidant effect was evaluated with regard to single dose of plant extracts and their concentration in human organism. The effect decreases in the following consequence: Hypericum perforatum > Potentilla erectra > Ledum palustre > Plantago major > Salvia officinalis > Chamomilla recutita > Arctostaphylos uva. PMID:9591094

Bol'shakova, I V; Lozovskaia, E L; Sapezhinski?, I I

1998-01-01

207

Capillary electrophoresis separation of rosemary antioxidants from subcritical water extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the possibilities of the combined use of subcritical water extraction (SWE) and capillary electrophoresis (CE) are established through the separation of antioxidants from rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis L.). A new CE method is developed that allows the separation of different antioxidants found in the SWE fractions. The CE method is reproducible, efficient and fast, allowing the analysis

Antonio Luis Crego; Elena Ibáñez; Elena García; Raquel Rodríguez de Pablos; Francisco Javier Señoráns; Guillermo Reglero; Alejandro Cifuentes

2004-01-01

208

Preliminary screening of antioxidant activity of some plant extracts in rapeseed oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant activity (AA) of acetone extracts of sage (Salvia officinalis L.), sweet grass (Hierocloë odorata Wahlnb.), sea buckthorn leaves (Hipophaë rhamno??des L.), costmary (Balsamita major Desf., syn. Chrysanthemum balsamita L.), Roman camomile (Anthemis nobilis L.), and tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.) were tested in refined, bleached and deodorised rapeseed oil at 40°C. The concentrations of the extracts added were in

A Pukalskas; P. R Venskutonis

2000-01-01

209

Activity of extracts from wild edible herbs against postharvest fungal diseases of fruit and vegetables  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of plant extracts could be a useful alternative to synthetic fungicides in the management of rot fungi during postharvest handling of fruit and vegetables. The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro and in vivo activity of extracts obtained from nine wild edible herbaceous species (Borago officinalis, Orobanche crenata, Plantago coronopus, P. lanceolata, Sanguisorba minor,

Maria Antonia Gatto; Antonio Ippolito; Vito Linsalata; Nicholas A. Cascarano; Franco Nigro; Sebastiano Vanadia; Donato Di Venere

2011-01-01

210

Development and delivery of ecologically-based IPM packages for wheat in Central Asia Shahlo Safarzoda1, Nurali Saidov2, Anvar Jalilov3, Mustapha El-Bouhssini4, Megan Kennelly5, Doug Landis1  

E-print Network

.), ziziphora (Ziziphora interrupta Juz.), marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) and winter cress (Barbarea vulgaris) were planted alongside the wheat plots to enhance Sunn pest egg parasitoids Best cultural

211

Emblica officinalis Exerts Antihypertensive Effect in a Rat Model of DOCA-Salt-Induced Hypertension: Role of (p) eNOS, NO and Oxidative Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emblica officinalis (EO) has antioxidant properties that could improve redox-sensitive vascular, cardiac and renal changes associated with deoxycorticosterone\\u000a acetate\\/1% NaCl high salt (DOCA\\/HS)-induced hypertension. We determined whether hydroalcoholic lyophilized extract of EO may\\u000a influence DOCA\\/HS-induced hypertension by modulating activity of (p) eNOS and endogenous antioxidants. Hypertension was induced\\u000a in rats by DOCA-salt (20 mg\\/kg, s.c.) twice weekly for 5 weeks and replacing

Jagriti BhatiaFauzia; Fauzia Tabassum; Ashok Kumar Sharma; Saurabh Bharti; Mahaveer Golechha; Sujata Joshi; Abhay Krishna Srivastava; Dharamvir Singh Arya

2011-01-01

212

Symmetrical crypsis and asymmetrical signalling in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis  

PubMed Central

The salience of bilateral symmetry to humans has led to the suggestion that camouflage may be enhanced in asymmetrical patterns. However, the importance of bilateral symmetry in visual signals (and overall morphology) may constrain the evolution of asymmetrical camouflage, resulting in the bilaterally symmetrical cryptic patterns that we see throughout the animal kingdom. This study investigates the cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), which can control the degree of symmetry in its coloration. Ten juvenile S. officinalis were filmed in two behavioural contexts (cryptic and threatened) to test the prediction that cryptic patterns will be expressed more asymmetrically than an anti-predator signal known as the ‘deimatic display’. Cryptic body patterns, particularly those with a disruptive function, were found to exhibit a high degree of bilateral symmetry. By contrast, the components of the deimatic display were often expressed asymmetrically. These results are contrary to the predicted use of symmetry in defensive coloration, indicating that the role of symmetry in both crypsis and visual signalling is not as straightforward as previously suggested. PMID:16627281

Langridge, Keri V

2005-01-01

213

New triterpenoid saponins from the roots of Saponaria officinalis.  

PubMed

Three new triterpenoid saponins (1-3), along with nine known saponins, were isolated from the roots of Saponaria officinalis L. Two of them: vaccaroside D (4) and dianchinenoside B (5) are known, but not previously reported for S. officinalis, and seven others: saponarioside C (6), D (7), F (8), G (9), I (10), K (11), and L (12) have been previously isolated from this plant. The structures of the new saponins were established as 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-16alpha-hydroxygypsogenic acid-28-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 -->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-16alpha-hydroxygypsogenic acid-28-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-[alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->6)-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2) and 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-gypsogenic acid-28-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-[6-O-(3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3). Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods, including 1D- (1H, 13C) and 2D-NMR (D QF-COSY, TOCSY, ROESY, HSQC and HMBC) experiments, as well as high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS), ESI-MS/MS and acid hydrolysis. PMID:24555273

Moniuszko-Szajwaj, Barbara; Pecio, Lukasz; Kowalczyk, Mariusz; Simonet, Ana M; Macias, Francisco A; Szumacher-Strabel, Malgorzata; Cieslak, Adam; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Stochmal, Anna

2013-12-01

214

Effect of plant extracts on Alzheimer's disease: An insight into therapeutic avenues  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastative neurodegenerative disorder which needs adequate studies on effective treatment options. The extracts of plants and their effect on the amelioration of AD symptoms have been extensively studied. This paper summarizes the mechanisms like acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, modification of monoamines, antiamyloid aggregation effect, and antioxidant activity which are actively entailed in the process of amelioration of AD symptoms. These effects are induced by extracts of a few plants of different origin like Yizhi Jiannao, Moringa oleifera (Drumstick tree), Ginkgo Biloba (Ginkgo/Maidenhair tree), Cassia obtisufolia (Sicklepod), Desmodium gangeticum (Sal Leaved Desmodium), Melissa officinalis (Lemon Balm), and Salvia officinalis (Garden sage, common sage). PMID:21716802

Obulesu, M; Rao, Dowlathabad Muralidhara

2011-01-01

215

Alcohol-induced oxidative stress in rat liver microsomes: Protective effect of Emblica officinalis.  

PubMed

The protective effect of Emblica officinalis fruit extract (EFE) against alcohol-induced oxidative damage in liver microsomes was investigated in rats. EFE (250mg/kg b.wt/day) and alcohol (5g/kg b.wt/day, 20%, w/v) were administered orally to animals for 60 days. Alcohol administration significantly increased lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls with decreased sulfhydryl groups in microsomes, which were significantly restored to normal levels in EFE and alcohol co-administered rats. Alcohol administration also markedly decreased the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) in the liver microsomes, which were prevented with EFE administration. Further, alcohol administration significantly increased the activities of cytochrome P-450, Na(+)/K(+) and Mg(2+) ATPases and also membrane fluidity. But, administration of EFE along with alcohol restored the all above enzyme activities and membrane fluidity to normal level. Thus, EFE showed protective effects against alcohol-induced oxidative damage by possibly reducing the rate of lipid peroxidation and restoring the various membrane bound and antioxidant enzyme activities to normal levels, and also by protecting the membrane integrity in rat liver microsomes. In conclusion, the polyphenolic compounds including flavonoid and tannoid compounds present in EFE might be playing a major role against alcohol-induced oxidative stress in rats. PMID:24393670

Reddy, Vaddi Damodara; Padmavathi, Pannuru; Hymavathi, Reddyvari; Maturu, Paramahamsa; Varadacharyulu, N Ch

2014-06-01

216

Metabolism of Monoterpenes in Cell Cultures of Common Sage (Salvia officinalis) 1  

PubMed Central

Leaves of common sage (Salvia officinalis) accumulate monoterpenes in glandular trichomes at levels exceeding 15 milligrams per gram fresh weight at maturity, whereas sage cells in suspension culture did not accumulate detectable levels of monoterpenes (<0.3 nanograms per gram fresh weight) at any stage of the growth cycle, even in the presence of a polystyrene resin trap. Monoterpene biosynthesis from [U-14C]sucrose was also virtually undetectable in this cell culture system. In vitro assay of each of the enzymes required for the sequential conversion of the ubiquitous isoprenoid precursor geranyl pyrophosphate to (+)-camphor (a major monoterpene product of sage) in soluble extracts of the cells revealed the presence of activity sufficient to produce (+)-camphor at a readily detectable level (>0.3 micrograms per gram fresh weight) at the late log phase of growth. Other monoterpene synthetic enzymes were present as well. In vivo measurement of the ability to catabolize (+)-camphor in these cells indicated that degradative capability exceeded biosynthetic capacity by at least 1000-fold. Therefore, the lack of monoterpene accumulation in undifferentiated sage cultures could be attributed to a low level of biosynthetic activity (relative to the intact plant) coupled to a pronounced capacity for monoterpene catabolism. PMID:16667656

Falk, Kimberly L.; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Croteau, Rodney

1990-01-01

217

Structural and Sensory Characterization of Bitter Tasting Steroidal Saponins from Asparagus Spears (Asparagus officinalis L.).  

PubMed

Application of sequential solvent extraction and iterative chromatographic separation in combination with taste dilution analysis recently revealed a series of steroidal saponins as the key contributors to the typical bitter taste of white asparagus spears (Asparagus officinalis L.). Besides six previously reported saponins, (25R)-furost-5-en-3?,22,26-triol-3-O-[?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, (25R)-furostane-3?,22,26-triol-3-O-[?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, and (25S)-furostane-3?,22,26-triol-3-O-[?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, and 3-O-[{?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)}{?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)}-?-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25S)-spirost-5-ene-3?-ol were identified for the first time as key bitter compounds in the edible spears of white asparagus by means of LC-MS/MS, LC-TOF-MS, 1D/2D-NMR spectroscopy, and hydrolysis experiments. This paper presents the isolation, structure determination, and sensory activity of these saponins. Depending on their chemical structure, the saponins identified showed human bitter recognition thresholds between 10.9 and 199.7 ?mol/L (water). PMID:23137023

Dawid, Corinna; Hofmann, Thomas

2012-12-01

218

Constituents of Asparagus officinalis evaluated for inhibitory activity against cyclooxygenase-2.  

PubMed

As part of a project directed toward the discovery of new cancer chemopreventive agents from plants, two new natural products, asparagusic acid anti-S-oxide methyl ester (1) and asparagusic acid syn-S-oxide methyl ester (2), a new acetylenic compound, 2-hydroxyasparenyn [3',4'-trans-2-hydroxy-1-methoxy-4-[5-(4-methoxyphenoxy)-3-penten-1-ynyl]-benzene] (3), as well as eleven known compounds, asparenyn (4), asparenyol (5), (+/-)-1-monopalmitin (6), ferulic acid (7), 1,3-O-di-p-coumaroylglycerol (8), 1-O-feruloyl-3-O-p-coumaroylglycerol (9), blumenol C, (+/-)-epipinoresinol, linoleic acid, 1,3-O-diferuloylglycerol, and 1,2-O-diferuloylglycerol, were isolated from an ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of the methanol extract of the aerial parts of Asparagus officinalis (Asparagus), using a bioassay based on the inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 to monitor chromatographic fractionation. The structures of compounds 1-3 were elucidated by 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments ((1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, DEPT, COSY, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY). All the isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory effects against both cyclooxygenase-1 and -2, with the most active compound being linoleic acid. PMID:15080623

Jang, Dae Sik; Cuendet, Muriel; Fong, Harry H S; Pezzuto, John M; Kinghorn, A Douglas

2004-04-21

219

The division of protoplasts from Asparagus officinalis L. and their growth and differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Protoplasts have been isolated from cladodes ofAsparagus officinalis L., and cell wall regeneration and division observed. Callus derived from isolated protoplasts has been induced to differentiate roots and shoots.

Duc Bui-Dang-Ha; Ian A. Mackenzie

1973-01-01

220

1H and 13C NMR signal assignment of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids from Fumaria officinalis L. (Papaveraceae).  

PubMed

The NMR signal assignments of a series of structurally divergent benzylisoquinolines isolated from Fumaria officinalis L. (Fumariaceae, Papaverales), namely adlumine, corlumine, corydamine, cryptopine, fumarophycine, O-methylfumarophycine, hydrastine, parfumine, protopine and sinactine, are presented. PMID:15366062

Seger, Christoph; Sturm, Sonja; Strasser, Eva-Maria; Ellmerer, Ernst; Stuppner, Hermann

2004-10-01

221

Cuttlebone calcification increases during exposure to elevated seawater p CO 2 in the cephalopod Sepia officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in seawater carbonate chemistry that accompany ongoing ocean acidification have been found to affect calcification\\u000a processes in many marine invertebrates. In contrast to the response of most invertebrates, calcification rates increase in\\u000a the cephalopod Sepia officinalis during long-term exposure to elevated seawater pCO2. The present trial investigated structural changes in the cuttlebones of S. officinalis calcified during 6 weeks of

Magdalena A. Gutowska; Frank Melzner; Hans O. Pörtner; Sebastian Meier

2010-01-01

222

Identification of Verbena officinalis based on ITS sequence analysis and RAPD-derived molecular markers.  

PubMed

Verbenae herba is a widely used drug and consists of the aerial parts of Verbena officinalis (Verbenaceae). Until now, the identification has been performed based on morphological and phytochemical analyses, which are not reliable enough to distinguish Verbena officinalis from other relevant species of the genus Verbena. Hence, impurities and adulterants, negatively influencing the therapeutic effect of the drug, may remain undetected. In an attempt to generate an accurate authentication method we used two different DNA-based approaches: comparison of ITS sequences and molecular markers (RAPD). Both approaches generally enabled discrimination of V. officinalis from the rest of the genus despite the intraspecific variation existing within V. officinalis. The application of the two independent methods, supporting each other, increases the security of identification. For better reproducibility and faster analysis, however, a SCAR marker and primers for HRM were derived from the RAPD results. The SCAR marker could distinguish V. officinalis from all other verbena species except its closest relative V. hastata, while discrimination of V. officinalis even from V. hastata was unproblematic with HRM. PMID:19350481

Ruzicka, Joana; Lukas, Brigitte; Merza, Lina; Göhler, Irina; Abel, Gudrun; Popp, Michael; Novak, Johannes

2009-09-01

223

Comparison between effects of different doses of Melissa officinalis and atorvastatin on the activity of liver enzymes in hypercholesterolemia rats  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Liver is one of the most sensitive tissues to oxidant damage. Hence, the present study was conducted to compare the effects of Melissa officinalis (MO) extract and Atorvastatin on the activity of liver enzymes in rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 60 male Wistar rats were selected and allocated to six groups (n=10). The control group received a normal diet, sham group received a fatty diet while other groups received a fatty diet and the alcoholic extract of MO, at minimum (25 mg/kg), moderate (50 mg/kg), and maximum (75 mg/kg) doses (i.p.). The last group received Atorvastatin (10 mg/kg) through gavage with a fatty diet over a 21-day period. At the end of this 21-day period, blood samples were drawn and the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), activity of liver enzymes as well as cholesterol in the samples were measured. Results: The obtained results showed that the activity of liver enzymes in the treatment groups receiving MO extract and the group receiving Atorvastatin decreased significantly. MO extract reduced the level of liver enzymes. Conclusion: Therefore, further studies for obtaining a better understanding of the mechanism of effect of MO for treating liver diseases are recommended. PMID:25050297

Zarei, Ali; Changizi Ashtiyani, Saeed; Taheri, Soheila; Rasekh, Fateme

2014-01-01

224

Bioactivity of Anagallis arvensis and Calendula micrantha plants, treated with ammonium nitrate, superphosphate and potassium sulphate fertilizers, on Biomphalaria alexandrina.  

PubMed

The survival rate of B. alexandrina snails maintained in aqueous solutions of the two tested plants (Calendula micrantha and Anagallis arvensis) decreased gradually with time until the 9th week and 10th week where the survival rate was zero in the high concentration of A. arvensis and C. micrantha, respectively, meanwhile, the survival rate of the control was 20%. Also, the two plants caused reduction in hatchability of snails egg masses. Thus, the percent of hatching in A. arvensis (82 ppm) was 46% and in C. micrantha was 72% compared with control (97.29%). Both plants reduced the infection rate of Biomphalaria alexandrina snails with Schistosoma mansoni miracidia to 41.17% and 61.9%, respectively, compared with control (90%). C. micrantha caused much higher reduction in snail infection rate than A. arvensis. The prepatent period was significantly prolonged in snails maintained at higher concentration of both plants. The cercarial output (expressed as mean number/snail) revealed that, A. arevensis caused a significant reduction in cercarial production than control. While, high concentration (120 ppm) of C. micrantha caused a significant elevation in the mean number of cercariae/snail. However, the total number of cercariae produced by all snails in each group showed a reverse relation with the tested concentrations in both plants. PMID:11198390

Mostafa, B B; Tantawy, A A

2000-12-01

225

Analysis of sesquiterpenes in Valeriana officinalis by capillary electrophoresis.  

PubMed

A capillary electrophoresis (CE) method permitting the determination of the main sesquiterpenes in Valeriana officinalis has been developed. A separation of valerenic acid and its hydroxy and acetoxy derivatives, three compounds characteristic for the species, was achieved using a 40 mM phosphate-borate buffer at pH 8.5, which contained 10% isopropanol as organic modifier. Applied temperature and voltage were 35 degrees C and 17.5 kV, respectively. This setup allowed a baseline separation of the three compounds within 8 min, with a detection limit of 5.8 micrograms/ml or less. Out of six market products analyzed, only one contained a detectable amount of the marker compounds, with 0.54% of hydroxyvalerenic acid and 0.13% valerenic acid, respectively. The quantitative results were comparable to those obtained by HPLC. PMID:11802657

Mikell, J R; Ganzera, M; Khan, I A

2001-12-01

226

Flavonoids from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L., Lamiaceae).  

PubMed

Six flavonoids have been isolated from the leaves of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L., Lamiaceae). Their structures were determined on the basis of spectral data (UV, 1R, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and FAB MS) as luteolin, luteolin 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, apigenin 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, luteolin 7-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranoside, luteolin 3'-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranoside and luteolin 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside-3'-Obeta-D-glucuronopyranoside. The last three glycosides have been found in lemon balm for the first time and luteolin 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside-3'-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranoside is a new compound found in plants. PMID:12365606

Patora, Jolanta; Klimek, Barbara

2002-01-01

227

A variety of volatile compounds as markers in unifloral honey from dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.).  

PubMed

Volatile compounds of unifloral Salvia officinalis L. honey has been investigated for the first time. The botanical origin of ten unifloral Salvia honey samples has been ascertained by pollen analysis (the honey samples displayed 23-60% of Salvia pollen). Fifty-four volatile compounds were identified by GC and GC/MS in ten Salvia honey extracts obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction (USE) with pentane/Et(2)O 1 : 2. The yield of isolated volatiles varied from 25.7 to 30.5 mg kg(-1). Salvia honey could be distinguished on the basis of the high percentage of benzoic acid (6.4-14.8%), and especially phenylacetic acid (5.7-18.4%). Minor, but floral-origin important volatiles were identified such as shikimate pathway derivatives, 'degraded-carotenoid-like' structures (3,5,5-trimethylcyclohex-2-ene derivatives) and 2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-2-ene derivatives. Compounds from other metabolic pathways such as aliphatic acids and higher linear hydrocarbons, as well as heterocycles (pyrans, furans, and pyrroles), were also present. Most of the identified compounds do not constitute specific Salvia honey markers, due to their presence in honeys of other botanical origins; however, their ratio in different honeys could be useful to distinguish floral origin. Salvia-honey volatile markers were: benzoic acid, phenylacetic acid, p-anisaldehyde, alpha-isophorone, 4-ketoisophorone, dehydrovomifoliol, 2,6,6-trimethyl-4-oxocyclohex-2-ene-1-carbaldehyde, 2,2,6-trimethylcyclohexane-1,4-dione, and coumaran. PMID:17193245

Jerkovi?, Igor; Masteli?, Josip; Marijanovi?, Zvonimir

2006-12-01

228

Antiproliferation effect of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) on human ovarian cancer cells in vitro.  

PubMed

Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is a popular culinary/medicinal herb. Recent studies have shown it has pharmacologic activities for cancer chemoprevention and therapy. This study evaluated the antiproliferation activity of rosemary extract (RE) against human ovarian cancer cells, and whether the extract and its three main active ingredients carnosol (CS), carnosic acid (CA) and rosmarinic acid (RA) can enhance the antiproliferation activity of cisplatin (CDDP). Our study showed that RE has significant antiproliferation activity on human ovarian cancer A2780 and its CDDP resistant daughter cell line A2780CP70, with IC(50) (50% inhibitory concentration) estimated at 1/1000 and 1/400 dilutions respectively. RE enhanced the antiproliferation effect with CDDP on both A2780 and A2780CP70 cells. A2780 cells were consistently more sensitive to CS, CA, and RA than A2780CP70 cells between 2.5 and 20?g/ml. CS and RA also showed synergistic antiproliferation effect with CDDP on A2780 cells at some concentrations. RE treated by ultrafiltration, dialysis, and removal of phenolics lost the antiproliferation activity suggested that the activity resides in phenolics with MW<1000Da. Apoptosis array study of A2780 cells treated with RE showed that the expression of a number of genes regulating apoptosis were modulated by the treatment. This study showed that RE inhibited the proliferation of ovarian cancer cell lines by affecting the cell cycle at multiple phases. It induced apoptosis by modifying the expression of multiple genes regulating apoptosis, and holds potential as an adjunct to cancer chemotherapy. PMID:22325591

Tai, Joseph; Cheung, Susan; Wu, Matthew; Hasman, David

2012-03-15

229

Cytotoxic effect of some medicinal plants from Asteraceae family on J-45.01 leukemic cell line--pilot study.  

PubMed

In this study the in vitro cytotoxic properties of ethanol extracts from the herbs, inflorescents and roots of selected Asteraceae species: Arctium lappa, Artemisia absinthium, Calendula officinalis, Centaurea cyanus, Tanacetum vulgare and Tragopogon pratensis on J-45.01 human acute T leukemia cell line was examined. All tested samples possess antileukemic properties and induce cells death via apoptosis. The correlation between antileukemic activity and total polyphenol content was determined. PMID:22568040

Wegiera, Magdalena; Smolarz, Helena D; Jedruch, Marcin; Korczak, Magdalena; Kopro?, Kamila

2012-01-01

230

An observational study and quantification of the actives in a supplement with Sambucus nigra and Asparagus officinalis used for weight reduction.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to obtain information on the content of co-active compounds of a food supplement recommended as a weight reduction diet and on its short-term effectiveness and safety as a starter for lifestyle change. Eighty participants completed the protocol. The Sambucus nigra L. berry juice enriched with flower extract and tablets containing berry powder and flower extract provided a total of 1 mg anthocyanins, 370 mg flavonol glycosides and 150 mg hydroxycinnamates per day; the Asparagus officinalis L. powder tablets provided 19 mg saponins per day. After the diet, the mean weight, blood pressure, physical and emotional well-being and the quality of life had significantly improved (ITT analysis). The effectiveness and tolerability of the regimen were rated as very good or good by most of the completers. It remains to be established if any particular compounds contribute to the efficacy of the diet. PMID:18350516

Chrubasik, Cosima; Maier, Thorsten; Dawid, Corinna; Torda, Thomas; Schieber, Andreas; Hofmann, Thomas; Chrubasik, Sigrun

2008-07-01

231

Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of an aqueous extract of Coleus aromaticus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leaves of Coleus aromaticus Benth., (Lamiaceae), commonly called Indian Borage, are often eaten raw with bread and butter. The chopped leaves are also used as a substitute for sage (Salvia officinalis Linn.) in stuffing. In the present study, the antioxidant potency of freeze-dried aqueous extract of C. aromaticus was investigated, employing various established in vitro systems, such as the

A. Kumaran; R. Joel karunakaran

2006-01-01

232

Polyploid evolution in Oryza officinalis complex of the genus Oryza  

PubMed Central

Background Polyploidization is a prominent process in plant evolution, whereas the mechanism and tempo-spatial process remained poorly understood. Oryza officinalis complex, a polyploid complex in the genus Oryza, could exemplify the issues not only for it covering a variety of ploidy levels, but also for the pantropical geographic pattern of its polyploids in Asia, Africa, Australia and Americas, in which a pivotal genome, the C-genome, witnessed all the polyploidization process. Results Tracing the C-genome evolutionary history in Oryza officinalis complex, this study revealed the genomic relationships, polyploid forming and diverging times, and diploidization process, based on phylogeny, molecular-clock analyses and fluorescent in situ hybridization using genome-specific probes. Results showed that C-genome split with B-genome at ca. 4.8 Mya, followed by a series of speciation of C-genome diploids (ca. 1.8-0.9 Mya), which then partook in successive polyploidization events, forming CCDD tetraploids in ca. 0.9 Mya, and stepwise forming BBCC tetraploids between ca. 0.3-0.6 Mya. Inter-genomic translocations between B- and C-genomes were identified in BBCC tetraploid, O. punctata. Distinct FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization) patterns among three CCDD species were visualized by C-genome-specific probes. B-genome was modified before forming the BBCC tetraploid, O. malampuzhaensis. Conclusion C-genome, shared by all polyploid species in the complex, had experienced different evolutionary history particularly after polyploidization, e.g., inter-genomic exchange in BBCC and genomic invasion in CCDD tetraploids. It diverged from B-genome at 4.8 Mya, then participated in the tetraploid formation spanning from 0.9 to 0.3 Mya, and spread into tropics of the disjunct continents by transcontinentally long-distance dispersal, instead of vicariance, as proposed by this study, given that the continental splitting was much earlier than the C-genome species radiation. We also find reliable evidence indicated that an extinct BB diploid species in Asia was presumptively the direct genomic donor of their sympatric tetraploids. PMID:19828030

Wang, Baosheng; Ding, Zhuoya; Liu, Wei; Pan, Jin; Li, Changbao; Ge, Song; Zhang, Daming

2009-01-01

233

Micropropagation of Melissa officinalis L. through proliferation of axillary shoots.  

PubMed

Multiple shoots were differentiated in cotyledonary nodes of 10 d old seedlings of Melissa officinalis, cultured on MS medium supplemented with BAP (0-4 mg/l). The production of shoots was further induced in subcultures of the original expiant, after the first harvest of shoots (stump), using similar conditions. The highest average number of shoots in the two inoculations was obtained with 2 mg/l of BAP: 24 axillary shoots per explant, 7 in the first inoculation and 17 in the second one. The maximum elongation of shoots was achieved with BAP at 0.2 mg/l, and higher concentrations of the hormone induced a decrease in their size. A range of BAP concentrations between 0.2-0.5 mg/l allowed the production of more shoots with a size suitable for rooting. Roots were induced in 30 d old shoots, transferred to MS medium individually supplemented with IBA or NAA (0-4 mg/l). Micropropagated plants were successfully transferred to soil. PMID:24178426

Tavares, A C; Pimenta, M C; Gonçalves, M T

1996-02-01

234

Genomic organization of the AODEF gene in Asparagus officinalis L.  

