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Sample records for calice silicon-tungsten calorimeter

  1. Design and Development of a Dense, Fine Grained Silicon Tungsten Calorimeter with Integrated Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strom, D.; Frey, R.; Breidenbach, M.; Freytag, D.; Graf, N.; Haller, G.; Milgrome, O.; Radeka, V.

    2005-02-01

    A fine grained silicon-tungsten calorimeter is ideal for use as the electromagnetic calorimeter in a linear collider detector that is optimized for particle-flow reconstruction. Our design is based on readout chips which are bump bonded to the silicon wafers that serve as the active medium in the calorimeter. By using integrated electronics we plan to demonstrate that fine granularity can be achieved at a reasonable price. Our design minimizes the gap between tungsten layers leading to a small Molière radius. The size of the Molière radius is an important figure of merit for energy-flow detectors.

  2. Status of the CALICE analog calorimeter technological prototypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terwort, Mark; CALICE Collaboration

    2012-12-01

    The CALICE collaboration is currently developing engineering prototypes of electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters for a future linear collider detector. This detector is designed to be used in particle-flow based event reconstruction. In particular, the calorimeters are optimized for the individual reconstruction and separation of electromagnetic and hadronic showers. They are conceived as sampling calorimeters with tungsten and steel absorbers, respectively. Two electromagnetic calorimeters are being developed, one with silicon-based active layers and one based on scintillator strips that are read out by MPPCs, allowing highly granular readout. The analog hadron calorimeter is based on scintillating tiles that are also read out individually by silicon photomultipliers. The multi-channel, auto-triggered front-end chips are integrated into the active layers of the calorimeters and are designed for minimal power consumption (power pulsing). The goal of the construction of these prototypes is to demonstrate the feasibility of building and operating detectors with fully integrated front-end electronics. The concept and engineering status of these prototypes are reported here.

  3. A Silicon-Tungsten Electromagnetic Calorimeter with Integrated Electronics for the International Linear Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brau, J.; Breidenbach, M.; Frey, R.; Freytag, D.; Gallagher, C.; Graf, N.; Haller, G.; Herbst, R.; Holbrook, B.; Jaros, J.; Lander, R.; Radloff, P.; Strom, D.; Tripathi, M.; Woods, M.

    2012-12-01

    We present an update of the development of an electromagnetic calorimeter for the Silicon Detector concept for a future linear electron-positron collider. After reviewing the design criteria and related simulation studies, we discuss progress in the research and development of the detector. This concept has from the outset made the case for highly integrated electronic readout with small (1 mm) readout gaps in order to maintain a small Moliere radius for electromagnetic showers and to avoid active heat removal. We now have fully functioning 1024-channel readout chips which have been successfully bonded to 15 cm silicon sensors. We present initial results from these assemblies.

  4. Hadronic models validation in GEANT4 with CALICE highly granular calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramilli, Marco; CALICE Collaboration

    2012-12-01

    The CALICE collaboration has constructed highly granular hadronic and electromagnetic calorimeter prototypes to evaluate technologies for the use in detector systems at a future Linear Collider, and to validate hadronic shower models with unprecedented spatial segmentation. The electromagnetic calorimeter is a sampling structure of tungsten and silicon with 9720 readout channels. The hadron calorimeter uses 7608 small plastic scintillator cells individually read out with silicon photomultipliers. This high granularity opens up the possibility for precise three-dimensional shower reconstructions and for software compensation techniques to improve the energy resolution of the detector. We discuss the latest results on the studies of shower shapes and shower properties and the comparison to the latest developed GEANT4 models for hadronic showers. A satisfactory agreement at better than 5% is found between data and simulations for most of the investigated variables. We show that applying software compensation methods based on reconstructed clusters the energy resolution for hadrons improves by a factor of 15%. The next challenge for CALICE calorimeters will be to validate the 4th dimension of hadronic showers, namely their time evolution.

  5. The CALICE digital hadron calorimeter: calibration and response to pions and positrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilki, B.; CALICE Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    In order to measure the jet products of the hadronic decays of electroweak bosons in a future lepton collider with 3-4% resolution, a novel approach named Particle Flow Algorithms is proposed. The Particle Flow Algorithms attempt to measure each particle in a hadronic jet individually, using the detector providing the best energy/momentum resolution. The role of the hadronic calorimeters is to measure the neutral component of the hadronic jets. In this context, the CALICE Collaboration developed the Digital Hadron Calorimeter, which uses Resistive Plate Chambers as active media. The 1-bit resolution (digital) readout of 1 × 1 cm2 pads achieves a world record in the number of readout channels already at the prototyping stage. Here we report on the results from the analysis of pion events of momenta between 2 to 60 GeV/c collected in the Fermilab test beam with an emphasis on the intricate calibration procedures.

  6. Hadron shower decomposition in the highly granular CALICE analogue hadron calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eigen, G.; Price, T.; Watson, N. K.; Marshall, J. S.; Thomson, M. A.; Ward, D. R.; Benchekroun, D.; Hoummada, A.; Khoulaki, Y.; Apostolakis, J.; Dotti, A.; Folger, G.; Ivantchenko, V.; Ribon, A.; Uzhinskiy, V.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Morin, L.; Brianne, E.; Ebrahimi, A.; Gadow, K.; Göttlicher, P.; Günter, C.; Hartbrich, O.; Hermberg, B.; Irles, A.; Krivan, F.; Krüger, K.; Kvasnicka, J.; Lu, S.; Lutz, B.; Morgunov, V.; Neubüser, C.; Provenza, A.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Schuwalow, S.; Tran, H. L.; Garutti, E.; Laurien, S.; Matysek, M.; Ramilli, M.; Schröder, S.; Briggl, K.; Eckert, P.; Munwes, Y.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-Ch.; Shen, W.; Stamen, R.; Bilki, B.; Norbeck, E.; Northacker, D.; Onel, Y.; van Doren, B.; Wilson, G. W.; Kawagoe, K.; Hirai, H.; Sudo, Y.; Suehara, T.; Sumida, H.; Takada, S.; Tomita, T.; Yoshioka, T.; Wing, M.; Bonnevaux, A.; Combaret, C.; Caponetto, L.; Grenier, G.; Han, R.; Ianigro, J. C.; Kieffer, R.; Laktineh, I.; Lumb, N.; Mathez, H.; Mirabito, L.; Steen, A.; Berenguer Antequera, J.; Calvo Alamillo, E.; Fouz, M.-C.; Marin, J.; Puerta-Pelayo, J.; Verdugo, A.; Bobchenko, B.; Markin, O.; Novikov, E.; Rusinov, V.; Tarkovsky, E.; Kirikova, N.; Kozlov, V.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; Besson, D.; Buzhan, P.; Chadeeva, M.; Danilov, M.; Drutskoy, A.; Ilyin, A.; Mironov, D.; Mizuk, R.; Popova, E.; Gabriel, M.; Goecke, P.; Kiesling, C.; van der Kolk, N.; Simon, F.; Szalay, M.; Bilokin, S.; Bonis, J.; Cornebise, P.; Pöschl, R.; Richard, F.; Thiebault, A.; Zerwas, D.; Anduze, M.; Balagura, V.; Becheva, E.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J.-C.; Cizel, J.-B.; Clerc, C.; Cornat, R.; Frotin, M.; Gastaldi, F.; Magniette, F.; Mora de Freitas, P.; Musat, G.; Pavy, S.; Rubio-Roy, M.; Ruan, M.; Videau, H.; Callier, S.; Dulucq, F.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Raux, L.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; de la Taille, Ch.; Cvach, J.; Gallus, P.; Havranek, M.; Janata, M.; Lednicky, D.; Marcisovsky, M.; Polak, I.; Popule, J.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Sicho, P.; Smolik, J.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; Kotera, K.; Ono, H.; Takeshita, T.; Ieki, S.; Kamiya, Y.; Ootani, W.; Shibata, N.; Jeans, D.; Komamiya, S.; Nakanishi, H.

    2016-06-01

    The spatial development of hadronic showers in the CALICE scintillator-steel analogue hadron calorimeter is studied using test beam data collected at CERN and FNAL for single positive pions and protons with initial momenta in the range of 10–80 GeV/c. Both longitudinal and radial development of hadron showers are parametrised with two-component functions. The parametrisation is fit to test beam data and simulations using the QGSP_BERT and FTFP_BERT physics lists from GEANT4 version 9.6. The parameters extracted from data and simulated samples are compared for the two types of hadrons. The response to pions and the ratio of the non-electromagnetic to the electromagnetic calorimeter response, h/e, are estimated using the extrapolation and decomposition of the longitudinal profiles.

  7. Performance of the first prototype of the CALICE scintillator strip electromagnetic calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, K.; Repond, J.; Schlereth, J.; Smith, J.; Xia, L.; Baldolemar, E.; Li, J.; Park, S. T.; Sosebee, M.; White, A. P.; Yu, J.; Eigen, G.; Mikami, Y.; Watson, N. K.; Thomson, M. A.; Ward, D. R.; Benchekroun, D.; Hoummada, A.; Khoulaki, Y.; Apostolakis, J.; Dotti, A.; Folger, G.; Ivantchenko, V.; Ribon, A.; Uzhinskiy, V.; Cârloganu, C.; Gay, P.; Manen, S.; Royer, L.; Tytgat, M.; Zaganidis, N.; Blazey, G. C.; Dyshkant, A.; Lima, J. G.R.; Zutshi, V.; Hostachy, J. -Y.; Morin, L.; Cornett, U.; David, D.; Ebrahimi, A.; Falley, G.; Gadow, K.; Göttlicher, P.; Günter, C.; Hartbrich, O.; Hermberg, B.; Karstensen, S.; Krivan, F.; Krüger, K.; Lutz, B.; Morozov, S.; Morgunov, V.; Neubüser, C.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Smirnov, P.; Terwort, M.; Garutti, E.; Laurien, S.; Lu, S.; Marchesini, I.; Matysek, M.; Ramilli, M.; Briggl, K.; Eckert, P.; Harion, T.; Schultz-Coulon, H. -Ch.; Shen, W.; Stamen, R.; Bilki, B.; Norbeck, E.; Northacker, D.; Onel, Y.; Wilson, G. W.; Kawagoe, K.; Sudo, Y.; Yoshioka, T.; Dauncey, P. D.; Wing, M.; Salvatore, F.; Cortina Gil, E.; Mannai, S.; Baulieu, G.; Calabria, P.; Caponetto, L.; Combaret, C.; Della Negra, R.; Grenier, G.; Han, R.; Ianigro, J. -C.; Kieffer, R.; Laktineh, I.; Lumb, N.; Mathez, H.; Mirabito, L.; Petrukhin, A.; Steen, A.; Tromeur, W.; Vander Donckt, M.; Zoccarato, Y.; Calvo Alamillo, E.; Fouz, M. -C.; Puerta-Pelayo, J.; Corriveau, F.; Bobchenko, B.; Chadeeva, M.; Danilov, M.; Epifantsev, A.; Markin, O.; Mizuk, R.; Novikov, E.; Popov, V.; Rusinov, V.; Tarkovsky, E.; Besson, D.; Buzhan, P.; Ilyin, A.; Kantserov, V.; Kaplin, V.; Karakash, A.; Popova, E.; Tikhomirov, V.; Kiesling, C.; Seidel, K.; Simon, F.; Soldner, C.; Weuste, L.; Amjad, M. S.; Bonis, J.; Callier, S.; Conforti di Lorenzo, S.; Cornebise, P.; Doublet, Ph.; Dulucq, F.; Fleury, J.; Frisson, T.; van der Kolk, N.; Li, H.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Richard, F.; de la Taille, Ch.; Pöschl, R.; Raux, L.; Rouëné, J.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; Anduze, M.; Balagura, V.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J. -C.; Cornat, R.; Frotin, M.; Gastaldi, F.; Guliyev, E.; Haddad, Y.; Magniette, F.; Musat, G.; Ruan, M.; Tran, T. H.; Videau, H.; Bulanek, B.; Zacek, J.; Cvach, J.; Gallus, P.; Havranek, M.; Janata, M.; Kvasnicka, J.; Lednicky, D.; Marcisovsky, M.; Polak, I.; Popule, J.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Ruzicka, P.; Sicho, P.; Smolik, J.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; Belhorma, B.; Ghazlane, H.; Kotera, K.; Ono, H.; Takeshita, T.; Uozumi, S.; Jeans, D.; Chang, S.; Khan, A.; Kim, D. H.; Kong, D. J.; Oh, Y. D.; Götze, M.; Sauer, J.; Weber, S.; Zeitnitz, C.

    2014-11-01

    A first prototype of a scintillator strip-based electromagnetic calorimeter was built, consisting of 26 layers of tungsten absorber plates interleaved with planes of 45 × 10 × 3 mm³ plastic scintillator strips. Data were collected using a positron test beam at DESY with momenta between 1 and 6 GeV/c. The prototype's performance is presented in terms of the linearity and resolution of the energy measurement. These results represent an important milestone in the development of highly granular calorimeters using scintillator strip technology. A number of possible design improvements were identified, which should be implemented in a future detector of this type. This technology is being developed for a future linear collider experiment, aiming at the precise measurement of jet energies using particle flow techniques.

  8. Performance of the first prototype of the CALICE scintillator strip electromagnetic calorimeter

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Francis, K.; Repond, J.; Schlereth, J.; Smith, J.; Xia, L.; Baldolemar, E.; Li, J.; Park, S. T.; Sosebee, M.; White, A. P.; et al

    2014-11-01

    A first prototype of a scintillator strip-based electromagnetic calorimeter was built, consisting of 26 layers of tungsten absorber plates interleaved with planes of 45 × 10 × 3 mm³ plastic scintillator strips. Data were collected using a positron test beam at DESY with momenta between 1 and 6 GeV/c. The prototype's performance is presented in terms of the linearity and resolution of the energy measurement. These results represent an important milestone in the development of highly granular calorimeters using scintillator strip technology. A number of possible design improvements were identified, which should be implemented in a future detector of thismore » type. This technology is being developed for a future linear collider experiment, aiming at the precise measurement of jet energies using particle flow techniques.« less

  9. Front-end ASICs development for W Si calorimeter at ILC (CALICE collaboration)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Julien; de La Taille, Christophe; Martin-Chassard, Gisèle

    2007-03-01

    An ASIC (FLC_PHY3) has been developed to read out the test-beam prototype of the future international linear collider (ILC) tungsten-silicon calorimeter. It consists of 18 channels low-noise charge preamplifiers, bi-gain CRRC2 180 ns shapers, 12-bit track-and-hold, and a 5 MHz output multiplexer. It covers a dynamic range of 14 bits with a noise of 3500 e - with the 70 pF detector and a linearity at the per-mil level. The chip dissipates 6 mW/channel and 1000 chips have been produced in AMS 0.8 μm BiCMOS technology in 2003. One channel has recently been migrated into 0.35 μm, improving the series noise by 20% and the 1/ f noise by two. Besides, a power pulsing feature has been added in order to exploit the 1% duty cycle of the accelerator. This feature is a key parameter for ILC, as it is mandatory to embed the front-end inside the detector, without spoiling the Moliere radius with cooling pipes. Preliminary results indicate a good behavior in pulsing mode and several hundred channels have been produced of the recent version including this feature (FLC_PHY4), to be tested extensively in test beam at CERN in autumn 2006. FLC_PHY4 also includes a 12-bit ADC in order to take a step to the final version, which will send digital data out.

  10. Shower development of particles with momenta from 15 GeV to 150 GeV in the CALICE scintillator-tungsten hadronic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chefdeville, M.; Karyotakis, Y.; Repond, J.; Schlereth, J.; Xia, L.; Eigen, G.; Marshall, J. S.; Thomson, M. A.; Ward, D. R.; Alipour Tehrani, N.; Apostolakis, J.; Dannheim, D.; Elsener, K.; Folger, G.; Grefe, C.; Ivantchenko, V.; Killenberg, M.; Klempt, W.; van der Kraaij, E.; Linssen, L.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Münnich, A.; Poss, S.; Ribon, A.; Roloff, P.; Sailer, A.; Schlatter, D.; Sicking, E.; Strube, J.; Uzhinskiy, V.; Chang, S.; Khan, A.; Kim, D. H.; Kong, D. J.; Oh, Y. D.; Blazey, G. C.; Dyshkant, A.; Francis, K.; Zutshi, V.; Giraud, J.; Grondin, D.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Brianne, E.; Cornett, U.; David, D.; Falley, G.; Gadow, K.; Göttlicher, P.; Günter, C.; Hartbrich, O.; Hermberg, B.; Irles, A.; Karstensen, S.; Krivan, F.; Krüger, K.; Kvasnicka, J.; Lu, S.; Lutz, B.; Morozov, S.; Morgunov, V.; Neubüser, C.; Provenza, A.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Smirnov, P.; Terwort, M.; Tran, H. L.; Vargas-Trevino, A.; Garutti, E.; Laurien, S.; Matysek, M.; Ramilli, M.; Schröder, S.; Briggl, K.; Eckert, P.; Harion, T.; Munwes, Y.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-Ch.; Shen, W.; Stamen, R.; Bilki, B.; Onel, Y.; Kawagoe, K.; Hirai, H.; Sudo, Y.; Suehara, T.; Sumida, H.; Takada, S.; Tomita, T.; Yoshioka, T.; Wing, M.; Calvo Alamillo, E.; Fouz, M.-C.; Marin, J.; Puerta-Pelayo, J.; Verdugo, A.; Bobchenko, B.; Chadeeva, M.; Danilov, M.; Markin, O.; Mizuk, R.; Novikov, E.; Rusinov, V.; Tarkovsky, E.; Kirikova, N.; Kozlov, V.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; Besson, D.; Buzhan, P.; Popova, E.; Gabriel, M.; Kiesling, C.; van der Kolk, N.; Seidel, K.; Simon, F.; Soldner, C.; Szalay, M.; Tesar, M.; Weuste, L.; Amjad, M. S.; Bonis, J.; Cornebise, P.; Richard, F.; Pöschl, R.; Rouëné, J.; Thiebault, A.; Anduze, M.; Balagura, V.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J.-C.; Cizel, J.-B.; Cornat, R.; Frotin, M.; Gastaldi, F.; Haddad, Y.; Magniette, F.; Nanni, J.; Pavy, S.; Rubio-Roy, M.; Shpak, K.; Tran, T. H.; Videau, H.; Yu, D.; Callier, S.; Conforti di Lorenzo, S.; Dulucq, F.; Fleury, J.; Martin-Chassard, G.; de la Taille, Ch.; Raux, L.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; Cvach, J.; Gallus, P.; Havranek, M.; Janata, M.; Kovalcuk, M.; Kvasnicka, J.; Lednicky, D.; Marcisovsky, M.; Polak, I.; Popule, J.; Tomasek, L.; Tomasek, M.; Ruzicka, P.; Sicho, P.; Smolik, J.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; Ieki, S.; Kamiya, Y.; Ootani, W.; Shibata, N.; Chen, S.; Jeans, D.; Komamiya, S.; Kozakai, C.; Nakanishi, H.; Götze, M.; Sauer, J.; Weber, S.; Zeitnitz, C.

    2015-12-01

    We present a study of showers initiated by electrons, pions, kaons, and protons with momenta from 15 GeV to 150 GeV in the highly granular CALICE scintillator-tungsten analogue hadronic calorimeter. The data were recorded at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron in 2011. The analysis includes measurements of the calorimeter response to each particle type as well as measurements of the energy resolution and studies of the longitudinal and radial shower development for selected particles. The results are compared to Geant4 simulations (version 9.6.p02). In the study of the energy resolution we include previously published data with beam momenta from 1 GeV to 10 GeV recorded at the CERN Proton Synchrotron in 2010.

  11. A Silicon-Tungsten ECal with Integrated Electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Frey, R.; Brau, James E.; Breidenbach, Martin; Freytag, D.; Haller, G.; Herbst, R.; Lander, R.; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Radeka, V.; Tripathi, M.; /UC, Davis

    2011-11-10

    We summarize recent R&D progress for a silicon-tungsten electromagnetic calorimeter (ECal) with integrated electronics, designed to meet the ILC physics requirements. A basic physics requirement for ILC detectors is that they provide excellent reconstruction of hadronic final states. This allows access to new physics which is complementary to the LHC. One statement for a requirement on jet reconstruction is that intermediate particles which decay into jets, such as W, Z, or top, can be identified and isolated. This places unprecedented requirements on 2-jet or 3-jet mass resolution, typically at the level of 3-5% using the PFA technique, which makes challenging demands on the calorimeters. The electromagnetic energy resolution is not expected to limit jet resolution using a PFA. However, particle separation - photon-photon and charged hadron-photon - is crucial. In addition, if one provides this kind of imaging calorimeter to meet the PFA needs, these same features will also be put to good use for reconstruction of specific tau decay modes (to enable final-state polarization measurement), to 'track' photons (even if originating from a vertex displaced from the interaction point), to track MIPS, and so forth. Figure 1 and Table 1 provide some context for our ECal design within the SiD detector concept, along with some main design parameters. More detail is included in the presentation.

  12. Fine Grained Silicon-Tungsten Calorimetry for a Linear Collider Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, D.; Frey, R.; Breidenbach, M.; Freytag, D.; Graf, N.; Haller, G.; Milgrome, O.; Radeka, V.; /Brookhaven

    2006-02-08

    A fine grained silicon-tungsten calorimeter is ideal for use as the electromagnetic calorimeter in a linear collider detector optimized for particle-flow reconstruction. We are designing a calorimeter that is based on readout chips which are bump bonded to the silicon wafers that serve as the active medium in the calorimeter. By using integrated electronics we plan to demonstrate that fine granularity can be achieved at a reasonable price. Our design minimizes the gap between tungsten layers leading to a small Moliere radius, an important figure of merit for particle-flow detectors. Tests of the silicon detectors to be used in a test beam prototype as well as timing measurements based on similar silicon detectors are discussed.

  13. Tail Catcher Muon Tracker For The CALICE Test Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Dyshkant, Alexander

    2006-10-27

    Results on the construction and commissioning of the CALICE Tail-catcher/Muon Tracker (TCMT) are presented. The {approx}1 m3 prototype uses extruded scintillating strips mated to silicon-photomultipliers and is located behind the CALICE hadron calorimeter. The TCMT will provide a snapshot of the tail end of hadron showers, which is crucial to the validation of hadronic Monte Carlo. It will also serve as a prototype muon system for any Linear Collider Detector (ILC) and will facilitate studies of muon tracking and identification within the particle flow reconstruction framework. Additionally, the TCMT will provide valuable practical experience with hadronic leakage and punch-through from thin calorimeters, as are envisaged for the ILC detector, and the impact of the coil in correcting for this leakage.

  14. Results of the CALICE SDHCAL technological prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steen, Arnaud; CALICE Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    The SDHCAL prototype was completed in 2012, and exposed to beams of pions, electrons of different energies at the SPS of CERN for a total time period of 5 weeks. The data are being analyzed within the CALICE Collaboration. Preliminary results indicate that a highly granular hadronic calorimeter conceived for PFA application is also a powerful tool to measure hadronic particle energy. In addition it was found to discriminate efficiently pions from electrons. The use of multi-threshold readout mode shows a clear improvement of the resolution at energies exceeding 30 GeV with respect to the binary readout mode. New ideas to improve on the energy resolution using the topology of hadronic showers such as the Hough Transform technique are studied.

  15. First results of the CALICE SDHCAL technological prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The CALICE collaboration

    2016-04-01

    The CALICE Semi-Digital Hadronic Calorimeter (SDHCAL) prototype, built in 2011, was exposed to beams of hadrons, electrons and muons in two short periods in 2012 on two different beam lines of the CERN SPS. The prototype with its 48 active layers, made of Glass Resistive Plate Chambers and their embedded readout electronics, was run in triggerless and power-pulsing mode. The performance of the SDHCAL during the test beam was found to be very satisfactory with an efficiency exceeding 90% for almost all of the 48 active layers. A linear response (within ± 5%) and a good energy resolution are obtained for a large range of hadronic energies (5–80 GeV) by applying appropriate calibration coefficients to the collected data for both the Digital (Binary) and the Semi-Digital (Multi-threshold) modes of the SDHCAL prototype. The Semi-Digital mode shows better performance at energies exceeding 30 GeV.

  16. Management of anterior caliceal stones >15 mm.

    PubMed

    El-Shazly, M; Aziz, M; Omar, M; Al-Hunaidi, O; El-Nahas, A R

    2016-08-01

    Anterior caliceal stones represent a challenge to endourologist to select the best modality of management with the least morbidity. To study different treatment modalities of management of anterior caliceal stones >15 mm. It is an observational prospective study of patients with anterior caliceal stones more than 15 mm. Inclusion criteria were patients with isolated anterior caliceal stones, or branched anterior caliceal stones with posterior caliceal extension. Patients were evaluated using non-contrast CT preoperatively. They were divided into three groups: group 1 underwent PCNL through posterior caliceal puncture in cases with wide anterior calyx infundibulum or obtuse infundibulopelvic pelvic, group 2 underwent PCNL through anterior caliceal access in cases with narrow infundibulum or acute infundibulopelvic angel and group 3 underwent flexible ureteroscopy and laser lithotripsy. Intraoperative and postoperative findings were recorded and compared. Eighty eight patients were included in this study, Group 1 (44 patients) group 2 (28 patients), and group 3 (16 patients). Operative time was not significantly different across the three groups (68 ± 11.5, 72 ± 9 and 74 ± 11 min in group 1, 2 and 3, respectively, P = 0.053). Fluoroscopy time was significantly shorter for group 3 (2 ± 0.5 m, P = 0.0001) compared to group 1 and 2 (5.6 ± 4.6 and 4.5 ± 1.4 min), respectively. There were no significant differences in stone-free rates after initial treatment between the three groups; 84, 82, and 69 %, in groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively (P = 0.4). Postoperative hemoglobin drop was noted to be highest for group 2 and lowest for group 3 which was significantly different (1.7 ± 0.8, 2.2 ± 1.1, and 0.3 ± 0.3 g/dl, for patients in groups 1, 2 and 3 respectively, P = 0.0001). Group 2 showed the highest post-operative complication rate (21 %) in comparison to group 1 (11 %) and group 3 (6 %), however, differences were not statistically

  17. Highly granular hadron calorimeter: software compensation and shower decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadeeva, M.; CALICE Collaboration

    2016-02-01

    The highly granular analogue hadron calorimeter was developed and constructed by the CALICE collaboration. The active layers of the calorimeter are assembled from scintillator tiles with individual readout by silicon photomultipliers and are interleaved with absorber plates. The response and resolution of the calorimeter equipped with steel absorber was intensively tested in single particle beams. The application of software compensation techniques developed for the scintillator-steel prototype allows for reduction of the stochastic term of the single particle resolution from 58%/ √E/GeV to 45%/ √E/GeV. The detailed study and decomposition of the longitudinal and radial profiles of hadron-induced showers in the energy range from 10 to 80 GeV are presented and compared to GEANT4 simulations.

  18. Prototype tests for a highly granular scintillator-based hadron calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, K.; CALICE Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    Within the CALICE collaboration, several concepts for the hadronic calorimeter of a future linear collider detector are studied. After having demonstrated the capabilities of the measurement methods in "physics prototypes", the focus now lies on improving their implementation in"technological prototypes", that are scalable to the full linear collider detector. The Analog Hadron Calorimeter (AHCAL) concept is a sampling calorimeter of tungsten or steel absorber plates and plastic scintillator tiles read out by silicon photomultipliers as active material. In the AHCAL technological prototype, the front-end chips are integrated into the active layers of the calorimeter and are designed for minimal power consumption. The versatile electronics allows the prototype to be equipped with different types of scintillator tiles and SiPMs. The current status of the AHCAL engineering prototype is shown and recent beam test measurements as well as plans for future hadron beam tests with a larger prototype will be discussed.

  19. Photon calorimeter

    DOEpatents

    Chow, Tze-Show

    1988-04-22

    A photon calorimeter is provided that comprises a laminar substrate that is uniform in density and homogeneous in atomic composition. A plasma-sprayed coating, that is generally uniform in density and homogeneous in atomic composition within the proximity of planes that are parallel to the surfaces of the substrate, is applied to either one or both sides of the laminar substrate. The plasma-sprayed coatings may be very efficiently spectrally tailored in atomic number. Thermocouple measuring junctions, are positioned within the plasma-sprayed coatings. The calorimeter is rugged, inexpensive, and equilibrates in temperature very rapidly. 4 figs.

  20. Photon Calorimeter

    DOEpatents

    Chow, Tze-Show

    1989-01-01

    A photon calorimeter (20, 40) is provided that comprises a laminar substrate (10, 22, 42) that is uniform in density and homogeneous in atomic composition. A plasma-sprayed coating (28, 48, 52), that is generally uniform in density and homogeneous in atomic composition within the proximity of planes that are parallel to the surfaces of the substrate, is applied to either one or both sides of the laminar substrate. The plasma-sprayed coatings may be very efficiently spectrally tailored in atomic number. Thermocouple measuring junctions (30, 50, 54) are positioned within the plasma-sprayed coatings. The calorimeter is rugged, inexpensive, and equilibrates in temperature very rapidly.

  1. Simulations and Measurements for a concept of powering CALICE-AHCAL at a train-cycled accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göttlicher, P.

