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Sample records for calibration curve nonlinearity

  1. Calibration Technique Using Nonlinear Region in Cantilever Magnetometry Experiments and Presence of Universal Curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torizuka, Kiyoshi; Tajima, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Gosuke; Inoue, Munenori

    2013-06-01

    We have presented a calibration technique for commercially available atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilevers used in torque magnetometry experiments. The absolute values (J/rad) of the torque can be derived against the output signal, which is the change in piezoresistivity due to the deflection of the cantilever beam. The calibration has been performed using the susceptibility of a graphite plane. The linearity between the output signal and the torque is confirmed up to +/-1×10-8 J/rad of the torque. More importantly, since the nonlinear response of the cantilever is reproducible, we have also utilized the nonlinear region, so that the calibration range has been pushed up to +/-4 ×10-8 J/rad. In the nonlinear range, an important finding is that any curve (torque vs output signal curve) that is cantilever-dependent reduces to a single universal curve, after multiplying an appropriate factor. This factor is cantilever-dependent, but can be derived by rotating the sample-mounted cantilever in a zero magnetic field. We have also proposed a simple model regarding the presence of this universal curve.

  2. Nonlinear Observers for Gyro Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thienel, Julie; Sanner, Robert M.

    2003-01-01

    Nonlinear observers for gyro calibration are presented. The first observer estimates a constant gyro bias. The second observer estimates scale factor errors. The third observer estimates the gyro alignment for three orthogonal gyros. The convergence properties of all three observers are discussed. Additionally, all three observers are coupled with a nonlinear control algorithm. The stability of each of the resulting closed loop systems is analyzed. Simulated test results are presented for each system.

  3. Nonlinear Observers for Gyro Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thienel, Julie; Sanner, Robert M.

    2003-01-01

    High precision estimation and control algorithms, to achieve unprecedented levels of pointing accuracy, will be required to support future formation flying missions such as interferometry missions. Achieving high pointing accuracy requires precise knowledge of the spacecraft rotation rate. Typically, the rotation rate is measured by a gyro. The measured rates can be corrupted by errors in alignment and scale factor, gyro biases, and noise. In this work, we present nonlinear observers for gyro calibration. Nonlinear observers are superior to extended or pseudo-linear Kalman filter type approaches for large errors and global stability. Three nonlinear gyro calibration observers are developed. The first observer estimates a constant gyro bias. The second observer estimates scale factor errors. The third observer estimates the gyro alignment for three orthogonal gyros. The convergence properties of all three observers are discussed. Additionally, all three observers are coupled with a nonlinear control algorithm. The stability of each of the resulting closed loop systems is analyzed. The observers are then combined, and the gyro calibration parameters are estimated simultaneously. The stability of the combined observers is addressed, as well as the stability of the resulting closed loop systems. Simulated test results are presented for each scenario. Finally, the nonlinear observers are compared to a pseudo-linear Kalman filter.

  4. NLINEAR - NONLINEAR CURVE FITTING PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everhart, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    A common method for fitting data is a least-squares fit. In the least-squares method, a user-specified fitting function is utilized in such a way as to minimize the sum of the squares of distances between the data points and the fitting curve. The Nonlinear Curve Fitting Program, NLINEAR, is an interactive curve fitting routine based on a description of the quadratic expansion of the chi-squared statistic. NLINEAR utilizes a nonlinear optimization algorithm that calculates the best statistically weighted values of the parameters of the fitting function and the chi-square that is to be minimized. The inputs to the program are the mathematical form of the fitting function and the initial values of the parameters to be estimated. This approach provides the user with statistical information such as goodness of fit and estimated values of parameters that produce the highest degree of correlation between the experimental data and the mathematical model. In the mathematical formulation of the algorithm, the Taylor expansion of chi-square is first introduced, and justification for retaining only the first term are presented. From the expansion, a set of n simultaneous linear equations are derived, which are solved by matrix algebra. To achieve convergence, the algorithm requires meaningful initial estimates for the parameters of the fitting function. NLINEAR is written in Fortran 77 for execution on a CDC Cyber 750 under NOS 2.3. It has a central memory requirement of 5K 60 bit words. Optionally, graphical output of the fitting function can be plotted. Tektronix PLOT-10 routines are required for graphics. NLINEAR was developed in 1987.

  5. Apollo 16/AS-511/LM-11 operational calibration curves. Volume 1: Calibration curves for command service module CSM 113

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demoss, J. F. (Compiler)

    1971-01-01

    Calibration curves for the Apollo 16 command service module pulse code modulation downlink and onboard display are presented. Subjects discussed are: (1) measurement calibration curve format, (2) measurement identification, (3) multi-mode calibration data summary, (4) pulse code modulation bilevel events listing, and (5) calibration curves for instrumentation downlink and meter link.

  6. Calibration of a detector for nonlinear chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Asnin, Leonid; Galinada, Wilmer; Gotmar, Gustaf; Guiochon, Georges A

    2005-06-01

    In many studies of nonlinear or preparative chromatography, chromatographic signals must be recorded for relatively concentrated solutions and the detectors, that are designed for analytical applications and are highly sensitive, must be used under such experimental conditions that their responses are often nonlinear. Then, a calibration curve is needed to derive the actual concentration profiles of the eluates from the measured detector response. It becomes necessary to derive a relationship between the concentration of the eluent and the detector signal at any given time. The simplest approach consists in preparing a series of solutions of known concentrations and in flushing them successively through the detector cell, recording the height of the plateau response obtained. However, this method requires relatively large amounts of the pure solutes being studied and these are not always available or they may be most costly, although these solutions can be recovered. We describe and validate an alternative procedure providing this calibration from a series of peaks recorded upon the injection of increasingly large pulses of the studied compound.

  7. D Catenary Curve Fitting for Geometric Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, T.-O.; Lichti, D. D.

    2011-09-01

    In modern road surveys, hanging power cables are among the most commonly-found geometric features. These cables are catenary curves that are conventionally modelled with three parameters in 2D Cartesian space. With the advent and popularity of the mobile mapping system (MMS), the 3D point clouds of hanging power cables can be captured within a short period of time. These point clouds, similarly to those of planar features, can be used for feature-based self-calibration of the system assembly errors of an MMS. However, to achieve this, a well-defined 3D equation for the catenary curve is needed. This paper proposes three 3D catenary curve models, each having different parameters. The models are examined by least squares fitting of simulated data and real data captured with an MMS. The outcome of the fitting is investigated in terms of the residuals and correlation matrices. Among the proposed models, one of them could estimate the parameters accurately and without any extreme correlation between the variables. This model can also be applied to those transmission lines captured by airborne laser scanning or any other hanging cable-like objects.

  8. Nonlinear Growth Curves in Developmental Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimm, Kevin J.; Ram, Nilam; Hamagami, Fumiaki

    2011-01-01

    Developmentalists are often interested in understanding change processes, and growth models are the most common analytic tool for examining such processes. Nonlinear growth curves are especially valuable to developmentalists because the defining characteristics of the growth process such as initial levels, rates of change during growth spurts, and…

  9. Reduced Calibration Curve for Proton Computed Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yevseyeva, Olga; de Assis, Joaquim; Evseev, Ivan; Schelin, Hugo; Paschuk, Sergei; Milhoretto, Edney; Setti, João; Díaz, Katherin; Hormaza, Joel; Lopes, Ricardo

    2010-05-01

    The pCT deals with relatively thick targets like the human head or trunk. Thus, the fidelity of pCT as a tool for proton therapy planning depends on the accuracy of physical formulas used for proton interaction with thick absorbers. Although the actual overall accuracy of the proton stopping power in the Bethe-Bloch domain is about 1%, the analytical calculations and the Monte Carlo simulations with codes like TRIM/SRIM, MCNPX and GEANT4 do not agreed with each other. A tentative to validate the codes against experimental data for thick absorbers bring some difficulties: only a few data is available and the existing data sets have been acquired at different initial proton energies, and for different absorber materials. In this work we compare the results of our Monte Carlo simulations with existing experimental data in terms of reduced calibration curve, i.e. the range—energy dependence normalized on the range scale by the full projected CSDA range for given initial proton energy in a given material, taken from the NIST PSTAR database, and on the final proton energy scale—by the given initial energy of protons. This approach is almost energy and material independent. The results of our analysis are important for pCT development because the contradictions observed at arbitrary low initial proton energies could be easily scaled now to typical pCT energies.

  10. Calibrating Curved Crystals Used for Plasma Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Haugh, M. J., Jacoby, K. D., Ross, P. W., Rochau, G. Wu, M., Regan, S. P., Barrios, M. A.

    2012-10-29

    The throughput and resolving power of an X-ray spectrometer that uses a curved crystal as the diffraction element is determined primarily by the crystal X-ray reflectivity properties. This poster presents a measurement technique for these crystal parameters using a simple diode source to produce a narrow spectral band. The results from measurements on concave elliptical polyethylene terephthalate (PET) crystals and convex potassium acid phthalate (KAP) crystals show large variations in the key parameters compared to those from the flat crystal.

  11. Nonlinearity calibrating algorithm for structured light illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kai; Wang, Shuaijun; Lau, Daniel L.; Barner, Kenneth E.; Kiamilev, Fouad

    2014-05-01

    In structured light illumination (SLI), the nonlinear distortion of the optical devices dramatically ruins accuracy of three-dimensional reconstruction when using only a small number of projected patterns. We propose a universal algorithm to calibrate these device nonlinearities to accurately precompensate the patterns. Thus, no postprocessing is needed to correct for the distortions while the number of patterns can be reduced down to as few as possible. Theoretically, the proposed method can be applied to any SLI pattern strategy. Using a three-pattern SLI method, our experimental results will show a 25× to 60× reduction in surface variance for a flat target, depending upon any surface smoothing that might be applied to remove Gaussian noise.

  12. Nonlinear bulging factor based on R-curve data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeong, David Y.; Tong, Pin

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, a nonlinear bulging factor is derived using a strain energy approach combined with dimensional analysis. The functional form of the bulging factor contains an empirical constant that is determined using R-curve data from unstiffened flat and curved panel tests. The determination of this empirical constant is based on the assumption that the R-curve is the same for both flat and curved panels.

  13. Nonlinear normal modes modal interactions and isolated resonance curves

    SciTech Connect

    Kuether, Robert J.; Renson, L.; Detroux, T.; Grappasonni, C.; Kerschen, G.; Allen, M. S.

    2015-05-21

    The objective of the present study is to explore the connection between the nonlinear normal modes of an undamped and unforced nonlinear system and the isolated resonance curves that may appear in the damped response of the forced system. To this end, an energy balance technique is used to predict the amplitude of the harmonic forcing that is necessary to excite a specific nonlinear normal mode. A cantilever beam with a nonlinear spring at its tip serves to illustrate the developments. Furthermore, the practical implications of isolated resonance curves are also discussed by computing the beam response to sine sweep excitations of increasing amplitudes.

  14. Nonlinear normal modes modal interactions and isolated resonance curves

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Kuether, Robert J.; Renson, L.; Detroux, T.; Grappasonni, C.; Kerschen, G.; Allen, M. S.

    2015-05-21

    The objective of the present study is to explore the connection between the nonlinear normal modes of an undamped and unforced nonlinear system and the isolated resonance curves that may appear in the damped response of the forced system. To this end, an energy balance technique is used to predict the amplitude of the harmonic forcing that is necessary to excite a specific nonlinear normal mode. A cantilever beam with a nonlinear spring at its tip serves to illustrate the developments. Furthermore, the practical implications of isolated resonance curves are also discussed by computing the beam response to sine sweepmore » excitations of increasing amplitudes.« less

  15. Using LISREL to Fit Nonlinear Latent Curve Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blozis, Shelley A.; Harring, Jeffrey R.; Mels, Gerhard

    2008-01-01

    Latent curve models offer a flexible approach to the study of longitudinal data when the form of change in a response is nonlinear. This article considers such models that are conditionally linear with regard to the random coefficients at the 2nd level. This framework allows fixed parameters to enter a model linearly or nonlinearly, and random…

  16. Nonlinear dynamical modes of climate variability: from curves to manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilov, Andrey; Mukhin, Dmitry; Loskutov, Evgeny; Feigin, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    The necessity of efficient dimensionality reduction methods capturing dynamical properties of the system from observed data is evident. Recent study shows that nonlinear dynamical mode (NDM) expansion is able to solve this problem and provide adequate phase variables in climate data analysis [1]. A single NDM is logical extension of linear spatio-temporal structure (like empirical orthogonal function pattern): it is constructed as nonlinear transformation of hidden scalar time series to the space of observed variables, i. e. projection of observed dataset onto a nonlinear curve. Both the hidden time series and the parameters of the curve are learned simultaneously using Bayesian approach. The only prior information about the hidden signal is the assumption of its smoothness. The optimal nonlinearity degree and smoothness are found using Bayesian evidence technique. In this work we do further extension and look for vector hidden signals instead of scalar with the same smoothness restriction. As a result we resolve multidimensional manifolds instead of sum of curves. The dimension of the hidden manifold is optimized using also Bayesian evidence. The efficiency of the extension is demonstrated on model examples. Results of application to climate data are demonstrated and discussed. The study is supported by Government of Russian Federation (agreement #14.Z50.31.0033 with the Institute of Applied Physics of RAS). 1. Mukhin, D., Gavrilov, A., Feigin, A., Loskutov, E., & Kurths, J. (2015). Principal nonlinear dynamical modes of climate variability. Scientific Reports, 5, 15510. http://doi.org/10.1038/srep15510

  17. Perturbation approach to dispersion curves calculation for nonlinear Lamb waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Packo, Pawel; Staszewski, Wieslaw J.; Uhl, Tadeusz; Leamy, Michael J.

    2015-05-01

    Analysis of elastic wave propagation in nonlinear media has gained recent research attention due to the recognition of their amplitude-dependent behavior. This creates opportunities for increased accuracy of damage detection and localization, development of new structural monitoring strategies, and design of new structures with desirable acoustic behavior (e.g., amplitude-dependent frequency bandgaps, wave beaming, and filtering). This differs from more traditional nonlinear analysis approaches which target the prediction of higher harmonic growth. Of particular interest in this work is the analysis of amplitude-dependent shifts in Lamb wave dispersion curves. Typically, dispersion curves are calculated for nominally linear material parameters and geometrical features of a waveguide, even when the constitutive law is nonlinear. Instead, this work employs a Lindstedt - Poincare perturbation approach to calculate amplitude-dependent dispersion curves, and shifts thereof, for nonlinearly-elastic plates. As a result, a set of first order corrections to frequency (or equivalently wavenumber) are calculated. These corrections yield significant amplitude dependence in the spectral characteristics of the calculated waves, especially for high frequency waves, which differs fundamentally from linear analyses. Numerical simulations confirm the analytical shifts predicted. Recognition of this amplitude-dependence in Lamb wave dispersion may suggest, among other things, that the analysis of guided wave propagation phenomena within a fully nonlinear framework needs to revisit mode-mode energy flux and higher harmonics generation conditions.

  18. Towards a North Atlantic Marine Radiocarbon Calibration Curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, William; Reimer, Paula; Blaauw, Maarten; Bryant, Charlotte; Rae, James; Burke, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    Service du dejeuner! Twenty years ago, in 1995, I sailed as a post-doctoral researcher based at the University of Edinburgh (UK) on the first scientific mission of the new Marion Dufresne II. In this presentation, I will provide an update on the work that first quantified North Atlantic marine radiocarbon reservoir ages, highlighting how advances in marine tephrochronology over the last twenty years have significantly improved our understanding (and ability to test) land-ice-ocean linkages. The mechanistic link that connects marine radiocarbon reservoir ages to ocean ventilation state will also be discussed with reference to the Younger Dryas climate anomaly, where models and data have been successfully integrated. I will discuss the use of reference chronologies in the North Atlantic region and evaluate the common practice of climate synchronization between the Greenland ice cores and some of the key MD records that are now available. The exceptional quality of the MD giant piston cores and their potential to capture high-resolution last glacial sediment records from the North Atlantic provides an exciting opportunity to build new regional marine radiocarbon calibration curves. I will highlight new efforts by my co-authors and others to build such curves, setting-out a new agenda for the next twenty years of the IMAGES programme.

  19. Classical black holes: the nonlinear dynamics of curved spacetime.

    PubMed

    Thorne, Kip S

    2012-08-01

    Numerical simulations have revealed two types of physical structures, made from curved spacetime, that are attached to black holes: tendexes, which stretch or squeeze anything they encounter, and vortexes, which twist adjacent inertial frames relative to each other. When black holes collide, their tendexes and vortexes interact and oscillate (a form of nonlinear dynamics of curved spacetime). These oscillations generate gravitational waves, which can give kicks up to 4000 kilometers per second to the merged black hole. The gravitational waves encode details of the spacetime dynamics and will soon be observed and studied by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory and its international partners. PMID:22859479

  20. Assessment of the calibration curve for transmittance pulse-oximetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doronin, A.; Fine, I.; Meglinski, I.

    2011-11-01

    Optical/laser modalities provide a broad variety of practical solutions for clinical diagnostics and therapy in a range from imaging of single cells and molecules to non-invasive biopsy of specific biological tissues and organs tomography. Near-infrared transmittance pulse oximetry with laser diodes is the accepted standard in current clinical practice and widely used for noninvasive monitoring of oxygen saturation in arterial blood hemoglobin. Conceptual design of practical pulse oximetry systems requires careful selection of various technical parameters, including intensity, wavelength, beam size and profile of incident laser radiation, size, numerical aperture of the detector, as well as a clear understanding of how the spatial and temporal structural alterations in biological tissues can be linked with and can be distinguished by variations of these parameters. In current letter utilizing state-of-the-art NVIDEA CUDA technology, a new object oriented programming paradigm and on-line solutions we introduce a computational tool applied for human finger transmittance spectra simulation and assessment of calibration curve for near-infrared transmitted pulseoximetry.

  1. Different approaches to multivariate calibration of nonlinear sensor data.

    PubMed

    Dieterle, Frank; Busche, Stefan; Gauglitz, Günter

    2004-10-01

    In this study, different approaches to the multivariate calibration of the vapors of two refrigerants are reported. As the relationships between the time-resolved sensor signals and the concentrations of the analytes are nonlinear, the widely used partial least-squares regression (PLS) fails. Therefore, different methods are used, which are known to be able to deal with nonlinearities present in data. First, the Box-Cox transformation, which transforms the dependent variables nonlinearly, was applied. The second approach, the implicit nonlinear PLS regression, tries to account for nonlinearities by introducing squared terms of the independent variables to the original independent variables. The third approach, quadratic PLS (QPLS), uses a nonlinear quadratic inner relationship for the model instead of a linear relationship such as PLS. Tree algorithms are also used, which split a nonlinear problem into smaller subproblems, which are modeled using linear methods or discrete values. Finally, neural networks are applied, which are able to model any relationship. Different special implementations, like genetic algorithms with neural networks and growing neural networks, are also used to prevent an overfitting. Among the fast and simpler algorithms, QPLS shows good results. Different implementations of neural networks show excellent results. Among the different implementations, the most sophisticated and computing-intensive algorithms (growing neural networks) show the best results. Thus, the optimal method for the data set presented is a compromise between quality of calibration and complexity of the algorithm. PMID:15156303

  2. Multivariate standardisation for non-linear calibration range in the chemiluminescence determination of chromium.

    PubMed

    Tortajada-Genaro, L A; Campíns-Falcó, P

    2007-05-15

    Multivariate standardisation is proposed for the successful chemiluminescence determination of chromium based on luminol-hydrogen peroxide reaction. In an extended concentration range, non-linear calibration model is needed. The studied instrumental situations were different detection cells, instruments, assemblies, time and their possible combinations. Chemiluminescence kinetic registers have been transferred using piecewise direct standardisation (PDS) method. The optimisation of transfer parameters has been carried out based on the prediction residual error criteria. Non-linear principal component regression (NL-PCR) and non-linear partial least square regression (NL-PLS) were chosen for modelling the relationship signal-concentration of transferred registers. Good accuracy and precision were obtained for water samples. The concentrations of chromium were statistically in agreement with reference method values and with recovery studies. Therefore, it is possible to transfer chemiluminescence curves without loosing ability of prediction, even the presence of a non-linear behaviour. PMID:19071716

  3. Nonlinear vibrations of functionally graded doubly curved shallow shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alijani, F.; Amabili, M.; Karagiozis, K.; Bakhtiari-Nejad, F.

    2011-03-01

    Nonlinear forced vibrations of FGM doubly curved shallow shells with a rectangular base are investigated. Donnell's nonlinear shallow-shell theory is used and the shell is assumed to be simply supported with movable edges. The equations of motion are reduced using the Galerkin method to a system of infinite nonlinear ordinary differential equations with quadratic and cubic nonlinearities. Using the multiple scales method, primary and subharmonic resonance responses of FGM shells are fully discussed and the effect of volume fraction exponent on the internal resonance conditions, softening/hardening behavior and bifurcations of the shallow shell when the excitation frequency is (i) near the fundamental frequency and (ii) near two times the fundamental frequency is shown. Moreover, using a code based on arclength continuation method, a bifurcation analysis is carried out for a special case with two-to-one internal resonance between the first and second doubly symmetric modes with respect to the panel's center ( ω13≈2 ω11). Bifurcation diagrams and Poincaré maps are obtained through direct time integration of the equations of motion and chaotic regions are shown by calculating Lyapunov exponents and Lyapunov dimension.

  4. Nonlinear thermoelastic stress analysis of spherically curved solar panels

    SciTech Connect

    Vallabhan, C.V.G.; Vungutur, K.; Selvam, R.P.

    1984-10-01

    Spherically curved glass panels are used to concentrate solar energy onto a line focus in fixed mirror distributed focus type solar collectors. These solar panels consists of thin flat glass plates bent to form a spherical surface, glued onto a paper honeycomb backing, and covered with steel plate at the back and with plastic strips on the sides. Stresses are produced in the glass plates as they are formed into spherical surfaces. In addition, when the solar receiver is not in focus relative to the bowl and the sun, a mirror hot spot condition is developed, resulting in large thermally induced stresses within glass plates. The curved glass panel is modeled as a plate on elastic foundation in order to represent the behavior of the plate in relation to other panel components. Since lateral deflections of these plates are large compared to their thickness, nonlinear von Karman plate equations are used in the analysis. A computer model has been prepared to assist in the nonlinear analysis of stresses using finite difference method. The model has flexibility to analyze a variety of rectangular plate geometries subjected to thermal and other applied loads.

  5. Nonlinear Observers for Gyro Calibration Coupled with a Nonlinear Control Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thienel, Julie; Sanner, Robert M.

    2003-01-01

    Nonlinear observers for gyro calibration are presented. The first observer estimates a constant gyro bias. The second observer estimates scale factor errors. The third observer estimates the gyro alignment for three orthogonal gyros. The observers are then combined. The convergence properties of all three observers, and the combined observers, are discussed. Additionally, all three observers are coupled with a nonlinear control algorithm. The stability of each of the resulting closed loop systems is analyzed. Simulated test results are presented for each system.

  6. Nonlinear problems of the theory of heterogeneous slightly curved shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantor, B. Y.

    1973-01-01

    An account if given of the variational method of the solution of physically and geometrically nonlinear problems of the theory of heterogeneous slightly curved shells. Examined are the bending and supercritical behavior of plates and conical and spherical cupolas of variable thickness in a temperature field, taking into account the dependence of the elastic parameters on temperature. The bending, stability in general and load-bearing capacity of flexible isotropic elastic-plastic shells with different criteria of plasticity, taking into account compressibility and hardening. The effect of the plastic heterogeneity caused by heat treatment, surface work hardening and irradiation by fast neutron flux is investigated. Some problems of the dynamic behavior of flexible shells are solved. Calculations are performed in high approximations. Considerable attention is given to the construction of a machine algorithm and to the checking of the convergence of iterative processes.

  7. How to develop calibration curves for fuel gas

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, C. ); Stevenson, D. )

    1994-09-01

    Stricter environmental laws require online monitoring for fuels and processes and cross-check methods to prove result accuracy. Because refiners must have procedures to validate analyzers, developmental efforts by California refiners have focused on cylinder-concentration and permeation-tube calibration systems. A better understanding of how these standardization methods handle sample quality problems helps refiners find the best reference method. Due to its reactive nature, obtaining and retaining representative samples of sulfur compounds is very difficult. Often found in refinery fuel gas, sulfur plates out as it passes through a gas chromatograph system and falsifies sample results. Unfortunately, refiners must use these results to monitor and validates sulfur concentrations. Permeation tubes can be used for passivation and calibration of gas samples. To passivate a system, gases containing high-sulfur concentrations are introduced so that sulfur adheres to and coats all valves, tubes and injectors. This process ensures that later samples pass to the detector without losing some of their sulfur content through adherence.

  8. Wavelength selection-based nonlinear calibration for transcutaneous blood glucose sensing using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dingari, Narahara Chari; Barman, Ishan; Kang, Jeon Woong; Kong, Chae-Ryon; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Feld, Michael S.

    2011-08-01

    While Raman spectroscopy provides a powerful tool for noninvasive and real time diagnostics of biological samples, its translation to the clinical setting has been impeded by the lack of robustness of spectroscopic calibration models and the size and cumbersome nature of conventional laboratory Raman systems. Linear multivariate calibration models employing full spectrum analysis are often misled by spurious correlations, such as system drift and covariations among constituents. In addition, such calibration schemes are prone to overfitting, especially in the presence of external interferences that may create nonlinearities in the spectra-concentration relationship. To address both of these issues we incorporate residue error plot-based wavelength selection and nonlinear support vector regression (SVR). Wavelength selection is used to eliminate uninformative regions of the spectrum, while SVR is used to model the curved effects such as those created by tissue turbidity and temperature fluctuations. Using glucose detection in tissue phantoms as a representative example, we show that even a substantial reduction in the number of wavelengths analyzed using SVR lead to calibration models of equivalent prediction accuracy as linear full spectrum analysis. Further, with clinical datasets obtained from human subject studies, we also demonstrate the prospective applicability of the selected wavelength subsets without sacrificing prediction accuracy, which has extensive implications for calibration maintenance and transfer. Additionally, such wavelength selection could substantially reduce the collection time of serial Raman acquisition systems. Given the reduced footprint of serial Raman systems in relation to conventional dispersive Raman spectrometers, we anticipate that the incorporation of wavelength selection in such hardware designs will enhance the possibility of miniaturized clinical systems for disease diagnosis in the near future.

  9. Wavelength selection-based nonlinear calibration for transcutaneous blood glucose sensing using Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Dingari, Narahara Chari; Barman, Ishan; Kang, Jeon Woong; Kong, Chae-Ryon; Dasari, Ramachandra R; Feld, Michael S

    2011-08-01

    While Raman spectroscopy provides a powerful tool for noninvasive and real time diagnostics of biological samples, its translation to the clinical setting has been impeded by the lack of robustness of spectroscopic calibration models and the size and cumbersome nature of conventional laboratory Raman systems. Linear multivariate calibration models employing full spectrum analysis are often misled by spurious correlations, such as system drift and covariations among constituents. In addition, such calibration schemes are prone to overfitting, especially in the presence of external interferences that may create nonlinearities in the spectra-concentration relationship. To address both of these issues we incorporate residue error plot-based wavelength selection and nonlinear support vector regression (SVR). Wavelength selection is used to eliminate uninformative regions of the spectrum, while SVR is used to model the curved effects such as those created by tissue turbidity and temperature fluctuations. Using glucose detection in tissue phantoms as a representative example, we show that even a substantial reduction in the number of wavelengths analyzed using SVR lead to calibration models of equivalent prediction accuracy as linear full spectrum analysis. Further, with clinical datasets obtained from human subject studies, we also demonstrate the prospective applicability of the selected wavelength subsets without sacrificing prediction accuracy, which has extensive implications for calibration maintenance and transfer. Additionally, such wavelength selection could substantially reduce the collection time of serial Raman acquisition systems. Given the reduced footprint of serial Raman systems in relation to conventional dispersive Raman spectrometers, we anticipate that the incorporation of wavelength selection in such hardware designs will enhance the possibility of miniaturized clinical systems for disease diagnosis in the near future. PMID:21895336

  10. Monte Carlo Simulations for the Purpose of Efficiency Curve Calibration for the Fastscan Whole Body Counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Hannah Robyn

    In order to be able to qualify and quantify radiation exposure in terms of dose, a Fastscan whole body counter must be calibrated correctly. Current calibration methods do not take the full range of body types into consideration when creating efficiency curve calibrations. The goal of this work is the creation of a Monte Carlo (MCNP) model, that allows the simulation of efficiency curves for a diverse population of subjects. Models were created for both the Darlington and the Pickering Fastscan WBCs, and the simulations were benchmarked against experimental results with good agreement. The Pickering Fastscan was found to have agreement to within +/-9%, and the Darlington Fastscan had agreement to within +/-11%. Further simulations were conducted to investigate the effects of increased body fat on the detected activity, as well as locating the position of external contamination using front/back ratios of activity. Simulations were also conducted to create efficiency calibrations that had good agreement with the manufacturer's efficiency curves. The work completed in this thesis can be used to create efficiency calibration curves for unique body compositions in the future.

  11. Nonlinear Kalman filters for calibration in radio interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasse, C.

    2014-06-01

    The data produced by the new generation of interferometers are affected by a wide variety of partially unknown complex effects such as pointing errors, phased array beams, ionosphere, troposphere, Faraday rotation, or clock drifts. Most algorithms addressing direction-dependent calibration solve for the effective Jones matrices, and cannot constrain the underlying physical quantities of the radio interferometry measurement equation (RIME). A related difficulty is that they lack robustness in the presence of low signal-to-noise ratios, and when solving for moderate to large numbers of parameters they can be subject to ill-conditioning. These effects can have dramatic consequences in the image plane such as source or even thermal noise suppression. The advantage of solvers directly estimating the physical terms appearing in the RIME is that they can potentially reduce the number of free parameters by orders of magnitudes while dramatically increasing the size of usable data, thereby improving conditioning. We present here a new calibration scheme based on a nonlinear version of the Kalman filter that aims at estimating the physical terms appearing in the RIME. We enrich the filter's structure with a tunable data representation model, together with an augmented measurement model for regularization. Using simulations we show that it can properly estimate the physical effects appearing in the RIME. We found that this approach is particularly useful in the most extreme cases such as when ionospheric and clock effects are simultaneously present. Combined with the ability to provide prior knowledge on the expected structure of the physical instrumental effects (expected physical state and dynamics), we obtain a fairly computationally cheap algorithm that we believe to be robust, especially in low signal-to-noise regimes. Potentially, the use of filters and other similar methods can represent an improvement for calibration in radio interferometry, under the condition that

  12. NSLS-II: Nonlinear Model Calibration for Synchrotrons

    SciTech Connect

    Bengtsson, J.