PubMed

The perianths of Liliaceae plants, such as lily and tulip, have two whorls of almost identical petaloid organs, which are called tepals. According to the modified ABC model proposed in tulip, the class B genes are expressed in whorl 1 as well as whorls 2 and 3, so that the organs of whorls 1 and 2 have the same petaloid structure. The floral structure of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) is similar to that of Liliaceae plants, however, the expression of B-class genes (AODEF, AOGLOA, AOGLOB) was not found in whorl 1, but was confined to whorls 2 and 3. This result does not support the modified ABC model in asparagus. In order to gain a better understanding of asparagus flower development, we have characterized a genomic clone of the AODEF gene. We compared the genomic organization and promoter sequence of AODEF with three well-studied DEF-like genes, DEFICIENS (Antirrhinum), APETALA3 (Arabidopsis), and OSMADS16 (rice). Exon-intron structures of these genes are well-conserved except for the large fifth intron in the AODEF gene and the OSMADS16 gene. Putative cis-elements including CArG-boxes were found in the promoter region and forty-two microsatellites were found in the AODEF genomic sequence. PMID:16172521

Ito, Takuro; Suzuki, Go; Ochiai, Toshinori; Nakada, Mutsumi; Kameya, Toshiaki; Kanno, Akira

2005-04-01

235

New triterpenoid saponins and sapogenins from Saponaria officinalis.  

PubMed

Five new triterpenoid saponins, named saponariosides I-M, were isolated from the whole plants of Saponario officinalis. Their structures were established as saponarioside I (1) 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-16 alpha-hydroxygypsogenic acid 28-O-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D- glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)[-beta-D-glucopyranoside[, saponarioside J (3) 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosylolean-11,13(18)-diene-23,28-dioic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)[- beta-D-glucopyranoside[, saponarioside K (4) 3,4-seco-16 alpha-hydroxygypsogenic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl- (1-->3)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)[-beta-D-glucopyranoside[, saponarioside L (5) 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosylgypsogenic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)[-beta- D- glucopyranoside[, and saponarioside M (6) 3-O-beta-D-glucopyrano-sylgypsogenic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1--6)-beta-D- glucopyranoside[ by NMR studies and chemical degradations. The aglycons of saponariosides J (3) and K (4) are new sapogenins. PMID:10654413

Koike, K; Jia, Z; Nikaido, T

1999-12-01

236

Differential effect of manool - A diterpene from Salvia officinalis, on genotoxicity induced by methyl methanesulfonate in V79 and HepG2 cells.  

PubMed

Salvia officinalis (sage) is a perennial woody subshrub native to the Mediterranean region that is commonly used as a condiment and as an anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antimicrobial agent due to its biological activities. Manool is the most abundant micro-metabolite found in Salvia officinalis essential oils and extracts. We therefore decided to evaluate the cytotoxic, genotoxic and antigenotoxic potential of manool in Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts (V79) and human hepatoma cells (HepG2). Cytotoxicity was assessed by the colony-forming assay in V79 cells and toxic effects were observed at concentrations of up to 8.0?g/mL. The micronucleus test was used to evaluate the genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity of manool in V79 and HepG2 cells at concentrations of 0.5-6.0?g/mL and 0.5-8.0?g/mL, respectively. For evaluation of antigenotoxicity, the concentrations of manool were combined with methyl methanesulfonate (MMS, 44?g/mL). The results showed a significant increase in the frequency of micronuclei in cultures of both cell lines treated with the highest concentration tested, demonstrating a genotoxic effect. On the other hand, manool exhibited a protective effect against chromosome damage induced by MMS in HepG2 cells, but not in V79 cells. These data suggest that some manool metabolite may be responsible for the antigenotoxic effect observed in HepG2 cells. PMID:25007786

Nicolella, Heloiza Diniz; Oliveira, Pollyanna Francielli de; Munari, Carla Carolina; Costa, Gizela Faleiros Dias; Moreira, Monique Rodrigues; Veneziani, Rodrigo Cassio Sola; Tavares, Denise Crispim

2014-10-01

237

Cyto-protective and immunomodulating properties of Amla (Emblica officinalis) on lymphocytes: an in-vitro study.  

PubMed

The fruits extracts of Emblica officinalis (Amla) has been reported to have strong anti-oxidant properties. There is a paucity of studies on the immunomodulatory properties of fruit extracts of Amla in immuno-compromised states, with the emphasis on lymphocytes. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the anti-oxidant and immunomodulatory properties of Amla using chromium (VI) as an immunosuppressive agent. Chromium (Cr) treatment results in enhanced cytotoxicity, free radical production, lipid peroxidation and decreased glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and diminished glutathione (GSH) levels. There was a significant inhibition of both lipopolysaccharide and concanavalin-A-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation. Chromium also inhibited Con A stimulated interleukin-2 and gamma-interferon production significantly. Further, there was enhanced apoptosis and DNA fragmentation in the presence of Cr. Amla significantly inhibited Cr-induced free radical production and restored the anti-oxidant status back to control level. Amla also inhibited apoptosis and DNA fragmentation induced by Cr. Interestingly, Amla relieved the immunosuppressive effects of Cr on lymphocyte proliferation and even restored the IL-2 and gamma-IFN production considerably. PMID:12020921

Sai Ram, M; Neetu, D; Yogesh, B; Anju, B; Dipti, P; Pauline, T; Sharma, S K; Sarada, S K S; Ilavazhagan, G; Kumar, Devendra; Selvamurthy, W

2002-06-01

238

Protective effect of Emblica officinalis (amla) on isoproterenol-induced cardiotoxicity in rats.  

PubMed

Emblica officinalis, commonly known as amla, is an important medicinal plant reputed for its dietary and therapeutic uses. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective role of E. officinalis against isoproterenol (ISP)-induced cardiotoxicity in rats and elucidate the possible mechanism involved. Rats were administered E. officinalis (100, 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) or vehicle (normal saline) for 30 days, with concurrent subcutaneous injections of ISP (85 mg/kg, at 24 h interval) on 29th and 30th day. ISP-induced cardiac dysfunction as evidenced by decreased mean arterial pressure, heart rate, contractility (+LVdP/dt) and relaxation (-LVdP/dt) along with increased left ventricular end diastolic pressure. ISP significantly (p < 0.05) decreased antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase and myocyte-injury-specific marker enzymes, creatine phosphokinase-MB and lactate dehydrogenase in heart. A significant (p < 0.05) depletion of reduced glutathione and increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances along with histopathological alteration has further indicated the oxidative damage of myocardium. However, pretreatment with E. officinalis exhibited restoration of hemodynamic and left ventricular function along with significant preservation of antioxidants, myocytes-injury-specific marker enzymes and significant inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, histopathological salvage of myocardium reconfirmed the protective effects of E. officinalis. Results of the present study demonstrate cardioprotective potential of E. officinalis attributed to its potent antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity as evidenced by favorable improvement in hemodynamic, contractile function and tissue antioxidant status. PMID:22033422

Ojha, Shreesh; Golechha, Mahaveer; Kumari, Santosh; Arya, Dharamvir Singh

2012-06-01

239

A preliminary analysis of sleep-like states in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.  

PubMed

Sleep has been observed in several invertebrate species, but its presence in marine invertebrates is relatively unexplored. Rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep has only been observed in vertebrates. We investigated whether the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis displays sleep-like states. We find that cuttlefish exhibit frequent quiescent periods that are homeostatically regulated, satisfying two criteria for sleep. In addition, cuttlefish transiently display a quiescent state with rapid eye movements, changes in body coloration and twitching of the arms, that is possibly analogous to REM sleep. Our findings thus suggest that at least two different sleep-like states may exist in Sepia officinalis. PMID:22701609

Frank, Marcos G; Waldrop, Robert H; Dumoulin, Michelle; Aton, Sara; Boal, Jean G

2012-01-01

240

A Preliminary Analysis of Sleep-Like States in the Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis  

PubMed Central

Sleep has been observed in several invertebrate species, but its presence in marine invertebrates is relatively unexplored. Rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep has only been observed in vertebrates. We investigated whether the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis displays sleep-like states. We find that cuttlefish exhibit frequent quiescent periods that are homeostatically regulated, satisfying two criteria for sleep. In addition, cuttlefish transiently display a quiescent state with rapid eye movements, changes in body coloration and twitching of the arms, that is possibly analogous to REM sleep. Our findings thus suggest that at least two different sleep-like states may exist in Sepia officinalis. PMID:22701609

Frank, Marcos G.; Waldrop, Robert H.; Dumoulin, Michelle; Aton, Sara; Boal, Jean G.

2012-01-01

241

Ribosome-inactivating proteins from the seeds of Saponaria officinalis L. (soapwort), of Agrostemma githago L. (corn cockle) and of Asparagus officinalis L. (asparagus), and from the latex of Hura crepitans L. (sandbox tree).  

PubMed

Ribosome-inactivating proteins, similar to those already known [Barbieri & Stirpe (1982) Cancer Surveys 1, 489-520] were purified from the seeds of Saponaria officinalis (two proteins), of Agrostemma githago (three proteins), and of Asparagus officinalis (three proteins), and from the latex of Hura crepitans (one protein). The yield ranged from 8 to 400 mg/100 g of starting material. All proteins have an Mr of approx. 30000 and an alkaline isoelectric point. Their sugar content varies from 0 (proteins from S. officinalis) to 40% (protein from H. crepitans). The ribosome-inactivating proteins inhibit protein synthesis by rabbit reticulocyte lysate, the ID50 (concentration giving 50% inhibition) ranging from 1 ng/ml (a protein from S. officinalis) to 18 ng/ml (a protein from A. githago). Those which were tested (the proteins from S. officinalis and from A. githago) also inhibit polymerization of phenylalanine by isolated ribosomes, acting in an apparently catalytic manner. The protein from H. crepitans inhibited protein synthesis by HeLa cells, with an ID50 of 4 micrograms/ml, whereas the proteins from S. officinalis and from A. githago had an ID50 of more than 50-100 micrograms/ml. The ribosome-inactivating proteins from S. officinalis and from A. githago reduced the number of local lesions by tobacco-mosaic virus in the leaves of Nicotiana glutinosa. PMID:6667259

Stirpe, F; Gasperi-Campani, A; Barbieri, L; Falasca, A; Abbondanza, A; Stevens, W A

1983-12-15

242

Ribosome-inactivating proteins from the seeds of Saponaria officinalis L. (soapwort), of Agrostemma githago L. (corn cockle) and of Asparagus officinalis L. (asparagus), and from the latex of Hura crepitans L. (sandbox tree).  

PubMed Central

Ribosome-inactivating proteins, similar to those already known [Barbieri & Stirpe (1982) Cancer Surveys 1, 489-520] were purified from the seeds of Saponaria officinalis (two proteins), of Agrostemma githago (three proteins), and of Asparagus officinalis (three proteins), and from the latex of Hura crepitans (one protein). The yield ranged from 8 to 400 mg/100 g of starting material. All proteins have an Mr of approx. 30000 and an alkaline isoelectric point. Their sugar content varies from 0 (proteins from S. officinalis) to 40% (protein from H. crepitans). The ribosome-inactivating proteins inhibit protein synthesis by rabbit reticulocyte lysate, the ID50 (concentration giving 50% inhibition) ranging from 1 ng/ml (a protein from S. officinalis) to 18 ng/ml (a protein from A. githago). Those which were tested (the proteins from S. officinalis and from A. githago) also inhibit polymerization of phenylalanine by isolated ribosomes, acting in an apparently catalytic manner. The protein from H. crepitans inhibited protein synthesis by HeLa cells, with an ID50 of 4 micrograms/ml, whereas the proteins from S. officinalis and from A. githago had an ID50 of more than 50-100 micrograms/ml. The ribosome-inactivating proteins from S. officinalis and from A. githago reduced the number of local lesions by tobacco-mosaic virus in the leaves of Nicotiana glutinosa. Images Fig. 2. PMID:6667259

Stirpe, F; Gasperi-Campani, A; Barbieri, L; Falasca, A; Abbondanza, A; Stevens, W A

1983-01-01

243

Effects of extracts from Bangladeshi medicinal plants on in vitro proliferation of human breast cancer cell lines and expression of estrogen receptor alpha gene.  

PubMed

In this study we determined the activity of extracts from Bangladeshi medicinal plants (Emblica officinalis, Aegle marmelos, Vernonia anthelmintica, Oroxylum indicum, Argemone mexicana) on human breast tumor cell lines. Extracts from E. officinalis and O. indicum displayed anti-proliferative activity on MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines, while extracts from A. mexicana were active on MCF7 cells, exhibiting on the contrary low antiproliferative effects on MDA-MB-231 cells. Extracts from A. marmelos and V. anthelmintica were antiproliferative on both cell lines, but at higher concentrations. The accumulation of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) mRNA, a marker of neoplastic status, was analysed by quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The data obtained demonstrated that only extracts from E. officinalis induce an increase of ERalpha mRNA in MCF7 cells. When MDA-MB-231 cell line was employed, extracts from E. officinalis, V. anthelmintica and A. mexicana were found to be inducers of the increase of ERalpha mRNA accumulation. Since activation of ERalpha gene expression could have clinical impact, our results suggest a possible use of extracts from medicinal plants to identify compounds of possible interest in the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:14719119

Lambertini, Elisabetta; Piva, Roberta; Khan, Mahmud Tareq Hassan; Lampronti, Ilaria; Bianchi, Nicoletta; Borgatti, Monica; Gambari, Roberto

2004-02-01

244

Perfusion strategy for rosmarinic acid production by Anchusa officinalis.  

PubMed

The production of an intracellular secondary metabolite rosmarinic acid (RA) by plant cell suspensions of Anchusa officinalis cultivated with intermittent medium exchange is investigated. Initially, a two-stage perfusion culture method was employed. After being cultured in the batch mode for ca. 6 days in B5 medium plus 3% sucrose, 1 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), and 0.1 mg/L kinetin (2,4-D B5 medium), Anchusa culture was cultivated to high cell density by perfusion during the growth stage using a hormone-free Gamborg B5 medium supplemented with 6% sucrose. This was followed by a production stage, in which a complete medium exchange into B5 medium plus 3% sucrose and 0.25 mg/L naphthleneacetic acid (NAA) was conducted. The two-stage perfusion culture had a higher maximum culture RA concentration but a lower RA content per cell than the batch stock culture maintained in the 2,4-D B5 medium. Higher culture RA concentration was due primarily to high cell density. The high packed cell volume, however, seemed to reduce the synergistic effect of NAA on RA synthesis. Subsequently, a single-stage perfusion culture method was investigated. The best result was obtained by growing the culture in the batch mode for ca. 10 days using B5 medium supplemented with 3% sucrose and 0.25 mg/L NAA, followed by perfusing the culture with B5 medium plus 6% sucrose and 0.25 mg/L NAA at a constant perfusion rate of 0.1/day. A maximum cell dry weight of 35 g/L and a RA concentration of almost 4 g/L were achieved. This is the highest RA concentration ever reported in the Anchusa culture. PMID:18613136

Su, W W; Lei, F; Su, L Y

1993-09-20

245

Role of invasive Melilotus officinalis in two native plant communities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study examines the impact of the exotic nitrogen-fixing legume Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam. on native and exotic species cover in two Great Plains ecosystems in Badlands National Park, South Dakota. Melilotus is still widely planted and its effects on native ecosystems are not well studied. Melilotus could have direct effects on native plants, such as through competition or facilitation. Alternatively, Melilotus may have indirect effects on natives, e.g., by favoring exotic species which in turn have a negative effect on native species. This study examined these interactions across a 4-year period in two contrasting vegetation types: Badlands sparse vegetation and western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii) mixed-grass prairie. Structural equation models were used to analyze the pathways through which Melilotus, native species, and other exotic species interact over a series of 2-year time steps. Melilotus can affect native and exotic species both in the current year and in the years after its death (a lag effect). A lag effect is possible because the death of a Melilotus plant can leave an open, potentially nitrogen-enriched site on the landscape. The results showed that the relationship between Melilotus and native and exotic species varied depending on the habitat and the year. In Badlands sparse vegetation, there was a consistent, strong, and positive relationship between Melilotus cover and native and exotic species cover suggesting that Melilotus is acting as a nurse plant and facilitating the growth of other species. In contrast, in western wheatgrass prairie, Melilotus was acting as a weak competitor and had no consistent effect on other species. In both habitats, there was little evidence for a direct lag effect of Melilotus on other species. Together, these results suggest both facilitative and competitive roles for Melilotus, depending on the vegetation type it invades.

Van Riper, Laura C.; Larson, Diane L.

2009-01-01

246

Inhibitory Effects of Rosemary Extracts, Carnosic Acid and Rosmarinic Acid on the Growth of Various Human Cancer Cell Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis harvested from three different locations of Turkey were extracted by both methanolic and supercritical CO2 extraction. Subsequently, six extracts and the active compounds, carnosic acid, and rosmarinic acid were applied to various\\u000a human cancer cell lines including NCI-H82 (human, small cell lung, carcinoma), DU-145 (human, prostate, carcinoma), Hep-3B\\u000a (human, black, liver, carcinoma, hepatocellular), K-562 (human

Ozlem Yesil-Celiktas; Canan Sevimli; Erdal Bedir; Fazilet Vardar-Sukan

2010-01-01

247

Behavioural responses of juvenile cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) to local water movements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physiological studies have shown that the epidermal head and arm lines in cephalopods are a mechanoreceptive system that is similar to the fish and amphibian lateral lines (Budelmann BU, Bleckmann H. 1988. A lateral line analogue in cephalopods: Water waves generate microphonic potentials in the epidermal head lines of Sepia officinalis and Lolliguncula brevis. J. Comp. Physiol. A 164:1–5.); however,

Spogmai Komak; Jean G. Boal; Ludovic Dickel; Bernd U. Budelmann

2005-01-01

248

Rosmarinic acid production in perfused Anchusa officinalis culture: Effect of inoculum size  

Microsoft Academic Search

High cell density and rosmarinic acid (RA) productivity have been achieved by applying periodic culture perfusion to the Anchusa officinalis cell suspension. In this study, the effect of inoculum size on cell growth and RA productivity in the perfused Anchusa culture was investigated. Experimental results showed that RA productivity increased with the inoculum size, up to 4 g dry weight\\/L.

Wei Wen Su; Fei Lei

1993-01-01

249

In situ filtration of Anchusa officinalis culture in a cell-retention stirred tank bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of agitation and aeration on filtration of Anchusa officinalis culture in a stirred tank bioreactor integrated with an internal filter unit was investigated. Increases in suction head of the pump that drove the filtration process were measured at impeller speeds of 100 and 200 rpm. Surprisingly, suction head attained at 200 rpm was about 40% higher than at

Wei Wen Su

1995-01-01

250

Effects of macronutrients on growth and rosmarinic acid formation in cell suspension cultures of Anchusa officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of various macronutrients on growth and RA formation in cell suspension cultures of Anchusa officinalis has been investigated. Factors tested included sucrose concentration, alternate carbon sources, nitrate, phosphate and calcium concentration. The optimum concentration of sucrose was 3%. Fructose, glucose or their 1:1 mixture were also suitable carbon sources. The optimum concentrations of nitrate (15 mM), phosphate (3

W. De-Eknamkul; B. E. Ellis

1985-01-01

251

Size-dependent pollination efficiency in Anchusa officinalis (Boraginaceae) : causes and consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bumblebees foraging on the self-incompatible Anchusa officinalis fly between near neighbour plants and between near neighbour inflorescences within plants. Although many-flowered plants attracted most bumblebees these plants received fewer visits on a per flower basis than smaller plants, and each bumblebee visited a smaller proportion of the flowers. The calculated effective visitation rate per flower was highest on plants of

Stefan Andersson

1988-01-01

252

Esterco bovino e biofertilizante no cultivo de erva-cidreira-verdadeira (Melissa officinalis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: A importância fitoterápica e, consequentemente, econômica da Melissa officinalis tem contribuído para expansão do cultivo. O óleo essencial das folhas é formado por constituintes químicos que podem ser largamente empregados na indústria farmacêutica por possuírem atividades antioxidativa, antivirótica e sedativa. Assim sendo, objetivou-se no presente trabalho avaliar o efeito de combinações de doses de adubação orgânica com biofertilizante comercial

J. Rosa Elze

253

Content and Composition of the Oil from Melissa officinalis L. after Application of Ridomil 72 WP  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from dried leaves of Melissa officinalis L. cultivated at Nitra in Slovak Republic, was analyzed by GC\\/MS. Comparisons were made between the yield and composition of the oil distilled from plants at different ontogenetic stages, and between untreated control plants and those treated with Ridomil 72 WP.

Magda Hollá; Stefánia Vaverková; Jozef Tekel; Emil Havránek

2000-01-01

254

Antimycotoxigenic characteristics of Rosmarinus officinalis and Trachyspermum copticum L. essential oils.  

PubMed

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolite produced by Aspergillus species on food and agricultural commodities. Natural products may regulate the cellular effects of aflatoxins and evidence suggests that aromatic organic compounds of spices can control the production of aflatoxins. With a view to controlling aflatoxin production, the essential oils from Rosmarinus officinalis and Trachyspermum copticum L. were obtained by hydrodistillation. Antifungal activities of the oils were studied with special reference to the inhibition of Aspergillus parasiticus growth and aflatoxin production. Minimal inhibitory (MIC) and minimal fungicidal (MFC) concentrations of the oils were determined. T. copticum L. oil showed a stronger inhibitory effect than R. officinalis on the growth of A. parasiticus. Aflatoxin production was inhibited at 450 ppm of both oils with that of R. officinalis being stronger inhibitor. The oils were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The major components of R. officinalis and T. copticum L. oils were Piperitone (23.65%), alpha-pinene (14.94%), Limonene (14.89%), 1,8-Cineole (7.43%) and Thymol (37.2%), P-Cymene (32.3%), gamma-Terpinene (27.3%) respectively. It is concluded that the essential oils could be safely used as preservative materials on some kinds of foods to protect them from toxigenic fungal infections. PMID:18190993

Rasooli, Iraj; Fakoor, Mohammad Hadi; Yadegarinia, Davod; Gachkar, Latif; Allameh, Abdolamir; Rezaei, Mohammad Bagher

2008-02-29

255

The use of background matching vs. masquerade for camouflage in cuttlefish Sepia officinalis  

E-print Network

-guided, rapid adaptive camouflage for multiple tactics to avoid detection or recognition by predators. TwoThe use of background matching vs. masquerade for camouflage in cuttlefish Sepia officinalis Kendra September 2011 Available online 22 September 2011 Keywords: Visual perception Color change Adaptive

California at Irvine, University of

256

Different kinds of male flowers in the dioecious plant Asparagus of officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In the dioecious plant Asparagus officinalis L. the female plants bear flowers that are all strictly of the same type, with well-developed pistils and collapsed and consistently sterile rudiments of anthers, while male plants, on the contrary, show a great variety of vestigial female organs, from small, rudimentary ovaries with no style and stigma, up to pistils provided with a

M. G. Galli; M. Bracale; A. Falavigna; F. Raffaldi; C. Savini; A. Vigo

1993-01-01

257

Direct gene transfer to protoplasts of two genotypes of Asparagus officinalis L. by electroporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Callus-derived protoplasts of two genotypes of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) were electroporated to introduce the -glucuronidase gene (GUS). The level of GUS transient gene expression and the viability of the protoplasts were influenced by the voltage and duration of the electric pulse. The transient expression level was enhanced by increasing the plasmid DNA concentration and by the presence of polyethylene

Sandip Mukhopadhyay; Yves Desjardins

1994-01-01

258

Linkage Arrangement of RFLP loci in progenies from crosses between doubled haploid Asparagus officinalis L. clones  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary genetic map of the dioecious species Asparagus officinalis L. (2n = 20) has been constructed on the basis of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and isozyme marker data. With DNA samples digested with either EcoRI or HindIII 61 out of 148 probes (41%) identified RFLPs in six families of doubled haploid lines obtained through anther culture. A higher

F. M. Restivo; F. Tassi; R. Biffi; A. Falavigna; E. Caporali; A. Carboni; M. L. Doldi; A. Spada; G. P. Marziani

1995-01-01

259

Effect of Emblica officinalis (Gaertn) on lens regeneration in the frog, Rana cyanophlyctis (Schneider).  

PubMed

Emblica officinalis (Amla) accelerated cell proliferation and dedifferentiation of pigmented epithelial cells of dorsal iris and consequently induced lens regeneration in R. cyanophlyctis. Further it enhanced the percentage of lens regeneration not only in young tadpoles but also is adult frogs. Lens regeneration ability declined with the age of animals in both control as well as treated groups. PMID:19405379

Banot, Jayshree; Lata, Garima; Jangir, O P; Sharma, Manshi; Rathore, Vijay Singh; Saini, S K; Nagal, Amit

2009-03-01

260

Present status of the French Atlantic fishery for cuttlefish ( Sepia officinalis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fishery statistics for the period 1989–1996 indicates that cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis Linnaeus, 1758) is the main cephalopod resource exploited by the French fishery. Most cuttlefish landings come from demersal trawlers, while artisanal coastal trap net catches appear to be a minor component of cuttlefish fishing. Fishery statistics from all available databases were analysed to (a) evaluate the quality of the

Vincent Denis; Jean-Paul Robin

2001-01-01

261

Effect of Artificial Diets on Growth, Survival and Condition of Adult Cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis Linnaeus, 1758  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of artificial diets on growth and body condition of adult cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis were tested in two experiments. Supplemented prepared diets (fish myofibrillar protein concentrate) were fed during a 30-day and a 21-day experiments. Growth, feeding rate and food conversion of group-reared cuttlefish were analyzed. The first of these experiments tested four artificial diets, made with increasing levels

Pedro M. Domingues; Paul F. Dimarco; Jose P. Andrade; Phillip G. Lee

2005-01-01

262

Photosynthetic characteristics of mesophyll cells isolated from cladophylls of Asparagus officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intact mesophyll cells can be rapidly isolated from the cladophylls ofAsparagus officinalis by gentle scraping with a plastic card, the yield being higher than 80% on a chlorophyll basis. The cells can be stored for at least 24h without loss of photosynthetic capacity and were found to be stable under a variety of conditions. In contrast to cell preparations from

M. J. Hills

1986-01-01

263

Nectar dynamics and reproductive success in Saponaria officinalis (Caryophyllaceae) in southern Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nectar production and flower visitors of the night-flowering Saponaria officinalis L. (Caryophyllaceae) were studied in relation to the reproductive success. Nectar production was worthwhile for nocturnal flower visitors. Nectar standing crop was about 267?g sugar per flower, and comparison of nectar offering of covered and freely exposed flowers revealed that main nectar secretion time is mainly during the night up

Doris Wolff; Taina Witt; Andreas Jürgens; Gerhard Gottsberger

2006-01-01

264

The crystal structure of saporin SO6 from Saponaria officinalis and its interaction with the ribosome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2.0 Å resolution crystal structure of the ribosome inactivating protein saporin (isoform 6) from seeds of Saponaria officinalis is presented. The fold typical of other plant toxins is conserved, despite some differences in the loop regions. The loop between strands ?7 and ?8 in the C-terminal region which spans over the active site cleft appears shorter in saporin, suggesting

Carmelinda Savino; Luca Federici; Rodolfo Ippoliti; Eugenio Lendaro; Demetrius Tsernoglou

2000-01-01

265

Polysomnographic evaluation of the hypnotic effect of Valeriana edulis standardized extract in patients suffering from insomnia.  