    2013-01-01

    Improving calorimetry by usage of the particle-flow algorithm requires to record the details of the shower development. Therefore a high granularity analogue readout hadron calorimeter (AHCAL) with small sensors and with electronics handling the enormous amount of channels, ≈ 40 000/m3, is required. Homogeneity is maintained by avoiding cooling tubes in the active volume and only cooling at the service end. For this concept low power consumption per channel, 40 μW, is essential. Future linear e+e-- collider designs, ILC or CLIC, foresee duty cycles for the bunch delivery. At ILC bunch trains of 1 ms duration are followed by long breaks of 200 ms. Power cycling the front end electronics with the train structure can reduce power consumption by a factor 100. However for a full scale CALICE-AHCAL switched currents reach magnitudes of kilo-amperes. This paper describes the design chain from front end PCB's through to external power supplies. By simulations a concept is developed, in which effects of electromagnetic interferences are kept small and localized. The goal is to keep current loops small, to limit the switched current to the region near the switched consumer and to allow only small frequency currents to spread out further into the system. By that analogue performance can be kept high and parasitic couplings to the surrounding metal structures and other sub-detectors will be minimized. Measurements with existing prototypes support the validity of the simulations.

  2. Isothermal Calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John J.

    1990-01-01

    Pressure-feedback signal indicates rate of heating. Improved isothermal calorimeter measures rate of heating in object under test. Called "isothermal" because chamber holding object and its environment maintained at or near constant temperature to minimize spurious tranfers of heat introducing errors into measurements. When item under test generates heat, rate of boiling and pressure in inner chamber increase. Servo-valve opens wider to maintain preset differential pressure. Valve-control voltage used as measure of rate of heating.

  3. The ATLAS Forward Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artamonov, A.; Bailey, D.; Belanger, G.; Cadabeschi, M.; Chen, T.-Y.; Epshteyn, V.; Gorbounov, P.; Joo, K. K.; Khakzad, M.; Khovanskiy, V.; Krieger, P.; Loch, P.; Mayer, J.; Neuheimer, E.; Oakham, F. G.; O'Neill, M.; Orr, R. S.; Qi, M.; Rutherfoord, J.; Savine, A.; Schram, M.; Shatalov, P.; Shaver, L.; Shupe, M.; Stairs, G.; Strickland, V.; Tompkins, D.; Tsukerman, I.; Vincent, K.

    2008-02-01

    Forward calorimeters, located near the incident beams, complete the nearly 4π coverage for high pT particles resulting from proton-proton collisions in the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. Both the technology and the deployment of the forward calorimeters in ATLAS are novel. The liquid argon rod/tube electrode structure for the forward calorimeters was invented specifically for applications in high rate environments. The placement of the forward calorimeters adjacent to the other calorimeters relatively close to the interaction point provides several advantages including nearly seamless calorimetry and natural shielding for the muon system. The forward calorimeter performance requirements are driven by events with missing ET and tagging jets.

  4. A heat flow calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, W. V.

    1973-01-01

    Reaction mechanism for nickel-cadmium cell is not known well enough to allow calculation of heat effects. Calorimeter can measure heat absorbed or evolved in cell, by determining amount of external heat that must be supplied to calorimeter to maintain constant flow isothermal heat sink.

  5. The PHENIX electromagnetic calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Kistenev, E.; White, S.; Belikov, S.; Kochetkov, V.

    1993-12-31

    The main features of the Phenix EM calorimeter are presented. This a Pb/scintillator calorimeter with ``shish-kebab`` fiber readout, designed for low energy electron and photon measurements. Prototype calorimeters have been built with longitudinal segmentation, {approximately} 100 psec time of flight resolution and 8% energy resolution at 1GeV/c. The laser based monitoring system which has been incorporated into large scale prototypes is described. The dependence of light yield on fiber choice and scintillator surface preparation has been studied.

  6. Calorimeter Control Program

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1998-11-03

    The Calorimeter Control Software provides PID (Proportional, Integral, and Derivative) Control for up to twelve Mound Calorimeters and five Calorimeter Waterbaths. The software accepts a Voltage input, compares it to a user defined setpoint, calculates a new voltage output designed to bring the input closer to the setpoint using a PID control algorithm, then sets the analog voltage output to the calculated value. The software is designed to interface with HP 3852A Data Acquisition Unitmore » via an HP-1B PC board. All field inputs are wired into Digital Input cards and field outputs are wired from Analog Output cards.« less

  7. Calorimeter Control Program

    SciTech Connect

    Plummer, Jean R.; Levi, Gerald

    1998-11-03

    The Calorimeter Control Software provides PID (Proportional, Integral, and Derivative) Control for up to twelve Mound Calorimeters and five Calorimeter Waterbaths. The software accepts a Voltage input, compares it to a user defined setpoint, calculates a new voltage output designed to bring the input closer to the setpoint using a PID control algorithm, then sets the analog voltage output to the calculated value. The software is designed to interface with HP 3852A Data Acquisition Unit via an HP-1B PC board. All field inputs are wired into Digital Input cards and field outputs are wired from Analog Output cards.

  8. CCP. Calorimeter Control Program

    SciTech Connect

    Plummer, J.; Levi, G.

    1998-10-01

    The Calorimeter Control Software provides PID (Proportional, Integral, and Derivative) Control for up to twelve Mound Calorimeters and five Calorimeter Waterbaths. The software accepts a Voltage input, compares it to a user defined setpoint, calculates a new voltage output designed to bring the input closer to the setpoint using a PID control algorithm, then sets the analog voltage output to the calculated value. The software is designed to interface with HP 3852A Data Acquisition Unit via an HP-1B PC board. All field inputs are wired into Digital Input cards and field outputs are wired from Analog Output cards.

  9. CMS electromagnetic calorimeter readout

    SciTech Connect

    Denes, P.; Wixted, R.

    1997-12-31

    The CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter will consist of 109,008 crystals of Lead Tungstate (PbWO{sub 4}) arranged in a barrel (92880 crystals) and 2 endcaps (8064 crystals each). The crystals will be 25 radiation lengths long and cut in tapered shapes to make a hermetic calorimeter. The scintillation light from the crystals is captured by a photodetector, amplified and digitized. The properties of PbWO4, which is a new crystal still very much under development.

  10. Construction of a technological semi-digital hadronic calorimeter using GRPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laktineh, I.

    2011-04-01

    A high-granularity semi-digital Hadronic calorimeter using GRPC as sensitive medium is one of the two HCAL options considered by the ILD collaboration to be proposed for the detector of the future International Linear Collider project. A prototype of 1m3 has been conceived within the CALICE collaboration in order to validate this option. The prototype intends to be as close as possible to the one proposed in the ILD Letter Of Intent. Few units made of 1m2 GRPC fully equipped with semi-digital readout electronics and new gas distribution design were produced and successfully tested. In 2010 we intend to produce 40 similar units to be inserted in a self-supporting mechanical structure. The prototype will then be exposed to TestBeams at CERN for final validation.

  11. Magnetically Coupled Calorimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandler, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Calorimeters that utilize the temperature sensitivity of magnetism have been under development for over 20 years. They have targeted a variety of different applications that require very high resolution spectroscopy. I will describe the properties of this sensor technology that distinguish it from other low temperature detectors and emphasize the types of application to which they appear best suited. I will review what has been learned so far about the best materials, geometries, and read-out amplifiers and our understanding of the measured performance and theoretical limits. I will introduce some of the applications where magnetic calorimeters are being used and also where they are in development for future experiments. So far, most magnetic calorimeter research has concentrated on the use of paramagnets to provide temperature sensitivity; recent studies have also focused on magnetically coupled calorimeters that utilize the diamagnetic response of superconductors. I will present some of the highlights of this research, and contrast the properties of the two magnetically coupled calorimeter types.

  12. The ALICE Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Gadrat, S.

    2010-06-01

    ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) is the only LHC experiment at CERN fully dedicated to the study of the quark and gluon plasma. Driven by the RHIC results on jet quenching, the ALICE collaboration has proposed to extend the capabilities of the ALICE detector for the study of high momentum photons and jets by adding a large acceptance calorimeter. This EMCal (ElectroMagnetic Calorimeter) is designed to provide an unbiased fast high-p{sub T} trigger and to measure the neutral energy of jets and photons up to 200 GeV. Four over ten supermodules of the calorimeter have been installed and commissioned at CERN in 2009 which represents 40% of the full acceptance.

  13. The ALICE Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Awes, Terry C; ALICE, Collaboration

    2010-05-01

    ALICE is the general purpose experiment at the LHC dedicated to the study of heavy-ion collisions. The electromagnetic calorimeter (EMCal) is a late addition to the ALICE suite of detectors with first modules installed in ALICE this year. The EMCal is designed to trigger on high energy gamma-rays and jets, and to enhance the capabilities of ALICE for these measurements. The EMCal is a Pb/scintillator sampling shish-kebab type calorimeter. The EMCal construction, readout, and performance in beam tests at the CERN SPS and PS are described.

  14. The ALICE Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Awes, Terry C; ALICE, Collaboration

    2010-01-01

    ALICE is the general purpose experiment at the LHC dedicated to the study of heavy-ion collisions. The electromagnetic calorimeter (EMCal) is a late addition to the ALICE suite of detectors with first modules installed in ALICE this year. The EMCal is designed to trigger on high energy gamma-rays and jets, and to enhance the capabilities of ALICE for these measurements. The EMCal is a Pb/scintillator sampling shish-kebab type calorimeter. The EMCal construction, readout, and performance in beam tests at the CERN SPS and PS are described.

  15. Transperitoneal Mini-Laparoscopic Pyeloplasty and Concomitant Ureteroscopy-Assisted Pyelolithotomy for Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction Complicated by Renal Caliceal Stones

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhi; Zhou, Peng; Yang, Zhong-Qing; Li, Yang; Luo, Yan-Cheng; He, Yao; Li, Nan-Nan; Xie, Chao-Qun; Lai, Chen; Fang, Xiao-Long; Chen, Xiang

    2013-01-01

    Objective To present our experience of combining transperitoneal mini-laparoscopic pyeloplasty (mini-LP) and concomitant ureteroscopy-assisted pyelolithotomy (U-P) for ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) complicated by renal caliceal stones in the same session. Methods Between May 2007 and December 2011, mini-LP and concomitant U-P was performed in nine patients with UPJO and ipsilateral renal caliceal stones. Stone location and burden were preoperatively assessed. After pyelotomy with appropriate length (about 4 mm), a 16-Fr catheter sheath replaced the uppermost or lowermost laparoscopic trocar and was introduced directly into the renal pelvis under the guidance of a guide wire and laparoscopic vision. A 7.5F rigid ureteroscopy passed through the catheter sheath into the plevis. Intracorporeal lithotripsy and/or pressure irrigation via a pump was used for caliceal stone removal. Subsequently, laparoscopic pyeloplasty was performed in a standard fashion. Postoperative imaging was assessed. Results The calculi sizes ranged from 2 to 11 mm (mean, 7.1 mm) and an average of 3 stones per patient was removed (range, 1 to 6 stones). Complete stone clearance confirmed by postoperative imaging was achieved in all patients. Mean operative time was 210 minutes, and estimated blood loss was 20 mL. Mean hospital stay was 5 days (4–7). Stent was removed after 4–8 weeks. No intraoperative or postoperative complications were noted during a mean follow-up of 18.5 months (range, 6 to 24 months). Conclusions Mini-LP and concomitant U-P are simple and effective alternatives for the simultaneous management of UPJO complicated by coexisting ipsilateral renal caliceal stones. PMID:23326607

  16. An Inexpensive Solution Calorimeter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavanagh, Emma; Mindel, Sam; Robertson, Giles; Hughes, D. E. Peter

    2008-01-01

    We describe the construction of a simple solution calorimeter, using a miniature bead thermistor as a temperature-sensing element. This has a response time of a few seconds and made it possible to carry out a thermometric reaction in under a minute, which led to minimal heat losses. Small temperature changes of 1 K associated with enthalpies of…

  17. The CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Paramatti, Riccardo

    2005-10-12

    The electromagnetic calorimeter of the CMS experiment at LHC will consist of about 76000 Lead Tungstate crystals. Its main purpose is the very precise energy measurement of electrons and photons produced at 14 TeV centre-of-mass energy. A review of its performances and its construction status is given. Then the calibration strategy is described in details.

  18. Radionuclide calorimeter system

    DOEpatents

    Donohoue, Thomas P.; Oertel, Christopher P.; Tyree, William H.; Valdez, Joe L.

    1991-11-26

    A circuit for measuring temperature differentials in a calorimeter is disclosed. The temperature differential between the reference element and sample element containing a radioactive material is measured via a wheatstone bridge arrangement of thermistors. The bridge is driven with an alternating current on a pulsed basis to maintain the thermal floor of the calorimeter at a low reference value. A lock-in amplifier connected to the bridge phase locks a signal from the bridge to the input pulsed AC signal to provide a DC voltage. The DC voltage is sampled over time and provided to a digital computer. The digital computer, using curve fitting algorithms, will derive a function for the sample data. From the function, an equilibrium value for the temperature may be calculated.

  19. Radionuclide calorimeter system

    DOEpatents

    Donohoue, T.P.; Oertel, C.P.; Tyree, W.H.; Valdez, J.L.

    1991-11-26

    A circuit for measuring temperature differentials in a calorimeter is disclosed. The temperature differential between the reference element and sample element containing a radioactive material is measured via a Wheatstone bridge arrangement of thermistors. The bridge is driven with an alternating current on a pulsed basis to maintain the thermal floor of the calorimeter at a low reference value. A lock-in amplifier connected to the bridge phase locks a signal from the bridge to the input pulsed AC signal to provide a DC voltage. The DC voltage is sampled over time and provided to a digital computer. The digital computer, using curve fitting algorithms, will derive a function for the sample data. From the function, an equilibrium value for the temperature may be calculated. 7 figures.

  20. Modeling Complex Calorimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa-Feliciano, Enectali

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a software suite that models complex calorimeters in the time and frequency domain. These models can reproduce all measurements that we currently do in a lab setting, like IV curves, impedance measurements, noise measurements, and pulse generation. Since all these measurements are modeled from one set of parameters, we can fully describe a detector and characterize its behavior. This leads to a model than can be used effectively for engineering and design of detectors for particular applications.

  1. DSWA calorimeter bomb experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, B

    1998-10-01

    Two experiments were performed in which 25 grams of TNT were detonated inside an expended detonation calorimeter bomb. The bomb had a contained volume of approximately 5.28 liters. In the first experiment, the bomb was charged with 3 atmospheres of nitrogen. In the second, it was charged with 2.58 atmospheres (23.1 psi gage) of oxygen. In each experiment pressure was monitored over a period of approximately 1200 microseconds after the pulse to the CDU. Monitoring was performed via two 10,000 psi 102AO3 PCB high frequency pressure transducers mounted symmetrically in the lid of the calorimeter bomb. Conditioners used were PCB 482As. The signals from the transducers were recorded in digital format on a multi channel Tektronix scope. The sampling frequency was 10 Mhz (10 samples per microsecond). After a period of cooling following detonation, gas samples were taken and were subsequently submitted for analysis using gas mass spectrometry. Due to a late request for post shot measurement, it was only possible to make a rough estimate of the weight of debris (carbon) remaining in the calorimeter bomb following the second experiment.

  2. Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wefel, John P.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report for NASA grant NAGW-4577, "Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC)". This grant covered a joint project between LSU and the University of Maryland for a Concept Study of a new type of fully active calorimeter to be used to measure the energy spectra of very high energy cosmic rays, particularly Hydrogen and Helium, to beyond 1014 eV. This very high energy region has been studied with emulsion chamber techniques, but never investigated with electronic calorimeters. Technology had advanced to the point that a fully active calorimeter based upon Bismuth Germanate (BGO) scintillating crystals appeared feasible for balloon flight (and eventually space) experiments.

  3. Scintillating fiber ribbon --- tungsten calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Bross, A.; Crisler, M.; Kross, B.; Wrbanek, J.

    1989-07-14

    We describe an ultra-high density scintillating fiber and tungsten calorimeter used as an active beam-dump for electrons. Data showing the calorimeter response to electrons with momenta between 50 and 350 GeV/c are presented. 9 figs.

  4. Installation and operation of recording calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Kersey, A.F.

    1984-04-01

    The Cutler-Hammer recording calorimeter is illustrated in this paper. This calorimeter measures the total calorific value of combustible gas, and continuously samples, indicates, and records BTU per cubic foot. The paper emphasizes the importance of calorimeter accuracy. It is suggested that the calorimeter manufacturer be consulted for advice and assistance in developing a sound service program for trouble shooting and for service.

  5. Cerenkov fiber sampling calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Arrington, K.; Kefford, D.; Kennedy, J.; Pisani, R.; Sanzeni, C.; Segall, K.; Wall, D.; Winn, D.R. ); Carey, R.; Dye, S.; Miller, J.; Sulak, L.; Worstell, W. ); Efremenko, Y.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Savin, A.; Shmakov, K.; Tarkovsky, E. )

    1994-08-01

    Clear optical fibers were used as a Cerenkov sampling media in Pb (electromagnetic) and Cu (hadron) absorbers in spaghetti calorimeters, for high rate and high radiation dose experiments, such as the forward region of high energy colliders. The fiber axes were aligned close to the direction of the incident particles (1[degree]--7[degree]). The 7 [lambda] deep hadron tower contained 2.8% by volume 1.5 mm diameter core clear plastic fibers. The 27 radiation length deep electromagnetic towers had packing fractions of 6.8% and 7.2% of 1 mm diameter core quartz fibers as the active Cerenkov sampling medium. The energy resolution on electrons and pions, energy response, pulse shapes and angular studies are presented.

  6. The CDF miniplug calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Lami, Stefano

    2002-06-28

    Two MiniPlug calorimeters, designed to measure the energy and lateral position of particles in the (forward) pseudorapidity region of 3.6 < |{nu}| < 5.2 of the CDF detector, have been recently installed as part of the Run II CDF upgrade at the Tevatron {bar p}p collider. They consist of lead/liquid scintillator read out by wavelength shifting fibers arranged in a pixel-type towerless geometry suitable for ''calorimetric tracking''. The design concept, the prototype performance and the final design of the MiniPlugs are here described. A recent cosmic ray test resulted in a light yield of approximately 100 pe/MIP, which exceeds our design requirements.

  7. Electromagnetic Calorimeter for Hades Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kugler, A.; Blume, C.; Czyžycki, W.; Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L.; Galatyuk, T.; Golubeva, M.; Guber, F.; Hlaváč, S.; Ivashkin, A.; Kajetanowic, M.; Kardan, B.; Koenig, W.; Lapidus, K.; Lisowski, E.; Pietraszko, J.; Reshetin, A.; Rost, A.; Salabura, P.; Sobolev, Y. G.; Svoboda, O.; Tlusty, P.; Traxler, M.

    2014-06-01

    Electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) is being developed to complement the dilepton spectrometer HADES currently operating at GSI Darmstadt, Germany. ECAL will enable the HADES@FAIR experiment to measure data on neutral meson production in heavy ion collisions at the energy range of 2-10 A GeV on the beam of future accelerator SIS100@FAIR. The calorimeter will also improve the electron-hadron separation and will as well be used for the detection of photons from strange resonances in elementary and heavy ion reactions. Calorimeter modules constructed of lead glass Cherenkov counter, photomultiplier, HV divider and optical fiber are described in the detail. Two prototypes of novel front-end electronics based on TRB3 are presented. A dedicated LED based system being developed to monitor the stability of the calorimeter during beamtime is introduced as well.

  8. The CMS central hadron calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, J.

    1998-11-01

    The CMS central hadron calorimeter is a brass absorber/scintillator sampling structure. We describe details of the mechanical and optical structure. We also discuss calibration techniques, and finally the anticipated construction schedule. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  9. Containerless high temperature calorimeter apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacy, L. L.; Nisen, D. B. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A calorimeter apparatus for measuring high temperature thermophysical properties of materials is disclosed which includes a containerless heating apparatus in which the specimen is suspended and heated by electron bombardment.

  10. Muon g-2 Calorimeter Prototypes

    SciTech Connect

    Polly, Chris; /Fermilab

    2010-05-03

    The proposed design is a tungsten-scintillating fiber calorimeter with 35 segments, each read out by a separate PMT. Tungsten, which is significantly denser than lead, produces compact showers. This is necessary, in order to improve shower separation in analysis and to fully contain the showers within a calorimeter that satisfies the strict space constraints of the experiment. A single calorimeter segment (4 x 6 x 15 cm{sup 3}) has been constructed in order establish the feasibility of the new design and study its properties. Initial tests of the detector segment at the Paul Scherrer Institute were conducted with a low energy < 400 MeV/c electron beam. A higher-energy test with electrons up to a few GeV/c was performed at the Test Beam Facility under the experimental number T-967. All data from that test have been analyzed and published, and the tungsten-scintillating fiber calorimeter still appears to be a viable candidate. For this test beam run, a larger calorimeter (15 x 15 x 11 cm{sup 3}) has been constructed and an emphasis will be placed on understanding shower leakage and the ability to separate pileup events with a more granular readout. The experimenters will measure the energy resolution, linearity, and shower size of the calorimeter segment. This will provide important information for finalizing decisions on the angle of the fibers relative to the incoming electrons and the optimal granularity of the readout.

  11. Thermal dynamics of bomb calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyon, Richard E.

    2015-12-01

    The thermal dynamics of bomb calorimeters are modeled using a lumped heat transfer analysis in which heat is released in a pressure vessel/bomb immersed in a stirred water bath that is surrounded by a static air space bounded by an insulated (static) jacket, a constant/controlled temperature jacket (isoperibol), or a changing temperature (adiabatic) jacket. The temperature history of the water bath for each of these boundary conditions (methods) is well described by the two-term solution for the calorimeter response to a heat impulse (combustion), allowing the heat transfer coefficients and thermal capacities of the bomb and water bath to be determined parametrically. The validated heat transfer model provides an expression for direct calculation of the heat released in an arbitrary process inside a bomb calorimeter using the temperature history of the water bath for each of the boundary conditions (methods). This result makes possible the direct calculation of the heat of combustion of a sample in an isoperibol calorimeter from the recorded temperature history without the need for semi-empirical temperature corrections to account for non-adiabatic behavior. Another useful result is that the maximum temperature rise of the water bath in the static jacket method is proportional to the total heat generated, and the empirical proportionality constant, which is determined by calibration, accounts for all of the heat losses and thermal lags of the calorimeter.

  12. Thermal dynamics of bomb calorimeters.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Richard E

    2015-12-01

    The thermal dynamics of bomb calorimeters are modeled using a lumped heat transfer analysis in which heat is released in a pressure vessel/bomb immersed in a stirred water bath that is surrounded by a static air space bounded by an insulated (static) jacket, a constant/controlled temperature jacket (isoperibol), or a changing temperature (adiabatic) jacket. The temperature history of the water bath for each of these boundary conditions (methods) is well described by the two-term solution for the calorimeter response to a heat impulse (combustion), allowing the heat transfer coefficients and thermal capacities of the bomb and water bath to be determined parametrically. The validated heat transfer model provides an expression for direct calculation of the heat released in an arbitrary process inside a bomb calorimeter using the temperature history of the water bath for each of the boundary conditions (methods). This result makes possible the direct calculation of the heat of combustion of a sample in an isoperibol calorimeter from the recorded temperature history without the need for semi-empirical temperature corrections to account for non-adiabatic behavior. Another useful result is that the maximum temperature rise of the water bath in the static jacket method is proportional to the total heat generated, and the empirical proportionality constant, which is determined by calibration, accounts for all of the heat losses and thermal lags of the calorimeter. PMID:26724069

  13. Precision Timing Calorimeter for High Energy Physics

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Anderson, Dustin; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Duarte, Javier; Pena, Cristian; Ronzhin, Anatoly; Spiropulu, Maria; Trevor, Jason; Xie, Si

    2016-04-01

    Here, we present studies on the performance and characterization of the time resolution of LYSO-based calorimeters. Results for an LYSO sampling calorimeter and an LYSO-tungsten Shashlik calorimeter are presented. We also demonstrate that a time resolution of 30 ps is achievable for the LYSO sampling calorimeter. Timing calorimetry is described as a tool for mitigating the effects due to the large number of simultaneous interactions in the high luminosity environment foreseen for the Large Hadron Collider.

  14. Calorimeters for pulsed lasers: calibration.

    PubMed

    Thacher, P D

    1976-07-01

    A calibration technique is developed and tested in which a calorimeter used for single-shot laser pulse energy measurements is calibrated with reference to a cw power standard using a chopped cw laser beam. A pulsed laser is required only to obtain the relative time response of the calorimeter to a pulse. With precautions as to beam alignment and wavelength, the principal error of the technique is that of the cw standard. Calibration of two thermopiles with cone receivers showed -2.5% and -3.5% agreement with previous calibrations made by the National Bureau of Standards. PMID:20165270

  15. Triggering with the LHCb calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefevre, Regis; LHCb Collaboration

    2009-04-01

    The LHCb experiment at the LHC has been conceived to pursue high precision studies of CP violation and rare phenomena in b hadron decays. The online selection is crucial in LHCb and relies on the calorimeters to trigger on high transverse energy electrons, photons, π0 and hadrons. In this purpose a dedicated electronic has been realized. The calorimeter trigger system has been commissioned and is used to trigger on cosmic muons before beams start circulating in the LHC. When the LHC will start, it will also provide a very useful interaction trigger.

  16. D-Zero Calorimeter Multiplan

    SciTech Connect

    Wintercorn, S.J.; /Fermilab

    1987-06-15

    This short report explains the parameters, and their basis, of the D-Zero calorimeter multiplan spread sheet Macintosh Multiplan worksheets have been found to be a valuable asset to the D-Zero design effort. The spread sheet contains parameters (constants) and results that come from the parameters. The full effect of changes in D-Zero calorimeter parameters can be calculated quite easily with Multiplan. When a change in a parameter is made, any results that pertain to that parameter automatically change also. This report will explain how some of the unobvious results were obtained.

  17. LHCb calorimeters high voltage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilitsky, Yu.; Golutvin, A.; Konoplyannikov, A.; Lefrancois, J.; Perret, P.; Schopper, A.; Soldatov, M.; Yakimchuk, V.

    2007-02-01

    The calorimeter system in LHCb aims to identify electrons, photons and hadrons. All calorimeters are equipped with Hamamatsu photo tubes as devices for light to signal conversion. Eight thousand R7899-20 tubes are used for electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters and two hundred 64 channels multi-anode R7600-00-M64 for Scintillator-Pad/Preshower detectors. The calorimeter high voltage (HV) system is based on a Cockroft Walton (CW) voltage converter and a control board connected to the Experiment Control System (ECS) by serial bus. The base of each photomultiplier tube (PMT) is built with a high voltage converter and constructed on an individual printed circuit board, using compact surface mount components. The base is attached directly to the PMT. There are no HV cables in the system. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is used on the control board as an interface between the ECS and the 200 control channels. The FPGA includes also additional functionalities allowing automated monitoring and ramp up of the high voltage values. This paper describes the HV system architecture, some technical details of the electronics implementation and summarizes the system performance. This safe and low power consumption HV electronic system for the photomultiplier tubes can be used for various biomedical apparatus too.

  18. COE1 Calorimeter Operations Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Santi, Peter Angelo

    2015-12-15

    The purpose of this manual is to describe the operations of the COE1 calorimeter which is used to measure the thermal power generated by the radioactive decay of plutonium-bearing materials for the purposes of assaying the amount of plutonium within the material.

  19. Calorimeter Optimization for Jet Identification

    SciTech Connect

    Bower, G.

    2004-10-11

    During LCWS 1999 at Sitges, Spain, we presented a set of discriminators for reconstructing jets in high energy lepton colliders. We have extended that study by adding new event types, by adding new discriminators, and by using a neural net rather than cuts to identify jets. We apply these techniques to detector simulations to begin a study of calorimeter optimization.

  20. The CMS central hadron calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, J.; E892 Collaboration

    1996-12-31

    The CMS central hadron calorimeter is a copper absorber/ scintillator sampling structure. We describe design choices that led us to this concept, details of the mechanical and optical structure, and test beam results. We discuss calibration techniques, and finally the anticipated construction schedule.

  1. Barrel calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shebalin, V. E.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Aulchenko, V. M.; Bashtovoy, N. S.; Epifanov, D. A.; Epshteyn, L. B.; Grebenuk, A. A.; Ignatov, F. V.; Erofeev, A. L.; Kovalenko, O. A.; Kozyrev, A. N.; Kuzmin, A. S.; Logashenko, I. B.; Mikhailov, K. Yu.; Razuvaev, G. P.; Ruban, A. A.; Shwartz, B. A.; Talyshev, A. A.; Titov, V. M.; Yudin, Yu. V.

    2015-12-01

    The structure of the barrel calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector is presented in this work. The procedure of energy calibration of the calorimeter and the method of photon energy restoration are described. The distinctive feature of this barrel calorimeter is its combined structure; it is composed of two coaxial subsystems: a liquid xenon calorimeter and a crystalline CsI calorimeter. The calorimeter spatial resolution of the photon conversion point is about 2 mm, which corresponds to an angular resolution of ˜6 mrad. The energy resolution of the calorimeter is about 8% for photons with energy of 200 MeV and 4% for photons with energy of 1 GeV.

  2. Barrel calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector

    SciTech Connect

    Shebalin, V. E. Anisenkov, A. V.; Aulchenko, V. M.; Bashtovoy, N. S.; Epifanov, D. A.; Epshteyn, L. B.; Grebenuk, A. A.; Ignatov, F. V.; Erofeev, A. L.; Kovalenko, O. A.; Kozyrev, A. N.; Kuzmin, A. S.; Logashenko, I. B.; Mikhailov, K. Yu.; Razuvaev, G. P.; Ruban, A. A.; Shwartz, B. A.; Talyshev, A. A.; Titov, V. M.; Yudin, Yu. V.