    2010-10-08

    This tech note is essentially a summary of a lecture we delivered to the Acc. Phys. Journal Club Apr, 2010. However, since the estimated accuracy of these methods has been naive and misleading in the field of particle accelerators, i.e., ignores the impact of noise, we will elaborate on this in some detail. A prerequisite for a calibration of the nonlinear Hamiltonian is that the quadratic part has been understood, i.e., that the linear optics for the real accelerator has been calibrated. For synchrotron light source operations, this problem has been solved by the interactive LOCO technique/tool (Linear Optics from Closed Orbits). Before that, in the context of hadron accelerators, it has been done by signal processing of turn-by-turn BPM data. We have outlined how to make a basic calibration of the nonlinear model for synchrotrons. In particular, we have shown how this was done for LEAR, CERN (antiprotons) in the mid-80s. Specifically, our accuracy for frequency estimation was {approx} 1 x 10{sup -5} for 1024 turns (to calibrate the linear optics) and {approx} 1 x 10{sup -4} for 256 turns for tune footprint and betatron spectrum. For a comparison, the estimated tune footprint for stable beam for NSLS-II is {approx}0.1. Since the transverse damping time is {approx}20 msec, i.e., {approx}4,000 turns. There is no fundamental difference for: antiprotons, protons, and electrons in this case. Because the estimated accuracy for these methods in the field of particle accelerators has been naive, i.e., ignoring the impact of noise, we have also derived explicit formula, from first principles, for a quantitative statement. For e.g. N = 256 and 5% noise we obtain {delta}{nu} {approx} 1 x 10{sup -5}. A comparison with the state-of-the-arts in e.g. telecomm and electrical engineering since the 60s is quite revealing. For example, Kalman filter (1960), crucial for the: Ranger, Mariner, and Apollo (including the Lunar Module) missions during the 60s. Or Claude Shannon et al

  13. Nonlinear Latent Curve Models for Multivariate Longitudinal Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blozis, Shelley A.; Conger, Katherine J.; Harring, Jeffrey R.

    2007-01-01

    Latent curve models have become a useful approach to analyzing longitudinal data, due in part to their allowance of and emphasis on individual differences in features that describe change. Common applications of latent curve models in developmental studies rely on polynomial functions, such as linear or quadratic functions. Although useful for…

  14. CABRI Reactor: The fast neutron Hodoscope Calibration curves calculation with MORET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, Franck; Chevalier, Vincent; Venanzi, Damiano

    2014-06-01

    This poster presents the Hodoscope calibration curves calculation with 3D Monte Carlo code MORET. The fast neutron hodoscope is a facility of the CABRI research reactor at Cadarache (FRANCE). This hodoscope is designed to measure the fuel motion during a RIA in a pressurized water reactor. The fuel motion is measured by counting fast fission neutrons emerging from the test fuel placed in an experimental loop functioning like a Pressurized Water Reactor (T=300°C and P=155 bar), at the center of the CABRI core. The detection system of the hodoscope measures a signal which is a function of the fuel motion. The calibration curves allow then to convert the signal in a fuel mass. In order to calculate these curves, we have developed a method based on a Monte Carlo calculation code.

  15. JPSS-1 VIIRS DNB nonlinearity and its impact on SDR calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Shihyan; Wang, Wenhui; Cao, Changyong

    2015-09-01

    During JPSS-1 VIIRS testing at Raytheon El Segundo, a larger than expected radiometric response nonlinearity was discovered in Day-Nigh Band (DNB). In addition, the DNB nonlinearity is aggregation mode dependent, where the most severe non-linear behavior are the aggregation modes used at high scan angles (<~50 degree). The DNB aggregation strategy was subsequently modified to remove modes with the most significant non-linearity. We characterized the DNB radiometric response using pre-launch tests with the modified aggregation strategy. The test data show the DNB non-linearity varies at each gain stages, detectors and aggregation modes. The non-linearity is most significant in the Low Gain Stage (LGS) and could vary from sample-to-sample. The non-linearity is also more significant in EV than in calibration view samples. The HGS nonlinearity is difficult to quantify due to the higher uncertainty in determining source radiance. Since the radiometric response non-linearity is most significant at low dn ranges, it presents challenge in DNB cross-stage calibration, an critical path to calibration DNB's High Gain Stage (HGS) for nighttime imagery. Based on the radiometric characterization, we estimated the DNB on-orbit calibration accuracy and compared the expected DNB calibration accuracy using operational calibration approaches. The analysis showed the non-linearity will result in cross-stage gain ratio bias, and have the most significant impact on HGS. The HGS calibration accuracy can be improved when either SD data or only the more linearly behaved EV pixels are used in cross-stage calibration. Due to constrain in test data, we were not able to achieve a satisfactory accuracy and uniformity for the JPSS-1 DNB nighttime imagery quality. The JPSS-1 DNB nonlinearity is a challenging calibration issue which will likely require special attention after JPSS-1 launch.

  16. LDV measurement of small nonlinearities in flat and curved membranes. A model for eardrum nonlinear acoustic behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilian, Gladiné; Pieter, Muyshondt; Joris, Dirckx

    2016-06-01

    Laser Doppler Vibrometry is an intrinsic highly linear measurement technique which makes it a great tool to measure extremely small nonlinearities in the vibration response of a system. Although the measurement technique is highly linear, other components in the experimental setup may introduce nonlinearities. An important source of artificially introduced nonlinearities is the speaker, which generates the stimulus. In this work, two correction methods to remove the effects of stimulus nonlinearity are investigated. Both correction methods were found to give similar results but have different pros and cons. The aim of this work is to investigate the importance of the conical shape of the eardrum as a source of nonlinearity in hearing. We present measurements on flat and indented membranes. The data shows that the curved membrane exhibit slightly higher levels of nonlinearity compared to the flat membrane.

  17. Extension of working range in Zeeman graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry by nonlinear calibration with prior correction for stray light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lonardo, Robert F.; Yuzefovsky, Alexander I.; Zhou, Jack X.; McCaffrey, John T.; Michel, Robert G.

    1996-09-01

    The nonlinear working range of a Perkin-Elmer 4100Zl atomic absorption spectrometer was improved in three steps. Firstly, each absorbance datum within the transient profile was corrected for the presence of stray light by an algorithm originally developed by L'vov and co-workers (Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 47 (1992) 889-895 and 1187-1202), but with the incorporation of the Newton method of successive approximations (Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 49 (1994) 1643-1656. Secondly, a dip correction procedure was performed on temporal signal profiles that exhibited a dip due to rollover. In the final step, an analytically useful working curve was generated by the nonlinear calibration routine of Barnett (Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 39 (1984) 829). Goodness of fit between the resultant calibration curve and the data was measured by the method suggested by Miller-Ihli et al. (Spectrochim. Acta Part B, 39 (1984) 1603) that is based on the sum of squares of the percentage deviation (SSPD) and the root mean square (RMS) percentage deviation. For lead, silver, copper, thallium, and cadmium, the analytical nonlinear working range was increased by as much as one and a half orders of magnitude, without any significant effect on the RMS. For chromium and manganese, no significant improvement in the nonlinear working range was observed, while the RMS improved by 50%. In the case of nickel, neither the working range nor the RMS was improved.

  18. A weakly nonlinear theory for wave-vortex interactions in curved channel flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, Bart A.; Erlebacher, Gordon; Zang, Thomas A.

    1992-01-01

    A weakly nonlinear theory is developed to study the interaction of Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) waves and Dean vortices in curved channel flow. The predictions obtained from the theory agree well with results obtained from direct numerical simulations of curved channel flow, especially for low amplitude disturbances. Some discrepancies in the results of a previous theory with direct numerical simulations are resolved.

  19. Experimental Study on Nonlinear Vibrations of Fixed-Fixed Curved Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ajay; Patel, B. P.

    2016-07-01

    Nonlinear dynamic behavior of fixed-fixed shallow and deep curved beams is studied experimentally using non-contact type of electromagnetic shaker and acceleration measurements. The frequency response obtained from acceleration measurements is found to be in fairly good agreement with the computational response. The travellingwave phenomenon along with participation of higher harmonics and softening nonlinearity are observed. The experimental results on the internal resonance of curved beams due to direct excitation of anti-symmetric mode are reported for the first time. The deep curved beam depicts chaotic response at higher excitation amplitude.

  20. A curve fitting method for extrinsic camera calibration from a single image of a cylindrical object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, A. W.; Zagar, B. G.

    2013-08-01

    An important step in the process of optical steel coil quality assurance is to measure the proportions of width and radius of steel coils as well as the relative position and orientation of the camera. This work attempts to estimate these extrinsic parameters from single images by using the cylindrical coil itself as the calibration target. Therefore, an adaptive least-squares algorithm is applied to fit parametrized curves to the detected true coil outline in the acquisition. The employed model allows for strictly separating the intrinsic and the extrinsic parameters. Thus, the intrinsic camera parameters can be calibrated beforehand using available calibration software. Furthermore, a way to segment the true coil outline in the acquired images is motivated. The proposed optimization method yields highly accurate results and can be generalized even to measure other solids which cannot be characterized by the identification of simple geometric primitives.

  1. Feasibility analysis on integration of luminous environment measuring and design based on exposure curve calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yuan; Shen, Tianxing

    2013-03-01

    Besides illumination calculating during architecture and luminous environment design, to provide more varieties of photometric data, the paper presents combining relation between luminous environment design and SM light environment measuring system, which contains a set of experiment devices including light information collecting and processing modules, and can offer us various types of photometric data. During the research process, we introduced a simulation method for calibration, which mainly includes rebuilding experiment scenes in 3ds Max Design, calibrating this computer aid design software in simulated environment under conditions of various typical light sources, and fitting the exposure curves of rendered images. As analytical research went on, the operation sequence and points for attention during the simulated calibration were concluded, connections between Mental Ray renderer and SM light environment measuring system were established as well. From the paper, valuable reference conception for coordination between luminous environment design and SM light environment measuring system was pointed out.

  2. Watershed model calibration to the base flow recession curve with and without evapotranspiration effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jepsen, S. M.; Harmon, T. C.; Shi, Y.

    2016-04-01

    Calibration of watershed models to the shape of the base flow recession curve is a way to capture the important relationship between groundwater discharge and subsurface water storage in a catchment. In some montane Mediterranean regions, such as the midelevation Providence Creek catchment in the southern Sierra Nevada of California (USA), nearly all base flow recession occurs after snowmelt, and during this time evapotranspiration (ET) usually exceeds base flow. We assess the accuracy to which watershed models can be calibrated to ET-dominated base flow recession in Providence Creek, both in terms of fitting a discharge time-series and realistically capturing the observed discharge-storage relationship for the catchment. Model parameters estimated from calibrations to ET-dominated recession are compared to parameters estimated from reference calibrations to base flow recession with ET-effects removed ("potential recession"). We employ the Penn State Integrated Hydrologic Model (PIHM) for simulations of base flow and ET, and methods that are otherwise general in nature. In models calibrated to ET-dominated recession, simulation errors in ET and the targeted relationship for recession (-dQ/dt versus Q) contribute substantially (up to 57% and 46%, respectively) to overestimates in the discharge-storage differential, defined as d(lnQ)/dS, relative to that derived from water flux observations. These errors result in overestimates of deep-subsurface hydraulic conductivity in models calibrated to ET-dominated recession, by up to an order of magnitude, relative to reference calibrations to potential recession. These results illustrate a potential opportunity for improving model representation of discharge-storage dynamics by calibrating to the shape of base flow recession after removing the complicating effects of ET.

  3. Fitting Nonlinear Curves by use of Optimization Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Scott A.

    2005-01-01

    MULTIVAR is a FORTRAN 77 computer program that fits one of the members of a set of six multivariable mathematical models (five of which are nonlinear) to a multivariable set of data. The inputs to MULTIVAR include the data for the independent and dependent variables plus the user s choice of one of the models, one of the three optimization engines, and convergence criteria. By use of the chosen optimization engine, MULTIVAR finds values for the parameters of the chosen model so as to minimize the sum of squares of the residuals. One of the optimization engines implements a routine, developed in 1982, that utilizes the Broydon-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (BFGS) variable-metric method for unconstrained minimization in conjunction with a one-dimensional search technique that finds the minimum of an unconstrained function by polynomial interpolation and extrapolation without first finding bounds on the solution. The second optimization engine is a faster and more robust commercially available code, denoted Design Optimization Tool, that also uses the BFGS method. The third optimization engine is a robust and relatively fast routine that implements the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm.

  4. Rhizocarpon calibration curve for the Aoraki/Mount Cook area of New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowell, Thomas V.; Schoenenberger, Katherine; Deddens, James A.; Denton, George H.; Smith, Colby; Black, Jessica; Hendy, Chris H.

    2005-05-01

    Development of Rhizocarpon growth curve from the Aoraki/Mount Cook area of New Zealand provides a means to assess Little Ice Age glacier behaviour and suggests approaches that have wider application. Employing a sampling strategy based on large populations affords the opportunity to assess which of various metrics (e.g. single largest, average of five largest, mean of an entire population) best characterise Rhizocarpon growth patterns. The 98% quantile from each population fitted with a quadric curve forms a reliable representation of the growth pattern. Since this metric does not depend on the original sample size, comparisons are valid where sample strategy must be adapted to local situations or where the original sample size differs. For the Aoraki/Mount Cook area a surface 100 years old will have a 98% quantile lichen diameter of 34.3 mm, whereas a 200-year-old surface will have a lichen diameter of 73.7 mm. In the Southern Alps, constraints from the age range of calibration points, the flattening of the quadric calibration curve and ecological factors limit the useful age range to approximately 250 years. Copyright

  5. The physical origin of sigmoidal respiratory pressure-volume curves: Alveolar recruitment and nonlinear elasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    do Amaral, R. A.; Tavares, D. M.; Lucena, L. S.; Brandão-Neto, J.

    2011-05-01

    An important unsolved problem in medical science concerns the physical origin of the sigmoidal shape of pressure-volume curves of healthy (and some unhealthy) lungs. Conventional wisdom holds that linear response, i.e., Hooke’s law, together with alveolar overdistention play a dominant role in respiration, but such assumptions cannot explain the crucial empirical sigmoidal shape of the curves. Here, we propose a theory of alveolar recruitment together with nonlinear elasticity of the alveoli. The proposed model surprisingly and correctly predicts the observed sigmoidal pressure-volume curves. We discuss the importance of this result and its implications for medical practice.

  6. On Fitting Nonlinear Latent Curve Models to Multiple Variables Measured Longitudinally

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blozis, Shelley A.

    2007-01-01

    This article shows how nonlinear latent curve models may be fitted for simultaneous analysis of multiple variables measured longitudinally using Mx statistical software. Longitudinal studies often involve observation of several variables across time with interest in the associations between change characteristics of different variables measured…

  7. Nonlinear Gompertz Curve Models of Achievement Gaps in Mathematics and Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Claire E.; Grimm, Kevin J.; Steele, Joel S.; Castro-Schilo, Laura; Grissmer, David W.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined achievement trajectories in mathematics and reading from school entry through the end of middle school with linear and nonlinear growth curves in 2 large longitudinal data sets (National Longitudinal Study of Youth--Children and Young Adults and Early Childhood Longitudinal Study--Kindergarten Cohort [ECLS-K]). The S-shaped…

  8. Comparison of proton energy loss in thick absorbers in terms of a reduced calibration curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yevseyeva, O.; de Assis, J. T.; Evseev, I. G.; Schelin, H. R.; Ahmann, F.; Paschuk, S. A.; Milhoretto, E.; Setti, J. A. P.; Diaz, K. S.; Hormaza, J. M.; Lopes, R. T.

    2011-10-01

    Monte Carlo simulations are essential for the support of particle experiments and developments of novel particle registration systems ranging from detectors developed for high-energy physics experiments at CERN to those for medical tomography. For proton beams, popular Monte Carlo codes like TRIM/SRIM, MCNPX and GEANT4 generate very similar final energy spectra for relatively thin absorbers, with differences unlikely to be detected in experiments. For thick absorbers, however, the disagreement is much larger, even for a moderate energy resolution. The reason for this is unclear because the actual overall accuracy of the proton stopping power in the Bethe-Bloch domain is known to be about 1%. One approach to investigate these differences is to compare, for example, the data from the NIST PSTAR and the SRIM reference data tables with the output of the Monte Carlo codes. When the various codes are validated against these tables, the differences in the simulated spectra mainly reflect the differences in the reference tables. Of more practical interest is the validation of the codes against experimental data for thick absorbers. However, only few experimental data sets are available here, and the existing data have been acquired at different initial proton energies and for different absorber materials. In order to compare the results of Monte Carlo simulations with existing experimental data, we applied the so-called reduced calibration method. This reduced calibration curve represents the range-energy dependence normalizing the range scale to the full projected range (for a given initial proton energy in a given material), and the proton energy scale to the given initial proton energy. The advantage of this approach is that the reduced calibration curve is nearly energy and material independent, and, thus, experimental, simulated and published reference data obtained at different energies and for different materials can be compared in one graph.

  9. A Low Processing Cost Adaptive Algorithm Identifying Nonlinear Unknown System with Piecewise Linear Curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Kensaku; Aoki, Ryo; Muneyasu, Mitsuji

    This paper proposes an adaptive algorithm for identifying unknown systems containing nonlinear amplitude characteristics. Usually, the nonlinearity is so small as to be negligible. However, in low cost systems, such as acoustic echo canceller using a small loudspeaker, the nonlinearity deteriorates the performance of the identification. Several methods preventing the deterioration, polynomial or Volterra series approximations, have been hence proposed and studied. However, the conventional methods require high processing cost. In this paper, we propose a method approximating the nonlinear characteristics with a piecewise linear curve and show using computer simulations that the performance can be extremely improved. The proposed method can also reduce the processing cost to only about twice that of the linear adaptive filter system.

  10. Harmonisation of coupled calibration curves to reduce correlated effects in the analysis of natural gas by gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Vargha, Gergely; Milton, Martin; Cox, Maurice; Kamvissis, Sarantis

    2005-01-14

    Quantitative analysis of natural gas depends on the calibration of a gas chromatograph with certified gas mixtures and the determination of a response relationship for each species by regression analysis. The uncertainty in this calibration is dominated by variations in the amount of the sample used for each analysis that are strongly correlated for all species measured in the same run. The "harmonisation" method described here minimises the influence of these correlations on the calculated calibration curves and leads to a reduction in the root-mean-square residual deviations from the fitted curve of a factor between 2 and 5. Consequently, it removes the requirement for each run in the calibration procedure to be carried out under the same external conditions, and opens the possibility that new data, measured under different environmental or instrumental conditions, can be appended to an existing calibration database. PMID:15679161

  11. Solvent free energy curves for electron transfer reactions: A nonlinear solvent response model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichiye, Toshiko

    1996-05-01

    Marcus theory for electron transfer assumes a linear response of the solvent so that both the reactant and product free energy curves are parabolic functions of the solvent polarization, each with the same solvent force constant k characterizing the curvature. Simulation data by other workers indicate that the assumption of parabolic free energy curves is good for the Fe2+-Fe3+ self-exchange reaction but that the k of the reactant and product free energy curves are different for the reaction D0+A0→D1-+A1+. However, the fluctuations sampled in these simulations were not large enough to reach the activation barrier region, which was thus treated either by umbrella sampling or by parabolic extrapolation. Here, we present free energy curves calculated from a simple model of ionic solvation developed in an earlier paper by Hyun, Babu, and Ichiye, which we refer to here as the HBI model. The HBI model describes the nonlinearity of the solvent response due to the orientation of polar solvent molecules. Since it is a continuum model, it may be considered the first-order nonlinear correction to the linear response Born model. Moreover, in the limit of zero charge or infinite radius, the Born model and the Marcus relations are recovered. Here, the full free energy curves are calculated using analytic expressions from the HBI model. The HBI reactant and product curves have different k for D0+A0→D1-+A1+ as in the simulations, but examining the full curves shows they are nonparabolic due to the nonlinear response of the solvent. On the other hand, the HBI curves are close to parabolic for the Fe2+-Fe3+ reaction, also in agreement with simulations, while those for another self-exchange reaction D0-A1+ show greater deviations from parabolic behavior than the Fe2+-Fe3+ reaction. This indicates that transitions from neutral to charged species will have the largest deviations. Thus, the second moment of the polarization is shown to be a measure of the deviation from Marcus

  12. A Calibrated Maxey-Eakin Curve for the Fenner Basin of the Eastern Mojave Desert, California

    SciTech Connect

    Davisson, M.L.; Rose, T.P.

    2000-05-15

    Metropolitan Water District (MWD) of southern California and Cadiz Inc. investigated the feasibility of storing Colorado River water in groundwater aquifers of the eastern Mojave Desert as a future drought mitigation strategy. This culminated in the public release of the Cadiz Groundwater Storage and Dry-Year Supply program Draft EIR, which included pilot percolation studies, groundwater modeling, and precipitation/runoff analysis in the Fenner groundwater basin, which overlies the proposed storage site. The project proposes to store and withdrawal Colorado River water over a 50-year period, but will not exceed the natural replenishment rates of the groundwater basin. Several independent analyses were conducted to estimate the rates of natural groundwater replenishment to the Fenner Groundwater Basin, which was included in the Draft EIR. The US Geologic Survey, Water Resources Division (WRD) officially submitted comments during public review and concluded that the natural groundwater replenishment rates calculated for the Draft EIR were too high. In the WRD review, they provided a much lower recharge calculation based on a Maxey-Eakin estimation approach. This approach estimates annual precipitation over an entire basin as a function of elevation, followed by calibration against annual recharge rates. Recharge rates are estimated on the basis that some fraction of annual precipitation will recharge, and that fraction will increase with increasing elevation. This results in a hypothetical curve relating annual groundwater recharge to annual precipitation. Field validation of recharge rates is critical in order to establish credibility to any estimate. This is due to the fact that the Maxey-Eakin model is empirical. An empirical model is derived from practical experience rather than basic theory. Therefore, a validated Maxey-Eakin model in one groundwater basin does not translate to a different one. In the WRD's Maxey-Eakin model, they used a curve calibrated against

  13. Lmfit: Non-Linear Least-Square Minimization and Curve-Fitting for Python

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newville, Matthew; Stensitzki, Till; Allen, Daniel B.; Rawlik, Michal; Ingargiola, Antonino; Nelson, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Lmfit provides a high-level interface to non-linear optimization and curve fitting problems for Python. Lmfit builds on and extends many of the optimization algorithm of scipy.optimize, especially the Levenberg-Marquardt method from optimize.leastsq. Its enhancements to optimization and data fitting problems include using Parameter objects instead of plain floats as variables, the ability to easily change fitting algorithms, and improved estimation of confidence intervals and curve-fitting with the Model class. Lmfit includes many pre-built models for common lineshapes.

  14. Nonlinear effects and Joule heating in I-V curves in manganites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercone, Silvana; Frésard, Raymond; Caignaert, Vincent; Martin, Christine; Saurel, Damien; Simon, Charles; André, Gilles; Monod, Philippe; Fauth, François

    2005-07-01

    We study the influence of the Joule effect on the nonlinear behavior of the transport I-V curves in polycrystalline samples of the manganite Pr0.8Ca0.2MnO3 by using the crystalline unit-cell parameters as an internal thermometer in x-ray and neutron diffractions. We develop a simple analytical model to estimate the temperature profile in the samples. Under the actual experimental conditions we show that the internal temperature gradient or the difference between the temperature of the sample and that of the thermal bath is at the origin of the nonlinearity observed in the I-V curves. Consequences on other compounds with colossal magnetoresistance are also discussed.

  15. Optimization of the stopping-power-ratio to Hounsfield-value calibration curve in proton and heavy ion therapy.

    PubMed

    Witt, Matthias; Weber, Uli; Kellner, Daniel; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita; Zink, Klemens

    2015-09-01

    For CT-based dose calculation in ion therapy a link between the attenuation coefficients of photons and the stopping-power of particles has to be provided. There are two commonly known approaches to establish such a calibration curve, the stoichiometric calibration and direct measurements with tissue substitutes or animal samples. Both methods were investigated and compared. As input for the stoichiometric calibration the data from ICRP-report 23 were compared to newly available data from ICRP-report 110. By employing the newer data no relevant difference could be observed. The differences between the two acquisition methods (direct measurement and stoichiometric calibration) were systematically analyzed and quantified. The most relevant change was caused by the exchange of carbon and oxygen content in the substitutes in comparison to the data of the ICRP-reports and results in a general overshoot of the Bragg peak. The consequence of the differences between the calibration curves was investigated with treatment planning studies and iso-range surfaces. Range differences up to 6mm in treatment plans of the head were observed. Additionally two improvements are suggested which increase the accuracy of the calibration curve. PMID:25497583

  16. A BAYESIAN METHOD FOR CALCULATING REAL-TIME QUANTITATIVE PCR CALIBRATION CURVES USING ABSOLUTE PLASMID DNA STANDARDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In real-time quantitative PCR studies using absolute plasmid DNA standards, a calibration curve is developed to estimate an unknown DNA concentration. However, potential differences in the amplification performance of plasmid DNA compared to genomic DNA standards are often ignore...

  17. Nonlinear I-V Curve at a Quantum Impurity Quantum Critical Point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranger, Harold; Chung, Chung-Hou; Lin, Chao-Yun; Zhang, Gu; Ke, Chung-Ting; Finkelstein, Gleb

    The nonlinear I-V curve at an interacting quantum critical point (QCP) is typically out of reach theoretically. Here, however, we provide a striking example of an analytical calculation of the full nonlinear I-V curve at the QCP. The system that we consider is a quantum dot coupled to resistive leads - a spinless resonant level interacting with an ohmic EM environment in which a QCP similar to the two-channel Kondo QCP occurs. Recent experiments studied this criticality via transport measurements: the transmission approaches unity at low temperature and applied bias when tuned exactly to the QCP (on resonance and symmetric tunnel barriers) and approaches zero in all other cases. To obtain the current at finite temperature and arbitrary bias, we write the problem as a one-dimensional field theory and transform from electrons in the left/right leads to right-going and left-going channels between which there is weak two-body backscattering. Drawing on dynamical Coulomb blockade theory, we thus obtain an analytical expression for the full I-V curve. The agreement with the experimental result is remarkable.

  18. [Application of calibration curve method and partial least squares regression analysis to quantitative analysis of nephrite samples using XRF].

    PubMed

    Liu, Song; Su, Bo-min; Li, Qing-hui; Gan, Fu-xi

    2015-01-01

    The authors tried to find a method for quantitative analysis using pXRF without solid bulk stone/jade reference samples. 24 nephrite samples were selected, 17 samples were calibration samples and the other 7 are test samples. All the nephrite samples were analyzed by Proton induced X-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE) quantitatively. Based on the PIXE results of calibration samples, calibration curves were created for the interested components/elements and used to analyze the test samples quantitatively; then, the qualitative spectrum of all nephrite samples were obtained by pXRF. According to the PIXE results and qualitative spectrum of calibration samples, partial least square method (PLS) was used for quantitative analysis of test samples. Finally, the results of test samples obtained by calibration method, PLS method and PIXE were compared to each other. The accuracy of calibration curve method and PLS method was estimated. The result indicates that the PLS method is the alternate method for quantitative analysis of stone/jade samples. PMID:25993858

  19. Modified Hyperspheres Algorithm to Trace Homotopy Curves of Nonlinear Circuits Composed by Piecewise Linear Modelled Devices

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez-Leal, H.; Jimenez-Fernandez, V. M.; Benhammouda, B.; Filobello-Nino, U.; Sarmiento-Reyes, A.; Ramirez-Pinero, A.; Marin-Hernandez, A.; Huerta-Chua, J.