PubMed

Valeriana edulis ssp. procera, commonly known as "valeriana mexicana", is widely used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of insomnia and anxiety. To evaluate the hypnotic effect and safety of 450 mg of Valeriana edulis standardized hydroalcoholic extract in patients with insomnia, a double-blind, cross-over, controlled study was carried out. Valeriana officinalis extract, at the same doses, was used as a positive control. In a sleep laboratory, polysomnographic (PSG) recordings were performed for analyzing the quantity and architecture of sleep as well as evaluating morning sleepiness, memory quotient, and side effects. The experimental procedures were conducted on four consecutive nights of 8 h each. Twenty patients were admitted. Based on the PSG results, V. edulis reduced the number of awaking episodes while both treatments increased the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep; this last parameter was better improved by V. officinalis extract. Other PSG data did not achieve outstanding statistical differences, but the clinical tendency with both treatments was to increase the sleep efficiency index. These Valeriana extracts produced beneficial effects on sleep architecture because they diminished the time of stages 1 and 2 in non-REM sleep while they increased delta sleep. Validated clinical tests showed that both species reduced notoriously the morning sleepiness, that was further improved by V. officinalis extract, and did not affect anterograde memory. In only three cases were slight side effects observed, one due to the experimental extract. Chemical analysis of the hydroalcoholic extract of V. edulis indicated that this extract contains 0.26 % of dihydroisovaltrate as the main valepotriate, and that it does not contain valerenic acid. In general, the results support the hypnotic effect and safety of acute treatment of Valeriana edulis and Valeriana officinalis on patients suffering insomnia. PMID:11731907

Herrera-Arellano, A; Luna-Villegas, G; Cuevas-Uriostegui, M L; Alvarez, L; Vargas-Pineda, G; Zamilpa-Alvarez, A; Tortoriello, J

2001-11-01

266

Contact and ingestion toxicities of plant extracts to Thaumetopoea solitaria Frey. (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thaumetopoea solitaria is a serious pest of pistachio throughout the Mediterranean and the surrounding region. In this study, contact and ingestion\\u000a toxicities of Bifora radians,\\u000a Fumaria officinalis,\\u000a Humulus lupulus and Rhododendron ponticum extracts against T. solitaria larvae were examined under laboratory conditions. Dimethoate was used as a positive control. In the contact toxicity bioassays\\u000a B. radians extract was the most

Mehmet Kubilay Er; Ayhan Gökçe; Mark Edward Whalon

2009-01-01

267

In vitro effects of Salvia officinalis L. essential oil on Candida albicans  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the anticandidal activities of Salvia officinalis L. (S. officinalis) essential oil against Candida albicans (C. albicans) and the inhibitory effects on the adhesion of C. albicans to polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) resin surface. Methods Disc diffusion method was first used to test the anticandidal activities of the S. officinalis L. essential oil against the reference strain (ATCC 90028) and 2 clinical strains of C. albicans. Then the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were determined by modified membrane method. The adhesion of C. albicans to PMMA resin surface was assessed after immersion with S. officinalis L. essential oil at various concentrations of 1×MIC, 0.5×MIC and 0.25×MIC at room temperature for 30 min. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the Candida cell adhesion with the pretreatment agents and Tukey's test was used for multiple comparisons. Results S. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited anticandidal activity against all strains of C. albicans with inhibition zone ranging from 40.5 mm to 19.5 mm. The MIC and MLC of the oil were determined as 2.780 g/L against all test strains. According to the effects on C. albicans adhesion to PMMA resin surface, it was found that immersion in the essential oil at concentrations of 1×MIC (2.780 g/L), 0.5×MIC (1.390 g/L) and 0.25×MIC (0.695 g/L) for 30 min significantly reduced the adhesion of all 3 test strains to PMMA resin surface in a dose dependent manner (P<0.05). Conclusions S. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited anticandidal activities against C. albicans and had inhibitory effects on the adhesion of the cells to PMMA resin surface. With further testing and development, S. officinalis essential oil may be used as an antifungal denture cleanser to prevent candidal adhesion and thus reduce the risk of candida-associated denture stomatitis. PMID:23646301

Sookto, Tularat; Srithavaj, Theerathavaj; Thaweboon, Sroisiri; Thaweboon, Boonyanit; Shrestha, Binit

2013-01-01

268

Relationship between the antioxidant capacity and effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) polyphenols on membrane phospholipid order.  

PubMed

The antioxidant activity of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extracts is mainly due to phenolic abietane diterpenes and phenolic acids such as rosmarinic acid. In this study a comprehensive characterization of non-water-soluble and water-soluble extracts from rosemary was achieved by liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray and mass spectrometry. The antioxidant activity of these extracts and their respective major compounds (carnosic acid, carnosol, rosmadial, genkwanin, and rosmarinic acid) was analyzed and compared by using different in vitro systems. Whereas rosmarinic acid, carnosic acid, and carnosol exhibited similar antioxidant activity in a phospholipid membrane-free assay, carnosol behaved as an extremely potent antioxidant in a membrane-based assay (4-6 times stronger than the rest of the compounds). This differential antioxidant behavior suggests that factors other than the radical scavenging capability may be involved. All of the diterpenes induced severe effects on lipid order and packing of phospholipid model membranes. Rosmadial and carnosol decreased the number and/or mobility of water molecules located at the polar head group region of the membrane phospholipids as seen by Laurdan fluorescence spectroscopy. Carnosol also strongly enhanced lipid order at the hydrophobic core of the membrane. These effects throughout the bilayer correlated to the stronger antioxidant capacity of carnosol to inhibit lipid peroxidation. On the contrary, carnosic acid decreased membrane fluidity at deeper regions of the bilayer as measured by bilayer-to-micelle transition assay and self-quenching measurements by using octadecylrhodamine B. These effects may contribute to membrane stabilization and hindrance of radical propagation, which may cooperate with the electron donor ability of rosemary diterpenes in protecting the membranes against oxidative damage. PMID:19924866

Pérez-Fons, Laura; Garzón, María T; Micol, Vicente

2010-01-13

269

Object extraction Object extraction  

E-print Network

Object extraction #12;Object extraction · Extracting topographic objects from images · the main goal of aerial photogrammetry · object extraction consists of two steps · image interpretation extraction · Extracting topographic objects from images · identify all objects of a certain class · measure

Giger, Christine

270

FTIR spectroscopic evaluation of changes in the cellular biochemical composition of the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata induced by extracts of some Greek medicinal and aromatic plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the biological activity of aquatic extracts of selected Greek medicinal and aromatic plants to the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata was investigated. Lamiaceae species (Hyssopus officinalis L., Melissa officinalis L., Origanum dictamnus L., Origanum vulgare L. and Salvia officinalis L.) were found to enhance significantly the mycelium growth whereas Crocus sativus appears to inhibit it slightly. M. officinalis and S. officinalis caused the highest stimulation in mycelium growth (+97%) and conidia production (+65%) respectively. In order to further investigate the bioactivity of plant extracts to A. alternata, we employed Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Differences of original spectra were assigned mainly to amides of proteins. The second derivative transformation of spectra revealed changes in spectral regions corresponding to absorptions of the major cellular constituents such as cell membrane and proteins. Principal component analysis of the second derivative transformed spectra confirmed that fatty acids of the cell membranes, amides of proteins and polysaccharides of the cell wall had the major contribution to data variation. FTIR band area ratios were found to correlate with fungal mycelium growth.

Skotti, Efstathia; Kountouri, Sophia; Bouchagier, Pavlos; Tsitsigiannis, Dimitrios I.; Polissiou, Moschos; Tarantilis, Petros A.

2014-06-01

271

Protective Effect of Emblica officinalis Against Alcohol-Induced Hepatic Injury by Ameliorating Oxidative Stress in Rats  

PubMed Central

The effect of Emblica officinalis fruit extract (EFE) against alcohol-induced hepatic damage in rats was investigated in the present study. In vitro studies showed that EFE possesses antioxidant as well nitric oxide (NO) scavenging activity. In vivo administration of alcohol (5 g/kg b.wt/day) for 60 days resulted increased liver lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls, nitrite plus nitrate levels. Alcohol administration also significantly lowers the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase and reduced glutathione as compared with control rats. Administration of EFE (250 mg/kg body weight) to alcoholic rats significantly brought the plasma enzymes towards near normal level and also significantly reduced the levels of lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls and restored the enzymic and non-enzymatic antioxidants level. This observation was supplemented by histopathological examination in liver. Our data indicate that the tannoid, flavonoid and NO scavenging compounds present in EFE may offer protection against free radical mediated oxidative stress in rat hepatocytes of animals with alcohol-induced liver injury. PMID:21966117

Damodara Reddy, V.; Padmavathi, P.; Gopi, S.; Paramahamsa, M.

2010-01-01

272

Nutrient and salt relations of Pterocarpus officinalis L. in coastal wetlands of the Caribbean: assessment through leaf and soil analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pterocarpus officinalis L. is a dominant tree of freshwater coastal wetlands in the Caribbean and the Guiana regions. It is frequently associated\\u000a with mangroves in areas with high rainfall and\\/or surface run-off. We hypothesized that P. officinalis is a freshwater swamp species that when occurring in association with mangroves occupies low-salinity soil microsites, or\\u000a alternatively that it possesses mechanisms preventing

Ernesto Medina; Elvira Cuevas; Ariel Lugo

2007-01-01

273

Antioxidant effect and study of bioactive components of Valeriana sisymbriifolia and Nardostachys jatamansii in comparison to Valeriana officinalis.  

PubMed

The roots of Nardostachys jatamansi have been used as a substitute for valerian in Iranian traditions. Moreover, six species from Valeriana genus such as V. sisymbriifolia grow in Iran which has not been studied yet. We aimed to study of antioxidant effect of Valeriana officinalis, Nardostachys jatamansi and Valeriana sisymbriifolia and comparing their content of valerenic acid and valepotriate. Antioxidant effect was evaluated using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) inhibition and beta carotene-bleaching assays. Identification of valepotriates was achieved using chemical and TLC method. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of valerenic acid was performed using TLC and spectrophotometry methods. Among the tested samples, V. Officinalis showed the highest DPPH inhibition effect with IC(50) value of 38mg/mL. All of the tested plants potentially inhibited beta-carotene oxidation. The calibration curve of authentic valerenic acid was linear in the range of 2-51 mg L(-1). The most and least amount of valepotraites was detectable in V. officinalis and V. sisymbriifolia respectively. Total valerenic acid in different plant species ranged from 0.02% in V. sisymbriifolia to 0.07% (w/w) in V. Officinalis. Our results indicated that all three tested plants contain different amount of valepotriates and valerenic acid. The highest percentage of valepotriates and valerenic acid was detectable in V. officinalis. Overall can conclude that N. jatamansii and V. sisymbriifolia would be a good candidate for substitutation of V. officinalis with noticeable antioxidant effect. PMID:23261727

Dugaheh, Mehdi Ansari; Meisami, Faramarz; Torabian, Zahra; Sharififar, Fariba

2013-01-01

274

An innovative approach to the recovery of phenolic compounds and volatile terpenes from the same fresh foliar sample of Rosmarinus officinalis L.  

PubMed

Rosmarinus officinalis L. is a plant of relevant commercial interest because of its volatile fraction and also its phenolic constituents which are both well known for their numerous properties. Nevertheless, an extractive method suitable to recovering both the aromatic and phenolic fractions from the same fresh foliar tissue has not yet been reported. In this work we have optimized a two-step procedure able to recover first the phenolic compounds and successively the volatile terpenes from the same foliar sample. The recovery of the whole phenolic fraction, partially degraded using a traditional extractive method, was guaranteed and we observed a significant increment in the amount of volatile terpenes compared to a traditional extraction procedure. We also highlight crucial information on the enzymatic activity of the endogenous oxidases that rapidly transform the phenolic substrates, mainly the rosmarinic acid. Our results suggest that this extractive procedure could also be used for other aromatic plants, thus providing a useful tool for more complete analyses of the main phytochemicals available in fresh foliar samples and creating the possibility of incrementing yields of volatile compounds. PMID:25281076

Bellumori, Maria; Michelozzi, Marco; Innocenti, Marzia; Congiu, Federica; Cencetti, Gabriele; Mulinacci, Nadia

2015-01-01

275

Systemic administration of Rosmarinus officinalis attenuates the inflammatory response induced by carrageenan in the mouse model of pleurisy.  

PubMed

Rosmarinus officinalis, also named rosemary, is a native plant from the Mediterranean region that is useful for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Studies using experimental models and/or in vitro tests have shown the important biological effects of rosemary. In this context, the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory activity of rosemary must be investigated to support the discovery of new substances with anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of crude extract oil free obtained from the leaves of rosemary in an animal model of inflammation, thus evaluating its medicinal use for the treatment of inflammatory conditions. Also its ethanol, hexane, and ethyl acetate fractions, as well as its isolated compounds carnosol and rosmarinic acid were analyzed. Swiss mice were used for the in vivo experiments. The effect of this herb on the inhibition of the leukocytes, exudation, myeloperoxidase, and adenosine-deaminase activities, nitrite/nitrate, interleukin 17A, and interleukin 10 levels and mRNA expression was determined. The crude extract and its derived fractions, in addition to its isolated compounds, inhibited leukocytes and decreased exudation and myeloperoxidase and adenosine-deaminase activities, as well as nitrite/nitrate and interleukin 17A levels and mRNA expression, besides increasing interleukin 10 levels and mRNA expression. Rosemary showed important anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting leukocytes and decreasing exudation. These effects were associated with a decrease in the proinflammatory parameters (myeloperoxidase, adenosine-deaminase, nitrite/nitrate, and interleukin 17A) and an increase in the anti-inflammatory cytokine (interleukin 10). This study confirms the anti-inflammatory properties of rosemary and validates its use in folk medicine to treat inflammatory diseases such as rheumatism and asthma. PMID:24288274

da Rosa, Julia Salvan; Facchin, Bruno Matheus; Bastos, Juliana; Siqueira, Mariana Araújo; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu; Dalmarco, Eduardo Monguilhott; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Fröde, Tânia Silvia

2013-11-01

276

In Vitro Antibacterial and Antibiotic Resistance Modifying Effect of Bioactive Plant Extracts on Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis  

PubMed Central

The crude extracts of plants from Asteraceae and Lamiaceae family and essential oils from Salvia officinalis and Salvia sclarea were studied for their antibacterial as well as antibiotic resistance modifying activity. Using disc diffusion and broth microdilution assays we determined higher antibacterial effect of three Salvia spp. and by evaluating the leakage of 260?nm absorbing material we detected effect of extracts and, namely, of essential oils on the disruption of cytoplasmic membrane. The evaluation of in vitro interactions between plant extracts and oxacillin described in terms of fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices revealed synergistic or additive effects of plant extracts and clearly synergistic effects of essential oil from Salvia officinalis with oxacillin in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis. PMID:24222768

Chovanova, Romana; Vaverkova, Stefania

2013-01-01

277

Genetic Variability of the Essential Oil Content of Melissa officinalis1.  

PubMed

The essential oil content of various populations of MELISSA OFFICINALIS L. (Lamiaceae), cultivated under Mediterranean climatic conditions (Ebro-Delta, Spain) has been investigated during five years of selection and improvement of the genetic plant material. Starting with an essential oil content of 0.2-0.3%, a content of more than 0.5% was obtained as a result of genetic improvement. A weak negative correlation between the content of essential oil and phenotypical growth parameters such as the number of branches per plant and height was observed. No correlation between biomass production per plant and essential oil content could be found. By the method of hybridization, M. OFFICINALIS synthetics with a high yield of biomass and essential oil content were selected. PMID:17226522

Adzet, T; Ponz, R; Wolf, E; Schulte, E

1992-12-01

278

Characterization of a Saponaria officinalis seed ribosome-inactivating protein: immunoreactivity and sequence homologies.  

PubMed

A ribosome inactivating protein from Saponaria officinalis, SO-6, was purified and the N-terminus sequenced. The sequence shows extensive homology with Pokeweed antiviral protein, Pokeweed antiviral protein II, Pokeweed antiviral seed protein and dodecandrin. SDS gel electrophoresis in the Laemmli system revealed two bands of similar intensities with a smear between them, probably an artifact due to the high pI of the protein. Use of a harsher denaturing gel system resulted in one band in electrophoresis. Immune antisera was raised in rabbits against this protein and it cross reacted with other proteins (SO-5, SO-8 and SO-9) from seeds of Saponaria officinalis, but not with gelonin, Momordica charantia inhibitor and dianthin 32. PMID:3925952

Lappi, D A; Esch, F S; Barbieri, L; Stirpe, F; Soria, M

1985-06-28

279

Kinetics of mineral nutrient uptake by Saponaria officinalis L. suspension cell cultures in different media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uptake of mineral nutrients from two media with different mineral composition, a classical MSA medium and a modified\\u000a MH2 medium, by Saponaria officinalis (soapwort) cells was studied over a growth cycle of 14 days, by continuous measurement of mineral consumption without opening\\u000a the culture flasks. The mineral composition of the MH2 medium was found to be better suited to

P. Morard; C. Fulcheri; M. Henry

1998-01-01

280

Is self-compatibility the main breeding system in borage (Borago officinalis L.)?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polygenic postzygotic self-incompatible system reported in borage (Borago officinalis L.) is refuted. The behaviour of pollen tubes after self- and cross-pollination, analysis of the crossability coefficient,\\u000a seed set after continuous generations of self-pollination and the effects of inbreeding depression in borage were studied.\\u000a Evidence of self-compatibility was established. The influence of protandry in a self-compatible system is also discussed.

C. Montaner; E. Floris; J. M. Alvarez

2000-01-01

281

Rosmarinic acid formation and differential expression of tyrosine aminotransferase isoforms in Anchusa officinalis cell suspension cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time-course changes in rosmarinic acid (RA) formation and activities of tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) isoforms were examined in Anchusa officinalis suspension cultures. Three TAT isoforms (TAT-1, TAT-3, TAT-4) were resolved by Mono-Q anion-exchange column chromatography. The proportion of the TAT-3 activity within the total TAT activity remained high regardless of the growth stage of the cultured cells. TAT-1 activity was positively

Hajime Mizukami; Brian E. Ellis

1991-01-01

282

High density cultivation of Anchusa officinalis in a stirred-tank bioreactor with in situ filtration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously, Su et al. [Biotechnol Bioeng 42: 884–890 (1993)] reported improved production of rosmarinic acid by Anchusa officinalis in shake-flask cultures using a cultivation strategy that involved intermittent medium exchange. Implementation of this cultivation strategy in 2.5-1 stirred-tank bioreactor cultures is investigated in the present study. Intermittent cell\\/medium separation in the bioreactor was accomplished by means of automated in situ

W. W. Su; F. Lei; N. P. Kao

1995-01-01

283

Production of rosmarinic acid from perfusion culture of Anchusa officinalis in a membrane-aerated bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In this study, a perfusion fermentation ofAnchusa officinalis was carried out in a stirred tank bioreactor integrated with an internal cross-flow filter. Bubble-free aeration via microporous membrane fibers was used to provide oxygen. A two-stage culture was successfully conducted in this reactor without filter fouling. In a 17 day fermentation, a cell density of 26 g dw\\/I and a

Wei Wen Su; Arthur E. Humphrey

1991-01-01

284

Cloning and characterisation of rosmarinic acid synthase from Melissa officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.; Lamiaceae) is a well-known medicinal plant mainly due to two groups of compounds, the essential oil and the phenylpropanoid derivatives. The prominent phenolic compound is rosmarinic acid (RA), an ester of caffeic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid. RA shows a number of interesting biological activities. Rosmarinic acid synthase (RAS; 4-coumaroyl-CoA:hydroxyphenyllactic acid hydroxycinnamoyltransferase) catalyses the ester formation.

Corinna Weitzel; Maike Petersen

2011-01-01

285

Comparative Responses of Borago officinalis and Echium vulgare to Different Nitrogen and Phosphorus Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of organic and mineral nitrogen, phosphorus, and bio-fertilizers on growth, yield, and fixed oil content of borage (Borago officinalis L.) and viper's bugloss (Echium vulgare L.) plants were studied in two field experiments. Nitrogen as ammonium nitrate at 0.75 and 110 kg N hectare; phosphorus as calcium super-phosphate at 50 and 75 kg P2O5 hectare; compost at 1.32

S. F. Hendawy; S. El-Gengaihi

2010-01-01

286

Growth and rosmarinic acid production in cell suspension cultures of Salvia officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a natural antioxidant produced by cell suspension cultures of sage (Salvia officinalis L.). The growth and production of RA by these cells can be modified by the type of culture medium. Production can be increased 10-fold to attain 6.4 g.1-1 under optimal conditions. Investigation of kinetics showed that a change in the medium caused shifts in

I. Hippolyte; B. Marin; J. C. Baccou; R. Jonard

1992-01-01

287

The use of background matching vs. masquerade for camouflage in cuttlefish Sepia officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, commonly use their visually-guided, rapid adaptive camouflage for multiple tactics to avoid detection or recognition by predators. Two common tactics are background matching and resembling an object (masquerade) in the immediate area. This laboratory study investigated whether cuttlefish preferentially camouflage themselves to resemble a three-dimensional (3D) object in the immediate visual field (via the mechanism of masquerade\\/deceptive

Kendra C. Buresch; Lydia M. Mäthger; Justine J. Allen; Chelsea Bennice; Neal Smith; Jonathan Schram; Chuan-Chin Chiao; Charles Chubb; Roger T. Hanlon

288

Evidence for in vitro induced mutation which improves somatic embryogenesis in Asparagus officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Somatic embryogenesis from different genotypes of Asparagus officinalis L. could be obtained by in vitro culture of shoot apices. Apices were first cultured on an auxin-rich inducing medium and then transferred onto a hormone-free development medium. All genotypes tested in this way produced a few somatic embryos. In some experiments, during the development phase, a new kind of friable highly

B. Delbreil; M. Jullien

1994-01-01

289

A method to produce encapsulatable units for synthetic seeds in Asparagus officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method to produce encapsulatable units for synthetic seeds was developed in Asparagus officinalis L. Encapsulatable units with high conversion ability in non-sterile soil were produced from somatic embryos by a pre-encapsulation culture. The synthetic seeds containing somatic embryos without the pre-encapsulation culture did not germinate in soil. When the pre-encapsulation culture medium did not contain growth regulators, the roots

Kanji Mamiya; Yuji Sakamoto

2001-01-01

290

Interactions of ancymidol with sucrose and ?-naphthaleneacetic acid in promoting asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) somatic embryogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interactions of varying ancymidol concentrations with those of ?-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) or sucrose in embryo induction medium were related to the production and development of asparagus\\u000a (Asparagus officinalis L.) somatic embryos, and to the ability of these embryos to germinate. A significant sucrose×ancymidol interaction was observed\\u000a only for the production of bipolar embryos; 4% sucrose with 0.75 mg l–1 ancymidol

B. Li; D. J. Wolyn

1997-01-01

291

Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from protoplasts of asparagus ( Asparagus officinalis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protoplasts were isolated from embryogenic calli of Asparagus officinalis L. cv. Mary Washington and cultured in 1\\/2 MS medium with 1 mg\\/l NAA, 0.5 mg\\/l zeatin, 1 g\\/l L-glutamine, 0.6 M glucose and 0.1% Gellan Gum. Protoplasts started to divide after 3–4 d of culture and formed visible colonies after 30 d of culture. The percentage of colony formation (plating

Hisato Kunitake; Masahiro Mii

1990-01-01

292

Improved culture conditions for somatic embryogenesis from Asparagus officinalis L. using an aseptic ventilative filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calli were induced from the crown of seedlings or lateral bud of young spears of Asparagus officinalis L. on Linsmaier and Skoog's (LS) solid-medium supplemented with 5 µ M 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Embryogenic callus was selected from induced calli and proliferated in LS liquid medium supplemented with 5 µ M 2,4-D. Non-vitrified somatic embryos were formed and efficiently developed into

Takeo Saito; Shuji Nishizawa; Shigeo Nishimura

1991-01-01

293

Electroporation modulates the embryogénie responses of asparagus ( asparagus officinalis l.) microspores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Microspores of three genotypes ofAsparagus officinalis L. were mechanically isolated without affecting their viability and were submitted to electric fields in order to modulate\\u000a their competence for embryogenesis. When a constant pulse length and various field strengths (250, 500, 750, 1000, 1500, and\\u000a 2000 V\\/cm) were tested, the viability of electro-treated microspores decreased as the field strength increased, for all

C. Delaitre; S. Ochatt; E. Deleury I

2001-01-01

294

Survival of cultured cells and somatic embryos of Asparagus officinalis cryopreserved by vitrification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultured cells and somatic embryos derived from the mesophyll tissue of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) were cryopreserved by vitrification. The vitrification solution (PVS) contains (w\\/v) 22% glycerol, 15% ethylene glycol, 15% propylene glycol and 7% DMSO in Murashige-Skoog medium enriched with 0.5M sorbitol. After initial cryoprotection with sorbitol supplemented MS medium containing 12% ethylene glycol, cells or embryos were exposed

A. Uragami; A. Sakai; M. Nagai; T. Takahashi

1989-01-01

295

AFLP-derived STS markers for the identification of sex in Asparagus officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a simple, rapid and PCR-based screening of sex in the cultivated asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.), we developed five STS markers from previously mapped, low-copy, sex-linked AFLP markers. A male\\/female PCR assay was\\u000a feasible with these STS markers either by direct amplification or by digestion with restriction enzymes. Similar to the AFLP\\u000a markers from which they were derived, STS4150.1, STS4150.2,

S. M. Reamon-Büttner; C. Jung

2000-01-01

296

Aflp markers tightly linked to the sex locus in Asparagus officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine AFLP markers linked to the sex locus in Asparagus officinalis L. have been identified by non-radioactive AFLP technique and bulked segregant analysis. A composite map of one F2 and two F1 populations identified three very tightly linked markers. These markers did not give recombinants in the three different populations and mapped 0.5, 0.7 and 1 cM to the sex

Stella Marie Reamon-Büttner; Jörg Schondelmaier; Christian Jung

1998-01-01

297

A genetic map of Asparagus officinalis based on integrated RFLP, RAPD and AFLP molecular markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated genetic map of the dioecious species Asparagus officinalis L. has been constructed on the basis of RFLP, RAPD, AFLP and isoenzyme markers. The segregation analysis of the polymorphic\\u000a markers was carried out on the progeny of five different crosses between male and female doubled-haploid clones generated\\u000a by anther culture. A total of 274 markers have been organized to

A. Spada; E. Caporali; G. Marziani; P. Portaluppi; F. M. Restivo; F. Tassi; A. Falavigna

1998-01-01

298

T-DNA Organization in Tumor Cultures and Transgenic Plants of the Monocotyledon Asparagus officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asparagus officinalis was the first monocotyledonous plant from which hormone-independent and opine-producing crown gall tissue could be isolated. We confirm by DNA hybridization that tumor lines obtained after infection of this plant by Agrobacterium strains harboring wild-type nopaline and octopine tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmids are stably transformed and contain transferred DNA (T-DNA) segments identical to the T-DNA found in dicotyledonous plants.

Benny Bytebier; Francine Deboeck; Henri de Greve; Marc van Montagu; Jean-Pierre Hernalsteens

1987-01-01

299

Quantification of Fumaria officinalis isoquinoline alkaloids by nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis–electrospray ion trap mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A capillary electrophoresis (CE) method using non-aqueous (NA) separation solutions combined with an ion trap mass spectrometer (MS and MS\\/MS) as detection device is presented for the separation, identification and quantification of isoquinoline alkaloids from Fumaria officinalis. The best results were obtained with a mixture of acetonitrile–methanol (9:1, v\\/v) containing 60mM ammonium acetate and 2.2M acetic acid as running electrolyte

Sonja Sturm; Eva-Maria Strasser; Hermann Stuppner

2006-01-01

300

Hepatotoxicity of immunotoxins made with saporin, a ribosome-inactivating protein from Saponaria officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Immunotoxins were prepared by conjugating saporin, a ribosome-inactivating protein fromSaponaria officinalis, to a monoclonal antibody against the Thy 1.1 antigen, or to its F(ab?)2 fragment. The immunotoxins were eight- to 16-fold more toxic to mice than free saporin. Injection of the immunotoxins induced\\u000a necrosis of the liver and spleen, whereas free saporin caused necrosis of the epithelium of the kidney

Fiorenzo Stirpe; Massimo Derenzini; Luigi Barbieri; Fulvia Farabegoli; Alex N. F. Brown; Philip P. Knowles; Philip E. Thorpe

1987-01-01

301

Role of root hydrophobic barriers in salt exclusion of a mangrove plant Avicennia officinalis.  