    2015-12-15

    The structure of the barrel calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector is presented in this work. The procedure of energy calibration of the calorimeter and the method of photon energy restoration are described. The distinctive feature of this barrel calorimeter is its combined structure; it is composed of two coaxial subsystems: a liquid xenon calorimeter and a crystalline CsI calorimeter. The calorimeter spatial resolution of the photon conversion point is about 2 mm, which corresponds to an angular resolution of ∼6 mrad. The energy resolution of the calorimeter is about 8% for photons with energy of 200 MeV and 4% for photons with energy of 1 GeV.

  3. The CLAS Forward Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    M. Amarian; Geram Asryan; Kevin Beard; Will Brooks; Volker Burkert; Tom Carstens; Alan Coleman; Raphael Demirchyan; Yuri Efremenko; Hovanes Egiyan; Kim Egiyan; Herb Funsten; Vladimir Gavrilov; Kevin L. Giovanetti; R.M. Marshall; Berhard Mecking; R.C. Minehart; H. Mkrtchan; Mavrik Ohandjanyan; Youri Sharabian; L.C. Smith; Stepan Stepanyan; W.A. Stephens; T.Y. Tung; Carl Zorn

    2001-05-01

    The CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) at Jefferson Lab utilizes six iron-free superconducting coils to provide an approximately toroidal magnetic field. The six sectors are instrumented individually to form six independent spectrometers. The forward region (8deg < (theta) < 45deg) of each sector is equipped with a lead-scintillator electromagnetic sampling calorimeter (EC), 16 radiation lengths thick, using a novel triangular geometry with stereo readout. With its good energy and position resolution, the EC is used to provide the primary electron trigger for CLAS. It is also used to reject pions, reconstruct pi-0 and eta decays and detect neutrons, This paper treats the design, construction and performance of the calorimeter.

  4. Containerless high-temperature calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacy, L. L.; Nisen, D. B.; Robinson, M. B.

    1979-01-01

    Samples are heated by electron bombardment in high-temperature calorimeter that operates from 1,000 to 3,600 C yet consumes less that 100 watts at temperatures less than 2,500 C. Contamination of samples is kept to minimum by suspending them from wire in vacuum chamber. Various sample slopes such as wires, dishs, spheres, rods, or irregular bodies can be accommodated and only about 100 nq of samples are needed for accurate measurements.

  5. Electromagnetic Calorimeter for HADES Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Ramos, P.; Chlad, L.; Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L.; Galatyuk, T.; Golubeva, M.; Guber, F.; Hlaváč, S.; Ivashkin, A.; Kajetanowic, M.; Kardan, B.; Koenig, W.; Korcyl, G.; Kugler, A.; Lapidus, K.; Linev, S.; Lisowski, E.; Neiser, A.; Ott, O.; Otte, O.; Pethukov, O.; Pietraszko, J.; Reshetin, A.; Rost, A.; Salabura, P.; Sobolev, Y. G.; Svoboda, O.; Thomas, A.; Tlusty, P.; Traxler, M.

    2014-11-01

    Electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) is being developed to complement dilepton spectrometer HADES. ECAL will enable the HADES@FAIR experiment to measure data on neutral meson production in heavy ion collisions at the energy range of 2-10 AGeV on the beam of future accelerator SIS100@FAIR. We will report results of the last beam test with quasi-monoenergetic photons carried out in MAMI facility at Johannes Gutenberg Universität Mainz.

  6. Rugged calorimeter with a fast rise time

    SciTech Connect

    McMurtry, W.M.; Dolce, S.R.

    1980-01-01

    An intrinsic 1-mil-thick gold foil calorimeter has been developed which rises to 95% of the energy deposited in less than 2 microseconds. This calorimeter is very rugged, and can withstand rough handling without damage. The time constant is long, in the millisecond range, because of its unique construction. Use of this calorimeter has produced 100% data recovery, and agreement with true deposition to less than 10%.

  7. Secondary Emission Calorimeter Sensor Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winn, David R.; Onel, Yasar

    2012-12-01

    In a Secondary Emission electron(SEe) detector module, Secondary Emission electrons (SEe) are generated from an SE surface/cathode, when charged hadronic or electromagnetic particles, particularly shower particles, penetrate an SE sampling module placed between absorber materials (Fe, Cu, Pb, W etc) in calorimeters. The SE cathode is a thin (10-50 nm thick) film (simple metal-oxides, or other higher yield materials) on the surface of a metal plate, which serves as the entrance “window” to a compact vacuum vessel (metal or metal-ceramic); this SE film cathode is analogous to a photocathode, and the SEe are similar to p.e., which are then amplified by dynodes, also is in a PMT. SE sensor modules can make use of electrochemically etched/machined or laser-cut metal mesh dynode sheets, as large as ~30 cm square, to amplify the Secondary Emission Electrons (SEe), much like those that compact metal mesh or mesh dynode PMT's use to amplify p.e.'s. The construction requirements easier than a PMT, since the entire final assembly can be done in air; there are no critical controlled thin film depositions, cesiation or other oxygen-excluded processes or other required vacuum activation, and consequently bake-out can be a refractory temperatures; the module is sealed by normal vacuum techniques (welding or brazing or other high temperature joinings), with a simple final heated vacuum pump-out and tip-off. The modules envisioned are compact, high gain, high speed, exceptionally radiation damage resistant, rugged, and cost effective, and can be fabricated in arbitrary tileable shapes. The SE sensor module anodes can be segmented transversely to sizes appropriate to reconstruct electromagnetic cores with high precision. The GEANT4 and existing calorimeter data estimated calorimeter response performance is between 35-50 Secondary Emission electrons per GeV, in a 1 cm thick Cu absorber calorimeter, with a gain per SEe > 105 per SEe, and an e/pi<1.2. The calorimeter pulse width is

  8. Spaghetti calorimeter results and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Desalvo, R.

    1992-12-31

    In the guidelines of the SPACAL-LAA project the authors have built and beam-tested a prototype of spaghetti calorimeter with full hadronic shower containment. The results proved that the spaghetti technology (lead and scintillating fibers) can perform very accurate calorimetric measurements at the 15 ns LHC or SSC crossing rate and can compete with advantage over the other calorimetric technologies. In this paper they present the experimental results obtained so far and some future development foreseen in view of a hermetic supercollider detector.

  9. Calorimeter in the ARIES recovery system

    SciTech Connect

    Wetzel, J.R.; Sampson, T.E.; Cremers, T.L.

    1997-11-01

    The Advanced Recovery and Integrated Extraction System is an automated weapons component recovery system that includes four state-of-the-art nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments to analyze all outputs and the final product. The instruments are integrated with robotics sample handling to provide the analytical data and are controlled by a central computer. The NDA instruments are a plutonium isotopic composition system, neutron coincidence counter, segmented gamma scanner, and a calorimeter. This paper will describe the calorimeter system which uses the new Windows environment software package to communicate between the calorimeter and the control computer. Storage, retrieval, database, and operations with other software packages, such as Excel, are provided to allow the operator to analyze the calorimeter system. The host computer assumes control of all functions of the calorimeter system in the remote operations and retrieves the data upon completion of the calorimeter sample run allowing the robotics system to change samples at the earliest possible time for maximum sample throughput. The calorimeter Windows operating system allows viewing of the calorimeter, room, and bath data during the sample run. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Status of the CDF II Calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Mattson, Mark

    2006-10-27

    The status of the CDF calorimeters was reported at the CALOR2002 conference, about a year after Run II started at the Tevatron Collider. I will review upgrades to the system since that conference, as well as the operation and performance of the calorimeters.

  11. 5.8 X-ray Calorimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, F. Scott

    2008-01-01

    X-ray calorimeter instruments for astrophysics have seen rapid development since they were invented in 1984. The prime instrument on all currently planned X-ray spectroscopic observatories is based on calorimeter technology. This relatively simple detection concept that senses the energy of an incident photon by measuring the temperature rise of an absorber material at very low temperatures, can form the basis of a very high performance, non-dispersive spectrometer. State-of-the-art calorimeter instruments have resolving powers of over 3000, large simultaneous band-passes, and near unit efficiency. This coupled with the intrinsic imaging capability of a pixilated x-ray calorimeter array, allows true spectral-spatial instruments to be constructed. In this chapter I briefly review the detection scheme, the state-of-the-art in X-ray calorimeter instruments and the future outlook for this technology.

  12. High-temperature containerless calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, M. B.; Lacy, L. L.

    1985-01-01

    A high-temperature (greater than 1500 K) containerless calorimeter is described and its usefulness demonstrated. The calorimeter uses the technique of omnidirectional electron bombardment of pendant drops to achieve an isothermal test environment. The small heat input into the sample (i.e., 15-50 W) can be controlled and measured. The apparatus can be used to determine the total hemispherical emissivity, specific heat, heat of fusion, surface tension, and equilibrium melting temperature of small molten drops in the temperature range of 1500 to 3500 K. The total hemispherical emissivity and specific heat of pure niobium and two alloys of niobium-germanium have been measured in the temperature range of 1700 to 2400 K. As reported in the literature, the total hemispherical emissivity varied as a function of temperature. However, specific heat values for both the pure metal and alloys seem to be independent of temperature. Specific heat for the liquid alloy phase was also measured and compared to the solid phase.

  13. ALICE electromagnetic calorimeter prototype test

    SciTech Connect

    Awes, Terry; /Oak Ridge

    2005-09-01

    This Memorandum of Understanding between the Test Beam collaborators and Fermilab is for the use of beam time at Fermilab during the Fall, 2005 Meson Test Beam Run. The experimenters plan to measure the energy, position, and time resolution of prototype modules of a large electromagnetic calorimeter proposed to be installed in the ALICE experiment at the LHC. The ALICE experiment is one of the three large approved LHC experiments, with ALICE placing special emphasis on the LHC heavy-ion program. The large electromagnetic calorimeter (EMCal) is a US initiative that is endorsed by the ALICE collaboration and is currently in the early stages of review by the Nuclear Physics Division of the DOE. The installation in the test beam at FNAL and test beam measurements will be carried out by the US members of the ALICE collaboration (ALICE-USA). The overall design of the ALICE EMCal is heavily influenced by its location within the ALICE L3 magnet. The EMCal is to be located inside the large room temperature magnet within a cylindrical integration volume approximately l12cm deep, by 5.6m in length, sandwiched between the ALICE TPC space frame and the L3 magnet coils. The chosen technology is a layered Pb-scintillator sampling calorimeter with a longitudinal pitch of 1.6mm Pb and 1.6mm scintillator. The full detector spans {eta} = -0.7 to {eta} = 0.7 with an azimuthal acceptance of {Delta}{phi} = 120{sup o}. The EMCal readout is of a ''Shish-Kabob'' type similar to the PHENIX Pb-scintillator sampling calorimeter in which the scintillation light is collected via wavelength shifting fibers running through the Pb-scintillator tiles perpendicular to the front surface. The detector is segmented into {approx}14000 towers. The basic structural units of the calorimeter are supermodules, each subtending approximately {approx}20{sup o} in {Delta}{phi} and 0.7 units in {Delta}{eta}. Supermodules are assembled from individual modules. The modules are further segmented into 2 x 2

  14. Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Stephe

    2013-04-01

    The Tile Calorimeter is the central section (0 < |η| < 1.7) of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter. It is a key detector for the measurement of hadrons, jets, tau leptons decaying hadronically, and missing transverse energy. Because of its very good signal to noise ratio it is also useful for the identification and reconstruction of muons. The calorimeter consists of thin steel plates and 460,000 scintillating tiles configured into 4900 cells, each viewed by two photomultipliers. The calorimeter response is monitored to better than 1% using radioactive source, laser, and electronic charge injection systems. The calibration and performance of the calorimeter have been established through test beam measurements, cosmic ray muons and the large sample of pp collisions acquired during 2011 and 2012. Results on the calorimeter performance will be presented, including the absolute energy scale, time resolution, and associated stabilities. These results demonstrate that the Tile Calorimeter is performing well within the design requirements and is giving essential input to the physics results.

  15. High-Density, Scintillating, Fluoride Glass Calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akgun, Ugur; Xie, Qiuchen

    2014-03-01

    The unprecedented radiation levels in current Large Hadron Collider runs, and plans to even increase the luminosity creates a need for new detector technologies to be investigated. Here, we propose to use high density, scintillating, fluoride glasses as active media in calorimeters. CHG3 is a special example of this glass family, which has been developed specifically for hadron collider experiments, and is known for fast response time, in addition to high light yield. In this presentation, the results from a computational study on the performances of the two different designs of CHG3 glass calorimeters are reported. First design reads the signal directly from the edge of the glass plate; the second design utilizes wavelength-shifting fibers to carry the signal out of the glass plate. Each simulation model is a sampling calorimeter with 20 alternating layers of glass and iron absorber. By changing the absorber thickness we tested hadronic as well as electromagnetic capabilities of the calorimeter models.

  16. Uranium scintillator calorimeter at the CERN ISR

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, H; Killian, T; Ludlam, T

    1980-01-01

    The design, Monte Carlo studies and test beam results of a uranium/scintillator calorimeter to be installed in the Intersecting Storage Ring (ISR) at CERN are described. In its final stage the calorimeter will cover the full azimuth over a polar region of 45/sup 0/ < theta < 135/sup 0/. The full calorimeter is built in a modular way from 128 stacks, with each stack internally subdivided into six cells of 20 x 20 cm/sup 2/ cross section. The readout is by wavelength shifting (WLS) plates with a separate readout of the front part of the calorimeter (first ten plates) to allow electromagnetic/hadronic separation. Since the readout plates are on both sides of the cells, position information is obtained from the left/right ratio.

  17. Barrel Calorimeter for the Hall D Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    David Urner

    1998-06-01

    The barrel calorimeter for the hall D spectrometer is discussed for standard pointing geometry and a parallel geometry using Lead Scintillating fibres as active material. A comparison with a CSI spectrometer is shown.

  18. CDF End Plug calorimeter Upgrade Project

    SciTech Connect

    Apollinari, G.; de Barbaro, P.; Mishina, M.

    1994-01-01

    We report on the status of the CDF End Plug Upgrade Project. In this project, the CDF calorimeters in the end plug and the forward regions will be replaced by a single scintillator based calorimeter. After an extensive R&D effort on the tile/fiber calorimetry, we have now advanced to a construction phase. We review the results of the R&D leading to the final design of the calorimeters and the development of tooling devised for this project. The quality control program of the production of the electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters is described. A shower maximum detector for the measurement of the shower centroid and the shower profile of electrons, {gamma} and {pi}{sup 0} has been designed. Its performance requirements, R&D results and mechanical design are discussed.

  19. The CMS central hadron calorimeter: Update

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, J.

    1998-06-01

    The CMS central hadron calorimeter is a brass absorber/ scintillator sampling structure. We describe details of the mechanical and optical structure. We also discuss calibration techniques, and finally the anticipated construction schedule.

  20. The BaBar electromagnetic calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Stahl, A.

    1997-07-01

    The progress on the design and construction of the BaBar electromagnetic calorimeter including its mechanical structure, the readout system, the mechanical and optical properties of the crystals, and the schedule for the final assembly and testing is summarized.

  1. The DELPHI small angle tile calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Alvsvaag, S.J.; Maeland, O.A.; Klovning, A.

    1995-08-01

    The Small angle TIle Calorimeter (STIC) provides calorimetric coverage in the very forward region for the DELPHI experiment at the CERN LEP collider. A veto system composed of two scintillator layers allows to trigger on single photon events and provides e{minus}{gamma} separation. The authors present here some results of extensive measurements performed on part of the calorimeter and the veto system in the CERN test beams prior to installation and report on the performance achieved during the 1994 LEP run.

  2. Accelerator Test of an Imaging Calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christl, Mark J.; Adams, James H., Jr.; Binns, R. W.; Derrickson, J. H.; Fountain, W. F.; Howell, L. W.; Gregory, J. C.; Hink, P. L.; Israel, M. H.; Kippen, R. M.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Imaging Calorimeter for ACCESS (ICA) utilizes a thin sampling calorimeter concept for direct measurements of high-energy cosmic rays. The ICA design uses arrays of small scintillating fibers to measure the energy and trajectory of the produced cascades. A test instrument has been developed to study the performance of this concept at accelerator energies and for comparison with simulations. Two test exposures have been completed using a CERN test beam. Some results from the accelerator tests are presented.

  3. An imaging calorimeter for ACCESS concept study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parnell, T. A.; Adams, J. H.; Binns, R. W.; Christl, M. J.; Derrickson, J. H.; Fountain, W. F.; Howell, L. W.; Gregory, J. C.; Hink, P. L.; Israel, M. H.; Kippen, R. M.; Lee, J.; Pendleton, G. N.; Takahashi, Y.; Watts, J. W.

    2001-08-01

    A mission concept study to define the "Advanced Cosmic-ray Composition Experiment for Space Station (ACCESS)" was sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The ACCESS instrument complement contains a transition radiation detector and an ionization calorimeter to measure the spectrum of protons, helium, and heavier nuclei up to ~1015 eV to search for the limit of S/N shock wave acceleration, or evidence for other explanations of the spectra. Several calorimeter configurations have been studied, including the "baseline" totally active bismuth germanate instrument and sampling calorimeters utilizing various detectors. The Imaging Calorimeter for ACCESS (ICA) concept comprises a carbon target and a calorimeter using a high atomic number absorber sampled approximately each radiation length (rl) by thin scintillating fiber (SCIFI) detectors. The main features and options of the ICA instrument configuration are described in this paper. Since direct calibration is not possible over most of the energy range, the best approach must be decided from simulations of calorimeter performance extrapolated from CERN calibrations at 0.375 TeV. This paper presents results from the ICA simulations study.

  4. Calorimeter Data Acquisition and Reporting Software

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1998-08-27

    The calorimeter Data Acquisition and Reporting Program performs the calculations necessary to calculate the calorimetric sample results in grams and provide a printable report for up to twelve Mound Calorimeters. To determine a standard''s wattage or sample gram fill, the reporting program retrieves the output voltage from the power supply at the calorimeter and a temperature resistant resistor via a voltmeter and digital input card in a Hewlett Packard Data Acquisition Unit (DAQ). From themore » retrieved voltage data, the reporting program can calculate a standard''s wattage output and sample gram fill. The reporting program also determines equilibrium (stability) by performing a stability algorithm bassed on user defined slope an/or sigma values for the previous forty values. Once the stability is determined, the reporting program will notify the user that the calorimeter has reached equilibrium. The Calorimeter Data Acquisition and Reporting Program operates continuously as described to monitor for calorimeter equilibrium and to generate a printable report with sample results.« less

  5. Performance of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heelan, Louise; ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-06-01

    The ATLAS Tile hadronic calorimeter (TileCal) provides highly-segmented energy measurements of incoming particles. It is a key detector for the measurement of hadrons, jets, tau leptons and missing transverse energy. It is also useful for identification and reconstruction of muons due to good signal to noise ratio. The calorimeter consists of thin steel plates and 460,000 scintillating tiles configured into 5000 cells, each viewed by two photomultipliers. The calorimeter response and its readout electronics is monitored to better than 1% using radioactive source, laser and charge injection systems. The calibration and performance of the calorimeter have been established through test beam measurements, cosmic ray muons and the large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired in 2011 and 2012. Results on the calorimeter performance are presented, including the absolute energy scale, timing, noise and associated stabilities. The results demonstrate that the Tile Calorimeter has performed well within the design requirements and it has given essential contribution to reconstructed objects and physics results. In addition, the data quality procedures used during the LHC data-taking are described and the outcome of the detector consolidation in the maintenance period is also presented.

  6. Tritium calorimeter setup and operation

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, David E.

    2002-12-17

    The LBNL tritium calorimeter is a stable instrument capable of measuring tritium with a sensitivity of 25 Ci. Measurement times range from 8-hr to 7-days depending on the thermal conductivity and mass of the material being measured. The instrument allows accurate tritium measurements without requiring that the sample be opened and subsampled, thus reducing personnel exposure and radioactive waste generation. The sensitivity limit is primarily due to response shifts caused by temperature fluctuation in the water bath. The fluctuations are most likely a combination of insufficient insulation from ambient air and precision limitations in the temperature controller. The sensitivity could probably be reduced to below 5 Ci if the following improvements were made: (1) Extend the external insulation to cover the entire bath and increase the top insulation. (2) Improve the seal between the air space above the bath and the outside air to reduce evaporation. This will limit the response drift as the water level drops. (3) Install an improved temperature controller, preferably with a built in chiller, capable of temperature control to {+-}0.001 C.

  7. Calorimeter Timing System at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Goncharov, Max

    2006-10-27

    We report on the design and performance of the electromagnetic calorimeter timing readout system (EMTiming) for the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). The system is used in searches for rare events with high-energy photons to verify that the photon is in time with the event collision, and to reject cosmic-ray and beam-halo backgrounds. The installation and commissioning of all 862 channels was completed in Fall 2004 as part of an upgrade to the Run II version of the detector. Using in-situ data, we measure the energy threshold for a time to be recorded to be 3.8{+-}0.3 GeV and 1.9{+-}0.1 GeV in the central (CEM) and plug (PEM) portions of the detector. Similarly, for the central and plug portions we measure a timing resolution of 600{+-}10 ps and 610{+-}10 ps for electrons above 10 GeV (6 GeV). Pathologies such as noise and non-Gaussian tails are virtually non-existent.

  8. Description of an ionization calorimeter complemented with proportional counters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babayan, K. P.; Boyadzhyan, N. G.; Vasiltsov, V. V.; Grigorov, N. L.; Sobinyakov, V. A.; Shestoperov, V. Y.

    1975-01-01

    An ionization calorimeter is described with a system of proportional counters which are used to determine the charge of the particles incident to the calorimeter and to estimate the number of the secondary charged particles.

  9. The Imaging Calorimeter for ACCESS (ICA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parnell, Thomas

    A mission concept study to define the "Advanced Cosmic-ray Composition Experiment for Space Station (ACCESS)" is being sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The ACCESS instrument complement contains an ionization calorimeter to measure the spectrum of protons, helium, and heavier nuclei up to ~1015 eV to search for the limit of S/N shock wave acceleration. Several calorimeters are under study, including the "baseline" totally active bismuth germanate instrument and sampling calorimeters utilizing various detectors. The ICA comprises a carbon target and a high atomic number absorber sampled approximately each radiation length (rl) by thin scintillating fiber (SCIFI) detectors. The main features of the ICA instrument concept are described in this paper.

  10. Temperature Effects in the ATIC BGO Calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isbert, J.; Adams, J. H.; Ahn, H.; Bashindzhagyan, G.; Batkov, K.; Chang, J.; Christl, M. J.; Fazely, A.; Ganel, O.; Gunasigha, R.

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) Balloon Experiment contains a segmented calorimeter composed of 320 individual BGO crystals (18 radiation lengths deep) to determine the particle energy. Like all inorganic scintillation crystals the light output of BGO depends not only on the energy deposited by particles but also on the temperature of the crystal. ATIC had successful flights in 2000/2001 and 2002/2003 from McMurdo, Antarctica. The temperature of balloon instruments varies during their flights at altitude due to sun angle variations and differences in albedo from the ground and is monitored and recorded. In order to determine the temperature sensitivity of the ATIC calorimeter it was temperature cycled in the thermal vacuum chamber at the CSBF in Palestine, TX. The temperature dependence is derived from the pulse height response to cosmic ray muons at various temperatures.

  11. Vacuum-jacketed hydrofluoric acid solution calorimeter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robie, R.A.

    1965-01-01

    A vacuum-jacketed metal calorimeter for determining heats of solution in aqueous HF was constructed. The reaction vessel was made of copper and was heavily gold plated. The calorimeter has a cooling constant of 0.6 cal-deg -1-min-1, approximately 1/4 that of the air-jacketed calorimeters most commonly used with HF. It reaches equilibrium within 10 min after turning off the heater current. Measurements of the heat of solution of reagent grade KCl(-100 mesh dried 2 h at 200??C) at a mole ratio of 1 KCl to 200 H2O gave ??H = 4198??11 cal at 25??C. ?? 1965 The American Institute of Physics.

  12. Precision Crystal Calorimeters in High Energy Physics

    ScienceCinema

    Ren-Yuan Zhu

    2010-01-08

    Precision crystal calorimeters traditionally play an important role in high energy physics experiments. In the last two decades, it faces a challenge to maintain its precision in a hostile radiation environment. This paper reviews the performance of crystal calorimeters constructed for high energy physics experiments and the progress achieved in understanding crystal?s radiation damage as well as in developing high quality scintillating crystals for particle physics. Potential applications of new generation scintillating crystals of high density and high light yield, such as LSO and LYSO, in particle physics experiments is also discussed.

  13. Performance of the GEM electromagnetic calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Hong Ma

    1993-06-25

    The GEM EM calorimeter is optimized for the best energy, position, angular resolution and jet rejection. The detailed simulation results are presented. In the barrel with LKr, an energy resolution of about 6%/{radical}{direct_sum}0.4%, pointing resolution of 40mrad/{radical}E + 0.5mrad, and jet rejection of a factor of 5 are expected.

  14. Grout Analysis for EC and CC Calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Engstrom, L.L.; /Fermilab

    1987-01-06

    The EC and CC calorimeters roll on Two parallel hardened steel ways which reside on the top of the D0 platform's center beam. The ways will be grouted to the center beam once their correct elevation has been established. The purpose of this report is to evaluate and compare three different epoxy grouts and their properties for this application.

  15. SLD liquid argon calorimeter prototype test results

    SciTech Connect

    Dubois, R.; Eigen, G.; Au, Y.; Sleeman, J.; Breidenbach, M.; Brau, J.; Ludgate, G.A.; Oram, C.J.; Cook, V.; Johnson, J.

    1985-10-01

    The results of the SLD test beam program for the selection of a calorimeter radiator composition within a liquid argon system are described, with emphasis on the study of the use of uranium to obtain equalization of pion and electron responses.

  16. X-Ray Calorimeter Arrays for Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kilbourne, Caroline A.

    2009-01-01

    High-resolution x-ray spectroscopy is a powerful tool for studying the evolving universe. The grating spectrometers on the XMM and Chandra satellites started a new era in x-ray astronomy, but there remains a need for instrumentation that can provide higher spectral resolution with high throughput in the Fe-K band (around 6 keV) and can enable imaging spectroscopy of extended sources, such as supernova remnants and galaxy clusters. The instrumentation needed is a broad-band imaging spectrometer - basically an x-ray camera that can distinguish tens of thousands of x-ray colors. The potential benefits to astrophysics of using a low-temperature calorimeter to determine the energy of an incident x-ray photon via measurement of a small change in temperature was first articulated by S. H. Moseley over two decades ago. In the time since, technological progress has been steady, though full realization in an orbiting x-ray telescope is still awaited. A low-temperature calorimeter can be characterized by the type of thermometer it uses, and three types presently dominate the field. The first two types are temperature-sensitive resistors - semiconductors in the metal-insulator transition and superconductors operated in the superconducting-normal transition. The third type uses a paramagnetic thermometer. These types can be considered the three generations of x-ray calorimeters; by now each has demonstrated a resolving power of 2000 at 6 keV, but only a semiconductor calorimeter system has been developed to spaceflight readiness. The Soft X-ray Spectrometer on Astro-H, expected to launch in 2013, will use an array of silicon thermistors with I-IgTe x-ray absorbers that will operate at 50 mK. Both the semiconductor and superconductor calorimeters have been implemented in small arrays, kilo-pixel arrays of the superconducting calorimeters are just now being produced, and it is anticipated that much larger arrays will require the non-dissipative advantage of magnetic thermometers.

  17. Effect of dead material in a calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Green, D.

    1995-10-01

    The existence of dead material in any practical calorimeter system is simply a fact of life. The task for the designer, then, is to understand the impact on the Physics in question, and strive to minimize it. The aim of this note is to use the ``Hanging File`` test data, which has fined grained individual readout of about 100 depth segments, to explore impact of dead material on the mean and r.m.s. of the hadronic distribution. The amount and location of the dead material is varied. It important to remember that the Hanging File data was calibrated, EM to HCAL compartment, so as to minimize the electron to pion energy dependence. In practical terms e/pie was made = 1.0 at an incident energy of about 100 GeV. Note that the PB(EM) + FE(HCAL) calorimeter was not a compensating device.

  18. Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahn, H. S.; Ganel, O.; Kim, K. C.; Seo, E. S.; Sina, R.; Wang, J. Z.; Wu, J.; Case, G.; Ellison, S. B.; Gould, R.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) experiment is designed to measure the composition and energy spectra of Z = 1 to 28 cosmic rays over the energy range of approximately 10 GeV - 100 TeV. ATIC is comprised of an eight-layer, 18 radiation length deep Bismuth Germanate (BGO) calorimeter, downstream of a 0.75 nuclear interaction length graphite target and an approximately 1 sq m finely segmented silicon charge detector. Interleaved with the graphite layers are three scintillator strip hodoscopes for pre-triggering and tracking. ATIC flew for the first time on a Long Duration Balloon (LDB) launched from McMurdo, Antarctica in January 2001. During its 16-day flight ATIC collected more than 30 million science events, along with housekeeping, calibration, and rate data. This presentation will describe the ATIC data processing, including calibration and efficiency corrections, and show results from analysis of this dataset. The next launch is planned for December 2002.

  19. Level-2 Calorimeter Trigger Upgrade at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Flanagan, G.U.; /Purdue U.