    2014-01-01

    We present a homotopy continuation method (HCM) for finding multiple operating points of nonlinear circuits composed of devices modelled by using piecewise linear (PWL) representations. We propose an adaptation of the modified spheres path tracking algorithm to trace the homotopy trajectories of PWL circuits. In order to assess the benefits of this proposal, four nonlinear circuits composed of piecewise linear modelled devices are analysed to determine their multiple operating points. The results show that HCM can find multiple solutions within a single homotopy trajectory. Furthermore, we take advantage of the fact that homotopy trajectories are PWL curves meant to replace the multidimensional interpolation and fine tuning stages of the path tracking algorithm with a simple and highly accurate procedure based on the parametric straight line equation. PMID:25184157

  20. Single Cell Wall Nonlinear Mechanics Revealed by a Multiscale Analysis of AFM Force-Indentation Curves.

    PubMed

    Digiuni, Simona; Berne-Dedieu, Annik; Martinez-Torres, Cristina; Szecsi, Judit; Bendahmane, Mohammed; Arneodo, Alain; Argoul, Françoise

    2015-05-01

    Individual plant cells are rather complex mechanical objects. Despite the fact that their wall mechanical strength may be weakened by comparison with their original tissue template, they nevertheless retain some generic properties of the mother tissue, namely the viscoelasticity and the shape of their walls, which are driven by their internal hydrostatic turgor pressure. This viscoelastic behavior, which affects the power-law response of these cells when indented by an atomic force cantilever with a pyramidal tip, is also very sensitive to the culture media. To our knowledge, we develop here an original analyzing method, based on a multiscale decomposition of force-indentation curves, that reveals and quantifies for the first time the nonlinearity of the mechanical response of living single plant cells upon mechanical deformation. Further comparing the nonlinear strain responses of these isolated cells in three different media, we reveal an alteration of their linear bending elastic regime in both hyper- and hypotonic conditions. PMID:25954881

  1. Modified hyperspheres algorithm to trace homotopy curves of nonlinear circuits composed by piecewise linear modelled devices.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Leal, H; Jimenez-Fernandez, V M; Benhammouda, B; Filobello-Nino, U; Sarmiento-Reyes, A; Ramirez-Pinero, A; Marin-Hernandez, A; Huerta-Chua, J

    2014-01-01

    We present a homotopy continuation method (HCM) for finding multiple operating points of nonlinear circuits composed of devices modelled by using piecewise linear (PWL) representations. We propose an adaptation of the modified spheres path tracking algorithm to trace the homotopy trajectories of PWL circuits. In order to assess the benefits of this proposal, four nonlinear circuits composed of piecewise linear modelled devices are analysed to determine their multiple operating points. The results show that HCM can find multiple solutions within a single homotopy trajectory. Furthermore, we take advantage of the fact that homotopy trajectories are PWL curves meant to replace the multidimensional interpolation and fine tuning stages of the path tracking algorithm with a simple and highly accurate procedure based on the parametric straight line equation. PMID:25184157

  2. Single Cell Wall Nonlinear Mechanics Revealed by a Multiscale Analysis of AFM Force-Indentation Curves

    PubMed Central

    Digiuni, Simona; Berne-Dedieu, Annik; Martinez-Torres, Cristina; Szecsi, Judit; Bendahmane, Mohammed; Arneodo, Alain; Argoul, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Individual plant cells are rather complex mechanical objects. Despite the fact that their wall mechanical strength may be weakened by comparison with their original tissue template, they nevertheless retain some generic properties of the mother tissue, namely the viscoelasticity and the shape of their walls, which are driven by their internal hydrostatic turgor pressure. This viscoelastic behavior, which affects the power-law response of these cells when indented by an atomic force cantilever with a pyramidal tip, is also very sensitive to the culture media. To our knowledge, we develop here an original analyzing method, based on a multiscale decomposition of force-indentation curves, that reveals and quantifies for the first time the nonlinearity of the mechanical response of living single plant cells upon mechanical deformation. Further comparing the nonlinear strain responses of these isolated cells in three different media, we reveal an alteration of their linear bending elastic regime in both hyper- and hypotonic conditions. PMID:25954881

  3. Improved calibration of the nonlinear regime of a single-beam gradient optical trap.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Jamianne C; Lopez, Benjamin J; Campàs, Otger; Valentine, Megan T

    2016-05-15

    We report an improved method for calibrating the nonlinear region of a single-beam gradient optical trap. Through analysis of the position fluctuations of a trapped object that is displaced from the trap center by controlled flow we measure the local trap stiffness in both the linear and nonlinear regimes without knowledge of the magnitude of the applied external forces. This approach requires only knowledge of the system temperature, and is especially useful for measurements involving trapped objects of unknown size, or objects in a fluid of unknown viscosity. PMID:27177009

  4. Semi-analytical expression of stochastic closed curve attractors in nonlinear dynamical systems under weak noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Kongming; Jiang, Jun; Xu, Yalan

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a simple but accurate semi-analytical method to approximate probability density function of stochastic closed curve attractors is proposed. The expression of distribution applies to systems with strong nonlinearities, while only weak noise condition is needed. With the understanding that additive noise does not change the longitudinal distribution of the attractors, the high-dimensional probability density distribution is decomposed into two low-dimensional distributions: the longitudinal and the transverse probability density distributions. The longitudinal distribution can be calculated from the deterministic systems, while the probability density in the transverse direction of the curve can be approximated by the stochastic sensitivity function method. The effectiveness of this approach is verified by comparing the expression of distribution with the results of Monte Carlo numerical simulations in several planar systems.

  5. Interactive application of quadratic expansion of chi-square statistic to nonlinear curve fitting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badavi, F. F.; Everhart, Joel L.

    1987-01-01

    This report contains a detailed theoretical description of an all-purpose, interactive curve-fitting routine that is based on P. R. Bevington's description of the quadratic expansion of the Chi-Square statistic. The method is implemented in the associated interactive, graphics-based computer program. Taylor's expansion of Chi-Square is first introduced, and justifications for retaining only the first term are presented. From the expansion, a set of n simultaneous linear equations is derived, then solved by matrix algebra. A brief description of the code is presented along with a limited number of changes that are required to customize the program of a particular task. To evaluate the performance of the method and the goodness of nonlinear curve fitting, two typical engineering problems are examined and the graphical and tabular output of each is discussed. A complete listing of the entire package is included as an appendix.

  6. Differential evolution algorithm for nonlinear inversion of high-frequency Rayleigh wave dispersion curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xianhai; Li, Lei; Zhang, Xueqiang; Huang, Jianquan; Shi, Xinchun; Jin, Si; Bai, Yiming

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, Rayleigh waves are gaining popularity to obtain near-surface shear (S)-wave velocity profiles. However, inversion of Rayleigh wave dispersion curves is challenging for most local-search methods due to its high nonlinearity and to its multimodality. In this study, we proposed and tested a new Rayleigh wave dispersion curve inversion scheme based on differential evolution (DE) algorithm. DE is a novel stochastic search approach that possesses several attractive advantages: (1) Capable of handling non-differentiable, non-linear and multimodal objective functions because of its stochastic search strategy; (2) Parallelizability to cope with computation intensive objective functions without being time consuming by using a vector population where the stochastic perturbation of the population vectors can be done independently; (3) Ease of use, i.e. few control variables to steer the minimization/maximization by DE's self-organizing scheme; and (4) Good convergence properties. The proposed inverse procedure was applied to nonlinear inversion of fundamental-mode Rayleigh wave dispersion curves for near-surface S-wave velocity profiles. To evaluate calculation efficiency and stability of DE, we firstly inverted four noise-free and four noisy synthetic data sets. Secondly, we investigated effects of the number of layers on DE algorithm and made an uncertainty appraisal analysis by DE algorithm. Thirdly, we made a comparative analysis with genetic algorithms (GA) by a synthetic data set to further investigate the performance of the proposed inverse procedure. Finally, we inverted a real-world example from a waste disposal site in NE Italy to examine the applicability of DE on Rayleigh wave dispersion curves. Furthermore, we compared the performance of the proposed approach to that of GA to further evaluate scores of the inverse procedure described here. Results from both synthetic and actual field data demonstrate that differential evolution algorithm applied

  7. Scanning Electron Microscope Calibration Using a Multi-Image Non-Linear Minimization Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Le; Marchand, Éric

    2015-04-01

    A scanning electron microscope (SEM) calibrating approach based on non-linear minimization procedure is presented in this article. A part of this article has been published in IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), 2014. . Both the intrinsic parameters and the extrinsic parameters estimations are achieved simultaneously by minimizing the registration error. The proposed approach considers multi-images of a multi-scale calibration pattern view from different positions and orientations. Since the projection geometry of the scanning electron microscope is different from that of a classical optical sensor, the perspective projection model and the parallel projection model are considered and compared with distortion models. Experiments are realized by varying the position and the orientation of a multi-scale chessboard calibration pattern from 300× to 10,000×. The experimental results show the efficiency and the accuracy of this approach.

  8. A simple method for wind tunnel balance calibration including non-linear interaction terms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaswamy, M. A.; Srinivas, T.; Holla, V. S.

    The conventional method for calibrating wind tunnel balances to obtain the coupled linear and nonlinear interaction terms requires the application of combinations of pure components of the loads on the calibration body compensating the deflection of the balance. For a six-component balance, this calls for a complex loading system and an arrangement to translate and tilt the balance support about all three axes. A simple method called the least-square method is illustrated for a three-component balance. The simplicity arises from the fact that application of the pure components of the loads or reorientation of the balance is not required. A single load is applied that has various components whose magnitudes can be easily found knowing the orientation of the calibration body under load and the point of application of the load. The coefficients are obtained by using the least-square-fit approach to match the outputs obtained for various combinations of load.

  9. Nonlinear Analysis and Post-Test Correlation for a Curved PRSEUS Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, Kevin; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Jegley, Dawn; Neal, Albert L.; Linton, Kim, A.; Bergan, Andrew C.; Bakuckas, John G., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) concept, developed by The Boeing Company, has been extensively studied as part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA s) Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) Program. The PRSEUS concept provides a light-weight alternative to aluminum or traditional composite design concepts and is applicable to traditional-shaped fuselage barrels and wings, as well as advanced configurations such as a hybrid wing body or truss braced wings. Therefore, NASA, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and The Boeing Company partnered in an effort to assess the performance and damage arrestments capabilities of a PRSEUS concept panel using a full-scale curved panel in the FAA Full-Scale Aircraft Structural Test Evaluation and Research (FASTER) facility. Testing was conducted in the FASTER facility by subjecting the panel to axial tension loads applied to the ends of the panel, internal pressure, and combined axial tension and internal pressure loadings. Additionally, reactive hoop loads were applied to the skin and frames of the panel along its edges. The panel successfully supported the required design loads in the pristine condition and with a severed stiffener. The panel also demonstrated that the PRSEUS concept could arrest the progression of damage including crack arrestment and crack turning. This paper presents the nonlinear post-test analysis and correlation with test results for the curved PRSEUS panel. It is shown that nonlinear analysis can accurately calculate the behavior of a PRSEUS panel under tension, pressure and combined loading conditions.

  10. Nonlinear and Buckling Behavior of Curved Panels Subjected to Combined Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilburger, Mark W.; Nemeth, Michael P.; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    The results of an analytical study of the nonlinear and buckling response characteristics of curved panels subjected to combined loads are presented. Aluminum and laminated composite panels are considered in the study and a flat and shallow curved panel configurations are considered as well. The panels are subjected to combined axial compression and transverse tension or compression loads or combined axial compression and inplane shear loads. Results illustrating the effects of various combined load states on the buckling response of the panels are presented. In addition, results illustrating the effects of laminate orthotropy and anisotropy and panel curvature on the panel response are presented. The results indicate that panel curvature can have a significant effect on the nonlinear and buckling behavior of the panels subjected to combined loads. Results are included that show that geometrically perfect panels do not exhibit bifurcation points for some combined loads. Results are also presented that show the effects of laminate orthotropy and anisotropy on the interaction of combined loads.

  11. Correspondence between energy levels and evolution curves of fixed points in nonlinear Landau-Zener model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xuan-Zuo; Tian, Dong-Ping; Chong, Bo

    2016-06-01

    Liu et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(17), 170404 (2003)] proved that the characters of transition probabilities in the adiabatic limit should be entirely determined by the topology of energy levels and the stability of fixed points in the classical Hamiltonian system, according to the adiabatic theorem. In the special case of nonlinear Landau-Zener model, we simplify their results to be that the properties of transition probabilities in the adiabatic limit should just be determined by the attributes of fixed points. It is because the topology of energy levels is governed by the behavior and symmetries of fixed points, and intuitively this fact is represented as a correspondence between energy levels and evolution curves of the fixed points which can be quantitatively described as the same complexity numbers.

  12. Linearization of calibration curves by aerosol carrier effect of CCl 4 vapor in electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kántor, Tibor; de Loos-Vollebregt, Margaretha T. C.

    2005-03-01

    Carbon tetrachloride vapor as gaseous phase modifier in a graphite furnace electrothermal vaporizer (GFETV) converts heavy volatile analyte forms to volatile and medium volatile chlorides and produces aerosol carrier effect, the latter being a less generally recognized benefit. However, the possible increase of polyatomic interferences in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (GFETV-ICP-MS) by chlorine and carbon containing species due to CCl 4 vapor introduction has been discouraging with the use of low resolution, quadrupole type MS equipment. Being aware of this possible handicap, it was aimed at to investigate the feasibility of the use of this halogenating agent in ICP-MS with regard of possible hazards to the instrument, and also to explore the advantages under these specific conditions. With sample gas flow (inner gas flow) rate not higher than 900 ml min -1 Ar in the torch and 3 ml min -1 CCl 4 vapor flow rate in the furnace, the long-term stability of the instrument was ensured and the following benefits by the halocarbon were observed. The non-linearity error (defined in the text) of the calibration curves (signal versus mass functions) with matrix-free solution standards was 30-70% without, and 1-5% with CCl 4 vapor introduction, respectively, at 1 ng mass of Cu, Fe, Mn and Pb analytes. The sensitivity for these elements increased by 2-4-fold with chlorination, while the relative standard deviation (RSD) was essentially the same (2-5%) for the two cases in comparison. A vaporization temperature of 2650 °C was required for Cr in Ar atmosphere, while 2200 °C was sufficient in Ar + CCl 4 atmosphere to attain complete vaporization. Improvements in linear response and sensitivity were the highest for this least volatile element. The pyrolytic graphite layer inside the graphite tube was protected by the halocarbon, and tube life time was further increased by using traces of hydrocarbon vapor in the external sheath gas of the graphite furnace. Details

  13. Combining biomarkers linearly and nonlinearly for classification using the area under the ROC curve.

    PubMed

    Fong, Youyi; Yin, Shuxin; Huang, Ying

    2016-09-20

    In biomedical studies, it is often of interest to classify/predict a subject's disease status based on a variety of biomarker measurements. A commonly used classification criterion is based on area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Many methods have been proposed to optimize approximated empirical AUC criteria, but there are two limitations to the existing methods. First, most methods are only designed to find the best linear combination of biomarkers, which may not perform well when there is strong nonlinearity in the data. Second, many existing linear combination methods use gradient-based algorithms to find the best marker combination, which often result in suboptimal local solutions. In this paper, we address these two problems by proposing a new kernel-based AUC optimization method called ramp AUC (RAUC). This method approximates the empirical AUC loss function with a ramp function and finds the best combination by a difference of convex functions algorithm. We show that as a linear combination method, RAUC leads to a consistent and asymptotically normal estimator of the linear marker combination when the data are generated from a semiparametric generalized linear model, just as the smoothed AUC method. Through simulation studies and real data examples, we demonstrate that RAUC outperforms smooth AUC in finding the best linear marker combinations, and can successfully capture nonlinear pattern in the data to achieve better classification performance. We illustrate our method with a dataset from a recent HIV vaccine trial. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27058981

  14. Scaling the Non-linear Impact Response of Flat and Curved Composite Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambur, Damodar R.; Chunchu, Prasad B.; Rose, Cheryl A.; Feraboli, Paolo; Jackson, Wade C.

    2005-01-01

    The application of scaling laws to thin flat and curved composite panels exhibiting nonlinear response when subjected to low-velocity transverse impact is investigated. Previous research has shown that the elastic impact response of structural configurations exhibiting geometrically linear response can be effectively scaled. In the present paper, a preliminary experimental study is presented to assess the applicability of the scaling laws to structural configurations exhibiting geometrically nonlinear deformations. The effect of damage on the scalability of the structural response characteristics, and the effect of scale on damage development are also investigated. Damage is evaluated using conventional methods including C-scan, specimen de-plying and visual inspection of the impacted panels. Coefficient of restitution and normalized contact duration are also used to assess the extent of damage. The results confirm the validity of the scaling parameters for elastic impacts. However, for the panels considered in the study, the extent and manifestation of damage do not scale according to the scaling laws. Furthermore, the results indicate that even though the damage does not scale, the overall panel response characteristics, as indicated by contact force profiles, do scale for some levels of damage.

  15. A truncated Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm for the calibration of highly parameterized nonlinear models

    SciTech Connect

    Finsterle, S.; Kowalsky, M.B.

    2010-10-15

    We propose a modification to the Levenberg-Marquardt minimization algorithm for a more robust and more efficient calibration of highly parameterized, strongly nonlinear models of multiphase flow through porous media. The new method combines the advantages of truncated singular value decomposition with those of the classical Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, thus enabling a more robust solution of underdetermined inverse problems with complex relations between the parameters to be estimated and the observable state variables used for calibration. The truncation limit separating the solution space from the calibration null space is re-evaluated during the iterative calibration process. In between these re-evaluations, fewer forward simulations are required, compared to the standard approach, to calculate the approximate sensitivity matrix. Truncated singular values are used to calculate the Levenberg-Marquardt parameter updates, ensuring that safe small steps along the steepest-descent direction are taken for highly correlated parameters of low sensitivity, whereas efficient quasi-Gauss-Newton steps are taken for independent parameters with high impact. The performance of the proposed scheme is demonstrated for a synthetic data set representing infiltration into a partially saturated, heterogeneous soil, where hydrogeological, petrophysical, and geostatistical parameters are estimated based on the joint inversion of hydrological and geophysical data.

  16. Growth curve by Gompertz nonlinear regression model in female and males in tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum).

    PubMed

    De Mello, Fernanda; Oliveira, Carlos A L; Ribeiro, Ricardo P; Resende, Emiko K; Povh, Jayme A; Fornari, Darci C; Barreto, Rogério V; McManus, Concepta; Streit, Danilo

    2015-01-01

    Was evaluated the pattern of growth among females and males of tambaqui by Gompertz nonlinear regression model. Five traits of economic importance were measured on 145 animals during the three years, totaling 981 morphometric data analyzed. Different curves were adjusted between males and females for body weight, height and head length and only one curve was adjusted to the width and body length. The asymptotic weight (a) and relative growth rate to maturity (k) were different between sexes in animals with ± 5 kg; slaughter weight practiced by a specific niche market, very profitable. However, there was no difference between males and females up to ± 2 kg; slaughter weight established to supply the bigger consumer market. Females showed weight greater than males (± 280 g), which are more suitable for fish farming purposes defined for the niche market to larger animals. In general, males had lower maximum growth rate (8.66 g / day) than females (9.34 g / day), however, reached faster than females, 476 and 486 days growth rate, respectively. The height and length body are the traits that contributed most to the weight at 516 days (P <0.001). PMID:26628036

  17. High-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry: Linearization of the calibration curves within a broad concentration range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katskov, Dmitri; Hlongwane, Miranda; Heitmann, Uwe; Florek, Stefan

    2012-05-01

    The calculation algorithm suggested provides linearization of the calibration curves in high-resolution continuum source electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The algorithm is based on the modification of the function wavelength-integrated absorbance vs. concentration of analyte vapor in the absorption volume. According to the suggested approach, the absorption line is represented by a triangle for low and trapezium for high analyte vapor concentration in the absorption volume. The respective semi-empirical formulas include two linearization parameters, which depend on properties of the absorption line and characteristics of the atomizer and spectrometer. The parameters can be approximately evaluated from the theory and determined in practice from the original broad-range calibration curve. The parameters were found and the proposed calculation algorithm verified in the experiments on direct determination of Ag, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Pb in the solutions within a concentration ranges from 0.15 to 625 μg·L- 1 using tube, platform tube and filter furnace atomizers. The use of various atomizers, lines, elements and atomization temperatures made possible the simulation of various practical analytical conditions. It was found that the algorithm and optimal linearization parameters made it possible to obtain for each line and atomizer linear approximations of the calibration curves within 3-4 orders of magnitude with correlation coefficients close to 0.999. The algorithm makes possible to employ a single line for the direct element determination over a broad concentration range. The sources of errors and the possibility of a priori theoretical evaluation of the linearization parameters are discussed.

  18. A Computer Program for Calculation of Calibration Curves for Quantitative X-Ray Diffraction Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Frank N.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a FORTRAN IV program written to supplement a laboratory exercise dealing with quantitative x-ray diffraction analysis of mixtures of polycrystalline phases in an introductory course in x-ray diffraction. Gives an example of the use of the program and compares calculated and observed calibration data. (Author/GS)

  19. Estimating of a nonlinear power curve for a Wind Turbine Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calif, R.; Schmitt, F. G.

    2012-04-01

    The output power from a Wind Turbine Generator (WTG) is an intermittent resource, due to the high variability of the atmospheric wind at all spatial or temporal scales ranging from large scale variations to very short variations. Generally, a function transfer or a power curve of WTG is estimated with the IEC standard 61400 - 12 giving a relation of coupling between the measured wind speed and the output power for the considered WTG. However, this relation is a statistical representation and not takes into account the dynamics of the power output, more precisely on small time scales. The goal is to provide a method to estimate and to model the function transfer of a WTG, in order to synthesize the output power mimicking the statistical and the dynamical properties of the real output power. For that, we study the statistics of power curve in the multifractal framework motivated by the presence of spectral scaling for the wind speed and the output power data from a WTG. The first step consists to quantify the power curve or the transfer function of two intermittent stochastic processes such as the wind speed u(t) and the output power p(t) at all temporal scales and at all intensities. In this study, firstly, we define the time increment of the wind speed measurement u'(t) = u(t + τ) - u(t) and the time increment of the output power measurement p'(t) = p(t + τ) - p(t) characterized by mth and nth order structure functions to estimate the exponent functions ζu'(m) and ζp'(n) that characterize respectively the multifractal properties of the wind speed fluctuations u'(t) and the output power fluctuations p'(t) from the WTG. The exponent function ζ defines the types of scaling behavior of a process: if ζ is linear the statistical behavior is monoscaling corresponding to a monofractal process. If ζ is nonlinear and concave, the statistical behavior is multiscaling corresponding to a multifractal process. The concavity of this function is a characteristic of the

  20. Automatable on-line generation of calibration curves and standard additions in solution-cathode glow discharge optical emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Andrew J.; Ray, Steven J.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    2015-03-01

    Two methods are described that enable on-line generation of calibration standards and standard additions in solution-cathode glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (SCGD-OES). The first method employs a gradient high-performance liquid chromatography pump to perform on-line mixing and delivery of a stock standard, sample solution, and diluent to achieve a desired solution composition. The second method makes use of a simpler system of three peristaltic pumps to perform the same function of on-line solution mixing. Both methods can be computer-controlled and automated, and thereby enable both simple and standard-addition calibrations to be rapidly performed on-line. Performance of the on-line approaches is shown to be comparable to that of traditional methods of sample preparation, in terms of calibration curves, signal stability, accuracy, and limits of detection. Potential drawbacks to the on-line procedures include signal lag between changes in solution composition and pump-induced multiplicative noise. Though the new on-line methods were applied here to SCGD-OES to improve sample throughput, they are not limited in application to only SCGD-OES-any instrument that samples from flowing solution streams (flame atomic absorption spectrometry, ICP-OES, ICP-mass spectrometry, etc.) could benefit from them.

  1. Quantifying the Antibody Binding on Protein Microarrays using Microarray Nonlinear Calibration

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaobo; Wallstrom, Garrick; Magee, Dewey Mitchell; Qiu, Ji; Mendoza, D. Eliseo A.; Wang, Jie; Bian, Xiaofang; Graves, Morgan; LaBaer, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    To address the issue of quantification for antibody assays with protein microarrays, we firstly developed a Microarray Nonlinear Calibration (MiNC) method that applies in the quantification of antibody binding to the surface of microarray spots. We found that MiNC significantly increased the linear dynamic range and reduced assay variations. A serological analysis of guinea pig Mycobacterium tuberculosis models showed that a larger number of putative antigen targets were identified with MiNC, which is consistent with the improved assay performance of protein microarrays. We expect that our cumulative results will provide scientists with a new appreciation of antibody assays with protein microarrays. Our MiNC method has the potential to be employed in biomedical research with multiplex antibody assays which need quantitation, including the discovery of antibody biomarkers, clinical diagnostics with multi-antibody signatures and construction of immune mathematical models. PMID:23662896

  2. Linear and Nonlinear Calibration Methods for Predicting Mechanical Properties of Polypropylene Pellets Using Raman Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Banquet-Terán, Julio; Johnson-Restrepo, Boris; Hernández-Morelo, Alveiro; Ropero, Jorge; Fontalvo-Gomez, Miriam; Romañach, Rodolfo J

    2016-07-01

    A nondestructive and faster methodology to quantify mechanical properties of polypropylene (PP) pellets, obtained from an industrial plant, was developed with Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectra data were obtained from several types of samples such as homopolymer PP, random ethylene-propylene copolymer, and impact ethylene-propylene copolymer. Multivariate calibration models were developed by relating the changes in the Raman spectra to mechanical properties determined by ASTM tests (Young's traction modulus, tensile strength at yield, elongation at yield on traction, and flexural modulus at 1% secant). Several strategies were evaluated to build robust models including the use of preprocessing methods (baseline correction, vector normalization, de-trending, and standard normal variate), selecting the best subset of wavelengths to model property response and discarding irrelevant variables by applying genetic algorithm (GA). Linear multivariable models were investigated such as partial least square regression (PLS) and PLS with genetic algorithm (GA-PLS) while nonlinear models were implemented with artificial neural network (ANN) preceded by GA (GA-ANN). The best multivariate calibration models were obtained when a combination of genetic algorithms and artificial neural network were used on Raman spectral data with relative standard errors (%RSE) from 0.17 to 0.41 for training and 0.42 to 0.88% validation data sets. PMID:27287847

  3. Multigrid solution of the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation and calculation of titration curves.

    PubMed Central

    Oberoi, H; Allewell, N M

    1993-01-01

    Although knowledge of the pKa values and charge states of individual residues is critical to understanding the role of electrostatic effects in protein structure and function, calculating these quantities is challenging because of the sensitivity of these parameters to the position and distribution of charges. Values for many different proteins which agree well with experimental results have been obtained with modified Tanford-Kirkwood theory in which the protein is modeled as a sphere (reviewed in Ref. 1); however, convergence is more difficult to achieve with finite difference methods, in which the protein is mapped onto a grid and derivatives of the potential function are calculated as differences between the values of the function at grid points (reviewed in Ref. 6). Multigrid methods, in which the size of the grid is varied from fine to coarse in several cycles, decrease computational time, increase rates of convergence, and improve agreement with experiment. Both the accuracy and computational advantage of the multigrid approach increase with grid size, because the time required to achieve a solution increases slowly with grid size. We have implemented a multigrid procedure for solving the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation, and, using lysozyme as a test case, compared calculations for several crystal forms, different refinement procedures, and different charge assignment schemes. The root mean square difference between calculated and experimental pKa values for the crystal structure which yields best agreement with experiment (1LZT) is 1.1 pH units, with the differences in calculated and experimental pK values being less than 0.6 pH units for 16 out of 21 residues. The calculated titration curves of several residues are biphasic. Images FIGURE 8 PMID:8369451

  4. Use of positive ion appearance curves for energy scale calibration in electron beam experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Chantry, P.J.

    1989-02-01

    Linearly extrapolated ion appearance curves are frequently used to obtain a corrected electron energy scale in electron beam experiments. The relative merits of the rare gases are critically examined using the published total ion collection data of Rapp and Englander-Golden. For each gas the error in the linearly extrapolated threshold has been calculated as a function of the extent of the data included in the linear regression fit. The results clearly indicate that He is the best choice in this context, allowing the linear fit to be extended to 8 eV above threshold without introducing any significant error. With Xe the error is less than 0.07 eV, provided the fitted data does not extend beyond 7 eV above the threshold. The worst choice is argon, for which the error increases rapidly with the range of the fit, and can exceed 0.3 eV.

  5. Mass estimation of shaped charge jets from x-ray shadow graph with new calibration curve method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Fumikazu; Kishimura, Hiroaki; Kumakura, Akira; Sakai, Shun

    2015-06-01

    In order to assess the penetration capability of the Al and Cu metal jets against a bumper structure (such as Al plate and/or Al block), we measured the initial formation process of the metal jets generated from conical shaped charge device. The shaped charge device configurations employed in the experimental and numerical investigations have conical aluminum (and cupper) liner and steel casing with PBX explosive charge. The profile and velocity of the jets are measured with flash x-ray and x-ray film system. The mass of the jet tip are estimated from x-ray images by a calibration curve method proposed by our group. Al targets are used to evaluate a penetration performance of the jets. Additionally, we have simulated the initial formation process of the shaped charge jets with Autodyne-2D hydrodynamic code, which proposed important data to compare the experimental one.

  6. A unified approach for nonlinear vibration analysis of curved structures using non-uniform rational B-spline representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askari, H.; Esmailzadeh, E.; Barari, A.

    2015-09-01

    A novel procedure for the nonlinear vibration analysis of curved beam is presented. The Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline (NURBS) is combined with the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory to define the curvature of the structure. The governing equation of motion and the general frequency formula, using the NURBS variables, is applicable for any type of curvatures, is developed. The Galerkin procedure is implemented to obtain the nonlinear ordinary differential equation of curved system and the multiple time scales method is utilized to find the corresponding frequency responses. As a case study, the nonlinear vibration of carbon nanotubes with different shapes of curvature is investigated. The effect of oscillation amplitude and the waviness on the natural frequency of the curved nanotube is evaluated and the primary resonance case of system with respect to the variations of different parameters is discussed. For the sake of comparison of the results obtained with those from the molecular dynamic simulation, the natural frequencies evaluated from the proposed approach are compared with those reported in literature for few types of carbon nanotube simulation.

  7. Modelling lactation curve for milk fat to protein ratio in Iranian buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) using non-linear mixed models.

    PubMed

    Hossein-Zadeh, Navid Ghavi

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare seven non-linear mathematical models (Brody, Wood, Dhanoa, Sikka, Nelder, Rook and Dijkstra) to examine their efficiency in describing the lactation curves for milk fat to protein ratio (FPR) in Iranian buffaloes. Data were 43 818 test-day records for FPR from the first three lactations of Iranian buffaloes which were collected on 523 dairy herds in the period from 1996 to 2012 by the Animal Breeding Center of Iran. Each model was fitted to monthly FPR records of buffaloes using the non-linear mixed model procedure (PROC NLMIXED) in SAS and the parameters were estimated. The models were tested for goodness of fit using Akaike's information criterion (AIC), Bayesian information criterion (BIC) and log maximum likelihood (-2 Log L). The Nelder and Sikka mixed models provided the best fit of lactation curve for FPR in the first and second lactations of Iranian buffaloes, respectively. However, Wood, Dhanoa and Sikka mixed models provided the best fit of lactation curve for FPR in the third parity buffaloes. Evaluation of first, second and third lactation features showed that all models, except for Dijkstra model in the third lactation, under-predicted test time at which daily FPR was minimum. On the other hand, minimum FPR was over-predicted by all equations. Evaluation of the different models used in this study indicated that non-linear mixed models were sufficient for fitting test-day FPR records of Iranian buffaloes. PMID:27600968

  8. Design, fabrication, and calibration of curved integral coils for measuring transfer function, uniformity, and effective length of LBL ALS (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Advanced Light Source) Booster Dipole Magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Green, M.I.; Nelson, D.; Marks, S.; Gee, B.; Wong, W.; Meneghetti, J.

    1989-03-01

    A matched pair of curved integral coils has been designed, fabricated and calibrated at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for measuring Advanced Light Source (ALS) Booster Dipole Magnets. Distinctive fabrication and calibration techniques are described. The use of multifilar magnet wire in fabrication integral search coils is described. Procedures used and results of AC and DC measurements of transfer function, effective length and uniformity of the prototype booster dipole magnet are presented in companion papers. 8 refs.

