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1

Columbia River Plume andColumbia River Plume and California Current Ecosystem:California Current Ecosystem  

E-print Network

Columbia River Plume andColumbia River Plume and California Current Ecosystem:California Current Ecosystem: Role in Salmon ProductivityRole in Salmon Productivity NOAA FisheriesNOAA Fisheries Northwest conditions/survivalfreshwater conditions/survival ·· The coastal pelagic ecosystem is dynamic andThe coastal

2

Emergence of Anoxia in the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eastern boundary current systems are among the world's most productive large marine ecosystems. Because upwelling currents transport nutrient-rich but oxygen-depleted water onto shallow seas, large expanses of productive continental shelves can be vulnerable to the risk of extreme low-oxygen events. Here, we report the novel rise of water-column shelf anoxia in the northern California Current system, a large marine ecosystem

F. Chan; J. A. Barth; J. Lubchenco; A. Kirincich; W. T. Peterson; B. A. Menge

2008-01-01

3

Emergence of anoxia in the California current large marine ecosystem.  

PubMed

Eastern boundary current systems are among the world's most productive large marine ecosystems. Because upwelling currents transport nutrient-rich but oxygen-depleted water onto shallow seas, large expanses of productive continental shelves can be vulnerable to the risk of extreme low-oxygen events. Here, we report the novel rise of water-column shelf anoxia in the northern California Current system, a large marine ecosystem with no previous record of such extreme oxygen deficits. The expansion of anoxia highlights the potential for rapid and discontinuous ecosystem change in productive coastal systems that sustain a major portion of the world's fisheries. PMID:18276882

Chan, F; Barth, J A; Lubchenco, J; Kirincich, A; Weeks, H; Peterson, W T; Menge, B A

2008-02-15

4

Emergence of Anoxia in the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eastern boundary current systems are among the worlds most productive large marine ecosystems. Because upwelling currents transport nutrient-rich but oxygen-depleted water onto shallow seas, large expanses of productive continental shelves can be vulnerable to the risk of extreme low-oxygen events. Here, we report the novel rise of water-column shelf anoxia in the northern California Current system, a large marine ecosystem with no previous record of such extreme oxygen deficits. The expansion of anoxia highlights the potential for rapid and discontinuous ecosystem change in productive coastal systems that sustain a major portion of the worlds fisheries.

Chan, F.; Barth, J. A.; Lubchenco, J.; Kirincich, A.; Weeks, H.; Peterson, W. T.; Menge, B. A.

2008-02-01

5

Ekstrom, Draft 11/14/08 California Current Large Marine Ecosystem: Publicly Available Dataset of State and  

E-print Network

Ekstrom, Draft 11/14/08 1 California Current Large Marine Ecosystem: Publicly Available-689-7449 (phone) 650-723-7514 (fax) jekstrom@stanford.edu Keywords: ecosystem-based management, marine governance, ocean law, large marine ecosystem INTRODUCTION Historically, governments have managed ocean uses within

Stanford University

6

An emergent community ecosystem model applied to the California Current System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An ecosystem model that supports considerable phytoplankton diversity is coupled to a circulation model of the California Current System. The Regional Ocean Modeling System is configured for a realistic simulation at 0.1 resolution for years 2000-2004. The concentration-based ecosystem model includes multiple nutrients, dissolved and particulate organic pools, two grazers, and 78 phytoplankton organism. Primary producers divide into 4 functional groups representing diatoms, large phytoplankton that do not require silicate, Prochlorococcus-like organisms, and small phytoplankton that can use nitrate. Random selection of phytoplankton growth parameters creates an autotrophic community able to fill multiple environmental niches created by the physical circulation and plankton population. In the 5-year average, over 98% of the total biomass at the surface is contained within 8 primary producers, with 30 additional phytoplankton sustained at lower levels. Modeled surface phytoplankton biomass is evaluated on multi-annual and seasonal bases using satellite chlorophyll estimates for the same period. The self-organized communities produced by the model represent various features of the California Current Ecosystem, including the biogeographic break at Pt. Conception. The annual average fields generally reveal high diatom concentrations nearshore, with small phytoplankton more broadly distributed. Prochlorococcus-like organisms are absent or at relatively low concentrations at the coast, increasing across the California Current. Small non- Prochlorococcus-like phytoplankton types are found at highest concentrations nearshore and far offshore. The model exhibits both surface and subsurface features, including a seasonal subsurface chlorophyll maximum along CalCOFI Line 77 between May and October. Time-series of area averaged model fields show seasonal progressions of different phytoplankton groups.

Goebel, Nicole L.; Edwards, Christopher A.; Zehr, Jonathan P.; Follows, Michael J.

2010-11-01

7

Exploring local adaptation and the ocean acidification seascape - studies in the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The California Current Large Marine Ecosystem (CCLME), a temperate marine region dominated by episodic upwelling, is predicted to experience rapid environmental change in the future due to ocean acidification. Aragonite saturation state within the California Current System is predicted to decrease in the future, with near-permanent undersaturation conditions expected by the year 2050. Thus, the CCLME is a critical region to study due to the rapid rate of environmental change that resident organisms will experience and because of the economic and societal value of this coastal region. Recent efforts by a research consortium - the Ocean Margin Ecosystems Group for Acidification Studies (OMEGAS) - has begun to characterize a portion of the CCLME; both describing the mosaic of pH in coastal waters and examining the responses of key calcification-dependent benthic marine organisms to natural variation in pH and to changes in carbonate chemistry that are expected in the coming decades. In this review, we present the OMEGAS strategy of co-locating sensors and oceanographic observations with biological studies on benthic marine invertebrates, specifically measurements of functional traits such as calcification-related processes and genetic variation in populations that are locally adapted to conditions in a particular region of the coast. Highlighted in this contribution are (1) the OMEGAS sensor network that spans the west coast of the US from central Oregon to southern California, (2) initial findings of the carbonate chemistry amongst the OMEGAS study sites, (3) an overview of the biological data that describes the acclimatization and the adaptation capacity of key benthic marine invertebrates within the CCLME.

Hofmann, G. E.; Evans, T. G.; Kelly, M. W.; Padilla-Gamio, J. L.; Blanchette, C. A.; Washburn, L.; Chan, F.; McManus, M. A.; Menge, B. A.; Gaylord, B.; Hill, T. M.; Sanford, E.; LaVigne, M.; Rose, J. M.; Kapsenberg, L.; Dutton, J. M.

2013-07-01

8

Exploring local adaptation and the ocean acidification seascape - studies in the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The California Current Large Marine Ecosystem (CCLME), a temperate marine region dominated by episodic upwelling, is predicted to experience rapid environmental change in the future due to ocean acidification. The aragonite saturation state within the California Current System is predicted to decrease in the future with near-permanent undersaturation conditions expected by the year 2050. Thus, the CCLME is a critical region to study due to the rapid rate of environmental change that resident organisms will experience and because of the economic and societal value of this coastal region. Recent efforts by a research consortium - the Ocean Margin Ecosystems Group for Acidification Studies (OMEGAS) - has begun to characterize a portion of the CCLME; both describing the spatial mosaic of pH in coastal waters and examining the responses of key calcification-dependent benthic marine organisms to natural variation in pH and to changes in carbonate chemistry that are expected in the coming decades. In this review, we present the OMEGAS strategy of co-locating sensors and oceanographic observations with biological studies on benthic marine invertebrates, specifically measurements of functional traits such as calcification-related processes and genetic variation in populations that are locally adapted to conditions in a particular region of the coast. Highlighted in this contribution are (1) the OMEGAS sensor network that spans the west coast of the US from central Oregon to southern California, (2) initial findings of the carbonate chemistry amongst the OMEGAS study sites, and (3) an overview of the biological data that describes the acclimatization and the adaptation capacity of key benthic marine invertebrates within the CCLME.

Hofmann, G. E.; Evans, T. G.; Kelly, M. W.; Padilla-Gamio, J. L.; Blanchette, C. A.; Washburn, L.; Chan, F.; McManus, M. A.; Menge, B. A.; Gaylord, B.; Hill, T. M.; Sanford, E.; LaVigne, M.; Rose, J. M.; Kapsenberg, L.; Dutton, J. M.

2014-02-01

9

Screening California Current fishery management scenarios using the Atlantis end-to-end ecosystem model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

End-to-end marine ecosystem models link climate and oceanography to the food web and human activities. These models can be used as forecasting tools, to strategically evaluate management options and to support ecosystem-based management. Here we report the results of such forecasts in the California Current, using an Atlantis end-to-end model. We worked collaboratively with fishery managers at NOAAs regional offices and staff at the National Marine Sanctuaries (NMS) to explore the impact of fishery policies on management objectives at different spatial scales, from single Marine Sanctuaries to the entire Northern California Current. In addition to examining Status Quo management, we explored the consequences of several gear switching and spatial management scenarios. Of the scenarios that involved large scale management changes, no single scenario maximized all performance metrics. Any policy choice would involve trade-offs between stakeholder groups and policy goals. For example, a coast-wide 25% gear shift from trawl to pot or longline appeared to be one possible compromise between an increase in spatial management (which sacrificed revenue) and scenarios such as the one consolidating bottom impacts to deeper areas (which did not perform substantially differently from Status Quo). Judged on a coast-wide scale, most of the scenarios that involved minor or local management changes (e.g. within Monterey Bay NMS only) yielded results similar to Status Quo. When impacts did occur in these cases, they often involved local interactions that were difficult to predict a priori based solely on fishing patterns. However, judged on the local scale, deviation from Status Quo did emerge, particularly for metrics related to stationary species or variables (i.e. habitat and local metrics of landed value or bycatch). We also found that isolated management actions within Monterey Bay NMS would cause local fishers to pay a cost for conservation, in terms of reductions in landed value. However, this cost was minimal when local conservation actions were part of a concerted coast-wide plan. The simulations demonstrate the utility of using the Atlantis end-to-end ecosystem model within NOAAs Integrated Ecosystem Assessment, by illustrating an end-to-end modeling tool that allows consideration of multiple management alternatives that are relevant to numerous state, federal and private interests.

Kaplan, Isaac C.; Horne, Peter J.; Levin, Phillip S.

2012-09-01

10

Delayed upwelling alters nearshore coastal ocean ecosystems in the northern California current  

PubMed Central

Wind-driven coastal ocean upwelling supplies nutrients to the euphotic zone near the coast. Nutrients fuel the growth of phytoplankton, the base of a very productive coastal marine ecosystem [Pauly D, Christensen V (1995) Nature 374:255257]. Because nutrient supply and phytoplankton biomass in shelf waters are highly sensitive to variation in upwelling-driven circulation, shifts in the timing and strength of upwelling may alter basic nutrient and carbon fluxes through marine food webs. We show how a 1-month delay in the 2005 spring transition to upwelling-favorable wind stress in the northern California Current Large Marine Ecosystem resulted in numerous anomalies: warm water, low nutrient levels, low primary productivity, and an unprecedented low recruitment of rocky intertidal organisms. The delay was associated with 20- to 40-day wind oscillations accompanying a southward shift of the jet stream. Early in the upwelling season (MayJuly) off Oregon, the cumulative upwelling-favorable wind stress was the lowest in 20 years, nearshore surface waters averaged 2C warmer than normal, surf-zone chlorophyll-a and nutrients were 50% and 30% less than normal, respectively, and densities of recruits of mussels and barnacles were reduced by 83% and 66%, respectively. Delayed early-season upwelling and stronger late-season upwelling are consistent with predictions of the influence of global warming on coastal upwelling regions. PMID:17360419

Barth, John A.; Menge, Bruce A.; Lubchenco, Jane; Chan, Francis; Bane, John M.; Kirincich, Anthony R.; McManus, Margaret A.; Nielsen, Karina J.; Pierce, Stephen D.; Washburn, Libe

2007-01-01

11

Declining Abundance of Beaked Whales (Family Ziphiidae) in the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem  

PubMed Central

Beaked whales are among the most diverse yet least understood groups of marine mammals. A diverse set of mostly anthropogenic threats necessitates improvement in our ability to assess population status for this cryptic group. The Southwest Fisheries Science Center (NOAA) conducted six ship line-transect cetacean abundance surveys in the California Current off the contiguous western United States between 1991 and 2008. We used a Bayesian hidden-process modeling approach to estimate abundance and population trends of beaked whales using sightings data from these surveys. We also compiled records of beaked whale stranding events (3 genera, at least 8 species) on adjacent beaches from 1900 to 2012, to help assess population status of beaked whales in the northern part of the California Current. Bayesian posterior summaries for trend parameters provide strong evidence of declining beaked whale abundance in the study area. The probability of negative trend for Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris) during 19912008 was 0.84, with 1991 and 2008 estimates of 10771 (CV?=?0.51) and ?7550 (CV?=?0.55), respectively. The probability of decline for Mesoplodon spp. (pooled across species) was 0.96, with 1991 and 2008 estimates of 2206 (CV?=?0.46) and 811 (CV?=?0.65). The mean posterior estimates for average rate of decline were 2.9% and 7.0% per year. There was no evidence of abundance trend for Baird's beaked whale (Berardius bairdii), for which annual abundance estimates in the survey area ranged from ?900 to 1300 (CV?1.3). Stranding data were consistent with the survey results. Causes of apparent declines are unknown. Direct impacts of fisheries (bycatch) can be ruled out, but impacts of anthropogenic sound (e.g., naval active sonar) and ecosystem change are plausible hypotheses that merit investigation. PMID:23341907

Moore, Jeffrey E.; Barlow, Jay P.

2013-01-01

12

Limacina helicina shell dissolution as an indicator of declining habitat suitability owing to ocean acidification in the California Current Ecosystem.  

PubMed

Few studies to date have demonstrated widespread biological impacts of ocean acidification (OA) under conditions currently found in the natural environment. From a combined survey of physical and chemical water properties and biological sampling along the Washington-Oregon-California coast in August 2011, we show that large portions of the shelf waters are corrosive to pteropods in the natural environment. We show a strong positive correlation between the proportion of pteropod individuals with severe shell dissolution damage and the percentage of undersaturated water in the top 100 m with respect to aragonite. We found 53% of onshore individuals and 24% of offshore individuals on average to have severe dissolution damage. Relative to pre-industrial CO2 concentrations, the extent of undersaturated waters in the top 100 m of the water column has increased over sixfold along the California Current Ecosystem (CCE). We estimate that the incidence of severe pteropod shell dissolution owing to anthropogenic OA has doubled in near shore habitats since pre-industrial conditions across this region and is on track to triple by 2050. These results demonstrate that habitat suitability for pteropods in the coastal CCE is declining. The observed impacts represent a baseline for future observations towards understanding broader scale OA effects. PMID:24789895

Bednarek, N; Feely, R A; Reum, J C P; Peterson, B; Menkel, J; Alin, S R; Hales, B

2014-06-22

13

Top-down modeling and bottom-up dynamics: Linking a fisheries-based ecosystem model with climate hypotheses in the Northern California Current  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present results from dynamic simulations of the Northern California Current ecosystem, based on historical estimates of fishing mortality, relative fishing effort, and climate forcing. Climate can affect ecosystem productivity and dynamics both from the bottom-up (through short- and long-term variability in primary and secondary production) as well as from the top-down (through variability in the abundance and spatial distribution of key predators). We have explored how the simplistic application of climate forcing through both bottom-up and top-down mechanisms improves the fit of the model dynamics to observed population trends and reported catches for exploited components of the ecosystem. We find that using climate as either a bottom-up or a top-down forcing mechanism results in substantial improvements in model performance, such that much of the variability observed in single species models and dynamics can be replicated in a multi-species approach. Using multiple climate variables (both bottom-up and top-down) simultaneously did not provide significant improvement over a model with only one forcing. In general, results suggest that there do not appear to be strong trophic interactions among many of the longer-lived, slower-growing rockfish, roundfish and flatfish in this ecosystem, although strong interactions were observed in shrimp, salmon and small flatfish populations where high turnover and predation rates have been coupled with substantial changes in many predator populations over the last 40 years.

Field, J. C.; Francis, R. C.; Aydin, K.

2006-02-01

14

Delta Revival: Restoring a California Ecosystem  

USGS Publications Warehouse

'Delta Revival: Restoring a California Ecosystem' shows scientists from many disciplines working together to guide the unprecendented restoration of the Sacramento- San Joaquin Delta east of San Francisco Bay.

U.S. Geological Survey; California Bay Delta Authority

2003-01-01

15

Ecosystem size structure response to 21st century climate projection: large fish abundance decreases in the central North Pacific and increases in the California Current.  

PubMed

Output from an earth system model is paired with a size-based food web model to investigate the effects of climate change on the abundance of large fish over the 21st century. The earth system model, forced by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special report on emission scenario A2, combines a coupled climate model with a biogeochemical model including major nutrients, three phytoplankton functional groups, and zooplankton grazing. The size-based food web model includes linkages between two size-structured pelagic communities: primary producers and consumers. Our investigation focuses on seven sites in the North Pacific, each highlighting a specific aspect of projected climate change, and includes top-down ecosystem depletion through fishing. We project declines in large fish abundance ranging from 0 to 75.8% in the central North Pacific and increases of up to 43.0% in the California Current (CC) region over the 21st century in response to change in phytoplankton size structure and direct physiological effects. We find that fish abundance is especially sensitive to projected changes in large phytoplankton density and our model projects changes in the abundance of large fish being of the same order of magnitude as changes in the abundance of large phytoplankton. Thus, studies that address only climate-induced impacts to primary production without including changes to phytoplankton size structure may not adequately project ecosystem responses. PMID:23504830

Woodworth-Jefcoats, Phoebe A; Polovina, Jeffrey J; Dunne, John P; Blanchard, Julia L

2013-03-01

16

Mapping Groundwater Dependent Ecosystems in California  

PubMed Central

Background Most groundwater conservation and management efforts focus on protecting groundwater for drinking water and for other human uses with little understanding or focus on the ecosystems that depend on groundwater. However, groundwater plays an integral role in sustaining certain types of aquatic, terrestrial and coastal ecosystems, and their associated landscapes. Our aim was to illuminate the connection between groundwater and surface ecosystems by identifying and mapping the distribution of groundwater dependent ecosystems (GDEs) in California. Methodology/Principal Findings To locate where groundwater flow sustains ecosystems we identified and mapped groundwater dependent ecosystems using a GIS. We developed an index of groundwater dependency by analyzing geospatial data for three ecosystem types that depend on groundwater: (1) springs and seeps; (2) wetlands and associated vegetation alliances; and (3) stream discharge from groundwater sources (baseflow index). Each variable was summarized at the scale of a small watershed (Hydrologic Unit Code-12; mean size?=?9,570 ha; n?=?4,621), and then stratified and summarized to 10 regions of relative homogeneity in terms of hydrologic, ecologic and climatic conditions. We found that groundwater dependent ecosystems are widely, although unevenly, distributed across California. Although different types of GDEs are clustered more densely in certain areas of the state, watersheds with multiple types of GDEs are found in both humid (e.g. coastal) and more arid regions. Springs are most densely concentrated in the North Coast and North Lahontan, whereas groundwater dependent wetlands and associated vegetation alliances are concentrated in the North and South Lahontan and Sacramento River hydrologic regions. The percentage of land area where stream discharge is most dependent on groundwater is found in the North Coast, Sacramento River and Tulare Lake regions. GDE clusters are located at the highest percentage in the North Coast (an area of the highest annual rainfall totals), North Lahontan (an arid, high desert climate with low annual rainfall), and Sacramento River hydrologic regions. That GDEs occur in such distinct climatic and hydrologic settings reveals the widespread distribution of these ecosystems. Conclusions/Significance Protection and management of groundwater-dependent ecosystems are hindered by lack of information on their diversity, abundance and location. By developing a methodology that uses existing datasets to locate GDEs, this assessment addresses that knowledge gap. We report here on the application of this method across California, but believe the method can be expanded to regions where spatial data exist. PMID:20585640

Howard, Jeanette; Merrifield, Matt

2010-01-01

17

California Water Policy Seminar Series Reconciling Ecosystem And Economy  

E-print Network

California Water Policy Seminar Series Reconciling Ecosystem And Economy Winter 2014 Mondays, 4 Applying reconciliation ecology to aquatic ecosystems in California. Peter Moyle and Melanie Truan, UC of Chief Counsel, State Water Resources Control Board Feb. 10 Reconciling ecosystem goals for San Francisco

Ferrara, Katherine W.