PubMed

Salt exclusion at the roots and salt secretion in the leaves were examined in a mangrove, Avicennia officinalis. The non-secretor mangrove Bruguiera cylindrica was used for comparative study of hydrophobic barrier formation in the roots. Bypass flow was reduced when seedlings were previously treated with high salt concentration. A biseriate exodermis was detected in the salt-treated roots, along with an enhanced deposition of hydrophobic barriers in the endodermis. These barriers reduced Na(+) loading into the xylem, accounting for a 90-95% salt exclusion in A.?officinalis. Prominent barriers were found in the roots of B.?cylindrica even in the absence of salt treatment. A cytochrome?P450 gene that may regulate suberin biosynthesis was up-regulated within hours of salt treatment in A.?officinalis roots and leaves, corresponding with increased suberin deposition. X-ray microanalysis showed preferential deposition of Na(+) and Cl(-) in the root cortex compared with the stele, suggesting that the endodermis is the primary site of salt exclusion. Enhanced salt secretion and increased suberin deposition surrounding the salt glands were seen in the leaves with salt treatment. Overall, these data show that the deposition of apoplastic barriers increases resistance to bypass flow leading to efficient salt exclusion at the roots in mangroves. PMID:24417377

Krishnamurthy, Pannaga; Jyothi-Prakash, Pavithra A; Qin, Lin; He, Jie; Lin, Qingsong; Loh, Chiang-Shiong; Kumar, Prakash P

2014-07-01

302

Suppression of COX-2, IL-1? and TNF-? expression and leukocyte infiltration in inflamed skin by bioactive compounds from Rosmarinus officinalis L.  

PubMed

In the present study, we evaluated the effects of extracts and purified compounds from fresh leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Pretreatment with the major anti-inflammatory compounds, carnosic acid (CA) and carnosol (CS), inhibited phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced ear inflammation in mice with an EC(50) of 10.20 ?g/cm(2) and 10.70 ?g/cm(2), respectively. To further understand the anti-inflammatory mechanism of these compounds, we analyzed the in vivo expression of several inflammation-associated genes in mouse skin by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Our data showed that CA and CS reduced the expression of IL-1? and TNF-? but had less effect on fibronectin and ICAM-1 expression. Interestingly, both compounds selectively inhibited COX-2 but not COX-1. Histopathological analysis of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained tissue revealed a marked reduction in leukocyte infiltration and epidermal ulceration of PMA-treated ears when ears were pretreated with ethanolic extracts or pure CA. In vitro, we showed that ethanolic extract, carnosic acid and carnosol significantly inhibited the overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) in a dose-dependent manner in the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line. For the first time in vivo, we showed that CA and CS differentially regulate the expression of inflammation-associated genes, thus demonstrating the pharmacological basis for the anti-inflammatory properties reported for CA and CS. PMID:21129455

Mengoni, Eleonora S; Vichera, Gabriel; Rigano, Luciano A; Rodriguez-Puebla, Marcelo L; Galliano, Silvia R; Cafferata, Eduardo E; Pivetta, Omar H; Moreno, Sivia; Vojnov, Adrián A

2011-04-01

303

Anti-Angiogenesis Effect of Biogenic Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized Using Saliva officinalis on Chick Chorioalantoic Membrane (CAM).  

PubMed

Angiogenesis, which is required for physiological events, plays a crucial role in several pathological conditions, such as tumor growth and metastasis. The use of plant extracts is a cost effective and eco-friendly way to synthesize nanoparticles. In the present study, we investigated the anti-angiogenesis properties of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Saliva officinalis extract on chick chorioalantoic membrane. The production of nanoparticles was confirmed by the color change from yellow to brown observed after approximately 3 h at 37 °C. Then, the nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, FTIR, and TEM. The UV-visible spectroscopy results showed that the surface plasmon resonance band for AgNPs was around 430 nm. The intensity of the AgNP-specific absorption peak improved with an increase of 0.5 mL of extract into 10 mL of AgNO3 (2.5 mM). The FTIR results showed good interaction between the plant extracts and AgNPs. The TEM images of the samples revealed that the NPs varied in morphology and size from 1 to 40 nm; the average was recorded at 16.5 ± 1.2 nm. Forty Ross fertilized eggs were divided into four groups; the control and three experimental groups. On the 8th day, gelatin sponges containing albumin were placed on the chorioalantoic membrane and soaked with different concentrations of NPs. On the 12th day, all the cases were photographed using a photostereomicroscope. The number and the lengths of the vessels were measured using Image J software. The crown rump (CR) and weight of the embryo were also recorded. Then the hemoglobin content was measured using Drabkin's reagent kit for quantification of the blood vessel formation. According to the data analysis, the number and length of the blood vessels, as well as the CR and weight of the embryos reduced significantly compared to the control (p < 0.05), dose dependently. The total hemoglobin was quantified as an indicator of the blood vessel formation. The hemoglobin content in the treated samples with AgNPs decreased, which showed its inhibitory effect on angiogenesis. PMID:25255752

Baharara, Javad; Namvar, Farideh; Mousavi, Marzieh; Ramezani, Tayebe; Mohamad, Rosfarizan

2014-01-01

304

Molecular phylogeny of the genus Asparagus (Asparagaceae) explains interspecific crossability between the garden asparagus (A. officinalis) and other Asparagus species.  

PubMed

The genus Asparagus comprises approximately 200 species, some of which are commercially cultivated, such as the garden asparagus (A. officinalis). Many Asparagus species, including A. officinalis, are dioecious and have been grouped into a subgenus distinct from that of hermaphroditic species. Although many interspecific crossings have been attempted to introduce useful traits into A. officinalis, only some of the dioecious species were found to be cross-compatible with A. officinalis. Here, molecular phylogenetic analyses were conducted to determine whether interspecific crossability is proportional to the genetic distance between the crossing pairs and to further clarify the evolutionary history of the Asparagus genus. A clade with all cross-compatible species and no cross-incompatible species was recovered in the phylogenetic tree based on analyses of non-coding cpDNA regions. In addition, a sex-linked marker developed for A. officinalis amplified a male-specific region in all cross-compatible species. The phylogenetic analyses also provided some insights about the evolutionary history of Asparagus; for example, by indicating that the genus had its origin in southern Africa, subsequently spreading throughout the old world through intensive speciation and dispersal. The results also suggest that dioecious species were derived from a single evolutionary transition from hermaphroditism in Asparagus. These findings not only contribute towards the understanding of the evolutionary history of the genus but may also facilitate future interspecific hybridization programs involving Asparagus species. PMID:21947345

Kubota, Shosei; Konno, Itaru; Kanno, Akira

2012-02-01

305

Isozyme gene markers in the dioecious species Asparagus officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts from phylloclads of Asparagus officinails were electrophoretically analyzed for isozyme polymorphism. Fourteen enzyme systems were examined using four buffer systems: seven enzymes (acid phosphatase, catalase, glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase, peroxidase, and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase) exhibited clear and consistent banding patterns. Isozyme polymorphism was studied in seven pairs of male and female doubled haploids and in their male F1s.

E. Maestri; F. M. Restivo; G. P. Marziani Longo; A. Falavigna; F. Tassi

1991-01-01

306

Enzymatic synthesis of valerena-4,7(11)-diene by a unique sesquiterpene synthase from the valerian plant (Valeriana officinalis).  

PubMed

Valerian (Valeriana officinalis) is a popular medicinal plant in North America and Europe. Its root extract is commonly used as a mild sedative and anxiolytic. Among dozens of chemical constituents (e.g. alkaloids, iridoids, flavonoids, and terpenoids) found in valerian root, valerena-4,7(11)-diene and valerenic acid (C15 sesquiterpenoid) have been suggested as the active ingredients responsible for the sedative effect. However, the biosynthesis of the valerena-4,7(11)-diene hydrocarbon skeleton in valerian remains unknown to date. To identify the responsible terpene synthase, next-generation sequencing (Roche 454 pyrosequencing) was used to generate ? 1 million transcript reads from valerian root. From the assembled transcripts, two sesquiterpene synthases were identified (VoTPS1 and VoTPS2), both of which showed predominant expression patterns in root. Transgenic yeast expressing VoTPS1 and VoTPS2 produced germacrene C/germacrene D and valerena-4,7(11)-diene, respectively, as major terpene products. Purified VoTPS1 and VoTPS2 recombinant enzymes confirmed these activities in vitro, with competent kinetic properties (K(m) of ? 10 ?m and k(cat) of 0.01 s(-1) for both enzymes). The structure of the valerena-4,7(11)-diene produced from the yeast expressing VoTPS2 was further substantiated by (13) C-NMR and GC-MS in comparison with the synthetic standard. This study demonstrates an integrative approach involving next-generation sequencing and metabolically engineered microbes to expand our knowledge of terpenoid diversity in medicinal plants. PMID:22776156

Pyle, Bryan W; Tran, Hue T; Pickel, Benjamin; Haslam, Tegan M; Gao, Zhizeng; MacNevin, Gillian; Vederas, John C; Kim, Soo-Un; Ro, Dae-Kyun

2012-09-01

307

Influence of ionic interactions on essential oil and phenolic diterpene composition of Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.).  

PubMed

The potential of four essential cations (K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and Fe(2+)) to alleviate salt toxicity was studied in sage (Salvia officinalis L.) plants grown in pots. Two concentrations of the following chloride salts: KCl, CaCl?, MgCl? and FeCl?, were used together with 100mM NaCl to study the effects of these nutrients on plant growth, leaf essential oils (EOs) and phenolic diterpenes composition. The sage plants accumulated Na(+) in their leaves (includers); this has affected secondary metabolites' biosynthesis. Treatment with 100mM NaCl slightly decreased borneol and viridiflorol, while increased manool concentrations. Addition of KCl, CaCl? and MgCl? increased considerably in a dose-dependent manner the oxygen-containing monoterpenes (1.8-cineole, camphor, ?-thujone and borneol) in 100mM NaCl-treated sage. Whereas, the contents of viridiflorol decreased further with the addition of KCl in 100mM NaCl-treated sage. Our results suggest that the changes in EOs composition were more related to K(+) and Ca(2+) availability than to Na(+) toxicity. Furthermore, treatment with NaCl decreased by 50% carnosic acid (CA), a potent antioxidant, content in the leaves. K(+) and Ca(2+) promoted the accumulation of CA and its methoxylated form (MCA) in the leaves. The concentration of CA was positively correlated with leaf K(+) (r=0.56, P=0.01) and Ca(2+) (r=0.44, P=0.05) contents. It appears that different salt applications in combination with NaCl treatments had a profound effect on EOs and phenolic diterpene composition in sage. Therefore, ionic interactions may be carefully considered in the cultivation of this species to get the desired concentrations of these secondary metabolites in leaf extracts. PMID:20846870

Tounekti, Taieb; Munné-Bosch, Sergi; Vadel, A M; Chtara, Chaker; Khemira, Habib

2010-01-01

308

Determination of the biologically active flavour substances thujone and camphor in foods and medicines containing sage (Salvia officinalis L.)  

PubMed Central

Background The sage plant Salvia officinalis L. is used as ingredient in foods and beverages as well as in herbal medicinal products. A major use is in the form of aqueous infusions as sage tea, which is legal to be sold as either food or medicine. Sage may contain two health relevant substances, thujone and camphor. The aim of this study was to develop and validate an analytical methodology to determine these active principles of sage and give a first overview of their concentrations in a wide variety of sage foods and medicines. Results A GC/MS procedure was applied for the analysis of ?- and ?-thujone and camphor with cyclodecanone as internal standard. The precision was between 0.8 and 12.6%, linearity was obtained from 0.1 - 80 mg/L. The recoveries of spiked samples were between 93.7 and 104.0% (average 99.1%). The time of infusion had a considerable influence on the content of analytes found in the teas. During the brewing time, thujone and camphor show an increase up to about 5 min, after which saturation is reached. No effect was found for preparation with or without a lid on the pot used for brewing the infusion. Compared to extracts with ethanol (60% vol), which provide a maximum yield, an average of 30% thujone are recovered in the aqueous tea preparations. The average thujone and camphor contents were 4.4 mg/L and 16.7 mg/L in food tea infusions and 11.3 mg/L and 25.4 mg/L in medicinal tea infusions. Conclusions The developed methodology allows the efficient determination of thujone and camphor in a wide variety of sage food and medicine matrices and can be applied to conduct surveys for exposure assessment. The current results suggest that on average between 3 and 6 cups of sage tea could be daily consumed without reaching toxicological thresholds. PMID:21777420

2011-01-01

309

Feature extraction Feature extraction  

E-print Network

(hyperspectral sensors) Meteosat thermal IR channel hyperspectral "image cube" #12;Raw intensities · ProsFeature extraction #12;Feature extraction · Image interpretation: extract information from images · but the desired information may not be explicit in the raw observed pixel intensities · Transform image to make

Giger, Christine

310

Feature extraction Feature extraction  

E-print Network

(hyperspectral sensors) Meteosat thermal IR channel hyperspectral "image cube" #12;Raw intensities ! � ProsFeature extraction #12;Feature extraction ! � Image interpretation: extract information from images � but the desired information may not be explicit in the raw observed pixel intensities � Transform image to make

Giger, Christine

311

The W-shaped pupil in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis): functions for improving horizontal vision.  

PubMed

The eyes of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) have a modified horizontal slit-pupil with a distinctive W-shape in bright light, while in darkness the pupil is circular. Two suggestions have previously been made for a function of the W-shape: (1) camouflaging the eye; (2) providing distance information. Since neither of these suggestions can fully explain the function of this pupil across the entire visual field, particularly the frontal and caudal periphery, we re-addressed the question of its functional significance. We took infra-red images of the eyes of live S. officinalis at different light intensities and from different viewing angles. This allowed us to determine the shape and light-admitting area of the pupil for different parts of the visual field. Our data show that the W-shaped pupil projects a blurred "W" directly onto the retina and that it effectively operates as vertical slits for the frontal and caudal parts of the visual field. We also took images of the natural habitat of S. officinalis and calculated the average vertical brightness distribution in the visual habitat. Computing a retinal illumination map shows that the W-shaped pupil is effective in balancing a vertically uneven light field: The constricted pupil reduces light from the dorsal part of the visual field significantly more than it reduces light from the horizontal band. This will cut the amount of direct sunlight that is scattered by the lens and ocular media, and thus improve image contrast particularly for the dimmer parts of the scene. We also conclude that the pupil provides even attenuation along the horizontal band, whereas a circular pupil would attenuate the image relatively more in the important frontal and caudal periphery of the visual field. PMID:23474299

Mäthger, Lydia M; Hanlon, Roger T; Håkansson, Jonas; Nilsson, Dan-Eric

2013-05-01

312

Fatty Acid Profiles of the Seed Oils in Two Groups of Anchusa officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total seed oil and fatty acid compositions of two informal groups of Anchusa officinalis L. were studied in order to provide additional information for the delineation of the groups. Major fatty acids were linoleic (C18:2n6), oleic (C18:1n9), ?-linolenic (C18:3n3), ?-linolenic (C18:3n6), palmitic (C16:0) and stearidonic acid (C18:4n3) respectively. The lower levels were observed in stearic (C18:0), eicosenoic (C20:1n9) and erucic

Tamer Özcan

313

A new steroidal saponin from the dried stems of Asparagus officinalis L.  

PubMed

Yamogenin II (1), a new steroidal saponin with a unique aglycone moiety, and (25S)-spirostan-5-ene-3beta-ol-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1,2)-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1,4)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), were isolated from the dried stems of Asparagus officinalis L. The structure of 1 was assessed by spectroscopial analysis as (25S)-spirostan-5-ene-3beta,21-diol-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1,2)-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1,4)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside. PMID:19751809

Sun, Zhouxuan; Huang, Xuefeng; Kong, Lingyi

2010-04-01

314

Steroids from the roots of Asparagus officinalis and their cytotoxic activity.  

PubMed

One new (Sarsasapogenin O) and seven known steroids were isolated from the roots of Asparagus officinalis L. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including various 2D-NMR techniques, hydrolysis, and by comparison of spectral data of known compounds. These compounds together with nine steroids which were previously isolated from this plant, were tested for cytotoxic activity. Among them, eight compounds displayed significant cytotoxicities against human A2780, HO-8910, Eca-109, MGC-803, CNE, LTEP-a-2, KB and mouse L1210 tumor cells. PMID:18713412

Huang, Xue-Feng; Lin, Yu-Ying; Kong, Ling-Yi

2008-06-01

315

Cytoprotective activity of Amla (Emblica officinalis) against chromium (VI) induced oxidative injury in murine macrophages.  

PubMed

The cytoprotective and immunomodulating properties of Emblica officinalis (Amla) against chromium (VI) induced oxidative damage are reported. Chromium (VI) at 1 micro g/mL concentration was highly cytotoxic. It enhanced free radical production and decreased reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in macrophages. The presence of Amla resulted in an enhanced cell survival, decreased free radical production and higher antioxidant levels similar to that of control cells. Further, chromium (VI) treatment resulted in decreased phagocytosis and gamma-interferon (gamma-IFN) production while Amla inhibited chromium induced immunosuppression and restored both phagocytosis and gamma-IFN production by macrophages significantly. PMID:12722158

Sai Ram, M; Neetu, D; Deepti, P; Vandana, M; Ilavazhagan, G; Kumar, Devendra; Selvamurthy, W

2003-04-01

316

Intermittent and Continuous Microwave-Convective Air-Drying Characteristics of Sage ( Salvia officinalis ) Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of microwave-convective air-drying (continuous and intermittent) and convective air-drying of sage (Salvia officinalis) on color and essential oil content were studied. For microwave-convective air-drying, four pulse ratio levels (PR1, PR2,\\u000a PR3, and PR4) at 25 °C drying air temperature were used and the average drying rates were 0.404, 0.158, 0.114, and 0.085 kg\\u000a H2O kg?1 DM min?1 for PR1, PR2,

Okan Esturk

317

Larvicidal activity of some Labiatae (Lamiaceae) plant extracts from Turkey.  

PubMed

Ethanol extracts of the aerial parts from five Labiatae (Lamiaceae) species, obtained from Antalya, Turkey, were tested for larvicidal activity against the house mosquito Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae) under laboratory conditions. Third and fourth instar mortality from six concentrations (5, 10, 25, 50, 100 and 200 ppm) of each plant extract were compared against the organophosphorus insecticide, temephos which is currently used for larval control. All plant extracts showed high larvicidal activity in 24 h exposure tests. Teucrium divaricatum Sieber was the most toxic, followed by Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds., Melissa officinalis L., Salvia sclarea L. and Mentha pulegium L. with LC(50) values of 18.6, 26.8, 39.1, 62.7 and 81.0 ppm, respectively. This study is the first to report on the larvicidal activity of ethanol extracts of these five plant species against C. pipiens. PMID:17009204

Cetin, Huseyin; Cinbilgel, Ilker; Yanikoglu, Atila; Gokceoglu, Mustafa

2006-12-01

318

Chemical compositions and antioxidant properties of essential oils from nine species of Turkish plants obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and steam distillation.  

PubMed

Chemical compositions and antioxidant activities of essential oils from nine different species of Turkish plants, namely Melissa officinalis L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Cuminum cyminum L., Piper nigrum L., Lavandula stoechas spp., Foeniculum vulgare, Pimpinella anisum L., Thymus serpyllum and Liquidamber orientalis Mill., were studied. Essential oils were obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) extraction and steam distillation, and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The antioxidant activities of SCCO2 extraction and steam distillation extracts were tested by means of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Essential oils extracted by SCCO2 and steam distillation showed different compositions in different species. In the DPPH assay, R. officinalis, C. cyminum, P. anisum, T. serpyllum and L. orientalis essential oils obtained by SCCO2 extraction showed higher antioxidant activity than steam distillation extracts, with radical scavenging activities ranging from 87.1 +/- 0.23% to 92.0 +/- 0.34% compared with the butylated hydroxytoluene positive control (91.4 +/- 0.21%). PMID:19382349

Topal, Ummihan; Sasaki, Mitsuru; Goto, Motonobu; Otles, Semih

2008-01-01

319

21 CFR 182.20 - Essential oils, oleoresins (solvent-free), and natural extractives (including distillates).  

...Blanco. Pimenta Pimenta officinalis Lindl. Pimenta leaf Pimenta officinalis Lindl. Pipsissewa leaves Chimaphila umbellata Nutt. Pomegranate Punica granatum L. Prickly ash bark Xanthoxylum (or Zanthoxylum) Americanum...

2014-04-01

320

Morph-ratio variation, population size and female reproductive success in distylous Pulmonaria officinalis (Boraginaceae).  

PubMed

Theory predicts that morph ratios in heterostylous populations are governed by negative frequency-dependent selection typically resulting in equal morph ratios at equilibrium. Previous work on the distylous perennial herb Pulmonaria officinalis, however, showed asymmetric mating between floral morphs and a weak self-incompatibility system, with the long-styled morph (L-morph) producing significantly higher seed set following intramorph crosses and even selfing than the short-styled morph (S-morph), two aspects thought to affect female fecundity and morph-ratio variation. Here, we evaluated morph ratios and population size of all known P. officinalis populations in the northern part of Belgium. Morph ratios deviated significantly from 1:1 (range 0.09-1 L-morph frequency, mean = 0.58). Relative fecundity of the S-morph (i.e. mean seed set of the S-morph/mean seed set of the L-morph) was on average 0.73, was positively related to the frequency of the L-morph, and reached 1 (similar levels of female fecundity) at an average L-morph frequency of 0.66 in the population. As some small populations had the S-morph in majority, our results suggest that local morph ratios are influenced both by the relative fecundity of L- and S-morph individuals and by stochastic processes in small populations. PMID:18631213

Brys, R; Jacquemyn, H; Beeckman, T

2008-09-01

321

Dietary Intake of Curcuma longa and Emblica officinalis Increases Life Span in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Intake of food and nutrition plays a major role in affecting aging process and longevity. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the ageing process are still unclear. To this respect, diet has been considered to be a determinant of ageing process. In order to better illustrate this, we used Drosophila melanogaster as a model and fed them orally with different concentrations of two commonly used Indian medicinal plant products, Curcuma longa (rhizome) and Emblica officinalis (fruit). The results revealed significant increase in life span of Drosophila flies on exposure to both the plant products, more efficiently by C. Longa than by E. officinalis. In order to understand whether the increase in lifespan was due to high-antioxidant properties of these medicinal plants, we performed enzymatic assays to assess the SOD and catalase activities in case of both treated and control Drosophila flies. Interestingly, the results support the free radical theory of aging as both these plant derivatives show high reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activities. PMID:24967413

Rawal, Shilpa; Singh, Pavneet; Gupta, Ayush; Mohanty, Sujata

2014-01-01

322

High diversity of indigenous populations of dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) in essential-oil composition.  

PubMed

Essential oils of 25 indigenous populations of Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) that represent nearly half of native distribution area of the species were analyzed. Plantlets collected from wild populations were grown in the same field under the same environmental conditions and then sampled for essential-oil analysis. The yield of essential oil ranged from 1.93 to 3.70% with average of 2.83%. Among the 62 compounds detected, eight (cis-thujone, camphor, trans-thujone, 1,8-cineole, ?-pinene, camphene, borneol, and bornyl acetate) formed 78.13-87.33% of essential oils of individual populations. Strong positive correlations were observed between camphor and ?-pinene, ?-pinene and borneol, as well as between borneol and bornyl acetate. The strongest negative correlation was detected between camphor and trans-thujone. Principal component analysis (PCA) on the basis of eight main compounds showed that first main component separated populations with high thujone content, from those rich in camphor, while the second component separated populations rich in cis-thujone from those rich in trans-thujone. Cluster analysis (CA) led to the identification of three chemotypes of S. officinalis populations: cis-thujone; trans-tujone, and camphor/?-pinene/borneol/bornyl acetate. We propose that differences in essential oils of 25 populations are mostly genetically controlled, since potential environmental factors were controlled in this study. PMID:23081929

Jug-Dujakovi?, Marija; Risti?, Mihailo; Pljevljakuši?, Dejan; Daji?-Stevanovi?, Zora; Liber, Zlatko; Han?evi?, Katarina; Radi?, Tomislav; Satovi?, Zlatko

2012-10-01

323

Analysis of Transposable Elements in the Genome of Asparagus officinalis from High Coverage Sequence Data  

PubMed Central

Asparagus officinalis is an economically and nutritionally important vegetable crop that is widely cultivated and is used as a model dioecious species to study plant sex determination and sex chromosome evolution. To improve our understanding of its genome composition, especially with respect to transposable elements (TEs), which make up the majority of the genome, we performed Illumina HiSeq2000 sequencing of both male and female asparagus genomes followed by bioinformatics analysis. We generated 17 Gb of sequence (12×coverage) and assembled them into 163,406 scaffolds with a total cumulated length of 400 Mbp, which represent about 30% of asparagus genome. Overall, TEs masked about 53% of the A. officinalis assembly. Majority of the identified TEs belonged to LTR retrotransposons, which constitute about 28% of genomic DNA, with Ty1/copia elements being more diverse and accumulated to higher copy numbers than Ty3/gypsy. Compared with LTR retrotransposons, non-LTR retrotransposons and DNA transposons were relatively rare. In addition, comparison of the abundance of the TE groups between male and female genomes showed that the overall TE composition was highly similar, with only slight differences in the abundance of several TE groups, which is consistent with the relatively recent origin of asparagus sex chromosomes. This study greatly improves our knowledge of the repetitive sequence construction of asparagus, which facilitates the identification of TEs responsible for the early evolution of plant sex chromosomes and is helpful for further studies on this dioecious plant. PMID:24810432

Li, Shu-Fen; Gao, Wu-Jun; Zhao, Xin-Peng; Dong, Tian-Yu; Deng, Chuan-Liang; Lu, Long-Dou

2014-01-01

324

Analysis of transposable elements in the genome of Asparagus officinalis from high coverage sequence data.  

PubMed

Asparagus officinalis is an economically and nutritionally important vegetable crop that is widely cultivated and is used as a model dioecious species to study plant sex determination and sex chromosome evolution. To improve our understanding of its genome composition, especially with respect to transposable elements (TEs), which make up the majority of the genome, we performed Illumina HiSeq2000 sequencing of both male and female asparagus genomes followed by bioinformatics analysis. We generated 17 Gb of sequence (12×coverage) and assembled them into 163,406 scaffolds with a total cumulated length of 400 Mbp, which represent about 30% of asparagus genome. Overall, TEs masked about 53% of the A. officinalis assembly. Majority of the identified TEs belonged to LTR retrotransposons, which constitute about 28% of genomic DNA, with Ty1/copia elements being more diverse and accumulated to higher copy numbers than Ty3/gypsy. Compared with LTR retrotransposons, non-LTR retrotransposons and DNA transposons were relatively rare. In addition, comparison of the abundance of the TE groups between male and female genomes showed that the overall TE composition was highly similar, with only slight differences in the abundance of several TE groups, which is consistent with the relatively recent origin of asparagus sex chromosomes. This study greatly improves our knowledge of the repetitive sequence construction of asparagus, which facilitates the identification of TEs responsible for the early evolution of plant sex chromosomes and is helpful for further studies on this dioecious plant. PMID:24810432

Li, Shu-Fen; Gao, Wu-Jun; Zhao, Xin-Peng; Dong, Tian-Yu; Deng, Chuan-Liang; Lu, Long-Dou

2014-01-01

325

Quantification of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) camouflage: a study of color and luminance using in situ spectrometry.  