  9. Pareto optimal calibration of highly nonlinear reactive transport groundwater models using particle swarm optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siade, A. J.; Prommer, H.; Welter, D.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater management and remediation requires the implementation of numerical models in order to evaluate the potential anthropogenic impacts on aquifer systems. In many situations, the numerical model must, not only be able to simulate groundwater flow and transport, but also geochemical and biological processes. Each process being simulated carries with it a set of parameters that must be identified, along with differing potential sources of model-structure error. Various data types are often collected in the field and then used to calibrate the numerical model; however, these data types can represent very different processes and can subsequently be sensitive to the model parameters in extremely complex ways. Therefore, developing an appropriate weighting strategy to address the contributions of each data type to the overall least-squares objective function is not straightforward. This is further compounded by the presence of potential sources of model-structure errors that manifest themselves differently for each observation data type. Finally, reactive transport models are highly nonlinear, which can lead to convergence failure for algorithms operating on the assumption of local linearity. In this study, we propose a variation of the popular, particle swarm optimization algorithm to address trade-offs associated with the calibration of one data type over another. This method removes the need to specify weights between observation groups and instead, produces a multi-dimensional Pareto front that illustrates the trade-offs between data types. We use the PEST++ run manager, along with the standard PEST input/output structure, to implement parallel programming across multiple desktop computers using TCP/IP communications. This allows for very large swarms of particles without the need of a supercomputing facility. The method was applied to a case study in which modeling was used to gain insight into the mobilization of arsenic at a deepwell injection site

  10. Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunze, Hans-Joachim

    Commercial spectrographic systems are usually supplied with some wave-length calibration, but it is essential that the experimenter performs his own calibration for reliable measurements. A number of sources emitting well-known emission lines are available, and the best values of their wavelengths may be taken from data banks accessible on the internet. Data have been critically evaluated for many decades by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) of the USA [13], see also p. 3. Special data bases have been established by the astronomy and fusion communities (Appendix B).

  11. Research Experience for Teachers at Green Bank: High-Precision Calibration, Baselines and Nonlinearities with the GBT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hynes, Shelly; Maddalena, R. J.; Figura, C.

    2006-12-01

    The traditional methods for calibrating single-dish radio telescopes assume that the system gain is linear: detected power is taken to be proportional to the power incident on the antenna. The assumption is wrong at some low level and noticeably breaks down when observing an object that has a large dynamic range. The high sensitivity, clean beam, and very stable electronics of the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) allow us to detect nonlinearities that would be masked in most other radio telescopes. In particular, the signal processing components of the GBT produce an output power that exhibits at least a quadratic dependence on incident power. Our study indicates that measuring and compensating for the nonlinearity is rather trivial and improves calibration when observing objects with a high dynamic range. Once measured, the nonlinearity is shown to be stable over a typical observing run ( 6-8 hours) with evidence of stability for up to several weeks. We also investigated ways to improve spectral-line calibration and baseline shape when observing over a band that is many GHz wide, as is typical with many high frequency GBT projects. We have found that baselines are seriously degraded when using the traditional methods of calibration via scalar values for the system temperature and calibration noise diode that are averaged over the entire bandwidth of the observations. System calibration and baselines are shown to be substantially improved when we use noise diode and system temperature values that have a frequency resolution of a few MHz. Incorporating this research and the general topic of radio astronomy into the high school science classroom will also be discussed. This work was funded in part by the NSF-RET program.

  12. Experiments on nonlinear acoustic landmine detection: Tuning curve studies of soil-mine and soil-mass oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korman, Murray S.; Witten, Thomas R.; Fenneman, Douglas J.

    2004-10-01

    Donskoy [SPIE Proc. 3392, 211-217 (1998); 3710, 239-246 (1999)] has suggested a nonlinear technique that is insensitive to relatively noncompliant targets that can detect an acoustically compliant buried mine. Airborne sound at two primary frequencies eventually causes interactions with the soil and mine generating combination frequencies that can affect the vibration velocity at the surface. In current experiments, f1 and f2 are closely spaced near a mine resonance and a laser Doppler vibrometer profiles the surface. In profiling, certain combination frequencies have a much greater contrast ratio than the linear profiles at f1 and f2-but off the mine some nonlinearity exists. Near resonance, the bending (a softening) of a family of tuning curves (over the mine) exhibits a linear relationship between peak velocity and corresponding frequency, which is characteristic of nonlinear mesoscopic elasticity effects that are observed in geomaterials like rocks or granular media. Results are presented for inert plastic VS 1.6, VS 2.2 and M14 mines buried 3.6 cm in loose soil. Tuning curves for a rigid mass plate resting on a soil layer exhibit similar results, suggesting that nonresonant conditions off the mine are desirable. [Work supported by U.S. Army RDECOM, CERDEC, NVESD, Fort Belvoir, VA.

  13. LEPTON ACCELERATORS AND COLLIDERS: Linear optics calibration and nonlinear optimization during the commissioning of the SSRF storage ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Shun-Qiang; Zhang, Wen-Zhi; Li, Hao-Hu; Zhang, Man-Zhou; Hou, Jie; Zhou, Xue-Mei; Liu, Gui-Min

    2009-06-01

    Phase I commissioning of the SSRF storage ring on 3.0 GeV beam energy was started at the end of December 2007. A lot of encouraging results have been obtained so far. In this paper, calibrations of the linear optics during the commissioning are discussed, and some measured results about the nonlinearity given. Calibration procedure emphasizes correcting quadrupole magnetic coefficients with the Linear Optics from Closed Orbit (LOCO) technique. After fitting the closed orbit response matrix, the linear optics of the four test modes is substantially corrected, and the measured physical parameters agree well with the designed ones.

  14. Nonlinear radiative heat transfer and Hall effects on a viscous fluid in a semi-porous curved channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Z.; Naveed, M.; Sajid, M.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, effects of Hall currents and nonlinear radiative heat transfer in a viscous fluid passing through a semi-porous curved channel coiled in a circle of radius R are analyzed. A curvilinear coordinate system is used to develop the mathematical model of the considered problem in the form partial differential equations. Similarity solutions of the governing boundary value problems are obtained numerically using shooting method. The results are also validated with the well-known finite difference technique known as the Keller-Box method. The analysis of the involved pertinent parameters on the velocity and temperature distributions is presented through graphs and tables.

  15. Nonlinear radiative heat transfer and Hall effects on a viscous fluid in a semi-porous curved channel

    SciTech Connect

    Abbas, Z.; Naveed, M.; Sajid, M.

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, effects of Hall currents and nonlinear radiative heat transfer in a viscous fluid passing through a semi-porous curved channel coiled in a circle of radius R are analyzed. A curvilinear coordinate system is used to develop the mathematical model of the considered problem in the form partial differential equations. Similarity solutions of the governing boundary value problems are obtained numerically using shooting method. The results are also validated with the well-known finite difference technique known as the Keller-Box method. The analysis of the involved pertinent parameters on the velocity and temperature distributions is presented through graphs and tables.

  16. Nonlinear estimation of Monod growth kinetic parameters from a single substrate depletion curve.

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, J A; Tiedje, J M

    1983-01-01

    Monod growth kinetic parameters were estimated by fitting sigmoidal substrate depletion data to the integrated Monod equation, using nonlinear least-squares analysis. When the initial substrate concentration was in the mixed-order region, nonlinear estimation of simulated data sets containing known measurement errors provided accurate estimates of the mu max, Ks, and Y values used to create these data. Nonlinear regression analysis of sigmoidal substrate depletion data was also evaluated for H2-limited batch growth of Desulfovibrio sp. strain G11. The integrated Monod equation can be more convenient for the estimation of growth kinetic parameters, particularly for gaseous substrates, but it must be recognized that the estimates of mu max, Ks, and Y obtained may be influenced by the growth rate history of the inoculum. PMID:6870238

  17. A new method for calibrating the nonlinear range of a single-beam optical trap (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, Jamianne C.; Lopez, Benjamin J.; Campas, Otger; Valentine, Megan T.

    2015-08-01

    Optical traps allow for the precise application and measurement of pico-Newton forces in a wide variety of situations, and are particularly well suited for biophysical measurements of motor proteins and cells. Nearly all experiments exploit the linear regime of the optical trap, where force and displacement are related by a simple spring constant that does not depend on the trapped object's position. This typically limits the useful force range to < 100 pN for high-NA objective lenses and reasonable laser powers. Several biological studies require larger forces, which are not accessible in the linear regime of the trap. The best means to extend the maximum force is to make use of the entire nonlinear range; however, current techniques for calibrating the full nonlinear regime are limited. Here we report a new method for calibrating the nonlinear trap region that uses the fluctuations in the position of a trapped object when it is displaced from the center of a single gradient optical trap by controlled flow. From the position fluctuations, we measure the local trap stiffness, in both the linear and non-linear regimes. This approach requires only knowledge of the system temperature, and is especially useful for measurements involving trapped objects of unknown size, or objects in a fluid of unknown viscosity.

  18. SWRC fit - a nonlinear fitting program with a water retention curve for soils having unimodal and bimodal pore structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seki, K.

    2007-02-01

    The soil hydraulic parameters for analyzing soil water movement can be determined by fitting a soil water retention curve to a certain function, i.e., a soil hydraulic model. For this purpose, the program "SWRC Fit," which performs nonlinear fitting of soil water retention curves to 5 models by Levenberg-Marquardt method, was developed. The five models are the Brooks and Corey model, the van Genuchten model, Kosugi's log-normal pore-size distribution model, Durner's bimodal pore-size distribution model, and a bimodal log-normal pore-size distribution model propose in this study. This program automatically determines all the necessary conditions for the nonlinear fitting, such as the initial estimate of the parameters, and, therefore, users can simply input the soil water retention data to obtain the necessary parameters. The program can be executed directly from a web page at http://purl.org/net/swrc/; a client version of the software written in numeric calculation language GNU Octave is included in the electronic supplement of this paper. The program was used for determining the soil hydraulic parameters of 420 soils in UNSODA database. After comparing the root mean square error of the unimodal models, the van Genuchten and Kosugi's models were better than the Brooks and Corey model. The bimodal log-normal pore-size distribution model had similar fitting performance to Durner's bimodal pore-size distribution model.

  19. Nonlinear and snap-through responses of curved panels to intense acoustic excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, C. F.

    1989-01-01

    Assuming a single-mode transverse displacement, a simple formula is derived for the transverse load-displacement relationship of a plate under in-plane compression. The formula is used to derive a simple analytical expression for the nonlinear dynamic response of postbuckled plates under sinusoidal or random excitation. The highly nonlinear motion of snap-through can be easily interpreted using the single-mode formula. Experimental results are obtained with buckled and cylindrical aluminum panels using discrete frequency and broadband excitation of mechanical and acoustic forces. Some important effects of the snap-through motion on the dynamic response of the postbuckled plates are described. Static tests were used to identify the deformation shape during snap-through.

  20. On the nonlinear stability of the unsteady, viscous flow of an incompressible fluid in a curved pipe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shortis, Trudi A.; Hall, Philip

    1995-01-01

    The stability of the flow of an incompressible, viscous fluid through a pipe of circular cross-section curved about a central axis is investigated in a weakly nonlinear regime. A sinusoidal pressure gradient with zero mean is imposed, acting along the pipe. A WKBJ perturbation solution is constructed, taking into account the need for an inner solution in the vicinity of the outer bend, which is obtained by identifying the saddle point of the Taylor number in the complex plane of the cross-sectional angle co-ordinate. The equation governing the nonlinear evolution of the leading order vortex amplitude is thus determined. The stability analysis of this flow to periodic disturbances leads to a partial differential system dependent on three variables, and since the differential operators in this system are periodic in time, Floquet theory may be applied to reduce this system to a coupled infinite system of ordinary differential equations, together with homogeneous uncoupled boundary conditions. The eigenvalues of this system are calculated numerically to predict a critical Taylor number consistent with the analysis of Papageorgiou. A discussion of how nonlinear effects alter the linear stability analysis is also given, and the nature of the instability determined.

  1. Estimation of Material Parameters in Nonlinear Hardening Plasticity Models and Strain Life Curves for CuAg Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srnec Novak, J.; Benasciutti, D.; De Bona, F.; Stanojević, A.; De Luca, A.; Raffaglio, Y.

    2016-03-01

    This work investigates the cyclic response and low-cycle fatigue behaviour of a CuAg alloy used in crystallizer for continuous casting lines. Therefore isothermal strain-based fatigue tests are first performed on CuAg specimens at different temperature levels (20 °C, 250 °C, 300 °C). The evolution of stress-strain loops recorded during the cyclic tests is used for the parameter identification of several nonlinear hardening models (nonlinear kinematic, nonlinear isotropic). Cyclic stress-strain data from experiments are compared with results from numerical simulations with the identified material parameters, showing a satisfying agreement. Critical examination of numerical results from different models is also performed. Finally, the strain- life fatigue curves estimated from experimental data are compared with approximate strain-life equations (Universal Slopes Equation, 10% Rule) which are obtained from simple tensile tests. The material parameters determined in this work can conveniently be used as inputs in a elasto- plastic finite element simulations of a crystallizer.

  2. Issues in energy calibration, nonlinearity, and signal processing for gamma-ray microcalorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Rabin, Mike W; Hoover, Andrew S; Bacrania, Mnesh K; Hoteling, Nathan; Croce, M; Karpius, P J; Ullom, J N; Bennett, D A; Horansky, R D; Vale, L R; Doriese, W B

    2009-01-01

    Issues regarding the energy calibration of high dynamic range microcalorimeter detector arrays are presented with respect to new results from a minor actinide-mixed oxide radioactive source. The need to move to larger arrays of such detectors necessitates the implementation of automated analysis procedures, which turn out to be nontrivial due to complex calibration shapes and pixel-to-pixel variability. Some possible avenues for improvement, including a more physics-based calibration procedure, are suggested.

  3. Nonlinear flutter of curved panels under yawed supersonic flow using finite elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzouz, Mohamed Salim

    2005-11-01

    In the extensive published literature on panel flutter, a large number of papers are dedicated to investigation of flat plates in the supersonic flow regime. Very few authors have extended their work to flutter of curved panels. The curved geometry generates a pre-flutter behavior, triggering a static deflection due to a static aerodynamic load (SAL) over the panel as well as dynamic characteristics unique to this geometry. The purpose of this dissertation is to provide new insights in the subject of flutter of curved panels. Finite element frequency and time domain methods are developed to predict the pre/post flutter responses and the flutter onset of curved panels under a yaw flow angle. The first-order shear deformation theory, the Marguerre plate theory, the von Karman large deflection theory, and the quasi-steady first-order piston theory appended with SAL are used in the formulation. The principle of virtual work is applied to develop the equations of motion of the fluttering system in structural node degrees of freedom. In the frequency domain method, the Newton-Raphson method is used to determine the panel static deflection under the SAL, and an eigen-value solution is employed for the determination of the stability boundary margins at different panel height-rises and yaw flow angles. Pre-flutter static deflection shape, flutter coalescence frequency, and damping rate of various cylindrical panels are thoroughly investigated. The main results revealed that the pre-flutter static response of cylindrical panels is fundamentally different from the one associated with flat plates. It is shown that curvature has a detrimental effect for 2-dimensional (2-D) curved panels, and is beneficial for 3-D components at an optimum height-rise. In the time domain method, the system equations of motion are transformed into modal coordinates, and solved by a fourth-order Runge-Kutta numerical scheme. Time history responses, phase plots, power spectrum density plots, and

  4. Unidirectional growth, rocking curve, linear and nonlinear optical properties of LPHCl single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, P. Ramesh; Gunaseelan, R.; Raj, A. Antony; Selvakumar, S.; Sagayaraj, P.

    2012-06-01

    Nonlinear optical amino-acid single crystal of L-phenylalanine hydrochloride (LPHCl) was successfully grown by unidirectional Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy (SR) method under ambient conditions for the first time. The grown single crystal was subjected to different characterization analyses in order to find out its suitability for device fabrication. The crystalline perfection was evaluated using high-resolution X-ray diffractometry. It is evident from the optical absorption study that crystal has excellent transmission in the entire visible region with its lower cut off wavelength around 290 nm.

  5. Calibration of a T-History calorimeter to measure enthalpy curves of phase change materials in the temperature range from 40 to 200 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathgeber, Christoph; Schmit, Henri; Hennemann, Peter; Hiebler, Stefan

    2014-03-01

    Thermal energy storage using phase change materials (PCMs) provides high storage capacities in small temperature ranges. For the design of efficient latent heat storage, the enthalpy curve of a PCM has to be measured with high precision. Measurements are most commonly performed with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The T-History method, however, proved to be favourable for the characterization of typical PCMs due to large samples and a measuring procedure close to conditions found in applications. As T-History calorimeters are usually individual constructions, performing a careful calibration procedure is decisive to ensure optimal measuring accuracy. We report in this paper on the calibration of a T-History calorimeter with a working range from 40 to 200 °C that was designed and built at our institute. A three-part procedure, consisting of an indium calibration, a measurement of the specific heat of copper and measurements of three solid-liquid PCMs (stearic acid, dimethyl terephthalate and d-mannitol), was performed and an advanced procedure for the correction of enthalpy curves was developed. When comparing T-History enthalpy curves to literature data and DSC step measurements, good agreement within the uncertainty limits demanded by RAL testing specifications was obtained. Thus, our design of a T-History calorimeter together with the developed calibration procedure provides the measuring accuracy that is required to identify the most suitable PCM for a given application. In addition, the dependence of the enthalpy curve on the sample size can be analysed by comparing results obtained with T-History and DSC and the behaviour of the bulk material in real applications can be predicted.

  6. Comparison of non-linear models to describe the lactation curves for milk yield and composition in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Ghavi Hossein-Zadeh, N

    2016-02-01

    In order to describe the lactation curves of milk yield (MY) and composition in buffaloes, seven non-linear mathematical equations (Wood, Dhanoa, Sikka, Nelder, Brody, Dijkstra and Rook) were used. Data were 116,117 test-day records for MY, fat (FP) and protein (PP) percentages of milk from the first three lactations of buffaloes which were collected from 893 herds in the period from 1992 to 2012 by the Animal Breeding Center of Iran. Each model was fitted to monthly production records of dairy buffaloes using the NLIN and MODEL procedures in SAS and the parameters were estimated. The models were tested for goodness of fit using adjusted coefficient of determination (Radj(2)), root means square error (RMSE), Durbin-Watson statistic and Akaike's information criterion (AIC). The Dijkstra model provided the best fit of MY and PP of milk for the first three parities of buffaloes due to the lower values of RMSE and AIC than other models. For the first-parity buffaloes, Sikka and Brody models provided the best fit of FP, but for the second- and third-parity buffaloes, Sikka model and Brody equation provided the best fit of lactation curve for FP, respectively. The results of this study showed that the Wood and Dhanoa equations were able to estimate the time to the peak MY more accurately than the other equations. In addition, Nelder and Dijkstra equations were able to estimate the peak time at second and third parities more accurately than other equations, respectively. Brody function provided more accurate predictions of peak MY over the first three parities of buffaloes. There was generally a positive relationship between 305-day MY and persistency measures and also between peak yield and 305-day MY, calculated by different models, within each lactation in the current study. Overall, evaluation of the different equations used in the current study indicated the potential of the non-linear models for fitting monthly productive records of buffaloes. PMID:26354679

  7. A New Calibration Procedure which Accounts for Non-linearity in Single-monochromator Brewer Ozone Spectrophotometer Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaziri, Zahra; Moeini, Omid; McElroy, Tom; Savastiouk, Vladimir; Barton, David

    2014-05-01

    It is now known that Single-Monochromator Brewer Spectrophotometer ozone and sulphur dioxide measurements suffer from non-linearity due to the presence of instrumental stray light caused by scattering from the optics of the instrument. Because of the large gradient in the ozone absorption spectrum in the ultraviolet, the atmospheric spectra measured by the instrument possess a very large gradient in intensity in the 300 to 325 nm wavelength region. This results in a significant sensitivity to stray light when there is more than 1000 Dobson Units (D.U.) of ozone in the light path. As the light path (airmass) increases, the stray light effect on the measurements also increases. The measurements can be on the order of 8% low for an ozone column of 600 D.U. and an airmass factor of 3 (1800 D.U.) causing an underestimation of the ozone column amount. Primary calibrations for the Brewer instrument are carried out at Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii. They are done using the Langley plot method to extrapolate a set of measurements made under a constant ozone value to an extraterrestrial measurement. Since the effects of a small non-linearity at lower ozone paths may still be important, a better calibration procedure should account for the non-linearity of the instrument response. Previous methods involve scanning a laser beam with known wavelength with the Brewer spectrophotometer and observing the out of band signals. This paper presents a much more practical method to correct for stray light effects that includes a mathematical model of the instrument response and a non-linear retrieval approach that calculates the best values for the model parameters. The parameterization used was validated using an instrument physical model simulation. The model can then be used in reverse to provide correct ozone values up to a defined maximum ozone slant path.

  8. Uncertainty due to non-linearity in radiation thermometers calibrated by multiple fixed points

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamada, Y.

    2013-09-11

    A new method to estimate the uncertainty due to non-linearity is described on the n= 3 scheme basis. The expression of uncertainty is mathematically derived applying the random walk method. The expression is simple and requires only the temperatures of the fixed points and a relative uncertainty value for each flux-doubling derived from the non-linearity measurement. We also present an example of the method, in which the uncertainty of temperature measurement by a radiation thermometer is calculated on the basis of non-linearity measurement.

  9. Characterization of acid functional groups of carbon dots by nonlinear regression data fitting of potentiometric titration curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Larissa A.; de Castro, Arthur H.; de Mendonça, Fernanda G.; de Mesquita, João P.

    2016-05-01

    The oxygenated functional groups present on the surface of carbon dots with an average size of 2.7 ± 0.5 nm were characterized by a variety of techniques. In particular, we discussed the fit data of potentiometric titration curves using a nonlinear regression method based on the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. The results obtained by statistical treatment of the titration curve data showed that the best fit was obtained considering the presence of five Brønsted-Lowry acids on the surface of the carbon dots with constant ionization characteristics of carboxylic acids, cyclic ester, phenolic and pyrone-like groups. The total number of oxygenated acid groups obtained was 5 mmol g-1, with approximately 65% (∼2.9 mmol g-1) originating from groups with pKa < 6. The methodology showed good reproducibility and stability with standard deviations below 5%. The nature of the groups was independent of small variations in experimental conditions, i.e. the mass of carbon dots titrated and initial concentration of HCl solution. Finally, we believe that the methodology used here, together with other characterization techniques, is a simple, fast and powerful tool to characterize the complex acid-base properties of these so interesting and intriguing nanoparticles.

  10. High-precision 2MASS JHK{sub s} light curves and other data for RR Lyrae star SDSS J015450 + 001501: Strong constraints for nonlinear pulsation models

    SciTech Connect

    Szabó, Róbert; Ivezić, Željko; Kiss, László L.; Kolláth, Zoltán; Jones, Lynne; Becker, Andrew C.; Davenport, James R. A.; Sesar, Branimir; Cutri, Roc M.

    2014-01-01

    We present and discuss an extensive data set for the non-Blazhko ab-type RR Lyrae star SDSS J015450+001501, including optical Sloan Digital Sky Survey ugriz light curves and spectroscopic data, LINEAR and Catalina Sky Survey unfiltered optical light curves, and infrared Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) JHK{sub s} and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer W1 and W2 light curves. Most notable is that light curves obtained by 2MASS include close to 9000 photometric measures collected over 3.3 yr and provide an exceedingly precise view of near-infrared variability. These data demonstrate that static atmosphere models are insufficient to explain multiband photometric light-curve behavior and present strong constraints for nonlinear pulsation models for RR Lyrae stars. It is a challenge to modelers to produce theoretical light curves that can explain data presented here, which we make publicly available.

  11. Investigating the discrimination potential of linear and nonlinear spectral multivariate calibrations for analysis of phenolic compounds in their binary and ternary mixtures and calculation pKa values.

    PubMed

    Rasouli, Zolaikha; Ghavami, Raouf

    2016-08-01

    Vanillin (VA), vanillic acid (VAI) and syringaldehyde (SIA) are important food additives as flavor enhancers. The current study for the first time is devote to the application of partial least square (PLS-1), partial robust M-regression (PRM) and feed forward neural networks (FFNNs) as linear and nonlinear chemometric methods for the simultaneous detection of binary and ternary mixtures of VA, VAI and SIA using data extracted directly from UV-spectra with overlapped peaks of individual analytes. Under the optimum experimental conditions, for each compound a linear calibration was obtained in the concentration range of 0.61-20.99 [LOD=0.12], 0.67-23.19 [LOD=0.13] and 0.73-25.12 [LOD=0.15] μgmL(-1) for VA, VAI and SIA, respectively. Four calibration sets of standard samples were designed by combination of a full and fractional factorial designs with the use of the seven and three levels for each factor for binary and ternary mixtures, respectively. The results of this study reveal that both the methods of PLS-1 and PRM are similar in terms of predict ability each binary mixtures. The resolution of ternary mixture has been accomplished by FFNNs. Multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) was applied for the description of spectra from the acid-base titration systems each individual compound, i.e. the resolution of the complex overlapping spectra as well as to interpret the extracted spectral and concentration profiles of any pure chemical species identified. Evolving factor analysis (EFA) and singular value decomposition (SVD) were used to distinguish the number of chemical species. Subsequently, their corresponding dissociation constants were derived. Finally, FFNNs has been used to detection active compounds in real and spiked water samples. PMID:27176001

  12. Investigating the discrimination potential of linear and nonlinear spectral multivariate calibrations for analysis of phenolic compounds in their binary and ternary mixtures and calculation pKa values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasouli, Zolaikha; Ghavami, Raouf

    2016-08-01

    Vanillin (VA), vanillic acid (VAI) and syringaldehyde (SIA) are important food additives as flavor enhancers. The current study for the first time is devote to the application of partial least square (PLS-1), partial robust M-regression (PRM) and feed forward neural networks (FFNNs) as linear and nonlinear chemometric methods for the simultaneous detection of binary and ternary mixtures of VA, VAI and SIA using data extracted directly from UV-spectra with overlapped peaks of individual analytes. Under the optimum experimental conditions, for each compound a linear calibration was obtained in the concentration range of 0.61-20.99 [LOD = 0.12], 0.67-23.19 [LOD = 0.13] and 0.73-25.12 [LOD = 0.15] μg mL- 1 for VA, VAI and SIA, respectively. Four calibration sets of standard samples were designed by combination of a full and fractional factorial designs with the use of the seven and three levels for each factor for binary and ternary mixtures, respectively. The results of this study reveal that both the methods of PLS-1 and PRM are similar in terms of predict ability each binary mixtures. The resolution of ternary mixture has been accomplished by FFNNs. Multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) was applied for the description of spectra from the acid-base titration systems each individual compound, i.e. the resolution of the complex overlapping spectra as well as to interpret the extracted spectral and concentration profiles of any pure chemical species identified. Evolving factor analysis (EFA) and singular value decomposition (SVD) were used to distinguish the number of chemical species. Subsequently, their corresponding dissociation constants were derived. Finally, FFNNs has been used to detection active compounds in real and spiked water samples.

  13. Experimental Determination of the HPGe Spectrometer Efficiency Calibration Curves for Various Sample Geometry for Gamma Energy from 50 keV to 2000 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saat, Ahmad; Hamzah, Zaini; Yusop, Mohammad Fariz; Zainal, Muhd Amiruddin

    2010-07-01

    Detection efficiency of a gamma-ray spectrometry system is dependent upon among others, energy, sample and detector geometry, volume and density of the samples. In the present study the efficiency calibration curves of newly acquired (August 2008) HPGe gamma-ray spectrometry system was carried out for four sample container geometries, namely Marinelli beaker, disc, cylindrical beaker and vial, normally used for activity determination of gamma-ray from environmental samples. Calibration standards were prepared by using known amount of analytical grade uranium trioxide ore, homogenized in plain flour into the respective containers. The ore produces gamma-rays of energy ranging from 53 keV to 1001 keV. Analytical grade potassium chloride were prepared to determine detection efficiency of 1460 keV gamma-ray emitted by potassium isotope K-40. Plots of detection efficiency against gamma-ray energy for the four sample geometries were found to fit smoothly to a general form of ɛ = AΕa+BΕb, where ɛ is efficiency, Ε is energy in keV, A, B, a and b are constants that are dependent on the sample geometries. All calibration curves showed the presence of a "knee" at about 180 keV. Comparison between the four geometries showed that the efficiency of Marinelli beaker is higher than cylindrical beaker and vial, while cylindrical disk showed the lowest.

  14. Experimental Determination of the HPGe Spectrometer Efficiency Calibration Curves for Various Sample Geometry for Gamma Energy from 50 keV to 2000 keV

    SciTech Connect

    Saat, Ahmad; Hamzah, Zaini; Yusop, Mohammad Fariz; Zainal, Muhd Amiruddin

    2010-07-07

    Detection efficiency of a gamma-ray spectrometry system is dependent upon among others, energy, sample and detector geometry, volume and density of the samples. In the present study the efficiency calibration curves of newly acquired (August 2008) HPGe gamma-ray spectrometry system was carried out for four sample container geometries, namely Marinelli beaker, disc, cylindrical beaker and vial, normally used for activity determination of gamma-ray from environmental samples. Calibration standards were prepared by using known amount of analytical grade uranium trioxide ore, homogenized in plain flour into the respective containers. The ore produces gamma-rays of energy ranging from 53 keV to 1001 keV. Analytical grade potassium chloride were prepared to determine detection efficiency of 1460 keV gamma-ray emitted by potassium isotope K-40. Plots of detection efficiency against gamma-ray energy for the four sample geometries were found to fit smoothly to a general form of {epsilon} = A{Epsilon}{sup a}+B{Epsilon}{sup b}, where {epsilon} is efficiency, {Epsilon} is energy in keV, A, B, a and b are constants that are dependent on the sample geometries. All calibration curves showed the presence of a ''knee'' at about 180 keV. Comparison between the four geometries showed that the efficiency of Marinelli beaker is higher than cylindrical beaker and vial, while cylindrical disk showed the lowest.

  15. The nonlinear interaction of Tollmien-Schlichting waves and Taylor-Goertler vortices in curved channel flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, P.; Smith, F. T.