18

CANARY CURRENT LARGE MARINE ECOSYSTEM (CCLME) PROJECT  

E-print Network

1 CANARY CURRENT LARGE MARINE ECOSYSTEM (CCLME) PROJECT CCLME Inception Workshop 2-3 November 2010. Two possible case studies are presented: the Imraguen social-ecosystem of the Banc d'Arguin National Park, the Bamboung marine protected area social-ecosystem. Key words Social-ecological system, climate

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

19

Predictability of the California Current System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The physical and biological oceanography of the Southern California Bight (SCB), a highly productive subregion of the California Current System (CCS) that extends from Point Conception, California, south to Ensenada, Mexico, continues to be extensively studied. For example, the California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI) program has sampled this region for over 50 years, providing an unparalleled time series of physical and biological data. However, our understanding of what physical processes control the large-scale and mesoscale variations in these properties is incomplete. In particular, the non-synoptic and relatively coarse spatial sampling (70km) of the hydrographic grid does not completely resolve the mesoscale eddy field (Figure 1a). Moreover, these unresolved physical variations exert a dominant influence on the evolution of the ecosystem. In recent years, additional datasets that partially sample the SCB have become available. Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) measurements, which now sample upper-ocean velocity between stations, and sea level observations along TOPEX tracks give a more complete picture of the mesoscale variability. However, both TOPEX and ADCP are well-sampled only along the cruise or orbit tracks and coarsely sampled in time and between tracks. Surface Lagrangian drifters also sample the region, although irregularly in time and space. SeaWiFS provides estimates of upper-ocean chlorophyll-a (chl-alpha), usually giving nearly complete coverage for week-long intervals, depending on cloud coverage. Historical ocean color data from the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) has been used extensively to determine phytoplankton patterns and variability, characterize the primary production across the SCB coastal fronts, and describe the seasonal and interannual variability in pigment concentrations. As in CalCOFI, these studies described much of the observed structures and their variability over relatively large space and time scales.

Miller, Arthur J.; Chereskin, T.; Cornuelle, B. D.; Niiler, P. P.; Moisan, J. R.; Lindstrom, Eric (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

20

Avian Conservation Practices Strengthen Ecosystem Services in California Vineyards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insectivorous Western Bluebirds (Sialia mexicana) occupy vineyard nest boxes established by California winegrape growers who want to encourage avian conservation. Experimentally, the provision of available nest sites serves as an alternative to exclosure methods for isolating the potential ecosystem services provided by foraging birds. We compared the abundance and species richness of avian foragers and removal rates of sentinel prey

Julie A. Jedlicka; Russell Greenberg; Deborah K. Letourneau

2011-01-01

21

Where California Meets Alaska: Ecosystem Response in a Transition Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ecosystems along the west coast of Vancouver Island share features with those of the northern California Current and also with the southern part of the Alaska Coastal Current, and provide the richest fisheries of these two regimes. Studies of the past few decades reveal surprisingly consistent biological responses to changes in ocean temperatures, partly due to the extreme warm and cool years since 1998. Zooplankton populations, migrating salmon, and fledgling seabirds are rapidly affected by changing ocean conditions, whereas the biomass of resident fish stocks responds over several years or even decades. The specific mechanisms responsible for these temperature-related changes vary from species to species, and many are unknown. We will present examples of how influx of predators, timing of food availability, and wind and coastal weather contribute to the response of coastal populations. Results are based on statistical analyses of many decades of observations and also on biophysical models. The responses to past temperature variability suggest which species will eventually thrive with climate warming and the speed with which these changes might occur. One unresolved factor is the ability of cold water species to survive and rebound after warm years, and of warm-water species to recover after cold years. These responses will be increasingly important, because the IPCC models suggest increasing local ocean temperature variability during this century.

Crawford, W.; Pena, A.; Irvine, J. R.

2008-12-01

22

Future scenarios of impacts to ecosystem services on California rangelands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The 18 million acres of rangelands in the Central Valley of California provide multiple benefits or ecosystem services to peopleincluding wildlife habitat, water supply, open space, recreation, and cultural resources. Most of this land is privately owned and managed for livestock production. These rangelands are vulnerable to land-use conversion and climate change. To help resource managers assess the impacts of land-use change and climate change, U.S. Geological Survey scientists and their cooperators developed scenarios to quantify and map changes to three main rangeland ecosystem serviceswildlife habitat, water supply, and carbon sequestration. Project results will help prioritize strategies to conserve these rangelands and the ecosystem services that they provide.

Byrd, Kristin; Alvarez, Pelayo; Flint, Lorraine; Flint, Alan

2014-01-01

23

Integrated Ecosystem Assessment of the California Current  

E-print Network

by the editors and these authors: Kelly S. Andrews1 , Lisa T. Ballance2 , Caren Barcelo3 , Jay P. Barlow2 A. Haltuch1 , Owen S. Hamel1 , M. Bradley Hanson1 , Kevin T. Hill2 , Dan S. Holland1 , Ruth Howell1

24

Rapid progression of ocean acidification in the California Current System.  

PubMed

Nearshore waters of the California Current System (California CS) already have a low carbonate saturation state, making them particularly susceptible to ocean acidification. We used eddy-resolving model simulations to study the potential development of ocean acidification in this system up to the year 2050 under the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios A2 and B1 scenarios. In both scenarios, the saturation state of aragonite ?(arag) is projected to drop rapidly, with much of the nearshore region developing summer-long undersaturation in the top 60 meters within the next 30 years. By 2050, waters with ?(arag) above 1.5 will have largely disappeared, and more than half of the waters will be undersaturated year-round. Habitats along the sea floor will become exposed to year-round undersaturation within the next 20 to 30 years. These projected events have potentially major implications for the rich and diverse ecosystem that characterizes the California CS. PMID:22700658

Gruber, Nicolas; Hauri, Claudine; Lachkar, Zouhair; Loher, Damian; Frlicher, Thomas L; Plattner, Gian-Kasper

2012-07-13

25

Modeling phytoplankton growth rates and chlorophyll to carbon ratios in California coastal and pelagic ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To understand and quantify plankton community dynamics in the ocean, high-resolution models are needed to capture the temporal and spatial variations of physical, biological, and biogeochemical processes. However, ecosystem models often fail to agree with observations. This failure can be due to inadequacies in the data and/or inadequacies in the model formulation and parameterization. Here we parameterize and optimize a two-phytoplankton functional type model of phytoplankton growth rate and chlorophyll/carbon (Chl:C) ratio using data from the Lagrangian field measurements conducted during process cruises of the Long-Term Ecosystem Research-California Current Ecosystem (CCE) program. We parameterize the model based on a small coastal subset of the data and then extend and test it with the full data set, including data from offshore regions. The CCE process studies were focused on quantifying the size-resolved planktonic growth, grazing, production, and export rates while following water parcels. The resulting data therefore provided strong constraints for the model we employed. The modeled growth rates and Chl:C ratios were in good agreement with observations. Our results indicate that the model can accurately predict Chl:C ratios, biomasses, and growth rates of dominant functional types using relatively easily measured environmental variables (temperature, nutrients, and bulk chlorophyll). The model also accurately reproduces the subsurface maxima of growth rates, the spatial separation of carbon and chlorophyll maxima, and many other observations in the California Current coastal and pelagic ecosystems.

Li, Qian P.; Franks, Peter J. S.; Landry, Michael R.; Goericke, Ralf; Taylor, Andrew G.

2010-12-01

26

California Mediterranean Rangelands and Ecosystem Conservation Lynn Huntsinger, Professor, Environmental Science, Policy and Management, MC 3110, University  

E-print Network

California Mediterranean Rangelands and Ecosystem Conservation Lynn Huntsinger, Professor Mediterranean species. In this changed ecosystem, grazing and pastoral practices can benefit native wildlife services, conservation policy, working landscapes Introduction: California Mediterranean rangelands

Kammen, Daniel M.

27

Avian conservation practices strengthen ecosystem services in California vineyards.  

PubMed

Insectivorous Western Bluebirds (Sialia mexicana) occupy vineyard nest boxes established by California winegrape growers who want to encourage avian conservation. Experimentally, the provision of available nest sites serves as an alternative to exclosure methods for isolating the potential ecosystem services provided by foraging birds. We compared the abundance and species richness of avian foragers and removal rates of sentinel prey in treatments with songbird nest boxes and controls without nest boxes. The average species richness of avian insectivores increased by over 50 percent compared to controls. Insectivorous bird density nearly quadrupled, primarily due to a tenfold increase in Western Bluebird abundance. In contrast, there was no significant difference in the abundance of omnivorous or granivorous bird species some of which opportunistically forage on grapes. In a sentinel prey experiment, 2.4 times more live beet armyworms (Spodoptera exigua) were removed in the nest box treatment than in the control. As an estimate of the maximum foraging services provided by insectivorous birds, we found that larval removal rates measured immediately below occupied boxes averaged 3.5 times greater than in the control. Consequently the presence of Western Bluebirds in vineyard nest boxes strengthened ecosystem services to winegrape growers, illustrating a benefit of agroecological conservation practices. Predator addition and sentinel prey experiments lack some disadvantages of predator exclusion experiments and were robust methodologies for detecting ecosystem services. PMID:22096555

Jedlicka, Julie A; Greenberg, Russell; Letourneau, Deborah K

2011-01-01

28

Assessing Nitrate Deposition in Southern California Ecosystems using ?17O.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Assessing the impact of atmospheric deposition of fixed nitrogen on local, regional, and global biogeochemical cycles has received much attention in recent years. Local and regional ecosystems can suffer from eutrophication and shrinking biodiversity from the increased nitrogen flux, in addition to degradation associated with acid rain (an increasing proportion of which is as HNO3 ). On a global scale, the effect of nitrogen fertilization on CO2 uptake rates is one of the biggest unknowns in global warming research. This renewed interest has led to new attempts to utilize current, and in the development of new, analytical techniques in order to better understand the source, sink and transport mechanisms of atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen have been used to trace atmospheric nitrate through the biogeochemical system. 15N ratios have been problematic due to the lack of large fractionations and an overlap of 15N ratios between sources. Initial studies of 18O ratios showed promise due to the large enrichment (60 ) in atmospheric nitrate. However, subsequent studies showed an ? 18O spread of 25 - 80 and have made quantitative analysis of mixing reservoirs difficult. Atmospheric nitrates have now been measured and have been found to have a large MIF; ?17O ~ 25 and a small range +/- 4 . The large variations in ? 18O that may result from post depositional fractionations associated with soil migration and microbial utilization are mass dependent processes and leave the ?17O unaffected. It can therefore be used as a conservative trace of atmospheric nitrate deposition. A preliminary study of the southern California coastal sage scrub and alpine forest habitat examined the variability and detect- ability of nitrate deposition using ?17O. Nitrate from atmospheric aerosols, nitric acid vapor, and wet deposition all had ?17O values in the same range as other studies: 25 . Surface soils showed large deposition contributions to total N. Soil lysimeter measurements revealed large ? 18O depletions indicating large fractionation factors from soil uptake. Stream water also exhibited low ? 18O values, but significant ?17O values 0-6 indicating atmospheric contributions of 0 to 20 %. Observations of low ? 18O (10 ) in streams where the ?17O indicate in excess of 20 % deposition suggest a reevaluation of studies which used ? 18O as a tracer of nitrate deposition.

Hernandez, L.; Michalski, G.; Meixner, T.; Fenn, M.; Thiemens, M. H.

2002-12-01

29

Climate Change in Mountain Ecosystems Areas of Current Research  

E-print Network

Climate Change in Mountain Ecosystems Areas of Current Research · Glacier Research · Snow Initiative Glacier Research A Focus on Mountain Ecosystems Climate change is widely acknowledged to be having in the western U.S. and the Northern Rockies in particular are highly sensitive to climate change. In fact

30

The Gulf of California: Review of ecosystem status and sustainability challenges  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gulf of California is unique because of its geographical location and conformation. It hosts diverse ecosystems and important fisheries that support industry and provide livelihood to coastal settlements. It is also the site of interests and problems, and an intense interaction among managers, producers, and conservationists. In this report, we scrutinize the abiotic (hydrography, climate, ocean circulation, and chemistry) and biotic (phyto- and zooplankton, fish, invertebrates, marine mammals, birds, and turtles) components of the marine ecosystem, and some particular aspects of climate variability, endemisms, harmful algal blooms, oxygen minimum layer, and pollution. We also review the current conditions and conflicts around the main fisheries (shrimp, small and large pelagic fishes, squid, artisanal and sportfishing), the most important human activity in the Gulf of California. We cover some aspects of management and conservation of fisheries, especially the claimed overexploitation of fish resources and the ecosystems, and review proposals for creating networks of marine protected areas. We conclude by identifying main needs for information and research, particularly the integration of data bases, the implementation of models and paleoreconstructions, establishment of monitoring programs, and the evaluation of fishing impacts and management actions.

Lluch-Cota, Salvador E.; Aragn-Noriega, Eugenio A.; Arregun-Snchez, Francisco; Aurioles-Gamboa, David; Jess Bautista-Romero, J.; Brusca, Richard C.; Cervantes-Duarte, Rafael; Corts-Altamirano, Roberto; Del-Monte-Luna, Pablo; Esquivel-Herrera, Alfonso; Fernndez, Guillermo; Hendrickx, Michel E.; Hernndez-Vzquez, Sergio; Herrera-Cervantes, Hugo; Kahru, Mati; Lavn, Miguel; Lluch-Belda, Daniel; Lluch-Cota, Daniel B.; Lpez-Martnez, Juana; Marinone, Silvio G.; Nevrez-Martnez, Manuel O.; Ortega-Garca, Sofia; Palacios-Castro, Eduardo; Pars-Sierra, Alejandro; Ponce-Daz, Germn; Ramrez-Rodrguez, Mauricio; Salinas-Zavala, Cesar A.; Schwartzlose, Richard A.; Sierra-Beltrn, Arturo P.

2007-04-01

31

Avian Conservation Practices Strengthen Ecosystem Services in California Vineyards  

E-print Network

Insectivorous Western Bluebirds (Sialia mexicana) occupy vineyard nest boxes established by California winegrape growers who want to encourage avian conservation. Experimentally, the provision of available nest sites serves as an alternative to exclosure methods for isolating the potential ecosystem services provided by foraging birds. We compared the abundance and species richness of avian foragers and removal rates of sentinel prey in treatments with songbird nest boxes and controls without nest boxes. The average species richness of avian insectivores increased by over 50 percent compared to controls. Insectivorous bird density nearly quadrupled, primarily due to a tenfold increase in Western Bluebird abundance. In contrast, there was no significant difference in the abundance of omnivorous or granivorous bird species some of which opportunistically forage on grapes. In a sentinel prey experiment, 2.4 times more live beet armyworms (Spodoptera exigua) were removed in the nest box treatment than in the control. As an estimate of the maximum foraging services provided by insectivorous birds, we found that larval removal rates measured immediately below occupied boxes averaged 3.5 times greater than in the control. Consequently the presence of Western Bluebirds in vineyard nest boxes strengthened ecosystem services to winegrape growers, illustrating a benefit of agroecological conservation practices. Predator addition and sentinel prey experiments lack some disadvantages of predator exclusion experiments and were robust methodologies

Julie A. Jedlicka; Russell Greenberg; Deborah K. Letourneau

2011-01-01

32

Measuring Tsunami Current Velocities on Californias North Coast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Northern California coast is particularly susceptible to tsunami damage. Thirty-one tsunamis have been recorded since 1933 when the first tide gauge was installed at Citizens Dock in Crescent City, California and four have caused damage. In November 2006, a magnitude 8.3 earthquake in the Kuril Islands generated a tsunami that caused over $20 million in damages and replacement costs to the Crescent City small boat basin. The 2006 tsunami did not flood any areas above the normal high tide; very strong currents produced as the tsunami surged in and out of the small boat basin caused all of the damage. The Harbor Master and commercial fishermen in the area estimated the peak currents near the mouth of the small boat basin at 12 to 15 knots or 6 to 8 m/sec. MOST numerical modeling of the 2006 currents in Crescent City gives peak velocities in the 2-3 m/sec range. We have initiated a pilot project to directly measure current velocities produced by moderate tsunamis such as the 2006 event. In spring of 2009 we acquired a Nortek Aquadopp 600 kHz acoustic 2-D current profiler through a donation from the Pacific Gas and Electric Company to measure currents in Humboldt Bay, located 100 km south of Crescent City. The manufacturer specifies the current meter can measure currents up to 10 m/sec. In a preliminary deployment at the Fairhaven dock inside Humboldt Bay in May 2009, we measured current velocities of 1.5 m/sec caused by the daily tidal fluctuation with a 1 minute sampling rate. Our primary goal is to model control and data telemetry of this current meter after NOAAs tsunami-ready tide gages, in collaboration with NOAA personnel at PMEL and CO-OPS. We also intend to make available real-time current measurements online for the local maritime community. In this poster, we present preliminary results from the current meter and discuss deployment and telecommunication considerations. While some interference is present in the closest range bins, the system measures currents in the nearby navigational channel that compare favorably to NOAA tidal predictions at a nearby location. Once the deployment and telemetry issues have been resolved at the Humboldt Bay site, we will be deploying two additional instruments in Crescent City.