PubMed

Cephalopods are renowned for their ability to adaptively camouflage on diverse backgrounds. Sepia officinalis camouflage body patterns have been characterized spectrally in the laboratory but not in the field due to the challenges of dynamic natural light fields and the difficulty of using spectrophotometric instruments underwater. To assess cuttlefish color match in their natural habitats, we studied the spectral properties of S. officinalis and their backgrounds on the Aegean coast of Turkey using point-by-point in situ spectrometry. Fifteen spectrometry datasets were collected from seven cuttlefish; radiance spectra from animal body components and surrounding substrates were measured at depths shallower than 5 m. We quantified luminance and color contrast of cuttlefish components and background substrates in the eyes of hypothetical di- and trichromatic fish predators. Additionally, we converted radiance spectra to sRGB color space to simulate their in situ appearance to a human observer. Within the range of natural colors at our study site, cuttlefish closely matched the substrate spectra in a variety of body patterns. Theoretical calculations showed that this effect might be more pronounced at greater depths. We also showed that a non-biological method ("Spectral Angle Mapper"), commonly used for spectral shape similarity assessment in the field of remote sensing, shows moderate correlation to biological measures of color contrast. This performance is comparable to that of a traditional measure of spectral shape similarity, hue and chroma. This study is among the first to quantify color matching of camouflaged cuttlefish in the wild. PMID:23254307

Akkaynak, Derya; Allen, Justine J; Mäthger, Lydia M; Chiao, Chuan-Chin; Hanlon, Roger T

2013-03-01

326

New protocols to improve the deposition and hatching of Sepia officinalis' eggs.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was the development of hatching protocols in controlled conditions to obtain juveniles, in order to restock and increase the resource of Sepia officinalis. The study was divided into the following phases: development and application of artificial surfaces at specific sites of the Molise coast in Italy; induction of eggs hatching and juveniles maintenance under controlled condition; juveniles introduction into specific sites and assessment their increment; experimental data elaboration. The obtained results concerned both the effectiveness of the artificial surfaces tasted during the study and the importance of the recovery of the eggs laid on artificial surfaces (artefacts and fishing gear) for preservation and the management of the Sepia officinalis resource. The induction tests conducted on eggs hatching under controlled conditions confirmed what described in the extant literature. Water salinity was detected as the only limiting factor, with values ? 20% related to the absence of hatching. The described practices for harvesting and induction of hatching for the production of juvenile cuttlefish may be endorsed by the operators at relatively low cost and throughout the year, with obvious economic benefits. PMID:24362778

Barile, Nadia B; Cappabianca, Sabatino; Antonetti, Luigi; Scopa, Mariaspina; Nerone, Eliana; Mascilongo, Giuseppina; Recchi, Sara; D'Aloise, Antonio

2013-01-01

327

Egg attachment of the asparagus beetle Crioceris asparagi to the crystalline waxy surface of Asparagus officinalis  

PubMed Central

Plant surfaces covered with crystalline epicuticular waxes are known to be anti-adhesive, hardly wettable and preventing insect attachment. But there are insects that are capable of gluing their eggs to these surfaces by means of proteinaceous secretions. In this study, we analysed the bonding region between the eggs of Crioceris asparagi and the plant surface of Asparagus officinalis using light and cryo-scanning electron microscopy. The wettability of the plant surface by egg secretion was compared with that by Aqua Millipore water, aqueous sugar solution and chicken egg white. Furthermore, the force required to remove C. asparagi eggs from the plant surface was measured, in order to evaluate the egg's bonding strength. Mean pull-off force was 14.7 mN, which is about 8650 times higher than the egg weight. Egg glue was observed spreading over the wax crystal arrays on the plant cladophyll and wetting them. Similar wetting behaviour on the A. officinalis surface was observed for chicken egg white. Our results support the hypothesis that the mechanism of insect egg adhesion on micro- and nanostructured hydrophobic plant surfaces is related to the proteinaceous nature of adhesive secretions of insect eggs. The secretion wets superhydrophobic surfaces and after solidifying builds up a composite, consisting of the solidified glue and wax crystals, at the interface between the egg and plant cuticle. PMID:19923132

Voigt, Dagmar; Gorb, Stanislav

2010-01-01

328

Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Stachys officinalis (L.) Trevis. (Lamiaceae).  

PubMed

Characterization by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses of the Stachys officinalis (L.) Trevis. essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of the aerial parts allowed the identification of 190 components that represented 97.9% of the total oil content. The main constituents identified were germacrene D (19.9%), ?-caryophyllene (14.1%), and ?-humulene (7.5%). Terpenoids were by far predominant (89.4%), with sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (69.1%) and oxygenated sesquiterpenes (14.8%) being the most abundant compounds detected in the oil. Based on the present and previously published results, multivariate statistical comparison of the chemical composition of the essential oils was performed within the species. Principal component analysis (PCA) and agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC) of the data on the volatile profiles of S. officinalis taxa revealed no pronounced differences among the samples originated from the Balkan Peninsula. Additionally, the oil was screened for in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activity using the broth microdilution assay. The oil's best antimicrobial activities were obtained against the mold Aspergillus niger (minimal inhibitory (MIC) and minimal fungicidal (MFC) concentrations of 2.5 and 5.0?mg/ml, resp.) and the yeast Candida albicans (MIC and MFC of 5.0?mg/ml). PMID:23847079

Lazarevi?, Jelena S; ?or?evi?, Aleksandra S; Kiti?, Dušanka V; Zlatkovi?, Bojan K; Stojanovi?, Gordana S

2013-07-01

329

A new haemocyanin in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) eggs: sequence analysis and relevance during ontogeny  

PubMed Central

Background Haemocyanin is the respiratory protein of most of the Mollusca. In cephalopods and gastropods at least two distinct isoforms are differentially expressed. However, their physiological purpose is unknown. For the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, three isoforms are known so far, whereas for only two of them the complete mRNA sequences are available. In this study, we sequenced the complete mRNA of the third haemocyanin isoform and measured the relative expression of all three isoforms during embryogenesis to reveal a potential ontogenetic relevance. Results The cDNA of isoform 3 clearly correlates to the known Sepia officinalis haemocyanin subunits consisting of eight functional units and an internal duplicated functional unit d. Our molecular phylogenetic analyses reveal the third isoform representing a potentially ancestral haemocyanin isoform, and the analyses of the expression of haemocyanin type 3 reveal that haemocyanin type 3 only can be observed within eggs and during early development. Isoforms 1 and 2 are absent at these stages. After hatching, isoform 3 is downregulated, and isoform 1 and 2 are upregulated. Conclusions Our study clearly shows an embryonic relevance of the third isoform, which will be further discussed in the light of the changes in the physiological function of haemocyanin during ontogeny. Taken together with the fact that it could also be the isoform closest related to the common ancestor of cuttlefish haemocyanin, the phylogeny of cuttlefish haemocyanin may be recapitulated during its ontogeny. PMID:24499521

2014-01-01

330

Active Monoterpene Ketones Isolated from Rosmarinus officinalis with Fumigant and Contact Action against Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank).  

PubMed

The acaricidal activities of an active material derived from Rosmarinus officinalis oil and its relative monoterpene ketones were determined using fumigant and contact toxicity bioassays against Tyrophagus putrescentiae and were compared with that of a commercial acaricide (benzyl benzoate). The active component of R. officinalis oil, isolated by silica gel column chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography, was identified as camphor, based on various spectroscopic analyses. In the fumigant toxicity bioassay, camphor (2.25 ?g/cm(3)) was 5.58 times more active than benzyl benzoate (12.56 ?g/cm(3)) against T. putrescentiae, followed by (+)-camphor (3.89 ?g/cm(3)) and (-)-camphor (5.61 ?g/cm(3)). In the contact toxicity bioassay, camphor (1.34 ?g/cm(2)) was 6.74 times more toxic than benzyl benzoate (9.03 ?g/cm(2)) against T. putrescentiae, followed by (+)-camphor (2.23 ?g/cm(2)) and (-)-camphor (2.94 ?g/cm(2)). These results indicate that camphor and its derivatives are very useful as potential control agents against stored food mites regardless of the application method. PMID:25198597

Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Park, Jun-Hwan; Chung, Namhyun; Lee, Hoi-Seon

2014-08-01

331

Egg attachment of the asparagus beetle Crioceris asparagi to the crystalline waxy surface of Asparagus officinalis.  

PubMed

Plant surfaces covered with crystalline epicuticular waxes are known to be anti-adhesive, hardly wettable and preventing insect attachment. But there are insects that are capable of gluing their eggs to these surfaces by means of proteinaceous secretions. In this study, we analysed the bonding region between the eggs of Crioceris asparagi and the plant surface of Asparagus officinalis using light and cryo-scanning electron microscopy. The wettability of the plant surface by egg secretion was compared with that by Aqua Millipore water, aqueous sugar solution and chicken egg white. Furthermore, the force required to remove C. asparagi eggs from the plant surface was measured, in order to evaluate the egg's bonding strength. Mean pull-off force was 14.7 mN, which is about 8650 times higher than the egg weight. Egg glue was observed spreading over the wax crystal arrays on the plant cladophyll and wetting them. Similar wetting behaviour on the A. officinalis surface was observed for chicken egg white. Our results support the hypothesis that the mechanism of insect egg adhesion on micro- and nanostructured hydrophobic plant surfaces is related to the proteinaceous nature of adhesive secretions of insect eggs. The secretion wets superhydrophobic surfaces and after solidifying builds up a composite, consisting of the solidified glue and wax crystals, at the interface between the egg and plant cuticle. PMID:19923132

Voigt, Dagmar; Gorb, Stanislav

2010-03-22

332

INFLUÊNCIAS DO ÁCIDO NAFTALENO ACÉTICO E ESCURO E ATIVIDADE DA PEROXIDASE NO ENRAIZAMENTO in vitro DE ASPARGO (Asparagus officinalis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

INFLUENCES OF THE NAPHTHALENEACETIC ACID AND THE DARKNESS ON in vitro ROOTING OF ASPARAGUS (Asparagus officinalis L.) AND PEROXIDASE ACTIVITY. The effect of the naphtaleneacetic acid (NAA) and the darkness on the in vitro rooting of clone M-14 and G27 × M-14 hibrid (cv Deco) of asparagus, as well as the peroxidase activity during rooting, were evaluated. Explants placed on

Luciano AMARANTE

333

Antibacterial activity and anticancer activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil compared to that of its main components.  

PubMed

In this study, Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil and three of its main components 1,8-cineole (27.23%), ?-pinene (19.43%) and ?-pinene (6.71%) were evaluated for their in vitro antibacterial activities and toxicology properties. R. officinalis L. essential oil possessed similar antibacterial activities to ?-pinene, and a little bit better than ?-pinene, while 1,8-cineole possessed the lowest antibacterial activities. R. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited the strongest cytotoxicity towards three human cancer cells. Its inhibition concentration 50% (IC??) values on SK-OV-3, HO-8910 and Bel-7402 were 0.025‰, 0.076‰ and 0.13‰ (v/v), respectively. The cytotoxicity of all the test samples on SK-OV-3 was significantly stronger than on HO-8910 and Bel-7402. In general, R. officinalis L. essential oil showed greater activity than its components in both antibacterial and anticancer test systems, and the activities were mostly related to their concentrations. PMID:22391603

Wang, Wei; Li, Nan; Luo, Meng; Zu, Yuangang; Efferth, Thomas

2012-01-01

334

Effects of auxins and cytokinins on growth and rosmarinic acid formation in cell suspension cultures of Anchusa officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell suspension cultures of Anchusa officinalis required exogenous phytohormones for their normal growth. Cell lysis was observed at the third passage in a hormone-free medium. Using hormone — depleted cells, the effects of auxins (2,4-D, NAA, IAA and CFP) and cytokinins (BA, kinetin, and zeatin) on cell growth and RA production were investigated. All auxins tested could maintain growth and

W. De-Eknamkul; B. E. Ellis

1985-01-01

335

Feeding behaviour of the Columbretes lizard Podarcis atrata, in relation to Isopoda (Crustaceae) species: Ligia italica and Armadillo officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lizard Podarcis atrata, endemic to the Columbretes archipelago (Mediterranean, Spain) occupies very small islands characterized by extreme aridity and a reduced availability of potential insect prey. The results of an experimental study have shown that adult lizards offered individuals of Ligia italica and Armadillo officinalis (marine and terrestrial isopods, respec- tively) consumed at high frequencies ; with males consuming

Aurora M. Castilla; Bieke Vanhooydonck; Alessandro Catenazzi

2008-01-01

336

The effects of crowding on growth of the European cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis Linnaeus, 1758 reared at two temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to examine the impact of crowding (stocking density) on food consumption and growth of juvenile Sepia officinalis reared at 17 and 25 °C. Two groups of 75 cuttlefish each were reared in closed seawater systems with water temperatures of 17 and 25 °C. Each group was subdivided into two treatments (three replicates per treatment):

John Forsythe; Phillip Lee; Leigh Walsh; Tara Clark

2002-01-01

337

Physical, chemical, histological and microbiological changes in fresh green asparagus ( Asparagus officinalis, L.) stored in modified atmosphere packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) has been used to increase the shelf life of the green asparagus (Asparagus officinalis, L.), meeting the market demand for fresh high quality products available annually and without the use of additives whenever possible.Green asparagus spears were stored under three different conditions until they were not fit for consumption: refrigeration at 2 °C, MAP at 2

M. J. Villanueva; M. D. Tenorio; M. Sagardoy; A. Redondo; M. D. Saco

2005-01-01

338

Effects of sugar concentration and strength of basal medium on conversion of somatic embryos in Asparagus officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of sugar concentration and strength of basal medium were studied to produce plants from somatic embryos in Asparagus officinalis L. There was a significant difference among concentrations of sugar but not among kinds of sugar tested in the present experiment in growth of shoots and roots. When the sucrose concentrations were 10, 30, or 50gl?1, the fresh weight

Kanji Mamiya; Yuji Sakamoto

2000-01-01

339

Development of male and female flower in Asparagus officinalis. Search for point of transition from hermaphroditic to unisexual developmental pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asparagus officinalis is a dioecious plant. The flowers start to develop as hermaphrodites and later become unisexual. In female flowers the stamens degenerate, while in male flowers the ovary stops growing without degenerating. We have examined young asparagus flowers using SEM and optical microscopy in order to determine the exact moment of transition from hermaphroditic to unisexual development. We defined

E. Caporali; A. Carboni; M. G. Galli; G. Rossi; A. Spada; G. P. Marziani Longo

1994-01-01

340

Effect of Hyssopus officinalis L. on inhibiting airway inflammation and immune regulation in a chronic asthmatic mouse model  

PubMed Central

The Uygur herb, Hyssopus officinalis L., has been demonstrated to affect the levels of a number of cytokines in asthmatic mice, including interleukin-4, -6 and -17 and interferon-?. In the present study, the effect of Hyssopus officinalis L. on airway immune regulation and airway inflammation was investigated in a mouse model of chronic asthma. A total of 32 BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups, which included the normal, chronic asthmatic, dexamethasone treatment and Hyssopus officinalis L.treatment groups. Mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin to establish an asthma model and the ratio of eosinophils (EOS) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was determined. In addition, the levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)E and IgG were detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The degree of airway mucus secretion was observed using the periodic acid-Schiff stain method. The results demonstrated that the ratio of EOS in the BALF and the level of serum IgE in the chronic asthmatic and dexamethasone treatment groups increased, while the level of serum IgG decreased, when compared with the normal group. In addition, excessive secretion of airway mucus was observed in these two groups. However, the EOS ratio in the BALF and the levels of serum IgE and IgG in the Hyssopus officinalis L. treatment group were similar to the results observed in the normal group. In conclusion, Hyssopus officinalis L. not only plays an anti-inflammatory role by inhibiting the invasion of EOS and decreasing the levels of IgE, but also affects immune regulation. PMID:25289025

MA, XIAOJUAN; MA, XIUMIN; MA, ZHIXING; WANG, JING; SUN, ZHAN; YU, WENYAN; LI, FENGSEN; DING, JIANBING

2014-01-01

341

[Immunostimulating action of polysaccharides (heteroglycans) from higher plants].  

PubMed

From the water or alcaline-water extracts of Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench. and -angustifolia DC., Eupatorium cannabium L. and -perfoliatum L., Chamomilla recutita L. Rauscher, Calendula officinalis L., Baptisia tinctoria (L.) R. B., Achyrocline satureioides DC., Arnica montana L., Sabal serrulata Roem. et Schult., and Eleutherococcus (Acanthopanax) senticosus Maxim. polysaccharide fractions with molecular weights in the range of 25 000 to 500 000 and higher have been isolated, which, according to the granulocytes- and carbon clearance tests, showed significant immunostimulating activities. The isolated compounds belong to the group of watersoluble, acidic branched-chain heteroglycans. Their immunostimulating activity is compared and discussed with respect to other polysaccharides of biological activity. PMID:4052142

Wagner, H; Proksch, A; Riess-Maurer, I; Vollmar, A; Odenthal, S; Stuppner, H; Jurcic, K; Le Turdu, M; Fang, J N

1985-01-01

342

[Immunostimulant action of polysaccharides (heteroglycans) from higher plants. Preliminary communication].  

PubMed

From the water or alcaline-water extracts of Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench and -angustifolia DC., Eupatorium cannabinum L. and -perfoliatum L., Chamomilla recutita (L.) (Rauscher), Calendula officinalis L., Baptisia tinctoria (L.) R.B., Achyrocline satureoides DC., Arnica montana L., Sabal serrulata Roem et Schult. and Eleutherococcus senticosus Maxim. polysaccharide fractions with molecular weights in the range of 25 000 to 500 000 and higher have been isolated, which, according to the granulocytes- and carbon clearance tests, showed significant immunostimulating activities. The isolated compounds belong to the group of water-soluble, acidic heteroglycanes. The linkages in the different polysaccharides do not represent a uniform structure type. PMID:6541484

Wagner, H; Proksch, A; Riess-Maurer, I; Vollmar, A; Odenthal, S; Stuppner, H; Jurcic, K; Le Turdu, M; Heur, Y H

1984-01-01

343

In Vitro efficacy of antimicrobial extracts against the atypical ruminant pathogen Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri  

PubMed Central

Background Mycoplasmosis is a common infection in human and veterinary medicine, and is associated with chronic inflammation and high morbidity. Mycoplasma species are often intrinsically resistant to many conventional antimicrobial therapies, and the resistance patterns of pathogenic mycoplasmas to commonly used medicinal (antimicrobial) plant extracts are currently unknown. Methods Aqueous extracts, ethanol extracts, or oils of the targeted plant species and colloidal silver were prepared or purchased. Activity against the wall-less bacterial pathogen Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri was determined and compared to activities measured against Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by broth microdilution assays. The lethal or inhibitory nature of each extract was determined by subculture into neat growth medium. Results Growth of M. mycoides capri, E. coli, and B. subtilis was inhibited by elderberry extract, oregano oil, ethanol extract of oregano leaves, and ethanol extract of goldenseal root. No inhibition was seen with aqueous extract of astragalus or calendula oil. Growth of M. mycoides capri and B. subtilis was inhibited by ethanol extract of astragalus, whereas growth of E. coli was not. Similarly, M. mycoides capri and E. coli were inhibited by aqueous extract of thyme, but B. subtilis was unaffected. Only B. subtilis was inhibited by colloidal silver. Measured MICs ranged from 0.0003 mg/mL to 3.8 mg/mL. Bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects differed by species and extract. Conclusions The atypical pathogen M. mycoides capri was sensitive to extracts from many medicinal plants commonly used as antimicrobials in states of preparation and concentrations currently available for purchase in the United States and Europe. Variation in bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities between species and extracts indicates that multiple effecter compounds are present in these plant species. PMID:23031072

2012-01-01

344

Comparative evaluation of Melissa officinalis L., Tilia europaea L., Passiflora edulis Sims. and Hypericum perforatum L. in the elevated plus maze anxiety test.  

PubMed

There are numerous plants that have been used for their 'tranquillising' properties in Portuguese folk medicine. This report will describe a comparative analysis of the effects of Melissa officinalis L., Tilia europaea L., Passiflora edulis Sims. and Hypericum perforatum L. on the performance of mice in the elevated plus maze, open-field, and horizontal-wire tests. We have tested lyophilised aqueous extracts with doses ranging from 5-100 mg/kg prepared according to traditional folk medicine. The results indicate that Hypericum perforatum L. and Tilia europaea L. induced significant raise in immobility time, diminution of rearing and other parameters, suggesting a clear sedative effect at doses ranging from 10-100 mg/kg. Below these doses, Tilia europaea L. did not induce any significant change in the tests mentioned, while Hypericum perforatum L. (5 mg/kg) increased the time spent in the open areas of the elevated plus maze and the percentage of unprotected head-dips and stretch-approach postures, thus indicating an anxiolytic effect. For this dose, there were no significant changes in motor activity as measured by classical parameters for the tests used. As the infused H. perforatum L. tested was devoid of hyperforin, it can be stated that the observed effects cannot be attributed to this substance. PMID:11518069

Coleta, M; Campos, M G; Cotrim, M D; Proença da Cunha, A

2001-07-01

345

Green asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) prevented hypertension by an inhibitory effect on angiotensin-converting enzyme activity in the kidney of spontaneously hypertensive rats.  

PubMed

Green asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is known to be rich in functional components. In the present study, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were used to clarify whether green asparagus prevents hypertension by inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity. Six-week-old male SHR were fed a diet with (AD group) or without (ND group) 5% asparagus for 10 weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) (AD: 159 ± 4.8 mmHg, ND: 192 ± 14.7 mmHg), urinary protein excretion/creatinine excretion, and ACE activity in the kidney were significantly lower in the AD group compared with the ND group. Creatinine clearance was significantly higher in the AD group compared with the ND group. In addition, ACE inhibitory activity was observed in a boiling water extract of asparagus. The ACE inhibitor purified and isolated from asparagus was identified as 2?-hydroxynicotianamine. In conclusion, 2?-hydroxynicotianamine in asparagus may be one of the factors inhibiting ACE activity in the kidney, thus preventing hypertension and preserving renal function. PMID:23647085

Sanae, Matsuda; Yasuo, Aoyagi

2013-06-12

346

Transport of a GABAA receptor modulator and its derivatives from Valeriana officinalis L. s. l. across an in vitro cell culture model of the blood-brain barrier.  

PubMed

The roots and rhizome of Valeriana officinalis L . s. l. are therapeutically used for their sedative and sleep-enhancing effects. Some of the active compounds found in commonly used extracts are the sesquiterpenic acids, especially valerenic acid, which was recently identified as a GABA (A) receptor modulator. To interact with this receptor in the brain, substances such as valerenic acid and its derivatives acetoxyvalerenic acid and hydroxyvalerenic acid have to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The aim of our study was to obtain BBB permeability data of these compounds for the first time and to elucidate possible transport pathways across our BBB in vitro model. Transport of valerenic acid, acetoxyvalerenic acid and hydroxyvalerenic acid was compared with the permeability of the GABA (A) modulator diazepam, which is known to penetrate into the central nervous system transcellularly by passive diffusion. Experiments were carried out with an established Transwell in vitro model based on the human cell line ECV304. Results indicated clearly that all three acids permeated significantly slower than diazepam. The ranking was confirmed in group studies as well as in single-substance studies after normalization to diazepam. Valerenic acid (1.06 +/- 0.29 microm/min, factor 0.03 related to diazepam) was the slowest to permeate in the group study, followed by hydroxyvalerenic acid (2.72 +/- 0.63 microm/min, factor 0.07 related to diazepam) and acetoxyvalerenic acid (3.54 +/- 0.58 microm/min, factor 0.09 related to diazepam). To elucidate the contribution of the paracellular transport, studies were performed at different tightness status of the cell layers reflected by different transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) values. Results showed an exponential correlation between transport and TEER for all three acids, whereas diazepam permeated TEER independently. In summary, it is hypothesized that the investigated compounds from Valeriana officinalis L. S. L. can probably only pass through the BBB by a still unknown transport system and not transcellularly by passive diffusion. PMID:18704879

Neuhaus, Winfried; Trauner, Gabriele; Gruber, Daniela; Oelzant, Silvester; Klepal, Waltraud; Kopp, Brigitte; Noe, Christian R

2008-09-01

347

Method for removing essential oils and antioxidants from extract products of lamiaceae species using rolled film evaporation  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An increase in specific antioxidant activity of extracts from rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis) is obtained by the use of a blend of tetrafluoroethane and an organic solvent in the extraction process. A blend of tetrafluoroethane, acetone and methanol improves total yield. A tetrafluoroethane and acetone blend has higher efficacy but comparatively lower yields. The methods yield a liquid and oily antioxidant extract that is readily mixed with a liquid product such as soybean oil for addition to animal feeds and human food. The methods simultaneously yield pharmaceutical-grade essential oils in high yields.

2002-09-17

348

Formation and development of embryo and endosperm in intra- and inter-specific crosses of Asparagus officinalis and A. densiflorus cv. Sprengeri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Garden asparagus, Asparagus officinalis L. (2n=2x=20) is reproductively isolated from the related ornamental species Asparagus densiflorus (Kunth) Jessop cv. Sprengeri (2n=6x=60) by incompatibility barriers at the pollen–stigma and pollen–style levels, plus stronger post-stylar barriers, which have not been described, in pollen–pistil-compatible genotypes. To study the latter, intra- and inter-specific crosses were made using 25 plants of A. officinalis and 29

O. N Marcellán; E. L Camadro

1999-01-01

349

Hydrological modification, saltwater intrusion, and tree water use of a Pterocarpus officinalis swamp in Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tidal freshwater forested wetlands occupy a narrow ecological space determined by the balance between saltwater and freshwater inputs to the system. However, this balance is not well understood. In the Caribbean, tidal freshwater-forested wetlands dominated by Pterocarpus officinalis are vulnerable to changes in tidal influence and freshwater inputs. In this setting, the seasonal interactions of saltwater and freshwater inputs create less than ideal conditions for these forests to survive. Hence, it is crucial to have a better understanding of the hydrologic context of these and other tidal freshwater forested wetlands. We examined the extent of tidal forcing and saltwater influence in the largest Pterocarpus swamp of Puerto Rico by installing automated water level and conductivity recorders across a tidal creek transect at four different distances from the ocean, and by using water stable isotopes ratios (?D, ?18O) as natural tracers to determine the most important freshwater sources for tree transpiration. Records of water level and salinity revealed that the amount of rainfall was most influential on saltwater wedge migration in the creek for locations at the front and back of the tidal network, but that tidal dynamics were most influential at the middle section of the tidal network. Saltwater intrusion into the deepest parts of the tidal network was most prominent during sustained dry periods. Isotopic ratios of the surface water samples in the forest revealed that most of the water there was derived from freshwater runoff, but there was a seasonal change in its relative contribution to the forest hydrology. During the dry season, high ? values suggested the presence of runoff-derived water that had undergone evaporation, and saline influences were found in locations where past deforestation created preferential pathways for this water. During both seasons, ? 18O values of groundwater revealed the influence of saline water at depths 60 cm and greater near the adjacent tidal creek. Nonetheless, 18O-enriched stem water and low d-excess values suggested that Pterocarpus officinalis relies primarily on water accessed from unsaturated soil mounds that surround the tree and that are subject to evaporation, as opposed to groundwater at depth. This observation provides further insight to the adaptation mechanisms of Pterocarpus officinalis to survive in flooded ecosystems. In summary, our work demonstrates that for preventing saltwater intrusion, the amount of rainfall and freshwater inflow is more important than the sea level or the existence of an overland hydrological connection to the ocean.

Colón-Rivera, Ricardo J.; Feagin, Rusty A.; West, Jason B.; López, Natalia B.; Benítez-Joubert, Rafael J.

2014-06-01

350

Effects of macronutrients on growth and rosmarinic acid formation in cell suspension cultures of Anchusa officinalis.  

PubMed

The influence of various macronutrients on growth and RA formation in cell suspension cultures of Anchusa officinalis has been investigated. Factors tested included sucrose concentration, alternate carbon sources, nitrate, phosphate and calcium concentration. The optimum concentration of sucrose was 3%. Fructose, glucose or their 1:1 mixture were also suitable carbon sources. The optimum concentrations of nitrate (15 mM), phosphate (3 mM) and calcium (0.25 mM) were, respectively, 3/5, 3x, and 1/4 those in normal B5 medium, when tested separately. These concentrations improved not only the yield of RA but also cell growth to a similar degree (10%-50%). Studies on the combined effects of these optimum macronutrient concentrations in B5 medium showed that RA production is inhibited by 2,4-D-containing revised medium but stimulated by NAA-containing revised medium. PMID:24253681

De-Eknamkul, W; Ellis, B E

1985-04-01

351

Purification and characterization of prephenate aminotransferase from Anchusa officinalis cell cultures.  