    1988-06-01

    The development of Tollmien-Schlichting waves (TSWs) and Taylor-Goertler vortices (TGVs) in fully developed viscous curved-channel flows is investigated analytically, with a focus on their nonlinear interactions. Two types of interactions are identified, depending on the amplitude of the initial disturbances. In the low-amplitude type, two TSWs and one TGV interact, and the scaled amplitudes go to infinity on a finite time scale; in the higher-amplitude type, which can also occur in a straight channel, the same singularity occurs if the angle between the TSW wavefront and the TGV is greater than 41.6 deg, but the breakdown is exponential and takes an infinite time if the angle is smaller. The implications of these findings for external flow problems such as the design of laminar-flow wings are indicated. It is concluded that longitudinal vortices like those observed in the initial stages of the transition to turbulence can be produced unless the present interaction mechanism is destroyed by boundary-layer growth.

  16. The nonlinear interaction of Tollmien-Schlichting waves and Taylor-Goertler vortices in curved channel flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, P.; Smith, F. T.

    1988-01-01

    The development of Tollmien-Schlichting waves (TSWs) and Taylor-Goertler vortices (TGVs) in fully developed viscous curved-channel flows is investigated analytically, with a focus on their nonlinear interactions. Two types of interactions are identified, depending on the amplitude of the initial disturbances. In the low-amplitude type, two TSWs and one TGV interact, and the scaled amplitudes go to infinity on a finite time scale; in the higher-amplitude type, which can also occur in a straight channel, the same singularity occurs if the angle between the TSW wavefront and the TGV is greater than 41.6 deg, but the breakdown is exponential and takes an infinite time if the angle is smaller. The implications of these findings for external flow problems such as the design of laminar-flow wings are indicated. It is concluded that longitudinal vortices like those observed in the initial stages of the transition to turbulence can be produced unless the present interaction mechanism is destroyed by boundary-layer growth.

  17. Kinematic Modeling and Function Generation for Non-linear Curves Using 5R Double Arm Parallel Manipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshavkumar Kamaliya, Parth; Patel, Yashavant Kumar Dashrathlal

    2016-01-01

    Double arm configuration using parallel manipulator mimic the human arm motions either for planar or spatial space. These configurations are currently lucrative for researchers as it also replaces human workers without major redesign of work-place in industries. Humans' joint ranges limitation of arms can be resolved by replacement of either revolute or spherical joints in manipulator. Hence, the scope of maximum workspace utilization is prevailed. Planar configuration with five revolute joints (5R) is considered to imitate human arm motions in a plane using Double Arm Manipulator (DAM). Position analysis for tool that can be held in end links of configuration is carried out using Pro/mechanism in Creo® as well as SimMechanics. D-H parameters are formulated and its results derived using developed MATLAB programs are compared with mechanism simulation as well as SimMechanics results. Inverse kinematics model is developed for trajectory planning in order to trace tool trajectory in a continuous and smooth sequence. Polynomial functions are derived for position, velocity and acceleration for linear and non-linear curves in joint space. Analytical results obtained for trajectory planning are validated with simulation results of Creo®.

  18. Study of Welding Distortion and Residual Stress Considering Nonlinear Yield Stress Curves and Multi-constraint Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Youmin; Zhang, Guojun; Huang, Yu

    2016-08-01

    Inherent strain analysis has been successfully applied to predict welding deformations of large-scale structural components, while thermal-elastic-plastic finite element method is rarely used for its disadvantages of long calculation period and large storage space. In this paper, a hybrid model considering nonlinear yield stress curves and multi-constraint equations to thermal-elastic-plastic analysis is further proposed to predict welding distortions and residual stresses of large-scale structures. For welding T-joint structural steel S355JR by metal active gas welding, the published experiment results of temperature and displacement fields are applied to illustrate the credibility of the proposed integration model. By comparing numerical results of four different cases with the experiment results, it is verified that prediction precision of welding deformations and residual stresses is apparently improved considering the power-law hardening model, and computational time is also obviously shortened about 30.14% using multi-constraint equations. On the whole, the proposed hybrid method can be further used to precisely and efficiently predict welding deformations and residual stresses of large-scale structures.

  19. Quantitative Evaluation of Cross-Peak Volumes in Multidimensional Spectra by Nonlinear-Least-Squares Curve Fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sze, K. H.; Barsukov, I. L.; Roberts, G. C. K.

    A procedure for quantitative evaluation of cross-peak volumes in spectra of any order of dimensions is described; this is based on a generalized algorithm for combining appropriate one-dimensional integrals obtained by nonlinear-least-squares curve-fitting techniques. This procedure is embodied in a program, NDVOL, which has three modes of operation: a fully automatic mode, a manual mode for interactive selection of fitting parameters, and a fast reintegration mode. The procedures used in the NDVOL program to obtain accurate volumes for overlapping cross peaks are illustrated using various simulated overlapping cross-peak patterns. The precision and accuracy of the estimates of cross-peak volumes obtained by application of the program to these simulated cross peaks and to a back-calculated 2D NOESY spectrum of dihydrofolate reductase are presented. Examples are shown of the use of the program with real 2D and 3D data. It is shown that the program is able to provide excellent estimates of volume even for seriously overlapping cross peaks with minimal intervention by the user.

  20. Determining PM2.5 calibration curves for a low-cost particle monitor: common indoor residential aerosols.

    PubMed

    Dacunto, Philip J; Klepeis, Neil E; Cheng, Kai-Chung; Acevedo-Bolton, Viviana; Jiang, Ruo-Ting; Repace, James L; Ott, Wayne R; Hildemann, Lynn M

    2015-11-01

    Real-time particle monitors are essential for accurately estimating exposure to fine particles indoors. However, many such monitors tend to be prohibitively expensive for some applications, such as a tenant or homeowner curious about the quality of the air in their home. A lower cost version (the Dylos Air Quality Monitor) has recently been introduced, but it requires appropriate calibration to reflect the mass concentration units required for exposure assessment. We conducted a total of 64 experiments with a suite of instruments including a Dylos DC1100, another real-time laser photometer (TSI SidePak™ Model AM-510 Personal Aerosol Monitor), and a gravimetric sampling apparatus to estimate Dylos calibration factors for emissions from 17 different common indoor sources including cigarettes, incense, fried bacon, chicken, and hamburger. Comparison of minute-by-minute data from the Dylos with the gravimetrically calibrated SidePak yielded relationships that enable the conversion of the raw Dylos particle counts less than 2.5 μm (in #/0.01 ft(3)) to estimated PM2.5 mass concentration (e.g. μg m(-3)). The relationship between the exponentially-decaying Dylos particle counts and PM2.5 mass concentration can be described by a theoretically-derived power law with source-specific empirical parameters. A linear relationship (calibration factor) is applicable to fresh or quickly decaying emissions (i.e., before the aerosol has aged and differential decay rates introduce curvature into the relationship). The empirical parameters for the power-law relationships vary greatly both between and within source types, although linear factors appear to have lower uncertainty. The Dylos Air Quality Monitor is likely most useful for providing instantaneous feedback and context on mass particle levels in home and work situations for field-survey or personal awareness applications. PMID:26487426

  1. High-Performance Liquid Chromatographic Determination of Propofol in Human Plasma: Comparison of Different Heteroscedastic Calibration Curve Models

    PubMed Central

    Taghavi Moghaddam, Pooria; Pipelzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Nesioonpour, Sholeh; Saki, Nader; Rezaee, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to select the best calibration model for determination of propofol plasma concentration by high-performance liquid chromatography method. Methods: Determination of propofol in plasma after deproteinization with acetonitrile containing thymol (as internal standard) was carried out on a C18 column with a mixture of acetonitrile and trifluoroacetic acid 0.1% (60:40) as mobile phase which delivered at the flow rate of 1.2 mL/minute . Fluorescence detection was done at the excitation and emission wavelengths of 276 and 310 nm, respectively. After fitting different equations to the calibration data using weighted regression, the adequacy of models were assessed by lack-of-fit test, significance of all model parameters, adjusted coefficient of determination (R2adjusted) and by measuring the predictive performance with median relative prediction error and median absolute relative prediction error of the validation data set. Results: The best model was a linear equation without intercept with median relative prediction error and median absolute relative prediction error of 4.0 and 9.4%, respectively in the range of 10-5000 ng/mL. The method showed good accuracy and precision. Conclusion: The presented statistical framework could be used to choose the best model for heteroscedastic calibration data for analytes like propofol with wide range of expected concentration. PMID:25436190

  2. Analytical investigation of curved steel girder behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Michael Donald

    Horizontally curved bridges meet an increasing demand for complex highway geometries in congested urban areas. A popular type of curved bridge consists of steel I-girders interconnected by cross-frames and a composite concrete deck slab. Prior to hardening of the concrete deck each I-girder is susceptible to a lateral torsional buckling-type failure. Unlike a straight I-girder, a curved I-girder resists major components of stress resulting from strong axis bending, weak axis bending and warping. The combination of these stresses reduce the available strength of a curved girder versus that of an equivalent straight girder. Experiments demonstrating the ultimate strength characteristics of curved girders are few in number. Of the available experimental research, few studies have used full scale-tests and boundary conditions indicative of those found in an actual bridge structure. Unlike straight girders, curved girders are characterized by nonlinear out-of-plane deformations which, depending upon the magnitude of curvature, may occur at very low load levels. Because of the inherent nonlinear behaviour, some have questioned the application of the term lateral torsional buckling to curved girders; rather curved girders behave in a manner consistent with a deflection-amplification problem. Even with the advent of sophisticated analytical techniques, there is a glaring void in the documented literature regarding calibration of these techniques with known experimental curved girder behaviour. Presented here is an analytical study of the nonlinear modelling of curved steel girders and bridges. This is accomplished by incorporating large deflection and nonlinear material behaviour into three dimensional finite element models generated using the program ANSYS. Emphasis is placed on the calibration of the finite method with known experimental ultimate strength data. It is demonstrated that accurate predictions of load deformation and ultimate strength are attainable via the

  3. Challenges for the Sequential Interaction Between Optimal Design of Field Campaigns and Model Calibration for Non-Linear Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geiges, A.; Nowak, W.; Rubin, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Stochastic models of sub-surface systems generally suffer from parametric and conceptual uncertainty. To reduce the model uncertainty, model parameters are calibrated using additional collected data. These data often come from costly data acquisition campaigns that need to be optimized to collect the data with the highest data utility (DU) or value of information. In model-based approaches, the DU is evaluated based on the uncertain model itself and is therefore uncertain as well. Additionally, for non-linear models, data utility depends on the yet unobserved measurement values and can only be estimated as an expected value over an assumed distribution of possible measurement values. Both factors introduce uncertainty into the optimization of field campaigns. We propose and investigate a sequential interaction scheme between campaign optimization, data collection and model calibration. The field campaign is split in individual segments. Each segment consists of optimization, segment-wise data collection, and successive model calibration or data assimilation. By doing so, (1) the expected data utility for the newly collected data is replaced by their actual one, (2) the calibration restricts both conceptual and parametric model uncertainty, and thus (3) the distribution of possible future data values for the subsequent campaign segments also changes. Hence, the model to describe the real system improves successively with each collected data segment, and so does the estimate of the yet remaining data requirements to achieve the overall investigation goals. We will show that using the sequentially improved model for the optimal design (OD) of the remaining field campaign leads to superior and more targeted designs.However, this traditional sequential OD optimizes small data segments one-by-one. In such a strategy, possible mutual dependencies with the possible data values and the optimization of data values collection in later segments are neglected. This allows a

  4. Simple solution for a complex problem: proanthocyanidins, galloyl glucoses and ellagitannins fit on a single calibration curve in high performance-gel permeation chromatography.

    PubMed

    Stringano, Elisabetta; Gea, An; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Mueller-Harvey, Irene

    2011-10-28

    This study was undertaken to explore gel permeation chromatography (GPC) for estimating molecular weights of proanthocyanidin fractions isolated from sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia). The results were compared with data obtained by thiolytic degradation of the same fractions. Polystyrene, polyethylene glycol and polymethyl methacrylate standards were not suitable for estimating the molecular weights of underivatized proanthocyanidins. Therefore, a novel HPLC-GPC method was developed based on two serially connected PolarGel-L columns using DMF that contained 5% water, 1% acetic acid and 0.15 M LiBr at 0.7 ml/min and 50 °C. This yielded a single calibration curve for galloyl glucoses (trigalloyl glucose, pentagalloyl glucose), ellagitannins (pedunculagin, vescalagin, punicalagin, oenothein B, gemin A), proanthocyanidins (procyanidin B2, cinnamtannin B1), and several other polyphenols (catechin, epicatechin gallate, epicallocatechin gallate, amentoflavone). These GPC predicted molecular weights represented a considerable advance over previously reported HPLC-GPC methods for underivatized proanthocyanidins. PMID:21930278

  5. A strategy for multivariate calibration based on modified single-index signal regression: Capturing explicit non-linearity and improving prediction accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoyu; Li, Qingbo; Zhang, Guangjun

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, a modified single-index signal regression (mSISR) method is proposed to construct a nonlinear and practical model with high-accuracy. The mSISR method defines the optimal penalty tuning parameter in P-spline signal regression (PSR) as initial tuning parameter and chooses the number of cycles based on minimizing root mean squared error of cross-validation (RMSECV). mSISR is superior to single-index signal regression (SISR) in terms of accuracy, computation time and convergency. And it can provide the character of the non-linearity between spectra and responses in a more precise manner than SISR. Two spectra data sets from basic research experiments, including plant chlorophyll nondestructive measurement and human blood glucose noninvasive measurement, are employed to illustrate the advantages of mSISR. The results indicate that the mSISR method (i) obtains the smooth and helpful regression coefficient vector, (ii) explicitly exhibits the type and amount of the non-linearity, (iii) can take advantage of nonlinear features of the signals to improve prediction performance and (iv) has distinct adaptability for the complex spectra model by comparing with other calibration methods. It is validated that mSISR is a promising nonlinear modeling strategy for multivariate calibration.

  6. The theoretical and experimental study of the nonlinear and chaotic response of curved panels to intense acoustic excitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, C. F.

    1988-01-01

    Assuming a single-mode transverse displacement, a simple formula is derived for the transverse load-displacement relationship of a plate under in-plane compression. The formula is used to derive a simple analytical expression for the nonlinear dynamic response of postbuckled plates under sinusoidal or random excitation. The highly nonlinear motion of snap-through can be easily interpreted using the single-mode formula. Experimental results are obtained using buckled and cylindrical aluminum panels using discrete frequency and broadband excitation of mechanical and acoustic forces.

  7. Accounting For Nonlinearity In A Microwave Radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stelzried, Charles T.

    1991-01-01

    Simple mathematical technique found to account adequately for nonlinear component of response of microwave radiometer. Five prescribed temperatures measured to obtain quadratic calibration curve. Temperature assumed to vary quadratically with reading. Concept not limited to radiometric application; applicable to other measuring systems in which relationships between quantities to be determined and readings of instruments differ slightly from linearity.

  8. Parameter estimation procedure for complex non-linear systems: calibration of ASM No. 1 for N-removal in a full-scale oxidation ditch.

    PubMed

    Abusam, A; Keesman, K J; van Straten, G; Spanjers, H; Meinema, K

    2001-01-01

    When applied to large simulation models, the process of parameter estimation is also called calibration. Calibration of complex non-linear systems, such as activated sludge plants, is often not an easy task. On the one hand, manual calibration of such complex systems is usually time-consuming, and its results are often not reproducible. On the other hand, conventional automatic calibration methods are not always straightforward and often hampered by local minima problems. In this paper a new straightforward and automatic procedure, which is based on the response surface method (RSM) for selecting the best identifiable parameters, is proposed. In RSM, the process response (output) is related to the levels of the input variables in terms of a first- or second-order regression model. Usually, RSM is used to relate measured process output quantities to process conditions. However, in this paper RSM is used for selecting the dominant parameters, by evaluating parameters sensitivity in a predefined region. Good results obtained in calibration of ASM No. 1 for N-removal in a full-scale oxidation ditch proved that the proposed procedure is successful and reliable. PMID:11385868

  9. Calibration of a conodont apatite-based Ordovician 87Sr/86Sr curve to biostratigraphy and geochronology: Implications for stratigraphic resolution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saltzman, M. R.; Edwards, C. T.; Leslie, S. A.; Dwyer, G. S.; Bauer, J. A.; Repetski, John E.; Harris, A. G.; Bergstrom, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    The Ordovician 87Sr/86Sr isotope seawater curve is well established and shows a decreasing trend until the mid-Katian. However, uncertainties in calibration of this curve to biostratigraphy and geochronology have made it difficult to determine how the rates of 87Sr/86Sr decrease may have varied, which has implications for both the stratigraphic resolution possible using Sr isotope stratigraphy and efforts to model the effects of Ordovician geologic events. We measured 87Sr/86Sr in conodont apatite in North American Ordovician sections that are well studied for conodont biostratigraphy, primarily in Nevada, Oklahoma, the Appalachian region, and Ohio Valley. Our results indicate that conodont apatite may provide an accurate medium for Sr isotope stratigraphy and strengthen previous reports that point toward a significant increase in the rate of fall in seawater 87Sr/86Sr during the Middle Ordovician Darriwilian Stage. Our 87Sr/86Sr results suggest that Sr isotope stratigraphy will be most useful as a high-resolution tool for global correlation in the mid-Darriwilian to mid-Sandbian, when the maximum rate of fall in 87Sr/86Sr is estimated at ∼5.0–10.0 × 10–5 per m.y. Variable preservation of conodont elements limits the precision for individual stratigraphic horizons. Replicate conodont analyses from the same sample differ by an average of ∼4.0 × 10–5 (the 2σ standard deviation is 6.2 × 10–5), which in the best case scenario allows for subdivision of Ordovician time intervals characterized by the highest rates of fall in 87Sr/86Sr at a maximum resolution of ∼0.5–1.0 m.y. Links between the increased rate of fall in 87Sr/86Sr beginning in the mid-late Darriwilian (Phragmodus polonicus to Pygodus serra conodont zones) and geologic events continue to be investigated, but the coincidence with a long-term rise in sea level (Sauk-Tippecanoe megasequence boundary) and tectonic events (Taconic orogeny) in North America provides a plausible

  10. Characterization of calibration curves and energy dependence GafChromic{sup TM} XR-QA2 model based radiochromic film dosimetry system

    SciTech Connect

    Tomic, Nada Quintero, Chrystian; Aldelaijan, Saad; Bekerat, Hamed; Liang, LiHeng; DeBlois, François; Devic, Slobodan; Whiting, Bruce R.; Seuntjens, Jan

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The authors investigated the energy response of XR-QA2 GafChromic{sup TM} film over a broad energy range used in diagnostic radiology examinations. The authors also made an assessment of the most suitable functions for both reference and relative dose measurements. Methods: Pieces of XR-QA2 film were irradiated to nine different values of air kerma in air, following reference calibration of a number of beam qualities ranging in HVLs from 0.16 to 8.25 mm Al, which corresponds to effective energy range from 12.7 keV to 56.3 keV. For each beam quality, the authors tested three functional forms (rational, linear exponential, and power) to assess the most suitable function by fitting the delivered air kerma in air as a function of film response in terms of reflectance change. The authors also introduced and tested a new parameterχ = netΔR·e{sup m} {sup netΔR} that linearizes the inherently nonlinear response of the film. Results: The authors have found that in the energy range investigated, the response of the XR-QA2 based radiochromic film dosimetry system ranges from 0.222 to 0.420 in terms of netΔR at K{sub air}{sup air} = 8 cGy. For beam qualities commonly used in CT scanners (4.03–8.25 mm Al), the variation in film response (netΔR at K{sub air}{sup air} = 8 cGy) amounts to ± 5%, while variation in K{sub air}{sup air} amounts to ± 14%. Conclusions: Results of our investigation revealed that the use of XR-QA2 GafChromic{sup TM} film is accompanied by a rather pronounced energy dependent response for beam qualities used for x-ray based diagnostic imaging purposes. The authors also found that the most appropriate function for the reference radiochromic film dosimetry would be the power function, while for the relative dosimetry one may use the exponential response function that can be easily linearized.

  11. Effect of nonideal square-law detection on static calibration in noise-injection radiometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hearn, C. P.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of nonideal square-law detection on the static calibration for a class of Dicke radiometers is examined. It is shown that fourth-order curvature in the detection characteristic adds a nonlinear term to the linear calibration relationship normally ascribed to noise-injection, balanced Dicke radiometers. The minimum error, based on an optimum straight-line fit to the calibration curve, is derived in terms of the power series coefficients describing the input-output characteristics of the detector. These coefficients can be determined by simple measurements, and detection nonlinearity is, therefore, quantitatively related to radiometric measurement error.

  12. A methodological approach to estimate the lactation curve and net energy and protein requirements of beef cows using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling.

    PubMed

    Albertini, T Z; Medeiros, S R; Torres, R A A; Zocchi, S S; Oltjen, J W; Strathe, A B; Lanna, D P D

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate methods to predict the secretion of milk and net energy and protein requirements of beef cows (Bos indicus and B. taurus) after approximately 1 mo postpartum using nonlinear mixed-effect modeling (NLME). Twenty Caracu × Nellore (CN) and 10 Nellore (NL) cows were inseminated to Red Angus bulls, and 10 Angus × Nellore (AN) were bred to Canchim bulls. Cows were evaluated from just after calving (25 ± 11 d) to weaning (220 d). Milk yield was estimated by weighing calves before and after suckling (WSW) and by machine milking (MM) methods at 25, 52, 80, 109, 136, 164, 193, and 220 ± 11 d of lactation. Brody and simple linear equations were consecutively fitted to the data and compared using information criteria. For the Brody equation, a NLME model was used to estimate all lactation profiles incorporating different sources of variation (calf sex and breed of cow, cow as a nested random effect, and within-cow auto-correlation). The CV for the MM method (29%) was less than WSW (45%). Consequently, the WSW method was responsible for reducing the variance about 1.5 times among individuals, which minimized the ability to detect differences among cows. As a result, only milk yield MM data were used in the NLME models. The Brody equation provided the best fit to this dataset, and inclusion of a continuous autoregressive process improved fit (P < 0.01). Milk, energy and protein yield at the beginning of lactation were affected by cow genotype and calf sex (P < 0.001). The exponential decay of the lactation curves was affected only by genotype (P < 0.001). Angus × Nellore cows produced 15 and 48% more milk than CN and NL during the trial, respectively (P < 0.05). Caracu × Nellore cows produced 29% more milk than NL (P < 0.05). The net energy and net protein requirements for milk yield followed a similar ranking. Male calves stimulated their dams to produce 11.7, 11.4, and 11.9% more milk, energy and protein, respectively (P < 0

  13. Compliance calibration of specimens used in the R-curve practice. [for compact, crack-line-wedge-loaded, and center-crack tension specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccabe, D. E.; Sha, G. T.

    1977-01-01

    The compliance calibrations for the compact (CS) and crack-line-wedge-loaded (CLWL) specimens have been determined by experimental measurements and by boundary-collocation analysis. The CS and CLWL specimen configurations were modeled more accurately than those used in previous analytical investigations. Polynomial expressions for the compliance at various stations along the crack line for CS and CLWL specimens are presented. The compliance calibrations for the center-crack tension (CCT) specimen have been determined theoretically by boundary-collocation and finite-element analysis. The calculated compliance values for the CCT specimen are compared with values obtained from the Irwin-Westergaard expression and from a modification to the Irwin-Westergaard expression proposed by Eftis and Liebowitz. The Eftis-Liebowitz expression was found to be in good agreement (plus or minus 2 percent) with both analyses for crack aspect ratios up to 0.8 and for gage half-span to specimen width ratios up to 0.5.

  14. SUMS calibration test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, G.

    1982-01-01

    Calibration was performed on the shuttle upper atmosphere mass spectrometer (SUMS). The results of the calibration and the as run test procedures are presented. The output data is described, and engineering data conversion factors, tables and curves, and calibration on instrument gauges are included. Static calibration results which include: instrument sensitive versus external pressure for N2 and O2, data from each scan of calibration, data plots from N2 and O2, and sensitivity of SUMS at inlet for N2 and O2, and ratios of 14/28 for nitrogen and 16/32 for oxygen are given.

  15. Direct fabrication of thin film gold resistance temperature detection sensors on a curved surface using a flexible dry film photoresist and their calibration up to 450 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, C. H.; Park, H. W.; Kim, H. H.; Park, S. H.; Son, C.; Kim, M. C.; Lee, J. H.; Go, J. S.

    2013-06-01

    High efficiency heat exchangers, such as intercoolers and recuperators, are composed of complex and compact structures to enhance heat transfer. This limits the installation of conventional temperature sensors to measure the temperature inside the heat exchanger without flow disturbance. To overcome this limitation, we have developed a direct patterning method in which metal is sputtered onto a curved surface using film photoresist and the fabrication of thin film Au resistance temperature detection (RTD) temperature sensors. A photosensitive film resist has been used to overcome the difficulty of 3-dimensional photolithography on a curved surface. The film resist after 2-dimensional photolithography is laminated over an alumina rod which is deposited with Au as an RTD sensing material. The Au metal is etched chemically, and the film resist is removed to form the thin film Au-RTD temperature sensors. They are calibrated by measuring the resistance change against temperature in a thermally controlled furnace. The second order polynomial fit shows good agreement with the measured temperatures with a standard deviation of 0.02 for the temperature range of 20-450 °C. Finally, the performance of the Au-RTD temperature sensors was evaluated.

  16. Frequency curves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riggs, H.C.

    1968-01-01

    This manual describes graphical and mathematical procedures for preparing frequency curves from samples of hydrologic data. It also discusses the theory of frequency curves, compares advantages of graphical and mathematical fitting, suggests methods of describing graphically defined frequency curves analytically, and emphasizes the correct interpretations of a frequency curve.

  17. 40 CFR 92.120 - NDIR analyzer calibration and checks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... curve for each range used as follows: (i) Zero the analyzer. (ii) Span the analyzer to give a response..., 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 percent of full-scale concentration. (v) Generate a calibration curve. The... calibration curve need not be generated if: (A) A calibration curve conforming to paragraph (c)(2)(v) of...

  18. 40 CFR 92.120 - NDIR analyzer calibration and checks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... curve for each range used as follows: (i) Zero the analyzer. (ii) Span the analyzer to give a response..., 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 percent of full-scale concentration. (v) Generate a calibration curve. The... calibration curve need not be generated if: (A) A calibration curve conforming to paragraph (c)(2)(v) of...

  19. MATHEMATICAL DESCRIPTION OF NON-LINEAR SURVIVAL CURVES OF LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES AS DETERMINED IN A BEEF GRAVY MODEL SYSTEM AT 57.5 TO 65C

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper presents a nonlinear model for predicting the inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes, suspended in beef broth after heat treatment. A five-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes was used in developing inactivation data at 57.5C, 60C, 62.5C and 65C, where maximum observed lethalities were mo...

  20. Comment on "Radiocarbon Calibration Curve Spanning 0 to 50,000 Years B.P. Based on Paired 230Th/234U/238U and 14C Dates on Pristine Corals" by R.G. Fairbanks, R. A. Mortlock, T.-C. Chiu, L. Cao, A. Kaplan, T. P. Guilderson, T. W. Fairbanks, A. L. Bloom, P

    SciTech Connect

    Reimer, P J; Baillie, M L; Bard, E; Beck, J W; Blackwell, P G; Buck, C E; Burr, G S; Edwards, R L; Friedrich, M; Guilderson, T P; Hogg, A G; Hughen, K A; Kromer, B; McCormac, G; Manning, S; Reimer, R W; Southon, J R; Stuiver, M; der Plicht, J v; Weyhenmeyer, C E

    2005-10-02

    Radiocarbon calibration curves are essential for converting radiocarbon dated chronologies to the calendar timescale. Prior to the 1980's numerous differently derived calibration curves based on radiocarbon ages of known age material were in use, resulting in ''apples and oranges'' comparisons between various records (Klein et al., 1982), further complicated by until then unappreciated inter-laboratory variations (International Study Group, 1982). The solution was to produce an internationally-agreed calibration curve based on carefully screened data with updates at 4-6 year intervals (Klein et al., 1982; Stuiver and Reimer, 1986; Stuiver and Reimer, 1993; Stuiver et al., 1998). The IntCal working group has continued this tradition with the active participation of researchers who produced the records that were considered for incorporation into the current, internationally-ratified calibration curves, IntCal04, SHCal04, and Marine04, for Northern Hemisphere terrestrial, Southern Hemisphere terrestrial, and marine samples, respectively (Reimer et al., 2004; Hughen et al., 2004; McCormac et al., 2004). Fairbanks et al. (2005), accompanied by a more technical paper, Chiu et al. (2005), and an introductory comment, Adkins (2005), recently published a ''calibration curve spanning 0-50,000 years''. Fairbanks et al. (2005) and Chiu et al. (2005) have made a significant contribution to the database on which the IntCal04 and Marine04 calibration curves are based. These authors have now taken the further step to derive their own radiocarbon calibration extending to 50,000 cal BP, which they claim is superior to that generated by the IntCal working group. In their papers, these authors are strongly critical of the IntCal calibration efforts for what they claim to be inadequate screening and sample pretreatment methods. While these criticisms may ultimately be helpful in identifying a better set of protocols, we feel that there are also several erroneous and misleading

  1. A robust method for determining calibration coefficients for VIIRS reflective solar bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Qiang; McIntire, Jeffrey; Efremova, Boryana; Schwarting, Thomas; Oudrari, Hassan; Zeng, Jinan; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a robust method for determining the calibration coefficients in polynomial calibration equations, and discusses the corresponding calibration uncertainties. An attenuator method that takes into account all measurements with and without an attenuator screen was used to restrict the impact of the absolute calibration of the light source. The originally proposed procedure attempts to simultaneously determine all unknowns nonlinearly using polynomial curve fitting. The newly proposed method divides the task into two simpler parts. For example, in the case of a quadratic calibration equation, the first part becomes a quadratic equation solely for the transmittance of attenuator, which has an analytical solution using three or four sets of measurements. Additionally, it is straightforward to determine the median value and the standard deviation of the transmittance from the solutions using all combinations of measured data points. In conjunction, the second part becomes a linear fit, with the ratio of the zeroth-order to first-order calibration coefficients as the intercept and the ratio of the second-order to first-order calibration coefficients as the slope. These ratios are unaffected by the absolute calibration of the light source and are then used in the calibration equation to calculate the first-order calibration coefficient. How the new method works is straightforward to visualize, which makes its results easier to verify. This is demonstrated using measurements from the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) J1 Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) reflective solar bands (RSB) pre-launch testing.