Crawford, G. B.; Dengler, L. A.; Montoya, J.

2009-12-01

33

Assessment of potential aquatic herbicide impacts to California aquatic ecosystems.  

PubMed

A series of legal decisions culminated in 2002 with the California State Water Resources Control Board funding the San Francisco Estuary Institute to develop and implement a 3-year monitoring program to determine the potential environmental impacts of aquatic herbicide applications. The monitoring program was intended to investigate the behavior of all aquatic pesticides in use in California, to determine potential impacts in a wide range of water-body types receiving applications, and to help regulators determine where to direct future resources. A tiered monitoring approach was developed to achieve a balance between program goals and what was practically achievable within the project time and budget constraints. Water, sediment, and biota were collected under "worst-case" scenarios in close association with herbicide applications. Applications of acrolein, copper sulfate, chelated copper, diquat dibromide, glyphosate, fluridone, triclopyr, and 2,4-D were monitored. A range of chemical analyses, toxicity tests, and bioassessments were conducted. At each site, risk quotients were calculated to determine potential impacts. For sediment-partitioning herbicides, sediment quality triad analysis was performed. Worst-case scenario monitoring and special studies showed limited short-term and no long-term toxicity directly attributable to aquatic herbicide applications. Risk quotient calculations called for additional risk characterizations; these included limited assessments for glyphosate and fluridone and more extensive risk assessments for diquat dibromide, chelated copper products, and copper sulfate. Use of surfactants in conjunction with aquatic herbicides was positively associated with greater ecosystem impacts. Results therefore warrant full risk characterization for all adjuvant compounds. PMID:18293029

Siemering, Geoffrey S; Hayworth, Jennifer D; Greenfield, Ben K

2008-10-01

34

Fisheries Abundance Cycles in Ecosystem and Economic Management of California Fish and Invertebrate Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is important for fishery scientists and ecosystem-based fishery managers to recognize that there may be apparent persistence\\u000a in an ecosystem followed by ecosystem changes corresponding to different ecological states and different levels of fisheries\\u000a output; revenues paid to California fishers have varied more than fivefold in inflation adjusted dollars during the 75-year\\u000a period of our study. Empirical orthogonal function

Jerrold G. Norton; Samuel F. Herrick; Janet E. Mason

35

Responses of soil respiration to elevated CO[sub 2] in two California grassland ecosystems  

SciTech Connect

Estimates of soil respiration (SR) in current and elevated CO[sub 2] are critical for predicting future global carbon budgets. We measured SR in two California grassland ecosystems (sandstone and serpentine) growing at ambient and ambient+350 ppm CO[sub 2]. SR was higher in elevated CO[sub 2] for both ecosystems in the field, but differences were not significant. At peak plant growth, SR was approximately 6 [mu]mol m[sup [minus]2]s[sup [minus]1] in elevated CO[sub 2] and 5 [mu]mol m[sup [minus]2] s[sup [minus]1] in ambient CO[sub 2] for both ecosystems. We also examined soil respiration in monocultures of 7 grassland species grown in microecosystems (10-cm diameter by 1-m deep tubes). SR was approximately 2 [mu]mol m[sup [minus]2]s[sup [minus]1] for Plantago, Bromus, Hemizona, and Calycadenia and 7 [minus] 8 [mu]mol m[sup [minus]2]s[sup [minus]2] for Lolium, Avena, and Vulpia. Elevated CO[sub 2] significantly increased soil respiration by 20-30% in Bromus, Hemizonia and Lolium monocultures. SR was significantly correlated with total plant biomass as averaged across all species.

Luo, Y.; Jackson, R.B.; Field, C.B.; Mooney, H.A. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States))

1994-06-01

36

Evaluating Ecosystem Services Provided by Non-Native Species: An Experimental Test in California Grasslands  

PubMed Central

The concept of ecosystem services the benefits that nature provides to human's society has gained increasing attention over the past decade. Increasing global abiotic and biotic change, including species invasions, is threatening the secure delivery of these ecosystem services. Efficient evaluation methods of ecosystem services are urgently needed to improve our ability to determine management strategies and restoration goals in face of these new emerging ecosystems. Considering a range of multiple ecosystem functions may be a useful way to determine such strategies. We tested this framework experimentally in California grasslands, where large shifts in species composition have occurred since the late 1700's. We compared a suite of ecosystem functions within one historic native and two non-native species assemblages under different grazing intensities to address how different species assemblages vary in provisioning, regulatory and supporting ecosystem services. Forage production was reduced in one non-native assemblage (medusahead). Cultural ecosystem services, such as native species diversity, were inherently lower in both non-native assemblages, whereas most other services were maintained across grazing intensities. All systems provided similar ecosystem services under the highest grazing intensity treatment, which simulated unsustainable grazing intensity. We suggest that applying a more comprehensive ecosystem framework that considers multiple ecosystem services to evaluate new emerging ecosystems is a valuable tool to determine management goals and how to intervene in a changing ecosystem. PMID:25222028

Stein, Claudia; Hallett, Lauren M.; Harpole, W. Stanley; Suding, Katharine N.

2014-01-01

37

Predator-Driven Nutrient Recycling in California Stream Ecosystems  

PubMed Central

Nutrient recycling by consumers in streams can influence ecosystem nutrient availability and the assemblage and growth of photoautotrophs. Stream fishes can play a large role in nutrient recycling, but contributions by other vertebrates to overall recycling rates remain poorly studied. In tributaries of the Pacific Northwest, coastal giant salamanders (Dicamptodon tenebrosus) occur at high densities alongside steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and are top aquatic predators. We surveyed the density and body size distributions of D. tenebrosus and O. mykiss in a California tributary stream, combined with a field study to determine mass-specific excretion rates of ammonium (N) and total dissolved phosphorus (P) for D. tenebrosus. We estimated O. mykiss excretion rates (N, P) by bioenergetics using field-collected data on the nutrient composition of O. mykiss diets from the same system. Despite lower abundance, D. tenebrosus biomass was 2.5 times higher than O. mykiss. Mass-specific excretion summed over 170 m of stream revealed that O. mykiss recycle 1.7 times more N, and 1.2 times more P than D. tenebrosus, and had a higher N:P ratio (8.7) than that of D. tenebrosus (6.0), or the two species combined (7.5). Through simulated trade-offs in biomass, we estimate that shifts from salamander biomass toward fish biomass have the potential to ease nutrient limitation in forested tributary streams. These results suggest that natural and anthropogenic heterogeneity in the relative abundance of these vertebrates and variation in the uptake rates across river networks can affect broad-scale patterns of nutrient limitation. PMID:23520520

Munshaw, Robin G.; Palen, Wendy J.; Courcelles, Danielle M.; Finlay, Jacques C.

2013-01-01

38

A long term monitoring of Net Ecosystem Exchanges of the chaparral ecosystem in Southern California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arid and semiarid woody shrublands represent approximately 35% of the global terrestrial surface area and 24% of the global soil organic carbon, and 16% of the global aboveground biomass (Atjay et al., 1979; Shmida, 1985). Therefore, these areas potentially have a large contribution to the global carbon budget. However, the assessment of carbon uptake for the old-growth shrubland has remained largely unexplored. Therefore, a long-term observation of CO2 flux with the eddy covariance technique has started since 1997 at Sky Oaks Field Station in Southern California. The research site is categorized at the climatic gradient between desert and semiarid area and that experiences a Mediterranean climate. The long term record of CO2 flux showed the area has been a sink of CO2 of up to -0.2 kgCm-2yr-1. In addition to evaluating vertical carbon fluxes, we initiated a project to evaluate lateral carbon transports using litter traps, sediment fences and two small weirs adjacent to the eddy covariance site in 2011. Preliminary results indicate that the lateral carbon efflux from the system may offset the vertical influx to the shrub ecosystem. However, it is still necessary to develop the methodology to compare vertical carbon flux and the lateral carbon fluxes more accurately.

Rossi, A.; Oechel, W. C.; Murphy, P.; Ikawa, H.; Sturtevant, C. S.

2012-12-01

39

SEASONAL VARIABILITY IN MEANDERS OF THE CALIFORNIA CURRENT SYSTEM OFF  

Microsoft Academic Search

Satellite infrared images taken over the past few years reveal seasonal variations in the meanders of the California Current System (CCS) off Vancouver Island. The CCS exhibits meanders with wavelength between 120 and 150 km in both winter and spring, when the upper ocean current all flows northwestward or southeastward, respectively. In summer, the CCS includes the California Undercurrent, which

M. Ikeda; W. J. Emery; L. A. Mysak

1984-01-01

40

Sudden Oak Death: Endangering California and Oregon Forest Ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sudden oak death is a new disease affecting tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflora) and oaks (Quercus spp) in California and Oregon, caused by the recently described pathogen Phytophthora ramorum. It has reached epi-demic proportions in several counties in central California, leading to the death of tens of thousands of trees. In addition to oaks and tanoak, P ramorum has been found in

David M. Rizzo; Matteo Garbelotto

2003-01-01

41

The Gulf of California: Review of ecosystem status and sustainability challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gulf of California is unique because of its geographical location and conformation. It hosts diverse ecosystems and important fisheries that support industry and provide livelihood to coastal settlements. It is also the site of interests and problems, and an intense interaction among managers, producers, and conservationists. In this report, we scrutinize the abiotic (hydrography, climate, ocean circulation, and chemistry)

Salvador E. Lluch-Cota; Eugenio A. Aragn-Noriega; Francisco Arregun-Snchez; David Aurioles-Gamboa; J. Jess Bautista-Romero; Richard C. Brusca; Rafael Cervantes-Duarte; Roberto Corts-Altamirano; Pablo Del-Monte-Luna; Alfonso Esquivel-Herrera; Guillermo Fernndez; Michel E. Hendrickx; Sergio Hernndez-Vzquez; Hugo Herrera-Cervantes; Mati Kahru; Miguel Lavn; Daniel Lluch-Belda; Daniel B. Lluch-Cota; Juana Lpez-Martnez; Silvio G. Marinone; Manuel O. Nevrez-Martnez; Sofia Ortega-Garca; Eduardo Palacios-Castro; Alejandro Pars-Sierra; Germn Ponce-Daz; Mauricio Ramrez-Rodrguez; Cesar A. Salinas-Zavala; Richard A. Schwartzlose; Arturo P. Sierra-Beltrn

2007-01-01

42

Using Science to Evaluate Restoration Efforts and Ecosystem Health on the Sacramento River Project, California  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Nature Conservancy (TNC) and its partners are attempting to restore the riparian ecosystem of the Sacramento River over ~100 river miles, from Red Bluff to Colusa. To evaluate baseline ecosystem conditions, determine how the system is responding to current management practices (including restoration efforts) and better define current threats, TNC is collaborating with scientists from academic institutions, state and

G. H. GOLET; D. L. BROWN; E. E. CRONE; G. R. GEUPEL; S. E. GRECO; K. D. HOLL; D. E. JUKKOLA; G. M. KONDOLF; E. W. LARSEN; F. K. LIGON; R. A. LUSTER; M. P. MARCHETTI; N. NUR; B. K. ORR; D. R. PETERSON; W. E. RAINEY; M. D. ROBERTS; J. G. SILVEIRA; J. C. VICK; D. S. WILSON; D. M. WOOD

2003-01-01

43

In the Schools: California Treat: Three Days in Five Ecosystems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a 3-day program sponsored by the Orange County Marine Institute that provides biological, cultural, and historical learning experiences. Discusses the setting and activities of the five ecosystems explored by the students. The Chaparral to Ocean Science Camp includes chaparral, riparian, woodland, intertidal, and pelagic environments.

Rigby, Jennifer A.

1986-01-01

44

California coastal upwelling onset variability: cross-shore and bottom-up propagation in the planktonic ecosystem.  

PubMed

The variability of the California Current System (CCS) is primarily driven by variability in regional wind forcing. In particular, the timing of the spring transition, i.e., the onset of upwelling-favorable winds, varies considerably in the CCS with changes in the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation. Using a coupled physical-biogeochemical model, this study examines the sensitivity of the ecosystem functioning in the CCS to a lead or lag in the spring transition. An early spring transition results in an increased vertical nutrient flux at the coast, with the largest ecosystem consequences, both in relative amplitude and persistence, hundreds of kilometers offshore and at the highest trophic level of the modeled food web. A budget analysis reveals that the propagation of the perturbation offshore and up the food web is driven by remineralization and grazing/predation involving both large and small plankton species. PMID:23690935

Chenillat, Fanny; Rivire, Pascal; Capet, Xavier; Franks, Peter J S; Blanke, Bruno

2013-01-01

45

PERSISTENCE OF CHLORINATED HYDROCARBON CONTAMINATION IN A CALIFORNIA MARINE ECOSYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

Despite major reductions in the dominant DDT and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) input off Los Angeles (California, USA) in the early 1970s, the levels of these pollutants decreased only slightly from 1972 to 1975 both in surficial bottom sediments and in a flatfish bioindicator ...

46

2013. Wetlands. In: Mooney, H. and Zavaleta, E., editors. Ecosystems of California: A Source Book. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, p.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This publication is an introduction to wetland ecosystems in California, their geographic distribution, and historical ecology. Hydroclimatology and hydrology are explained as key drivers and patterns of variability in wetland habitats and biological communities. Primary wetland types are describe...

47

Appreciation, Use, and Management of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services in California's Working Landscapes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

"Working landscapes" is the concept of fostering effective ecosystem stewardship and conservation through active human presence and management and integrating livestock, crop, and timber production with the provision of a broad range of ecosystem services at the landscape scale. Based on a statewide survey of private landowners of "working" forests and rangelands in California, we investigated whether owners who are engaged in commercial livestock or timber production appreciate and manage biodiversity and ecosystem services on their land in different ways than purely residential owners. Both specific uses and management practices, as well as underlying attitudes and motivations toward biodiversity and ecosystem services, were assessed. Correlation analysis showed one bundle of ecosystem goods and services (e.g., livestock, timber, crops, and housing) that is supported by some landowners at the community level. Another closely correlated bundle of biodiversity and ecosystem services includes recreation, hunting/fishing, wildlife habitat, and fire prevention. Producers were more likely to ally with the first bundle and residential owners with the second. The survey further confirmed that cultural ecosystem services and quality-of-life aspects are among the primary amenities that motivate forest and rangeland ownership regardless of ownership type. To live near natural beauty was the most important motive for both landowner groups. Producers were much more active in management for habitat improvement and other environmental goals than residential owners. As the number of production-oriented owners decreases, developing strategies for encouraging environment-positive management by all types of landowners is crucial.

Plieninger, Tobias; Ferranto, Shasta; Huntsinger, Lynn; Kelly, Maggi; Getz, Christy

2012-09-01

48

Land use change and effects on water quality and ecosystem health in the Lake Tahoe basin, Nevada and California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Human activity in the Lake Tahoe Basin has increased substantially in the past four decades, causing significant impacts on the quality and clarity of the lake's famous deep, clear water. Protection of Lake Tahoe and the surrounding environment has become an important activity in recent years. A variety of agencies, including the Tahoe Regional Planning Agency, Tahoe Research Group of the University of California at Davis, Desert Research Institute of the University and Community College System of Nevada, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and a host of State (both Nevada and California) and local agencies have been monitoring and conducting research in the Basin in order to understand how the lake functions and to what extent humans have affected its landscape and ecosystem processes. In spite of all of these activities, there remains a lack of comprehensive land use change data and analysis for the Basin. A project is underway that unites the land cover mapping expertise of the USGS National Mapping Discipline with the hydrologic expertise of the Water Resources Discipline to assess the impacts of urban growth and land use change in the Lake Tahoe Basin. Three activities are planned over the next 3 years: (1) mapping the current and historic state of the land surface, (2) conducting analysis to document patterns, rates, and trends in urbanization, land use change, and ecosystem health, and (3) assessing the causes and consequences of land use change with regard to water quality and ecosystem health. We hypothesize that changes in the extent of urban growth and the corresponding increases in impervious surfaces and decreases in natural vegetation have resulted in severe impacts on ecosystem health and integrity, riparian zones and water quality over time. We are acting on multiple fronts to test this hypothesis through the quantification of landscape disturbances and impacts.

Forney, William; Richards, Lora; Adams, Kenneth D.; Minor, Timothy B.; Rowe, Timothy G.; Smith, J. LaRue; Raumann, Christian G.

2001-01-01

49

Turbulence Mixing and Transport Mechanisms in a Coastal Ecosystem: Bay of La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico  

E-print Network

ABSTRACT Turbulence Mixing and Transport Mechanisms in a Coastal Ecosystem: Bay of La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico. (May 2014) Burkely Ashton Pettijohn Department of Marine Sciences Texas A&M University Research Advisor: Dr. Ayal Anis...

Pettijohn, Burkely Ashton

2014-02-10

50

Where the wild things are: Predicting hotspots of seabird aggregations in the California Current System  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) provide an important tool for conservation of marine ecosystems. To be most effective, these areas should be strategically located in a manner that supports ecosystem function. To inform marine spatial planning and support strategic establishment of MPAs within the California Current System, we identified areas predicted to support multispecies aggregations of seabirds ("hotspot????). We developed habitat-association models for 16 species using information from at-sea observations collected over an 11-year period (1997-2008), bathymetric data, and remotely sensed oceanographic data for an area from north of Vancouver Island, Canada, to the USA/Mexico border and seaward 600 km from the coast. This approach enabled us to predict distribution and abundance of seabirds even in areas of few or no surveys. We developed single-species predictive models using a machine-learning algorithm: bagged decision trees. Single-species predictions were then combined to identify potential hotspots of seabird aggregation, using three criteria: (1) overall abundance among species, (2) importance of specific areas ("core area????) to individual species, and (3) predicted persistence of hotspots across years. Model predictions were applied to the entire California Current for four seasons (represented by February, May, July, and October) in each of 11 years. Overall, bathymetric variables were often important predictive variables, whereas oceanographic variables derived from remotely sensed data were generally less important. Predicted hotspots often aligned with currently protected areas (e.g., National Marine Sanctuaries), but we also identified potential hotspots in Northern California/Southern Oregon (from Cape Mendocino to Heceta Bank), Southern California (adjacent to the Channel Islands), and adjacent to Vancouver Island, British Columbia, that are not currently included in protected areas. Prioritization and identification of multispecies hotspots will depend on which group of species is of highest management priority. Modeling hotspots at a broad spatial scale can contribute to MPA site selection, particularly if complemented by fine-scale information for focal areas. ?? 2011 by the Ecological Society of America.