PubMed

Prephenate aminotransferase (PAT) from rosmarinic acid-producing cell cultures of Anchusa officinalis has been purified to apparent electrophoretic homogeneity using a combination of high-performance anion-exchange, chromatofocusing, and gel filtration chromatography. The purified enzyme has a native molecular weight of 220,000 and subunit molecular weights of 44,000 and 57,000, indicating a possible alpha 2 beta 2 subunit structure. The purified PAT displays high affinity for prephenate (Km = 80 microM) but could also utilize other aromatic alpha-keto acids at less than 20% the rate with prephenate. L-Aspartate (Km = 80 microM) is about three times as effective as L-glutamate as amino-donor substrate. Anchusa PAT is not subject to feedback inhibition from L-phenylalanine or tyrosine, but its activity is affected by a rosmarinic acid metabolite, 3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid. PMID:3196038

De-Eknamkul, W; Ellis, B E

1988-11-15

352

Root colonization by symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increases sesquiterpenic acid concentrations in Valeriana officinalis L.  

PubMed

In some medicinal plants a specific plant-fungus association, known as arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, increases the levels of secondary plant metabolites and/or plant growth. In this study, the effects of three different AM treatments on biomass and sesquiterpenic acid concentrations in two IN VITRO propagated genotypes of valerian ( VALERIANA OFFICINALIS L., Valerianaceae) were investigated. Valerenic, acetoxyvalerenic and hydroxyvalerenic acid levels were analyzed in the rhizome and in two root fractions. Two of the AM treatments significantly increased the levels of sesquiterpenic acids in the underground parts of valerian. These treatments, however, influenced the biomass of rhizomes and roots negatively. Therefore this observed increase was not accompanied by an increase in yield of sesquiterpenic acids per plant. Furthermore, one of the two genotypes had remarkably high hydroxyvalerenic acid contents and can be regarded as a hydroxyvalerenic acid chemotype. PMID:19809971

Nell, Monika; Wawrosch, Christoph; Steinkellner, Siegrid; Vierheilig, Horst; Kopp, Brigitte; Lössl, Andreas; Franz, Chlodwig; Novak, Johannes; Zitterl-Eglseer, Karin

2010-03-01

353

Relationship of Camphor Biosynthesis to Leaf Development in Sage (Salvia officinalis) 12  

PubMed Central

The camphor content of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leaves increases as the leaves expand, and the increase is roughly proportional to the number of filled peltate oil glands which appear on the leaf surface during the expansion process. 14CO2 is more rapidly incorporated into camphor and its direct progenitors in expanding leaves than in mature leaves, and direct in vitro measurement of the key enzymes involved in the conversion of geranyl pyrophosphate to camphor indicates that these enzymes, including the probable rate-limiting cyclization step, are at the highest levels during the period of maximum leaf expansion. These results clearly demonstrate that immature sage leaves synthesize and accumulate camphor most rapidly. Images PMID:16661761

Croteau, Rodney; Felton, Mark; Karp, Frank; Kjonaas, Robert

1981-01-01

354

[Cloning and analyzing of the female-specific marker in the dioecious species Asparagus officinalis L].  

PubMed

Sex-linked molecular markers are being obtained, which would be essential to be used in the screening of different sex of dioecious plants at the seedling stage. Furthermore, it is important in cloning the gene related to the sex. In this study the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was employed with the objective to find markers linked to sex determination in Asparagus. A total of 100 primers were tested with the same PCR cycling procedure. A female-associated fragment with a length of about 867bp was generated with S12 primer. The fragment was cloned and sequenced, showing it is abundant in AT and contains 2 shorter open reading frames. In order to convert the RAPD marker into SCAR (sequence characterized amplified regions) marker, 24bp specific primers were constructed and used for PCR amplifying. The female-linked dominant SCAR marker was obtained, which would be efficient to identify the different sex of Asparagus officinalis L. PMID:16944605

Lu, Long Dou; Li, Rui Li; Gao, Wu Jun; Deng, Chuan Liang; Wang, Lian Jun

2006-06-01

355

Modulation of acute cadmium toxicity by Emblica officinalis fruit in rat.  

PubMed

The efficacy of Emblica officinalis in modifying the acute cytotoxicity of cadmium in male rats was evaluated. Oral administration of Emblica fruit juice (500 mg/kg, b.w.) for 8 days followed by a single toxic dose of Cd as CdCl2 (3 mg/kg,b.w. ip), considerably reduced the mortality in rats as well as prevented to some extent the cadmium induced histopathological damage in testis, liver and kidneys. Biochemical investigation also revealed reduced levels of Cd induced serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase and gamma glutamyltranspeptidase. The enhanced levels of Cd and lipid peroxidation in liver, kidney, and testes and metallothionein and total sulphydryl in liver and kidney by Cd were significantly reduced by Emblica pretreatment. These results suggest cytoprotective potential of Emblica fruit in acute cadmium toxicity which could be due to its multiple role in biological system. PMID:12622203

Khandelwal, S; Shukla, L J; Shanker, R

2002-05-01

356

The crystal structure of saporin SO6 from Saponaria officinalis and its interaction with the ribosome.  

PubMed

The 2.0 A resolution crystal structure of the ribosome inactivating protein saporin (isoform 6) from seeds of Saponaria officinalis is presented. The fold typical of other plant toxins is conserved, despite some differences in the loop regions. The loop between strands beta7 and beta8 in the C-terminal region which spans over the active site cleft appears shorter in saporin, suggesting an easier access to the substrate. Furthermore we investigated the molecular interaction between saporin and the yeast ribosome by differential chemical modifications. A contact surface inside the C-terminal region of saporin has been identified. Structural comparison between saporin and other ribosome inactivating proteins reveals that this region is conserved and represents a peculiar motif involved in ribosome recognition. PMID:10745075

Savino, C; Federici, L; Ippoliti, R; Lendaro, E; Tsernoglou, D

2000-03-31

357

Saponaria officinalis karyology and karyotype by means of image analyzer and atomic force microscopy.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to offer a contribution to the characterization of taxonomic entity of Saponaria officinalis (2n = 28; an herbaceous perennial species; saporin, a type 1 Ribosome Inactivating Protein, is present in leaves and seeds) by a cytogenetic and karyomorphological approach. We investigated the karyotype's morphometry correlated with Stebbin's symmetric index; the same information has been used for computing the indices resemblance between chromosomes (REC), symmetric indices (SYI), and total form (TF%) which allow the comparison between species and evaluation of karyological evolution. Fluorescence intensities of the stained nuclei were measured by a flow cytometer and, for the first time, values for nuclear DNA content were estimated by comparing nuclei fluorescence intensities of the test population with those of appropriate internal DNA standards. Our study is also aimed to introduce chromosomal volumes, which were determined by atomic force microscopy (AFM), as novel karyomorphological parameter which could allow for chromosome discrimination especially when tiny ones are present. PMID:18618603

Di Bucchianico, S; Venora, G; Lucretti, S; Limongi, T; Palladino, L; Poma, A

2008-10-01

358

Histological study of some Echium vulgare, Pulmonaria officinalis and Symphytum officinale populations.  

PubMed

Plants living in different ecological habitats can show significant variability in their histological and phytochemical characters. The main histological features of various populations of three medicinal plants from the Boraginaceae family were studied. Stems, petioles and leaves were investigated by light microscopy in vertical and transverse sections. The outline of the epidermal cells, as well as the shape and cell number of trichomes was studied in leaf surface casts. Differences were measured among the populations of Echium vulgare in the width and height of epidermis cells in the stem, petiole and leaf, as well as in the size of palisade cells in the leaves. Among the populations of Pulmonaria officinalis significant differences were found in the length of trichomes and in the slightly or strongly wavy outline of epidermal radial cell walls. Populations of Symphytum officinale showed variance in the height of epidermal cells in leaves and stems, length of palisade cells and number of intercellular spaces in leaves, and the size of the central cavity in the stem. Boraginaceae bristles were found to be longer in plants in windy/shady habitats as opposed to sunny habitats, both in the leaves and stems ofP. officinalis and S. officinale, which might be connected to varying levels of exposure to wind. Longer epidermal cells were detected in the leaves and stems of both E. vulgare and S. officinale plants living in shady habitats, compared with shorter cells in sunny habitats. Leaf mesophyll cells were shorter in shady habitats as opposed to longer cells in sunny habitats, both in E. vulgare and S. officinale. This combination of histological characters may contribute to the plant's adaptation to various amounts of sunshine. The reported data prove the polymorphism of the studied taxa, as well as their ability to adapt to various ecological circumstances. PMID:22164787

Papp, Nóra; Bencsik, Tímea; Németh, Kitti; Gyergyák, Kinga; Sulc, Alexandra; Farkas, Agnes

2011-10-01

359

Photoprotective implications of leaf variegation in E. dens-canis L. and P. officinalis L.  

PubMed

Variegated leaves occur rarely in nature, but there are some species, primarily in the forest understory, that possess this characteristic. We recently studied two variegated plants: Erytronium dens-canis L., which is characterised by a pattern of red patches and Pulmonaria officinalis L., with light green spots. These non-green areas could attenuate light reaching mesophyll cells with respect to green sections. The aim of the study was to verify whether such red and light green parts are more photoprotected than green ones and if this trait could be of adaptive value. Red patches in E. dens-canis were due to a single layer of red cells in the upper parenchyma, which accumulated anthocyanins. Light green spots in P. officinalis were caused by the presence of loosely arranged cells instead of a well-established layer of packed cells in the palisade parenchyma. Chlorophyll fluorescence imaging was performed under light treatment, showing a greater decrease of photochemical efficiency in red and light green patches than in green sections. Differences in the extent of photochemical efficiency among patches were not attributable to different activation of the xanthophyll cycle. These observations failed to confirm our initial hypothesis, but they questioned the physiological reason for this higher sensitivity in red and light green patches of photosynthetic tissues. Chlorophyll fluorescence imaging was therefore performed in the field. The same pattern of photochemical efficiency was maintained only in E. dens-canis. The current results demonstrate that in both species the benefits of variegation, if any, are different from enhanced photosynthetic performance. PMID:18180073

Esteban, Raquel; Fernández-Marín, Beatriz; Becerril, José María; García-Plazaola, José Ignacio

2008-08-25

360

Effect of Rosemarinus officinalis L. on MMP-9, MCP-1 levels, and cell migration in RAW 264.7 and smooth muscle cells.  

PubMed

Atherosclerosis is a chronic and progressive inflammatory disease. Novel anti-inflammatory therapies may have promise as treatment strategies for cardiovascular risk reduction. Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis L.) has been used in folk medicine to treat headaches, epilepsy, poor circulation, and many other ailments. It was found that rosemary could act as a stimulant and mild analgesic and could reduce inflammation. However, the mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory and antiatherosclerotic effects of rosemary need more study. This study investigated effects of the rosemary components, carnosic acid (CA), and carnosol (CAR), on cell migration. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) were determined by Western blot and gelatin zymography, respectively, in RAW 264.7 macrophages and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). VSMC migration was assessed by a Matrigel migration assay. Active compounds of rosemary extracts were also analyzed using a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. MMP-9 and MCP-1 activities were markedly diminished with methanol extract (RM), n-hexane fraction (RH), and CA in RAW 264.7 cells. RM, RH, CA, and CAR suppressed tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced VSMC migration by inhibiting MMP-9 expression. Chromatograms of RM- and RH-containing CA and CAR revealed higher CA contents of RM (9.4%, 93.85??g/mg dry wt.) and, especially, RH (18.4%, 184.00??g/mg dry wt.), which were appreciably elevated compared with the similar CAR content in RM and RH (3.7%, 37.30??g/mg dry wt.; and 2.5%, 25.05??g/mg dry wt., respectively). Rosemary, especially its CA component, has potential antiatherosclerosis effects related to cell migration. PMID:22985398

Chae, In Gyeong; Yu, Mi Hee; Im, Nam-Kyung; Jung, Young Tae; Lee, Jinho; Chun, Kyung-Soo; Lee, In-Seon

2012-10-01

361

Flavonoid distribution during the development of leaves, flowers, stems, and roots of Rosmarinus officinalis. postulation of a biosynthetic pathway.  

PubMed

The distribution of seven flavonoids, eriocitrin, luteolin 3'-O-beta-d-glucuronide, hesperidin, diosmin, isoscutellarein 7-O-glucoside, hispidulin 7-O-glucoside, and genkwanin, has been studied in Rosmarinus officinalis leaves, flowers, stems, and roots during plant growth. The maximum level reached by luteolin 3'-O-beta-d-glucuronide in leaves during June-August suggests the existence of a delay between the activation of the enzymes involved in the flavanone and flavone biosynthesis. The presence of hesperidin and diosmin in the vascular system is significant, and hesperidin shows even higher levels than the phenolic diterpenes and rosmarinic acid. The distribution of flavonoids observed in R. officinalis suggests a functional and structural relationship between phytoregulators and flavonoids, where flavonoids would be "protectors" of the activity of phytoregulators. A hypothesis for the general pathway of biosynthesis of these compounds in plants of the family Labiatae is proposed. PMID:15291464

del Baño, María José; Lorente, Juan; Castillo, Julián; Benavente-García, Obdulio; Marín, María Piedad; Del Río, José Antonio; Ortuño, Ana; Ibarra, Isidro

2004-08-11

362

Gamma-linolenic acid enrichment from Borago officinalis and Echium fastuosum seed oils and fatty acids by low temperature crystallization.  

PubMed

Solvent winterization of seed oil and free fatty acids (FFAs) was employed to obtain gamma-linolenic acid (GLA; 18:3omega6) concentrates from seed oils of two Boraginaceae species, Echium fastuosum and Borago officinalis. Different solutions of seed oils and FFAs from these two oils at 10%, 20% and 40% (w/w) were crystallized at 4 degrees C, -24 degrees C and -70 degrees C, respectively, using hexane, acetone, diethyl ether, isobutanol and ethanol as solvents. Best results were obtained for B. officinalis FFAs in hexane, reaching a maximum GLA concentration of 58.8% in the liquid fraction (LF). In E. fastuosum, the highest GLA concentration (39.9%) was also achieved with FFAs in hexane. PMID:16233632

López-Martínez, Juan Carlos; Campra-Madrid, Pablo; Guil-Guerrero, José Luis

2004-01-01

363

Effects of IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3 on Rooting and Morphological Features of Melissa officinalis L. Stem Cuttings  

PubMed Central

This study analyzed the potential of producing Melissa officinalis L. using stem cuttings. Four different hormones (IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3) were applied to the cuttings, with and without buds, in two doses (1000?mg/L and 5000?mg/L), and after 60 days, 10 morphological characteristics of newly generated plants were detected, and a statistical analysis was carried out. The results of the study show that the cuttings with at least one bud must be used in order to produce M. officinalis using stem cuttings. Even though the auxin group hormones (IAA, IBA, and NAA) do not have an apparent effect on rooting percentage, these hormones were detected to affect the morphological characteristics of the newly generated plants, especially root generation. GA3 application has a considerable effect on stem height. PMID:23818834

Guney, Kerim

2013-01-01

364

Somatic embryogenesis and in vitro rosmarinic acid accumulation in Salvia officinalis and S. fruticosa leaf callus cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of explant age, plant growth regulators and culture conditions on somatic embryogenesis and rosmarinic acid production\\u000a from leaf explants of Salvia officinalis and S. fruticosa plants collected in Greece was investigated. Embryogenic callus with numerous spherical somatic embryos could be induced\\u000a on explants derived from both species and cultured for 3 weeks on a Murashige and Skoog (MS)

S. Kintzios; A. Nikolaou; M. Skoula

1999-01-01

365

Production of rosmarinic acid in high density perfusion cultures of Anchusa officinalis using a high sugar medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The most direct approach to enhancing the volumetric yield of secondary metabolites in plant tissue cultures is to operate the culture under high cell density. In this study, a cell suspension ofAnchusa officinalis was cultivated using a semi-continuous perfusion technique, i.e. batch cultivation with intermittent medium exchange. Using a perfusion medium containing sucrose concentration which was two times that

Wei-Wen Su; Arthur E. Humphrey

1990-01-01

366

Changes in fatty acid and essential oil composition of sage ( Salvia officinalis L.) leaves under NaCl stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatty acids and essential oils from hydroponically cultivated Salvia officinalis leaves were analyzed by GC and GC–MS. Four different levels of NaCl (25, 50, 75 and 100mM) were applied. The first results showed that salt treatment reduced significantly the plant growth by 61% and the total fatty acids (TFA) content by 32% at 100mM NaCl. Alpha-linolenic, gadoleic, palmitic and oleic

Mouna Ben Taarit; Kamel Msaada; Karim Hosni; Brahim Marzouk

2010-01-01

367

Agrobacterium -mediated transformation of Asparagus officinalis L. long-term embryogenic callus and regeneration of transgenic plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-three independent kanamycin resistant lines were obtained after cocultivation of longterm embryogenic cultures of three Asparagus officinalis L. genotypes with an Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain harboring ß-glucuronidase and neomycin phosphotransferase II genes. All the lines showed ß-glucuronidase activity by histological staining. DNA analysis by Southern blots of the kanamycin resistant embryogenic lines and of a plant regenerated from one of them

Bruno Delbreil; Philippe Guerche; M. Jullien

1993-01-01

368

The MADS box gene AOM1 is expressed in reproductive meristems and flowers of the dioecious species Asparagus officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

MADS box genes are implicated in different steps of plant development. Some of them are expressed in vegetative organs. Most\\u000a of them, however, are expressed in flower tissues and are involved in different phases of flower development. Here we describe\\u000a the isolation and characterization of an Asparagus officinalis MADS box gene, AOM1. The deduced AOM1 protein shows the highest degree

Elisabetta Caporali; Alberto Spada; Alessia Losa; Giovanna Marziani

2000-01-01

369

Egg capsule secretion in invertebrates: a new ovarian regulatory peptide identified by mass spectrometry comparative screening in Sepia officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass spectrometry comparative screening was used to identify ovarian regulatory peptides involved in the successive steps of egg-laying in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. The peptide content of full-grown oocytes (FGO) was compared with that of oocyte-conditioned medium, which resulted in the detection of peptides that were present in both samples. These peptides, which are suspected of being released by the

Jean Gagnon; Joël Henry

2004-01-01

370

Characterization of a novel Sepia officinalis neuropeptide using MALDI-TOF MS and post-source decay analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel neuropeptide acting as a myosuppressor on esophagus, funnel and mantle muscular fibers has been isolated from the stellar ganglia of the mollusk cephalopod Sepia officinalis by means of HPLC analysis. Fractions were monitored using a myotropic bioassay. After three separation steps, MALDI-TOF spectrum revealed one main peak at m\\/z 756.6. The partial N-terminal and C-terminal digestions by exopeptidases

L. F. Marvin; C. Zatylny; J. Leprince; H. Vaudry; J. Henry

2001-01-01

371

Chemical constituents of Chinese natural medicine, morindae radix, the dried roots of morinda officinalis how.: structures of morindolide and morofficinaloside.  

PubMed

A new iridoid lactone, morindolide, and a new iridoid glucoside, morofficinaloside, have been isolated from a Chinese natural medicine, Morindae Radix, the dried root of Morinda officinalis How. together with a number of known compounds: five anthraquinones, four iridoid glucosides, a monoterpene glycoside, two sterols, an ursane-type triterpene, and a lactone compound. The chemical structures of the new compounds were determined on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. PMID:7586069

Yoshikawa, M; Yamaguchi, S; Nishisaka, H; Yamahara, J; Murakami, N

1995-09-01

372

Instrumental neutron activation analysis of Emblica officinalis, Terminalia belerica and Terminalia chebula for trace element efficacy and safety.  

PubMed

To assess the efficacy and safety, essential (Cl, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Mn, Na, Se, Zn), toxic (As, Br, Hg, Sb,) and other elements (Ba, Ce, Cs, Eu, Rb, Sc) were determined in Emblica officinalis (EO), Terminalia belerica (TB) and Terminalia chebula (TC) using instrumental neutron activation analysis. These herbs contain K as a major element, while Co, Cr and Na in EO, Fe, K and Mn in TB and Cl and Zn in TC are the highest. PMID:23608598

Waheed, S; Fatima, I

2013-07-01

373

Efficacy of crude extract of Emblica officinalis (amla) in arsenic-induced oxidative damage and apoptosis in splenocytes of mice  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Arsenic, an environmental contaminant naturally occurred in groundwater and has been found to be associated with immune-related health problems in humans. Objective: In view of increasing risk of arsenic exposure due to occupational and non-occupational settings, the present study has been focused to investigate the protective efficacy of amla against arsenic-induced spleenomegaly in mice. Results: Arsenic exposures (3 mg/kg body weight p.o for 30 days) in mice caused an increase production of ROS (76%), lipid peroxidation (84%) and decrease in the levels of superoxide dismutase (53%) and catalase (54%) in spleen as compared to controls. Arsenic exposure to mice also caused a significant increase in caspases-3 activity (2.8 fold) and decreases cell viability (44%), mitochondrial membrane potential (47%) linked with apoptosis assessed by the cell cycle analysis (subG1-28.72%) and annexin V/PI binding in spleen as compared to controls. Simultaneous treatment of arsenic and amla (500 mg/kg body weight p.o for 30 days) in mice decreased the levels of lipid peroxidation (33%), ROS production (24%), activity of caspase-3 (1.4 fold), apoptosis (subG1 12.72%) and increased cell viability (63%), levels superoxide dismutase (80%), catalase (77%) and mitochondrial membrane potential (66%) as compared to mice treated with arsenic alone. Conclusions: Results of the present study indicate that the effect of arsenic is mainly due to the depletion of glutathione in liver associated with enhanced oxidative stress that has been found to be protected following simultaneous treatment of arsenic and amla. PMID:24748729

Singh, Manish Kumar; Yadav, Suraj Singh; Yadav, Rajesh Singh; Singh, Uma Shanker; Shukla, Yogeshwar; Pant, Kamlesh Kumar; Khattri, Sanjay

2014-01-01

374

Antibacterial Activity of Various Plants Extracts Against Antibiotic-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila  

PubMed Central

Background: Aeromonas hydrophila cause one of the most important diseases in fishes and lead to economic losses, and may be contaminated human beings. Objectives: The current research aimed to investigate the anti-bacterial activity shown by the extracts prepared from different parts of Olea europea, Myrtus communis, Thymus vulgaris, Rosmarinuis officinalis, and Achillea falcata that grow in Syria against A. hydrophila that causes the most dangerous bacterial diseases in fish. Materials and Methods: The study was performed in four stages: First of all, the presence of A. hydrophila was investigated in 450 Samples of Cyprinus Carpio fish using blood agar, Trypticase soya agar, and Analytical Profile Index (API20E). Secondly, the plants extract was obtained using water, absolute alcohol, then ether using Soxhlet extraction apparatus and rotary vacuum evaporator. Thirdly, the antibacterial activity of some antibiotics on these bacteria was evaluated by disk diffusion method. Finally, the antibacterial effect of the extracts was determined by disk diffusion method. Results: The studied antibiotics showed no antibacterial activity against these bacteria, except amikacin which had an acceptable effectiveness. However, the ethanol extracts of the studied plants revealed different antibacterial effects against A. hydrophila which showed antibiotic resistant. T. vulgaris extract had the strongest effect, whereas O. europea extract had the weakest activity. The water and ether petroleum extracts had no antibacterial activities. Conclusions: Ethanol extracts of the studied plants had different antibacterial effects against antibiotic-resistant A. hydrophila. T. vulgaris had the highest activity, R. officinalis had the second, and M. communis and A. falcate were in the third place, while the O. europea had the weakest antibacterial activity. PMID:25368797

Al Laham, Shaza Anwar; Al Fadel, Frdoos Mohammad

2014-01-01

375

Ursolic Acid Isolated from the Seed of Cornus officinalis Ameliorates Colitis in Mice by Inhibiting the Binding of Lipopolysaccharide to Toll-like Receptor 4 on Macrophages.  

PubMed

Ursolic acid, which was isolated from an ethanol extract of Cornus officinalis seed, potently inhibited nuclear factor ? light-chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-?B) activation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated peritoneal macrophages. Therefore, we investigated the anti-inflammatory mechanism of ursolic acid in LPS-stimulated macrophages and colitic mice. Ursolic acid inhibited phosphorylation of interleukin 1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK)1, TAK1, inhibitor of nuclear factor ?B kinase subunit ? (IKK?), and I?B? as well as activation of NF-?B and MAPKs in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Ursolic acid suppressed LPS-stimulated interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and inducible NO synthetase (iNOS) expression as well as PGE2 and NO levels. Ursolic acid not only inhibited the Alexa Fluor 488-conjugated LPS-mediated shift of macrophages but also reduced the intensity of fluorescent LPS bound to the macrophages transiently transfected with or without MyD88 siRNA. However, ursolic acid did not suppress NF-?B activation in peptidoglycan-stimulated macrophages. Oral administration of ursolic acid significantly inhibited 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colon shortening and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in mice. Ursolic acid also suppressed TNBS-induced COX-2 and iNOS expression as well as NF-?B activation in colon tissues. Ursolic acid (20 mg/kg) also inhibited TNBS-induced IL-1?, IL-6, TNF-? by 93, 86, and 85%, respectively (p < 0.05). However, ursolic acid reversed TNBS-mediated downregulation of IL-10 expression to 79% of the normal control group (p < 0.05). On the basis of these findings, ursolic acid may ameliorate colitis by regulating NF-?B and MAPK signaling pathways via the inhibition of LPS binding to TLR4 on immune cells. PMID:25213465

Jang, Se-Eun; Jeong, Jin-Ju; Hyam, Supriya R; Han, Myung Joo; Kim, Dong-Hyun

2014-10-01

376

Biochemical evaluation of borage (Borago officinalis) rosette leaves through their essential oil and fatty acid composition.  

PubMed

Borago officinalis rosette leaves were sampled in the region of Amdoun (Tunisia) during different stages of their development. Essential oil contents varied from 0.01% to 0.13% respectively in young and adult leaves. Twenty three volatile compounds were identified. Hydrocarbons, mainly represented by nonadecane (29.8%), tetracosane (11.3%) and heptacosane (4.7%), constituted the major class in the young leaves (45.8%), followed by aldehydes (22.4%). The percentages of these two classes decreased to reach respectively 15% and 8.1% in adult leaves in favour of alcohols (57.9%) where cis-3-hexenol (29.6%) and hexanol (14.5%) were the main compounds. Total fatty acids amounts increased from 5.03 mg/g DW in young leaves to 32.23 mg/g DW in adult ones. The predominant fatty acids were alpha-linolenic (C18:3 n-3), stearidonic (C18:4 n-3), gamma-linolenic (C18:3 n-6), palmitic (C16: 0) and linoleic (C18:2 n-6) acids. PMID:17722661

Mhamdi, Baya; Aidi Wannes, Wissem; Marzouk, Brahim

2007-06-01

377

Rosmarinic acid formation and differential expression of tyrosine aminotransferase isoforms in Anchusa officinalis cell suspension cultures.  

PubMed

Time-course changes in rosmarinic acid (RA) formation and activities of tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) isoforms were examined in Anchusa officinalis suspension cultures. Three TAT isoforms (TAT-1, TAT-3, TAT-4) were resolved by Mono-Q anion-exchange column chromatography. The proportion of the TAT-3 activity within the total TAT activity remained high regardless of the growth stage of the cultured cells. TAT-1 activity was positively correlated with the rate of RA biosynthesis during linear growth stage of the culture cycle, while TAT-4 activity was rapidly induced in conjunction with transfer to fresh medium coincident with a transient increase in RA synthesis. Based on these results, as well as the substrate specificity of each TAT isoform, it was concluded that both TAT-1 and TAT-4 are closely involved in RA biosynthesis. TAT-1 controls conversion of tyrosine to 4-hydroxyphenyl pyruvate, and TAT-4 acts by participating in the formation of tyrosine and phenylalanine via prephenate. PMID:24221665

Mizukami, H; Ellis, B E

1991-09-01

378

Purification and characterization of tyrosine aminotransferase activities from Anchusa officinalis cell cultures.  