    2007-04-01

    The CDF Run II Level-2 calorimeter trigger is implemented in hardware and is based on an algorithm used in Run I. This system insured good performance at low luminosity obtained during the Tevatron Run II. However, as the Tevatron instantaneous luminosity increases, the limitations of the current system due to the algorithm start to become clear. In this paper, we will present an upgrade of the Level-2 calorimeter trigger system at CDF. The upgrade is based on the Pulsar board, a general purpose VME board developed at CDF and used for upgrading both the Level-2 tracking and the Level-2 global decision crate. This paper will describe the design, hardware and software implementation, as well as the advantages of this approach over the existing system.

  20. Nose-cone calorimeter: PHENIX forward upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chvala, Ondrej

    2009-07-01

    PHENIX is a high rate experiment efficient at measuring rare processes, but has limited acceptance in azimuth and pseudorapidity ( η). The Nose Cone Calorimeter (NCC), a W-Si sampling calorimeter in the region of 0.9< η<3, is one of the upgrades which will significantly increase coverage in both azimuth and pseudorapidity. The NCC will expand PHENIX’s precision measurements of electromagnetic probes in η, reconstruct jets, perform a wide scope of correlation measurements, and enhance triggering capabilities. The detector will significantly contribute to measurements of γ-jet correlations, quarkonia production, and low- x nuclear structure functions. This report discusses details of the detector design and its performance concerning a sample of the physics topics which will benefit from the NCC. In view of recent funding difficulties, outlook of the activities is discussed.

  1. Shashlik calorimeter Beam-test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badier, J.; Busson, Ph.; Charlot, C.; Dobrzynski, L.; Tanaka, R.; Bordalo, P.; Ramos, S.; Bityukov, S.; Obraztsov, V.; Ostankov, A.; Zaitchenko, A.; Gninenko, S.; Guschin, E.; Issakov, V.; Mussienko, Y.; Semenjuk, I.

    1994-08-01

    Results from an extensive study of nonprojective Shashlik calorimeter prototypes are reported. Nine (47 × 47 mm 2) towers were exposed to a high energy electron beam at CERN SPS and read out by silicon photodiodes followed by low noise preamplifiers. The main results are the measurements of the energy and shower position resolution and the angular resolution of the electron shower direction. The shower direction measurement is encouraging being in agreement at the tower center with a resolution of σθ(mrad) = 70/√ E (10 mrad for 50 GeV electrons). The uniformity of the calorimeter response is found to be better than ± 1%. The mean light yield measured in Shashlik towers equipped with Kuraray Y7 WLS fibres and aluminized at the front end of the tower is of the order of 13 photons/MeV.

  2. A FOrward CALorimeter Upgrade For PHENIX

    SciTech Connect

    Hollis, Richard S.

    2011-06-01

    Over the past few years, the PHENIX detector has undergone several upgrades in the forward region (1<|{eta}|<4), initially covered only by the muon arms. The focus of these upgrades is toward a better understanding of the Color-Glass Condensate and the interplay between the different components of the proton's spin valence/sea quark and gluon contributions. This paper highlights the newly proposed forward calorimeter detector, FOCAL. FOCAL is a tungsten-silicon sampling calorimeter with high position and energy resolution, covering a pseudorapidity of 1.6<{eta}<2.5. This future detector aims to constrain the current view of gluon saturation at small x in the Color-Glass Condensate framework, through isolation of direct photons at high-p{sub T} over a broad range of pseudorapidity.

  3. Performance of the HPC calorimeter in DELPHI

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, A.; Crawley, H.B.; Edsall, D.M. |

    1995-08-01

    The performance of the High-density Projection Chamber (HPC), the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter of the DELPHI experiment, is described. The detector adopts the time projection technique in order to obtain exceptionally fine spatial granularity in the three coordinates ({approximately}2{times}20 mrad{sup 2} in {theta}{times}{phi} with nine samplings along the shower axes), using a limited number of readout channels (18,432). Among the various topics concerning the HPC construction and operation, major emphasis is given to the aspects related to the calibration in energy of the calorimeter, based mainly on the analysis of the detector response to {sup 83m}Kr decays, and to the treatment of aging in the readout proportional counters.

  4. The dry heat exchanger calorimeter system

    SciTech Connect

    Renz, D.P.; Wetzel, J.R.; James, S.J.; Kasperski, P.W.; Duff, M.F.

    1991-01-01

    A radiometric isothermal heat flow calorimeter and preconditioner system that uses air instead of water as the heat exchange medium has been developed at Mound. The dry heat exchanger calorimeter is 42 inches high by 18 inches in diameter and the preconditioner is a 22 inch cube, making it extremely compact compared to existing units. The new system is ideally suited for transportable, stand-alone, or glovebox applications. Preliminary tests of the system have produced sample measurements with standard deviations less than 0.25% and sample errors less than 0.50%. These tests have shown that the dry heat exchanger system will yield acceptance data with an accuracy comparable to those of Mound water bath systems now in use. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. LYSO crystal calorimeter readout with silicon photomultipliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berra, A.; Bonvicini, V.; Cecchi, C.; Germani, S.; Guffanti, D.; Lietti, D.; Lubrano, P.; Manoni, E.; Prest, M.; Rossi, A.; Vallazza, E.

    2014-11-01

    Large area Silicon PhotoMultipliers (SiPMs) are the new frontier of the development of readout systems for scintillating detectors. A SiPM consists of a matrix of parallel-connected silicon micropixels operating in limited Geiger-Muller avalanche mode, and thus working as independent photon counters with a very high gain (~106). This contribution presents the performance in terms of linearity and energy resolution of an electromagnetic homogeneous calorimeter composed of 9 ~ 18X0 LYSO crystals. The crystals were readout by 36 4×4 mm2 SiPMs (4 for each crystal) produced by FBK-irst. This calorimeter was tested at the Beam Test Facility at the INFN laboratories in Frascati with a single- and multi-particle electron beam in the 100-500 MeV energy range.

  6. The ATLAS Liquid Argon Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Carminati, L.

    2005-10-12

    The construction of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Electromagnetic calorimeter has been completed and commissioning is in progress. After a brief description of the detector layout, readout electronics and calibration, a review of the present status of the integration and the detector qualification is reported. Finally a selection of performance results obtained during several test beams will be presented with particular attention to linearity, uniformity, position reconstruction and {gamma}/{pi}0 separation.

  7. Metallic Magnetic Calorimeters for Absolute Activity Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loidl, M.; Leblanc, E.; Rodrigues, M.; Bouchard, J.; Censier, B.; Branger, T.; Lacour, D.

    2008-05-01

    We present a prototype of metallic magnetic calorimeters that we are developing for absolute activity measurements of low energy emitting radionuclides. We give a detailed description of the realization of the prototype, containing an 55Fe source inside the detector absorber. We present the analysis of first data taken with this detector and compare the result of activity measurement with liquid scintillation counting. We also propose some ways for reducing the uncertainty on the activity determination with this new technique.

  8. A no-load RF calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chernoff, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    The described device can be used to measure the output of any dc powered RF source. No dummy load is required for the measurements. The device is, therefore, called the 'no-load calorimeter' (NLC). The NLC measures the power actually fed to the antenna or another useful load. It is believed that the NLC can compete successfully with directional coupler type systems in measuring the output of high-power RF sources.

  9. An absorbed dose calorimeter for IMRT dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duane, S.; Aldehaybes, M.; Bailey, M.; Lee, N. D.; Thomas, C. G.; Palmans, H.

    2012-10-01

    A new calorimeter for dosimetry in small and complex fields has been built. The device is intended for the direct determination of absorbed dose to water in moderately small fields and in composite fields such as IMRT treatments, and as a transfer instrument calibrated against existing absorbed dose standards in conventional reference conditions. The geometry, materials and mode of operation have been chosen to minimize detector perturbations when used in a water phantom, to give a reasonably isotropic response and to minimize the effects of heat transfer when the calorimeter is used in non-reference conditions in a water phantom. The size of the core is meant to meet the needs of measurement in IMRT treatments and is comparable to the size of the air cavity in a type NE2611 ionization chamber. The calorimeter may also be used for small field dosimetry. Initial measurements in reference conditions and in an IMRT head and neck plan, collapsed to gantry angle zero, have been made to estimate the thermal characteristics of the device, and to assess its performance in use. The standard deviation (estimated repeatability) of the reference absorbed dose measurements was 0.02 Gy (0.6%).

  10. An improved single crystal adsorption calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuck, A.; Wartnaby, C. E.; Yeo, Y. Y.; Stuckless, J. T.; Al-Sarraf, N.; King, D. A.

    1996-04-01

    Significant improvements to the single crystal adsorption calorimeter (SCAC) of Borroni-Bird and King are described. The calorimeter comprises a pulsed molecular beam source, an ultrathin single crystal and an infrared detector. It is calibrated using a chopped laser beam, and the amount of gas adsorbed or reacted per pulse is measured using the King and Wells reflection detector technique. Refinements in the molecular beam system, the optical calibration system, flux calibration system and sticking probability measurement technique have been made. The calorimeter response is accurately linear over a useful energy range; the detection limit is estimated as 10 kJ mol -1; and the accuracy in heats of adsorption for heats above ˜ 80 kJ mol -1 is estimated as ˜ 6%. Comparisons of calorimetric heats with isosteric heats and with desorption energies obtained for reversible systems, such as CO on Ni and Pt single crystal surfaces, generally yield good agreement and give support to the estimate for the absolute accuracy of the instrument.

  11. Fast Shower Simulation in the ATLAS Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Barberio, E.; Boudreau, J.; Butler, B.; Cheung, S.L.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Di Simone, A.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Gallas, M.V.; Glazov, A.; Marshall, Z.; Mueller, J.; Placakyte, R.; Rimoldi, A.; Savard, P.; Tsulaia, V.; Waugh, A.; Young, C.C.; /SLAC

    2011-11-08

    The time to simulate pp collisions in the ATLAS detector is largely dominated by the showering of electromagnetic particles in the heavy parts of the detector, especially the electromagnetic barrel and endcap calorimeters. Two procedures have been developed to accelerate the processing time of electromagnetic particles in these regions: (1) a fast shower parameterisation and (2) a frozen shower library. Both work by generating the response of the calorimeter to electrons and positrons with Geant 4, and then reintroduce the response into the simulation at runtime. In the fast shower parameterisation technique, a parameterization is tuned to single electrons and used later by simulation. In the frozen shower technique, actual showers from low-energy particles are used in the simulation. Full Geant 4 simulation is used to develop showers down to {approx} 1 GeV, at which point the shower is terminated by substituting a frozen shower. Judicious use of both techniques over the entire electromagnetic portion of the ATLAS calorimeter produces an important improvement of CPU time. We discuss the algorithms and their performance in this paper.

  12. Precision timing calorimeter for high energy physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Dustin; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Duarte, Javier; Peña, Cristián; Spiropulu, Maria; Trevor, Jason; Xie, Si; Ronzhin, Anatoly

    2016-07-01

    Scintillator based calorimeter technology is studied with the aim to achieve particle detection with a time resolution on the order of a few 10 ps for photons and electrons at energies of a few GeV and above. We present results from a prototype of a 1.4×1.4×11.4 cm3 sampling calorimeter cell consisting of tungsten absorber plates and Cerium-doped Lutetium Yttrium Orthosilicate (LYSO) crystal scintillator plates. The LYSO plates are read out with wave lengths shifting fibers which are optically coupled to fast photo detectors on both ends of the fibers. The measurements with electrons were performed at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility (FTBF) and the CERN SPS H2 test beam. In addition to the baseline setup plastic scintillation counter and a MCP-PMT were used as trigger and as a reference for a time of flight measurement (TOF). We also present measurements with a fast laser to further characterize the response of the prototype and the photo sensors. All data were recorded using a DRS4 fast sampling digitizer. These measurements are part of an R&D program whose aim is to demonstrate the feasibility of building a large scale electromagnetic calorimeter with a time resolution on the order of 10 ps, to be used in high energy physics experiments.

  13. The Zeus calorimeter first level trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.J.

    1989-04-01

    The design of the Zeus Detector Calorimeter Level Trigger is presented. The Zeus detector is being built for operation at HERA, a new storage ring that will provide collisions between 820 GeV protons and 30 GeV electrons in 1990. The calorimeter is made of depleted uranium plates and plastic scintillator read out by wavelength shifter bars into 12,864 photomultiplier tubes. These signals are combined into 974 trigger towers with separate electromagnetic and hadronic sums. The calorimeter first level trigger is pipelined with a decision provided 5 {mu}sec after each beam crossing, occurring every 96 nsec. The trigger determines the total energy, the total transverse energy, the missing energy, and the energy and number of isolated electrons and muons. It also provides information on the number and energy of clusters. The trigger rate needs to be held to 1 kHz against a rate of proton-beam gas interactions of approximately 500 kHz. The summed trigger tower pulseheights are digitized by flash ADC`s. The digital values are linearized, stored and used for sums and pattern tests.

  14. Performance of CDF calorimeter simulation for Tevatron Run II

    SciTech Connect

    C. Currat

    2002-09-19

    The upgraded CDF II detector has collected first data during the initial operation of the Tevatron accelerator in Run II. The simulation of the CDF electromagnetic and hadronic central and upgraded plug (forward) calorimeter is based on the Gflash calorimeter parameterization package used within the GEANT based detector simulation of the Run II CDF detector. We present the results of tuning the central and plug calorimeter response to test beam data.

  15. Test beam performance of the CDF plug upgrade hadron calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    de Barbaro, P.; CDF Plug Upgrade Group

    1998-01-13

    We report on the performance of the CDF End Plug Hadron Calorimeter in a test beam. The sampling calorimeter is constructed using 2 inch iron absorber plates and scintillator planes with wavelength shifting fibers for readout. The linearity and energy resolution of the calorimeter response to pions, and the transverse uniformity of the response to muons and pions are presented. The parameter e/h, representing the ratio of the electromagnetic to hadronic response, is extracted from the data.

  16. Heat flow calorimeter. [measures output of Ni-Cd batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, J. C.; Johnston, W. V. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    Heat flow calorimeter devices are used to measure heat liberated from or absorbed by an object. This device is capable of measuring the thermal output of sealed nickel-cadmium batteries or cells during charge-discharge cycles. An elongated metal heat conducting rod is coupled between the calorimeter vessel and a heat sink, thus providing the only heat exchange path from the calorimeter vessel itself.

  17. Test beam performance of CDF plug upgrade EM calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Fukui, Y.; CDF Upgrade Group

    1998-01-01

    CDF Plug Upgrade(tile-fiber) EM Calorimeter performed resolution of 15%/{radical}E{circle_plus}0.7% with non-linearity less than 1% in a energy range of 5-180 GeV at Fermilab Test Beam. Transverse uniformity of inside-tower-response of the EM Calorimeter was 2.2% with 56 GeV positron, which was reduced to 1.0% with response map correction. We observed 300 photo electron/GeV in the EM Calorimeter. Ratios of EM Calorimeter response to positron beam to that to {sup 137}Cs Source was stable within 1% in the period of 8 months.

  18. Performance of the SLD Warm Iron Calorimeter prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Callegari, G.; Piemontese, L.; De Sangro, R.; Peruzzi, I., Piccolo, M.; Busza, W.; Friedman, J.; Johnson, A.; Kendall, H.; Kistiakowsky, V.

    1986-03-01

    A prototype hadron calorimeter, of similar design to the Warm Iron Calorimeter (WIC) planned for the SLD experiment, has been built and its performance has been studied in a test beam. The WIC is an iron sampling calorimeter whose active elements are plastic streamer tubes similar to those used for the Mont-Blanc proton decay experiment. The construction and operation of the tubes will be briefly described together with their use in an iron calorimeter - muon tracker. Efficiency, resolution and linearity have been measured in a hadron/muon beam up to 11 GeV. The measured values correspond to the SLD design goals.

  19. Diuresis and inversion therapy to improve clearance of lower caliceal stones after shock wave lithotripsy: A prospective, randomized, controlled, clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Abul-fotouh; Shalaby, Essam; Maarouf, Aref; Badran, Yasser; Eladl, Mahmoud; Ghobish, Ammar

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To improve the clearance of lower caliceal stones (LCSs) after shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) using a combination of intra-operative forced diuresis and inversion therapy. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty-seven consecutive patients with symptomatic, single LCSs of 5–20 mm size were prospectively randomized into two groups. The first (study group, SG) underwent SWL at the time of the maximum diuresis with the patient in the Trendelenburg position with an angle of 30 degree, while the second group (control group, CG) underwent standard SWL. After the last SWL session, patients were followed-up regularly using plain abdominal X-ray and renal ultrasound. The primary endpoint of the study was the stone-free rate (SFR) at 12 weeks. Results: A total of 141 patients completed the study treatment protocol and follow-up: 69 patients in SG and 72 patients in CG. Both groups were comparable in baseline data. SG showed significantly higher SFR at all follow-up time points. At week 12, 78.3% of SG were rendered stone free, whereas only 61.1% were stone free in CG (P = 0.030). Also, there was a significantly higher SFR for larger stones (>10 mm) and stones with higher attenuation value (>500 Hounsfield units) in SG than CG. Mild non-significant complications were reported in both groups. Conclusion: SWL with intraoperative forced diuresis and inversion seems to be an effective measure with minimal extra cost to improve LCS clearance post-SWL. PMID:25878414

  20. Summary talk on fiber tower calorimeter for the scintillation calorimeter subgroups

    SciTech Connect

    White, A.P.; Walker, J.K.; Johnson, C.; Wahl, H.; Gabriel, T.

    1989-01-01

    We present here a new calorimeter design based on small scintillator tiles, lead absorber and wavelength shifting fiber readout. We have addressed all the major issues in SSC calorimetry and have developed a design with many advantageous features. It has been well demonstrated that the best resolution is obtained for a 'compensated' calorimeter. It is also well known how such compensation may be achieved by a suitable choice of active and passive materials and their relative thickness. One such choice is that of lead and scintillator for which the best thickness ratio is 4:1. This selection has been used in the development of the so-called spaghetti calorimeter (SPACAL) discussed at this workshop. The relative merits of this and many other designs have been the subject of much discussion at SSC workshops from which a number of critical issues have emerged for each design. In the present paper, we have addressed the issues raised in the SPACAL design and proposed an alternative, improved design. The SPACAL represents a significant step forward in calorimeter design, but there are always areas which can be improved in any design when it is subjected to detailed study. Specifically we have considered the areas of energy resolution, channeling, projective towers/calibration, longitudinal segmentation, and radiation sensitivity. We will now discuss each of these areas in turn. 5 refs., 9 figs.

  1. T-1018 UCLA Spacordion Tungsten Powder Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Trentalange, Stephen; Tsai, Oleg; Igo, George; Huang, Huan; Pan, Yu Xi; Dunkelberger, Jay; Xu, Wen Qin; Soha, Aria; Heppelmann, Steven; Gagliardi, Carl; /Texas A-M

    2011-11-16

    The present experiments at the BNL-RHIC facility are evolving towards physics goals which require the detection of medium energy electromagnetic particles (photons, electrons, neutral pions, eta mesons, etc.), especially at forward angles. New detectors will place increasing demands on energy resolution, hadron rejection and two-photon resolution and will require large area, high performance electromagnetic calorimeters in a variety of geometries. In the immediate future, either RHIC or JLAB will propose a facility upgrade (Electron-Ion Collider, or EIC) with physics goals such as electron-heavy ion collisions (or p-A collisions) with a wide range of calorimeter requirements. An R and D program based at Brookhaven National Laboratory has awarded the group funding of approximately $110,000 to develop new types of calorimeters for EIC experiments. The UCLA group is developing a method to manufacture very flexible and cost-effective, yet high quality calorimeters based on scintillating fibers and tungsten powder. The design and features of the calorimeter can be briefly stated as follows: an arbitrarily large number of small diameter fibers (< 0.5 mm) are assembled as a matrix and held rigidly in place by a set of precision screens inside an empty container. The container is then back-filled with tungsten powder, compacted on a vibrating table and infused with epoxy under vacuum. The container is then removed. The resulting sub-modules are extremely uniform and achieve roughly the density of pure Lead. The sub-modules are stacked together to achieve a final detector of the desired shape. There is no dead space between sub-modules and the fibers can be in an accordion geometry bent to prevent 'channeling' of the particles due to accidental alignment of their track with the module axis. This technology has the advantage of being modular and inexpensive to the point where the construction work may be divided among groups the size of typical university physics departments

  2. Shashlik calorimeter response to high energy electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrzynski, L.

    1994-04-01

    We report the results coming from an extensive study of a Shashlik calorimeter prototype for CMS. Nine (47 × 47 mm 2) towers were exposed to a high energy electron beam at CERN SPS and read out by silicon photodiodes followed by low noise preamplifiers. The main results are the measurements of: -|the energy resolution: {σ}/{E}(%)= {(8.4±0.1)}/{E}⊕ {(0.37±0.03)}/{E}⊕(0.8±0.2) ; -|the shower resolution: σ x,y(mm)= {9.1±0.3 stat±0.7 syst}/{E}⊕ {27±1.4 stat±2.1 syst}/{E}. -|We also give the angular resolution of the direction of an electron shower. It is estimated by using one point from a preshower detector located at 3 X0 and the second point on a barycenter in the calorimeter mosaic. The result is encouraging being in agreement with a resolution of σ θ( mrad) = {70}/{√E}, which gives for an electron of 50 GeV an angular resolution of 10 mrad. -|The uniformity of the calorimeter response is found to be better than ± 1%. -|The mean light yield measured in Shashlik towers equipped with Y7 WLS fibres from Kuraray and aluminized at the front side of the tower is of the order of 12300 γ/ GeV assuming a quantum efficiency of 62.5% for the Si photodiode.

  3. Calorimeter measurements of low wattage items

    SciTech Connect

    Cremers, T.L.; Camp, K.L.; Hildner, S.S.; Sedlacek, W.A.

    1993-08-01

    The transition of DOE facilities from production to decontamination and decommissioning has led to more measurements of waste, scrap, and other less attractive materials. The difficulty that these materials pose for segmented gamma scanning and neutron counting has increased the use of calorimetric assay for very low wattage items (< 250 millwatts). We have measured well characterized {sup 238}Pu oxide ranging in wattage from 25 to 500 milliwatts in the calorimeters at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility and report the error and the precision of the measurements.

  4. Ac loss calorimeter for three-phase cable

    SciTech Connect

    Daney, D.E.; Boenig, H.J.; Maley, M.P.; McMurry, D.E.; DeBlanc, B.G.

    1996-10-01

    A calorimeter for measuring ac losses in meter-long lengths of HTS superconducting power transmission line cables is described. The calorimeter, which is based on a temperature difference technique, has a precision of 1 mW and measures single, two-phase (coupling), and three-phase losses. The measurements show significant coupling losses between phases.

  5. The ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter: Construction, Integration, Commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksa, Martin

    2006-10-27

    The ATLAS liquid argon (LAr) calorimeter system consists of an electromagnetic barrel calorimeter and two end caps with electromagnetic, hadronic and forward calorimeters. The liquid argon sampling technique, with an accordion geometry was chosen for the barrel electromagnetic calorimeter (EMB) and adapted to the end cap (EMEC). The hadronic end cap calorimeter (HEC) uses a copper-liquid argon sampling technique with flat plate geometry and is subdivided in depth in two wheels per end-cap. Finally, the forward calorimeter (FCAL) is composed of three modules employing cylindrical electrodes with thin liquid argon gaps.The construction of the full calorimeter system is complete since mid-2004. Production modules constructed in the home institutes were integrated into wheels at CERN in 2003-2004, and inserted into the three cryostats. They passed their first complete cold test before the lowering into the ATLAS cavern. Results of quality checks (e.g. electrical, mechanical, ...) performed on all the 190304 read-out channels after cool down will be reported. End 2004 the ATLAS barrel electromagnetic (EM) calorimeter was installed in the ATLAS cavern and since summer 2005 the front-end electronics are being connected and tested. Results of this first commissioning phase will be shown to demonstrate the high standards of quality control for our detectors.

  6. Electromagnetic and Hadron Calorimeters in the MIPP Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    T. S. Nigmanov; H. R. Gustafson; M. J. Longo; D. Rajaram

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of the MIPP experiment is to study the inclusive production of photons, pions, kaons, and nucleons produced in π, K, and p interactions on various targets using beams from the Main Injector at Fermilab. The purpose of the calorimeters is to measure the production of forward-going photons and neutrons. The electromagnetic calorimeter consists of 10 lead plates interspersed with proportional chambers followed by the hadron calorimeter with 64 steel plates interspersed with scintillator. We collected data with a variety of targets with beam energies from 5 GeV/c up to 120 GeV/c. The energy calibration of both calorimeters with electrons, pions, kaons and protons is discussed. The performance of the calorimeters was tested on a neutron sample.

  7. Electromagnetic and Hadron Calorimeters in the MIPP Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Nigmanov, T. S.; Gustafson, H. R.; Longo, M. J.; Rajaram, D.

    2006-10-27

    The purpose of the MIPP experiment is to study the inclusive production of photons, pions, kaons, and nucleons produced in {pi}, K, and p interactions on various targets using beams from the Main Injector at Fermilab. The purpose of the calorimeters is to measure the production of forward-going photons and neutrons. The electromagnetic calorimeter consists of 10 lead plates interspersed with proportional chambers followed by the hadron calorimeter with 64 steel plates interspersed with scintillator. We collected data with a variety of targets with beam energies from 5 GeV/c up to 120 GeV/c. The energy calibration of both calorimeters with electrons, pions, kaons and protons is discussed. The performance of the calorimeters was tested on a neutron sample.

  8. Electromagnetic and hadron calorimeters in the MIPP experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Nigmanov, T.S.; Gustafson, H.R.; Longo, M.J.; Park, H.K.; Rajaram, D.; Dukes, C.; Lu, L.C.; Materniak, C.; Nelson, K.; Norman, A.; Meyer, H.; /Fermilab /Harvard U. /Indiana U. /Iowa U. /Purdue U.

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of the MIPP experiment is to study the inclusive production of photons, pions, kaons, and nucleons in {pi}, K, and p interactions on various targets using beams from the Main Injector at Fermilab. The function of the calorimeters is to measure the production of forward-going neutrons and photons. The electromagnetic calorimeter consists of 10 lead plates interspersed with proportional chambers. It was followed by the hadron calorimeter with 64 steel plates interspersed with scintillator. The data presented were collected with a variety of targets and beam momenta from 5 to 120 GeV/c. The energy calibration of both calorimeters with electrons, pions, kaons, and protons is discussed. The resolution for electrons was found to be 0.27/{radical}E, and for hadrons the resolution was 0.554/{radical}E with a constant term of 2.6%. The performance of the calorimeters was tested on a neutron sample.

  9. Electromagnetic and Hadron Calorimeters in the MIPP Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    T. S. Nigmanov; H. R. Gustafson; M. J. Longo; H. K. Park; D. Rajaram; and 13 others

    2008-10-15

    The purpose of the MIPP experiment is to study the inclusive production of photons, pions, kaons, and nucleons in π, K, and p interactions on various targets using beams from the Main Injector at Fermilab. The function of the calorimeters is to measure the production of forward-going neutrons and photons. The electromagnetic calorimeter consists of 10 lead plates interspersed with proportional chambers. It was followed by the hadron calorimeter with 64 steel plates interspersed with scintillator. The data presented were collected with a variety of targets and beam momenta from 5 GeV/c to 120 GeV/c. The energy calibration of both calorimeters with electrons, pions, kaons, and protons is discussed. The resolution for electrons was found to be 0.27/sqrt(E), and for hadrons the resolution was 0.554/sqrt(E) with a constant term of 2.6%. The performance of the calorimeters was tested on a neutron sample.

  10. Development of a forward calorimeter system for the STAR experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, O. D.; Aschenauer, E.; Christie, W.; Dunkelberger, L. E.; Fazio, S.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Heppelmann, S.; Huang, H. Z.; Jacobs, W. W.; Igo, G.; Kisilev, A.; Landry, K.; Liu, X.; Mondal, M. M.; Pan, Y. X.; Sergeeva, M.; Shah, N.; Sichtermann, E.; Trentalange, S.; Visser, G.; Wissink, S.

    2015-02-01

    We present results of an R&D program to develop a forward calorimeter system (FCS) for the STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at BNL. The FCS is a very compact, compensated, finely granulated, high resolution calorimeter system being developed for p+p and p+A program at RHIC. The FCS prototype consists of both electromagnetic and hadron calorimeters. The electromagnetic portion of the detector is constructed with W powder and scintillation fibers. The hadronic calorimeter is a traditional Pb/Sc-plate sandwich design. Both calorimeters were readout with Hamamatsu MPPCs. A full- scale prototype of the FCS was tested with a beam at FNAL in March 2014. We present details of the design, construction technique and performance of the FCS prototype during the test run at FNAL.

  11. Charge Detector for the Imaging Calorimeter for ACCESS (ICA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jeongin; Adams, J. H., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Cosmic Ray Experiment for the Space Station (ACCESS) Mission is planned to consist of a transition radiation detector (TRD) and a thin ionization calorimeter. In order to measure the charge of the primary cosmic ray, it is necessary for the calorimeter to have its own charge detector. Silicon detectors are chosen for the charge detector because of their excellent resolution, small size and nearly square shape. Monte Carlo simulations are performed to find the probability of misidentifying protons as alpha particles due to backscattered radiation from the calorimeter. Simulations were also used to investigate identifying primary cosmic rays that fragmented in the TRD before reaching the calorimeter. For this study algorithms have been developed for determining a direction of the core shower in the calorimeter. These algorithms are used to find the approximate location of the primary particle in the silicon detectors. Results show the probability to misidentify the charge depends upon the energy and direction of the primary particles.