Nur, N.; Jahncke, J.; Herzog, M.P.; Howar, J.; Hyrenbach, K.D.; Zamon, J.E.; Ainley, D.G.; Wiens, J.A.; Morgan, K.; Balance, L.T.; Stralberg, D.

2011-01-01

51

Compound-Specific ?15N Amino Acid Measurements in Littoral Mussels in the California Upwelling Ecosystem: A New Approach to Generating Baseline ?15N Isoscapes for Coastal Ecosystems  

PubMed Central

We explored ?15N compound-specific amino acid isotope data (CSI-AA) in filter-feeding intertidal mussels (Mytilus californianus) as a new approach to construct integrated isoscapes of coastal primary production. We examined spatial ?15N gradients in the California Upwelling Ecosystem (CUE), determining bulk ?15N values of mussel tissue from 28 sites between Port Orford, Oregon and La Jolla, California, and applying CSI-AA at selected sites to decouple trophic effects from isotopic values at the base of the food web. Bulk ?15N values showed a strong linear trend with latitude, increasing from North to South (from ?7 to ?12, R2?=?0.759). In contrast, CSI-AA trophic position estimates showed no correlation with latitude. The ?15N trend is therefore most consistent with a baseline ?15N gradient, likely due to the mixing of two source waters: low ?15N nitrate from the southward flowing surface California Current, and the northward transport of the California Undercurrent (CUC), with15N-enriched nitrate. This interpretation is strongly supported by a similar linear gradient in ?15N values of phenylalanine (?15NPhe), the best AA proxy for baseline ?15N values. We hypothesize ?15NPhe values in intertidal mussels can approximate annual integrated ?15N values of coastal phytoplankton primary production. We therefore used ?15NPhe values to generate the first compound-specific nitrogen isoscape for the coastal Northeast Pacific, which indicates a remarkably linear gradient in coastal primary production ?15N values. We propose that ?15NPhe isoscapes derived from filter feeders can directly characterize baseline ?15N values across major biochemical provinces, with potential applications for understanding migratory and feeding patterns of top predators, monitoring effects of climate change, and study of paleo- archives. PMID:24887109

Vokhshoori, Natasha L.; McCarthy, Matthew D.

2014-01-01

52

Providing trusted scientific information to foster healthy marine ecosystems for current and future  

E-print Network

Providing trusted scientific information to foster healthy marine ecosystems for current Marine Ecosystems and their associated Living Marine Resources. To do this, EAP works with NOAA the Nations Living Marine Resources. By providing an Integrated Ecosystem Assessment, EAP ensures that our

53

Oxygen declines and the shoaling of the hypoxic boundary in the California Current  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use hydrographic data from the California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations program to explore the spatial and temporal variability of dissolved oxygen (DO) in the southern California Current System (CCS) over the period 1984-2006. Large declines in DO (up to 2.1 ?mol/kg/y) have been observed throughout the domain, with the largest relative DO declines occurring below the thermocline (mean decrease of 21% at 300 m). Linear trends were significant (p < 0.05) at the majority of stations down to 500 m. The hypoxic boundary (~60 ?mol/kg) has shoaled by up to 90 m within portions of the southern CCS. The observed trends are consistent with advection of low-DO waters into the region, as well as decreased vertical oxygen transport following near-surface warming and increased stratification. Expansion of the oxygen minimum layer could lead to cascading effects on benthic and pelagic ecosystems, including habitat compression and community reorganization.

Bograd, Steven J.; Castro, Carmen G.; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Palacios, Daniel M.; Bailey, Helen; Gilly, William; Chavez, Francisco P.

2008-06-01

54

Global Circulation and the California Current  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This on-line expedition focuses on the flow of ocean water along with its climatic impact and environmental consequences. Learning objectives include an awareness that ocean waters are constantly on the move, that ocean currents influence climate and living conditions for plants and animals, even on land, and that currents flow in complex patterns affected by wind, the water's salinity and heat content, bottom topography, and the earth's rotation. This expedition is one of nine expeditions and two field studies which are part of a course entitled Geology 105 - Mysteries of the Deep.

1999-03-21

55

Multi-decadal variations in calcareous holozooplankton in the California Current System: Thecosome pteropods, heteropods, and foraminifera  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine long-term (1951-2008) variability of three major taxa of calcareous holozooplankton (aragonite-secreting thecosome pteropods and heteropods, and calcite-secreting large planktonic foraminifera) in light of recent interest in the impingement of waters undersaturated with respect to aragonite onto continental shelf depths in the California Current System. We assess interannual variability in springtime abundances of zooplankton sampled in the epipelagic layer, using CalCOFI (California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations) zooplankton samples from two regions: Southern California (SC) and Central California (CC). Thecosome pteropods show no evidence of recent declines in abundance in SC or CC waters. In SC, sampling was sufficient to conclude that heteropods and large foraminifera also show no evidence of declines in abundance in recent years. These results do not preclude as-yet undetected changes in vertical distributions or shell morphology, and underscore the importance of sustained in situ measurement programs in order to detect and understand changes to pelagic ecosystems.

Ohman, Mark D.; Lavaniegos, Bertha E.; Townsend, Annie W.

2009-09-01

56

Climate, fishing, and fluctuations of sardine and anchovy in the California Current.  

PubMed

Since the days of Elton, population cycles have challenged ecologists and resource managers. Although the underlying mechanisms remain debated, theory holds that both density-dependent and density-independent processes shape the dynamics. One striking example is the large-scale fluctuations of sardine and anchovy observed across the major upwelling areas of the world. Despite a long history of research, the causes of these fluctuations remain unresolved and heavily debated, with significant implications for fisheries management. We here model the underlying causes of these fluctuations, using the California Current Ecosystem as a case study, and show that the dynamics, accurately reproduced since A.D. 1661 onward, are explained by interacting density-dependent processes (i.e., through species-specific life-history traits) and climate forcing. Furthermore, we demonstrate how fishing modifies the dynamics and show that the sardine collapse of the 1950s was largely unavoidable given poor recruitment conditions. Our approach provides unique insight into the origin of sardine-anchovy fluctuations and a knowledge base for sustainable fisheries management in the California Current Ecosystem and beyond. PMID:23836661

Lindegren, Martin; Checkley, David M; Rouyer, Tristan; MacCall, Alec D; Stenseth, Nils Chr

2013-08-13

57

Material properties of zooplankton and nekton from the California current  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study measured the material properties of zooplankton, Pacific hake (Merluccius productus), Humboldt squid (Dosidicus gigas), and two species of myctophids (Symbolophorus californiensis and Diaphus theta) collected from the California Current ecosystem. The density contrast (g) was measured for euphausiids, decapods (Sergestes similis), amphipods (Primno macropa, Phronima sp., and Hyperiid spp.), siphonophore bracts, chaetognaths, larval fish, crab megalopae, larval squid, and medusae. Morphometric data (length, width, and height) were collected for these taxa. Density contrasts varied within and between zooplankton taxa. The mean and standard deviation for euphausiid density contrast were 1.059 +/- 0.009. Relationships between zooplankton density contrast and morphometric measurements, geographic location, and environmental conditions were investigated. Site had a significant effect on euphausiid density contrast. Density contrasts of euphausiids collected in the same geographic area approximately 4-10 days apart were significantly higher (p < 0.001). Sound speed contrast (h) was measured for euphausiids and pelagic decapods (S. similis) and it varied between taxa. The mean and standard deviation for euphausiid sound speed were 1.019 +/- 0.009. Euphausiid mass was calculated from density measurements and volume, and a relationship between euphausiid mass and length was produced. We determined that euphausiid from volumes could be accurately estimated two dimensional measurements of animal body shape, and that biomass (or biovolume) could be accurately calculated from digital photographs of animals. Density contrast (g) was measured for zooplankton, pieces of hake flesh, myctophid flesh, and of the following Humboldt squid body parts: mantle, arms, tentacle, braincase, eyes, pen, and beak. The density contrasts varied within and between fish taxa, as well as among squid body parts. Effects of animal length and environmental conditions on nekton density contrast were investigated. The sound speed contrast (h) was measured for Pacific hake flesh, myctophid flesh, Humboldt squid mantle, and Humboldt squid braincase. Sound speed varied within and between nekton taxa. The material properties reported in this study can be used to improve target strength estimates from acoustic scattering models which would increase the accuracy of biomass estimates from acoustic surveys for these zooplankton and nekton.

Becker, Kaylyn

58

Patterns and processes in the California Current System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The California Current System (CCS) is forced by the distribution of atmospheric pressure and associated winds in relation to the west coast of North America. In this paper, we begin with a simplified case of winds and a linear coast, then consider variability characteristic of the CCS, and conclude by considering future change. The CCS extends from the North Pacific Current (?50N) to off Baja California, Mexico (?15-25N) with a major discontinuity at Point Conception (34.5N). Variation in atmospheric pressure affects winds and thus upwelling. Coastal, wind-driven upwelling results in nutrification and biological production and a southward coastal jet. Offshore, curl-driven upwelling results in a spatially large, productive habitat. The California Current flows equatorward and derives from the North Pacific Current and the coastal jet. Dominant modes of spatial and temporal variability in physical processes and biological responses are discussed. High surface production results in deep and bottom waters depleted in oxygen and enriched in carbon dioxide. Fishing has depleted demersal stocks more than pelagic stocks, and marine mammals, including whales, are recovering. Krill, squid, and micronekton are poorly known and merit study. Future climate change will differ from past change and thus prediction of the CCS requires an understanding of its dynamics. Of particular concern are changes in winds, stratification, and ocean chemistry.

Checkley, David M., Jr.; Barth, John A.

2009-12-01

59

Wind-forced modeling studies of currents, meanders, and eddies in the California Current system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This process-oriented study of the California Current system (CCS) uses a high-resolution, multilevel, primitive equation ocean model on a beta plane to isolate the response of that eastern boundary oceanic regime to temporal and spatially varying wind forcing. To study the generation, evolution, and maintenance of many of the observed features such as currents, meanders, and eddies in the CCS,

Mary L. Batteen

1997-01-01

60

Equilibrium Structure and Dynamics of the California Current System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the structure and dynamical mechanisms of regional and mesoscale physical variability in the subtropical northeast Pacific Ocean using the Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS). The model is configured with a U.S. West Coast domain that spans the California Current System (CCS) with a mesoscale horizontal resolution up to as fine as 3.5 km. Its mean-seasonal forcing is

Patrick Marchesiello; James C. McWilliams; Alexander Shchepetkin

2003-01-01

61

Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning: Current Knowledge and Future Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ecological consequences of biodiversity loss have aroused considerable interest and controversy during the past decade. Major advances have been made in describing the relationship between species diversity and ecosystem processes, in identifying functionally important species, and in revealing underlying mechanisms. There is, however, uncertainty as to how results obtained in recent experiments scale up to landscape and regional levels

M. Loreau; S. Naeem; P. Inchausti; J. Bengtsson; J. P. Grime; A. Hector; D. U. Hooper; M. A. Huston; D. Raffaelli; B. Schmid; D. Tilman; D. A. Wardle

1998-01-01

62

Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning: Current Knowledge and Future Challenges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ecological consequences of biodiversity loss have aroused considerable interest and controversy during the past decade. Major advances have been made in describing the relationship between species diversity and ecosystem processes, in identifying functionally important species, and in revealing underlying mechanisms. There is, however, uncertainty as to how results obtained in recent experiments scale up to landscape and regional levels

M. Loreau; S. Naeem; P. Inchausti; J. Bengtsson; J. P. Grime; A. Hector; D. U. Hooper; M. A. Huston; D. Raffaelli; B. Schmid; D. Tilman; D. A. Wardle

2001-01-01

63

Multivariate ocean-climate indicators (MOCI) for the central California Current: Environmental change, 1990-2010  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temporal environmental variability may confound interpretations of management actions, such as reduced fisheries mortality when Marine Protected Areas are implemented. To aid in the evaluation of recent ecosystem protection decisions in central-northern California, we designed and implemented multivariate ocean-climate indicators (MOCI) of environmental variability. To assess the validity of the MOCI, we evaluated interannual and longer-term variability in relation to previously recognized environmental variability in the region, and correlated MOCI to a suite of biological indicators including proxies for lower- (phytoplankton, copepods, krill), and upper-level (seabirds) taxa. To develop the MOCI, we selected, compiled, and synthesized 14 well-known atmospheric and oceanographic indicators of large-scale and regional processes (transport and upwelling), as well as local atmospheric and oceanic response variables such as wind stress, sea surface temperature, and salinity. We derived seasonally-stratified MOCI using principal component analysis. Over the 21-year study period (1990-2010), the ENSO cycle weakened while extra-tropical influences increased with a strengthening of the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO) and cooling of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). Correspondingly, the Northern Oscillation Index (NOI) strengthened, leading to enhanced upwelling-favorable wind stress and cooling of air and ocean surface temperatures. The seasonal MOCI related well to subarctic copepod biomass and seabird productivity, but poorly to chlorophyll-a concentration and krill abundance. Our results support a hypothesis of enhanced sub-arctic influence (transport from the north) and upwelling intensification in north-central California over the past two decades. Such environmental conditions may favor population growth for species with sub-arctic zoogeographic affinities within the central-northern California Current coastal ecosystem.

Sydeman, William J.; Thompson, Sarah Ann; Garca-Reyes, Marisol; Kahru, Mati; Peterson, William T.; Largier, John L.

2014-01-01

64

Accumulation of current-use and organochlorine pesticides in crab embryos from Northern California, USA  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Invertebrates have long been used as resident sentinels for assessing ecosystem health and productivity. The shore crabs, Hemigrapsus oregonensis and Pachygrapsus crassipes, are abundant in estuaries and beaches throughout northern California, USA and have been used as indicators of habitat conditions in several salt marshes. The overall objectives of the present study were to conduct a lab-based study to test the accumulation of current-use pesticides, validate the analytical method and to analyze field-collected crabs for a suite of 74 current-use and legacy pesticides. A simple laboratory uptake study was designed to determine if embryos could bioconcentrate the herbicide molinate over a 7-d period. At the end of the experiment, embryos were removed from the crabs and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Although relatively hydrophilic (log KOW of 2.9), molinate did accumulate with an estimated bioconcentration factor (log BCF) of approximately 2.5. Following method validation, embryos were collected from two different Northern California salt marshes and analyzed. In field-collected embryos 18 current-use and eight organochlorine pesticides were detected including synthetic pyrethroids and organophosphate insecticides, as well as DDT and its degradates. Lipid-normalized concentrations of the pesticides detected in the field-collected crab embryos ranged from 0.1 to 4 ppm. Pesticide concentrations and profiles in crab embryos were site specific and could be correlated to differences in land-use practices. These preliminary results indicate that embryos are an effective sink for organic contaminants in the environment and have the potential to be good indicators of ecosystem health, especially when contaminant body burden analyses are paired with reproductive impairment assays.

Smalling, Kelly L.; Morgan, Steven; Kuivila, Kathryn K.

2010-01-01

65

Bering Climate: A Current View of the Bering Sea Ecosystem and Climate  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This portal provides a current review of the ecosystem and climate of the Bering Sea. One link provides access to an article featuring an overview of the current state of the sea in terms of ecosystem and climate change. The "Quick View" segment provides graphic representations of how four indicators (physical data, biology and fisheries, climate indices, and composites) have changed over time. Other links provide access to datasets, science reports and essays, and to additional information such as maps and photographs.