PubMed

Three activities of tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT; EC 2.6.1.5), the enzyme which catalyzes the first step of the tyrosine pathway leading to the formation of rosmarinic acid (alpha-O-caffeoyl-3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid), have been extensively purified from cell suspension cultures of Anchusa officinalis L. and subsequently characterized. TAT-1, TAT-2, and TAT-3 differ slightly in native molecular weights (180,000-220,000) and are composed of subunits (4 X 43,000 for TAT-1 and 4 X 56,000 for TAT-2). All three enzymes show a pronounced preference for L-tyrosine over other aromatic amino acids, but TAT-2 and TAT-3 can also effectively utilize L-aspartate or L-glutamate as a substrate. For amino acceptor cosubstrates, either oxaloacetate or alpha-ketoglutarate can be utilized equally well by TAT-1, while the former is the most effective alpha-keto acid for TAT-2 and the latter is the best for TAT-3. All the TAT activities display high pH optima (8.8-9.6), and are inhibited by the tyrosine metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactate. TAT-2 and TAT-3 are also inhibited by rosmarinic acid. PMID:2889425

De-Eknamkul, W; Ellis, B E

1987-09-01

379

Proteomic analysis of plasma membrane and tonoplast from the leaves of mangrove plant Avicennia officinalis.  

PubMed

In order to understand the salt tolerance and secretion in mangrove plant species, gel electrophoresis coupled with LC-MS-based proteomics was used to identify key transport proteins in the plasma membrane (PM) and tonoplast fractions of Avicennia officinalis leaves. PM and tonoplast proteins were purified using two-aqueous-phase partitioning and density gradient centrifugation, respectively. Forty of the 254 PM proteins and 31 of the 165 tonoplast proteins identified were predicted to have transmembrane domains. About 95% of the identified proteins could be classified based on their functions. The major classes of proteins were predicted to be involved in transport, metabolic processes, defense/stress response, and signal transduction, while a few of the proteins were predicted to be involved in other functions such as membrane trafficking. The main classes of transporter proteins identified included H(+) -ATPases, ATP-binding cassette transporters, and aquaporins, all of which could play a role in salt secretion. These data will serve as the baseline membrane proteomic dataset for Avicennia species. Further, this information can contribute to future studies on understanding the mechanism of salt tolerance in halophytes in addition to salt secretion in mangroves. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000837 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD000837). PMID:25236605

Krishnamurthy, Pannaga; Tan, Xing Fei; Lim, Teck Kwang; Lim, Tit-Meng; Kumar, Prakash P; Loh, Chiang-Shiong; Lin, Qingsong

2014-11-01

380

Composition of the essential oil of Salvia officinalis L. from various European countries.  

PubMed

Variations in the essential oil composition of Salvia officinalis L. growing in Estonia and in other European countries were determined. The oils were obtained in yields of 2.2-24.8 mL kg(-1). In three samples, the content of essential oil did not conform to the EP standard (10 mL kg(-1)). Variations in the essential oil composition of sage were studied using capillary gas chromatographic methods. A total of 40 components were identified. The principal components in the sage oils were 1,8-cineole, camphor, alpha-thujone, beta-thujone, borneol, and viridiflorol. The chemotypes of sage were not determined in investigated samples. The concentration of the main compounds in the drugs cultivated in Estonia varied in about the same range as the concentrations of these compounds in the oils of drugs obtained from other countries. The comparatively high concentration of toxic thujones seem to be characteristic to sage leaves cultivated in Estonia. PMID:17487611

Raal, Ain; Orav, Anne; Arak, Elmar

2007-05-01

381

Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) essential oil.  

PubMed

The present study describes antimicrobial and free radical scavenging capacity (RSC) together with the effects on lipid peroxidation (LP) of Melissa officinalis essential oil. The chemical profile of essential oil was evaluated by the means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and thin-layer chromatography (TLC). RSC was assessed measuring the scavenging activity of essential oil on the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(*)) and OH(*) radicals. The effect on LP was evaluated following the activities on Fe(2+)/ascorbate and Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2) systems of induction. The antimicrobial activity was tested against 13 bacterial strains and six fungi. The examined essential oil exhibited very strong RSC, reducing the DPPH radical formation (IC(50) = 7.58 microg/mL) and OH radical generation (IC(50) = 1.74 microg/mL) in a dose-dependent manner. According to the GC-MS and TLC (dot-blot techniques), the most powerful scavenging compounds were monoterpene aldehydes and ketones (neral/geranial, citronellal, isomenthone, and menthone) and mono- and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (E-caryophyllene). Very strong inhibition of LP, particularly in the Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2) system of induction (94.59% for 2.13 microg/mL), was observed in both cases, also in a dose-dependent manner. The most effective antibacterial activity was expressed on a multiresistant strain of Shigella sonei. A significant rate of antifungal activity was exhibited on Trichophyton species. PMID:15113145

Mimica-Dukic, Neda; Bozin, Biljana; Sokovic, Marina; Simin, Natasa

2004-05-01

382

The use of background matching vs. masquerade for camouflage in cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.  

PubMed

Cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, commonly use their visually-guided, rapid adaptive camouflage for multiple tactics to avoid detection or recognition by predators. Two common tactics are background matching and resembling an object (masquerade) in the immediate area. This laboratory study investigated whether cuttlefish preferentially camouflage themselves to resemble a three-dimensional (3D) object in the immediate visual field (via the mechanism of masquerade/deceptive resemblance) rather than the 2D benthic substrate surrounding them (via the mechanisms of background matching or disruptive coloration). Cuttlefish were presented with a combination of benthic substrates (natural rocks or artificial checkerboard and grey printouts) and 3D objects (natural rocks or cylinders with artificial checkerboards and grey printouts glued to the outside) with visual features known to elicit each of three camouflage body pattern types (Uniform, Mottle and Disruptive). Animals were tested for a preference to show a body pattern appropriate for the 3D object or the benthic substrate. Cuttlefish responded by masquerading as the 3D object, rather than resembling the benthic substrate, only when presented with a high-contrast object on a substrate of lower contrast. Contrast is, therefore, one important cue in the cuttlefish's preference to resemble 3D objects rather than the benthic substrate. PMID:21964504

Buresch, Kendra C; Mäthger, Lydia M; Allen, Justine J; Bennice, Chelsea; Smith, Neal; Schram, Jonathan; Chiao, Chuan-Chin; Chubb, Charles; Hanlon, Roger T

2011-12-01

383

Evidence for distributed light sensing in the skin of cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis  

PubMed Central

We report that the skin of cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, contains opsin transcripts suggesting a possible role of distributed light sensing for dynamic camouflage and signalling. The mRNA coding for opsin from various body regions was amplified and sequenced, and gene expression was detected in fin and ventral skin samples. The amino acid sequence of the opsin polypeptide that these transcripts would produce was identical in retina and fin tissue samples, but the ventral skin opsin transcripts differed by a single amino acid. The diverse camouflage and signalling body patterns of cephalopods are visually controlled, and these findings suggest a possible additional mechanism of light sensing and subsequent skin patterning. Cuttlefish, along with a number of other cephalopod species, have been shown to be colour-blind. Since the opsin in the fin is identical to that of the retina (?max = 492 nm), and the ventral transcripts are also unlikely to be spectrally different, colour discrimination by the skin opsins is unlikely. However, spectral discrimination could be provided by involving other skin structures (chromatophores and iridophores), which produce changeable colours and patterns. This ‘distributed sensing’ could supplement the otherwise visually driven dynamic camouflage system by assisting with colour or brightness matching to adjacent substrates. PMID:20392722

Mathger, Lydia M.; Roberts, Steven B.; Hanlon, Roger T.

2010-01-01

384

Ambispora granatensis, a new arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, associated with Asparagus officinalis in Andalucia (Spain).  

PubMed

A new dimorphic fungal species in the arbuscular mycorrhiza-forming Glomeromycota, Ambispora granatensis, was isolated from an agricultural site in the province of Granada (Andalucía, Spain) growing in the rhizosphere of Asparagus officinalis. It was propagated in pot cultures with Trifolium pratense and Sorghum vulgare. The fungus also colonized Ri T-DNA transformed Daucus carota roots but did not form spores in these root organ cultures. The spores of the acaulosporoid morph are 90-150 ?m diam and hyaline to white to pale yellow. They have three walls and a papillae-like rough irregular surface on the outer surface of the outer wall. The irregular surface might become difficult to detect within a few hours in lactic acid-based mountings but are clearly visible in water. The structural central wall layer of the outer wall is only 0.8-1.5 ?m thick. The glomoid spores are formed singly or in small, loose spore clusters of 2-10 spores. They are hyaline to pale yellow, (25)40-70 ?m diam and have a bilayered spore wall without ornamentation. Nearly full length sequences of the 18S and the ITS regions of the ribosomal gene place the new fungus in a separate clade next to Ambispora fennica and Ambispora gerdemannii. The acaulosporoid spores of the new fungus can be distinguished easily from all other spores in genus Ambispora by the conspicuous thin outer wall. PMID:20952800

Palenzuela, Javier; Barea, José-Miguel; Ferrol, Nuria; Oehl, Fritz

2011-01-01

385

Single nucleotide polymorphism isolated from a novel EST dataset in garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.).  

PubMed

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and simple sequence repeats (SSR) are abundant and evenly distributed co-dominant molecular markers in plant genomes. SSRs are valuable for marker assisted breeding and positional cloning of genes associated traits of interest. Although several high throughput platforms have been developed to identify SNP and SSR markers for analysis of segregant plant populations, breeding in garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) has been limited by a low content of such markers. In this study massively parallel GS-FLX pyro-sequencing technology (454 Life Sciences) has been used to sequence and compare transcriptome from two genotypes: a rust tolerant male (1770) and a susceptible female (G190). A total of 122,963 and 99,368 sequence reads, with an average length of 245.7bp, have been recovered from accessions 1770 and 190 respectively. A computational pipeline has been used to predict and visually inspect putative SNPs and SSR sequences. Analysis of Gene Ontology (GO) slim annotation assignments for all assembled uniscripts indicated that the 24,403 assemblies represent genes from a broad array of functions. Further, over 1800 putative SNPs and 1000 SSRs were detected. One hundred forty-four SNPs together with 60 selected SSRs were validated and used to develop a preliminary genetic map by using a large BC(1) population, derived from 1770 and G190. The abundance of SNPs and SSRs provides a foundation for the development of saturated genetic maps and their utilization in assisted asparagus breeding programs. PMID:23415335

Mercati, Francesco; Riccardi, Paolo; Leebens-Mack, Jim; Abenavoli, Maria Rosa; Falavigna, Agostino; Sunseri, Francesco

2013-04-01

386

Plant regeneration after long-term callus culture in clones of Asparagus officinalis L.  

PubMed

Callus growth and plant regeneration from long-term callus cultures were studied in two elite clones of Asparagus officinalis cv. Argenteuil, to establish a suitable protocol for a prospective in vitro selection program. Callus initiation and growth was evaluated on MS medium with 3% sucrose, 0.9% agar, 1 mg x l(-1) kinetin, and three levels of 2,4-D. The highest callus relative growth was obtained on medium with 1.5 mg x l(-1) 2,4-D and 1 mg x l(-1) kinetin. Shoot primordia (SP) induction from > 18-months-old calluses was evaluated on several media; the highest percentage of SP induction (89%) and average number of SP per callus (8.6) were obtained with clone "265" on MS medium with 5 mg x l(-1) 2iP, 1 mg x l(-1) IAA, 3% sucrose and 0.9% agar. The highest percentage of root induction (100%) was achieved with clone '265' on MS medium with 0.1 mg x l(-1) kinetin, 0.1 mg x l(-1) NAA, 1.32 mg x l(-1) ancymidol, 7% glucose and 0.8% agar. Important medium x genotype interactions were detected, pointing to the need of adjusting this and other in vitro protocols for specific asparagus genotypes. PMID:16524253

Pontaroli, A C; Camadro, E L

2005-12-01

387

Comparative analysis of gene expression by microarray analysis of male and female flowers of Asparagus officinalis.  

PubMed

To identify rapidly a number of genes probably involved in sex determination and differentiation of the dioecious plant Asparagus officinalis, gene expression profiles in early flower development for male and female plants were investigated by microarray assay with 8,665 probes. In total, 638 male-biased and 543 female-biased genes were identified. These genes with biased-expression for male and female were involved in a variety of processes associated with molecular functions, cellular components, and biological processes, suggesting that a complex mechanism underlies the sex development of asparagus. Among the differentially expressed genes involved in the reproductive process, a number of genes associated with floral development were identified. Reverse transcription-PCR was performed for validation, and the results were largely consistent with those obtained by microarray analysis. The findings of this study might contribute to understanding of the molecular mechanisms of sex determination and differentiation in dioecious asparagus and provide a foundation for further studies of this plant. PMID:23748756

Gao, Wu-Jun; Li, Shu-Fen; Zhang, Guo-Jun; Wang, Ning-Na; Deng, Chuan-Liang; Lu, Long-Dou

2013-01-01

388

Occurrence and characterization of a Phytophthora sp. pathogenic to asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) in Michigan.  

PubMed

A homothallic Phytophthora sp. was recovered from asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) spears, storage roots, crowns, and stems in northwest and central Michigan in 2004 and 2005. Isolates (n = 131) produced ovoid, nonpapillate, noncaducous sporangia 45 microm long x 26 microm wide and amphigynous oospores of 25 to 30 microm diameter. Mycelial growth was optimum at 25 degrees C with no growth at 5 and 30 degrees C. All isolates were sensitive to 100 ppm mefenoxam. Pathogenicity studies confirmed the ability of the isolates to infect asparagus as well as cucurbits. Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis of 99 isolates revealed identical fingerprints, with 12 clearly resolved fragments present and no clearly resolved polymorphic fragments, suggesting a single clonal lineage. The internal transcribed spacer regions of representative isolates were homologous with a Phytophthora sp. isolated from diseased asparagus in France and a Phytophthora sp. from agave in Australia. Phylogenetic analysis supports the conclusion that the Phytophthora sp. isolated from asparagus in Michigan is a distinct species, and has been named Phytophthora asparagi. PMID:18943453

Saude, C; Hurtado-Gonzales, O P; Lamour, K H; Hausbeck, M K

2008-10-01

389

Quantitation and bitter taste contribution of saponins in fresh and cooked white asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.).  

PubMed

A sensitive HPLC-MS/MS method was developed enabling the simultaneous quantification of bitter-tasting mono- and bidesmosidic saponins in fresh and processed asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.). Based on quantitative data and bitter taste recognition thresholds, dose-over-threshold factors were determined for the first time to determine the bitter impact of the individual saponins. Although 3-O-[?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 ? 4)-?-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25R/S)-spirost-5-ene-3?-ol was found based on dose-over-threshold factors to be the predominant bitter saponin in raw asparagus spears, 3-O-[?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 ? 2)-{?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 ? 4)}-?-D-glucopyranosyl]-26-O-[?-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25R)-22-hydroxyfurost-5-ene-3?,26-diol, 3-O-[?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 ? 2)-{?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 ? 4)}-?-D-glucopyranosyl]-26-O-[?-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25S)-22-hydroxyfurost-5-ene-3?,26-diol, and (25R)- and (25S)-furost-5-en-3?,22,26-triol-3-O-[?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 ? 4)-?-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-?-D-glucopyranoside were found as key bitter contributors after cooking. Interestingly, the monodesmosidic saponins 5a/b were demonstrated for the first time to be the major contributor to the bitter taste of fresh asparagus spears, while the bidesmosides 1a/b and 2a/b may be considered the primary determinants for the bitter taste of cooked asparagus. PMID:24128498

Dawid, Corinna; Hofmann, Thomas

2014-02-15

390

Identification and expression of two oxytocin/vasopressin-related peptides in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.  

PubMed

Two novel members of the oxytocin/vasopressin superfamily have been identified in the cephalopod Sepia officinalis. Oxytocin/vasopressin gene sequences were cloned by Race PCR. The two precursors we identified exhibit the classical organization of OT/VP superfamily precursors: a signal peptide followed by a nonapeptide and a neurophysin domain. The neurophysin domain is entirely conserved for the cuttlefish precursors, but the nonapeptides and the signal peptides differ. The first nonapeptide, called sepiatocin, is highly homologous to Octopus vulgaris octopressin. The second nonapeptide, called pro-sepiatocin, shows sequence homologies with a Crustacean oxytocin/vasopressin-like peptide identified in Daphnia culex and with a novel form of oxytocin described in New World monkeys. The expression of pro-sepiatocin is restricted to the supraesophageal and subesophageal masses of the brain whereas sepiatocin is expressed in the entire central nervous system. Sepiatocin, as described for octopressin, modulates the contractile activity of several muscles such as penis, oviduct and vena cava muscles; this suggests its involvement in reproduction and blood circulation. Pro-sepiatocin is released in the hemolymph; it is a neurohormone able to target numerous peripheral organs. PMID:23764263

Henry, Joël; Cornet, Valerie; Bernay, Benoit; Zatylny-Gaudin, Céline

2013-08-01

391

The chemical composition, botanical characteristic and biological activities of Borago officinalis: a review.  

PubMed

Borage (Borago officinalis) is an annual herb which is cultivated for medicinal and culinary uses, although it is commercially cultivated for borage seed oil. Borage seed oil is the plant rich in the gamma-linolenic acid (26%-38%) which is used as dietary or food supplement. Other than seed oil it contains a lot of fatty acids such as linoleic acid (35%-38%), oleic acid (16%-20%), palmitic acid (10%-11%), stearic acid (3.5%-4.5%), eicosenoic acid (3.5%-5.5%) and erucic acid (1.5%-3.5%). It is used for the treatment of various diseases such as multiple sclerosis, diabetes, heart diseases, arthritis and eczema. In this study different aspects of borage such as plant characteristics, production, applications in traditional medicine, clinical considerations, its effects on patients' blood and urine biochemistry, and also the effect of the its products on liver and kidney performance tests are presented using published articles in scientific sites. PMID:25312125

Asadi-Samani, Majid; Bahmani, Mahmoud; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

2014-09-01

392

Reduction of hexachlorocyclohexane-induced oxidative stress and cytotoxicity in rat liver by Emblica officinalis gaertn.  

PubMed

The effect of prefeeding of dehydrated E. officinalis (amla) powder at 5 and 10% levels on hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH)-induced changes in multicomponent antioxidant system and lipid peroxides in rat liver was studied. HCH induced significant elevation in hepatic malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes and hydroperoxides. The prefeeding of amla at 10% level could decrease the formation of these lipid peroxides significantly. The HCH abuse resulted in a significant reduction in hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities with an elevation in the activities of glutathione peroxidase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT). On the other hand, the HCH-induced impairment in hepatic catalase, G-6-PDH and SOD activities were modulated by amla at the 10% level of intake. Prefeeding of amla at 5 and 10% levels appeared to reduce the HCH-induced raise in renal GGT activity. The results show the elevation of hepatic antioxidant system and reduction of cytotoxic products as a result of prefeeding of amla, which were otherwise affected by the HCH administration. PMID:17569287

Anilakumar, K R; Nagaraj, N S; Santhanam, K

2007-05-01

393

Differences in X-ray absorption due to cadmium treatment in Saponaria officinalis leaves.  

PubMed

A method for detecting cadmium uptake in leaves of Saponaria officinalis doped with a solution of cadmium acetate is described. The technique based on the exposure of dried leaves to X-rays of a wavelength close to that of the metal K-edge could be useful for phytoremediation studies as it could reveal the bioaccumulation in plants due to the treatment either in vivo or in vitro with heavy metals. X-ray microradiography measurements are in agreement with those from peroxidase enzyme assay utilized to follow the oxidative damage induced by heavy metals. At present, as we will see in this report, microradiography has still poorer sensitivity in comparison with enzyme assay, but it has the advantage of being faster, not destructive, and usable even at very high doping levels, where the enzyme assay technique results are fully saturated. Further analysis of the optical density values could lead to a quantitative measurement of the heavy metal in the sample. Thus, the technology developed in this article could be useful for tracing the intake in phytoremediation studies. PMID:15287015

Reale, Lucia; Lai, Antonia; Tucci, Adele; Poma, Anna; Faenov, Anatoly; Pikuz, Tania; Flora, Francesco; Spano, Laura; Limongi, Tania; Palladino, Libero; Ritucci, Antonio; Tomassetti, Giuseppe; Petrocelli, Giovanni; Francucci, Massimo; Martellucci, Sergio

2004-05-01

394

In vitro antioxidant and anti-rhizopus activities of Lamiaceae herbal extracts.  

PubMed

Eighty-eight extracts of different polarity obtained from 18 Lamiaceae medicinal and aromatic plants were screened for their antioxidant and antifungal properties. A TLC analysis combined with two bioassays were used to detect these activities. In most cases the highest radical scavenger capacity was detected in methanolic and aqueous extracts and polyphenols may be responsible. The most interesting antioxidant activity was observed in polar extracts obtained from Lycopus europaeus, Melissa officinalis, Origanum vulgare subsp. virens and Lavandula latifolia. On the contrary, the best results for the antifungal test against Rhizopus stolonifer were produced by non-polar herbal extracts. Phlomis lychnitis, Salvia pratensis and Calamintha sylvatica caused the highest inhibition on Rhizopus growth. PMID:17912643

López, Víctor; Akerreta, Silvia; Casanova, Esther; García-Mina, Jose María; Cavero, Rita Yolanda; Calvo, María Isabel

2007-12-01

395

Antioxidative/acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of some Asteraceae plants.  

PubMed

The extracts obtained by 80% EtOH from some Asteraceae plants (Calendula officinalis, Inula helenium, Arctium lappa, Artemisia absinthium and Achillea millefolium) were studied. Rosmarinic acid, one of the main compounds identified in all extracts, was determined quantitatively by using HPLC. In addition, spectrophotometric methods were evaluated as an alternative for rosmarinic acid content determination. Total phenolic content was also established for all extracts. A. millefolium extract was found to have the highest content of rosmarinic acid as well as total phenols. All extracts were tested for antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. A. millefolium was shown to possess the best antioxidant activity (for all tested methods) as well as acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Highly positive linear relationships were obtained between antioxidant/acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity and the determined rosmarinic acid content indicating its significance for the observed activities. PMID:23738456

Mekini?, Ivana Generali?; Burcul, Franko; Blazevi?, Ivica; Skroza, Danijela; Kerum, Daniela; Katalini?, Visnja

2013-04-01

396

Evaluation of antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory activities of methanol extract and its fractions from the Mediterranean sponge  

PubMed Central

Background Without doubt, natural products have been, and still are, the cornerstone of the health care armamentarium. Of all natural sources, the marine environment is clearly the last great frontier for pharmaceutical and medical research. Methods This work progresses in the direction of identifying component(s) from the Mediterranean sponge, Spongia officinalis with pharmacological activities. In the present study we investigated the efficacy of methanol extract and its semi-purified fractions (F2, F3) from Spongia officinalis for their in vivo anti-inflammatory activity using the carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats and their in vitro antiproliferative effects by their potential cytotoxic activity using the MTT colorimetric method and clonogenic inhibition against three human cancer cell lines (A549, lung cell carcinoma, HCT15, colon cell carcinoma and MCF7, breast adenocarcinoma). Results The fractions F2 and F3 showed interesting anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative activities in a dose dependent manner. Conclusions The present study indicates that the methanolic extrac and its fractions from Spongia officinalis are a significant source of compounds with the antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory activities, and this may be useful for developing potential chemopreventive substances. PMID:22587650

2012-01-01

397

Elevated CO2 levels affect the activity of nitrate reductase and carbonic anhydrase in the calcifying rhodophyte Corallina officinalis.  

PubMed

The concentration of CO(2) in global surface ocean waters is increasing due to rising atmospheric CO(2) emissions, resulting in lower pH and a lower saturation state of carbonate ions. Such changes in seawater chemistry are expected to impact calcification in calcifying marine organisms. However, other physiological processes related to calcification might also be affected, including enzyme activity. In a mesocosm experiment, macroalgal communities were exposed to three CO(2) concentrations (380, 665, and 1486 µatm) to determine how the activity of two enzymes related to inorganic carbon uptake and nutrient assimilation in Corallina officinalis, an abundant calcifying rhodophyte, will be affected by elevated CO(2) concentrations. The activity of external carbonic anhydrase, an important enzyme functioning in macroalgal carbon-concentrating mechanisms, was inversely related to CO(2) concentration after long-term exposure (12 weeks). Nitrate reductase, the enzyme responsible for reduction of nitrate to nitrite, was stimulated by CO(2) and was highest in algae grown at 665 µatm CO(2). Nitrate and phosphate uptake rates were inversely related to CO(2), while ammonium uptake was unaffected, and the percentage of inorganic carbon in the algal skeleton decreased with increasing CO(2). The results indicate that the processes of inorganic carbon and nutrient uptake and assimilation are affected by elevated CO(2) due to changes in enzyme activity, which change the energy balance and physiological status of C. officinalis, therefore affecting its competitive interactions with other macroalgae. The ecological implications of the physiological changes in C. officinalis in response to elevated CO(2) are discussed. PMID:23314813

Hofmann, Laurie C; Straub, Sandra; Bischof, Kai

2013-02-01

398

Elevated CO2 levels affect the activity of nitrate reductase and carbonic anhydrase in the calcifying rhodophyte Corallina officinalis  

PubMed Central

The concentration of CO2 in global surface ocean waters is increasing due to rising atmospheric CO2 emissions, resulting in lower pH and a lower saturation state of carbonate ions. Such changes in seawater chemistry are expected to impact calcification in calcifying marine organisms. However, other physiological processes related to calcification might also be affected, including enzyme activity. In a mesocosm experiment, macroalgal communities were exposed to three CO2 concentrations (380, 665, and 1486 µatm) to determine how the activity of two enzymes related to inorganic carbon uptake and nutrient assimilation in Corallina officinalis, an abundant calcifying rhodophyte, will be affected by elevated CO2 concentrations. The activity of external carbonic anhydrase, an important enzyme functioning in macroalgal carbon-concentrating mechanisms, was inversely related to CO2 concentration after long-term exposure (12 weeks). Nitrate reductase, the enzyme responsible for reduction of nitrate to nitrite, was stimulated by CO2 and was highest in algae grown at 665 µatm CO2. Nitrate and phosphate uptake rates were inversely related to CO2, while ammonium uptake was unaffected, and the percentage of inorganic carbon in the algal skeleton decreased with increasing CO2. The results indicate that the processes of inorganic carbon and nutrient uptake and assimilation are affected by elevated CO2 due to changes in enzyme activity, which change the energy balance and physiological status of C. officinalis, therefore affecting its competitive interactions with other macroalgae. The ecological implications of the physiological changes in C. officinalis in response to elevated CO2 are discussed. PMID:23314813

Hofmann, Laurie C.

2013-01-01

399

Comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography with evaporative light-scattering detection for the analysis of triacylglycerols in Borago officinalis.  

PubMed

An optimized 2-D liquid chromatography (LC×LC) set-up, based on the different selectivities of a silver ion (Ag) and a non-aqueous reversed phase (NARP), employed in the first (D1) and the second dimension (D2), respectively, in combination with evaporative light-scattering detection (ELSD), has been developed for the analysis of the triacylglycerol (TAG) fraction in a Borago officinalis oil. The 2-D set-up, thanks to the complementary separation selectivity provided by the two columns, allowed to distribute 78 TAGs throughout the 2-D LC retention plane otherwise unachievable by 1-D LC. PMID:21413146

Mondello, Luigi; Beccaria, Marco; Donato, Paola; Cacciola, Francesco; Dugo, Giovanni; Dugo, Paola

2011-03-01

400

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray study of saporin, a ribosome-inactivating protein from Saponaria officinalis.  