  2. Bradford Curves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rousseau, Ronald

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of informetric distributions shows that generalized Leimkuhler functions give proper fits to a large variety of Bradford curves, including those exhibiting a Groos droop or a rising tail. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test is used to test goodness of fit, and least-square fits are compared with Egghe's method. (Contains 53 references.) (LRW)

  3. The role of ANS acuity and numeracy for the calibration and the coherence of subjective probability judgments

    PubMed Central

    Winman, Anders; Juslin, Peter; Lindskog, Marcus; Nilsson, Håkan; Kerimi, Neda

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate how numeracy and acuity of the approximate number system (ANS) relate to the calibration and coherence of probability judgments. Based on the literature on number cognition, a first hypothesis was that those with lower numeracy would maintain a less linear use of the probability scale, contributing to overconfidence and nonlinear calibration curves. A second hypothesis was that also poorer acuity of the ANS would be associated with overconfidence and non-linearity. A third hypothesis, in line with dual-systems theory (e.g., Kahneman and Frederick, 2002) was that people higher in numeracy should have better access to the normative probability rules, allowing them to decrease the rate of conjunction fallacies. Data from 213 participants sampled from the Swedish population showed that: (i) in line with the first hypothesis, overconfidence and the linearity of the calibration curves were related to numeracy, where people higher in numeracy were well calibrated with zero overconfidence. (ii) ANS was not associated with overconfidence and non-linearity, disconfirming the second hypothesis. (iii) The rate of conjunction fallacies was slightly, but to a statistically significant degree decreased by numeracy, but still high at all numeracy levels. An unexpected finding was that participants with better ANS acuity gave more realistic estimates of their performance relative to others. PMID:25140163

  4. Nonlinear Analysis of Pulsating White Dwarf Lightcurves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provencal, J. L.; Montgomery, M. H.; Shipman, H.; WET TEam

    2015-06-01

    Convection remains one of the largest sources of theoretical uncertainty in our understanding of stellar physics. For example, Bergeron (1995) show that basic parameters such as flux, line profiles, energy distribution, color indices, and equivalent widths are extremely sensitive to the assumed convective parameterization. This is compelling, since we use our knowledge of these basic parameters to calibrate white dwarf cooling sequences, provide detailed estimates for the ages of individual white dwarfs, and determine the age of the Galactic disk. The Whole Earth Telescope (WET) is engaged in a long term project to empirically calibrate the physical properties of convection in pulsating white dwarfs by combining asteroseismology and analysis of nonlinear light curves. Nonsinusoidal distortions, in the form of narrow peaks and wider valleys, are observed in many pulsating white dwarf light curves. These are a reflection of the local depth of the convection zone, a value which varies during a pulsation cycle. Applying asteroseismology and convective light curve fitting to a wide sample of pulsating white dwarfs provides an empirical map of how the convective response time (the convection zone “depth”) varies as a function of effective temperature, and this can be compared with theoretical models, both MLT and hydrodynamic. This project has resulted in a large database of white dwarf lightcurves and pulsation frequencies. We present current results for DA and DB pulsators, and provide a few examples of interesting pulsation behavior seen along the way.

  5. Photometric Calibration of Consumer Video Cameras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suggs, Robert; Swift, Wesley, Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Equipment and techniques have been developed to implement a method of photometric calibration of consumer video cameras for imaging of objects that are sufficiently narrow or sufficiently distant to be optically equivalent to point or line sources. Heretofore, it has been difficult to calibrate consumer video cameras, especially in cases of image saturation, because they exhibit nonlinear responses with dynamic ranges much smaller than those of scientific-grade video cameras. The present method not only takes this difficulty in stride but also makes it possible to extend effective dynamic ranges to several powers of ten beyond saturation levels. The method will likely be primarily useful in astronomical photometry. There are also potential commercial applications in medical and industrial imaging of point or line sources in the presence of saturation.This development was prompted by the need to measure brightnesses of debris in amateur video images of the breakup of the Space Shuttle Columbia. The purpose of these measurements is to use the brightness values to estimate relative masses of debris objects. In most of the images, the brightness of the main body of Columbia was found to exceed the dynamic ranges of the cameras. A similar problem arose a few years ago in the analysis of video images of Leonid meteors. The present method is a refined version of the calibration method developed to solve the Leonid calibration problem. In this method, one performs an endto- end calibration of the entire imaging system, including not only the imaging optics and imaging photodetector array but also analog tape recording and playback equipment (if used) and any frame grabber or other analog-to-digital converter (if used). To automatically incorporate the effects of nonlinearity and any other distortions into the calibration, the calibration images are processed in precisely the same manner as are the images of meteors, space-shuttle debris, or other objects that one seeks to

  6. Psychophysical contrast calibration

    PubMed Central

    To, Long; Woods, Russell L; Goldstein, Robert B; Peli, Eli

    2013-01-01

    Electronic displays and computer systems offer numerous advantages for clinical vision testing. Laboratory and clinical measurements of various functions and in particular of (letter) contrast sensitivity require accurately calibrated display contrast. In the laboratory this is achieved using expensive light meters. We developed and evaluated a novel method that uses only psychophysical responses of a person with normal vision to calibrate the luminance contrast of displays for experimental and clinical applications. Our method combines psychophysical techniques (1) for detection (and thus elimination or reduction) of display saturating nonlinearities; (2) for luminance (gamma function) estimation and linearization without use of a photometer; and (3) to measure without a photometer the luminance ratios of the display’s three color channels that are used in a bit-stealing procedure to expand the luminance resolution of the display. Using a photometer we verified that the calibration achieved with this procedure is accurate for both LCD and CRT displays enabling testing of letter contrast sensitivity to 0.5%. Our visual calibration procedure enables clinical, internet and home implementation and calibration verification of electronic contrast testing. PMID:23643843

  7. STIS Calibration Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulbert, S.; Hodge, P.; Lindler, D.; Shaw, R.; Goudfrooij, P.; Katsanis, R.; Keener, S.; McGrath, M.; Bohlin, R.; Baum, S.

    1997-05-01

    Routine calibration of STIS observations in the HST data pipeline is performed by the CALSTIS task. CALSTIS can: subtract the over-scan region and a bias image from CCD observations; remove cosmic ray features from CCD observations; correct global nonlinearities for MAMA observations; subtract a dark image; and, apply flat field corrections. In the case of spectral data, CALSTIS can also: assign a wavelength to each pixel; apply a heliocentric correction to the wavelengths; convert counts to absolute flux; process the automatically generated spectral calibration lamp observations to improve the wavelength solution; rectify two-dimensional (longslit) spectra; subtract interorder and sky background; and, extract one-dimensional spectra. CALSTIS differs in significant ways from the current HST calibration tasks. The new code is written in ANSI C and makes use of a new C interface to IRAF. The input data, reference data, and output calibrated data are all in FITS format, using IMAGE or BINTABLE extensions. Error estimates are computed and include contributions from the reference images. The entire calibration can be performed by one task, but many steps can also be performed individually.

  8. Nonlinear Growth Models in M"plus" and SAS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimm, Kevin J.; Ram, Nilam

    2009-01-01

    Nonlinear growth curves or growth curves that follow a specified nonlinear function in time enable researchers to model complex developmental patterns with parameters that are easily interpretable. In this article we describe how a variety of sigmoid curves can be fit using the M"plus" structural modeling program and the nonlinear mixed-effects…

  9. A new method for automated dynamic calibration of tipping-bucket rain gauges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Humphrey, M.D.; Istok, J.D.; Lee, J.Y.; Hevesi, J.A.; Flint, A.L.

    1997-01-01

    Existing methods for dynamic calibration of tipping-bucket rain gauges (TBRs) can be time consuming and labor intensive. A new automated dynamic calibration system has been developed to calibrate TBRs with minimal effort. The system consists of a programmable pump, datalogger, digital balance, and computer. Calibration is performed in two steps: 1) pump calibration and 2) rain gauge calibration. Pump calibration ensures precise control of water flow rates delivered to the rain gauge funnel; rain gauge calibration ensures precise conversion of bucket tip times to actual rainfall rates. Calibration of the pump and one rain gauge for 10 selected pump rates typically requires about 8 h. Data files generated during rain gauge calibration are used to compute rainfall intensities and amounts from a record of bucket tip times collected in the field. The system was tested using 5 types of commercial TBRs (15.2-, 20.3-, and 30.5-cm diameters; 0.1-, 0.2-, and 1.0-mm resolutions) and using 14 TBRs of a single type (20.3-cm diameter; 0.1-mm resolution). Ten pump rates ranging from 3 to 154 mL min-1 were used to calibrate the TBRs and represented rainfall rates between 6 and 254 mm h-1 depending on the rain gauge diameter. All pump calibration results were very linear with R2 values greater than 0.99. All rain gauges exhibited large nonlinear underestimation errors (between 5% and 29%) that decreased with increasing rain gauge resolution and increased with increasing rainfall rate, especially for rates greater than 50 mm h-1. Calibration curves of bucket tip time against the reciprocal of the true pump rate for all rain gauges also were linear with R2 values of 0.99. Calibration data for the 14 rain gauges of the same type were very similar, as indicated by slope values that were within 14% of each other and ranged from about 367 to 417 s mm h-1. The developed system can calibrate TBRs efficiently, accurately, and virtually unattended and could be modified for use with other

  10. Antenna Calibration and Measurement Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochblatt, David J.; Cortes, Manuel Vazquez

    2012-01-01

    A document describes the Antenna Calibration & Measurement Equipment (ACME) system that will provide the Deep Space Network (DSN) with instrumentation enabling a trained RF engineer at each complex to perform antenna calibration measurements and to generate antenna calibration data. This data includes continuous-scan auto-bore-based data acquisition with all-sky data gathering in support of 4th order pointing model generation requirements. Other data includes antenna subreflector focus, system noise temperature and tipping curves, antenna efficiency, reports system linearity, and instrument calibration. The ACME system design is based on the on-the-fly (OTF) mapping technique and architecture. ACME has contributed to the improved RF performance of the DSN by approximately a factor of two. It improved the pointing performances of the DSN antennas and productivity of its personnel and calibration engineers.

  11. Anemometer calibrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bate, T.; Calkins, D. E.; Price, P.; Veikins, O.

    1971-01-01

    Calibrator generates accurate flow velocities over wide range of gas pressure, temperature, and composition. Both pressure and flow velocity can be maintained within 0.25 percent. Instrument is essentially closed loop hydraulic system containing positive displacement drive.

  12. New approach to calibrating bed load samplers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hubbell, D.W.; Stevens, H.H.; Skinner, J.V.; Beverage, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    Cyclic variations in bed load discharge at a point, which are an inherent part of the process of bed load movement, complicate calibration of bed load samplers and preclude the use of average rates to define sampling efficiencies. Calibration curves, rather than efficiencies, are derived by two independent methods using data collected with prototype versions of the Helley‐Smith sampler in a large calibration facility capable of continuously measuring transport rates across a 9 ft (2.7 m) width. Results from both methods agree. Composite calibration curves, based on matching probability distribution functions of samples and measured rates from different hydraulic conditions (runs), are obtained for six different versions of the sampler. Sampled rates corrected by the calibration curves agree with measured rates for individual runs.

  13. Field calibration of binocular stereo vision based on fast reconstruction of 3D control field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haijun; Liu, Changjie; Fu, Luhua; Guo, Yin

    2015-08-01

    Construction of high-speed railway in China has entered a period of rapid growth. To accurately and quickly obtain the dynamic envelope curve of high-speed vehicle is an important guarantee for safe driving. The measuring system is based on binocular stereo vision. Considering the difficulties in field calibration such as environmental changes and time limits, carried out a field calibration method based on fast reconstruction of three-dimensional control field. With the rapid assembly of pre-calibrated three-dimensional control field, whose coordinate accuracy is guaranteed by manufacture accuracy and calibrated by V-STARS, two cameras take a quick shot of it at the same time. The field calibration parameters are then solved by the method combining linear solution with nonlinear optimization. Experimental results showed that the measurement accuracy can reach up to +/- 0.5mm, and more importantly, in the premise of guaranteeing accuracy, the speed of the calibration and the portability of the devices have been improved considerably.

  14. Curves and Their Properties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Robert C.

    This volume, a reprinting of a classic first published in 1952, presents detailed discussions of 26 curves or families of curves, and 17 analytic systems of curves. For each curve the author provides a historical note, a sketch or sketches, a description of the curve, a discussion of pertinent facts, and a bibliography. Depending upon the curve,…

  15. Relative Locality in Curved Spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalski-Glikman, Jerzy; Rosati, Giacomo

    2013-07-01

    In this paper we construct the action describing dynamics of the particle moving in curved spacetime, with a nontrivial momentum space geometry. Curved momentum space is the core feature of theories where relative locality effects are present. So far aspects of nonlinearities in momentum space have been studied only for flat or constantly expanding (de Sitter) spacetimes, relying on their maximally symmetric nature. The extension of curved momentum space frameworks to arbitrary spacetime geometries could be relevant for the opportunities to test Planck-scale curvature/deformation of particles momentum space. As a first example of this construction we describe the particle with κ-Poincaré momentum space on a circular orbit in Schwarzschild spacetime, where the contributes of momentum space curvature turn out to be negligible. The analysis of this problem relies crucially on the solution of the soccer ball problem.

  16. Self-calibrating multiplexer circuit

    DOEpatents

    Wahl, Chris P.

    1997-01-01

    A time domain multiplexer system with automatic determination of acceptable multiplexer output limits, error determination, or correction is comprised of a time domain multiplexer, a computer, a constant current source capable of at least three distinct current levels, and two series resistances employed for calibration and testing. A two point linear calibration curve defining acceptable multiplexer voltage limits may be defined by the computer by determining the voltage output of the multiplexer to very accurately known input signals developed from predetermined current levels across the series resistances. Drift in the multiplexer may be detected by the computer when the output voltage limits, expected during normal operation, are exceeded, or the relationship defined by the calibration curve is invalidated.

  17. Self-calibrating multiplexer circuit

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, C.P.

    1995-12-31

    A time domain multiplexer system with automatic determination of acceptable multiplexer output limits, error determination, or correction is comprised of a time domain multiplexer, a computer, a constant current source capable of at least three distinct current levels, and two series resistances employed for calibration and testing. A two point linear calibration curve defining acceptable multiplexer voltage limits may be defined by the computer by determining the voltage output of the multiplexer to very accurately known input signals developed from predetermined current levels across the series resistances. Drift in the multiplexer may be detected by the computer when the output voltage limits, expected during normal operation, are exceeded, or the relationship defined by the calibration curve is invalidated.

  18. Image Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peay, Christopher S.; Palacios, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Calibrate_Image calibrates images obtained from focal plane arrays so that the output image more accurately represents the observed scene. The function takes as input a degraded image along with a flat field image and a dark frame image produced by the focal plane array and outputs a corrected image. The three most prominent sources of image degradation are corrected for: dark current accumulation, gain non-uniformity across the focal plane array, and hot and/or dead pixels in the array. In the corrected output image the dark current is subtracted, the gain variation is equalized, and values for hot and dead pixels are estimated, using bicubic interpolation techniques.

  19. Standard Mastery Curves and Skew Curves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warries, Egbert

    The objective of the study is to convince educational researchers of the necessity for "standard mastery curves" for the graphical representation of scores on summative tests for a group of students. Attention is drawn to the study of theoretical and empirical skew curves in education and biology. Use of standard mastery curves and study of skew…

  20. A Bionic Polarization Navigation Sensor and Its Calibration Method.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huijie; Xu, Wujian

    2016-01-01

    The polarization patterns of skylight which arise due to the scattering of sunlight in the atmosphere can be used by many insects for deriving compass information. Inspired by insects' polarized light compass, scientists have developed a new kind of navigation method. One of the key techniques in this method is the polarimetric sensor which is used to acquire direction information from skylight. In this paper, a polarization navigation sensor is proposed which imitates the working principles of the polarization vision systems of insects. We introduce the optical design and mathematical model of the sensor. In addition, a calibration method based on variable substitution and non-linear curve fitting is proposed. The results obtained from the outdoor experiments provide support for the feasibility and precision of the sensor. The sensor's signal processing can be well described using our mathematical model. A relatively high degree of accuracy in polarization measurement can be obtained without any error compensation. PMID:27527171

  1. FY2008 Calibration Systems Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, Bret D.; Myers, Tanya L.; Broocks, Bryan T.

    2009-01-01

    The Calibrations project has been exploring alternative technologies for calibration of passive sensors in the infrared (IR) spectral region. In particular, we have investigated using quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) because these devices offer several advantages over conventional blackbodies such as reductions in size and weight while providing a spectral source in the IR with high output power. These devices can provide a rapid, multi-level radiance scheme to fit any nonlinear behavior as well as a spectral calibration that includes the fore-optics, which is currently not available for on-board calibration systems.

  2. TS - Dean interactions in curved channel flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, Bart A.; Zang, Thomas A.; Erlebacher, Gordon

    1990-01-01

    A weakly nonlinear theory is developed to study the interaction of TS waves and Dean vortices in curved channel flow. The prediction obtained from the theory agree well with results obtained from direct numerical simulations of curved channel flow, especially for low amplitude disturbances. At low Reynolds numbers the wave interaction is generally stabilizing to both disturbances, though as the Reynolds number increases, many linearly unstable TS waves are further destabilized by the presence of Dean vortices.

  3. Explicit superconic curves.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sunggoo

    2016-09-01

    Conics and Cartesian ovals are extremely important curves in various fields of science. In addition, aspheric curves based on conics are useful in optical design. Superconic curves, recently suggested by Greynolds, are extensions of both conics and Cartesian ovals and have been applied to optical design. However, they are not extensions of aspheric curves based on conics. In this work, we investigate another type of superconic curves. These superconic curves are extensions of not only conics and Cartesian ovals but also aspheric curves based on conics. Moreover, these are represented in explicit form, while Greynolds's superconic curves are in implicit form. PMID:27607506

  4. The In-Flight Calibration Program for the XRS on Astro-E2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cottam, J.; Kilbourne, C. A.

    2004-01-01

    The X-Ray Spectrometer (XRS) will be launched in February 2005 as part of the Astro-E2 mission. It will provide unprecedented throughput and resolving powers particularly at high energies. In this presentation we will describe the in-flight calibration program. The energy scale of the XRS is a complex, non-linear function of the noise and power conditions on the array. It will be calibrated empirically using the bright point sources, Capella and GX301-2. Ground calibration of the line spread function show it to be almost perfectly Gaussian. The in-flight calibration is designed to verify this using the energy scale targets. The effective area curve of the XRS contains discreet edge structure from the mirrors, the optical blocking filters, and the microcalorimeter HgTe absorbers. The effective area Calibration program will simultaneously measure these absorption edges and the global effective area properties using the relatively featureless sources 3C273 and Mrk421. Additional monitoring of any ice build-up on the filters will be conducted using observations of the supernova remnants N132D and E0102.

  5. Poster — Thur Eve — 42: Radiochromic film calibration for low-energy seed brachytherapy dose measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, H; Menon, G; Sloboda, R

    2014-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of radiochromic film calibration procedures used in external beam radiotherapy when applied to I-125 brachytherapy sources delivering higher doses, and to determine any necessary modifications to achieve similar accuracy in absolute dose measurements. GafChromic EBT3 film was used to measure radiation doses upwards of 35 Gy from 6 MV, 75 kVp and (∼28 keV) I-125 photon sources. A custom phantom was used for the I-125 irradiations to obtain a larger film area with nearly constant dose to reduce the effects of film heterogeneities on the optical density (OD) measurements. RGB transmission images were obtained with an Epson 10000XL flatbed scanner, and calibration curves relating OD and dose using a rational function were determined for each colour channel and at each energy using a non-linear least square minimization method. Differences found between the 6 MV calibration curve and those for the lower energy sources are large enough that 6 MV beams should not be used to calibrate film for low-energy sources. However, differences between the 75 kVp and I-125 calibration curves were quite small; indicating that 75 kVp is a good choice. Compared with I-125 irradiation, this gives the advantages of lower type B uncertainties and markedly reduced irradiation time. To obtain high accuracy calibration for the dose range up to 35 Gy, two-segment piece-wise fitting was required. This yielded absolute dose measurement accuracy above 1 Gy of ∼2% for 75 kVp and ∼5% for I-125 seed exposures.

  6. ALTEA calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaconte, V.; Altea Team

    The ALTEA project is aimed at studying the possible functional damages to the Central Nervous System (CNS) due to particle radiation in space environment. The project is an international and multi-disciplinary collaboration. The ALTEA facility is an helmet-shaped device that will study concurrently the passage of cosmic radiation through the brain, the functional status of the visual system and the electrophysiological dynamics of the cortical activity. The basic instrumentation is composed by six active particle telescopes, one ElectroEncephaloGraph (EEG), a visual stimulator and a pushbutton. The telescopes are able to detect the passage of each particle measuring its energy, trajectory and released energy into the brain and identifying nuclear species. The EEG and the Visual Stimulator are able to measure the functional status of the visual system, the cortical electrophysiological activity, and to look for a correlation between incident particles, brain activity and Light Flash perceptions. These basic instruments can be used separately or in any combination, permitting several different experiments. ALTEA is scheduled to fly in the International Space Station (ISS) in November, 15th 2004. In this paper the calibration of the Flight Model of the silicon telescopes (Silicon Detector Units - SDUs) will be shown. These measures have been taken at the GSI heavy ion accelerator in Darmstadt. First calibration has been taken out in November 2003 on the SDU-FM1 using C nuclei at different energies: 100, 150, 400 and 600 Mev/n. We performed a complete beam scan of the SDU-FM1 to check functionality and homogeneity of all strips of silicon detector planes, for each beam energy we collected data to achieve good statistics and finally we put two different thickness of Aluminium and Plexiglas in front of the detector in order to study fragmentations. This test has been carried out with a Test Equipment to simulate the Digital Acquisition Unit (DAU). We are scheduled to

  7. Experimental simulation of closed timelike curves.

    PubMed

    Ringbauer, Martin; Broome, Matthew A; Myers, Casey R; White, Andrew G; Ralph, Timothy C

    2014-01-01

    Closed timelike curves are among the most controversial features of modern physics. As legitimate solutions to Einstein's field equations, they allow for time travel, which instinctively seems paradoxical. However, in the quantum regime these paradoxes can be resolved, leaving closed timelike curves consistent with relativity. The study of these systems therefore provides valuable insight into nonlinearities and the emergence of causal structures in quantum mechanics--essential for any formulation of a quantum theory of gravity. Here we experimentally simulate the nonlinear behaviour of a qubit interacting unitarily with an older version of itself, addressing some of the fascinating effects that arise in systems traversing a closed timelike curve. These include perfect discrimination of non-orthogonal states and, most intriguingly, the ability to distinguish nominally equivalent ways of preparing pure quantum states. Finally, we examine the dependence of these effects on the initial qubit state, the form of the unitary interaction and the influence of decoherence. PMID:24942489

  8. ``Once Nonlinear, Always Nonlinear''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackstock, David T.

    2006-05-01

    The phrase "Once nonlinear, always nonlinear" is attributed to David F. Pernet. In the 1970s he noticed that nonlinearly generated higher harmonic components (both tones and noise) don't decay as small signals, no matter how far the wave propagates. Despite being out of step with the then widespread notion that small-signal behavior is restored in "old age," Pernet's view is supported by the Burgers-equation solutions of the early 1960s. For a plane wave from a sinusoidally vibrating source in a thermoviscous fluid, the old-age decay of the nth harmonic is e-nαx, not e-n2αx (small-signal expectation), where α is the absorption coefficient at the fundamental frequency f and x is propagation distance. Moreover, for spherical waves (r the distance) the harmonic diminishes as e-nαx/rn, not e-n2αx/r. While not new, these results have special application to aircraft noise propagation, since the large propagation distances of interest imply old age. The virtual source model may be used to explain the "anomalous" decay rates. In old age most of the nth harmonic sound comes from virtual sources close to the receiver. Their strength is proportional to the nth power of the local fundamental amplitude, and that sets the decay law for the nth harmonic.

  9. High accuracy calibration of the fiber spectroradiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhifeng; Dai, Caihong; Wang, Yanfei; Chen, Binhua

    2014-11-01

    Comparing to the big-size scanning spectroradiometer, the compact and convenient fiber spectroradiometer is widely used in various kinds of fields, such as the remote sensing, aerospace monitoring, and solar irradiance measurement. High accuracy calibration should be made before the use, which involves the wavelength accuracy, the background environment noise, the nonlinear effect, the bandwidth, the stray light and et al. The wavelength lamp and tungsten lamp are frequently used to calibration the fiber spectroradiometer. The wavelength difference can be easily reduced through the software or calculation. However, the nonlinear effect and the bandwidth always can affect the measurement accuracy significantly.

  10. Study on self-calibration angle encoder using simulation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Xue, Zi; Huang, Yao; Wang, Xiaona

    2016-01-01

    The angle measurement technology is very important in precision manufacture, optical industry, aerospace, aviation and navigation, etc. Further, the angle encoder, which uses concept `subdivision of full circle (2π rad=360°)' and transforms the angle into number of electronic pulse, is the most common instrument for angle measurement. To improve the accuracy of the angle encoder, a novel self-calibration method was proposed that enables the angle encoder to calibrate itself without angle reference. An angle deviation curve among 0° to 360° was simulated with equal weights Fourier components for the study of the self-calibration method. In addition, a self-calibration algorithm was used in the process of this deviation curve. The simulation result shows the relationship between the arrangement of multi-reading heads and the Fourier components distribution of angle encoder deviation curve. Besides, an actual self-calibration angle encoder was calibrated by polygon angle standard in national institute of metrology, China. The experiment result indicates the actual self-calibration effect on the Fourier components distribution of angle encoder deviation curve. In the end, the comparison, which is between the simulation self-calibration result and the experiment self-calibration result, reflects good consistency and proves the reliability of the self-calibration angle encoder.

  11. Auto calibration of a cone-beam-CT

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, Daniel; Heil, Ulrich; Schulze, Ralf; Schoemer, Elmar; Schwanecke, Ulrich

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: This paper introduces a novel autocalibration method for cone-beam-CTs (CBCT) or flat-panel CTs, assuming a perfect rotation. The method is based on ellipse-fitting. Autocalibration refers to accurate recovery of the geometric alignment of a CBCT device from projection images alone, without any manual measurements. Methods: The authors use test objects containing small arbitrarily positioned radio-opaque markers. No information regarding the relative positions of the markers is used. In practice, the authors use three to eight metal ball bearings (diameter of 1 mm), e.g., positioned roughly in a vertical line such that their projection image curves on the detector preferably form large ellipses over the circular orbit. From this ellipse-to-curve mapping and also from its inversion the authors derive an explicit formula. Nonlinear optimization based on this mapping enables them to determine the six relevant parameters of the system up to the device rotation angle, which is sufficient to define the geometry of a CBCT-machine assuming a perfect rotational movement. These parameters also include out-of-plane rotations. The authors evaluate their method by simulation based on data used in two similar approaches [L. Smekal, M. Kachelriess, S. E, and K. Wa, 'Geometric misalignment and calibration in cone-beam tomography,' Med. Phys. 31(12), 3242-3266 (2004); K. Yang, A. L. C. Kwan, D. F. Miller, and J. M. Boone, 'A geometric calibration method for cone beam CT systems,' Med. Phys. 33(6), 1695-1706 (2006)]. This allows a direct comparison of accuracy. Furthermore, the authors present real-world 3D reconstructions of a dry human spine segment and an electronic device. The reconstructions were computed from projections taken with a commercial dental CBCT device having two different focus-to-detector distances that were both calibrated with their method. The authors compare their reconstruction with a reconstruction computed by the manufacturer of the CBCT device to

  12. Silicon double spring for the simultaneous calibration of probing forces and deflections in the micro range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brand, Uwe; Li, Zhi; Gao, Sai; Hahn, Susan; Hiller, Karla

    2016-01-01

    A new reference spring for the simultaneous calibration of probing force and displacement has been developed. The spring consists of two single silicon springs, which are placed at a distance of 3 μm from each other. Each single spring consists of a moveable shaft, which is suspended and guided by four double-folded silicon springs. This leads to a much higher stiffness of the spring perpendicular to the direction of movement than in the direction of movement. The area of contact of the double spring has a size of 50 μm  ×  60 μm. However, measurable changes in the calibration parameters could not be observed when we varied the location of the loading point within this area. Furthermore, it could be shown for measurements at different temperatures that the calibration parameters also show a very small dependence on temperature (<0.4%/K between 22 °C and 23 °C). A further outstanding property of this new reference spring is its small non-linearity of the force deflection curve of 0.1%. The spring can be used for the calibration of force and the displacement of atomic force microscopes, nanoindenters, and stylus instruments in the micro-Newton range up to 12 μN and up to 3 μm displacements.

  13. Compensation of Phase Nonlinearity of Liquid Crystal Spatial Light Modulator for High-Resolution Wavefront Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Zhou, H.; Li, J.; Qiao, Y. J.; Si, J.; Gao, W.

    2015-07-01

    The ability of phase modulation enables liquid crystal spatial light modulator (LCSLM) to control wavefront. However, the disadvantage of its inherent nonlinear phase response will decrease the wavefront control accuracy. In this paper, a compensation for the nonlinear phase response is proposed based on Inverse Interpolation method. Characteristic curve of phase retardation versus gray levels for a 256x256 pixels phase-only LCSLM has been measured and calibrated by Inverse Interpolation. A mapping relationship between input gray levels and driving gray levels has been built and recorded by a linear look-up table ANTI2.LUT. The nonlinear error of the phase drops from 15.9% to 2.42% by using ANTI2.LUT. Further more, the mapping curve of ANTI2.LUT is almost consistent with 290.LUT from the manufacturer, which proved the efficiency of the compensation of phase nonlinearity. Finally, the distorted wavefront caused by a liquid crystal flake is corrected using LCSLM based on ANTI2.LUT. Experimental results show that the peak-valley value of the distorted wavefront decreases from 1.56l to 0.26l (l =0.6328 λm), the root-mean-square value decreases from 0.25l to 0.02l and the Strehl ratio of diffractive spots increases from 0.08 to 0.97. So LCSLM can be applied to realize high-precision and high-resolution wavefront correction with linear phase response.

  14. 40 CFR 86.1325-94 - Methane analyzer calibration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... point, then concentration values may be calculated by using the linear calibration equation for that range. If the deviation exceeds these limits, then the best-fit non-linear equation which represents...