66

The North Pacific High and wintertime pre-conditioning of California current productivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Abstract Variations in large-scale atmospheric forcing influence upwelling dynamics and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> productivity in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System (CCS). In this paper, we characterize interannual variability of the North Pacific High over 40 years and investigate how variation in its amplitude and position affect upwelling and biology. We develop a winter upwelling "pre-conditioning" index and demonstrate its utility to understanding biological processes. Variation in the winter NPH can be well described by its areal extent and maximum pressure, which in turn is predictive of winter upwelling. Our winter pre-conditioning index explained 64% of the variation in biological responses (fish and seabirds). Understanding characteristics of the NPH in winter is therefore critical to predicting biological responses in the CCS.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schroeder, Isaac D.; Black, Bryan A.; Sydeman, William J.; Bograd, Steven J.; Hazen, Elliott L.; Santora, Jarrod A.; Wells, Brian K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">67</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.agu.org/journals/jc/v102/iC01/96JC02803/96JC02803.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Wind-forced modeling studies of <span class="hlt">currents</span>, meanders, and eddies in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This process-oriented study of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> system (CCS) uses a high-resolution, multilevel, primitive equation ocean model on a\\/3 plane to isolate the response of that eastern boundary oceanic regime to temporal and spatially varying wind forcing. To study the generation, evolution, and maintenance of many of the observed features such as <span class="hlt">currents</span>, meanders, and eddies in the CCS, the</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mary L. Batteen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">68</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PrOce..91..397S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mesoscale structure and oceanographic determinants of krill hotspots in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span>: Implications for trophic transfer and conservation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Krill (crustaceans of the family Euphausiacea) comprise an important prey field for vast array of fish, birds, and marine mammals in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> and other large marine <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> globally. In this study, we test the hypothesis that mesoscale spatial organization of krill is related to oceanographic conditions associated with coastal upwelling. To test this, we compiled a climatology of krill distributions based on hydroacoustic surveys off <span class="hlt">California</span> in May-June each year between 2000 and 2009 (missing 2007). Approximately 53,000 km of ocean habitat was sampled, resulting in a comprehensive geo-spatial data set from the Southern <span class="hlt">California</span> Bight to Cape Mendocino. We determined the location and characteristics of eight definite and two probable krill hotspots of abundance. Directional-dependence analysis revealed that krill hotspots were oriented in a northwest-southeast (135) direction, corresponding to the anisotropy of the 200-2000 m isobath. Krill hotspots were disassociated (inversely correlated) with three upwelling centers, Point Arena, Point Sur, and Point Conception, suggesting that krill may avoid locations of strong offshore transport or aggregate downstream from these locations. While <span class="hlt">current</span> fisheries management considers the entire coast out to the 2000 m isobath critical habitat for krill in this <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>, we establish here smaller scale structuring of this critical mid-trophic level prey resource. Identifying mesoscale krill hotspots and their oceanographic determinants is significant as these smaller <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> divisions may warrant protection to ensure key <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> functions (i.e., trophic transfer) and resilience. Furthermore, delineating and quantifying krill hotspots may be important for conservation of krill-predators in this system.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Santora, Jarrod A.; Sydeman, William J.; Schroeder, Isaac D.; Wells, Brian K.; Field, John C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">69</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PrOce.106..154S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spatial ecology of krill, micronekton and top predators in the central <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span>: Implications for defining ecologically important areas</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Marine spatial planning and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> models that aim to predict and protect fisheries and wildlife benefit greatly from syntheses of empirical information on physical and biological partitioning of marine <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. Here, we develop spatially-explicit oceanographic and ecological descriptions of the central <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> region. To partition this region, we integrate data from 20 years of shipboard surveys with satellite remote-sensing to characterize local seascapes of ecological significance, focusing on krill, other micronekton taxa, and top predators (seabirds and marine mammals). Specifically, we investigate if micronekton and predator assemblages co-vary spatially with mesoscale oceanographic conditions. The first principal component of environmental and micronekton seascapes indicates significant coupling between physics, primary productivity, and secondary and tertiary marine consumers. Subsequent principal components indicate latitudinal variability in niche-community space due to varying habitat characteristics between Monterey Bay (deep submarine canyon system) and the Gulf of the Farallones (extensive continental shelf), even though both of these sub-regions are located downstream from upwelling centers. Overall, we identified five ecologically important areas based on spatial integration of environmental and biotic features. These areas, characterized by proximity to upwelling centers, shallow pycnoclines, and high chlorophyll-a and krill concentrations, are potential areas of elevated trophic focusing for specific epipelagic and mesopelagic communities. This synthesis will benefit <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>-based management approaches for the central <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span>, a region long-impacted by anthropogenic factors.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Santora, Jarrod A.; Field, John C.; Schroeder, Isaac D.; Sakuma, Keith M.; Wells, Brian K.; Sydeman, William J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">70</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70021229"> <span id="translatedtitle">Anthropogenic degradation of the southern <span class="hlt">California</span> desert <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> and prospects for natural recovery and restoration</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Large areas of the southern <span class="hlt">California</span> desert <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> have been negatively affected by off-highway vehicle use, overgrazing by domestic livestock, agriculture, urbanization, construction of roads and utility corridors, air pollution, military training exercises, and other activities. Secondary contributions to degradation include the proliferation of exotic plant species and a higher frequency of an- thropogenic fire. Effects of these impacts include alteration or destruction of macro- and micro- vegetation elements, establishment of annual plant communities dominated by exotic species, destruction of soil stabilizers, soil compaction, and increased erosion. Published estimates of recovery time are based on return to predisturbance levels of biomass, cover, density, community structure, or soil characteristics. Natural recovery rates depend on the nature and severity of the impact but are generally very slow. Recovery to predisturbance plant cover and biomass may take 50-300 years, while complete <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> recovery may require over 3000 years. Restorative intervention can be used to enhance the success and rate of recovery, but the costs are high and the probability for long-term success is low to moderate. Given the sensitivity of desert habitats to disturbance and the slow rate of natural recovery, the best management option is to limit the extent and intensity of impacts as much as possible.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lovich, J.E.; Bainbridge, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">71</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70111934"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling Hawaiian <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> degradation due to invasive plants under <span class="hlt">current</span> and future climates</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Occupation of native <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> by invasive plant species alters their structure and/or function. In Hawaii, a subset of introduced plants is regarded as extremely harmful due to competitive ability, <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> modification, and biogeochemical habitat degradation. By controlling this subset of highly invasive <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> modifiers, conservation managers could significantly reduce native <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> degradation. To assess the invasibility of vulnerable native <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, we selected a proxy subset of these invasive plants and developed robust ensemble species distribution models to define their respective potential distributions. The combinations of all species models using both binary and continuous habitat suitability projections resulted in estimates of species richness and diversity that were subsequently used to define an invasibility metric. The invasibility metric was defined from species distribution models with 0.8; True Skill Statistic >0.75) as evaluated per species. Invasibility was further projected onto a 2100 Hawaii regional climate change scenario to assess the change in potential habitat degradation. The distribution defined by the invasibility metric delineates areas of known and potential invasibility under <span class="hlt">current</span> climate conditions and, when projected into the future, estimates potential reductions in native <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> extent due to climate-driven invasive incursion. We have provided the code used to develop these metrics to facilitate their wider use (Code S1). This work will help determine the vulnerability of native-dominated <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> to the combined threats of climate change and invasive species, and thus help prioritize <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> and species management actions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vorsino, Adam E.; Fortini, Lucas B.; Amidon, Fred A.; Miller, Stephen E.; Jacobi, James D.; Price, Jonathan P.; `Ohukani`ohi`a Gon, Sam, III; Koob, Gregory A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">72</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.eduplace.com/science/hmsc/4/b/unit.html"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This self-contained module on <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> includes a range of fun activities that students can perform in the classroom and at home with family members. They impart important concepts such as observation, identification, measurement, and differentiation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Houghton Mifflin Science</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">73</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21833315"> <span id="translatedtitle">Differential distributions of synechococcus subgroups across the <span class="hlt">california</span> <span class="hlt">current</span> system.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Synechococcus is an abundant marine cyanobacterial genus composed of different populations that vary physiologically. Synechococcus narB gene sequences (encoding for nitrate reductase in cyanobacteria) obtained previously from isolates and the environment (e.g., North Pacific Gyre Station ALOHA, Hawaii or Monterey Bay, CA, USA) were used to develop quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays. These qPCR assays were used to quantify populations from specific narB phylogenetic clades across the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System (CCS), a region composed of dynamic zones between a coastal-upwelling zone and the oligotrophic Pacific Ocean. Targeted populations (narB subgroups) had different biogeographic patterns across the CCS, which appear to be driven by environmental conditions. Subgroups C_C1, D_C1, and D_C2 were abundant in coastal-upwelling to coastal-transition zone waters with relatively high to intermediate ammonium, nitrate, and chl. a concentrations. Subgroups A_C1 and F_C1 were most abundant in coastal-transition zone waters with intermediate nutrient concentrations. E_O1 and G_O1 were most abundant at different depths of oligotrophic open-ocean waters (either in the upper mixed layer or just below). E_O1, A_C1, and F_C1 distributions differed from other narB subgroups and likely possess unique ecologies enabling them to be most abundant in waters between coastal and open-ocean waters. Different CCS zones possessed distinct Synechococcus communities. Core <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">current</span> water possessed low numbers of narB subgroups relative to counted Synechococcus cells, and coastal-transition waters contained high abundances of Synechococcus cells and total number of narB subgroups. The presented biogeographic data provides insight on the distributions and ecologies of Synechococcus present in an eastern boundary <span class="hlt">current</span> system. PMID:21833315</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paerl, Ryan W; Johnson, Kenneth S; Welsh, Rory M; Worden, Alexandra Z; Chavez, Francisco P; Zehr, Jonathan P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">74</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24590188"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Current</span> developments in groundwater ecology--from biodiversity to <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> function and services.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Groundwater <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> constitute the largest terrestrial freshwater biome. They are dark, extremely low in energy and do not provide much space but they contain an unexpectedly high diversity of living forms showing characteristic adaptive features. The restricted accessibility along with the enormous 'invisible' heterogeneity challenged for a long time testing of scientific theories and unraveling of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> functioning. Triggered by an improved interdisciplinarity, comprehensive sampling strategies and <span class="hlt">current</span> developments in biotechnology and statistical analysis, groundwater ecology gains momentum entering a new era of research. We are only beginning to understand adaptive mechanisms, species distribution patterns and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> functioning. Ninety-five percent of global liquid freshwater is stored in the terrestrial subsurface constituting a major source of water for drinking, irrigation and industrial purposes. There is an urgent need to integrate evolutionary and ecological research for developing a holistic perspective of the functional roles of biodiversity and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services and predicting global changes under alternative groundwater resource use scenarios. PMID:24590188</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Griebler, Christian; Malard, Florian; Lefbure, Tristan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">75</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://fws-case-12.nmsu.edu/case/Case(07-2004).pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">CURRENT</span> AND PAST RESEARCH Research on Biodiversity and <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Services</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">, NRCS, and ARS on using alternative future scenarios using climate change urban growth to identify research on a wide variety of scales. CASE is <span class="hlt">currently</span> conducting research on the role of invasive plant species on White Sands pupfish and burrowing owl. In the past, CASE used a spatial risk assessment</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Johnson, Eric E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">76</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.B31G0372S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Management on Soil Carbon Pools in <span class="hlt">California</span> Rangeland <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Rangeland <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> managed for livestock production represent the largest land-use footprint globally, covering more than one-quarter of the world's land surface (Asner et al. 2004). In <span class="hlt">California</span>, rangelands cover an estimated 17 million hectares or approximately 40% of the land area (FRAP 2003). These <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> have considerable potential to sequester carbon (C) in soil and offset greenhouse gas emissions through changes in land management practices. Climate policies and C markets may provide incentives for rangeland managers to pursue strategies that optimize soil C storage, yet we lack a thorough understanding of the effects of management on soil C pools in rangelands over time and space. We sampled soil C pools on rangelands in a 260 km2 region of Marin and Sonoma counties to determine if patterns in soil C storage exist with management. Replicate soil samples were collected from 35 fields that spanned the dominant soil orders, plant communities, and management practices in the region while controlling for slope and bioclimatic zone (n = 1050). Management practices included organic amendments, intensive (dairy) and extensive (other) grazing practices, and subsoiling. Soil C pools ranged from approximately 50 to 140 Mg C ha-1 to 1 m depth, with a mean of 99 22 (sd) Mg C ha-1. Differences among sites were due primarily to C concentrations, which exhibited a much larger coefficient of variation than bulk density at all depths. There were no statistically significant differences among the dominant soil orders. Subsoiling appeared to significantly increase soil C content in the top 50 cm, even though subsoiling had only occurred for the first time the previous Nov. Organic amendments also appeared to greatly increase soil C pools, and was the dominant factor that distinguished soil C pools in intensive and extensive land uses. Our results indicate that management has the potential to significantly increase soil C pools. Future research will determine the location of sequestered C within the soil matrix and its turnover time.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Silver, W. L.; Ryals, R.; Lewis, D. J.; Creque, J.; Wacker, M.; Larson, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">77</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/w81072844908252w.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spatialtemporal variation in soil respiration in an oakgrass savanna <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> in <span class="hlt">California</span> and its partitioning into autotrophic and heterotrophic components</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The spatial upscaling of soil respiration from field measurements to <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> levels will be biased without studying its spatial variation. We took advantage of the unique spatial gradients of an oakgrass savanna <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> in <span class="hlt">California</span>, with widely spaced oak trees overlying a grass layer, to study the spatial variation in soil respiration and to use these natural gradients to partition</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jianwu Tang; Dennis D. Baldocchi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">78</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4013088"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling Hawaiian <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Degradation due to Invasive Plants under <span class="hlt">Current</span> and Future Climates</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Occupation of native <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> by invasive plant species alters their structure and/or function. In Hawaii, a subset of introduced plants is regarded as extremely harmful due to competitive ability, <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> modification, and biogeochemical habitat degradation. By controlling this subset of highly invasive <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> modifiers, conservation managers could significantly reduce native <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> degradation. To assess the invasibility of vulnerable native <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, we selected a proxy subset of these invasive plants and developed robust ensemble species distribution models to define their respective potential distributions. The combinations of all species models using both binary and continuous habitat suitability projections resulted in estimates of species richness and diversity that were subsequently used to define an invasibility metric. The invasibility metric was defined from species distribution models with <0.7 niche overlap (Warrens I) and relatively discriminative distributions (Area Under the Curve >0.8; True Skill Statistic >0.75) as evaluated per species. Invasibility was further projected onto a 2100 Hawaii regional climate change scenario to assess the change in potential habitat degradation. The distribution defined by the invasibility metric delineates areas of known and potential invasibility under <span class="hlt">current</span> climate conditions and, when projected into the future, estimates potential reductions in native <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> extent due to climate-driven invasive incursion. We have provided the code used to develop these metrics to facilitate their wider use (Code S1). This work will help determine the vulnerability of native-dominated <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> to the combined threats of climate change and invasive species, and thus help prioritize <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> and species management actions. PMID:24805254</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vorsino, Adam E.; Fortini, Lucas B.; Amidon, Fred A.; Miller, Stephen E.; Jacobi, James D.; Price, Jonathan P.; Gon, Sam 'Ohukani'ohi'a; Koob, Gregory A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">79</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24991934"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling Hawaiian <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> degradation due to invasive plants under <span class="hlt">current</span> and future climates.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Occupation of native <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> by invasive plant species alters their structure and/or function. In Hawaii, a subset of introduced plants is regarded as extremely harmful due to competitive ability, <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> modification, and biogeochemical habitat degradation. By controlling this subset of highly invasive <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> modifiers, conservation managers could significantly reduce native <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> degradation. To assess the invasibility of vulnerable native <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, we selected a proxy subset of these invasive plants and developed robust ensemble species distribution models to define their respective potential distributions. The combinations of all species models using both binary and continuous habitat suitability projections resulted in estimates of species richness and diversity that were subsequently used to define an invasibility metric. The invasibility metric was defined from species distribution models with <0.7 niche overlap (Warrens I) and relatively discriminative distributions (Area Under the Curve >0.8; True Skill Statistic >0.75) as evaluated per species. Invasibility was further projected onto a 2100 Hawaii regional climate change scenario to assess the change in potential habitat degradation. The distribution defined by the invasibility metric delineates areas of known and potential invasibility under <span class="hlt">current</span> climate conditions and, when projected into the future, estimates potential reductions in native <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> extent due to climate-driven invasive incursion. We have provided the code used to develop these metrics to facilitate their wider use (Code S1). This work will help determine the vulnerability of native-dominated <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> to the combined threats of climate change and invasive species, and thus help prioritize <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> and species management actions. PMID:24991934</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vorsino, Adam E; Fortini, Lucas B; Amidon, Fred A; Miller, Stephen E; Jacobi, James D; Price, Jonathan P; 'Ohukani'ohi'a Gon, Sam; Koob, Gregory A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">80</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24805254"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling Hawaiian <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> degradation due to invasive plants under <span class="hlt">current</span> and future climates.