  12. Closed Gap Slug Calorimeter for Plasma Stream Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nawaz, Anuscheh; Gorbunov, Sergey; Terrazas-Salinas, Imelda; Jones, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    Slug calorimeters are used in sheer and stagnation mode to characterize heat flux levels for high enthalpy streams. The traditional design features a gap between slug and holder, which can be of concern in these convective heat flux environments. The challenge is to develop a calorimeter that closes the gap to gas flow, but largely maintains thermal insulation of the slug. The work presented herein introduces two new slug calorimeter designs featuring a closed gap. This is done using either aerogel as a filler or press fitting the slug with a disk. The designs were verified and compared to the baseline calorimeter design under radiative heat flux. Building on this, the calorimeters were exposed to convective heat flux in the arc-jet facilities. Results from the new designs and conclusions on the impact of the gap in convective heat flux will be shown.

  13. The GlueX Barrel Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papandreou, Zisis; Lolos, George; Semenov, Andrei; GlueX Collaboration

    2011-04-01

    The goal of the GLUEX experiment at Jefferson Lab is to search for exotic hybrid mesons as evidence of gluonic excitations, in an effort to understand confinement in QCD. A key subsystem of the GLUEX detector is the electromagnetic barrel calorimeter (BCAL) located inside a 2-Tesla superconducting solenoid. BCAL is a ``spaghetti calorimeter,'' consisting of layers of corrugated lead sheets, interleaved with planes of 1-mm-diameter, double-clad, Kuraray SCSF-78MJ scintillating fibres, bonded in the lead grooves using optical epoxy. The detector will consist of 48 modules and will be readout using nearly 4,000 large-area (1.26 cm2 each) silicon photomultiplier arrays. BCAL construction is well under way at the University of Regina and test results will be shown. Supported by NSERC grant SAPJ-326516, DOE grant DE-FG02-0SER41374 and Jefferson Science Associates, LLC. under U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC05-06OR23177.

  14. High-sensitivity microfluidic calorimeters for biological and chemical applications

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wonhee; Fon, Warren; Axelrod, Blake W.; Roukes, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    High-sensitivity microfluidic calorimeters raise the prospect of achieving high-throughput biochemical measurements with minimal sample consumption. However, it has been challenging to realize microchip-based calorimeters possessing both high sensitivity and precise sample-manipulation capabilities. Here, we report chip-based microfluidic calorimeters capable of characterizing the heat of reaction of 3.5-nL samples with 4.2-nW resolution. Our approach, based on a combination of hard- and soft-polymer microfluidics, provides both exceptional thermal response and the physical strength necessary to construct high-sensitivity calorimeters that can be scaled to automated, highly multiplexed array architectures. Polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic valves and pumps are interfaced to parylene channels and reaction chambers to automate the injection of analyte at 1 nL and below. We attained excellent thermal resolution via on-chip vacuum encapsulation, which provides unprecedented thermal isolation of the minute microfluidic reaction chambers. We demonstrate performance of these calorimeters by resolving measurements of the heat of reaction of urea hydrolysis and the enthalpy of mixing of water with methanol. The device structure can be adapted easily to enable a wide variety of other standard calorimeter operations; one example, a flow calorimeter, is described. PMID:19706406

  15. Method and system for improved resolution of a compensated calorimeter detector

    DOEpatents

    Dawson, John W.

    1991-01-01

    An improved method and system for a depleted uranium calorimeter detector used in high energy physics experiments. In a depleted uranium calorimeter detector, the energy of a particle entering the calorimeter detector is determined and the output response of the calorimeter detector is compensated so that the ratio of the integrated response of the calorimeter detector from a lepton to the integrated response of the calorimeter detector from a hadron of the same energy as the lepton is approximately equal to 1. In the present invention, the energy of a particle entering the calorimeter detector is determined as a function of time and the hadron content of the response of the calorimeter detector is inferred based upon the time structure of the energy pulse measured by the calorimeter detector. The energy measurement can be corrected based on the inference of the hadron content whereby the resolution of the calorimeter can be improved.

  16. Cesium monitoring system for ATLAS Tile Hadron Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starchenko, E.; Blanchot, G.; Bosman, M.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Karyukhin, A.; Kopikov, S.; Miagkov, A.; Nessi, M.; Shalimov, A.; Shalanda, N.; Soldatov, M.; Solodkov, A.; Soloviev, A.; Tsoupko-Sitnikov, V.; Zaitsev, A.

    2002-11-01

    A system to calibrate and monitor ATLAS Barrel Hadronic Calorimeter (TileCal) is under construction at CERN Laboratory. A movable radioactive source driven by a liquid flow travels through the calorimeter body deposing a known energy to the calorimeter cells. Extensive R&D studies have been carried out and the main system parameters are evaluated. The prototypes are currently used for quality check and inter-calibration of the TileCal modules. A distributed control system, hardware as well as corresponding on-line and off-line software is developed.

  17. Radioactively induced noise in gas-sampling uranium calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, H.A.; Rehak, P.

    1982-01-01

    The signal induced by radioactivity of a U/sup 238/ absorber in a cell of a gas-sampling uranium calorimeter was studied. By means of Campbell's theorem, the levels of the radioactively induced noise in uranium gas-sampling calorimeters was calculated. It was shown that in order to obtain similar radioactive noise performance as U-liquid argon or U-scintillator combinations, the ..cap alpha..-particles from the uranium must be stopped before entering the sensing volume of gas-uranium calorimeters.

  18. Forward hadron calorimeter of European hybrid spectrometer monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Boratave, M.; Datsko, N.A.; David, J.; Ivanyushenkov, Y.M.; Kistenoev, E.P.; Vlasov, E.V.

    1985-11-01

    The light-monitoring system of the forward neutral-hadron calorimeter of the European hybrid spectrometer is described. A general block diagram of the system, the functional relationships of the modules, and the ideology of the mathematical support are presented. The calorimeter records neutral particles in momentum range of 10-400 MeV/c. The calorimeter consists of 200 identical counters in modules of four each in a 10 X 20 matrix. The counters are made from plastic scintillators interlayed by steel plates. Light is collected by means of a rod reemitter admitted along the counter axis.

  19. Data Analysis for the Scintillating Optical Fiber Calorimeter (SOFCAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christl, Mark J.

    1997-01-01

    The scintillating optical fiber calorimeter is a hybrid instrument with both active and passive components for measuring the proton and helium cosmic ray spectra from 0.2 to IO TeV kinetic energy. A thin emulsion/x-ray film chamber is situated between a cerenkov counter and an imaging calorimeter. Scintillating optical fibers sample the electromagnetic showers that develop in the calorimeter and identify the trajectory of cosmic rays that interact in SOFCAL. The emulsion/x-ray film data provide an in flight calibration for SOFCAL. The data reduction techniques used will be discussed and interim results of the analysis from a 20 hour balloon flight will be presented.

  20. D0 Silicon Upgrade: End Calorimeter Transfer Bridge Modification

    SciTech Connect

    Stredde, H.J.; /Fermilab

    1996-07-10

    During the assembly of major components into the D0 Detector, a transfer bridge was required to move the North-End Calorimeter from the clean room,over the cable bridge and onto the north sidewalk of the assembly hall. This experiment is now at the beginning stages of the next phase, namely the upgrade of this Detector for future physics research. A major piece of this upgrade is the installation of a solenoid magnet into the Central Calorimeter. In order to accomplish this, the South End Calorimeter has to be removed from the detector and the North End Calorimeter must be moved an additional 20-inch from its nominal open position (total 60-inch movement). The South End Calorimeter will be removed from the detector using the equipment designed for its installation. The calorimeter will be staged on the south sidewalk during the installation of the solenoid magnet and the central tracking systems. The North End Calorimeter is moved 60-inch to give more space between calorimeters during magnet, tracker and cable installation work. This movement will allow the calorimeter to remain coupled to the cryo system. However, this movement requires an extension be added to the center beam. This extension will support the rear wheels of the calorimeter and in the case of the end calorimeters, carry the majority of the weight. The extension is to be a modification of the transfer bridge. This modification, basically has T1 steel blocks added to one end and legs to the sidewalk supports at the other. The T1 steel blocks are notched to fit into the center beam porches and are welded to bridge rails. This design is the same as that for the installation bridge (3740.312-ME-273456), including the welds and weld procedures which are identical in both cases. Since load testing is impractical, the critical welds will be non-destructive tested by ultrasonic means. The laboratory, through the FESS Department, has a contract with M.Q.S. Inspection Inc. The results of this testing will be

  1. New tools for the simulation and design of calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Womersley, W.J.

    1989-07-10

    Two new approaches to the simulation and design of large hermetic calorimeters are presented. Firstly, the Shower Library scheme used in the fast generation of showers in the Monte Carlo of the calorimeter for the D-Zero experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron is described. Secondly, a tool for the design future calorimeters is described, which can be integrated with a computer aided design system to give engineering designers an immediate idea of the relative physics capabilities of different geometries. 9 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Trigger circuits for the PHENIX electromagnetic calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, S.S.; Britton, C.L. Jr.; Winterberg, A.L.; Young, G.R.

    1997-11-01

    Monolithic and discrete circuits have been developed to provide trigger signals for the PHENIX electromagnetic calorimeter detector. These trigger circuits are deadtimeless and create overlapping 4 by 4 energy sums, a cosmic muon trigger, and a 144 channel energy sum. The front end electronics of the PHENIX system sample the energy and timing channels at each bunch crossing (BC) but it is not known immediately if this data is of interest. The information from the trigger circuits is used to determine if the data collected is of interest and should be digitized and stored or discarded. This paper presents details of the design, issues affecting circuit performance, characterization of prototypes fabricated in 1.2 {micro}m Orbit CMOS, and integration of the circuits into the EMCal electronics system.

  3. Calorimeter Simulation with Hadrons in CMS

    SciTech Connect

    Piperov, Stefan; /Sofiya, Inst. Nucl. Res. /Fermilab

    2008-11-01

    CMS is using Geant4 to simulate the detector setup for the forthcoming data from the LHC. Validation of physics processes inside Geant4 is a major concern in view of getting a proper description of jets and missing energy for signal and background events. This is done by carrying out an extensive studies with test beam using the prototypes or real detector modules of the CMS calorimeter. These data are matched with Geant4 predictions using the same framework that is used for the entire CMS detector. Tuning of the Geant4 models is carried out and steps to be used in reproducing detector signals are defined in view of measurements of energy response, energy resolution, transverse and longitudinal shower profiles for a variety of hadron beams over a broad energy spectrum between 2 to 300 GeV/c. The tuned Monte Carlo predictions match many of these measurements within systematic uncertainties.

  4. A particle counting EM calorimeter using MAPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nooren, G.; Rocco, E.

    2015-02-01

    The availability of full size MAPS sensors makes it possible to construct a calorimeter with pixelsize of a few tens of micrometers. This would be small enough to count individual shower particles and would allow a shower shape analysis on an unprecedented, small scale. Interesting features would be tracking capability for particle flow algorithms and a superior discrimination of single photons from neutral and charged pions at high momenta. A small Molière radius together with high transverse resolution would allow to separate close showers, induced by photons from neutral pion decay. A full scale (4 RM, 28 X0) prototype was constructed to demonstrate this. It features 30 micron pixelsize and a longitudinal sampling at 1 radiation length. We will show results from beam tests of this prototype at electron energies of 2 to 200 GeV.

  5. The new UA1 calorimeter trigger processor

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, S.A.; Campbell, D.; Cawthraw, M.; Coughlan, J.; Flynn, P.; Galagadera, S.; Grayer, G.; Halsall, R.; Shah, T.P.; Stephens, R.

    1989-02-01

    The UA1 First Level Trigger Processor (TP) is a fast digital machine with a highly parallel pipelined architecture of fast TTL combinational and programmable logic controlled by programmable microsequencers. The TP uses 100,000 IC's housed in 18 crates each containing 21 fastbus sized modules. It is hardwired with a very high level of interconnection. The energy deposited in the upgraded calorimeter is digitised into 1700 bytes of input data every beam crossing. The Processor selects in 1.5 microseconds events for further processing. The new electron trigger has improved hadron jet rejection, achieved by requiring low energy deposition around the electro-magnetic cluster. A missing transverse energy trigger and a total energy trigger have also been implemented.

  6. Beta spectrometry with metallic magnetic calorimeters.

    PubMed

    Loidl, M; Rodrigues, M; Le-Bret, C; Mougeot, X

    2014-05-01

    Metallic magnetic calorimeters are a specific type of cryogenic detectors that have been shown to enable precise measurement of the shape of low energy beta spectra. The aim of their use at LNHB is the determination of the shape factors of beta spectra. The beta source is enclosed in the detector absorber, allowing for very high detection efficiency. It has turned out that the type of source is of crucial importance for the correctness of the measured spectrum. Spectra of (63)Ni measured with several sources prepared by drying a NiCl2 solution differ from one another and from theory, whereas spectra measured with electroplated sources are reproducible and agree with theory. With these latter measurements we could confirm the atomic exchange effect down to very low energy (200 eV). PMID:24368065

  7. SCA controller for the ATLAS calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Gingrich, D.M.; Hewlett, J.C.; Holm, L.

    1997-12-31

    The front-end readout of the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeter will store data locally in analog pipeline memories at the LHC beam crossing frequency of 40 MHz. Switched capacitor array chips meeting the ATLAS readout requirements will be used. These new chips axe capable of simultaneous read and write operations, and allow random access to storage locations. To utilize these essential design features requires a substantial amount of fast control and address bookkeeping logic. We have designed a controller capable of operating the pipelines as analog random access memories and that satisfies the ATLAS readout requirements. The pipeline controller manages the data of 144 time samples and can operate at a mean trigger rate of about 75 kHz, when reading out five time samples per event. We are currently prototyping an integrated version of the controller implemented in a FPGA from Xilinx.

  8. Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) Balloon Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wefel, John P.; Guzik, T. Gregory

    2001-01-01

    During grant NAG5-5064, Louisiana State University (LSU) led the ATIC team in the development, construction, testing, accelerator validation, pre-deployment integration and flight operations of the Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) Balloon Experiment. This involved interfacing among the ATIC collaborators (UMD, NRL/MSFC, SU, MSU, WI, SNU) to develop a new balloon payload based upon a fully active calorimeter, a carbon target, a scintillator strip hodoscope and a pixilated silicon solid state detector for a detailed investigation of the very high energy cosmic rays to energies beyond 10(exp 14) eV/nucleus. It is in this very high energy region that theory predicts changes in composition and energy spectra related to the Supernova Remnant Acceleration model for cosmic rays below the "knee" in the all-particle spectrum. This report provides a documentation list, details the anticipated ATIC science return, describes the particle detection principles on which the experiment is based, summarizes the simulation results for the system, describes the validation work at the CERN SPS accelerator and details the balloon flight configuration. The ATIC experiment had a very successful LDB flight from McMurdo, Antarctica in 12/00 - 1/01. The instrument performed well for the entire 15 days. Preliminary data analysis shows acceptable charge resolution and an all-particle power law energy deposition distribution not inconsistent with previous measurements. Detailed analysis is underway and will result in new data on the cosmic ray charge and energy spectra in the GeV - TeV energy range. ATIC is currently being refurbished in anticipation of another LDB flight in the 2002-03 period.

  9. The AMS-02 lead-scintillating fibres Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adloff, C.; Basara, L.; Bigongiari, G.; Bosi, F.; Brun, P.; Cadoux, F.; Cervelli, F.; Chambert, V.; Chen, G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Coignet, G.; Cougoulat, G.; Di Falco, S.; Dubois, J. M.; Elles, S.; Falchini, E.; Fiasson, A.; Fougeron, D.; Fouque, N.; Galeotti, S.; Gallucci, G.; Gherarducci, F.; Girard, L.; Giuseppe, F.; Goy, C.; Hermel, R.; Incagli, M.; Jacquemier, J.; Journet, L.; Kossakowski, R.; Lepareur, V.; Li, Z. H.; Lieunard, B.; Lomtadze, T.; Lu, Y. S.; Maestro, P.; Magazzù, C.; Maire, M.; Orsini, A.; Paniccia, M.; Pedreschi, E.; Peltier, F.; Piendibene, M.; Pilo, F.; Pochon, J.; Rambure, T.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Spinella, F.; Tang, X. W.; Tassan-Viol, J.; Tazzioli, A.; Vannini, C.; Vialle, J. P.; Zhuang, H. L.

    2013-06-01

    The Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL) of the AMS-02 experiment is a fine grained lead-scintillating fibres sampling calorimeter that allows for a precise three-dimensional imaging of the longitudinal and lateral shower development. It provides a high (≥106) electron/hadron discrimination with the other AMS-02 detectors [1] and good energy resolution. The calorimeter also provides a standalone photon trigger capability to AMS-02. The mechanical assembly was realized to ensure minimum weight, still supporting the intrinsically heavy calorimeter during launch. ECAL light collection system and electronics are designed to measure electromagnetic particles over a wide energy range, from GeV up to TeV. A full-scale flight-like model was tested using electrons and proton beams with energies ranging from 6 to 250 GeV.

  10. The Forward Calorimeter of the GlueX Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Daniel; GlueX Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    The Forward Calorimeter (FCAL) of the GlueX experiment is a lead glass electromagnetic calorimeter currently being built in Hall D of Jefferson Lab. The GlueX experiment is a photoproduction experiment that will utilize coherent bremsstrahlung radiation to map out the light meson spectrum, including a search for hybrid mesons with exotic quantum numbers (JPC). The FCAL will detect photons between 1° and 10 .8° downstream from the target. The calorimeter is built out of 2800 elements, each of which consists of a lead glass block, an FEU 84-3 PMT, and a custom Cockcroft-Walton electronic base. In the Fall of 2011, a 25 element prototype detector was installed in Hall B of Jefferson Lab to measure the energy and timing resolution of the calorimeter using electrons between 100 and 250 MeV. The design and construction of FCAL and the results from the prototype test will be discussed.

  11. The Neutron Zero Degree Calorimeter for the ALICE Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dellacasa, G.; Cortese, P.; Cicaló, C.; de Falco, A.; Masoni, A.; Puddu, G.; Serci, S.; Siddi, E.; Usai, G.; Arnaldi, R.; Chiavassa, E.; de Marco, N.; Ferretti, A.; Gallio, M.; Gemme, R.; Mereu, P.; Musso, A.; Oppedisano, C.; Piccotti, A.; Scomparin, E.; Travaglia, G.; Vercellin, E.

    2005-02-01

    The neutron Zero Degree Calorimeter (ZN) for the ALICE experiment will measure the energy of the spectator neutrons in heavy ion collisions. The ZN is a spaghetti calorimeter, that exploits the Cherenkov light produced by the shower particles in silica optical fibers embedded in a W-alloy absorber. The calorimeter was tested at the CERN SPS using pion and positron beams of different momenta ranging from 50 to 150 GeV/c. The main features of the detector are presented: the linearity and energy resolution as a function of energy, the shower's transverse profile, the position resolution. Moreover the response of the calorimeter to a 158A GeV/c Indium beam has been investigated; in particular the energy resolution and the linearity as a function of the number of incident nucleons were measured.

  12. The zero degree calorimeters for the ALICE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puddu, G.; Arnaldi, R.; Chiavassa, E.; Cicaló, C.; Cortese, P.; De Falco, A.; Dellacasa, G.; Ferretti, A.; Floris, M.; Gagliardi, M.; Gallio, M.; Gemme, R.; Locci, G.; Masoni, A.; Mereu, P.; Musso, A.; Oppedisano, C.; Piccotti, A.; Poggio, F.; Scomparin, E.; Serci, S.; Siddi, E.; Stocco, D.; Usai, G.; Vercellin, E.; Yermia, F.

    2007-10-01

    The Zero Degree Calorimeters (ZDC) for the ALICE experiment will measure the energy of the spectator nucleons in heavy ion collisions at the CERN LHC, providing a direct measure of the centrality of the collisions. ZDC are spaghetti calorimeters, which detect the Cherenkov light produced by the shower particles in silica optical fibers embedded in a dense absorber. The main characteristics of the ZP and ZN detectors are described in this article. The calorimeters were tested at the CERN SPS using pion and electron beams with momenta ranging from 50 to 200 GeV/c. Test beam results such as the calorimeter response, the energy resolution, the signal uniformity and the localizing capability are presented.

  13. Test beam performance of CDF plug upgrade EM calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Fukui, Y.

    1998-11-01

    CDF Plug Upgrade(tile-fiber) EM Calorimeter performed resolution of 15{percent}/{radical} (E) {circle_plus}0.7{percent} with non-linearity less than 1{percent} in a energy range of 5{endash}180 GeV at Fermilab Test Beam. Transverse uniformity of inside-tower-response of the EM Calorimeter was 2.2{percent} with 56 GeV positron, which was reduced to 1.0{percent} with response map correction. We observed 300 photo electron/GeV in the EM Calorimeter. Ratios of EM Calorimeter response to positron beam to that to {sup 137}C{sub s} Source was stable within 1{percent} in the period of 8 months. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. The BaBar cesium iodide electromagnetic calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Wuest, C.R.

    1994-12-01

    The BABAR Cesium Iodide Electromagnetic Calorimeter is currently in the technical design stage. The calorimeter consists of approximately 10,000 individual thallium-doped cesium iodide crystals arranged in a near-hermetic barrel and endcap structure. Taking previous cesium iodide calorimeters as a benchmark, we hope to build a system with roughly two times better energy resolution. This will be achieved by a combination of high quality crystal growing, precision mechanical processing of crystals and support structure, highly efficient light collection and low noise readout electronics. The calorimeter described here represents the current state of the design and we are undertaking an active period of optimization before this design is finalized. We discuss here the physics motivation, the current design and options for optimization.

  15. The electromagnetic calorimeter in JLab Real Compton Scattering Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Albert Shahinyan; Eugene Chudakov; A. Danagoulian; P. Degtyarenko; K. Egiyan; V. Gorbenko; J. Hines; E. Hovhannisyan; Ch. Hyde; C.W. de Jager; A. Ketikyan; V. Mamyan; R. Michaels; A.M. Nathan; V. Nelyubin; I. Rachek; M. Roedelbrom; A. Petrosyan; R. Pomatsalyuk; V. Popov; J. Segal; Yu. Shestakov; J. Templon; H. Voskanyan; B. Wojtsekhowski

    2007-04-16

    A hodoscope calorimeter comprising of 704 lead-glass blocks is described. The calorimeter was constructed for use in the JLab Real Compton Scattering experiment. The detector provides a measurement of the coordinates and the energy of scattered photons in the GeV energy range with resolutions of 5 mm and 6\\%/$\\sqrt{E_\\gamma \\, [GeV]}$, respectively. Design features and performance parameters during the experiment are presented.

  16. ATLAS Tile Calorimeter performance with Run 1 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdá Alberich, L.

    2016-07-01

    The performance of the central hadronic calorimeter, TileCal, in the ATLAS Experiment at the Large Hadron Collider is studied using cosmic-ray muons and the large sample of proton-proton collisions acquired during the Run 1 of LHC (2010-2012). Results are presented for the precision of the absolute energy scale and timing, noise characterization, and time-stability of the detector. The results show that the Tile Calorimeter performance is within the design requirements of the detector.

  17. Current status and performance of the BESIII electromagnetic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Jian; Wang, Zhigang

    2012-12-01

    The design and construction of the BESIII electromagnetic calorimeter is introduced briefly. Radiation dose of CsI(Tl) crystals is monitored and history graph of integral dose of crystals is showed. LED-fiber system is used for monitoring the EMC light output, and large decrease of light output of several crystals is discussed. BESIII electromagnetic calorimeter works very well and its performance reach the design value.

  18. The electromagnetic performance of the RD52 fiber calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akchurin, N.; Bedeschi, F.; Cardini, A.; Cascella, M.; Cei, F.; De Pedis, D.; Ferrari, R.; Fracchia, S.; Franchino, S.; Fraternali, M.; Gaudio, G.; Genova, P.; Hauptman, J.; La Rotonda, L.; Lee, S.; Livan, M.; Meoni, E.; Moggi, A.; Pinci, D.; Policicchio, A.; Saraiva, J. G.; Scuri, F.; Sill, A.; Venturelli, T.; Wigmans, R.

    2014-01-01

    The RD52 calorimeter is an instrument intended to detect both electromagnetic and hadronic showers, as well as muons, using the dual-readout principle. Scintillation and Cherenkov light provide the two signals which, in combination, allow for superior hadronic performance. In this paper, we report on the electromagnetic performance of this instrument, and compare this performance with that of other calorimeters that were constructed with similar goals in mind.

  19. An absorbed dose to water calorimeter for collimated radiation fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brede, H. J.; Hecker, O.; Hollnagel, R.

    2000-12-01

    A transportable calorimeter of compact design has been developed as a device for the absolute determination of the absorbed dose to water. The ease of operation of the calorimeter allows the application in clinical therapy beams of various energies, specifically for neutron, proton and heavy ion beams. The calorimeter requires collimated radiation fields with diameters lesser than 40 mm. The temperature rise caused by radiation is measured with a thermistor probe which is located in the centre of the calorimeter core. The calorimeter core consists of a cylindrical water-filled gilded aluminium can suspended by three thin nylon threads in a vacuum block in order to reduce the heat transfer by conduction. In addition, it operates at a temperature of 4°C, preventing heat transfer in water by convection. Heat transfer from the core to the surrounding by radiation is minimised by the use of two concentric temperature-controlled jackets, the inner jacket being operated at core temperature. A description of the mechanical and electrical design, of the construction and operation of the water calorimeter is given. In addition, calculations with a finite-element program code performed to determine correction factors for various radiation conditions are included.

  20. Energy Calibration of the Scintillating Optical Fiber Calorimeter Chamber (SOFCAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christl, M. C.; Fountain, W. F.; Parnell, T.; Roberts, F. E.; Gregory, J. C.; Johnson, J.; Takahashi, Y.

    1997-01-01

    The Scintillating Optical Fiber Calorimeter (SOFCAL) detector is designed to make direct measures of the primary cosmic ray spectrum from -200 GeV/amu - 20 TeV/amu. The primary particles are resolved into groups according to their charge (p, He, CNO, Medium Z, Heavy Z) using both active and passive components integrated into the detector. The principal part of SOFCAL is a thin ionization calorimeter that measures the electromagnetic cascades that result from these energetic particles interacting in the detector. The calorimeter is divided into two sections: a thin passive emulsion/x-ray film calorimeter, and a fiber calorimeter that uses crossing layers of small scintillating optical fibers to sample the energy deposition of the cascades. The energy determination is made by fitting the fiber data to transition curves generated by Monte Carlo simulations. The fiber data must first be calibrated using the electron counts from the emulsion plates in the calorimeter for a small number of events. The technique and results of this calibration will be presented together with samples of the data from a balloon flight.

  1. An Imaging Calorimeter for Access-Concept Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parnell, T. A.; Adams, James H.; Binns, R. W.; Christl, M. J.; Derrickson, J. H.; Fountain, W. F.; Howell, L. W.; Gregory, J. C.; Hink, P. L.; Israel, M. H.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A mission concept study to define the "Advanced Cosmic-ray Composition Experiment for Space Station (ACCESS)" was sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The ACCESS instrument complement contains a transition radiation detector and an ionization calorimeter to measure tile spectrum of protons, helium, and heavier nuclei up to approximately 10(exp 15) eV to search for the limit of S/N shock wave acceleration, or evidence for other explanations of the spectra. Several calorimeter configurations have been studied, including the "baseline" totally active bismuth germanate instrument and sampling calorimeters utilizing various detectors. The Imaging Calorimeter for ACCESS (ICA) concept comprises a carbon target and a calorimeter using a high atomic number absorber sampled approximately each radiation length (rl) by thin scintillating fiber (SCIFI) detectors. The main features and options of the ICA instrument configuration are described in this paper. Since direct calibration is not possible over most of the energy range, the best approach must be decided from simulations of calorimeter performance extrapolated from CERN calibrations at 0.375 TeV. This paper presents results from the ICA simulations study.

  2. GEANT SIMULATIONS OF PRESHOWER CALORIMETER FOR CLAS12 UPGRADE OF THE FORWARD ELECTROMAGNETIC CALORIMETER

    SciTech Connect

    Whitlow, K.; Stepanyan, S.

    2007-01-01

    Hall B at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility uses the CEBAF (Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility) Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) to study the structure of the nucleon. An upgrade from a 6 GeV beam to a 12GeV beam is currently planned. With the beam energy upgrade, more high-energy pions will be created from the interaction of the beam and the target. Above 6GeV, the angle between the two-decay photons of high-energy pions becomes too small for the current electromagnetic calorimeter (EC) of CLAS to differentiate between two photon clusters and single photon events. Thus, a preshower calorimeter will be added in front of the EC to enable fi ner granularity and ensure better cluster separation for all CLAS experiments at higher energies. In order to optimize cost without compromising the calorimeter’s performance, three versions of the preshower, varying in number of scintillator and lead layers, were compared by their resolution and effi ciency. Using GSIM, a GEANT detector simulation program for CLAS, the passage of neutral pions and single photons through CLAS and the new preshower calorimeter (CLAS12 EC) was studied. The resolution of the CLAS12 EC was calculated from the Gaussian fi t of the sampling fraction, the energy CLAS12 EC detected over the Monte Carlo simulated energy. The single photon detection effi ciency was determined from the energy and position of the photon hits. The fractional energy resolution measured was ΔE/E = 0.0972 in the fi ve-module version, 0.111 in the four-module version, and 0.149 in the three-module version. Both the fi ve- and four-module versions had 99% single photon detection effi ciency above 0.5GeV while the 3 module version had 99% effi ciency above 1.5GeV. Based on these results, the suggested preshower confi guration is the four-module version containing twelve layers of scintillator and fi fteen layers of lead. This version provides a reasonable balance of resolution, effi ciency, and

  3. sPHENIX Hadronic Calorimeter Scintillator Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrd, Reuben; Sphenix Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    A new form of matter called the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) was discovered with the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). PHENIX is an experiment at RHIC that helped with this discovery, but plans are being made to replace it with a new spectrometer with different capabilities. The sPHENIX detector will consist of a superconducting solenoid magnet, hadronic and electromagnetic calorimetry and charged particle tracking. sPHENIX will enable a rich jet physics program that will address fundamental questions about of the nature of the QGP. The new detector will provide full azimuthal coverage and +/- 1.1 in pseudorapidity. The Hadronic Calorimeter is a major subsystem in this detector. It is made of alternating layers of scintillating tiles and steel plates. In the current prototype the tiles are covered with a reflective coating and contain wavelength shifting fibers. As the second round of prototypes are developed for an upcoming beam test, special care is being taken to provide uniform light collection efficiency across the detector. Studies are being conducted to ensure this by careful alignment of the silicon photomultipliers to the fibers and varying coatings on the tiles. The effects of the coating will be presented along with the current status and ongoing plans.