  15. Non-linear meteor trails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beech, Martin

    1988-08-01

    In this essay an attempt is made to not only review but reopen the debate on nonlinear meteor trails. On the basis of data culled from various, now historical, sources it is found that approximately one in every two hundred of the visual meteors is likely to show a nonlinear trail, and that of such trails about 60 percent will be continuously curved and 40 percent sinusoidal. It is suggested that two mechanisms may explain the various trail types: the continuously curved trails being a manifestation of the classical Magnus effect, and the sinusoidal trails resulting from torque-free precession.

  16. A correction method for nonlinear artifacts in CT imaging.

    PubMed

    Sun, Haining; Qiu, Shaokun; Lou, Shanshan; Liu, Jinjun; Li, Changjun; Jiang, Genmiao

    2004-01-01

    This work presents a new method to reduce nonlinear artifacts in computed tomography (CT). Based on the traditional water-equivalent beam hardening correction method, a new systematic iterative algorithm has been designed to modify the original spectrum, which is under the influences of certain added filter materials and some unknown factors. By incorporating the characters of polychromatic beam hardening and the insensibility and nonuniformity of detectors into consideration, a new polynomial function curve is calculated. The curve can calibrate CT raw data and reduce the nonlinear artifacts, such as shading artifacts, dark artifacts, cupping artifacts and ring artifacts, in soft tissue. Comparing with the traditional water-equivalent correction, results show that this method can significantly improve the image quality. Meanwhile, the method is pre-processing and will not increase the normal reconstruction time. That is, all the time-consuming works can be done before scanning patients. However, it is still depending on the size of phantoms currently used, and more detailed works need to be done in the future. PMID:17271926

  17. Calibration system for albedo neutron dosimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Rothermich, N.E.

    1981-01-01

    Albedo neutron dosimeters have proven to be effective as a method of measuring the dose from neutron exposures that other types of neutron detectors cannot measure. Results of research conducted to calibrate an albedo neutron dosemeter are presented. The calibration procedure consisted of exposing the TLD chips to a 46 curie /sup 238/PuBe source at known distances, dose rates and exposure periods. The response of the TLD's is related to the dose rate measured with a dose rate meter to obtain the calibration factor. This calibration factor is then related to the ratio of the counting rates determined by 9-inch and 3-inch Bonner spheres (also called remmeters) and a calibration curve was determined. 17 references, 10 figures, 3 tables.

  18. Calibration of sound calibrators: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milhomem, T. A. B.; Soares, Z. M. D.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of calibration of sound calibrators. Initially, traditional calibration methods are presented. Following, the international standard IEC 60942 is discussed emphasizing parameters, target measurement uncertainty and criteria for conformance to the requirements of the standard. Last, Regional Metrology Organizations comparisons are summarized.

  19. Research on calibration method of relative infrared radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Sen; Li, Chengwei

    2016-02-01

    The Relative Infrared Radiometer (RIR) is commonly used to measure the irradiance of the Infrared Target Simulator (ITS), and the calibration of the RIR is central for the measurement accuracy. RIR calibration is conventionally performed using the Radiance Based (RB) calibration method or Irradiance Based (IB) calibration method, and the relationship between the radiation of standard source and the response of RIR is determined by curve fitting. One limitation existing in the calibration of RIR is the undesirable calibration voltage fluctuation in single measurement or in the reproducibility measurement, which reduces the calibration reproducibility and irradiance measurement accuracy. To address this limitation, the Equivalent Blackbody Temperature Based (EBTB) calibration method is proposed for the calibration of RIR. The purpose of this study is to compare the proposed EBTB calibration method with conventional RB and IB calibration methods. The comparison and experiment results have shown that the EBTB calibration method is not only able to provide comparable correlation between radiation and response to other calibration methods (IB and RB) in the irradiance measurement but also reduces the influence of calibration voltage fluctuation on the irradiance measurement result, which improves the calibration reproducibility and irradiance measurement accuracy.

  20. GIADA: extended calibration activity: . the Electrostatic Micromanipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sordini, R.; Accolla, M.; Della Corte, V.; Rotundi, A.

    GIADA (Grain Impact Analyser and Dust Accumulator), one of the scientific instruments onboard Rosetta/ESA space mission, is devoted to study dynamical properties of dust particles ejected by the short period comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. In preparation for the scientific phase of the mission, we are performing laboratory calibration activities on the GIADA Proto Flight Model (PFM), housed in a clean room in our laboratory. Aim of the calibration activity is to characterize the response curve of the GIADA measurement sub-systems. These curves are then correlated with the calibration curves obtained for the GIADA payload onboard the Rosetta S/C. The calibration activity involves two of three sub-systems constituting GIADA: Grain Detection System (GDS) and Impact Sensor (IS). To get reliable calibration curves, a statistically relevant number of grains have to be dropped or shot into the GIADA instrument. Particle composition, structure, size, optical properties and porosity have been selected in order to obtain realistic cometary dust analogues. For each selected type of grain, we estimated that at least one hundred of shots are needed to obtain a calibration curve. In order to manipulate such a large number of particles, we have designed and developed an innovative electrostatic system able to capture, manipulate and shoot particles with sizes in the range 20 - 500 μm. The electrostatic Micromanipulator (EM) is installed on a manual handling system composed by X-Y-Z micrometric slides with a 360o rotational stage along Z, and mounted on a optical bench. In the present work, we display the tests on EM using ten different materials with dimension in the range 50 - 500 μm: the experimental results are in compliance with the requirements.

  1. Analysis of light curve of LP Camelopardalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prudil, Z.; Skarka, M.; Zejda, M.

    2016-05-01

    We present photometric analysis of the RRab type pulsating star LP Cam. The star was observed at Brno Observatory and Planetarium during nine nights. Measurements were calibrated to the Johnson photometric system. Four captured and thirteen previously published maxima timings allowed us to refine the pulsation period and the zero epoch. The light curve was Fourier decomposed to estimate physical parameters using empirical relations. Our results suggest that LP Cam is a common RR Lyrae star with high, almost solar metallicity.

  2. Dynamic Curving Simulation of Tilting Train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Jing; Luo, Ren

    The application of carbody tilting technology is the most efficient way to raise train speed during curve negotiations. This paper mainly deals with the dynamic performance simulation of the tilting train. Through the establishment of the nonlinear mathematical model for the titling train electromechanical coupled system, the carbody tilting control law, bogie radial steering mechanism, and titling train curving performance are investigated. The effect of time delay caused by the sensing and control system on the tilting performance of the train is analyzed, and the compensation methods for the time delay effect are studied.

  3. Definition of energy-calibrated spectra for national reachback

    SciTech Connect

    Kunz, Christopher L.; Hertz, Kristin L.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate energy calibration is critical for the timeliness and accuracy of analysis results of spectra submitted to National Reachback, particularly for the detection of threat items. Many spectra submitted for analysis include either a calibration spectrum using 137Cs or no calibration spectrum at all. The single line provided by 137Cs is insufficient to adequately calibrate nonlinear spectra. A calibration source that provides several lines that are well-spaced, from the low energy cutoff to the full energy range of the detector, is needed for a satisfactory energy calibration. This paper defines the requirements of an energy calibration for the purposes of National Reachback, outlines a method to validate whether a given spectrum meets that definition, discusses general source considerations, and provides a specific operating procedure for calibrating the GR-135.

  4. Baseflow recession and recharge as nonlinear storage processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittenberg, Hartmut

    1999-04-01

    Discharge in many rivers is often fed by outflow from a shallow groundwater reservoir. It is becoming clear that the outflow from this aquifer is not linearly proportional to storage as is commonly assumed in many algorithms. Numerical analysis of flow recession curves from about 100 river gauging stations instead reveals a nonlinear relationship between baseflow, Q, and storage, S, for which the equation S=aQb was adopted. Values of the exponent b are found by calibration to be between 0 and 1 but with a high concentration around 0·5, which is in accordance with the findings of other studies and theoretical approaches yielding b=0·5 for unconfined aquifers and relating the coefficient a to catchment properties, primarily area and shape of basin, pore volume and transmissivity. This non-linear reservoir function is proposed as a more realistic alternative to the linear reservoir function.The relatively fast response of groundwater flow to rainfall is mainly a result of the increase of hydraulic head of the groundwater reservoir accelerating the exfiltration of old, pre-event water into the river bed. As fissure and pore volumes communicate hydraulically, it appears physically reasonable to model the system by one non-linear reservoir for catchments, or parts of them, instead of applying independent parallel linear reservoirs. The non-linear reservoir algorithms are supported by an analytical derivation. They are extended for the automatic separation of baseflow from a time-series of daily discharge in rivers and the computation of storage and effective recharge of groundwater in river basins by inverse nonlinear reservoir routing. The time-series obtained allow the identification and quantification of long-term changes to the water balance. Relationships between computed groundwater storage and observed groundwater level can also be established.

  5. [Quantitative analysis of calibration dependence of biosensors].

    PubMed

    Borisov, I A; Lobanov, A V; Reshetilov, A N; Kurganov, B I

    2000-01-01

    Three-parameter Hill's equation, which is used in enzyme kinetics, was shown to applicable to calibration curves of both potentiometric (glucose, pesticides, urea, etc.) and amperometric (surfactants, biphenyl, etc.) biosensors. Possible causes of errors of analyte concentration measurements are discussed. PMID:10867941

  6. Uncertainty Analysis of Instrument Calibration and Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripp, John S.; Tcheng, Ping

    1999-01-01

    Experimental aerodynamic researchers require estimated precision and bias uncertainties of measured physical quantities, typically at 95 percent confidence levels. Uncertainties of final computed aerodynamic parameters are obtained by propagation of individual measurement uncertainties through the defining functional expressions. In this paper, rigorous mathematical techniques are extended to determine precision and bias uncertainties of any instrument-sensor system. Through this analysis, instrument uncertainties determined through calibration are now expressed as functions of the corresponding measurement for linear and nonlinear univariate and multivariate processes. Treatment of correlated measurement precision error is developed. During laboratory calibration, calibration standard uncertainties are assumed to be an order of magnitude less than those of the instrument being calibrated. Often calibration standards do not satisfy this assumption. This paper applies rigorous statistical methods for inclusion of calibration standard uncertainty and covariance due to the order of their application. The effects of mathematical modeling error on calibration bias uncertainty are quantified. The effects of experimental design on uncertainty are analyzed. The importance of replication is emphasized, techniques for estimation of both bias and precision uncertainties using replication are developed. Statistical tests for stationarity of calibration parameters over time are obtained.

  7. Flow-duration curves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Searcy, James Kincheon

    1959-01-01

    The flow-duration curve is a cumulative frequency curve that shows the percent of time specified discharges were equaled or exceeded during a given period. It combines in one curve the flow characteristics of a stream throughout the range of discharge, without regard to the sequence of occurrence. If the period upon which the curve is based represents the long-term flow of a stream, the curve may be used to predict the distribution of future flows for water- power, water-supply, and pollution studies. This report shows that differences in geology affect the low-flow ends of flow-duration curves of streams in adjacent basins. Thus, duration curves are useful in appraising the geologic characteristics of drainage basins. A method for adjusting flow-duration curves of short periods to represent long-term conditions is presented. The adjustment is made by correlating the records of a short-term station with those of a long-term station.

  8. Anodic Polarization Curves Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yue; Drew, Michael G. B.; Liu, Ying; Liu, Lin

    2013-01-01

    An experiment published in this "Journal" has been revisited and it is found that the curve pattern of the anodic polarization curve for iron repeats itself successively when the potential scan is repeated. It is surprising that this observation has not been reported previously in the literature because it immediately brings into…

  9. The Skipping Rope Curve

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordmark, Arne; Essen, Hanno

    2007-01-01

    The equilibrium of a flexible inextensible string, or chain, in the centrifugal force field of a rotating reference frame is investigated. It is assumed that the end points are fixed on the rotation axis. The shape of the curve, the skipping rope curve or "troposkien", is given by the Jacobi elliptic function sn. (Contains 3 figures.)

  10. Calibration of a slimehole density sonde using MCNPX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, Byeongho; Hwang, Seho; Shin, Jehyun; Kim, Jongman

    2014-05-01

    The density log is a well logging tool that can continuously record bulk density of the formation. This is widely applied for a variety of fields such as the petroleum exploitation, mineral exploration, and geotechnical survey and so on. The density log is normally applied to open holes. But there are frequently difficult conditions such as cased boreholes, the variation of borehole diameter, the borehole fluid salinity, and the stand-off and so on. So we need a density correction curves for the various borehole conditions. The primary calibration curve by manufacturer is used for the formation density calculation. In case of density log used for the oil industry, the calibration curves for various borehole environments are applied to the density correction, but commonly used slim-hole density logging sonde normally have a calibration curve for the variation of borehole diameter. In order to correct the various borehole environmental conditions, it is necessary to make the primary calibration curve of density sonde using numerical modeling. Numerical modeling serves as a low-cost substitute for experimental test pits. We have performed numerical modeling using the MCNP based on Monte-Carlo methods can record average behaviors of radiation particles. In this study, the work for matching the primary calibration curve of FDGS (Formation Density Gamma Sonde) for slime borehole with a 100 mCi 137 Cs gamma source was performed. On the basis of this work, correction curves in various borehole environments were produced.

  11. Fitting Richards' curve to data of diverse origins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, D.H.; Sargeant, A.B.; Allen, S.H.

    1975-01-01

    Published techniques for fitting data to nonlinear growth curves are briefly reviewed, most techniques require knowledge of the shape of the curve. A flexible growth curve developed by Richards (1959) is discussed as an alternative when the shape is unknown. The shape of this curve is governed by a specific parameter which can be estimated from the data. We describe in detail the fitting of a diverse set of longitudinal and cross-sectional data to Richards' growth curve for the purpose of determining the age of red fox (Vulpes vulpes) pups on the basis of right hind foot length. The fitted curve is found suitable for pups less than approximately 80 days old. The curve is extrapolated to pre-natal growth and shown to be appropriate only for about 10 days prior to birth.

  12. Exploring Alternative Characteristic Curve Approaches to Linking Parameter Estimates from the Generalized Partial Credit Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, James S.; Bao, Han; Huang, Chun-Wei; Gagne, Phill

    Characteristic curve approaches for linking parameters from the generalized partial credit model were examined for cases in which common (anchor) items are calibrated separately in two groups. Three of these approaches are simple extensions of the test characteristic curve (TCC), item characteristic curve (ICC), and operating characteristic curve…

  13. Revised Landsat-5 TM Radiometrie Calibration Procedures and Postcalibration Dynamic Ranges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Markham, B.

    2003-01-01

    Effective May 5, 2003, Landsat-5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM) data processed and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation System (EROS) Data Center (EDC) will be radiometrically calibrated using a new procedure and revised calibration parameters. This change will improve absolute calibration accuracy, consistency over time, and consistency with Landsat-7 (L7) Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data. Users will need to use new parameters to convert the calibrated data products to radiance. The new procedure for the reflective bands (1-5,7) is based on a lifetime radiometric calibration curve for the instrument derived from the instrument's internal calibrator, cross-calibration with the ETM+, and vicarious measurements. The thermal band will continue to be calibrated using the internal calibrator. Further updates to improve the relative detector-to-detector calibration and thermal band calibration are being investigated, as is the calibration of the Landsat-4 (L4) TM.

  14. Comparison of different camera calibration approaches for underwater applications.

    PubMed

    Silvatti, Amanda Piaia; Dias, Fabio Augusto Salve; Cerveri, Pietro; Barros, Ricardo M L

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare three camera calibration approaches applied to underwater applications: (1) static control points with nonlinear DLT; (2) moving wand with nonlinear camera model and bundle adjustment; (3) moving plate with nonlinear camera model. The DVideo kinematic analysis system was used for underwater data acquisition. The system consisted of two gen-locked Basler cameras working at 100 Hz, with wide angle lenses that were enclosed in housings. The accuracy of the methods was compared in a dynamic rigid bar test (acquisition volume-4.5×1×1.5 m(3)). The mean absolute errors were 6.19 mm for the nonlinear DLT, 1.16 mm for the wand calibration, 1.20 mm for the 2D plate calibration using 8 control points and 0.73 mm for the 2D plane calibration using 16 control points. The results of the wand and 2D plate camera calibration methods were less associated to the rigid body position in the working volume and provided better accuracy than the nonlinear DLT. Wand and 2D plate camera calibration methods presented similar and highly accurate results, being alternatives for underwater 3D motion analysis. PMID:22284990

  15. System and Method for Determining Gas Optical Density Changes in a Non-Linear Measurement Regime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sachse, Glen W. (Inventor); Rana, Mauro (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Each of two sensors, positioned to simultaneously detect electromagnetic radiation absorption along a path, is calibrated to define a unique response curve associated therewith that relates a change in voltage output for each sensor to a change in optical density. A ratio-of-responses curve is defined by a ratio of the response curve associated with the first sensor to the response curve associated with the second sensor. A ratio of sensor output changes is generated using outputs from the sensors. An operating point on the ratio-of-responses curve is established using the ratio of sensor output changes. The established operating point is indicative of an optical density. When the operating point is in the non-linear response region of at least one of the sensors, the operating point and optical density corresponding thereto can be used to establish an actual response of at least one of the sensors whereby the actual sensor output can be used in determining changes in the optical density.

  16. A dynamic calibration method for the pressure transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhongyu; Wang, Zhuoran; Li, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Pressure transducer is widely used in the field of industry. A calibrated pressure transducer can increase the performance of precision instruments in the closed mechanical relationship. Calibration is the key to ensure the pressure transducer with a high precision and dynamic characteristic. Unfortunately, the current calibration method can usually be used in the laboratory with a good condition and only one pressure transducer can be calibrated at each time. Therefore the calibration efficiency is hard to meet the requirement of modern industry with high efficiency. A dynamic and fast calibration technology with a calibration device and a corresponding data processing method is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the pressure transducer to be calibrated is placed in the small cavity chamber. The calibration process only contains a single loop. The outputs of each calibrated transducer are recorded automatically by the control terminal. Secondly, LabView programming is used for the information acquisition and data processing. The performance of the repeatability and nonlinear indicators can be figured out directly. At last the pressure transducers are calibrated simultaneously in the experiment to verify the suggested calibration technology. The experimental result shows this method can be used to calibrate the pressure transducer in the practical engineering measurement.

  17. Mechanics of Curved Folds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Marcelo A.; Santangelo, Christian D.

    2011-03-01

    Despite an almost two thousand year history, origami, the art of folding paper, remains a challenge both artistically and scientifically. Traditionally, origami is practiced by folding along straight creases. A whole new set of shapes can be explored, however, if, instead of straight creases, one folds along arbitrary curves. We present a mechanical model for curved fold origami in which the energy of a plastically-deformed crease is balanced by the bending energy of developable regions on either side of the crease. Though geometry requires that a sheet buckle when folded along a closed curve, its shape depends on the elasticity of the sheet. NSF DMR-0846582.

  18. Improving self-calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enßlin, Torsten A.; Junklewitz, Henrik; Winderling, Lars; Greiner, Maksim; Selig, Marco

    2014-10-01

    Response calibration is the process of inferring how much the measured data depend on the signal one is interested in. It is essential for any quantitative signal estimation on the basis of the data. Here, we investigate self-calibration methods for linear signal measurements and linear dependence of the response on the calibration parameters. The common practice is to augment an external calibration solution using a known reference signal with an internal calibration on the unknown measurement signal itself. Contemporary self-calibration schemes try to find a self-consistent solution for signal and calibration by exploiting redundancies in the measurements. This can be understood in terms of maximizing the joint probability of signal and calibration. However, the full uncertainty structure of this joint probability around its maximum is thereby not taken into account by these schemes. Therefore, better schemes, in sense of minimal square error, can be designed by accounting for asymmetries in the uncertainty of signal and calibration. We argue that at least a systematic correction of the common self-calibration scheme should be applied in many measurement situations in order to properly treat uncertainties of the signal on which one calibrates. Otherwise, the calibration solutions suffer from a systematic bias, which consequently distorts the signal reconstruction. Furthermore, we argue that nonparametric, signal-to-noise filtered calibration should provide more accurate reconstructions than the common bin averages and provide a new, improved self-calibration scheme. We illustrate our findings with a simplistic numerical example.

  19. Curve Stitching in LOGO.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muscat, Jean-Paul

    1992-01-01

    Uses LOGO to enhance the applicability of curve stitching in the mathematics curriculum. Presents the formulas and computer programs for the construction of parabolas, concentric circles, and epicycloids. Diagrams of constructed figures are provided. (MDH)

  20. Implicit Spacecraft Gyro Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harman, Richard; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents an implicit algorithm for spacecraft onboard instrument calibration, particularly to onboard gyro calibration. This work is an extension of previous work that was done where an explicit gyro calibration algorithm was applied to the AQUA spacecraft gyros. The algorithm presented in this paper was tested using simulated data and real data that were downloaded from the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) spacecraft. The calibration tests gave very good results. A comparison between the use of the implicit calibration algorithm used here with the explicit algorithm used for AQUA spacecraft indicates that both provide an excellent estimation of the gyro calibration parameters with similar accuracies.

  1. Highly curved microchannel plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegmund, O. H. W.; Cully, S.; Warren, J.; Gaines, G. A.; Priedhorsky, W.; Bloch, J.

    1990-01-01

    Several spherically curved microchannel plate (MCP) stack configurations were studied as part of an ongoing astrophysical detector development program, and as part of the development of the ALEXIS satellite payload. MCP pairs with surface radii of curvature as small as 7 cm, and diameters up to 46 mm have been evaluated. The experiments show that the gain (greater than 1.5 x 10 exp 7) and background characteristics (about 0.5 events/sq cm per sec) of highly curved MCP stacks are in general equivalent to the performance achieved with flat MCP stacks of similar configuration. However, gain variations across the curved MCP's due to variations in the channel length to diameter ratio are observed. The overall pulse height distribution of a highly curved surface MCP stack (greater than 50 percent FWHM) is thus broader than its flat counterpart (less than 30 percent). Preconditioning of curved MCP stacks gives comparable results to flat MCP stacks, but it also decreases the overall gain variations. Flat fields of curved MCP stacks have the same general characteristics as flat MCP stacks.

  2. Quantitative Analysis of Carbon Steel with Multi-Line Internal Standard Calibration Method Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pan, Congyuan; Du, Xuewei; An, Ning; Zeng, Qiang; Wang, Shengbo; Wang, Qiuping

    2016-04-01

    A multi-line internal standard calibration method is proposed for the quantitative analysis of carbon steel using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). A procedure based on the method was adopted to select the best calibration curves and the corresponding emission lines pairs automatically. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy experiments with carbon steel samples were performed, and C, Cr, and Mn were analyzed via the proposed method. Calibration curves of these elements were constructed via a traditional single line internal standard calibration method and a multi-line internal standard calibration method. The calibration curves obtained were evaluated with the determination coefficient, the root mean square error of cross-validation, and the average relative error of cross-validation. All of the parameters were improved significantly with the proposed method. The results show that accurate and stable calibration curves can be obtained efficiently via the multi-line internal standard calibration method. PMID:26872822

  3. Calibration of thermocouple psychrometers and moisture measurements in porous materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guz, Łukasz; Sobczuk, Henryk; Połednik, Bernard; Guz, Ewa

    2016-07-01

    The paper presents in situ method of peltier psychrometric sensors calibration which allow to determine water potential. Water potential can be easily recalculated into moisture content of the porous material. In order to obtain correct results of water potential, each probe should be calibrated. NaCl salt solutions with molar concentration of 0.4M, 0.7M, 1.0M and 1.4M, were used for calibration which enabled to obtain osmotic potential in range: -1791 kPa to -6487 kPa. Traditionally, the value of voltage generated on thermocouples during wet-bulb temperature depression is calculated in order to determine the calibration function for psychrometric in situ sensors. In the new method of calibration, the field under psychrometric curve along with peltier cooling current and duration was taken into consideration. During calibration, different cooling currents were applied for each salt solution, i.e. 3, 5, 8 mA respectively, as well as different cooling duration for each current (from 2 to 100 sec with 2 sec step). Afterwards, the shape of each psychrometric curve was thoroughly examined and a value of field under psychrometric curve was computed. Results of experiment indicate that there is a robust correlation between field under psychrometric curve and water potential. Calibrations formulas were designated on the basis of these features.

  4. Calibration of a Thomson scattering diagnostic for fluctuation measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, H. D.; Borchardt, M. T.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Falkowski, A. F.; Holly, D. J.; O'Connell, R.; Reusch, J. A.

    2008-10-15

    Detailed calibrations of the Madison Symmetric Torus polychromator Thomson scattering system have been made suitable for electron temperature fluctuation measurements. All calibrations have taken place focusing on accuracy, ease of use and repeatability, and in situ measurements wherever possible. Novel calibration processes have been made possible with an insertable integrating sphere (ISIS), using an avalanche photodiode (APD) as a reference detector and optical parametric oscillator (OPO). Discussed are a novel in situ spatial calibration with the use of the ISIS, the use of an APD as a reference detector to streamline the APD calibration process, a standard dc spectral calibration, and in situ pulsed spectral calibration made possible with a combination of an OPO as a light source, the ISIS, and an APD used as a reference detector. In addition a relative quantum efficiency curve for the APDs is obtained to aid in uncertainty analysis.

  5. Calibration of higher eigenmodes of cantilevers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labuda, Aleksander; Kocun, Marta; Lysy, Martin; Walsh, Tim; Meinhold, Jieh; Proksch, Tania; Meinhold, Waiman; Anderson, Caleb; Proksch, Roger

    2016-07-01

    A method is presented for calibrating the higher eigenmodes (resonant modes) of atomic force microscopy cantilevers that can be performed prior to any tip-sample interaction. The method leverages recent efforts in accurately calibrating the first eigenmode by providing the higher-mode stiffness as a ratio to the first mode stiffness. A one-time calibration routine must be performed for every cantilever type to determine a power-law relationship between stiffness and frequency, which is then stored for future use on similar cantilevers. Then, future calibrations only require a measurement of the ratio of resonant frequencies and the stiffness of the first mode. This method is verified through stiffness measurements using three independent approaches: interferometric measurement, AC approach-curve calibration, and finite element analysis simulation. Power-law values for calibrating higher-mode stiffnesses are reported for several cantilever models. Once the higher-mode stiffnesses are known, the amplitude of each mode can also be calibrated from the thermal spectrum by application of the equipartition theorem.

  6. Calibration of higher eigenmodes of cantilevers.

    PubMed

    Labuda, Aleksander; Kocun, Marta; Lysy, Martin; Walsh, Tim; Meinhold, Jieh; Proksch, Tania; Meinhold, Waiman; Anderson, Caleb; Proksch, Roger

    2016-07-01

    A method is presented for calibrating the higher eigenmodes (resonant modes) of atomic force microscopy cantilevers that can be performed prior to any tip-sample interaction. The method leverages recent efforts in accurately calibrating the first eigenmode by providing the higher-mode stiffness as a ratio to the first mode stiffness. A one-time calibration routine must be performed for every cantilever type to determine a power-law relationship between stiffness and frequency, which is then stored for future use on similar cantilevers. Then, future calibrations only require a measurement of the ratio of resonant frequencies and the stiffness of the first mode. This method is verified through stiffness measurements using three independent approaches: interferometric measurement, AC approach-curve calibration, and finite element analysis simulation. Power-law values for calibrating higher-mode stiffnesses are reported for several cantilever models. Once the higher-mode stiffnesses are known, the amplitude of each mode can also be calibrated from the thermal spectrum by application of the equipartition theorem. PMID:27475563

  7. Automated Camera Calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Siqi; Cheng, Yang; Willson, Reg

    2006-01-01

    Automated Camera Calibration (ACAL) is a computer program that automates the generation of calibration data for camera models used in machine vision systems. Machine vision camera models describe the mapping between points in three-dimensional (3D) space in front of the camera and the corresponding points in two-dimensional (2D) space in the camera s image. Calibrating a camera model requires a set of calibration data containing known 3D-to-2D point correspondences for the given camera system. Generating calibration data typically involves taking images of a calibration target where the 3D locations of the target s fiducial marks are known, and then measuring the 2D locations of the fiducial marks in the images. ACAL automates the analysis of calibration target images and greatly speeds the overall calibration process.

  8. Analytical multicollimator camera calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tayman, W.P.

    1978-01-01

    Calibration with the U.S. Geological survey multicollimator determines the calibrated focal length, the point of symmetry, the radial distortion referred to the point of symmetry, and the asymmetric characteristiecs of the camera lens. For this project, two cameras were calibrated, a Zeiss RMK A 15/23 and a Wild RC 8. Four test exposures were made with each camera. Results are tabulated for each exposure and averaged for each set. Copies of the standard USGS calibration reports are included. ?? 1978.

  9. Assessment of opacimeter calibration according to International Standard Organization 10155.

    PubMed

    Gomes, J F

    2001-01-01

    This paper compares the calibration method for opacimeters issued by the International Standard Organization (ISO) 10155 with the manual reference method for determination of dust content in stack gases. ISO 10155 requires at least nine operational measurements, corresponding to three operational measurements per each dust emission range within the stack. The procedure is assessed by comparison with previous calibration methods for opacimeters using only two operational measurements from a set of measurements made at stacks from pulp mills. The results show that even if the international standard for opacimeter calibration requires that the calibration curve is to be obtained using 3 x 3 points, a calibration curve derived using 3 points could be, at times, acceptable in statistical terms, provided that the amplitude of individual measurements is low. PMID:11218423

  10. Uncertainty Analysis of Inertial Model Attitude Sensor Calibration and Application with a Recommended New Calibration Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripp, John S.; Tcheng, Ping

    1999-01-01

    Statistical tools, previously developed for nonlinear least-squares estimation of multivariate sensor calibration parameters and the associated calibration uncertainty analysis, have been applied to single- and multiple-axis inertial model attitude sensors used in wind tunnel testing to measure angle of attack and roll angle. The analysis provides confidence and prediction intervals of calibrated sensor measurement uncertainty as functions of applied input pitch and roll angles. A comparative performance study of various experimental designs for inertial sensor calibration is presented along with corroborating experimental data. The importance of replicated calibrations over extended time periods has been emphasized; replication provides independent estimates of calibration precision and bias uncertainties, statistical tests for calibration or modeling bias uncertainty, and statistical tests for sensor parameter drift over time. A set of recommendations for a new standardized model attitude sensor calibration method and usage procedures is included. The statistical information provided by these procedures is necessary for the uncertainty analysis of aerospace test results now required by users of industrial wind tunnel test facilities.