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Occupation of native <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> by invasive plant species alters their structure and/or function. In Hawaii, a subset of introduced plants is regarded as extremely harmful due to competitive ability, <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> modification, and biogeochemical habitat degradation. By controlling this subset of highly invasive <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> modifiers, conservation managers could significantly reduce native <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> degradation. To assess the invasibility of vulnerable native <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, we selected a proxy subset of these invasive plants and developed robust ensemble species distribution models to define their respective potential distributions. The combinations of all species models using both binary and continuous habitat suitability projections resulted in estimates of species richness and diversity that were subsequently used to define an invasibility metric. The invasibility metric was defined from species distribution models with <0.7 niche overlap (Warrens I) and relatively discriminative distributions (Area Under the Curve >0.8; True Skill Statistic >0.75) as evaluated per species. Invasibility was further projected onto a 2100 Hawaii regional climate change scenario to assess the change in potential habitat degradation. The distribution defined by the invasibility metric delineates areas of known and potential invasibility under <span class="hlt">current</span> climate conditions and, when projected into the future, estimates potential reductions in native <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> extent due to climate-driven invasive incursion. We have provided the code used to develop these metrics to facilitate their wider use (Code S1). This work will help determine the vulnerability of native-dominated <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> to the combined threats of climate change and invasive species, and thus help prioritize <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> and species management actions. PMID:24805254</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vorsino, Adam E; Fortini, Lucas B; Amidon, Fred A; Miller, Stephen E; Jacobi, James D; Price, Jonathan P; Gon, Sam 'ohukani'ohi'a; Koob, Gregory A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a 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showDiv("page_6");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">81</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMOS51D1904B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Exploration of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System with seismic oceanography</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Seismic oceanography is a discipline that studies physical properties of the oceanic water from multichannel seismic reflection data. Multichannel seismic reflection data image mesoscale structures in the ocean like fronts, eddies and <span class="hlt">currents</span> with lateral resolution on the order of 10 m. These data reveal the lateral coherence of thermohaline oceanic structures as well as the interactions with the topography. This discipline uses the same instrumentation and software for data acquisition and processing that marine geophysics, but it uses the first 5-6 seconds of the seismic records, which travel through the water column. The "Juan de Fuca Ridge to Trench" survey was carried out in the Cascadia Basin during last June-July 2012. The water column above Cascadia Basin is affected by the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System. There were two research vessel involved in this geophysical survey: RV Marcus Langseth, which was in charged of the multichannel seismic reflection data acquisition and the RV Oceanus, which was in charged of the ocean bottom seismometers. We had the opportunity of acquiring XBTs and XSVs simultaneously to the seismic acquisition from the RV Marcus Langseth and the RV Oceanus offered to us the opportunity of doing CTD space-coincident casts of the seismic acquisition, in order to compare the seismic images with the temperature, salinity and sound velocity data. We present in this work the seismic images of two eddies that were recorded in the survey and their comparison with the physical properties of the ocean.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Biescas-Gorriz, B.; Mojica, J. F.; Bornstein, G.; Bartlett, A.; Nedimovic, M. R.; Sallares, V.; Ruddick, B. R.; Carbotte, S. M.; Canales, J.; Carton, H. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">82</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRC..118.3223P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the temperature-nitrate relationship in the coastal upwelling domain of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Given the importance of nitrate in sustaining high primary production and fishery yields in eastern boundary <span class="hlt">current</span> <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, it is desirable to know the amounts of this nutrient reaching the euphotic zone through the upwelling process. Because such measurements are not routinely available, we developed predictive models of water-column (0-200 m) nitrate based on temperature for a region of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System (30-47N) within 50 km from the coast. Prediction was done using generalized additive models based on a compilation of 37,607 observations collected over the period 1959-2004 and validated with a separate set of 6430 observations for the period 2005-2011. A temperature-only model had relatively high explanatory power (explained deviance, D2 = 71.6%) but contained important depth, latitudinal, and seasonal biases. A model incorporating salinity in addition to temperature (D2 = 91.2%) corrected for the latitudinal and depth biases but not the seasonal bias. The best model included oxygen, temperature, and salinity (D2 = 96.6%) and adequately predicted nitrate temporal behavior at two widely separated locations (4439.1'N and 3254.6'N) with slight or no bias [root-mean-square error (RMSE) = 2.39 and 0.40 M, respectively). For situations when only temperature is available, a model including depth, month, and latitude as proxy covariates corrects some of the biases, but it had lower predictive skill (RMSE = 2.50 and 5.22 ?M, respectively). The results of this study have applications for the proxy derivation of nitrate availability for primary producers (phytoplankton, macroalgae) in upwelling regions and for biogeochemical and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> modeling studies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Palacios, Daniel M.; Hazen, Elliott L.; Schroeder, Isaac D.; Bograd, Steven J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">83</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/52160538"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal variability in meanders of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">current</span> system off Vancouver Island</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Satellite infrared image taken over the past few years reveal seasonal variations in the meanders of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System (CCS) off Vancouver Island. The CCS exhibits meanders with wavelength between 120 and 150 km in both winter and spring, when the upper ocean <span class="hlt">current</span> all flows northwestward or southeastward, respectively. In summer, the CCS includes the <span class="hlt">California</span> Undercurrent, which</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">M. Ikeda; W. J. Emery; L. A. Mysak</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1984-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">84</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3654961"> <span id="translatedtitle">Indirect Effects of Conservation Policies on the Coupled Human-Natural <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> of the Upper Gulf of <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">High bycatch of non-target species and species of conservation concern often drives the implementation of fisheries policies. However, species- or fishery-specific policies may lead to indirect consequences, positive or negative, for other species or fisheries. We use an Atlantis <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> model of the Northern Gulf of <span class="hlt">California</span> to evaluate the effects of fisheries policies directed at reducing bycatch of vaquita (Phocoena sinus) on other species of conservation concern, priority target species, and metrics of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> function and structure. Vaquita, a Critically Endangered porpoise endemic to the Upper Gulf of <span class="hlt">California</span>, are frequently entangled by finfish gillnets and shrimp driftnets. We tested five fishery management scenarios, projected over 30 years (2008 to 2038), directed at vaquita conservation. The scenarios consider progressively larger spatial restrictions for finfish gillnets and shrimp driftnets. The most restrictive scenario resulted in the highest biomass of species of conservation concern; the scenario without any conservation measures in place resulted in the lowest. Vaquita experienced the largest population increase of any functional group; their biomass increased 2.7 times relative to initial (2008) levels under the most restrictive spatial closure scenario. Bycatch of sea lions, sea turtles, and totoaba decreased > 80% in shrimp driftnets and at least 20% in finfish gillnet fleets under spatial management. We found indirect effects on species and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> function and structure as a result of vaquita management actions. Biomass and catch of forage fish declined, which could affect lower-trophic level fisheries, while other species such as skates, rays, and sharks increased in both biomass and catch. When comparing across performance metrics, we found that scenarios that increased <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> function and structure resulted in lower economic performance indicators, underscoring the need for management actions that consider ecological and economic tradeoffs as part of the integrated management of the Upper Gulf of <span class="hlt">California</span>. PMID:23691155</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Morzaria-Luna, Hem Nalini; Ainsworth, Cameron H.; Kaplan, Isaac C.; Levin, Phillip S.; Fulton, Elizabeth A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">85</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.B33F0527A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Microbial Enzymatic Response to Reduced Precipitation and Added Nitrogen in a Southern <span class="hlt">California</span> Grassland <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Microbial enzymes play a fundamental role in <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> processes and nutrient mineralization. Although there have been many studies concluding that global climate change affects plant communities, the effects on microbial communities in leaf litter have been much less studied. We measured extracellular enzyme activities in litter decomposing in plots with either reduced precipitation or increased nitrogen in a grassland <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> in Loma Ridge National Landmark in Southern <span class="hlt">California</span>. We used a reciprocal transplant design to examine the effects of plot treatment, litter origin, and microbial community origin on litter decomposition and extracellular enzyme activity. Our hypothesis was that increased nitrogen would increase activity because nitrogen often limits microbial growth, while decreased precipitation would decrease activity due to lower litter moisture levels. Samples were collected in March 2011 and analyzed for the activities of cellobiohydrolase (CBH), ?-glucosidase (BG), ?-glucosidase (AG), N-acetyl-?-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), ?-xylosidase (BX), acid phosphatase (AP), and leucine aminopeptidase (LAP). None of the factors in the nitrogen manipulation had a significant effect on any of the enzymes, although BG, CBH, and NAG increased marginally significantly in plots with nitrogen addition (p = 0.103, p = 0.082, and p = 0.114, respectively). For the precipitation manipulation, AG, BG, BX, CBH, and NAG significantly increased in plots with reduced precipitation (p = 0.015, p <0.001, p<0.001, and p<0.001, respectively) while LAP significantly decreased (p = 0.002). LAP catalyzes the hydrolysis of polypeptides, so reduced LAP activity could result in lower rates of enzyme turnover in the reduced precipitation treatment. We also observed that AP significantly increased (p = 0.014) in litter originating from reduced precipitation plots, while AG, BX, and LAP significantly decreased (p = 0.011, p = 0.031, and 0.005, respectively). There were no significant correlations found between fungal or bacterial mass and enzymatic activity with either of the treatment types. Our results suggest that increased enzymatic activity due to drought could mitigate negative effects of moisture limitation on decomposition. However, this mitigating effect may be offset by declines in enzyme activity due to changes in plant community composition and associated litter chemistry in response to drought.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Alster, C. J.; German, D.; Allison, S. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">86</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3850916"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cumulative Human Impacts on Mediterranean and Black Sea Marine <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span>: Assessing <span class="hlt">Current</span> Pressures and Opportunities</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Management of marine <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> requires spatial information on <span class="hlt">current</span> impacts. In several marine regions, including the Mediterranean and Black Sea, legal mandates and agreements to implement <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>-based management and spatial plans provide new opportunities to balance uses and protection of marine <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. Analyses of the intensity and distribution of cumulative impacts of human activities directly connected to the ecological goals of these policy efforts are critically needed. Quantification and mapping of the cumulative impact of 22 drivers to 17 marine <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> reveals that 20% of the entire basin and 6099% of the territorial waters of EU member states are heavily impacted, with high human impact occurring in all ecoregions and territorial waters. Less than 1% of these regions are relatively unaffected. This high impact results from multiple drivers, rather than one individual use or stressor, with climatic drivers (increasing temperature and UV, and acidification), demersal fishing, ship traffic, and, in coastal areas, pollution from land accounting for a majority of cumulative impacts. These results show that coordinated management of key areas and activities could significantly improve the condition of these marine <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. PMID:24324585</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Micheli, Fiorenza; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Walbridge, Shaun; Ciriaco, Saul; Ferretti, Francesco; Fraschetti, Simonetta; Lewison, Rebecca; Nykjaer, Leo; Rosenberg, Andrew A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">87</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013DSRII..95...37F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Foraging ecology and movement patterns of jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">From 2002 to 2010, the jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) has been regularly encountered in large numbers throughout the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System (CCS). This species, usually found in subtropical waters, could affect coastal pelagic <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> and fisheries as both predator and prey. Neither the abundance of jumbo squid nor the optimal ocean conditions in which they flourish are well known. To understand better the potential impacts of this species on both commercial fisheries and on food-web structure we collected nearly 900 specimens from waters of the CCS, covering over 20 of latitude, over a range of depths and seasons. We used demographic information (size, sex, and maturity state) and analyzed stomach contents using morphological and molecular methods to best understand the foraging ecology of this species in different habitats of the CCS. Squid were found to consume a broad array of prey. Prey in offshore waters generally reflected the forage base reported in previous studies (mainly mesopelagic fishes and squids), whereas in more coastal waters (shelf, shelf break and slope habitats) squid foraged on a much broader mix that included substantial numbers of coastal pelagic fishes (Pacific herring and northern anchovy, as well as osmerids and salmonids in northern waters) and groundfish (Pacific hake, several species of rockfish and flatfish). We propose a seasonal movement pattern, based on size and maturity distributions along with qualitative patterns of presence or absence, and discuss the relevance of both the movement and distribution of jumbo squid over space and time. We find that jumbo squid are a generalist predator, which feeds primarily on small, pelagic or mesopelagic micronekton but also on larger fishes when they are available. We also conclude that interactions with and potential impacts on <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> likely vary over space and time, in response to both seasonal movement patterns and highly variable year-to-year abundance of the squid themselves.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Field, John C.; Elliger, Carl; Baltz, Ken; Gillespie, Graham E.; Gilly, William F.; Ruiz-Cooley, R. I.; Pearse, Devon; Stewart, Julia S.; Matsubu, William; Walker, William A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">88</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JMS....69..295M"> <span id="translatedtitle">A numerical study of stochastic larval settlement in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Key to the predictive understanding of many nearshore marine <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> is the transport of larvae by ocean circulation processes. Many species release thousands to billions of larvae to develop in pelagic waters, but only a few lucky ones successfully settle to suitable habitat and recruit to adult life stages. Methodologies for predicting the larval dispersal are still primitive, and simple diffusive analyses are still used for many important applications. In this study, we investigate mechanisms of larval dispersal using idealized simulations of time-evolving coastal circulations in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> system with Lagrangian particles as models for planktonic larvae. Connectivity matrices, which describe the source-to-destination relationships for larval dispersal for a given larval development time course, are used to diagnose the time-space dynamics of larval settlement. The resulting connectivity matrices are shown to be a function of several important time scales, such as the planktonic larval duration, the frequency and duration of larval release events and inherent time scales for the coastal circulations. Many important fishery management applications require knowledge of fish stocks on a year-to-year or generation-to-generation basis. For these short time scales (typically less than 1 year), larval dispersal is generally far from a simple diffusive process and the consideration of the stochastic and episodic nature of larval dispersal is required. This work provides new insights into the spatial-temporal dynamics of nearshore fish stocks.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mitarai, S.; Siegel, D. A.; Winters, K. B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">89</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2867361"> <span id="translatedtitle">Processes influencing seasonal hypoxia in the northern <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper delineates the role of physical and biological processes contributing to hypoxia, dissolved oxygen (DO) < 1.4 mL/L, over the continental shelf of Washington State in the northern portion of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System (CCS). In the historical record (19501986) during the summer upwelling season, hypoxia is more prevalent and severe off Washington than further south off northern Oregon. Recent data (20032005) show that hypoxia over the Washington shelf occurred at levels previously observed in the historical data. 2006 was an exception, with hypoxia covering ~5000 km2 of the Washington continental shelf and DO concentrations below 0.5 mL/L at the inner shelf, lower than any known previous observations at that location. In the four years studied, upwelling of low DO water and changes in source water contribute to interannual variability, but cannot account for seasonal decreases below hypoxic concentrations. Deficits of DO along salinity surfaces, indicating biochemical consumption of DO, vary significantly between surveys, accounting for additional decreases of 0.52.5 mL/L by late summer. DO consumption is associated with denitrification, an indicator of biochemical sediment processes. Mass balances of DO and nitrate show that biochemical processes in the water column and sediments each contribute ~50% to the total consumption of DO in near-bottom water. At shorter than seasonal time scales on the inner shelf, along-shelf advection of hypoxic patches and cross-shelf advection of seasonal gradients are both shown to be important, changing DO concentrations by 1.5 mL/L or more over five days. PMID:20463844</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Connolly, T. P.; Hickey, B. M.; Geier, S. L.; Cochlan, W. P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">90</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004AGUFM.B31B0222C"> <span id="translatedtitle">A multi-scale Analysis of Dynamic Optical Signals in a Southern <span class="hlt">California</span> Chaparral <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span>: a Comparison of Field, AVIRIS and MODIS Data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Using field data, Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) imagery, and Moderate-Resolution Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MODIS) data, a multi-scale analysis of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> optical properties was performed for Sky Oaks, a Southern <span class="hlt">California</span> chaparral <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> in the SpecNet and FLUXNET networks. The study covered a four-year period (2000-2004), which included a severe drought in 2002 and a subsequent wildfire in July 2003, leading to extreme perturbation in <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> optical properties. Two vegetation greenness indices (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI)) and a measure of the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by vegetation (fPAR) were compared across sampling platforms, which ranged in pixel size from 1 meter (tram system in the field) to 1000 m (MODIS satellite sensor). For the EVI, there was excellent agreement between MODIS, AVIRIS and the ground measurements (tram system). AVIRIS and tram-based NDVI and fPAR values were in close agreement. However, MODIS NDVI and fPAR values were consistently higher than those determined from the field and the aircraft sensor, and these differences could not be entirely attributed to differences in sampling scale. Interestingly, MODIS fPAR derived from backup algorithms (NDVI driven) was closer to the AVIRIS and tram fPAR under the cloudy conditions. This suggests that derivation of fPAR directly from vegetation indices could work better than the <span class="hlt">currently</span> deployed dominant algorithms incorporating look-up tables for biome type. These results appear consistent with other recently published results that indicate that MODIS overestimates fPAR and thus NPP for terrestrial <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, and demonstrates the need for proper validation of MODIS terrestrial biospheric products by direct comparison against optical signals at other spatial scales. The study also demonstrates the utility of in-situ field sampling (e.g. tram systems) and hyperspectral aircraft imagery for proper interpretation of satellite data taken at coarse spatial scales.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cheng, Y.; Gamon, J. A.; Fuentes, D. A.; Mao, Z.; Sims, D.; Qiu, H.; Claudio, H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">91</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED041076.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Desegregating <span class="hlt">California</span> Schools. <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> Review of Human Resources, Number 3, November 1969.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This bulletin, prepared by the League of Women Voters, attempts to summarize popularly used methods of desegregation and to make specific suggestions for use in the State of <span class="hlt">California</span>. State responsibilities for desegregation are presented against the background of Federal and State court decisions. The status of racial imbalance in <span class="hlt">California</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">California League of Women Voters, San Francisco.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">92</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr20131170G"> <span id="translatedtitle">SAFRR tsunami scenario: impacts on <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, species, marine natural resources, and fisheries: Chapter G in The SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) Tsunami Scenario</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We evaluate the effects of the SAFRR Tsunami Scenario on <span class="hlt">Californias</span> <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, species, natural resources, and fisheries. We discuss mitigation and preparedness approaches that can be useful in Tsunami planning. The chapter provides an introduction to the role of <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> and natural resources in tsunami events (Section 1). A separate section focuses on specific impacts of the SAFRR Tsunami Scenario on <span class="hlt">Californias</span> <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> and endangered species (Section 2). A section on commercial fisheries and the fishing fleet (Section 3) documents the plausible effects on <span class="hlt">Californias</span> commercial fishery resources, fishing fleets, and communities. Sections 2 and 3 each include practical preparedness options for communities and suggestions on information needs or research. Our evaluation indicates that many low-lying coastal habitats, including beaches, marshes and sloughs, rivers and waterways connected to the sea, as well as nearshore submarine habitats will be damaged by the SAFRR Tsunami Scenario. Beach erosion and complex or high volumes of tsunami-generated debris would pose major challenges for ecological communities. Several endangered species and protected areas are at risk. Commercial fisheries and fishing fleets will be affected directly by the tsunami and indirectly by dependencies on infrastructure that is damaged. There is evidence that in some areas intact <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, notably sand dunes, will act as natural defenses against the tsunami waves. However, <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> do not provide blanket protection against tsunami surge. The consequences of ecological and natural resource damage are estimated in the millions of dollars. These costs are driven partly by the loss of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services, as well as cumulative and follow-on impacts where, for example, increased erosion during the tsunami can in turn lead to subsequent damage and loss to coastal properties. Recovery of <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, natural resources and fisheries is likely to be lengthy and expensive. Preparedness is key to enhancing resilience to ecological impacts.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brosnan, Deborah; Wein, Anne; Wilson, Rick</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">93</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.H51B0483C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Debris Flows on Stream <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> of the Klamath Mountains, Northern <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We examined the long-term effects of debris flows on channel characteristics and aquatic food webs in steep (0.04-0.06 slope), small (4-6 m wide) streams. A large rain-on-snow storm event in January 1997 resulted in numerous landslides and debris flows throughout many basins in the Klamath Mountains of northern <span class="hlt">California</span>. Debris floods resulted in extensive impacts throughout entire drainage networks, including mobilization of valley floor deposits and removal of vegetation. Comparing 5 streams scoured by debris flows in 1997 and 5 streams that had not been scoured as recently, we determined that debris-flows decreased channel complexity by reducing alluvial step frequency and large woody debris volumes. Unscoured streams had more diverse riparian vegetation, whereas scoured streams were dominated by dense, even-aged stands of white alder (Alnus rhombiflia). Benthic invertebrate shredders, especially nemourid and peltoperlid stoneflies, were more abundant and diverse in unscoured streams, reflecting the more diverse allochthonous resources. Debris flows resulted in increased variability in canopy cover, depending on degree of alder recolonization. Periphyton biomass was higher in unscoured streams, but primary production was greater in the recently scoured streams, suggesting that invertebrate grazers kept algal assemblages in an early successional state. Glossosomatid caddisflies were predominant scrapers in scoured streams; heptageniid mayflies were abundant in unscoured streams. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were of similar abundance in scoured and unscoured streams, but scoured streams were dominated by young-of-the-year fish while older juveniles were more abundant in unscoured streams. Differences in the presence of cold-water (Doroneuria) versus warm-water (Calineuria) perlid stoneflies suggest that debris flows have altered stream temperatures. Debris flows have long-lasting impacts on stream communities, primarily through the cascading effects of removal of riparian vegetation. Because debris flow frequency increases following road construction and timber harvest, the long-term biological effects of debris flows on stream <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, including anadromous fish populations, needs to be considered in forest management decisions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cover, M. R.; Delafuente, J. A.; Resh, V. H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">94</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JGRC..114.2004K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Trends in primary production in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> detected with satellite data</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Several ocean primary production algorithms using satellite data were evaluated on a large archive of net primary production (NPP) and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) measurements collected by the <span class="hlt">California</span> Cooperative Fisheries Investigations program in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span>. The best algorithm matching in situ data was found by empirically adjusting the Behrenfeld-Falkowski Vertically Generalized Production Model. Satellite-derived time series of NPP were calculated for the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> area. Significant increase in NPP and Chl-a annual peak levels, i.e., the "bloom magnitude," were found along the coasts of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> as well as other major eastern boundary <span class="hlt">currents</span> for the period of modern ocean color data (1997-2007). The reasons for this increase are not clear but are associated with various environmental conditions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kahru, Mati; Kudela, Raphael; Manzano-Sarabia, Marlenne; Mitchell, B. Greg</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">95</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.B21D0403D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Changing sources and sinks of carbon in boreal <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> of Interior Alaska: <span class="hlt">Current</span> and future perspectives</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Future climate scenarios predict a roughly 5C increase in mean annual air temperatures for the Alaskan Interior over the next 80 years. Increasing temperatures and greater frequency and severity of climate-induced disturbances such as wildfires will be enough to initiate permafrost degradation in many areas of Alaska, leading to major changes in surface hydrology and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> structure and function. This, in turn, is expected to alter the <span class="hlt">current</span> inventories of carbon sources and sinks in the region and provide a management challenge for carbon itemization efforts. To assist land managers in adapting and planning for potential changes in Interior Alaska carbon cycling we synthesize information on climate, <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> processes, vegetation, and soil, permafrost, and hydrologic regimes in Interior Alaska. Our goal is to provide an assessment of the <span class="hlt">current</span> and likely future regime of Interior Alaska carbon sources and sinks. For our carbon assessment we: 1) synthesize the most recent results from numerous studies on the carbon cycle with a focus on research from the Alaskan boreal biome, 2) assemble a summary of estimates of carbon sources in soil and vegetation in Interior Alaska, 3) categorize carbon sources and sinks for predominant Interior Alaska <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, and 4) identify expected changes in sources and sinks with climate change and human activities. This information is used to provide recommendations on potential actions land managers can take to minimize carbon export from the boreal forest. Though the results from our project are geared primarily toward policy makers and land managers we also provide recommendations for filling research gaps that <span class="hlt">currently</span> present uncertainty in our understanding of the carbon cycle in boreal forest <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> of Interior Alaska.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Douglas, T. A.; Jones, M.; Hiemstra, C. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">96</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19643514"> <span id="translatedtitle">Challenging the <span class="hlt">current</span> strategy of radiological protection of the environment: arguments for an <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> approach.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The system of radiological protection of the environment that is <span class="hlt">currently</span> under development is one contribution to the general need to adequately protect the environment against stress. Dominated by operational goals, it emphasizes conceptual and methodological approaches that are readily accessible today: reference organisms supported by individual-based traditional ecotoxicological data. Whilst there are immediate advantages to this approach (pragmatism, consistency with other approaches in use for man and biota), there are also clear limitations, especially in a longer run perspective, that need to be acknowledged and further considered. One can mention a few: uncertainties generated by the need for various extrapolations (from lower to higher levels of biological organisation, ...), various features missed such as potential ecological impact through impairment of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> processes, trans-generational impacts as mediated through genomic instability, indirect effects mediated through trophic interactions or disruption of ecological balances,... Such limitations have already been faced in other fields of environmental protection against other stressors, pushing a number of environment professionals to assign stronger emphasis on more systemic approaches. This review discusses the advantages and limitations of the <span class="hlt">current</span> approach designed for the radiological protection of non-human biota in the broader context of environment protection as a whole, with especial reference to upcoming trends and evolutions. This leads in particular to advocating the need to boost scientific and methodological approaches featuring the <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> concept as a mean to access a unified goal of protection: preserving life sustainability through protection of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> structure and functioning. PMID:19643514</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Brchignac, F; Doi, Masahiro</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">97</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.dfg.ca.gov/wildlife/nongame/publications/bm_research/docs/95_13.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">CURRENT</span> DISTRIBUTION OF THE FISHER, MARTES PENNANTI, IN <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Wedescribe the 1989-1994 distribution of the fisher, Martes pennanti, in <span class="hlt">California</span> based on the results of detection surveys that used either sooted track-plates or cameras. Fishers were detected in two regions of the state: the northwest and the southern Sierra Nevada. Despite considerable survey effort, neither fisher tracks nor photographs were collected in the area between Mt. Shasta and Yosemite</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">WILLIAM J. ZIELINSKI; THOMAS E. KUCERA; REGINALD H. BARRETT</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">98</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PrOce.120..370B"> <span id="translatedtitle">The central <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> transition zone: A broad region exhibiting evidence for iron limitation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The transition zone (TZ) of the central <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> upwelling system (cCCS) is the boundary between the cold, saline, coastally upwelled water and the warm, less saline, oligotrophic waters of the offshore <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> (CC). The TZ is a broad region that regularly exhibits chlorophyll concentrations of 1-2 ?g L-1 throughout the spring, summer, and fall seasons. Surface transect and vertical profile data from three cruises (May 2010, June 1999, and August 2011) between 34 and 42N show residual nitrate concentrations (5-15 ?M) and low Fe concentrations (most < 0.2 nmol kg-1) in the TZ. We therefore suggest that much of the TZ of the cCCS is an Fe-limited, high nutrient, lower than expected chlorophyll (HNLC) region. The main source of Fe to the cCCS is from upwelling through the benthic boundary layer (BBL) over the continental shelf sediments. Iron and NO3- in coastally upwelled water are transported via offshore moving filaments into the TZ. However, since some coastal upwelling regions with narrow continental shelves do not have much Fe to begin with, and since Fe is drawn down more rapidly relative to NO3- due to biological assimilation and scavenging, these filaments transport low concentrations of Fe relative to NO3- into the TZ. Weak wind curl-induced upwelling and vertical mixing in the TZ also deliver Fe and NO3- to the surface but at lower concentrations (and lower Fe:NO3-) than from strong coastal upwelling. Mesoscale cyclonic eddies in the TZ are important to consider with respect to offshore surface nutrient delivery because there is a marked shoaling of isopycnals and the nutricline within these eddies allowing higher nutrient concentrations to be closer to the surface. Since wind curl-induced upwelling and/or vertical mixing occurs seaward of the continental shelf, there is not enough Fe delivered to the surface to accompany the NO3-. By using Fe:NO3- ratios and calculated specific growth rates for diatoms, we demonstrate that the TZ of the cCCS shows evidence for Fe limitation of diatom blooms. The TZ also appears to progress further into Fe limitation as the upwelling season progresses from spring into late summer. This study provides some of the first field data to suggest that Fe is a critical bottom up control on the <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> in the TZ of the cCCS.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Biller, Dondra V.; Bruland, Kenneth W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">99</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMOS53D..05D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Prototyping global Earth System Models at high resolution: Representation of climate, <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, and acidification in Eastern Boundary <span class="hlt">Currents</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The world's major Eastern Boundary <span class="hlt">Currents</span> (EBC) such as the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> Large Marine <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> (CCLME) are critically important areas for global fisheries. Computational limitations have divided past EBC modeling into two types: high resolution regional approaches that resolve the strong meso-scale structures involved, and coarse global approaches that represent the large scale context for EBCs, but only crudely resolve only the largest scales of their manifestation. These latter global studies have illustrated the complex mechanisms involved in the climate change and acidification response in these regions, with the CCLME response dominated not by local adjustments but large scale reorganization of ocean circulation through remote forcing of water-mass supply pathways. While qualitatively illustrating the limitations of regional high resolution studies in long term projection, these studies lack the ability to robustly quantify change because of the inability of these models to represent the baseline meso-scale structures of EBCs. In the present work, we compare <span class="hlt">current</span> generation coarse resolution (one degree) and a prototype next generation high resolution (1/10 degree) Earth System Models (ESMs) from NOAA's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory in representing the four major EBCs. We review the long-known temperature biases that the coarse models suffer in being unable to represent the timing and intensity of upwelling-favorable winds, along with lack of representation of the observed high chlorophyll and biological productivity resulting from this upwelling. In promising contrast, we show that the high resolution prototype is capable of representing not only the overall meso-scale structure in physical and biogeochemical fields, but also the appropriate offshore extent of temperature anomalies and other EBC characteristics. Results for chlorophyll were mixed; while high resolution chlorophyll in EBCs were strongly enhanced over the coarse resolution ESM, they were still considerably lower than observed values. In terms of representation of large scale circulation and biogeochemistry, results were also mixed, with the high resolution prototype addressing some, but not all, of the biases in the coarse resolution ESM. While considerable work remains to understand the <span class="hlt">current</span> strengths and weaknesses of the high resolution ESM and continue to improve fidelity, this work is a major step forward in demonstrating the added value of high resolution in global ESMs and represents a fundamental leap forward towards both ecological forecasting and long term projection of climate, <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>, and acidification baselines and sensitivity.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dunne, J. P.; John, J. G.; Stock, C. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">100</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21506810"> <span id="translatedtitle">Population structure of three species of Anisakis nematodes recovered from Pacific sardines (Sardinops sagax) distributed throughout the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> system.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Members of the Anisakidae are known to infect over 200 pelagic fish species and have been frequently used as biological tags to identify fish populations. Despite information on the global distribution of Anisakis species, there is little information on the genetic diversity and population structure of this genus, which could be useful in assessing the stock structure of their fish hosts. From 2005 through 2008, 148 larval anisakids were recovered from Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax) in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> upwelling zone and were genetically sequenced. Sardines were captured off Vancouver Island, British Columbia in the north to San Diego, <span class="hlt">California</span> in the south. Three species, Anisakis pegreffii, Anisakis simplex 'C', and Anisakis simplex s.s., were identified with the use of sequences from the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) and the 5.8s subunit of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. The degree of nematode population structure was assessed with the use of the cytochrome c oxidase 2 (cox2) mitochondrial DNA gene. All 3 Anisakis species were distributed throughout the study region from 32N to 50N latitude. There was no association between sardine length and either nematode infection intensity or Anisakis species recovered. Larval Anisakis species and mitochondrial haplotype distributions from both parsimony networks and analyses of molecular variance revealed a panmictic distribution of these parasites, which infect sardines throughout the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>. Panmictic distribution of the larval Anisakis spp. populations may be a result of the presumed migratory pathways of the intermediate host (the Pacific sardine), moving into the northern portion of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> in summer and returning to the southern portion to overwinter and spawn in spring. However, the wider geographic range of paratenic (large piscine predators), and final hosts (cetaceans) can also explain the observed distribution pattern. As a result, the recovery of 3 Anisakis species and a panmictic distribution of their haplotypes could not be used to confirm or deny the presence of population subdivision of Pacific sardines in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> system. PMID:21506810</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Baldwin, Rebecca E; Rew, Mary Beth; Johansson, Mattias L; Banks, Michael A; Jacobson, Kym C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a 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<img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">101</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMGC11A0972P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Using sensitive montane amphibian species as indicators of hydroclimatic change in meadow <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> of the Sierra Nevada, <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Climate change can affect sensitive species and <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> in many ways, yet sparse data and the inability to apply various climate models at functional spatial scales often prevents relevant research from being utilized in conservation management plans. Climate change has been linked to declines and disturbances in a multitude of species and habitats, and in <span class="hlt">California</span>, one of the greatest climatic concerns is the predicted reduction in mountain snowpack and associated snowmelt. These decreases in natural storage of water as snow in mountain regions can affect the timing and variability of critical snowmelt runoff periodsimportant seasonal signals that species in montane <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> have evolved life history strategies aroundleading to greater intra-annual variability and diminished summer and fall stream flows. Although many species distribution models exist, few provide ways to integrate continually updated and revised Global Climate Models (GCMs), hydrologic data unique to a watershed, and ecological responses that can be incorporated into conservation strategies. This study documents a novel and applicable method of combining boosted regression tree (BRT) modeling and species distributions with hydroclimatic data as a potential management tool for conservation. Boosted regression trees are suitable for ecological distribution modeling because they can reduce both bias and variance, as well as handle sharp discontinuities common in sparsely sampled species or large study areas. This approach was used to quantify the effects of hydroclimatic changes on the distribution of key riparian-associated amphibian species in montane meadow habitats in the Sierra Nevada at the sub-watershed level. Based on modeling using <span class="hlt">current</span> species range maps in conjunction with three climate scenarios (near, mid, and far), extreme range contractions were observed for all sensitive species (southern long-toed salamander, mountain yellow-legged frog, Yosemite toad) by the year 2100. Among many environmental and hydroclimatic variables used in the model, snowpack and snowmelt (runoff) variables were consistently among the most informative in predicting species occupancy. Few sub-watersheds contained greater than 50% probability of species occupancy throughout the modeled time period; however several core areas were identified as more resilient to climate change for each species. There was overlap among species in areas that were predicted to remain hydroclimatically stable, particularly in sub-watersheds that contain high meadow density. Quantifying these areas of habitat stability, or "resiliency", may ultimately be the most useful outcome of BRT modeling, with the flexibility to utilize multiple GCMs at varying scales. Ultimately managers need to consider both short term and long term conservation goals by identifying and protecting suitable habitat areas most resilient to climate change to give multiple species the best chance to persist. This approach provides a unique tool for conservation management which can be easily applied to a variety of data and species, and provides useful knowledge at both near and long term time scales.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peek, R.; Viers, J.; Yarnell, S. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">102</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://cnr.berkeley.edu/stephens-lab/Publications/Elliot%20Fisk%20et%20al%20Tahoe%20SNEP%20Tahoe%2096.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sierra Nevada <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Project: Final report to Congress, Addendum. Davis: University of <span class="hlt">California</span>, Centers for Water and Wildland Resources, 1996. Lake Tahoe Case Study</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">City, NV INTRODUCTION The Sierra Nevada <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Project (SNEP) selected the Lake Tahoe Basin as one Tahoe Basin Management Unit U.S.D.A. Forest Service, South Lake Tahoe, CA RICK KATTELMANN Sierra Nevada of <span class="hlt">California</span>, Davis, CA GEORGE E. GRUELL Retired U.S.D.A. Forest Service, Consulting Wildlife Ecologist Carson</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stephens, Scott L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">103</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.conservationecologylab.com/uploads/1/9/7/6/19763887/micheli_et_al_2013.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cumulative Human Impacts on Mediterranean and Black Sea Marine <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span>: Assessing <span class="hlt">Current</span> Pressures and</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Hopkins Marine Station, Stanford University, Pacific Grove, <span class="hlt">California</span>, United States of America, 2 National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, Santa Barbara, <span class="hlt">California</span>, United States of America, <span class="hlt">California</span>, United States of America, 3 ESRI, Redlands, <span class="hlt">California</span>, United States of America, 4 Miramare</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lewison, Rebecca</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">104</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=59617"> <span id="translatedtitle">ORGANIC POLLUTANT DEPOSITION TO THE SIERRA NEVADA (<span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span>, USA) SNOWPACK AND ASSOCIATED LAKE AND STREAM <span class="hlt">ECOSYSTEM</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">High elevation <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> in the western USA and Canada are receiving deposition of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) that presumably originate in the USA as well as outside its borders. In April 1992 we obtained paired snowpack samples from each of two watersheds located in t...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">105</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/53868627"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Climate Change and Disturbances on Carbon Sequestration of <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The interactions of climate change, wildland fire, and human activities make the calculation of regional <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> carbon balance extremely difficult. We used the Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS) and a set of newly available, relatively high resolution (mostly 30- to 60-meter) fire and land cover change data to examine the effects of atmospheric CO2, climate change, fire, logging, and deforestation\\/devegetation on</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. Liu; J. E. Vogelmann; Z. Zhu; C. H. Key; B. M. Sleeter; D. T. Price; J. M. Chen; M. A. Cochrane; J. C. Eidenshink; S. M. Howard; N. B. Bliss; H. Jiang</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">106</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://nature.berkeley.edu/kremenlab/Articles/The%20area%20requirements%20of%20an%20ecosystem%20service%20-%20crop%20pollination%20by%20native%20bee%20communities%20in%20California.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The area requirements of an <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> service: crop pollination by native bee communities in <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Managing <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services is critical to human survival, yet we do not know how large natural areas must be to support these services. We investigated how crop pollination services provided by native, unmanaged, bee communities varied on organic and conventional farms situated along a gradient of isolation from natural habitat. Pollination services from native bees were significantly, positively related to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Claire Kremen; Neal M. Williams; Robert L. Bugg; John P. Fay; Robin W. Thorp</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">107</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://sbsc.wr.usgs.gov/products/pdfs/restore.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Anthropogenic Degradation of the Southern <span class="hlt">California</span> Desert <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> and Prospects for Natural</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">affected by off-highway vehicle use, overgrazing by domestic livestock, agriculture, urbanization, Humphrey 1958), intro- duction of exotic species (Mooney and others 1986, Rejma´nek and Randall 1994), off-road States International University Environmental Studies Program 10455 Pomerado Road San Diego, <span class="hlt">California</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lovich, Jeffrey E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">108</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4224496"> <span id="translatedtitle">Positive Effects of Non-Native Grasses on the Growth of a Native Annual in a Southern <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fire disturbance is considered a major factor in the promotion of non-native plant species. Non-native grasses are adapted to fire and can alter environmental conditions and reduce resource availability in native coastal sage scrub and chaparral communities of southern <span class="hlt">California</span>. In these communities persistence of non-native grasses following fire can inhibit establishment and growth of woody species. This may allow certain native herbaceous species to colonize and persist beneath gaps in the canopy. A field manipulative experiment with control, litter, and bare ground treatments was used to examine the impact of non-native grasses on growth and establishment of a native herbaceous species, Cryptantha muricata. C. muricata seedling survival, growth, and reproduction were greatest in the control treatment where non-native grasses were present. C. muricata plants growing in the presence of non-native grasses produced more than twice the number of flowers and more than twice the reproductive biomass of plants growing in the treatments where non-native grasses were removed. Total biomass and number of fruits were also greater in the plants growing in the presence of non-native grasses. Total biomass and reproductive biomass was also greater in late germinants than early germinants growing in the presence of non-native grasses. This study suggests a potential positive effect of non-native grasses on the performance of a particular native annual in a southern <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>. PMID:25379790</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pec, Gregory J.; Carlton, Gary C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">109</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019984"> <span id="translatedtitle">Biogenic sedimentation beneath the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> system for the past 30 kyr and its paleoceanographic significance</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A north-south transect of 17 cores was constructed along the eastern boundary of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> system from 33?? to 42?? N to investigate the changes in biogenic sedimentation over the past 30 kyr. Percentages and mass accumulation rates of CaCO3, Corg, and biogenic opal were assembled at 500 to 1000 years/sample to provide relatively high resolution. Time-space maps reveal a complex pattern of changes that do not follow a simple glacial-interglacial two-mode model. Biogenic sedimentation shows responses that are sometimes time-transgressive and sometimes coeval, and most of the responses show more consistency within a limited geographic area than any temporal consistency. Reconstructed conditions during late oxygen isotope stage 3 were more like early Holocene conditions than any other time during the last 30 kyr. Coastal upwelling and productivity during oxygen isotope stage 3 were relatively strong along the central <span class="hlt">California</span> margin but were weak along the northern <span class="hlt">California</span> margin. Precipitation increased during the last glacial interval in the central <span class="hlt">California</span> region, and the waters of the southern <span class="hlt">California</span> margin had relatively low productivity. Productivity on the southern Oregon margin was relatively low at the beginning of the last glacial interval, but by about 20 ka, productivity in this area significantly increased. This change suggests that the center of the divergence of the West Wind Drift shifted south at this time. The end of the last glacial interval was characterized by increased productivity in the southern <span class="hlt">California</span> margin and increased upwelling along the central <span class="hlt">California</span> margin but upwelling remained weak along the northern <span class="hlt">California</span> margin. A sudden (<300 years) decrease in CaCO3, Corg, and biogenic opal occurred at 13 ka. The changes suggest a major reorientation of the atmospheric circulation in the North Pacific and western North America and the establishment of a strong seasonality in the central <span class="hlt">California</span> region. A carbonate preservation event occurred at 10 ka that appears to reflect the uptake of CO2 by the terrestrial biosphere as the northern latitudes were reforested following retreat of the glaciers. The Holocene has been a period of relatively high productivity in the southern <span class="hlt">California</span> margin, relatively strong coastal upwelling along the central <span class="hlt">California</span> margin, relatively weak upwelling along the northern <span class="hlt">California</span> margin, and the northward migration of the divergence zone of the West Wind Drift.