  4. Evolution of the dual-readout calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penzo, Aldo

    2007-12-01

    Measuring the energy of hadronic jets with high precision is essential at present and future colliders, in particular at ILC. The 4th concept design is built upon calorimetry criteria that result in the DREAM prototype, read-out via two different types of longitudinal fibers, scintillator and quartz respectively, and therefore capable of determining for each shower the corresponding electromagnetic fraction, thus eliminating the strong effect of fluctuations in this fraction on the overall energy resolution. In this respect, 4th is orthogonal to the other three concepts, which rely on particle flow analysis (PFA). The DREAM test-beam results hold promises for excellent performances, coupled with relatively simple construction and moderate costs, making such a solution an interesting alternative to the PFA paradigm. The next foreseen steps are to extend the dual-readout principle to homogeneous calorimeters (with the potential of achieving even better performances) and to tackle another source of fluctuation in hadronic showers, originating from binding energy losses in nuclear break-up (measuring neutrons of few MeV energy).

  5. Hierarchical trigger of the ALICE calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Hans; Awes, Terry C.; Novitzky, Norbert; Kral, Jiri; Rak, Jan; Schambach, Jo; Wang, Yaping; Wang, Dong; Zhou, Daicui

    2010-05-01

    The trigger of the ALICE electromagnetic calorimeters is implemented in 2 hierarchically connected layers of electronics. In the lower layer, level-0 algorithms search shower energy above threshold in locally confined Trigger Region Units (TRU). The top layer is implemented as a single, global trigger unit that receives the trigger data from all TRUs as input to the level-1 algorithm. This architecture was first developed for the PHOS high pT photon trigger before it was adopted by EMCal also for the jet trigger. TRU units digitize up to 112 analogue input signals from the Front End Electronics (FEE) and concentrate their digital stream in a single FPGA. A charge and time summing algorithm is combined with a peakfinder that suppresses spurious noise and is precise to single LHC bunches. With a peak-to-peak noise level of 150 MeV the linear dynamic range above threshold spans from MIP energies at 215 up to 50 GeV. Local level-0 decisions take less than 600 ns after LHC collisions, upon which all TRUs transfer their level-0 trigger data to the upstream global trigger module which searches within the remaining level-1 latency for high pT gamma showers (PHOS) and/or for Jet cone areas (EMCaL).

  6. Central Calorimeter Support Cradle Jack Failure Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Rudland, D.L.; /Fermilab

    1987-04-10

    The Central Calorimeter and its support cradle are to be supported by either hydraulic or mechanical jacks. If hydraulics are used, each support will use two hydraulically coupled jacks with two out of the four supports hydraulically coupled giving the effect of a three point support system. If mechanical jacks are used, all four points are used for support. Figure 2 shows two examples of jack placement on a 3.5 inch support plate. These two support scenarios lead to five jack failure cases to be studied. This report deals with the way in which a 0.25 inch drop (failed jack) at one support affects the stresses in the cradle. The stresses from each failure case were analyzed in two ways. First, stress factors, defined as quotients of stress intensities of the failed case with respect to the static case, were generated and then, hand calculations similar to those in Engineering Note 3740.215-EN-14 were done using the reaction forces from the failed case.

  7. Design and status of the Mu2e electromagnetic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanov, N.; Baranov, V.; Budagov, J.; Carosi, R.; Cervelli, F.; Colao, F.; Cordelli, M.; Corradi, G.; Dané, E.; Davydov, Yu. I.; Di Falco, S.; Donati, S.; Donghia, R.; Echenard, B.; Flood, K.; Giovannella, S.; Glagolev, V.; Grancagnolo, F.; Happacher, F.; Hitlin, D. G.; Martini, M.; Miscetti, S.; Miyashita, T.; Morescalchi, L.; Murat, P.; Pasciuto, D.; Pezzullo, G.; Porter, F.; Saputi, A.; Sarra, I.; Soleti, S. R.; Spinella, F.; Tassielli, G.; Tereshchenko, V.; Usubov, Z.; Zhu, R. Y.

    2016-07-01

    The Mu2e experiment at Fermilab aims at measuring the neutrinoless conversion of a negative muon into an electron and reach a single event sensitivity of 2.5 ×10-17 after three years of data taking. The monoenergetic electron produced in the final state, is detected by a high precision tracker and a crystal calorimeter, all embedded in a large superconducting solenoid (SD) surrounded by a cosmic ray veto system. The calorimeter is complementary to the tracker, allowing an independent trigger and powerful particle identification, while seeding the track reconstruction and contributing to remove background tracks mimicking the signal. In order to match these requirements, the calorimeter should have an energy resolution of O(5)% and a time resolution better than 500 ps at 100 MeV. The baseline solution is a calorimeter composed of two disks of BaF2 crystals read by UV extended, solar blind, Avalanche Photodiode (APDs), which are under development from a JPL, Caltech, RMD consortium. In this paper, the calorimeter design, the R&D studies carried out so far and the status of engineering are described. A backup alternative setup consisting of a pure CsI crystal matrix read by UV extended Hamamatsu MPPC's is also presented.

  8. Research on calorimeter for high-power microwave measurements.

    PubMed

    Ye, Hu; Ning, Hui; Yang, Wensen; Tian, Yanmin; Xiong, Zhengfeng; Yang, Meng; Yan, Feng; Cui, Xinhong

    2015-12-01

    Based on measurement of the volume increment of polar liquid that is a result of heating by absorbed microwave energy, two types of calorimeters with coaxial capacitive probes for measurement of high-power microwave energy are designed in this paper. The first is an "inline" calorimeter, which is placed as an absorbing load at the end of the output waveguide, and the second is an "offline" calorimeter that is placed 20 cm away from the radiation horn of the high-power microwave generator. Ethanol and high density polyethylene are used as the absorbing and housing materials, respectively. Results from both simulations and a "cold test" on a 9.3 GHz klystron show that the "inline" calorimeter has a measurement range of more than 100 J and an energy absorption coefficient of 93%, while the experimental results on a 9.3 GHz relativistic backward-wave oscillator show that the device's power capacity is approximately 0.9 GW. The same experiments were also carried out for the "offline" calorimeter, and the results indicate that it can be used to eliminate the effects of the shock of the solenoid on the measurement curves and that the device has a higher power capacity of 2.5 GW. The results of the numerical simulations, the "cold tests," and the experiments show good agreement. PMID:26724055

  9. Research on calorimeter for high-power microwave measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Hu; Ning, Hui; Yang, Wensen; Tian, Yanmin; Xiong, Zhengfeng; Yang, Meng; Yan, Feng; Cui, Xinhong

    2015-12-01

    Based on measurement of the volume increment of polar liquid that is a result of heating by absorbed microwave energy, two types of calorimeters with coaxial capacitive probes for measurement of high-power microwave energy are designed in this paper. The first is an "inline" calorimeter, which is placed as an absorbing load at the end of the output waveguide, and the second is an "offline" calorimeter that is placed 20 cm away from the radiation horn of the high-power microwave generator. Ethanol and high density polyethylene are used as the absorbing and housing materials, respectively. Results from both simulations and a "cold test" on a 9.3 GHz klystron show that the "inline" calorimeter has a measurement range of more than 100 J and an energy absorption coefficient of 93%, while the experimental results on a 9.3 GHz relativistic backward-wave oscillator show that the device's power capacity is approximately 0.9 GW. The same experiments were also carried out for the "offline" calorimeter, and the results indicate that it can be used to eliminate the effects of the shock of the solenoid on the measurement curves and that the device has a higher power capacity of 2.5 GW. The results of the numerical simulations, the "cold tests," and the experiments show good agreement.

  10. Design and status of the Mu2e electromagnetic calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Atanov, N.; Baranov, V.; Budagov, J.; Carosi, R.; Cervelli, F.; Colao, F.; Cordelli, M.; Corradi, G.; Dane, E.; Davydov, Yu. I.; Di Falco, S.; Donati, S.; Donghia, R.; Echenard, B.; Flood, K.; Giovannella, S.; Glagolev, V.; Grancagnolo, F.; Happacher, F.; Hitlin, D. G.; Martini, M.; Miscetti, Stefano; Miyashita, T.; Morescalchi, L.; Murat, P.; Pasciuto, D.; Pezzullo, G.; Porter, F.; Saputi, A.; Sarra, I.; Soleti, S. R.; Spinella, F.; Tassielli, G.; Tereshchenko, V.; Usubov, Z.; Zhu, R. Y.

    2015-10-02

    Here, the Mu2e experiment at Fermilab aims at measuring the neutrinoless conversion of a negative muon into an electron and reach a single event sensitivity of 2.5×10–17 after three years of data taking. The monoenergetic electron produced in the final state, is detected by a high precision tracker and a crystal calorimeter, all embedded in a large superconducting solenoid (SD) surrounded by a cosmic ray veto system. The calorimeter is complementary to the tracker, allowing an independent trigger and powerful particle identification, while seeding the track reconstruction and contributing to remove background tracks mimicking the signal. In order to match these requirements, the calorimeter should have an energy resolution of O(5)% and a time resolution better than 500 ps at 100 MeV. The baseline solution is a calorimeter composed of two disks of BaF2 crystals read by UV extended, solar blind, Avalanche Photodiode (APDs), which are under development from a JPL, Caltech, RMD consortium. In this paper, the calorimeter design, the R&D; studies carried out so far and the status of engineering are described. A backup alternative setup consisting of a pure CsI crystal matrix read by UV extended Hamamatsu MPPC's is also presented.

  11. Design and status of the Mu2e electromagnetic calorimeter

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Atanov, N.; Baranov, V.; Budagov, J.; Carosi, R.; Cervelli, F.; Colao, F.; Cordelli, M.; Corradi, G.; Dane, E.; Davydov, Yu. I.; et al

    2015-10-02

    Here, the Mu2e experiment at Fermilab aims at measuring the neutrinoless conversion of a negative muon into an electron and reach a single event sensitivity of 2.5×10–17 after three years of data taking. The monoenergetic electron produced in the final state, is detected by a high precision tracker and a crystal calorimeter, all embedded in a large superconducting solenoid (SD) surrounded by a cosmic ray veto system. The calorimeter is complementary to the tracker, allowing an independent trigger and powerful particle identification, while seeding the track reconstruction and contributing to remove background tracks mimicking the signal. In order to matchmore » these requirements, the calorimeter should have an energy resolution of O(5)% and a time resolution better than 500 ps at 100 MeV. The baseline solution is a calorimeter composed of two disks of BaF2 crystals read by UV extended, solar blind, Avalanche Photodiode (APDs), which are under development from a JPL, Caltech, RMD consortium. In this paper, the calorimeter design, the R&D; studies carried out so far and the status of engineering are described. A backup alternative setup consisting of a pure CsI crystal matrix read by UV extended Hamamatsu MPPC's is also presented.« less

  12. Research on calorimeter for high-power microwave measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Hu; Ning, Hui; Yang, Wensen; Tian, Yanmin; Xiong, Zhengfeng; Yang, Meng; Yan, Feng; Cui, Xinhong

    2015-12-15

    Based on measurement of the volume increment of polar liquid that is a result of heating by absorbed microwave energy, two types of calorimeters with coaxial capacitive probes for measurement of high-power microwave energy are designed in this paper. The first is an “inline” calorimeter, which is placed as an absorbing load at the end of the output waveguide, and the second is an “offline” calorimeter that is placed 20 cm away from the radiation horn of the high-power microwave generator. Ethanol and high density polyethylene are used as the absorbing and housing materials, respectively. Results from both simulations and a “cold test” on a 9.3 GHz klystron show that the “inline” calorimeter has a measurement range of more than 100 J and an energy absorption coefficient of 93%, while the experimental results on a 9.3 GHz relativistic backward-wave oscillator show that the device’s power capacity is approximately 0.9 GW. The same experiments were also carried out for the “offline” calorimeter, and the results indicate that it can be used to eliminate the effects of the shock of the solenoid on the measurement curves and that the device has a higher power capacity of 2.5 GW. The results of the numerical simulations, the “cold tests,” and the experiments show good agreement.

  13. Simulations of a Thin Sampling Calorimeter with GEANT/FLUKA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jeongin; Watts, John; Howell, Leonard; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Advanced Cosmic-ray Composition Experiment for the Space Station (ACCESS) will investigate the origin, composition and acceleration mechanism of cosmic rays by measuring the elemental composition of the cosmic rays up to 10(exp 15) eV. These measurements will be made with a thin ionization calorimeter and a transition radiation detector. This paper reports studies of a thin sampling calorimeter concept for the ACCESS thin ionization calorimeter. For the past year, a Monte Carlo simulation study of a Thin Sampling Calorimeter (TSC) design has been conducted to predict the detector performance and to design the system for achieving the ACCESS scientific objectives. Simulation results show that the detector energy resolution function resembles a Gaussian distribution and the energy resolution of TSC is about 40%. In addition, simulations of the detector's response to an assumed broken power law cosmic ray spectra in the region where the 'knee' of the cosmic ray spectrum occurs have been conducted and clearly show that a thin sampling calorimeter can provide sufficiently accurate estimates of the spectral parameters to meet the science requirements of ACCESS. n

  14. The ATLAS tile calorimeter performance at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Calkins, R.

    2011-07-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal), the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment, is a key detector component to detect hadrons, jets and taus and to measure the missing transverse energy. Due to the very good muon signal to noise ratio it assists the spectrometer in the identification and reconstruction of muons. TileCal is built of steel and scintillating tiles coupled to optical fibers and read out by photomultipliers. The calorimeter is equipped with systems that allow to monitor and to calibrate each stage of the read out system exploiting different signal sources: laser light, charge injection and a radioactive source. The performance of the calorimeter has been measured and monitored using calibration data, random triggered data, cosmic muons and more importantly LHC collision events. The results presented here assess the absolute energy scale calibration precision, the energy and timing uniformity and the synchronization precision. The ensemble of the results demonstrates a very good understanding of the performance of the Tile Calorimeter that is proved to be well within the design expectations. (authors)

  15. Characterization of Novel Calorimeters in the Annular Core Research Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hehr, Brian D.; Parma, Edward J.; Peters, Curtis D.; Naranjo, Gerald E.; Luker, S. Michael

    2016-02-01

    A series of pulsed irradiation experiments have been performed in the central cavity of Sandia National Laboratories' Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) to characterize the responses of a set of elemental calorimeter materials including Si, Zr, Sn, Ta, W, and Bi. Of particular interest was the perturbing effect of the calorimeter itself on the ambient radiation field - a potential concern in dosimetry applications. By placing the calorimeter package into a neutron-thermalizing lead/polyethylene (LP) bucket and irradiating both with and without a cadmium wrapper, it was demonstrated that prompt capture gammas generated inside the calorimeters can be a significant contributor to the measured dose in the active disc region. An MCNP model of the experimental setup was shown to replicate measured dose responses to within 10%. The internal (n,γ) contribution was found to constitute as much as 50% of the response inside the LP bucket and up to 20% inside the nominal (unmodified) cavity environment, with Ta and W exhibiting the largest enhancement due to their sizable (n,γ) cross sections. Capture reactions in non-disc components of the calorimeter were estimated to be responsible for up to a few percent of the measured response. This work was supported by the United States Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy.

  16. The NA62 liquid Krypton calorimeter's new readout system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceccucci, A.; Fantechi, R.; Farthouat, P.; Lamanna, G.; Rouet, J.; Ryjov, V.; Venditti, S.

    2014-01-01

    The NA62 experiment [1] at CERN SPS (Super Proton Synchrotron) accelerator aims at studying Kaon decays with high precision. The high resolution Liquid Krypton (LKr) calorimeter, built for the NA48 [2] experiment, is a crucial part of the experiment photon-veto system; to cope with the new requirements, the back-end electronics of the LKr had to be completely renewed. Due to the huge number of the calorimeter readout channels ( ~ 14 K) and the maintenance requirement over 10 years of the experiment lifetime, the decision to sub-contract the development and production to industry was taken in 2011. This paper presents the primary test results of the Calorimeter REAdout Module (CREAM) [3] prototype delivered by the manufacturer in March 2013. All essential features, analog performance, data processing and readout, are covered.

  17. Simulation and validation of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpov, S. N.

    2014-09-01

    The Tile Calorimeter is the central section of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter at the Large Hadron Collider. Scintillation light produced in the tiles is transmitted by wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The resulting electronic signals from approximately 10000 PMTs are amplified, shaped and digitized before being transferred to off-detector data acquisition systems. This paper describes the detailed simulation of this large scale calorimeter from the implementation of the geometrical elements down to the realistic description of the electronics readout pulses, the special noise treatment and the signal reconstruction. Recently improved description of the optical and electronic signal propagation is highlighted and the validation with the real particle data is presented.

  18. Identification of Low PT Muon with the Atlas Tile Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usai, G.

    2005-02-01

    A method for the identification of muons with the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter is presented and its efficiency and mis-tagging fraction are discussed. It is demonstrated that the Tile Calorimeter can identify muons with good efficiency down to 2 GeV/c transverse momentum, where the stand-alone Muon Spectrometer has zero efficiency. This kinematic region is important for study of B meson physics and in the particular for the CP violating decay channels. The effectiveness of this method is tested, in particular, in the case of bbar {b} events at low LHC luminosity (1033cm-1s-2) with full simulation of experimental conditions. The muon identification with the Tile Calorimeter is fast and can be used for muon selection at the trigger level. A method of exploiting the information available in other ATLAS sub-detectors in order to reduce spurious muon-tag and measure the candidate muon momentum is discussed.

  19. The development of a virtual heat bath for calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Pickrell, M.M.; Bracken, D.S.; Rudy, C.R.

    1998-12-31

    All existing calorimeter systems for sensitive nuclear assay employ a heat bath surrounding the sample chamber. The purpose of the heat bath is to maintain a constant temperature so that a fixed temperature difference is maintained across the thermal resistance of the calorimeter. Present calorimeter systems all employ an active, feedback-controlled system to maintain a fixed temperature. An alternative would be to allow the heat-bath temperature to change, to measure it, and to compensate the assay for this change. Two significant observations make this approach possible: (1) the effect on the measurement of a temperature change in the heat bath is differential in form and (2) temperature measurement systems are very accurate when measuring differences in temperature (either in time or between two locations). From these observations, the authors have developed a virtual heat-bath compensation system. The control theory and results will be presented.

  20. Design, performance, and upgrade of the D0 calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Kotcher, J.

    1995-01-01

    The D0 detector, located at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, Illinois, USA, is a large hermetic detector designed for the study of proton-antiproton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 2 TeV. The calorimeter is a sampling device that employs uranium absorber and liquid argon as the active material. It has been designed for the high-precision energy measurement of electrons and jets over the full solid angle, and excellent missing transverse energy resolution for enhanced neutrino {open_quotes}detection{close_quotes}. The authors report on some fundamental aspects of the D0 calorimeter`s design and performance (the latter having been measured in both test beams and during recent data taking at the Fermilab collider), and their plan for the upgrade, which has been designed to accomodate the higher luminosities anticipated after completion of the Fermilab Main Injector.

  1. The Neutron Zero Degree Calorimeter for the ALICE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaldi, R.; Chiavassa, E.; Cicalò, C.; Cortese, P.; De Falco, A.; Dellacasa, G.; De Marco, N.; Ferretti, A.; Gallio, M.; Gemme, R.; Masoni, A.; Mereu, P.; Musso, A.; Oppedisano, C.; Piccotti, A.; Poggio, F.; Puddu, G.; Scomparin, E.; Serci, S.; Siddi, E.; Travaglia, G.; Usai, G.; Vercellin, E.

    2006-08-01

    In this paper, we present the performance of the Neutron Zero Degree Calorimeter (ZN) for the ALICE experiment. The ZN is a quartz-fiber spaghetti calorimeter, which will measure the energy of the spectator neutrons in heavy ion collisions at the CERN LHC. Its principle of operation is based on the detection of the Cherenkov light produced by the charged particles of the shower in silica optical fibers, embedded in a W-alloy absorber. The detector was tested at CERN SPS using positive hadron and positron beams with momenta ranging from 50 to 150 GeV/c. The response of the calorimeter, the energy resolution, the localizing capability, the signal uniformity and the transverse profile of the detectable hadronic shower are presented.

  2. Simulation studies for design optimisation of a scintillator plate calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Proudfoot, J.; Job, P.K.; Trost, H.J. ); Handler, T. ); Gabriel, T. )

    1990-01-01

    Results on simulations studies relating to the optimisation of a sampling scintillator plate calorimeter for an SSC detector system are presented. These studies show that whereas a compensating sampling geometry can be obtained using a variety of configurations using either lead or depleted uranium as the principal absorber, no configuration based on a pure iron absorber is compensating. Unlike in a lead system, delayed energy release from long lived shower products produced in a uranium system pose a serious pile up problem. Therefore we advocate the use of lead as the principal absorber in this calorimeter. Work on optimisation of the mechanical structure is in progress and results are presented on issues such as structural support, tolerances and on the degradation in response due to other detector material within the volume of the calorimeter. 8 refs., 16 figs.

  3. Optimization of pyrolysis properties using TGA and cone calorimeter test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Won-Hee; Yoon, Kyung-Beom

    2013-04-01

    The present paper describes an optimization work to obtain the properties related to a pyrolysis process in the solid material such as density, specific heat, conductivity of virgin and char, heat of pyrolysis and kinetic parameters used for deciding pyrolysis rate. A repulsive particle swarm optimization algorithm is used to obtain the pyrolysis-related properties. In the previous study all properties obtained only using a cone calorimeter but in this paper both the cone calorimeter and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) are used for precisely optimizing the pyrolysis properties. In the TGA test a very small mass is heated up and conduction and heat capacity in the specimen is negligible so kinetic parameters can first be optimized. Other pyrolysis-related properties such as virgin/char specific heat and conductivity and char density are also optimized in the cone calorimeter test with the already decided parameters in the TGA test.

  4. A Fast, Compact, Segmented Tungsten/SciFi Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crnkovic, Jason; McNabb, Ronald; Lynch, Kevin; Hertzog, David

    2007-04-01

    The new E969 muon g-2 experiment at BNL will need to run at significantly higher stored muon rate to collect the necessary statistics in a reasonable time. The higher instantaneous decay electron rate will require a new segmented calorimeter to keep the systematic error from pileup small. A fast, tungsten-scintillating fiber calorimeter with PMT readout has been designed for this purpose. The high density of tungsten results in compact showers, which are necessary both to distinguish multiple simultaneous showers and to satisfy strict space constraints. Beam tests and Monte Carlo simulations of a single calorimeter segment have been performed. Analysis of these studies indicates that the new design should satisfy the requirements of the g-2 experiment.

  5. EURECA: a European-Japanese micro-calorimeter array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Korte, Piet A. J.; Anquita, Jose V.; Barcons, Xavier; Bastia, Paolo; Beyer, Joern; Briones, Fernando; Brockley Blatt, Chris; Bruijn, Marcel; Bussons, Javier; Camon, Augustin; Ceballos, M. Teresa; Drung, Dietmar; Enns, Christian; Fabrega, Lourdes; Fraser, George; Gatti, Flavio; Gottardi, Luciano; Hajdas, Wojtek; Helistö, Panu; Hepburn, Ian; den Herder, Jan-Willem; Hoevers, Henk; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Kiviranta, Mikko; van der Kuur, Jan; Mchedlishvili, Aliko; Mitsuda, Kazu; Piro, Luigi; Sese, Javier; Yamasaki, Noriko; Whitford, Chris

    2006-06-01

    EURECA (EURopean-JapanEse Calorimeter Array) comprises a 5 x 5 pixel imaging TES-based micro-calorimeter array read-out by SQUID-based frequency-domain-multiplexed electronics and cooled down by an adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator. A European-Japanese consortium designs, fabricates, and tests this prototype instrument with the aim to show within about 2 years technology readiness of a TES-based X-ray imaging micro-calorimeter array in anticipation of future X-ray astronomy missions, like XEUS (ESA), Constellation-X (NASA), NEXT (JAXA), DIOS (JAXA), ESTREMO (ASI), and NEW (Dutch-multinational). This paper describes the instrument concept, and shows the design of the various sub-units, like the TES detector array, LC-filters, SQUID-amplifiers, flux-locked-loop electronics, AC-bias sources, etc.

  6. A compact light readout system for longitudinally segmented shashlik calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berra, A.; Brizzolari, C.; Cecchini, S.; Cindolo, F.; Jollet, C.; Longhin, A.; Ludovici, L.; Mandrioli, G.; Mauri, N.; Meregaglia, A.; Paoloni, A.; Pasqualini, L.; Patrizii, L.; Pozzato, M.; Pupilli, F.; Prest, M.; Sirri, G.; Terranova, F.; Vallazza, E.; Votano, L.

    2016-09-01

    The longitudinal segmentation of shashlik calorimeters is challenged by dead zones and non-uniformities introduced by the light collection and readout system. This limitation can be overcome by direct fiber-photosensor coupling, avoiding routing and bundling of the wavelength shifter fibers and embedding ultra-compact photosensors (SiPMs) in the bulk of the calorimeter. We present the first experimental test of this readout scheme performed at the CERN PS-T9 beamline in 2015 with negative particles in the 1-5 GeV energy range. In this paper, we demonstrate that the scheme does not compromise the energy resolution and linearity compared with standard light collection and readout systems. In addition, we study the performance of the calorimeter for partially contained charged hadrons to assess the e / π separation capability and the response of the photosensors to direct ionization.

  7. Performance of the PrimEx Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    M. Kubantsev; I. Larin; A. Gasparian

    2006-06-05

    We report the design and performance of the hybrid electromagnetic calorimeter consisting of 1152 PbWO{sub 4} crystals and 576 lead glass blocks for the PrimEx experiment at the Jefferson Laboratory. The detector was built for high precision measurement of the neutral pion lifetime via the Primakoff effect. Calorimeter installation and commissioning was completed with the first physics run in fall of 2004. We present the energy and position resolution of the calorimeter. Obtained {pi}{sup 0} mass resolution of 1.3 MeV/c{sup 2} and its production angle resolution of 0.34 mrad demonstrate the ability of the experiment to extract the {pi}{sup 0} lifetime on one percent level.

  8. The lead-glass electromagnetic calorimeter for the SELEX experiment

    SciTech Connect

    M. Y. Balatz et al.

    2004-07-19

    A large-acceptance, highly segmented electromagnetic lead glass calorimeter for Experiment E781 (SELEX) at Fermi National Acceleration Laboratory was designed and built. This detector has been used to reconstruct photons and electrons with energies ranging from few GeV up to 500 GeV in the collisions of the 650 GeV {Sigma}{sup -} hyperons and {pi}{sup -} mesons with the target nucleons. The design, calibration and performance of the calorimeter are described. Energy resolution and position resolution are assessed using both calibration electron beams and {pi}{sup 0} mesons reconstructed in 650 GeV hadron-hadron interactions. The performance of the calorimeter in selecting resonant states that involve photons is demonstrated.

  9. Performance of the DELPHI small angle tile calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Alvsvaag, S.J.; Maeland, O.A.; Klovning, A.

    1996-06-01

    The DELPHI STIC detector is a lead-scintillator sampling calorimeter with wave length shifting optical fibers used for light collection. The main goal of the calorimeter at LEP100 is to measure the luminosity with an accuracy better than 0.1%. The detector has been in operation since the 1994 LEP run. Presented here is the performance measured during the 1994--1995 LEP runs, with the emphasis on the achieved energy and space resolution, the long-term stability and the efficiency of the detector. The new bunchtrains mode of LEP requires a rather sophisticated trigger and timing scheme which is also presented. To control the trigger efficiency and stability of the calorimeter channels, a LED-based monitoring system has been developed.