PubMed

Single crystals of the protein saporin isolated from the seeds of S. officinalis have been grown by the vapor-diffusion method using ammonium sulfate as precipitant. The crystals are tetragonal, space group P4122 (P4322), with cell dimensions a = b = 67.53 and c = 119. 67 A, and diffract to 2.0 A resolution on a rotating-anode X-ray source. The asymmetric unit contains one molecule, corresponding to a volume of the asymmetric unit per unit mass (Vm) of 2.38 A3 Da-1. PMID:9761860

Savino, C; Federici, L; Brancaccio, A; Ippoliti, R; Lendaro, E; Tsernoglou, D

1998-07-01

401

Nucleotide sequence of cDNA coding for saporin-6, a type-1 ribosome-inactivating protein from Saponaria officinalis.  

PubMed

We have isolated and sequenced partial cDNA clones that encode SO-6, a ribosome-inactivating protein from Saponaria officinalis. A cDNA library was constructed from the leaves of this plant and screened with synthetic oligonucleotide probes representing various portions of the protein. The deduced amino acid sequence shows the signal peptide and a coding region virtually accounting for the entire amino acid sequence of SO-6. The sequence reveals regions of similarity to other ribosome-inactivating proteins, especially in a region of the molecule where critical amino acid residues might participate in the active site. PMID:2547612

Benatti, L; Saccardo, M B; Dani, M; Nitti, G; Sassano, M; Lorenzetti, R; Lappi, D A; Soria, M

1989-08-01

402

Life Table and Consumption Capacity of Corn Earworm, Helicoverpa armigera, Fed Asparagus, Asparagus officinalis  

PubMed Central

The life table and consumption rate of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) reared on asparagus, Asparagus officinalis L. (Asparagales: Asparagaceae) were studied under laboratory conditions to assess their interaction. Development, survival, fecundity, and consumption data were analyzed by the age-stage, two-sex life table. This study indicated that asparagus is a natural host of H. armigera. However, the poor nutritional content in asparagus foliage and the poor fitness of H. armigera that fed on asparagus indicated that asparagus is a suboptimal host in comparison to hybrid sweet corn. The uncertainty associated with life table parameters was estimated by using jackknife and bootstrap techniques, and the results were compared for statistical inference. The intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate of increase (?), net reproductive rate (R0), and mean generation time (T) were estimated by the jackknife technique to be 0.0780 day-1, 1.0811 day-1, 67.4 offspring, and 54.8 days, respectively, while those estimated by the bootstrap technique were 0.0752 day-1, 1.0781 day-1, 68.0 offspring, and 55.3 days, respectively. The net consumption rate of H. armigera, as estimated by the jackknife and bootstrap technique, was 1183.02 and 1132.9 mg per individual, respectively. The frequency distribution of sample means obtained by the jackknife technique failed the normality test, while the bootstrap results fit the normal distribution well. By contrast, the relationship between the mean fecundity and the net reproductive rate, as estimated by the bootstrap technique, was slightly inconsistent with the relationship found by mathematical proof. The application of the jackknife and bootstrap techniques in estimating population parameters requires further examination.

Jha, Ratna Kumar; Tuan, Shu-Jen; Chi, Hsin; Tang, Li-Cheng

2014-01-01

403

Chemotype diversity of indigenous Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) populations in Montenegro.  

PubMed

To identify how many chemotypes of Salvia officinalis exist in Montenegro, the chemical composition of the essential oils of 12 wild-growing populations was determined by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. Among the 40 identified constituents, the most abundant were cis-thujone (16.98-40.35%), camphor (12.75-35.37%), 1,8-cineol (6.40-12.06%), trans-thujone (1.5-10.35%), camphene (2.26-9.97%), borneol (0.97-8.81%), viridiflorol (3.46-7.8%), limonene (1.8-6.47%), ?-pinene (1.59-5.46%), and ?-humulene (1.77-5.02%). The composition of the essential oils under study did not meet the ISO 9909 requirements, while the oils of populations P02-P04, P09, and P10 complied with the German Drug Codex. A few of the main essential-oil constituents appeared to be highly intercorrelated. Strong positive correlations were observed between ?-pinene and camphene, camphene and camphor, as well as between cis-thujone and trans-thujone. Strong negative correlations were evidenced between cis-thujone and ?-pinene, cis-thujone and champhene, cis-thujone and camphor, as well as between trans-thujone and camphene. Multivariate analyses allowed the grouping of the populations into three distinct chemotypes, i.e., Chemotype A, rich in total thujones, Chemotype B, with intermediate contents of thujones, ?-pinene, camphene, and camphor and high borneol contents, and Chemotype C, rich in camphor, camphene, and ?-pinene. The chemotypes did not significantly differ in the total essential-oil content and the cis/trans-thujone ratio. PMID:24443430

Steševi?, Danijela; Risti?, Mihailo; Nikoli?, Vuko; Nedovi?, Marijana; Cakovi?, Danka; Šatovi?, Zlatko

2014-01-01

404

Hepatoprotective properties of the Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Gaertn): a review.  

PubMed

Liver diseases characterized by inflammation or tissue damage affect the optimal functioning and increase the morbidity and mortality of the affected individual. Liver diseases are a largely neglected health issue and recent reports indicate that they affect over 10% of the world population, with the highest burden in low and middle income countries that have minimal medical resources. To complicate matters the currently available pharmacological therapies are not optimal and when used for extended periods of time impart systemic toxicity. Diet can modify pathophysiological processes, including those of hepatotoxins, and studies have shown that some dietary constituents can afford heptoprotection. Emblica officinalis Gaertn or Phyllanthus emblica Linn, commonly known as the Indian gooseberry in English or amla in Hindi, is one of the most important medicinal and dietary plants in the Indian subcontinent. The fruits are of dietary and medicinal use and have wide applications in both traditional and folk systems of medicine. Scientific studies have shown amla to be effective in preventing/ameliorating the toxic effects of hepatotoxic agents like ethanol, paracetamol, carbon tetrachloride, heavy metals, ochratoxins, hexachlorocyclohexane, antitubercular drugs and hepatotoxicity resulting from iron overload. Amla is also reported to impart beneficial effects on liver function and to mitigate hyperlipidemia and metabolic syndrome. Amla possesses protective effects against chemical-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in animal models of study. Additionally, the phytochemicals quercetin, gallic acid, corilagin and ellagic acid are also reported to protect against the cytotoxic effects of paracetamol, microcystins, galactosamine and lipopolysaccharide. The hepatoprotective actions of amla appear to be mediated by its free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and modulation of the xenobiotic detoxification process and lipid metabolism. PMID:23978895

Thilakchand, Karadka Ramdas; Mathai, Rashmi Teresa; Simon, Paul; Ravi, Rithin T; Baliga-Rao, Manjeshwar Poonam; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

2013-10-01

405

Emblica officinalis Gaertn. attentuates N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced apoptosis, autophagy, and inflammation in rat livers.  

PubMed

Inflammation and oxidative stress contribute to liver injury. Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) is rich in vitamin C, gallic acid, flavonoids, and tannins, which may protect against hepatoxicity-induced liver injury. We elucidated the effects of supplementary Amla (100?mg/kg of body weight) on N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced injury by evaluating reactive oxygen species (ROS) responses in the liver and bile, the degree of accumulated leukocytes and Kupffer cell infiltration, 3-nitrotyrosine and 4-hydroxynonenal stains, apoptosis and autophagy, plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and ?-glutamyl transpeptidase (?-GT) levels, and antioxidant/oxidant enzymes in rats. Amla was more potent than vitamin C in scavenging O??·, hydrogen peroxide, and nitric oxide. N-Nitrosodiethylamine increased ROS production in liver and bile, hepatic Kupffer cell and leukocyte infiltration, 3-nitrotyrosine and 4-hydroxynonenal accumulations, apoptosis and autophagy, and plasma ALT, AST, and ?-GT levels in the rats, decreased hepatic manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and catalase protein expressions, and enhanced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) protein expressions. Amla significantly preserved MnSOD and catalase expressions and decreased iNOS and CYP2E1 protein expressions in N-nitrosodiethylamine-treated livers. Amla decreased N-nitrosodiethylamine-enhanced hepatic apoptosis and autophagy appearances via down-regulation of the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and Beclin-1 expression. Thus Amla supplementation counteracts N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced liver injury via its antioxidant, anti-inflammation, anti-apoptosis, and anti-autophagy properties. PMID:21761987

Chen, Kuo-Hsin; Lin, Bor-Ru; Chien, Chiang-Ting; Ho, Chien-Hsin

2011-01-01

406

Life table and consumption capacity of corn earworm, Helicoverpa armigera, fed asparagus, Asparagus officinalis.  

PubMed

The life table and consumption rate of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) reared on asparagus, Asparagus officinalis L. (Asparagales: Asparagaceae) were studied under laboratory conditions to assess their interaction. Development, survival, fecundity, and consumption data were analyzed by the age-stage, twosex life table. This study indicated that asparagus is a natural host of H. armigera. However, the poor nutritional content in asparagus foliage and the poor fitness of H. armigera that fed on asparagus indicated that asparagus is a suboptimal host in comparison to hybrid sweet corn. The uncertainty associated with life table parameters was estimated by using jackknife and bootstrap techniques, and the results were compared for statistical inference. The intrinsic rate of increase ( r), finite rate of increase ( ?), net reproductive rate ( R0), and mean generation time ( T) were estimated by the jackknife technique to be 0.0780 day(-1), 1.0811 day(-1), 67.4 offspring, and 54.8 days, respectively, while those estimated by the bootstrap technique were 0.0752 day(-1), 1.0781 day(-1), 68.0 offspring, and 55.3 days, respectively. The net consumption rate of H. armigera, as estimated by the jackknife and bootstrap technique, was 1183.02 and 1132.9 mg per individual, respectively. The frequency distribution of sample means obtained by the jackknife technique failed the normality test, while the bootstrap results fit the normal distribution well. By contrast, the relationship between the mean fecundity and the net reproductive rate, as estimated by the bootstrap technique, was slightly inconsistent with the relationship found by mathematical proof. The application of the jackknife and bootstrap techniques in estimating population parameters requires further examination. PMID:25373181

Jha, Ratna Kumar; Tuan, Shu-Jen; Chi, Hsin; Tang, Li-Cheng

2014-01-01

407

Hepatotoxicity of immunotoxins made with saporin, a ribosome-inactivating protein from Saponaria officinalis.  

PubMed

Immunotoxins were prepared by conjugating saporin, a ribosome-inactivating protein from Saponaria officinalis, to a monoclonal antibody against the Thy1.1 antigen, or to its F(ab')2 fragment. The immunotoxins were eight- to 16-fold more toxic to mice than free saporin. Injection of the immunotoxins induced necrosis of the liver and spleen, whereas free saporin caused necrosis of the epithelium of the kidney tubules. The cytoplasm of the hepatic parenchymal cells was affected by the immunotoxins, lesions being apparent in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and, later, in the mitochondria. These changes were associated with a reduced capacity to synthesise proteins both in the intact liver and by isolated liver microsomes. Studies of the in vivo distribution showed that 90% of the free saporin was removed from the bloodstream, mainly by the kidneys, within 10 min of injection. By contrast, the immunotoxins persisted in the blood for several hours and the only organ in which they consistently accumulated was the liver. The hepatotoxic effect of the immunotoxins was not due to their binding to liver cells via the antigen-binding sites or the Fc-piece of the antibody moiety, nor was it due to hepatic recognition of carbohydrate in the immunotoxin. It is concluded that free saporin, although capable of entering liver cells, is filtered so rapidly by the kidney that liver damage does not occur to a significant extent. Filtered saporin, however, is reabsorbed by renal tubules, whose epithelial cells are damaged. The antibody-saporin conjugate is too large to filter at the glomerulus and so has greater opportunity to penetrate into and to damage the hepatic parenchymal cell. PMID:2889289

Stirpe, F; Derenzini, M; Barbieri, L; Farabegoli, F; Brown, A N; Knowles, P P; Thorpe, P E

1987-01-01

408

Native or Exotic? Double or Single? Evaluating Plants for Pollinator-friendly Gardens  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a series of dawn-to-dusk studies, we examined the nature and accessibility of nectar rewards for pollinating insects by monitoring insect visits and the secretion rate and standing crop of nectar in the British native plant species Salvia pratensis, Stachys palustris, S. officinalis, Lythrum salicaria, Linaria vulgaris, the non-native Calendula officinalis, Petunia×hybrida, Salvia splendens, and the possibly introduced Saponaria officinalis.

Sarah A. Corbet; Jennie Bee; Kanchon Dasmahapatra; Stephan Gale; Elizabeth Gorringe; Beverly La Ferla; Tom Moorhouse; Andrea Trevail; Yfke Van Bergen; Maria Vorontsova

2001-01-01

409

Combined application of essential oils from Origanum vulgare L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L. to inhibit bacteria and autochthonous microflora associated with minimally processed vegetables  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the occurrence of an enhancing inhibitory effect of the combined application of Origanum vulgare (OV) and Rosmarinus officinalis (RO) essential oils against bacteria associated to minimally processed vegetables using the determination of Fractional Inhibitory Concentration (FIC) index, kill-time assay in vegetal broth and application in vegetable matrices. Moreover, it was determined chemical composition of the essential oils

Geíza Alves de Azeredo; Tânia Lúcia Montenegro Stamford; Pollyana Campos Nunes; Nelson Justino Gomes Neto; Maria Elieidy Gomes de Oliveira; Evandro Leite de Souza

2011-01-01

410

Comparisons of microsatellite variability and population genetic structure of two endangered wild rice species, Oryza rufipogon and O. officinalis , and their conservation implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conserving endangered wild rice species requires a thorough understanding of their population genetic structure and appropriate approaches. We applied six and seven microsatellite loci to study the genetic structure of six populations throughout the range of Chinese Oryza rufipogon and Oryza officinalis, respectively. The results showed that O. rufipogon possesses higher levels of genetic diversity but lower differentiation (RS =

Li-Zhi Gao; Chi-Hong Zhang

2005-01-01

411

Assessment of the exposure pathway in the uptake and distribution of1 americium and cesium in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) at different stages of2  

E-print Network

, S.W. Fowler1,3 , & M. Warnau1 5 6 7 1 Marine Environment Laboratory International Atomic Energy (134 Cs) by the common cuttlefish20 Sepia officinalis. Uptake and loss kinetics of the radionuclides receive radioactive inputs from industries, accidents, and fallout from nuclear weapon testing.43 Surveys

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

412

Essential Oil of Common Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) from Jordan: Assessment of Safety in Mammalian Cells and Its Antifungal and Anti-Inflammatory Potential  

PubMed Central

Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) is a Mediterranean species, naturalized in many countries. In Jordan, it is used in traditional medicine as antiseptic, antiscabies, antisyphilitic, and anti-inflammatory, being frequently used against skin diseases. This study aimed the assessment of the antifungal and anti-inflammatory potential of its essential oils, and their cytotoxicity on macrophages and keratinocytes. The oils were investigated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and the antifungal activity was evaluated against yeasts, dermatophyte and Aspergillus strains. Assessment of cell viability was made by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and the in vitro anti-inflammatory potential was evaluated by measuring nitric oxide production using lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse macrophages. The main compounds of S. officinalis oils were 1,8-cineole (39.5–50.3%) and camphor (8.8–25.0%). The oils revealed antifungal activity against dermatophyte strains and significantly inhibited NO production stimulated by LPS in macrophages, without affecting cell viability, in concentrations up to 0.64??L/mL. This is the first report addressing the in vitro anti-inflammatory potential of S. officinalis oil. These findings demonstrated that bioactive concentrations of S. officinalis oils do not affect mammalian macrophages and keratinocytes viability making them suitable to be incorporated in skin care formulations for cosmetic and pharmaceutical purposes. PMID:24224168

Abu-Darwish, M. S.; Cabral, C.; Ferreira, I. V.; Gonçalves, M. J.; Cavaleiro, C.; Cruz, M. T.; Al-bdour, T. H.; Salgueiro, L.

2013-01-01

413

Hydroalcoholic extracts of Indian medicinal plants can help in amelioration from oxidative stress through antioxidant properties.  

PubMed

The in vitro study of the antioxidant properties of the hydroalcoholic extracts of various Indian medicinal plants can logically help to develop a better and safer way of amelioration from oxidative stress. As aimed, the present study has been done to estimate and thereby conclude regarding the antioxidant activities of a few Indian medicinal plants, viz., Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, Emblica officinalis, Caesalpinia crista, Cajanus cajan, and Tinospora cordifolia. The extracts of the plants have been subjected to the evaluation of antioxidant properties through scavenging assays for reactive oxygen species like superoxide, nitric oxide, peroxynitrite, hypochlorous acid, singlet oxygen, etc. and measurement of TEAC values and other phytochemical parameters. The phenolic and flavonoid contents of each plant have been found to be correlated to their individual antioxidant activity. The results showed the hydroalcoholic extracts of the plants were efficient indicators of their antioxidant capacity thus concreting their basis to be used as natural antioxidant. PMID:22624183

Sarkar, Rhitajit; Mandal, Nripendranath

2012-01-01

414

Antihormonal effects of plant extracts: iodothyronine deiodinase of rat liver is inhibited by extracts and secondary metabolites of plants.  

PubMed

Aqueous extracts from plants such as Lycopus virginicus , Melissa officinalis ( Laminaceae ), and Lithospermum officinale ( Boraginaceae ), containing various antihormonal components, also inhibit both the extrathyroidal enzymic T4-5'-deiodination to T3 and the T4-5'-deiodination. The effects were dose dependent and ultimately complete using rat liver microsomes as a source of the enzyme in vitro. The "specific inhibitory activity" of extracts depends on the plant species used and the extraction procedure applied. It can be increased by either extraction of freeze dried aqueous extracts and decreased by oxidation with KMnO4. The active principle(s) exhibits chemical characteristics of phenols or phenolcarboxylic acids: rosmarinic acid, ellagic acid, and luteolin -7 beta-glucoside are active inhibitory components whilst other secondary plant metabolites consisting only of a single diphenolic ring e.g. cinnamic acid and derivatives are inactive. The inhibition of both iodothyronine-5'- and -5-deiodinase by this new class of iodine-free phenolic inhibitors--belonging to the cinnamic acid-flavonoid-type--supports the hypothesis that in rat liver only a single enzyme catalyses both deiodination pathways and might be of pharmacological interest for the treatment of hyperthyroidism. PMID:6724503

Auf'mkolk, M; Köhrle, J; Gumbinger, H; Winterhoff, H; Hesch, R D

1984-04-01

415

Genetic diversity patterns and functional traits of Bradyrhizobium strains associated with Pterocarpus officinalis Jacq. in Caribbean islands and Amazonian forest (French Guiana).  

PubMed

Pterocarpus officinalis Jacq. is a legume tree native to the Caribbean islands and South America growing as a dominant species in swamp forests. To analyze (i) the genetic diversity and (ii) the symbiotic properties of its associated nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria, root nodules were collected from P. officinalis distributed in 16 forest sites of the Caribbean islands and French Guiana. The sequencing of the 16S-23S ribosomal RNA intergenic spacer region (ITS) showed that all bacteria belonged to the Bradyrhizobium genus. Bacteria isolated from insular zones showed very close sequence homologies with Bradyrhizobium genospecies V belonging to the Bradyrhizobium japonicum super-clade. By contrast, bacteria isolated from continental region displayed a larger genetic diversity and belonged to B. elkanii super-clade. Two strains from Puerto Rico and one from French Guiana were not related to any known sequence and could be defined as a new genospecies. Inoculation experiments did not show any host specificity of the Bradyrhizobium strains tested in terms of infectivity. However, homologous Bradyrhizobium sp. strain-P. officinalis provenance associations were more efficient in terms of nodule production, N acquisition, and growth than heterologous ones. The dominant status of P. officinalis in the islands may explain the lower bacterial diversity compared to that found in the continent where P. officinalis is associated with other leguminous tree species. The specificity in efficiency found between Bradyrhizobium strains and host tree provenances could be due to a coevolution process between both partners and needs to be taken in consideration in the framework of rehabilitation plantation programs. PMID:24595907

Le Roux, Christine; Muller, Félix; Bouvet, Jean-Marc; Dreyfus, Bernard; Béna, Gilles; Galiana, Antoine; Bâ, Amadou M

2014-08-01

416

Determination of phenolic antioxidant compounds produced by calli and cell suspensions of sage (Salvia officinalis L.).  

PubMed

Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) calli were established by culturing internodal segments, excised from aseptic seedlings, on MS basal medium gellied with agar and supplemented with 0.05 mg/L dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in presence of benzyladenine (BA) or zeatin (ZEA) or kinetin (KIN), at 1.5 mg/L. Suspended cells were established by transferring one callus to 50 mL of liquid MS basal medium devoid of agar and containing the same type of hormonal supplementation used in respective calli growth. The highest growth of calli and suspensions occurred with 1.5 mg/L ZEA. However, with this cytokinin supplementation, as well as with 1.5 mg/L KIN, both in presence of 0.05 mg/L 2,4-D, suspensions differentiated small root shaped structures. Well shaped, majority single cell suspensions were formed under the effect of 0.05 mg/L 2,4-D and 0.5 mg/L KIN. Calli grown with 0.05 mg/L 2,4-D and 1.5 mg/L BA and suspended cells grown with 0.05 mg/L 2,4-D and ZEA or KIN at 1.5 mg/L, or KIN at 0.5 mg/L, were searched for phenolics production. Twelve phenolic compounds were identified in calli: gallic acid, 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid, hesperetin, epirosmanol, hispidulin, genkwanin, carnosol, carnosic acid, and methyl carnosate. With the exception for genkwanin and epirosmanol all of these phenolic compounds were also produced by the sage suspension cultures grown in the presence of 1.5 or 0.5 mg/L KIN. Genkwanin was the only phenolic absent in the suspensions grown with 1.5 ZEA. Suspended cells, grown with 0.5 mg/L KIN, and calli cultures showed the highest specific accumulation of the total phenolics, with rosmarinic acid representing 94-97%. PMID:14593803

Santos-Gomes, Paula C; Seabra, Rosa M; Andrade, Paula B; Fernandes-Ferreira, Manuel

2003-09-01

417

In vitro screening of forty medicinal plant extracts from the United States Northern Great Plains for anthelmintic activity against Haemonchus contortus.  

PubMed

An egg hatch assay (EHA) and a larval migration assay (LMA) involving Haemonchus contortus was used to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of methanol extracts from 40 plants that are native or naturalized within the U.S.A. Northern Great Plains. Only one of these 40 plants (i.e. Lotus corniculatus) had been previously evaluated for activity against any gastrointestinal nematode. The various extracts were initially screened at 50mg/ml diluted either in 0.5% dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) or 3-(N-morpholino) propanesulfonic acid (MOPS buffer), and plants showing 100% inhibition at 50mg/ml, were further evaluated at 8 other concentrations (25-0.19 mg/ml). Extracts with 100% activity with the EHA were again screened with the LMA (50mg/ml). Two extracts with the highest LMA inhibition were also evaluated at lower concentrations (25-3.1mg/ml). Of the 40 methanolic extracts screened, 7 (Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus, Ericameria nauseosa, Liatris punctata, Melilotus alba, Melilotus officinalis, Perideridia gairdneri, and Sanguinaria canadensis) showed significant egg-hatch inhibition in DMSO and MOPS buffer. Three extracts (Geranium viscosissimum, L. corniculatus, and Rhus aromatica) only showed significant inhibition in DMSO. The 8 extracts showing 100% efficacy at 50mg/ml exhibited dose-dependent effects at the 8 lower concentrations, and R. aromatica and E. nauseosa extracts had the lowest ED50 values. Similarly, when these 8 plant extracts were further evaluated with the LMA, the extracts of E. nauseosa and R. aromatica again exhibited the highest activity (p<0.001), with ED50 values of 4.0mg/ml and 10.43 mg/ml respectively. Three other extracts (C. viscidiflorus, M. alba and M. officinalis) also showed inhibitory activity in the LMA. These results support the need for additional evaluations of the nematocidal properties for at least these 5 plants. PMID:24548703

Acharya, Jyotsna; Hildreth, Michael B; Reese, R Neil

2014-03-17

418

DNA Extraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity related to plant biotechnology, learners extract DNA from fruit to investigate how it looks and feels. The procedure is similar to what scientists have to do before they can use information contained in this DNA. This lesson guide includes procedure and discussion questions to help learners reflect on the process and purpose of DNA extraction. Modifications for younger learners are included in a related PDF (see related resources).

Stephens, Janice; Leach, Jan

2011-01-01

419

Modulation of GABAA receptors by valerian extracts is related to the content of valerenic acid.  

PubMed

Valeriana Officinalis L . is a traditionally used sleep remedy, however, the mechanism of action and the substances responsible for its sedative and sleep-enhancing properties are not fully understood. As we previously identified valerenic acid as a subunit-specific allosteric modulator of GABAA receptors, we now investigated the relation between modulation of GABAA receptors by Valerian extracts of different polarity and the content of sesquiterpenic acids (valerenic acid, acetoxyvalerenic acid). All extracts were analysed by HPLC concerning the content of sesquiterpenic acids. GABAA receptors composed of alpha 1, beta 2 and gamma 2S subunits were expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and the modulation of chloride currents through GABAA receptors (IGABA) by Valerian extracts was investigated using the two-microelectrode voltage clamp technique. Apolar extracts induced a significant enhancement of IGABA, whereas polar extracts showed no effect. These results were confirmed by fractionating a highly active ethyl acetate extract: again fractions with high contents of valerenic acid exhibited strong receptor activation. In addition, removal of sesquiterpenic acids from the ethyl acetate extract led to a loss of I (GABA) enhancement. In conclusion, our data show that the extent of GABAA receptor modulation by Valerian extracts is related to the content of valerenic acid. PMID:18095218

Trauner, Gabriele; Khom, Sophia; Baburin, Igor; Benedek, Birgit; Hering, Steffen; Kopp, Brigitte

2008-01-01

420

Behavior of Free Aromatic Amino Acid Pools in Rosmarinic Acid-Producing Cell Cultures of Anchusa officinalis L.  

PubMed

The pool sizes of free l-phenylalanine and l-tyrosine, the precursors of rosmarinic acid in Anchusa officinalis L. cell suspension cultures, fluctuated during the culture cycle. The major increase in pool sizes was preceded by a peak of prephenate aminotransferase activity, while the subsequent decrease coincided with the presence of high activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and tyrosine aminotransferase, the two entrypoint enzymes of the rosmarinic acid biosynthesis pathway. Timecourse feeding studies with linear growth stage cells revealed that the tyrosine pool turned over rapidly, consistent with direct participation in rosmarinic acid synthesis. Since externally applied l-tyrosine was rapidly incorporated into rosmarinic acid with little evidence of radioactively labeled intermediates, it is suggested that there exists a close coupling between the l-tyrosine pool and the rosmarinic acid biosynthetic pathway, which may involve the channelling of intermediates both into and within the pathway. PMID:16666560

De-Eknamkul, W; Ellis, B E

1989-02-01

421

Effects of auxins and cytokinins on growth and rosmarinic acid formation in cell suspension cultures of Anchusa officinalis.  

PubMed

Cell suspension cultures of Anchusa officinalis required exogenous phytohormones for their normal growth. Cell lysis was observed at the third passage in a hormone-free medium. Using hormone - depleted cells, the effects of auxins (2,4-D, NAA, IAA and CFP) and cytokinins (BA, kinetin, and zeatin) on cell growth and RA production were investigated. All auxins tested could maintain growth and integrity of the cells whereas cytokinins alone could not, suggesting that this culture is auxindependent. Among the auxins tested, NAA had a pronounced effect on RA production. The total RA content obtained at optimum NAA concentration (0.25 mg/l) reached 1.7 g/l (12% of dry weight). The kinetics of growth and RA production suggested that the increase in final RA content was due to both an increase in the rate of RA synthesis and initiatio