  11. Nonlinearly stacked low noise turbofan stator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, William B. (Inventor); Kontos, Karen B. (Inventor); Weir, Donald S. (Inventor); Nolcheff, Nick A. (Inventor); Gunaraj, John A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A nonlinearly stacked low noise turbofan stator vane having a characteristic curve that is characterized by a nonlinear sweep and a nonlinear lean is provided. The stator is in an axial fan or compressor turbomachinery stage that is comprised of a collection of vanes whose highly three-dimensional shape is selected to reduce rotor-stator and rotor-strut interaction noise while maintaining the aerodynamic and mechanical performance of the vane. The nonlinearly stacked low noise turbofan stator vane reduces noise associated with the fan stage of turbomachinery to improve environmental compatibility.

  12. Calibrating Images from the MINERVA Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercedes Colón, Ana

    2016-01-01

    The MINiature Exoplanet Radial Velocity Array (MINERVA) consists of an array of robotic telescopes located on Mount Hopkins, Arizona with the purpose of performing transit photometry and spectroscopy to find Earth-like planets around Sun-like stars. In order to make photometric observations, it is necessary to perform calibrations on the CCD cameras of the telescopes to take into account possible instrument error on the data. In this project, we developed a pipeline that takes optical images, calibrates them using sky flats, darks, and biases to generate a transit light curve.

  13. Linearization of dose-response curve of the radiochromic film dosimetry system

    SciTech Connect

    Devic, Slobodan; Tomic, Nada; Aldelaijan, Saad; DeBlois, Francois; Seuntjens, Jan; Chan, Maria F.; Lewis, Dave

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: Despite numerous advantages of radiochromic film dosimeter (high spatial resolution, near tissue equivalence, low energy dependence) to measure a relative dose distribution with film, one needs to first measure an absolute dose (following previously established reference dosimetry protocol) and then convert measured absolute dose values into relative doses. In this work, we present result of our efforts to obtain a functional form that would linearize the inherently nonlinear dose-response curve of the radiochromic film dosimetry system. Methods: Functional form [{zeta}= (-1){center_dot}netOD{sup (2/3)}/ln(netOD)] was derived from calibration curves of various previously established radiochromic film dosimetry systems. In order to test the invariance of the proposed functional form with respect to the film model used we tested it with three different GAFCHROMIC Trade-Mark-Sign film models (EBT, EBT2, and EBT3) irradiated to various doses and scanned on a same scanner. For one of the film models (EBT2), we tested the invariance of the functional form to the scanner model used by scanning irradiated film pieces with three different flatbed scanner models (Epson V700, 1680, and 10000XL). To test our hypothesis that the proposed functional argument linearizes the response of the radiochromic film dosimetry system, verification tests have been performed in clinical applications: percent depth dose measurements, IMRT quality assurance (QA), and brachytherapy QA. Results: Obtained R{sup 2} values indicate that the choice of the functional form of the new argument appropriately linearizes the dose response of the radiochromic film dosimetry system we used. The linear behavior was insensitive to both film model and flatbed scanner model used. Measured PDD values using the green channel response of the GAFCHROMIC Trade-Mark-Sign EBT3 film model are well within {+-}2% window of the local relative dose value when compared to the tabulated Cobalt-60 data. It was also

  14. Fast calibration of an infrared vidicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freude, W.

    1988-02-01

    Infrared vidicon tubes of the type N 214 from Hamamatsu have widespread use for various measurements in the field of optical communication, in spite of their severe drawbacks such as poor stability and low accuracy. Usually, they interface with a desktop computer as a controller, so that the influences of dark current, shading, and nonlinearity may be corrected. With a specially designed computer-controlled lamp and an optimized algorithm, it is possible to calibrate the vidicon very fast. Dark current, shading, and nonlinearities result in errors less than 9% and are mainly determined by the strong thermal drift of the tube. Because of the least-squares-fitting technique, the calibration is very noise insensitive.

  15. IGMtransmission: Transmission curve computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Christopher M.; Meiksin, Avery; Stock, David

    2015-04-01

    IGMtransmission is a Java graphical user interface that implements Monte Carlo simulations to compute the corrections to colors of high-redshift galaxies due to intergalactic attenuation based on current models of the Intergalactic Medium. The effects of absorption due to neutral hydrogen are considered, with particular attention to the stochastic effects of Lyman Limit Systems. Attenuation curves are produced, as well as colors for a wide range of filter responses and model galaxy spectra. Photometric filters are included for the Hubble Space Telescope, the Keck telescope, the Mt. Palomar 200-inch, the SUBARU telescope and UKIRT; alternative filter response curves and spectra may be readily uploaded.

  16. Environment Dependence of Interstellar Extinction Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenniskens, P.; Greenberg, J. M.

    1993-07-01

    The IUE interstellar extinction curves published by Aiello et al. (1988) are decomposed into a bump, linear rise and FUV non-linear rise, in the parameterization scheme of Fitzpatrick & Massa (1990). The parameters of the 115 extinction curves are given. The lines of sight are characterized from the IRAS Skyflux and Point Source Catalogue data. Mean extinction curves for each of the environments are given. The following environment specific behaviour has been found. We confirm that the linear rise is systematically less in dense media, corresponding to an accretion of their carriers on big grains in such environments. The bump is not weakened in dense media, but is sensitive to the presence of strong UV radiation fields. In HII regions we note abnormal behaviour of the bump width and a correlation of bump position and bump width. This argues against a removal of the bump carrier in HII regions by sticking to big grains. No environment specific behaviour for the FUV non-linear rise was noted except for a weak dependence on E(B-V)/d, notably in HII regions.

  17. Residual gas analyzer calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilienkamp, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    A technique which employs known gas mixtures to calibrate the residual gas analyzer (RGA) is described. The mass spectra from the RGA are recorded for each gas mixture. This mass spectra data and the mixture composition data each form a matrix. From the two matrices the calibration matrix may be computed. The matrix mathematics requires the number of calibration gas mixtures be equal to or greater than the number of gases included in the calibration. This technique was evaluated using a mathematical model of an RGA to generate the mass spectra. This model included shot noise errors in the mass spectra. Errors in the gas concentrations were also included in the valuation. The effects of these errors was studied by varying their magnitudes and comparing the resulting calibrations. Several methods of evaluating an actual calibration are presented. The effects of the number of gases in then, the composition of the calibration mixture, and the number of mixtures used are discussed.

  18. New Light Curves and Orbital Solution for AM Leonis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiller, Mary E.; Osborn, Wayne; Terrell, Dirk

    2004-04-01

    New UBVRI photometry has been obtained for the W UMa eclipsing system AM Leonis. The data have been used to derive nine times of minimum and to construct light curves. The minimum timings show that the system recently had a significant period increase. Modeling of the light curves shows AM Leo to be an overcontact system with a mass ratio of 2.51. Both Rucinski & Duerbeck's absolute magnitude calibration for W UMa stars applied to our photometry and the radial velocity curve combined with our derived parameters indicate a distance near 125 pc, larger than the 77 pc from the Hipparcos parallax.

  19. Graphing Polar Curves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawes, Jonathan F.

    2013-01-01

    Graphing polar curves typically involves a combination of three traditional techniques, all of which can be time-consuming and tedious. However, an alternative method--graphing the polar function on a rectangular plane--simplifies graphing, increases student understanding of the polar coordinate system, and reinforces graphing techniques learned…

  20. The Bacterial Growth Curve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulton, Richard J. L.

    1991-01-01

    A procedure that allows students to view an entire bacterial growth curve during a two- to three-hour student laboratory period is described. Observations of the lag phase, logarithmic phase, maximum stationary phase, and phase of decline are possible. A nonpathogenic, marine bacterium is used in the investigation. (KR)

  1. Textbook Factor Demand Curves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Joe C.

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that teachers and textbook graphics follow the same basic pattern in illustrating changes in demand curves when product prices increase. Asserts that the use of computer graphics will enable teachers to be more precise in their graphic presentation of price elasticity. (CFR)

  2. Forward model nonlinearity versus inverse model nonlinearity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mehl, S.

    2007-01-01

    The issue of concern is the impact of forward model nonlinearity on the nonlinearity of the inverse model. The question posed is, "Does increased nonlinearity in the head solution (forward model) always result in increased nonlinearity in the inverse solution (estimation of hydraulic conductivity)?" It is shown that the two nonlinearities are separate, and it is not universally true that increased forward model nonlinearity increases inverse model nonlinearity. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.

  3. Quantum fields in curved spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollands, Stefan; Wald, Robert M.

    2015-04-01

    We review the theory of quantum fields propagating in an arbitrary, classical, globally hyperbolic spacetime. Our review emphasizes the conceptual issues arising in the formulation of the theory and presents known results in a mathematically precise way. Particular attention is paid to the distributional nature of quantum fields, to their local and covariant character, and to microlocal spectrum conditions satisfied by physically reasonable states. We review the Unruh and Hawking effects for free fields, as well as the behavior of free fields in deSitter spacetime and FLRW spacetimes with an exponential phase of expansion. We review how nonlinear observables of a free field, such as the stress-energy tensor, are defined, as well as time-ordered-products. The "renormalization ambiguities" involved in the definition of time-ordered products are fully characterized. Interacting fields are then perturbatively constructed. Our main focus is on the theory of a scalar field, but a brief discussion of gauge fields is included. We conclude with a brief discussion of a possible approach towards a nonperturbative formulation of quantum field theory in curved spacetime and some remarks on the formulation of quantum gravity.

  4. Why subduction zones are curved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahadevan, L.; Bendick, R.; Liang, Haiyi

    2010-12-01

    We give an explanation for the polarity, localization, shape, size, and initiation of subduction zones on Earth. By considering a soft, thin, curved lithospheric cap with either elastic or viscous rheology supported by a thick, nearly incompressible mantle, we find two different characteristic subduction geometries arise depending on boundary conditions: (1) plate boundaries where subduction results primarily from the gravitational body force (free subduction) have characteristic plate lengths and form arc-shaped dimpled segments resulting from the competition between bending and stretching in edge buckling modes of thin spherical shells, and (2) subduction zones due to localized applied loads that push one slab of thin, positively buoyant lithosphere beneath an overriding plate (forced subduction) form localized straight segments, consistent with the deformation of indented spherical shells. Both types of subduction are nonlinear subcritical instabilities, so small perturbations in the mechanical properties of the lithosphere have pronounced effects on subduction initiation and evolution. Yet in both cases, geometric relationships determined by the shape of the Earth itself play the most critical role in controlling the basic morphology and characteristic length scales of subduction zones.

  5. Revised landsat-5 thematic mapper radiometric calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chander, G.; Markham, B.L.; Barsi, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Effective April 2, 2007, the radiometric calibration of Landsat-5 (L5) Thematic Mapper (TM) data that are processed and distributed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) will be updated. The lifetime gain model that was implemented on May 5, 2003, for the reflective bands (1-5, 7) will be replaced by a new lifetime radiometric-calibration curve that is derived from the instrument's response to pseudoinvariant desert sites and from cross calibration with the Landsat-7 (L7) Enhanced TM Plus (ETM+). Although this calibration update applies to all archived and future L5 TM data, the principal improvements in the calibration are for the data acquired during the first eight years of the mission (1984-1991), where the changes in the instrument-gain values are as much as 15%. The radiometric scaling coefficients for bands 1 and 2 for approximately the first eight years of the mission have also been changed. Users will need to apply these new coefficients to convert the calibrated data product digital numbers to radiance. The scaling coefficients for the other bands have not changed. ?? 2007 IEEE.

  6. Nonlinear waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SjöBerg, Daniel

    2003-04-01

    We investigate the propagation of electromagnetic waves in a cylindrical waveguide with an arbitrary cross section filled with a nonlinear material. The electromagnetic field is expanded in the usual eigenmodes of the waveguide, and the coupling between the modes is quantified. We derive the wave equations governing each mode with special emphasis on the situation with a dominant TE mode. The result is a strictly hyperbolic system of nonlinear partial differential equations for the dominating mode, whereas the minor modes satisfy hyperbolic systems of linear, nonstationary, and partial differential equations. A growth estimate is given for the minor modes.

  7. CALIBRATION OF PHOTOELASTIC MODULATORS IN THE VACUUM UV.

    SciTech Connect

    OAKBERG, T.C.; TRUNK, J.; SUTHERLAND, J.C.

    2000-02-15

    Measurements of circular dichroism (CD) in the UV and vacuum UV have used photoelastic modulators (PEMs) for high sensitivity (to about 10{sup -6}). While a simple technique for wavelength calibration of the PEMs has been used with good results, several features of these calibration curves have not been understood. The authors have calibrated a calcium fluoride PEM and a lithium fluoride PEM using the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory as a light source. These experiments showed calibration graphs that are linear bit do not pass through the graph origin. A second ''multiple pass'' experiment with laser light of a single wavelength, performed on the calcium fluoride PEM, demonstrates the linearity of the PEM electronics. This implies that the calibration behavior results from intrinsic physical properties of the PEM optical element material. An algorithm for generating calibration curves for calcium fluoride and lithium fluoride PEMs has been developed. The calibration curves for circular dichroism measurement for the two PEMs investigated in this study are given as examples.

  8. Comparison of radiotherapy dosimetry for 3D-CRT, IMRT, and SBRT based on electron density calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartutik, K.; Wibowo, W. E.; Pawiro, S. A.

    2016-03-01

    Accurate calculation of dose distribution affected by inhomogeneity tissue is required in radiotherapy planning. This study was performed to determine the ratio between radiotherapy planning using 3D-CRT, IMRT, and SBRT based on a calibrated curve of CT-number in the lung for different target's shape in 3D-CRT, IMRT, and spinal cord for SBRT. Calibration curves of CT-number were generated under measurement basis and introduced into TPS, then planning was performed for 3D-CRT, IMRT, and SBRT with 7, and 15 radiation fields. Afterwards, planning evaluation was performed by comparing the DVH curve, HI, and CI. 3D-CRT and IMRT produced the lowest HI at calibration curve of CIRS 002LFC with the value 0.24 and 10. Whereas SBRT produced the lowest HI on a linear calibration curve with a value of 0.361. The highest CI in IMRT and SBRT technique achieved using a linear calibration curve was 0.97 and 1.77 respectively. For 3D-CRT, the highest CI was obtained by using calibration curve of CIRS 062M with the value of 0.45. From the results of CI and HI, it is concluded that the calibration curve of CT-number does not significantly differ with Schneider's calibrated curve, and inverse planning gives a better result than forward planning.

  9. Relativistic electron in curved magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    An, S.

    1985-01-01

    Making use of the perturbation method based on the nonlinear differential equation theory, the author investigates the classical motion of a relativistic electron in a class of curved magnetic fields which may be written as B=B(O,B sub phi, O) in cylindrical coordinates (R. phi, Z). Under general astrophysical conditions the author derives the analytical expressions of the motion orbit, pitch angle, etc., of the electron in their dependence upon parameters characterizing the magnetic field and electron. The effects of non-zero curvature of magnetic field lines on the motion of electrons and applicabilities of these results to astrophysics are also discussed.

  10. Factorization with genus 2 curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosset, Romain

    2010-04-01

    The elliptic curve method (ECM) is one of the best factorization methods available. It is possible to use hyperelliptic curves instead of elliptic curves but it is in theory slower. We use special hyperelliptic curves and Kummer surfaces to reduce the complexity of the algorithm. Our implementation GMP-HECM is faster than GMP-ECM for factoring large numbers.

  11. SAR calibration technology review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, J. L.; Larson, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) calibration technology including a general description of the primary calibration techniques and some of the factors which affect the performance of calibrated SAR systems are reviewed. The use of reference reflectors for measurement of the total system transfer function along with an on-board calibration signal generator for monitoring the temporal variations of the receiver to processor output is a practical approach for SAR calibration. However, preliminary error analysis and previous experimental measurements indicate that reflectivity measurement accuracies of better than 3 dB will be difficult to achieve. This is not adequate for many applications and, therefore, improved end-to-end SAR calibration techniques are required.

  12. Atlas of fatigue curves

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    This Atlas was developed to serve engineers who are looking for fatigue data on a particular metal or alloy. Having these curves compiled in a single book will also facilitate the computerization of the involved data. It is pointed out that plans are under way to make the data in this book available in ASCII files for analysis by computer programs. S-N curves which typify effects of major variables are considered along with low-carbon steels, medium-carbon steels, alloy steels, HSLA steels, high-strength alloy steels, heat-resisting steels, stainless steels, maraging steels, cast irons, and heat-resisting alloys. Attention is also given to aluminum alloys, copper alloys, magnesium alloys, molybdenum, tin alloys, titanium and titanium alloys, zirconium, steel castings, closed-die forgings, powder metallurgy parts, composites, effects of surface treatments, and test results for component parts.

  13. Spinal curves and scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Susan M

    2007-01-01

    Scoliosis, an abnormal side-to-side curve of the spine with associated vertebral rotation, affects as many as 4% of all adolescents. Several different categories of scoliosis exist, and treatment can range from observation and follow-up to bracing and surgical correction. This article discusses special imaging series for scoliosis and emphasizes the need for proper radiation protection techniques for patients with scoliosis, most of whom are girls in their early to mid-teens. PMID:17848532

  14. Mouse Curve Biometrics

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, Douglas A.

    2007-10-08

    A biometric system suitable for validating user identity using only mouse movements and no specialized equipment is presented. Mouse curves (mouse movements with little or no pause between them) are individually classied and used to develop classication histograms, which are representative of an individual's typical mouse use. These classication histograms can then be compared to validate identity. This classication approach is suitable for providing continuous identity validation during an entire user session.

  15. Radiometer Calibration and Characterization

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-12-31

    The Radiometer Calibration and Characterization (RCC) software is a data acquisition and data archival system for performing Broadband Outdoor Radiometer Calibrations (BORCAL). RCC provides a unique method of calibrating solar radiometers using techniques that reduce measurement uncertainty and better characterize a radiometer’s response profile. The RCC software automatically monitors and controls many of the components that contribute to uncertainty in an instrument’s responsivity.

  16. The Stephan Curve revisited.

    PubMed

    Bowen, William H

    2013-01-01

    The Stephan Curve has played a dominant role in caries research over the past several decades. What is so remarkable about the Stephan Curve is the plethora of interactions it illustrates and yet acid production remains the dominant focus. Using sophisticated technology, it is possible to measure pH changes in plaque; however, these observations may carry a false sense of accuracy. Recent observations have shown that there may be multiple pH values within the plaque matrix, thus emphasizing the importance of the milieu within which acid is formed. Although acid production is indeed the immediate proximate cause of tooth dissolution, the influence of alkali production within plaque has received relative scant attention. Excessive reliance on Stephan Curve leads to describing foods as "safe" if they do not lower the pH below the so-called "critical pH" at which point it is postulated enamel dissolves. Acid production is just one of many biological processes that occur within plaque when exposed to sugar. Exploration of methods to enhance alkali production could produce rich research dividends. PMID:23224410

  17. Symmetries for Galileons and DBI scalars on curved space

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Goon, Garrett; Hinterbichler, Kurt; Trodden, Mark

    2011-07-08

    We introduced a general class of four-dimensional effective field theories which include curved space Galileons and DBI theories possessing nonlinear shift-like symmetries. These effective theories arise from purely gravitational actions and may prove relevant to the cosmology of both the early and late universe.

  18. Curved mesh generation and mesh refinement using Lagrangian solid mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Persson, P.-O.; Peraire, J.

    2008-12-31

    We propose a method for generating well-shaped curved unstructured meshes using a nonlinear elasticity analogy. The geometry of the domain to be meshed is represented as an elastic solid. The undeformed geometry is the initial mesh of linear triangular or tetrahedral elements. The external loading results from prescribing a boundary displacement to be that of the curved geometry, and the final configuration is determined by solving for the equilibrium configuration. The deformations are represented using piecewise polynomials within each element of the original mesh. When the mesh is sufficiently fine to resolve the solid deformation, this method guarantees non-intersecting elements even for highly distorted or anisotropic initial meshes. We describe the method and the solution procedures, and we show a number of examples of two and three dimensional simplex meshes with curved boundaries. We also demonstrate how to use the technique for local refinement of non-curved meshes in the presence of curved boundaries.

  19. The Science of Calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, S. M.

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a broad overview of the many issues involved in calibrating astronomical data, covering the full electromagnetic spectrum from radio waves to gamma rays, and considering both ground-based and space-based missions. These issues include the science drivers for absolute and relative calibration, the physics behind calibration and the mechanisms used to transfer it from the laboratory to an astronomical source, the need for networks of calibrated astronomical standards, and some of the challenges faced by large surveys and missions.

  20. LWIR polarimeter calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumer, Robert V.; Miller, Miranda A.; Howe, James D.; Stevens, Mark A.

    2002-01-01

    Performance reported efforts to calibrate a MWIR imaging polarimeter met with moderate success. Recent efforts to calibrate a LWIR sensor using a different technique have been much more fruitful. For our sensor, which is based on a rotating retarder, we have improved system calibration substantially be including nonuniformity correction at all measurement positions of the retarder in our polarization data analysis. This technique can account for effects such as spurious optical reflections within a camera system that had been masquerading as false polarization in our previous data analysis methodology. Our techniques will be described and our calibration results will be quantified. Data from field-testing will be presented.

  1. Energy calibration via correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Daniel; Limousin, Olivier

    2016-03-01

    The main task of an energy calibration is to find a relation between pulse-height values and the corresponding energies. Doing this for each pulse-height channel individually requires an elaborated input spectrum with an excellent counting statistics and a sophisticated data analysis. This work presents an easy to handle energy calibration process which can operate reliably on calibration measurements with low counting statistics. The method uses a parameter based model for the energy calibration and concludes on the optimal parameters of the model by finding the best correlation between the measured pulse-height spectrum and multiple synthetic pulse-height spectra which are constructed with different sets of calibration parameters. A CdTe-based semiconductor detector and the line emissions of an 241Am source were used to test the performance of the correlation method in terms of systematic calibration errors for different counting statistics. Up to energies of 60 keV systematic errors were measured to be less than ~ 0.1 keV. Energy calibration via correlation can be applied to any kind of calibration spectra and shows a robust behavior at low counting statistics. It enables a fast and accurate calibration that can be used to monitor the spectroscopic properties of a detector system in near realtime.

  2. The COS Calibration Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodge, Philip E.; Keyes, C.; Kaiser, M.

    2007-12-01

    The COS calibration pipeline (CALCOS) includes three main components: basic calibration, wavelength calibration, and spectral extraction. Calibration of modes using the far ultraviolet (FUV) and near ultraviolet (NUV) detectors share a common structure, although the individual reference files differ and there are some additional steps for the FUV channel. The pipeline is designed to calibrate data acquired in either ACCUM or time-tag mode. The basic calibration includes pulse-height filtering and geometric correction for FUV, and flat-field, deadtime, and Doppler correction for both detectors. Wavelength calibration can be done either by using separate lamp exposures or by taking several short lamp exposures concurrently with a science exposure. For time-tag data, the latter mode ("tagflash") will allow better correction of potential drift of the spectrum on the detector. One-dimensional spectra will be extracted and saved in a FITS binary table. Separate columns will be used for the flux-calibrated spectrum, error estimate, and the associated wavelengths. CALCOS is written in Python, with some functions in C. It is similar in style to other HST pipeline code in that it uses an association table to specify which files to be included, and the calibration steps to be performed and the reference files to use are specified by header keywords. Currently, in conjunction with the Instrument Definition Team (led by J. Green), the ground-based reference files are being refined, delivered, and tested with the pipeline.

  3. Laser interferometer calibration station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campolmi, R. W.; Krupski, S. J.

    1981-10-01

    The laser interferometer is a versatile tool, used for calibration over both long and short distances. It is considered traceable to the National Bureau of Standards. The system developed under this project was to be capable of providing for the calibration of many types of small linear measurement devices. The logistics of the original concept of one location for calibration of all mics, calipers, etc. at a large manufacturing facility proved unworkable. The equipment was instead used for the calibration of the large machines used to manufacture cannon tubes.

  4. Measurement and fitting techniques for the assessment of material nonlinearity using nonlinear Rayleigh waves

    SciTech Connect

    Torello, David; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Qu, Jianmin; Jacobs, Laurence J.

    2015-03-31

    This research considers the effects of diffraction, attenuation, and the nonlinearity of generating sources on measurements of nonlinear ultrasonic Rayleigh wave propagation. A new theoretical framework for correcting measurements made with air-coupled and contact piezoelectric receivers for the aforementioned effects is provided based on analytical models and experimental considerations. A method for extracting the nonlinearity parameter β{sub 11} is proposed based on a nonlinear least squares curve-fitting algorithm that is tailored for Rayleigh wave measurements. Quantitative experiments are conducted to confirm the predictions for the nonlinearity of the piezoelectric source and to demonstrate the effectiveness of the curve-fitting procedure. These experiments are conducted on aluminum 2024 and 7075 specimens and a β{sub 11}{sup 7075}/β{sub 11}{sup 2024} measure of 1.363 agrees well with previous literature and earlier work.

  5. Measurement and fitting techniques for the assessment of material nonlinearity using nonlinear Rayleigh waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torello, David; Kim, Jin-Yeon; Qu, Jianmin; Jacobs, Laurence J.

    2015-03-01

    This research considers the effects of diffraction, attenuation, and the nonlinearity of generating sources on measurements of nonlinear ultrasonic Rayleigh wave propagation. A new theoretical framework for correcting measurements made with air-coupled and contact piezoelectric receivers for the aforementioned effects is provided based on analytical models and experimental considerations. A method for extracting the nonlinearity parameter β11 is proposed based on a nonlinear least squares curve-fitting algorithm that is tailored for Rayleigh wave measurements. Quantitative experiments are conducted to confirm the predictions for the nonlinearity of the piezoelectric source and to demonstrate the effectiveness of the curve-fitting procedure. These experiments are conducted on aluminum 2024 and 7075 specimens and a β117075/β112024 measure of 1.363 agrees well with previous literature and earlier work.

  6. Near-Infrared Camera Calibration for Optical Surgical Navigation.

    PubMed

    Cai, Ken; Yang, Rongqian; Lin, Qinyong; Liu, Sujuan; Chen, Huazhou; Ou, Shanxing; Huang, Wenhua; Zhou, Jing

    2016-03-01

    Near-infrared optical tracking devices, which are important components of surgical navigation systems, need to be calibrated for effective tracking. The calibration results has a direct influence on the tracking accuracy of an entire system. Therefore, the study of calibration techniques is of theoretical significance and practical value. In the present work, a systematic calibration method based on movable plates is established, which analyzes existing calibration theories and implements methods using calibration reference objects. First, the distortion model of near-infrared cameras (NICs) is analyzed in the implementation of this method. Second, the calibration images from different positions and orientations are used to establish the required linear equations. The initial values of the NIC parameters are calculated with the direct linear transformation method. Finally, the accurate internal and external parameters of the NICs are obtained by conducting nonlinear optimization. Analysis results show that the relative errors of the left and right NICs in the tracking system are 0.244 and 0.282 % for the focal lengths and 0.735 and 1.111 % for the principal points, respectively. The image residuals of the left and right image sets are both less than 0.01 pixel. The standard error of the calibration result is lower than 1, and the measurement error of the tracking system is less than 0.3 mm. The experimental data show that the proposed method of calibrating NICs is effective and can generate favorable calibration results. PMID:26728393

  7. Fast Field Calibration of MIMU Based on the Powell Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Lin; Chen, Wanwan; Li, Bin; You, Zheng; Chen, Zhigang

    2014-01-01

    The calibration of micro inertial measurement units is important in ensuring the precision of navigation systems, which are equipped with microelectromechanical system sensors that suffer from various errors. However, traditional calibration methods cannot meet the demand for fast field calibration. This paper presents a fast field calibration method based on the Powell algorithm. As the key points of this calibration, the norm of the accelerometer measurement vector is equal to the gravity magnitude, and the norm of the gyro measurement vector is equal to the rotational velocity inputs. To resolve the error parameters by judging the convergence of the nonlinear equations, the Powell algorithm is applied by establishing a mathematical error model of the novel calibration. All parameters can then be obtained in this manner. A comparison of the proposed method with the traditional calibration method through navigation tests shows the classic performance of the proposed calibration method. The proposed calibration method also saves more time compared with the traditional calibration method. PMID:25177801

  8. Smarandache curves according to Sabban frame of fixed pole curve belonging to the Bertrand curves pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şenyurt, Süleyman; Altun, Yasin; Cevahir, Ceyda

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate the Smarandache curves according to Sabban frame of fixed pole curve which drawn by the unit Darboux vector of the Bertrand partner curve. Some results have been obtained. These results were expressed as the depends Bertrand curve.

  9. Nonlinear Acoustical Assessment of Precipitate Nucleation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantrell, John H.; Yost, William T.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present work is to show that measurements of the acoustic nonlinearity parameter in heat treatable alloys as a function of heat treatment time can provide quantitative information about the kinetics of precipitate nucleation and growth in such alloys. Generally, information on the kinetics of phase transformations is obtained from time-sequenced electron microscopical examination and differential scanning microcalorimetry. The present nonlinear acoustical assessment of precipitation kinetics is based on the development of a multiparameter analytical model of the effects on the nonlinearity parameter of precipitate nucleation and growth in the alloy system. A nonlinear curve fit of the model equation to the experimental data is then used to extract the kinetic parameters related to the nucleation and growth of the targeted precipitate. The analytical model and curve fit is applied to the assessment of S' precipitation in aluminum alloy 2024 during artificial aging from the T4 to the T6 temper.

  10. Nonlinear dynamics of axially moving plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghayesh, Mergen H.; Amabili, Marco; Païdoussis, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    The nonlinear dynamics for forced motions of an axially moving plate is numerically investigated using Von Kármán plate theory and retaining in-plane displacements and inertia. The equations of motion are obtained via an energy method based on Lagrange equations. This yields a set of second-order nonlinear ordinary differential equations with coupled terms. The equations are transformed into a set of first-order nonlinear ordinary differential equations and are solved via the pseudo-arclength continuation technique. The near-resonance nonlinear dynamics is examined via plotting the frequency-response curves of the system. Results are shown through frequency-response curves, time histories, and phase-plane diagrams. The effect of system parameters, such as the axial speed and the pretension, on the resonant responses is also highlighted.