  10. Development of Metallic Magnetic Calorimeters for Nuclear Safeguards Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bates, Cameron Russell

    2015-03-11

    Many nuclear safeguards applications could benefit from high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy achievable with metallic magnetic calorimeters. This dissertation covers the development of a system for these applications based on gamma-ray detectors developed at the University of Heidelberg. It demonstrates new calorimeters of this type, which achieved an energy resolution of 45.5 eV full-width at half-maximum at 59.54 keV, roughly ten times better than current state of the art high purity germanium detectors. This is the best energy resolution achieved with a gamma-ray metallic magnetic calorimeter at this energy to date. In addition to demonstrating a new benchmark in energy resolution, an experimental system for measuring samples with metallic magnetic calorimeters was constructed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This system achieved an energy resolution of 91.3 eV full-width at half-maximum at 59.54 keV under optimal conditions. Using this system it was possible to characterize the linearity of the response, the count-rate limitations, and the energy resolution as a function of temperature of the new calorimeter. With this characterization it was determined that it would be feasible to measure 242Pu in a mixed isotope plutonium sample. A measurement of a mixed isotope plutonium sample was performed over the course of 12 days with a single two-pixel metallic magnetic calorimeter. The relative concentration of 242Pu in comparison to other plutonium isotopes was determined by direct measurement to less than half a percent accuracy. This is comparable with the accuracy of the best-case scenario using traditional indirect methods. The ability to directly measure the relative concentration of 242Pu in a sample could enable more accurate accounting and detection of indications of undeclared activities in nuclear safeguards, a better constraint on source material in forensic samples containing plutonium, and improvements in verification in a future plutonium

  11. Development of Metallic Magnetic Calorimeters for Nuclear Safeguards Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Cameron Russell

    Many nuclear safeguards applications could benefit from high-resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy achievable with metallic magnetic calorimeters. This dissertation covers the development of a system for these applications based on gamma-ray detectors developed at the University of Heidelberg. It demonstrates new calorimeters of this type, which achieved an energy resolution of 45.5 eV full-width at half-maximum at 59.54 keV, roughly ten times better than current state of the art high purity germanium detectors. This is the best energy resolution achieved with a gamma-ray metallic magnetic calorimeter at this energy to date. In addition to demonstrating a new benchmark in energy resolution, an experimental system for measuring samples with metallic magnetic calorimeters was constructed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This system achieved an energy resolution of 91.3 eV full-width at half-maximum at 59.54 keV under optimal conditions. Using this system it was possible to characterize the linearity of the response, the count-rate limitations, and the energy resolution as a function of temperature of the new calorimeter. With this characterization it was determined that it would be feasible to measure 242Pu in a mixed isotope plutonium sample. A measurement of a mixed isotope plutonium sample was performed over the course of 12 days with a single two-pixel metallic magnetic calorimeter. The relative concentration of 242Pu in comparison to other plutonium isotopes was determined by direct measurement to less than half a percent accuracy. This is comparable with the accuracy of the best-case scenario using traditional indirect methods. The ability to directly measure the relative concentration of 242Pu in a sample could enable more accurate accounting and detection of indications of undeclared activities in nuclear safeguards, a better constraint on source material in forensic samples containing plutonium, and improvements in verification in a future plutonium

  12. ATLAS Tile Calorimeter: simulation and validation of the response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faltova, Jana; ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter at the Large Hadron Collider. Scintillation light produced in the tiles is readout by wavelength shifting fibers and transmitted to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The resulting electronic signals from approximately 10000 PMTs are measured and digitized before being further transferred to off-detector data-acquisition systems. Detailed simulations are described in this contribution, ranging from the implementation of the geometrical elements to the realistic description of the electronics readout pulses, including specific noise treatment and the signal reconstruction. Special attention is given to the improved optical signal propagation and the validation with the real particle data.

  13. HARP: high-pressure argon readout for calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Barranco-Luque, M.; Fabjan, C.W.; Frandsen, P.K.

    1982-01-01

    Steel tubes of approximately 8 mm O.D., filled with Argon gas to approx. 200 bar, are considered as the active element for a charge collecting sampling calorimeter readout system. The tubes are permanently sealed and operated in the ion chamber mode, with the charge collection on a one-millimeter concentric anode. We present the motivation for such a device, including Monte Carlo predictions of performance. The method of construction and signal collection are discussed, with initial results on leakage and ageing of the filling gas. A prototype electromagnetic calorimeter is described.

  14. The upgrade of the ATLAS first-level calorimeter trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Shimpei

    2016-07-01

    The first-level calorimeter trigger (L1Calo) had operated successfully through the first data taking phase of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. Towards forthcoming LHC runs, a series of upgrades is planned for L1Calo to face new challenges posed by the upcoming increases of the beam energy and the luminosity. This paper reviews the ATLAS L1Calo trigger upgrade project that introduces new architectures for the liquid-argon calorimeter trigger readout and the L1Calo trigger processing system.

  15. A purity monitor for the KEDR liquid krypton calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evtushenko, P. N.; Kotov, K. Yu.; Maslennikov, A. L.; Peleganchuk, S. V.; Snopkov, R. G.; Rogozin, A. I.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.

    2016-06-01

    We present a purity monitor for the KEDR liquid krypton calorimeter. A new method is suggested based on the usage of a short pulse of a gas discharge as a source of ultraviolet radiation for the photoproduction of electrons in a drift cell of the monitor. This paper describes the design of the monitor, the results of experiments with gaseous and liquid krypton, as well as the experience of using the developed device in the process of krypton purification for the KEDR liquid krypton calorimeter.

  16. Nose-Cone Calorimeter: upgrade of PHENIX detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chvala, Ondrej

    2008-10-01

    PHENIX experiment at RHIC is efficient at measuring processes involving rare probes, but has limited acceptance in azimuth and pseudorapidity (η). The Nose Cone Calorimeter (NCC), a W-Si sampling calorimeter in the region of 0.9,<η<,, is one of the upgrades which will dramatically increase coverage in azimuth and pseudorapidity. The NCC will expand PHENIX's precision measurements of electromagnetic probes in η, reconstruct jets, and enhance triggering capabilities. It will significantly contribute to measurements of γ-jets, quarkonia, and low-x nuclear structure functions. Details of the detector design, performance, and a sample of the physics topics which will benefit from the NCC, will be discussed.

  17. Improvements in a calorimeter for high-power CW lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, G. E.; Simpson, P. A.; Smith, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    A technique for improving the measurement certainty with the BB series (Smith et al., 1972) of electrically calibrated calorimeters used in high-energy lasers is described. The technique is based on monitoring the energy which is backscattered from the meter and monitoring the overspill radiation impinging on the calorimeter at the entrance aperture. The design and performance of a second generation BB meter is discussed and compared to that of the original device in terms of number of electrical calibrations, the residual standard deviation of electrical calibration, the calibration constant for laser energy, the correcting factor for systematics, inaccuracy, imprecision, and uncertainty.

  18. The Electromagnetic Calorimeter of the future PANDA Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Novotny, Rainer

    2006-10-27

    Experiments with a cooled antiproton beam at the future accelerator facility FAIR at GSI, Darmstadt, will be performed with the 4{pi} detector PANDA comprising a high resolution, compact and fast homogeneous electromagnetic calorimeter to detect photons between 10MeV and 10GeV energy inside a superconducting solenoid (2T). The target calorimeter comprises more than 20,000 PbWO4 crystals of significantly enhanced quality read-out with large area avalanche photodiodes at an operating temperature of -25 degree sign C. The paper describes the quality of PWO-II and illustrates the future performance based on response measurements with high-energy photons.

  19. Radiation damage studies for the SDC electromagnetic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazely, A. R.; Gunasingha, R.; Imlay, R. L.; Khosravi, E. S.; Lim, Jit-Ning; Lyndon, C.; McMills, G.; McNeil, R. R.; Metcalf, W. J.; Courtney, J. C.; Tashakkori, R.; Vegara, B. J.

    1993-01-01

    We report the results from a year long study aimed at radiation resistance and optical performance of scintillator tile with green wave shifter fiber readout. A careful investigation of several rad-hard plastic scintillators from Bicron and Kuraray, studies indicate that for a specific rad-hard Bicron scintillator, it is possible to build a tile/fiber EM calorimeter that can operate in the design luminosity of SSC. This calorimeter with excellent optical response would only have a light loss of about 5% after being exposed to 1 Mrad.

  20. The Scintillating Optical Fiber Calorimeter Instrument Performance (SOFCAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christl, M. J.; Benson, C. M.; Berry, F. A.; Fountain, W. F.; Gregory, J. C.; Johnson, J. S.; Munroe, R. B.; Parnell, T. A.; Takahashi, Y.; Watts, J. W.

    1999-01-01

    SOFCAL is a balloon-borne instrument designed to measure the P-He cosmic ray spectra from about 200 GeV/amu - 20 TeV/amu. SOFCAL uses a thin lead and scintillating-fiber ionization calorimeter to measure the cascades produced by cosmic rays interacting in the hybrid detector system. Above the fiber calorimeter is an emulsion chamber that provides the interaction target, primary particle identification and in-flight energy calibration for the scintillating fiber data. The energy measurement technique and its calibration are described, and the present results from the analysis of a 1 day balloon flight will be presented.

  1. Calorimeter probes for measuring high thermal flux. [in arc jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, L. D.

    1979-01-01

    Expendable, slug-type calorimeter probes were developed for measuring high heat-flux levels of 10-30 kW/sq cm in electric-arc jet facilities. The probes were constructed with thin tungsten caps mounted on Teflon bodies. The temperature of the back surface of the tungsten cap is measured, and its time rate of change gives the steady-state absorbed heat flux as the calorimeter probe heats to destruction when inserted into the arc jet. Design, construction, test, and performance data are presented.

  2. Imaging Calorimeter for ACCESS Simulations with GEANT/FLUKA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, John; Lee, Jeongin

    2000-01-01

    Imaging Calorimeter for ACCESS (ICA) is a candidate of the calorimeter for the NASA's ACCESS program to be flown on the International Space Station. The ICA studies the origin and acceleration mechanism of cosmic rays by measuring the elemental composition of the cosmic rays in the energy up to 10(exp 16) eV. For the past year, Monte Carlo simulation study for the ICA has been conducted using GEANT/FLUKA to predict the detector performance and to design the system for match the scientific objectives. Simulation results will be shown for the detector response and the energy resolution for various configurations.

  3. Study of response nonuniformity for the LHCb calorimeter module and the prototype of the CBM calorimeter module

    SciTech Connect

    Korolko, I. E.; Prokudin, M. S.

    2009-02-15

    A spatial nonuniformity of the response to high-energy muons is studied in the modules of the LHCb electromagnetic calorimeter and the prototype of the calorimeter module with lead plates and scintillator tiles 0.5 mm thick. The nonuniformity of the response of the inner LHCb modules to 50-GeV electrons is also measured. Software is developed for a thorough simulation of light collection in scintillator plates of a shashlik calorimeter. A model is elaborated to describe light transmission from the initial scintillation to the wavelength-shifting fiber with a subsequent reradiation and propagation of light over the fiber to the photodetector. The results of the simulation are in good agreement with data.

  4. Noise in a Calorimeter Readout System Using Periodic Sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Innes, Walter R.; /SLAC

    2009-02-26

    Fourier transform analysis of the calorimeter noise problem gives quantitative results on (a) the time-height correlation, (b) the effect of background on optimal shaping and on the ENC, (c) sampling frequency requirements, and (d) the relation between sampling frequency and the required quantization error.

  5. Processing of the Liquid Xenon calorimeter's signals for timing measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epshteyn, L. B.; Yudin, Yu V.

    2014-09-01

    One of the goals of the Cryogenic Magnetic Detector at Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS (Novosibirsk, Russia) is a study of nucleons production in electron-positron collisions near threshold. The neutron-antineutron pair production events can be detected only by the calorimeters. In the barrel calorimeter the antineutron annihilation typically occurs by 5 ns or later after beams crossing. For identification of such events it is necessary to measure the time of flight of particles to the LXe-calorimeter with accuracy of about 3 ns. The LXe-calorimeter consists of 14 layers of ionization chambers with anode and cathode readout. The duration of charge collection to the anodes is about 4.5 mks, while the required accuracy of measuring of the signal arrival time is less than 1/1000 of that. Besides, the signals' shapes differ substantially from event to event, so the signal arrival time is measured in two stages. At the first stage, the signal arrival time is determined with an accuracy of 1-2 discretization periods, and initial values of parameters for subsequent fitting procedure are calculated. At the second stage, the signal arrival time is determined with the required accuracy by means of fitting of the signal waveform with a template waveform. To implement that, a special electronics has been developed which performs waveform digitization and On-Line measurement of signals' arrival times and amplitudes.

  6. Balloon test project: Cosmic Ray Antimatter Calorimeter (CRAC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christy, J. C.; Dhenain, G.; Goret, P.; Jorand, J.; Masse, P.; Mestreau, P.; Petrou, N.; Robin, A.

    1984-01-01

    Cosmic ray observations from balloon flights are discussed. The cosmic ray antimatter calorimeter (CRAC) experiment attempts to measure the flux of antimatter in the 200-600 Mev/m energy range and the isotopes of light elements between 600 and 1,000 Mev/m.

  7. ATIC as a testbed for the ACCESS baseline calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Isbert, J.; Authement, J.; Coleman, J.; Guzik, T. G.; Granger, D.; Lockwood, R.; McMorris, A.; Mock, L.; Oubre, C.; Panasyuk, M.; Peck, J.; Wefel, J. P.; Adams, J. H. Jr.; Boberg, P. R.; Dion-Schwarz, C.; Kroeger, R.; Bashindzhagyan, G. B.; Khein, L.; Samsonov, G. A.; Zatsepin, V. I.

    1999-01-22

    The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) balloon experiment is designed to measure the spectrum of individual elements from H through Fe up to a total energy >10{sup 14} eV. To accomplish this goal, ATIC incorporates a Silicon matrix detector composed of more than 4,000 pixels to measure the incident particle charge in the presence of backscatter background, three plastic scintillator hodoscopes to provide an event trigger as well as a backup measurement of the particle charge and trajectory, a 3/4 interaction length carbon target and a fully active ionization calorimeter composed of 22 radiation lengths of Bismuth Germanate (BGO) crystals. This detector complement is very similar to the baseline calorimeter for the Advanced Cosmic Ray Composition Experiment for the Space Station, ACCESS. The ATIC flights can be used to evaluate such a calorimeter in the cosmic ray 'beam.' ATIC integration is currently underway with a first flight expected during 1999. This talk will discuss ATIC as it applies to ACCESS.

  8. The pad readout electronics of the SLD Warm Iron Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Burrows, P.N.; Busza, W.; Cartwright, S.L.; Friedman, J.I.; Fuess, S.; Gonzalez, S.; Hansl-Kozanecka, T.; Kendall, H.W.; Lath, A.; Lyons, T.; Osborne, L.S.; Rosenson, L.; Schneekloth, U.; Taylor, F.E.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Williams, D.C.; Yamartino, J.M. ); Byers, B.L.; Escalera, J.; Gioumousis, A.; Gray, R.; Horelick, D.; Kharakh, D.; Messner, R.L.; Moss, J.; Zdark

    1990-08-01

    The design of the pad readout electronics of the Warm Iron Calorimeter for the SLD detector at SLAC, consisting of about 9000 analog channels, is described. Results of various tests performed during the construction, installation and commissioning of the electronics mounted on the detector are presented. 10 refs., 12 figs.

  9. Jet Reconstruction and Calibration in the ATLAS Calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen Roca, Sigrid

    2006-10-27

    Many physics studies in ATLAS require precise reconstruction and calibration of particle jet kinematics. Among these are the reconstruction of the top quark mass, the search for the Higgs boson, and possible supersymmetric particles. The ATLAS calorimeter system has been designed to meet these requirements across a wide acceptance in pseudorapidity (|{eta}|<5). Different calorimeter technologies are applied in different rapidity regions to optimize the performance with respect to coverage, containment, highest possible spatial granularity, and the best possible energy resolution, in the difficult and changing experimental conditions characteristic for each of these regions.In this talk we briefly illustrate the ATLAS calorimeter features most relevant for the jet measurement. The general approach to calorimeter jet calibration is two-fold. First, the jet signal shape is used to correct for detector effects such as non-compensation and energy losses in inactive materials. This followed by corrections for biases introduced by the jet clustering algorithms and effects from the collision physics environment. We intend to discuss this calibration procedure and the different strategies available to implement it, in the context of the evaluation of the jet reconstruction performance for various available jet clustering algorithms, including a fixed cone and the Kt algorithm. A focus in this discussion is on the expected initial run condition at ATLAS start-up.

  10. Temperature and humidity control in indirect calorimeter chambers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A three-chamber, indirect calorimeter has been a part of the Environmental Laboratory at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center (MARC) for over 25 yr. Corrosion of the animal chambers and unreliable temperature control forced either major repairs or complete replacement. There is a strong demand for...

  11. Design and expected performance of a fast scintillator hadron calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, R.B.; Ghosh, A.K.

    1983-01-01

    A typical pulse from the 807 calorimeter is shown. This was generated by 4 GeV electrons but the pulses from hadrons and at different energies are not significantly different. The width and shape of this pulse comes from the convolution of a number of sources: (a) The time spread of energy deposition by a shower including time of flight of slow protons and neutrons, (b) scintillator phosphor rise and decay times, (c) shifter rise and decay times, (d) phototube response, (e) time delays in the light collection from different parts of the calorimeter and time dispersion in transmission. The objective of the first phase of this study was to isolate these spearate contributions, estimate how they could be speeded up and find what costs are involved. In the second phase we constructed an extremely crude calorimeter whose pulses should have the same characteristic as in a real device. With this we have observed signals whose mean width was 7 nsec and whose width at 10% of maximum height was 15 nsec. Clipping could reduce these widths to 6 and 12 nsec respectively. We conclude that gate times of less than 20 nsec would be appropriate for such a calorimeter.

  12. Progress status for the Mu2e calorimeter system

    SciTech Connect

    Pezzullo, Gianantonio; Budagov, J.; Carosi, R.; Cervelli, F.; Cheng, C.; Cordelli, M.; Corradi, G.; Davydov, Yu.; Echenard, B.; Giovannella, S.; Glagolev, V.; Happacher, F.; Hitlin, D.; Luca, A.; Martini, M.; Miscetti, S.; Murat, P.; Ongmonkolkul, P.; Porter, F.; Saputi, A.; Sarra, I.; Spinella, F.; Stomaci, V.; Tassielli, G.

    2015-01-01

    The Mu2e experiment at FNAL aims to measure the charged-lepton flavor violating neutrinoless conversion of a negative muon into an electron. The conversion results in a monochromatic electron with an energy slightly below the muon rest mass (104.97 MeV). The calorimeter should confirm that the candidates reconstructed by the extremely precise tracker system are indeed conversion electrons while performing a powerful $\\mu/e$ particle identification. Moreover, it should also provide a high level trigger for the experiment independently from the tracker system. The calorimeter should also be able to keep functionality in an environment where the background delivers a dose of ~ 10 krad/year in the hottest area and to work in the presence of 1 T axial magnetic field. These requirements translate in the design of a calorimeter with large acceptance, good energy resolution O(5%) and a reasonable position (time) resolution of ~<1 cm (<0.5ns). The baseline version of the calorimeter is composed by two disks of inner (outer) radius of 351 (660) mm filled by 1860 hexagonal $BaF_2$ crystals of 20 cm length. Each crystal is readout by two large area APD's. In this study, we summarize the experimental tests done so far as well as the simulation studies in the Mu2e environment.

  13. The STAR EM calorimeter design and small prototype test results

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    The basis for several design features of The STAR Electromagnetic Calorimeter and Shower Maximum Detector is presented. This includes some of the tile-fiber optical design. The authors describe both the barrel and the end cap. Some preliminary analysis of electron acceptance vs pion rejection in test beam data is also discussed.

  14. Development of a portable graphite calorimeter for radiation dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Sakama, Makoto; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Fukumura, Akifumi

    2008-01-01

    We developed and performance-tested a portable graphite calorimeter designed to measure the absolute dosimetry of various beams including heavy-ion beams, based on a flexible and convenient means of measurement. This measurement system is fully remote-controlled by the GPIB system. This system uses a digital PID (Proportional, Integral, Derivative) control method based on the LabVIEW software. It was possible to attain stable conditions in a shorter time by this system. The standard deviation of the measurements using the calorimeter was 0.79% at a dose rate of 0.8 Gy/min in 17 calorimeter runs for a (60)Co photon beam. The overall uncertainties for the absorbed dose to graphite and water of the (60)Co photon beam using the developed calorimeter were 0.89% and 1.35%, respectively. Estimations of the correction factors due to vacuum gaps, impurities in the core, the dose gradient and the radiation profile were included in the uncertainties. The absorbed doses to graphite and water irradiated by the (60)Co photon beam were compared with dosimetry measurements obtained using three ionization chambers. The absorbed doses to graphite and water estimated by the two dosimetry methods agreed within 0.1% and 0.3%, respectively. PMID:21976250

  15. Progress status for the Mu2e calorimeter system

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Pezzullo, Gianantonio; Budagov, J.; Carosi, R.; Cervelli, F.; Cheng, C.; Cordelli, M.; Corradi, G.; Davydov, Yu.; Echenard, B.; Giovannella, S.; et al

    2015-01-01

    The Mu2e experiment at FNAL aims to measure the charged-lepton flavor violating neutrinoless conversion of a negative muon into an electron. The conversion results in a monochromatic electron with an energy slightly below the muon rest mass (104.97 MeV). The calorimeter should confirm that the candidates reconstructed by the extremely precise tracker system are indeed conversion electrons while performing a powerfulmore » $$\\mu/e$$ particle identification. Moreover, it should also provide a high level trigger for the experiment independently from the tracker system. The calorimeter should also be able to keep functionality in an environment where the background delivers a dose of ~ 10 krad/year in the hottest area and to work in the presence of 1 T axial magnetic field. These requirements translate in the design of a calorimeter with large acceptance, good energy resolution O(5%) and a reasonable position (time) resolution of ~<1 cm (<0.5ns). The baseline version of the calorimeter is composed by two disks of inner (outer) radius of 351 (660) mm filled by 1860 hexagonal $BaF_2$ crystals of 20 cm length. Each crystal is readout by two large area APD's. In this study, we summarize the experimental tests done so far as well as the simulation studies in the Mu2e environment.« less

  16. Towards a compensatable Muon Collider calorimeter with manageable backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Raja, R.; /Fermilab

    2012-04-01

    Muon Collider detectors pose very challenging problems in detector technology due to extremely large backgrounds present in the detector volume as a result of muon decays. Current designs of a 750 GeV/c per beam Muon Collider envisage 4.28 x 10{sup 5} muon decays per meter in the beam pipe close to the interaction region. The decay electrons after intense shielding still manage to produce large backgrounds in the detector volume of low energy photons, neutrons and higher energy Bethe Heitler muons. There are 170/184/6.8/177 TeVs energy entering the detector volume per crossing due to EM particles/Muons/Mesons/Baryons respectively. We investigate the capabilities of an iron calorimeter with pixelated readout where each pixel gives a yes/no answer as to whether a charged particle passed through it or not, to solve this problem. Each pixel is individually triggered by a 'travelling gate trigger' with a gate of 2 ns where the beginning of the gate is the time of arrival of a light signal from the interaction region to the pixel. We show that such a calorimeter is compensatable and propose two schemes to compensate the digital output in software to improve the resolution of the calorimeter. We show that such a calorimeter is capable of digitizing physics signals from the interaction region and as a result, the backgrounds from the muon decays are much reduced and under control.

  17. Design, performance, and calibration of CMS forward calorimeter wedges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullin, S.; Abramov, V.; Acharya, B.; Adams, M.; Akchurin, N.; Akgun, U.; Anderson, E. W.; Antchev, G.; Arcidy, M.; Ayan, S.; Aydin, S.; Baarmand, M.; Babich, K.; Baden, D.; Bakirci, M. N.; Banerjee, Sud.; Banerjee, Sun.; Bard, R.; Barnes, V.; Bawa, H.; Baiatian, G.; Bencze, G.; Beri, S.; Bhatnagar, V.; Bodek, A.; Budd, H.; Burchesky, K.; Camporesi, T.; Cankoçak, K.; Carrell, K.; Cerci, S.; Chendvankar, S.; Chung, Y.; Cremaldi, L.; Cushman, P.; Damgov, J.; de Barbaro, P.; Deliomeroglu, M.; Demianov, A.; de Visser, T.; Dimitrov, L.; Dindar, K.; Dugad, S.; Dumanoglu, I.; Duru, F.; Elias, J.; Elvira, D.; Emeliantchik, I.; Eno, S.; Eskut, E.; Fenyvesi, A.; Fisher, W.; Freeman, J.; Gamsizkan, H.; Gavrilov, V.; Genchev, V.; Gershtein, Y.; Golutvin, I.; Goncharov, P.; Grassi, T.; Green, D.; Gribushin, A.; Grinev, B.; Gülmez, E.; Gümüş, K.; Haelen, T.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Hashemi, M.; Hauptman, J.; Hazen, E.; Heering, A.; Ilyina, N.; Isiksal, E.; Jarvis, C.; Johnson, K.; Kaftanov, V.; Kalagin, V.; Kalinin, A.; Karmgard, D.; Kalmani, S.; Katta, S.; Kaur, M.; Kaya, M.; Kayis-Topaksu, A.; Kellogg, R.; Khmelnikov, A.; Kim, H.; Kisselevich, I.; Kodolova, O.; Kohli, J.; Kolossov, V.; Korablev, A.; Korneev, Y.; Kosarev, I.; Koylu, S.; Kramer, L.; Krinitsyn, A.; Krokhotin, A.; Kryshkin, V.; Kuleshov, S.; Kumar, A.; Kunori, S.; Kurt, P.; Kuzucu-Polatoz, A.; Laasanen, A.; Ladygin, V.; Laszlo, A.; Lawlor, C.; Lazic, D.; Levchuk, L.; Linn, S.; Litvintsev, D.; Litov, L.; Los, S.; Lubinsky, V.; Lukanin, V.; Ma, Y.; Machado, E.; Mans, J.; Markowitz, P.; Massolov, V.; Martinez, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Merlo, J. P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mescheryakov, G.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Miller, M.; Mohammadi-Najafabadi, M.; Moissenz, P.; Mondal, N.; Nagaraj, P.; Norbeck, E.; Olson, J.; Onel, Y.; Onengut, G.; Ozdes-Koca, N.; Ozkan, C.; Ozkurt, H.; Ozkorucuklu, S.; Paktinat, S.; Pal, A.; Patil, M.; Penzo, A.; Petrushanko, S.; Petrosyan, A.; Pikalov, V.; Piperov, S.; Podrasky, V.; Pompos, A.; Posch, C.; Qiang, W.; Reddy, L.; Reidy, J.; Ruchti, R.; Rogalev, E.; Rohlf, J.; Ronzhin, A.; Ryazanov, A.; Safronov, G.; Sanders, D. A.; Sanzeni, C.; Sarycheva, L.; Satyanarayana, B.; Schmidt, I.; Sekmen, S.; Semenov, S.; Senchishin, V.; Sergeyev, S.; Serin-Zeyrek, M.; Sever, R.; Singh, J.; Sirunyan, A.; Skuja, A.; Sharma, S.; Sherwood, B.; Shumeiko, N.; Smirnov, V.; Sogut, K.; Sorokin, P.; Spezziga, M.; Stefanovich, R.; Stolin, V.; Sulak, L.; Suzuki, I.; Talov, V.; Teplov, K.; Thomas, R.; Topakli, H.; Tully, C.; Turchanovich, L.; Ulyanov, A.; Vankov, I.; Vardanyan, I.; Varela, F.; Vergili, M.; Verma, P.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vidal, R.; Vishnevskiy, A.; Vlassov, E.; Vodopiyanov, I.; Volkov, A.; Volodko, A.; Wang, L.; Wetstein, M.; Winn, D.; Wigmans, R.; Whitmore, J.; Wu, S. X.; Yazgan, E.; Yershov, A.; Yetkin, T.; Zalan, P.; Zarubin, A.; Zeyrek, M.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the test beam results and calibration methods using high energy electrons, pions and muons with the CMS forward calorimeter (HF). The HF calorimeter covers a large pseudorapidity region (3≤|η|≤5), and is essential for a large number of physics channels with missing transverse energy. It is also expected to play a prominent role in the measurement of forward tagging jets in weak boson fusion channels in Higgs production. The HF calorimeter is based on steel absorber with embedded fused-silica-core optical fibers where Cherenkov radiation forms the basis of signal generation. Thus, the detector is essentially sensitive only to the electromagnetic shower core and is highly non-compensating (e/h≈5). This feature is also manifest in narrow and relatively short showers compared to similar calorimeters based on ionization. The choice of fused-silica optical fibers as active material is dictated by its exceptional radiation hardness. The electromagnetic energy resolution is dominated by photoelectron statistics and can be expressed in the customary form as a/sqrt{E}oplus{b}. The stochastic term a is 198% and the constant term b is 9%. The hadronic energy resolution is largely determined by the fluctuations in the neutral pion production in showers, and when it is expressed as in the electromagnetic case, a = 280% and b = 11%.

  18. Progress status for the Mu2e calorimeter system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzullo, Gianantonio; Budagov, J.; Carosi, R.; Cervelli, F.; Cheng, C.; Cordelli, M.; Corradi, G.; Davydov, Yu; Echenard, B.; Giovannella, S.; Glagolev, V.; Happacher, F.; Hitlin, D.; Luca, A.; Martini, M.; Miscetti, S.; Murat, P.; Ongmonkolkul, P.; Porter, F.; Saputi, A.; Sarra, I.; Spinella, F.; Stomaci, V.; Tassielli, G.

    2015-02-01

    The Mu2e experiment at FNAL aims to measure the charged-lepton flavor violating neutrinoless conversion of a negative muon into an electron. The conversion results in a monochromatic electron with an energy slightly below the muon rest mass (104.97 MeV). The calorimeter should confirm that the candidates reconstructed by the extremely precise tracker system are indeed conversion electrons while performing a powerful μ/e particle identification. Moreover, it should also provide a high level trigger for the experiment independently from the tracker system. The calorimeter should also be able to keep functionality in an environment where the background delivers a dose of ~ 10 krad/year in the hottest area and to work in the presence of 1 T axial magnetic field. These requirements translate in the design of a calorimeter with large acceptance, good energy resolution O(5%) and a reasonable position (time) resolution of ~ < 1 cm (<0.5ns). The baseline version of the calorimeter is composed by two disks of inner (outer) radius of 351 (660) mm filled by 1860 hexagonal BaF2 crystals of 20 cm length. Each crystal is readout by two large area APD's. In this paper, we summarize the experimental tests done so far as well as the simulation studies in the Mu2e environment.

  19. Resolution Performance of HERA-B Lead-Glass Calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losada, Anthony; Brash, Edward; Thomas, Jordan; Ayerbe-Gayoso, Carlos; Burton, Matthew; Perdisat, Charles; Jones, Mark; Punjabi, Vina; Hast, Carsten; Szalata, Zenon

    2013-10-01

    In preparation of upcoming 12 GeV experiments at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility it is necessary to upgrade existing systems or install new detectors. As part of this effort, an array of lead-glass sampling calorimeters is need for use in the GEP-5 experiment. A sampling calorimeter can be used to determine the energy and spatial position of a high energy particle that enters it while simultaneously stopping the particle. To determine the appropriate construction to meet the needs of upcoming experiments, it was necessary to take an existing model and confirm its energy and position resolution. This model could then be confirmed as an option for the final construction, or used as a starting point to design a better detector. For our test we obtained ten lead-glass calorimeters used in HERA-B and tested them in End Station A at SLAC. I will report on our findings for the HERA-B lead-glass sampling calorimeters. I will cover the results of both the energy and position resolutions as well as the methods used to determine these quantities.

  20. Development of a scintillating optical fiber ionization calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, Y.

    1990-01-01

    A design study of a scintillation fiber (SF) calorimeter for a cosmic ray observation is made. An evaluation of various fibers and design configuration was made. The proposed design has a dimension of 1 m (W) x 1 m (L) x 16 cm (H) contains 1000 fibers at each of 40 x- or 40 y-layers interleaved with 1mm thick leadplates. Two or four CCD Particle Track Imaging Systems are connected to a bundle of SF edges at x- and y-ends. The overall weight of a calorimeter is 1,200 kg including read-out systems and supporting boards. The designed calorimeter can measure cosmic ray nuclei and gamma-rays with position, angles and energy information suitable for detailed spectrum analysis. The system is particularly beneficial at very high energies where the flux is extremely low and it requires a very long exposure over many years in space. Emulsion chambers have an advantage for cosmic ray measurements if the exposure is limited to several months in space. In fact, the most important energy region for the current cosmic ray studies is at around 1,000 TeV where a drastic change of elemental composition is indicated by various indirect observations. A detector whose size is in the order of 1 m(sup 2) requires several years of exposure in space accumulate sufficient statistics near 1,000 TeV. Emulsions will be strongly contaminated by background radiation for such a long duration flight, while SF calorimeter is totally immune from this concern. This is particularly important for long-duration experiments. The SF calorimeter also allows time-tagging of individual events, extending the experimental capability in various ways.

  1. The readout driver (ROD) for the ATLAS liquid argon calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efthymiopoulos, Ilias

    2001-04-01

    The Readout Driver (ROD) for the Liquid Argon calorimeter of the ATLAS detector is described. Each ROD module receives triggered data from 256 calorimeter cells via two fiber-optics 1.28 Gbit/s links with a 100 kHz event rate (25 kbit/event). Its principal function is to determine the precise energy and timing of the signal from discrete samples of the waveform, taken each period of the LHC clock (25 ns). In addition, it checks, histograms, and formats the digital data stream. A demonstrator system, consisting of a motherboard and several daughter-board processing units (PUs) was constructed and is currently used for tests in the lab. The design of this prototype board is presented here. The board offers maximum modularity and allows the development and testing of different PU designs based on today's leading integer and floating point DSPs.

  2. Active radiometric calorimeter for absolute calibration of radioactive sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stump, K. E.; DeWerd, L. A.; Rudman, D. A.; Schima, S. A.

    2005-03-01

    This report describes the design and initial noise floor measurements of a radiometric calorimeter designed to measure therapeutic medical radioactive sources. The instrument demonstrates a noise floor of approximately 2 nW. This low noise floor is achieved by using high temperature superconducting (HTS) transition edge sensor (TES) thermometers in a temperature-control feedback loop. This feedback loop will be used to provide absolute source calibrations based upon the electrical substitution method. Other unique features of the calorimeter are (a) its ability to change sources for calibration without disrupting the vacuum of the instrument, and (b) the ability to measure the emitted power of a source in addition to the total contained source power.

  3. CMS HF calorimeter PMTs and Xi(c)+ lifetime measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Akgun, Ugur; /Iowa U.

    2003-12-01

    This thesis consists of two parts: In the first part we describe the Photomultiplier Tube (PMT) selection and testing processes for the Hadronic Forward (HF) calorimeter of the CMS, a Large Hadron Collier (LHC) experiment at CERN. We report the evaluation process of the candidate PMTs from three different manufacturers, the complete tests performed on the 2300 Hamamatsu PMTs which will be used in the HF calorimeter, and the details of the PMT Test Station that is in University of Iowa CMS Laboratories. In the second part we report the {Xi}{sub c}{sup +} lifetime measurement from SELEX, the charm hadro-production experiment at Fermilab. Based upon 301 {+-} 31 events from three di.erent decay channels, by using the binned maximum likelihood technique, we observe the lifetime of {Xi}{sub c}{sup +} as 427 {+-} 31 {+-} 13 fs.

  4. Tungsten Scintillating Fibers Electromagnetic Calorimeters for sPHENIX upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Siyang; Loggins, Vera; Phipps, Michael; Sickles, Anne

    2015-10-01

    sPHENIX, a planned new detector at RHIC, features electromagnetic and hadronic calorimetry that covers | η| < 1.1 and φ = 2 π. The large acceptance calorimeter design is optimized for the study of jets in heavy ion collisions. The design includes a tungsten fiber EmCal that is made out of a tower array of plastic scintillating fiber embedded inside a mixture of tungsten powder and epoxy. For this calorimeter, silicon photomultipliers will be attached at the end of the module to convert scintillated optical photons into electrical signals. The sPHENIX group at Illinois is currently making samples of these modules to study the production process and achievable density. In addition, we have set up a silicon photomultiplier read out test system which will be used to evaluate the module performance. sPHENIX collaboration and Brookhaven National Laboratory.

  5. ANL four-meter calorimeter design and operation manual

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, R.B.; Lewis, R.N.; Youngdahl, G.A.; Jung, E.A.; Roche, C.T.

    1980-02-01

    The four-meter fuel rod calorimetric system measures the thermal power produced by radioactive decay of fuel rods containing Pu. The Pu mass is related to the measured power through the weighted average of the product of the isotopic decay energies and the decay constants of the Pu isotopes present. U content has no effect since the thermal power produced by the U nuclides is insignificant when compared to Pu. Radiations from Pu are alpha particles and low-energy photons. This calorimeter will measure samples producing power up to 1.5 watts at a rate of one sample every 120 min. The instrument consists of a data-acquisition module made up of a microprocessor, with an 8K-byte nonvolatile memory, a control cabinet and the calorimeter chamber. (FS)

  6. Modeling and scanning of lightguides for Pb/SCIFI calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, D. A.; Hertzog, D. W.; Jones, T. D.; Rhodes, M. W.; Yairi, M. B.

    1993-10-01

    Calorimeters containing embedded arrays of scintillating fibers often require uniform-acceptance lightguides to gather, mix and transport light from the end face of the module to a photo-sensitive detector. To optimize such devices, we have built a flexible lightguide scanning station which imitates the distribution of light coming from an array of scintillating fibers. This system has been used to map the photocathode response of photomultiplier tubes, the transmission uniformity of lightguides and the performance of detector-lightguide combinations. Additionally, we have developed a ray-trace modeling program which accurately reproduces the experimental results. These tools are described in the context of our own application-specific examples, while their general nature makes them attractive in other situations where lightguides are involved. Finally, the effect of lightguide non-uniformity is evaluated in order to estimate the systematic contribution to the calorimeter energy resolution description.

  7. A Study on Thermal Design of the BGO Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dengyi; Hu, Yiming; Wu, Jian; Feng, Changqing; Zhang, Yunlong; Chang, Jin

    The BGO Electromagnetic Calorimeter (BGO ECAL) is one of the most important payload of the Chinese DArk Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE), which can precisely measure the incident energy of cosmic ray. However, thermal control of the BGO ECAL plays a key role on its running in the space. In this paper, the thermal design of the BGO ECAL and the thermal FEM modal created by hyper-mesh & NASTRAN FEM software will be introduced. Then the temperature distribution of the BGO calorimeter with the given on orbit conditions is performed. In the end, we depicts the thermal test which has been carried out in February. By the comparisons between the experiment results and the analyses results, the methodology in this paper was proved to be effective.

  8. Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) balloon experiment: expected performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Eun-Suk; Adams, James H.; Bashindzhagyan, G. L.; Dudnik, Alexey V.; Fazely, Ali R.; Garcia, L.; Grigorov, Naum L.; Guzik, T. Gregory; Inderhees, Susan E.; Isbert, Joachim; Jung, H. C.; Khein, L.; Kim, Sun-Kee; Kroeger, Richard A.; McDonald, Frank B.; Panasyuk, Mikhail I.; Park, Choong-Soo; Schmidt, Wolfgang K.; Dion-Schwartz, C.; Senchishin, V. G.; Wang, J. Z.; Wefel, John P.; Zatsepin, Viktor I.; Zinn, S. Y.

    1996-10-01

    An advanced thin ionization calorimeter (ATIC) will be used to investigate the charge composition and energy spectra of ultrahigh energy primary cosmic rays in a series of long- duration balloon flights. While obtaining new high priority scientific results, this balloon payload can also serve as a proof of concept for a BGO calorimeter-based instrument on the International Space Station. The ATIC technical details are presented in a companion paper at this conference. Here we discuss the expected performance of the instrument based on a GEANT code developed for simulating nuclear- electromagnetic cascades initiated by protons. For simulations of helium and heavy nuclei, a nucleus-nucleus interaction event generator LUCIAE was linked to the GEANT based program. Using these models, the design of the ATIC detector system has been optimized by simulating the instrument response to particles of different charges over the energy range to be covered. Results of these simulations are presented and discussed.

  9. Charge Detector Study for a Thin Sampling Calorimeter for ACCESS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jeongin; Adams, James H., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Advanced Cosmic ray Composition Experiment for Space Station (ACCESS) is a NASA's new mission concept that is now being studied. The scientific objective is to measure cosmic ray elemental energy spectra in the energy range from I TeV up to 1000 TeV. ACCESS will carry two instruments and measure the energy and charge of incoming particles. One of these will be a calorimeter with a charge detector. The charge detector will see not only signals from the incident cosmic rays but also signals from radiation backscattered from the calorimeter. In that case, bias information on particle identification is unavoidable. This study shows how much the charge detector will be affected by backscatter and how it can be designed with a minimized effect.

  10. Imaging Calorimeter for ACCESS Simulations with GEANT/FLUKA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jeongin; Watts, John; Howell, Leonard; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Imaging Calorimeter for ACCESS (ICA) is a candidate of the calorimeter for the NASA's ACCESS program. The ICA studies the origin and acceleration mechanism of cosmic rays by measuring the elemental composition of the cosmic rays in the energy up to 10(exp 16) eV. For the past year, Monte Carlo simulation study for the ICA has been conducted to predict the detector performance and to design the system for match the scientific objectives. Simulation results show that the detector response resembles a Gaussian distribution and the energy resolution with ICA can be achieved about 40%. In addition, simulations of the detector's response to an assumed bent power law spectra in the region where the knee occurs have been conducted and clearly show that this detector can provide sufficiently accurate estimates of the spectral parameters that are a science goal of ACCESS.

  11. Thermal detection of X-rays. [cryogenic calorimeters for astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccammon, D.; Edwards, B.; Juda, M.; Plucinsky, P.; Zhang, J.; Kelley, R.; Holt, S.; Madejski, G.; Moseley, S.; Szymkowiak, A.

    1990-01-01

    The development of calorimeters is described in terms of their proposed application to sounding-rocket investigations of cosmic X-ray sources. The fundamental theory of the energy resolution of the devices is given, and general discussions are presented regarding the limitations associated with the materials used and available thermometer types. Also given are data describing electrical nonlinearity as a function of temperature, thermistor sensitivity, and heat capacity, as well as data regarding the excess noise that aids in the conduction process. Cryogenic calorimeters based on doped semiconductor thermistors are found to be limited, although thermal detectors have important applications to high-resolution laboratory spectroscopy. Electrical nonlinearity and the excess noise are found to be important for obtaining optimum heat capacity in the thermistor.

  12. The cathode read-out of the DELPHI hadron calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Ajinenko, I.; Chudoba, J.; Czellar, S.

    1995-08-01

    To improve the identification and separation of leptons in the Hadron Calorimeter of DELPHI, one of the four LEP experiments at CERN, the possibility of a direct read-out of the cathodes of the 20,000 limited streamer tubes was studied and successfully tested on a small scale. A larger scale test started in June 1994. This new system which is independent of the present pad read-out provides a ``yes/no`` information. The combination of both read-out systems makes it possible to use the Hadron Calorimeter as a track detector. The result of these test show that the cathode read-out provides a better {pi}/{micro} separation, and improved detection of neutral long lived particles, enhanced discrimination of two showers and a more precise hadron energy measurement. It was decided to equip the whole detector with the new read-out, starting during the 94/95 shutdown.

  13. The Liquid Argon Calorimeter system for the SLC Large Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Haller, G.M.; Fox, J.D.; Smith, S.R.

    1988-09-01

    In this paper the physical packaging and the logical organization of the Liquid Argon Calorimeter (LAC) electronics system for the Stanford Linear Collider Large Detector (SLD) at SLAC are described. This system processes signals from approximately 44,000 calorimeter towers and is unusual in that most electronic functions are packaged within the detector itself as opposed to an external electronics support rack. The signal path from the towers in the liquid argon through the vacuum to the outside of the detector is explained. The organization of the control logic, analog electronics, power regulation, analog-to-digital conversion circuits, and fiber optic drivers mounted directly on the detector are described. Redundancy considerations for the electronics and cooling issues are discussed. 12 refs., 5 figs.

  14. The calorimeter of the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grove, J. Eric; Johnson, W. Neil

    2010-07-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT), the primary instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, has been making revolutionary observations of the high-energy (20 MeV - 300 GeV) gamma-ray sky since its launch in June 2008. The LAT calorimeter is a modular array of 1536 CsI(Tl) crystals supported within 16 carbon fiber structures and read out at each crystal end with silicon PIN photodiodes to provide both energy and position information. The hodoscopic crystal stack allows imaging of electromagnetic showers and cosmic rays for improved energy measurement and background rejection. Signals from the array of photodiodes are processed by custom ASICs and commercial ADCs. We describe the calorimeter design and the primary factors that led those design choices.

  15. Verification of Electromagnetic Calorimeter Concept for the HADES spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svoboda, O.; Blume, C.; Czyžycki, W.; Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L.; Galatyuk, T.; Golubeva, M.; Guber, F.; Hlaváč, S.; Ivashkin, A.; Kajetanowic, M.; Kardan, B.; Koenig, W.; Kugler, A.; Lapidus, K.; Linev, S.; Lisowski, E.; Ott, P.; Otte, P.; Petukhov; Pietraszko, J.; Reshetin, A.; Rodríguez-Ramos, P.; Rost, A.; Salabura, P.; Skott, P.; Sobolev, Y. G.; Steffen, O.; Thomas, A.; Tlustý, P.; Traxler, M.

    2015-04-01

    The HADES spectrometer currently operating on the beam of SIS18 accelerator in GSI will be moved to a new position in the CBM cave of the future FAIR complex. Electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL) will enable the HADES@FAIR experiment to measure data on neutral meson production in heavy ion collisions at the energy range of 2-10 A GeVon the beam of the new accelerator SIS100. Calorimeter will be based on 978 massive lead glass modules read out by photomultipliers and a novel front-end electronics. Secondary gamma beam with energies ranging from 81 MeV up to 1399 MeV from MAMI-C Mainz facility was used to verify selected technical solutions. Relative energy resolution was measured using modules with three different types of photomultipliers. Two types of developed front-end electronics as well as energy leakage between neighbouring modules under parallel and declined gamma beams were studied in detail.

  16. After-burning of nitropenta products in a calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhl, A L; Neuwald, P; Reichenbach, H

    1999-06-18

    Explored here are the ''after-burning'' effects for explosions of Nitropenta (NP) charges in air. Detonation of the charge transforms the solid explosive ( C HNO 5 8412 , also known as PETN) into gaseous products that are rich in carbon and CO, which subsequently act as a fuel. When these hot ({approximately}3500 K) gases mix with air, rapid combustion (after-burning) takes place. The dynamics of this exothermic process was studied in ''pressure calorimeter'' experiments performed at EMI.

  17. Some studies of data using the STAR endcap electromagnetic calorimeter.

    SciTech Connect

    Krueger, K.; Spinka, H. M.; Underwood, D. G.; High Energy Physics

    2009-02-24

    A series of studies was performed using data from the STAR detector at the Brookhaven National Laboratory's RHIC accelerator from collisions of protons at {radical}s = 200 GeV. Many of these involved the shower maximum detector (SMD) of the STAR endcap electromagnetic calorimeter (EEMC). Detailed studies of photon candidates from {eta} {yields} {gamma}{gamma} decay, and of {gamma} + Jet inclusive data and simulated events were performed.

  18. Development of an air flow thermal balance calorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherfey, J. M.

    1972-01-01

    An air flow calorimeter, based on the idea of balancing an unknown rate of heat evolution with a known rate of heat evolution, was developed. Under restricted conditions, the prototype system is capable of measuring thermal wattages from 10 milliwatts to 1 watt, with an error no greater than 1 percent. Data were obtained which reveal system weaknesses and point to modifications which would effect significant improvements.

  19. Cryogenic Technology Development For The MEG Liquid Xenon Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Haruyama, Tomiyoshi

    2008-02-21

    Cryogenic key technologies have been developed for the muon rare decay experiment (MEG) at the Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland. These technologies are the high power pulse tube cryocooler for precise temperature and pressure control of liquid xenon in the calorimeter, a purification system with a cryogenic liquid pump and a cryogenic dewar with 1000 L storage capacity. The paper describes the general concepts and the first test results of each technology. All the results imply a promising performance for the coming MEG experiment.

  20. On timing properties of LYSO-based calorimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.; Apresyan, A.; Bornheim, A.; Duarte, J.; Pena, C.; Ronzhin, A.; Spiropulu, M.; Trevor, J.; Xie, S.

    2015-04-23

    We present test beam studies and results on the timing performance and characterization of the time resolution of Lutetium–Yttrium Orthosilicate (LYSO)-based calorimeters. We also demonstrate that a time resolution of 30 ps is achievable for a particular design. Additionally, we discuss precision timing calorimetry as a tool for the mitigation of physics object performance degradation effects due to the large number of simultaneous interactions in the high luminosity environment foreseen at the Large Hadron Collider.

  1. Design of a microwave calorimeter for the microwave tokamak experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Marinak, M. )

    1988-10-07

    The initial design of a microwave calorimeter for the Microwave Tokamak Experiment is presented. The design is optimized to measure the refraction and absorption of millimeter rf microwaves as they traverse the toroidal plasma of the Alcator C tokamak. Techniques utilized can be adapted for use in measuring high intensity pulsed output from a microwave device in an environment of ultra high vacuum, intense fields of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation and intense magnetic fields. 16 refs.

  2. Calibration and Characterization of the Small Sample Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Santi, Peter A.; Perry, Katherine A.

    2012-08-13

    An early component of the Joint Fuel Cycle Study (JFCS) between the United States and the Republic of Korea is a test of gram scale electrochemical recycling of spent fuel which is to be performed at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). Included in this test is the development of Nondestructive Assay (NDA) technologies that would be applicable for International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards of the electrochemical recycling process. Of upmost importance to safeguarding the fuel cycle associated with the electrochemical recycling process is the ability to safeguard the U/TRU ingots that will be produced in the process. For the gram scale test, the ingots that will be produced will have an expected thermal power of approximately 130 mW. To ascertain how well the calorimetric assay NDA technique can perform in assaying these ingots, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has characterized and calibrated a small solid-state calorimeter called the Small Sample Calorimeter (SSC3) to perform these measurements at LANL. To calibrate and characterize the SSC3, a series of measurements were performed using certified {sup 238}Pu heat standards whose power output is traceable back to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) electrical standards. The results of these measurements helped establish both the calibration of the calorimeter as well as the expected performance of the calorimeter in terms of its accuracy and precision as a function of thermal power of the item that is being measured. In this report, we will describe the measurements that were performed and provide a discussion of the results of these measurements.

  3. Micro-Fabricated DC Comparison Calorimeter for RF Power Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Neji, Bilel; Xu, Jing; Titus, Albert H.; Meltzer, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Diode detection and bolometric detection have been widely used to measure radio frequency (RF) power. However, flow calorimeters, in particular micro-fabricated flow calorimeters, have been mostly unexplored as power meters. This paper presents the design, micro-fabrication and characterization of a flow calorimeter. This novel device is capable of measuring power from 100 μW to 200 mW. It has a 50-Ohm load that is heated by the RF source, and the heat is transferred to fluid in a microchannel. The temperature change in the fluid is measured by a thermistor that is connected in one leg of a Wheatstone bridge. The output voltage change of the bridge corresponds to the RF power applied to the load. The microfabricated device measures 25.4 mm × 50.8 mm, excluding the power supplies, microcontroller and fluid pump. Experiments demonstrate that the micro-fabricated sensor has a sensitivity up to 22 × 10−3 V/W. The typical resolution of this micro-calorimeter is on the order of 50 μW, and the best resolution is around 10 μW. The effective efficiency is 99.9% from 0–1 GHz and more than 97.5% at frequencies up to 4 GHz. The measured reflection coefficient of the 50-Ohm load and coplanar wave guide is less than −25 dB from 0–2 GHz and less than −16 dB at 2–4 GHz. PMID:25350509

  4. Dynamic range compression in a liquid argon calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Cleland, W.E.; Lissauer, D.; Radeka, V.; Rescia, S.; Takai, H.; Wingerter-Seez, I.

    1996-12-31

    The anticipated range of particle energies at the LHC, coupled with the need for precision, low noise calorimetry makes severe demands on the dynamic range of the calorimeter readout. A common approach to this problem is to use shapers with two or more gain scales. In this paper, the authors describe their experience with a new approach in which a preamplifier with dynamic gain compression is used. An unavoidable consequence of dynamic gain adjustment is that the peaking time of the shaper output signal becomes amplitude dependent. The authors have carried out a test of such a readout system in the RD3 calorimeter, a liquid argon device with accordion geometry. The calibration system is used to determine both the gain of the individual channels as well as to map the shape of the waveform as a function of signal amplitude. A new procedure for waveform analysis, in which the fitted parameters describe the impulse response of the system, permits a straightforward translation of the calibration waveform to the waveform generated by a particle crossing the ionization gap. They find that the linearity and resolution of the calorimeter is equivalent to that obtained with linear preamplifiers, up to an energy of 200 GeV.

  5. The backward end-cap for the PANDA electromagnetic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capozza, L.; Maas, F. E.; Noll, O.; Rodriguez Pineiro, D.; Valente, R.

    2015-02-01

    The PANDA experiment at the new FAIR facility will cover a broad experimental programme in hadron structure and spectroscopy. As a multipurpose detector, the PANDA spectrometer needs to ensure almost 4π coverage of the scattering solid angle, full and accurate multiple-particle event reconstruction and very good particle identification capabilities. The electromagnetic calorimeter (EMC) will be a key item for many of these aspects. Particle energies ranging from some MeVs to several GeVs have to be measured with a relative resolution of 1% ⊕ 2%/√E/GeV . It will be a homogeneous calorimeter made of PbWO4 crystals and will be operated at -25°C, in order to improve the scintillation light yield. With the exception of the very forward section, the light will be detected by large area avalanche photodiodes (APDs). The current pulses from the APDs will be integrated, amplified and shaped by ASIC chips which were developed for this purpose. The whole calorimeter has been designed in three sections: a forward end-cap, a central barrel and a backward end-cap (BWEC). In this contribution, a status report on the development of the BWEC is presented.

  6. Applying fast calorimetry on a spent nuclear fuel calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Liljenfeldt, Henrik

    2015-04-15

    Recently at Los Alamos National Laboratory, sophisticated prediction algorithms have been considered for the use of calorimetry for treaty verification. These algorithms aim to predict the equilibrium temperature based on early data and therefore be able to shorten the measurement time while maintaining good accuracy. The algorithms have been implemented in MATLAB and applied on existing equilibrium measurements from a spent nuclear fuel calorimeter located at the Swedish nuclear fuel interim storage facility. The results show significant improvements in measurement time in the order of 15 to 50 compared to equilibrium measurements, but cannot predict the heat accurately in less time than the currently used temperature increase method can. This Is both due to uncertainties in the calibration of the method as well as identified design features of the calorimeter that limits the usefulness of equilibrium type measurements. The conclusions of these findings are discussed, and suggestions of both improvements of the current calorimeter as well as what to keep in mind in a new design are given.

  7. Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) balloon experiment: instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzik, T. Gregory; Adams, James H.; Bashindzhagyan, G. L.; Dudnik, Alexey V.; Ellison, Steven B.; Fazely, Ali R.; Garcia, L.; Grigorov, Naum L.; Inderhees, Susan E.; Isbert, Joachim; Jung, H. C.; Khein, L.; Kim, Sun-Kee; Kroeger, Richard A.; Lockwood, R.; McDonald, Frank B.; Panasyuk, Mikhail I.; Park, Choong-Soo; Price, B.; Schmidt, Wolfgang K.; Dion-Schwartz, C.; Senchishin, V. G.; Seo, Eun-Suk; Wefel, John P.; Wang, J. Z.; Zatsepin, Viktor I.; Zinn, S. Y.

    1996-10-01

    A new balloon instrument, the advanced thin ionization calorimeter (ATIC), is currently under development by an international collaboration involving researchers in the U.S., Germany, Korea, Russia and the Ukraine. The instrument will be used, in a series of long duration balloon flights, to investigate the charge composition and energy spectra of primary cosmic rays over the energy range from about 1010 to 1014 eV. The ATIC instrument is designed around a new technology, fully active Bismuth Germanate (BGO) ionization calorimeter that is used to measure the energy deposited by the cascades formed by particles interacting in an approximately 1 proton interaction length thick carbon target. The charge module comprises a highly segmented, triply redundant set of detectors (scintillator, silicon matrix and Cherenkov) that together give good incident charge resolution plus rejection of the 'backscattered' particles from the interaction. Trajectory information is obtained both from scintillator layers and from the cascade profile throughout the BGO calorimeter. This instrument is specifically designed to take advantage of the existing NASA long duration balloon flight capability in Antarctica and/or the Northern Hemisphere. The ATIC instrumentation is presented here, while a companion paper at this conference discusses the expected performance.

  8. Calibration of the Tile Hadronic Calorimeter of ATLAS at LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boumediene, Djamel; ATLAS Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    The Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) is the central section of the hadronic calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment. The TileCal provides important information for reconstruction of hadrons, jets, hadronic decays of tau leptons and missing transverse energy. This sampling calorimeter uses iron plates as absorber and scintillating tiles as active medium. The light produced by the passage of charged particles is transmitted by means of wavelength shifting fibers to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The TileCal readout is segmented into about 5000 cells (longitudinally and transversally), each of them being read by two PMTs. A brief description of the individual calibration systems (Cs radioactive source, laser, charge injection, minimum bias) is provided. Their combination allows to calibrate each part of the data acquisition chain (optical part, photomultiplier, readout electronics) and to monitor its stability to better than 1%. The procedure for setting and preserving the electromagnetic energy scale during Run 1 data taking is discussed. The issues of linearity and stability of the response, as well as the timing adjustment are also shown.

  9. The ATLAS tile calorimeter ROD injector and multiplexer board

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valero, A.; Castillo, V.; Ferrer, A.; González, V.; Hernández, Y.; Higón, E.; Sanchís, E.; Solans, C.; Torres, J.; Valls, J. A.

    2011-02-01

    The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter is a sampling detector composed by cells made of iron-scintillator tiles. The calorimeter cell signals are digitized in the front-end electronics and transmitted to the Read-Out Drivers (RODs) at the first level trigger rate. The ROD receives triggered data from up to 9856 channels and provides the energy, phase and quality factor of the signals to the second level trigger. The back-end electronics is divided into four partitions containing eight RODs each. Therefore, a total of 32 RODs are used to process and transmit the data of the TileCal detector. In order to emulate the detector signals in the production and commissioning of ROD modules a board called ROD Injector and Multiplexer Board (RIMBO) was designed. In this paper, the RIMBO main functional blocks, PCB design and the different operation modes are described. It is described the crucial role of the board within the TileCal ROD test-bench in order to emulate the front-end electronics during the validation of ROD boards as well as during the evaluation of the ROD signal reconstruction algorithms. Finally, qualification and performance results for the injection operation mode obtained during the Tile Calorimeter ROD production tests are presented.

  10. Determination of shower central position in laterally segmented lead-fluoride electromagnetic calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazouz, M.; Ghedira, L.; Voutier, E.

    2016-07-01

    The spatial resolution of laterally segmented electromagnetic calorimeters, built of lead fluoride material, is studied on the basis of Monte-Carlo simulations. Parametrization of the relative resolution on the shower position is proposed and optimized in terms of the energy of incoming particles and the elementary size of the calorimeter blocks. A new fit algorithm method is proposed that improves spatial resolution at high energies (> 5 GeV), and provides guidance for the design optimization of electromagnetic calorimeters.