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gardner, J.V.; Dean, W.E.; Dartnell, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">110</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70135867"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bottom <span class="hlt">current</span> and sediment transport on San Pedro Shelf, <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">GEOPROBE (Geological Processes Bottom Environmental) tripods were used to measure bottom <span class="hlt">currents</span>, pressure, and light transmission and scattering and to obtain time-series photographs of the sea floor at depths of 23 m and 67 m on San Pedro shelf between 18 April and 6 June 1978. Winds were light (< 5 m/s) with a mean direction from the southwest throughout the measurement period. Hourly averaged <span class="hlt">currents</span> 1 m above the bottom never exceeded 21 cm/s; average speeds were about 5 cm/s at the 23-m site and 6.8 cm/s at 67 m, and the strongest <span class="hlt">currents</span> were produced by the tides. The mean flow of bottom water was less than 3 cm/s at both GEOPROBES and was rather persistently southward (offshelf). Wave-generated bottom <span class="hlt">currents</span> and bottom-pressure variations were sampled at hourly intervals; average wave period and wave height were 12.8 s and 0.44 m, respectively, at the 23-m site. Wave orbital velocities ranged from about 5 to 30 cm/s at 23 m and from 2 to 8 cm/s at 67 m. Bottom photographs at 67 m show that the relatively sluggish tide-generated and mean <span class="hlt">currents</span> were below threshold velocity for the silty, very fine sand throughout the observational period. Threshold depth for wave rippling of very fine sand averaged about 28 m with a range from about 12 m to 50 m. Wave-generated <span class="hlt">currents</span> were the only <span class="hlt">currents</span> that exceeded threshold levels. The wave <span class="hlt">currents</span> maintained relatively high concentrations of sediment in suspension near the bottom over the inner shelf (< 25 m), and this material (principally silt and clay) was transported offshore by the weak mean flow. Approximately 50% of this material was deposited as the bottom orbital velocities decreased to subthreshold values ( nearly equal 10-15 cm/s). The observed movement of fine sediment across the inner shelf can account for a portion of the mud content of the modern silty sands on the central shelf and on the outer shelf. However, it is clear that the sand fractions, which constitute greater than 70% of the central shelf substrate, must be transported during high-energy winter storms.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Drake, David E.; Cacchione, David A.; Karl, Herman A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">111</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://fishbull.noaa.gov/74-2/hewitt.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">DEVELOPMENT AND USE OF SONAR MAPPING FOR PELAGIC STOCK ASSESSMENT IN THE <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> <span class="hlt">CURRENT</span> AREAl</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">DEVELOPMENT AND USE OF SONAR MAPPING FOR PELAGIC STOCK ASSESSMENT IN THE <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> <span class="hlt">CURRENT</span> AREAlBBessment is presented which utilizes a fixed sonar beam for mapping fish schools. Samples of the two major acoustic sonar data acquisition and proceBBing system is described and test results presented. The results</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">112</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://fishbull.noaa.gov/74-3/arthur.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">FOOD AND FEEDING OF LARVAE OF THREE FISHES OCCURRING IN THE <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> <span class="hlt">CURRENT</span>, SARDINOPS SAGAX,</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">FOOD AND FEEDING OF LARVAE OF THREE FISHES OCCURRING IN THE <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> <span class="hlt">CURRENT</span>, SARDINOPS SAGAX particles eaten by larvae of Pacific sardine, Sardinops sagax; northern anchovy, Engraulis mordax; and jack mackerel,Trachurus symmetricus, were determined by an examination of gut contents of larvae captured</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">113</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.aslo.org/lo/toc/vol_30/issue_1/0022.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">234Th:238U disequilibria within the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Profiles of dissolved and particulate 234Th were determined at several stations within the Cali- fornia <span class="hlt">Current</span>. Modeling of the disequilibria between the 234Th and 23aU within the surface waters provides for estimates of the residence time of dissolved thorium with respect to particle scavenging (TP varies from 6 to 50 days), the particle residence time (TP varies from 2 to</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">KENNETH H. COALE; KENNETH W. BRULAND</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">114</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39838349"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Large-Scale Seasonal Modeling Study of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A high-resolution, multi-level, primitive equation ocean model has been used to investigate the combined role of seasonal\\u000a wind forcing, seasonal thermohaline gradients, and coastline irregularities on the formation of <span class="hlt">currents</span>, meanders, eddies,\\u000a and filaments in the entire <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System (CCS) region, from Baja to the Washington-Canada border. Additional\\u000a objectives are to further characterize the meandering jet south of Cape</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mary L. Batteen; Nicholas J. Cipriano; James T. Monroe</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">115</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC23B0931R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quantification of Lateral Carbon Flux in a Chaparral <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> in Southern <span class="hlt">California</span> Alessandra Rossi, Walter Oechel, Patrick Murphy</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The lateral transport of carbon is a horizontal transfer of carbon away from the area it was withdrawn from the atmosphere (Ciais et al. 2006). Research regarding horizontal C transport has received much less attention in arid and semi-arid regions compared to other types of <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. Drylands represent around 47.2% (Lal 2004) of the global terrestrial area and despite characterized by relatively low carbon flux, drylands comprise approximately 15.5% of the world's total soil organic carbon (SOC) (Eswaran et al. 2000, Schlesinger, 1991). Moreover, these dry areas contain at least as much soil inorganic carbon (SIC) as SOC (Eswaran et al. 2000). Therefore, these areas potentially have a large contribution to the global carbon budget and they deserve attention. A long-term observation of CO2 flux with the eddy covariance technique has been conducted since 1997 at Sky Oaks Field Station in Southern <span class="hlt">California</span>, an area of Mediterranean climate at the climatic transition between semiarid area and desert. The long term record of CO2 flux showed the area has been a sink of CO2 of over -0.2 kgCm-2yr-1. In addition to evaluating vertical carbon fluxes, we initiated a project to evaluate lateral carbon transports using litter traps, sediment fences and two small weirs adjacent to the eddy covariance site. Preliminary results indicate that the lateral transfer of C in the area may offset the vertical influx to this shrub <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>. However, it is still necessary to develop the methodology to compare vertical carbon flux and the lateral carbon fluxes more accurately.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rossi, A.; Oechel, W. C.; Murphy, P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">116</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMPA13A1743L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Using the Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS) to Analyze Impacts of Climate Change on <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The projected impacts of climate change on <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> using model outputs from the Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS) for the period 1950-2099 based on 1km downscaled climate data from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) model were analyzed in this study. The impacts were analyzed using Special Report Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1B and A2, maintaining present levels of urbanization constant and under projected urban expansion. The state data was separated into regions of similar climate, and watersheds of interest. A statistical analysis was completed for time series of temperature, precipitation, gross primary productivity (GPP), evapotranspiration, soil runoff, and vapor pressure deficit for the years 1950 through 2099. Trends produced from this analysis showed that increases in maximum and minimum temperatures lead to declines in peak GPP, length of growing seasons, and overall declines in runoff. However, changes in climate coupled with increases in impervious area due to intense urbanization are associated with an increase in winter runoff in scenario A2. The analysis is in support of the Climate Adaptation Science Investigation at NASA Ames Research Center, which is located within the Coyote Watershed of <span class="hlt">California</span>. One result for this watershed shows that with projections of increased temperatures and increased urbanization there would be an extended dry summer season, which could threaten water availability. To counter this risk at NASA Ames Research Center, a study of the irrigation system was done to evaluate the amount of total water used for irrigation alone, and possible options for water conservation at the Center are considered to build a sustainable facility in a changing environment.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Little, M.; Pitts, K.; Loewenstein, M.; Iraci, L. T.; Milesi, C.; Schmidt, C.; Skiles, J. W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">117</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/107133"> <span id="translatedtitle">The impact of El Nino on island <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> in the gulf of <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The El Nino event of 1992-1993 had significant effects on all functional levels of the terrestrial food web of islands in the Gulf of <span class="hlt">California</span>. These islands are normally very dry; however, during this El Nino event, annual precipitation was nearly five times the median annual precipitation. This caused tremendous increases in plant cover and a significant rise in aerial arthropod abundance. At first, spiders benefited from increased productivity: in 1992, spiders increased to their highest densities in the three years of the study. However, in 1993, despite continued high plant cover and insect prey abundance, spider densities dropped precipitously. This decrease appears to be due to the emergence of numerous parasitoid wasps that formed a hidden trophic influence. Wasps were ineffective at controlling spider densities during dry years due to the absence of their adult food, nectar and pollen from flowering land plants. Abundant flowers during El Nino allowed the wasp population to increase and reproduce successfully.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Polis, G.A.; Hurd, S.D. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">118</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nwcouncil.org/media/15131/ocean.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">A: Coastal and Ocean <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> Findings Linking Plume and Ocean Conditions to Salmon Growth and Survival</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">at seasonal, interannual and decadal time scales. These findings have given us new insights into the climate-ocean ocean conditions and future climate change will affect salmon. Understanding how ocean conditions affectA: Coastal and Ocean <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> ­ <span class="hlt">Current</span> Findings Linking Plume and Ocean Conditions to Salmon</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">119</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24711731"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of sewage discharge on trophic state and water quality in a coastal <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> of the Gulf of <span class="hlt">California</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper provides evidence of the effects of urban wastewater discharges on the trophic state and environmental quality of a coastal water body in a semiarid subtropical region in the Gulf of <span class="hlt">California</span>. The concentrations of dissolved inorganic nutrients and organic matter from urban wastewater primary treatment were estimated. La Salada Cove was the receiving water body and parameters measured during an annual cycle were temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, nitrite, nitrate, ammonia, orthophosphate, and chlorophyll a. The effects of sewage inputs were determined by using Trophic State Index (TRIX) and the Arid Zone Coastal Water Quality Index (AZCI). It was observed that urban wastewater of the city of Guaymas provided 1,237 ton N yr(-1) and 811 ton P yr(-1) and TRIX indicated that the receiving water body showed symptoms of eutrophication from an oligotrophic state to a mesotrophic state; AZCI also indicated that the environmental quality of the water body was poor. The effects of urban wastewater supply with insufficient treatment resulted in symptoms of eutrophication and loss of ecological functions and services of the coastal <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> in La Salada Cove. PMID:24711731</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vargas-Gonzlez, Hctor Hugo; Arreola-Lizrraga, Jos Alfredo; Mendoza-Salgado, Renato Arturo; Mndez-Rodrguez, La Celina; Lechuga-Deveze, Carlos Hernando; Padilla-Arredondo, Gustavo; Cordoba-Matson, Miguel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">120</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMPP41C1538F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Holocene climate variability in the NE Pacific: Insight from connections between the Gulf of Alaska and the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Historically, decadal-scale climatic change in the North Pacific region appears to be characterized by circulation modes with coherent and recognizable spatial patterns (i.e., PDO). Examination of trends in paleo-records from widespread regions, allow recognition of how these modes have varied over time. Changes in patterns of correlations of proxies between regions suggest several periods of reorganization of ocean-atmospheric circulation during the Holocene. Major shifts appear to have occurred during climatic transitions into the Neoglacial period (ca 4000 BP), and into and out of the Little Ice Age (LIA; ca. AD 1200 and 1850). Recent paleoclimatic studies from Mt, Logan ice cores and elsewhere suggest these transitions reflect shifts between atmospheric circulation modes of more zonal vs. more meridional flow. These shifts in climate can be tracked into variability in primary productivity and higher trophic levels, such as pelagic fish, in the North Pacific marine <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>. Within the Gulf of Alaska, new high-resolution reconstructions of ocean paleoproductivity based on multiproxy analysis of sediment cores suggest persistent variability over multidecadal scales, punctuated by abrupt state changes in overall productivity level. Such mega-regime shifts are of a different nature and larger amplitude than historical regime-shifts. Records of Alaskan salmon are generally positively correlated with Gulf of Alaska productivity. Interestingly, records of <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> sardine and anchovy abundance reveal different relationships to Alaska salmon abundance during the LIA relative to historical observations. It is likely that a different pattern of ocean-atmospheric circulation during the LIA, resulted in different relationships between these regional <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Finney, B. P.; Addison, J. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">121</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19475924"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spatiotemporal trends in fish mercury from a mine-dominated <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>: Clear Lake, <span class="hlt">California</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Clear Lake, <span class="hlt">California</span>, USA, receives acid mine drainage and mercury (Hg) from the Sulphur Bank Mercury Mine, a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) Superfund Site that was active intermittently from 1873 to 1957 and partially remediated in 1992. Mercury concentrations were analyzed primarily in four species of Clear Lake fishes: inland silversides (Menidia beryllina, planktivore), common carp (Cyprinus carpio, benthic scavenger/omnivore), channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, benthic omnivorous predator), and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides, piscivorous top predator). These data represent one of the largest fish Hg data sets for a single site, especially in <span class="hlt">California</span>. Spatially, total Hg (TotHg) in silversides and bass declined with distance from the mine, indicating that the mine site represents a point source for Hg loading to Clear Lake. Temporally, fish Hg has not declined significantly over 12 years since mine site remediation. Mercury concentrations were variable throughout the study period, with no monotonic trends of increase or decrease, except those correlated with boom and bust cycles of an introduced fish, threadfin shad (Dorosoma petenense). However, stochastic events such as storms also influence juvenile largemouth bass Hg as evidenced during an acid mine drainage overflow event in 1995. Compared to other sites regionally and nationally, most fish in Clear Lake exhibit Hg concentrations similar to other Hg-contaminated sites, up to approximately 2.0 mg/kg wet mass (WM) TotHg in largemouth bass. However, even these elevated concentrations are less than would be anticipated from such high inorganic Hg loading to the lake. Mercury in some Clear Lake largemouth bass exceeded all human health fish consumption guidelines established over the past 25 years by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (1.0 mg/kg WM), the National Academy of Sciences (0.5 mg/kg WM), and the U.S. EPA (0.3 mg/kg WM). Mercury in higher trophic level fishes exceeds ecotoxicological risk assessment estimates for concentrations that would be safe for wildlife, specifically the nonlisted Common Merganser and the recently delisted Bald Eagle. Fish populations of 11 out of 18 species surveyed exhibited a significant decrease in abundance with increasing proximity to the mine; this decrease is correlated with increasing water and sediment Hg. These trends may be related to Hg or other lake-wide gradients such as distribution of submerged aquatic vegetation. PMID:19475924</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Suchanek, Thomas H; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Slotton, Darell G; Harner, E James; Colwell, Arthur E; Anderson, Norman L; Mullen, Lauri H; Flanders, John R; Adam, David P; McElroy, Kenneth J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">122</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ppdl.purdue.edu/PPDL/hot04/3-15misc/Rzzo03.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rizzo, D. M. 2003. Sudden Oak Death: Host plants in forest <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> in <span class="hlt">California</span> and Oregon. Sudden Oak Death Online Symposium. www.apsnet.org/online/SOD (website of The</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Stem cankers; death of large trees Q. kelloggii (Fagaceae) <span class="hlt">California</span> black oak Stem cankers; deathRizzo, D. M. 2003. Sudden Oak Death: Host plants in forest <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> in <span class="hlt">California</span> and Oregon. Sudden Oak Death Online Symposium. www.apsnet.org/online/SOD (website of The American Phytopathological</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">123</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRG..116.1031G"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ecological controls on net <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> productivity of a mesic arctic tundra under <span class="hlt">current</span> and future climates</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Changes in arctic C stocks with climate are thought to be caused by rising net primary productivity (NPP) during longer and warmer growing seasons, offset by rising heterotrophic respiration (Rh) in warmer and deeper soil active layers. In this study, we used the process model ecosys to test hypotheses for these changes with CO2 and energy fluxes measured by eddy covariance over a mesic shrub tundra at Daring Lake, Canada, under varying growing seasons. These tests corroborated substantial rises in NPP, smaller rises in Rh, and, hence, rises in net <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> productivity (NEP) from 17 to 45 g C m-2 yr-1 (net C sink), modeled with higher Ta and longer growing seasons. However, NEP was found to decline briefly during midsummer warming events (Ta > 20C). A model run under climate change predicted for Daring Lake indicated that rises in NPP would exceed those in Rh during the first 100 years, causing NEP to rise. Rises in NPP were driven by more rapid net N mineralization from more rapid Rh in warming soils. However, greater declines in NEP were modeled during more frequent and intense midsummer warming events as climate change progressed. Consequently, average annual NEP ( interannual variability) rose from 30 (13) g C m-2 yr-1 under <span class="hlt">current</span> climate to 57 (40) g C m-2 yr-1 after 90 years but declined to 44 (51) g C m-2 yr-1 after 150 years, indicating that gains in tundra NEP under climate change may not be indefinite.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Grant, R. F.; Humphreys, E. R.; Lafleur, P. M.; Dimitrov, D. D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">124</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PrOce..83..208L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Lagrangian studies of phytoplankton growth and grazing relationships in a coastal upwelling <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> off Southern <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Experimental studies of phytoplankton growth and grazing processes were conducted in the coastal upwelling system off Point Conception, <span class="hlt">California</span> to test the hypothesis that phytoplankton growth and grazing losses determine, to first order, the local dynamics of phytoplankton in the upwelling circulation. Eight experiments of 3-5 days each were conducted over the course of two cruises in May-June 2006 and April 2007 following the trajectories of satellite-tracked drifters. Rates of phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing were determined by daily in situ dilution incubations at 8 depths spanning the euphotic zone. Mesozooplankton grazing was assessed by gut fluorescence analysis of animals collected from net tows through the euphotic zone. We compared directly the net rates of change observed for the ambient phytoplankton community to the net growth rates predicted from experimental determinations of each process rate. The resulting relationship accounted for 91% of the variability observed, providing strong support for the growth-grazing hypothesis. In addition, grazing by mesozooplankton was unexpectedly high and variable, driving a substantial positive to negative shift in phytoplankton net rate of change between years despite comparable environmental conditions and similar high growth rates and suggesting strong top-down control potential. The demonstrated agreement between net ambient and experimental community changes is an important point of validation for using field data to parameterize models. Data sets of this type may provide an important source of new information and rate constraints for developing better coupled biological-physical models of upwelling system dynamics.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Landry, Michael R.; Ohman, Mark D.; Goericke, Ralf; Stukel, Michael R.; Tsyrklevich, Kate</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">125</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900055333&hterms=pigment&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dpigment"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal and nonseasonal variability of satellite-derived surface pigment concentration in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The large-scale patterns of satellite-derived surface pigment concentration off the west coast of North America are presented and are averaged into monthly mean surface wind fields over the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> system (CCS) for the July 1979 to June 1986 period. The patterns are discussed in terms of both seasonal and nonseasonal variability for the indicated time period. The large-scale seasonal characteristics of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> are summarized. The data and methods used are described, and the problems known to affect the satellite-derived pigment concentrations and the wind data used in the study are discussed. The statistical analysis results are then presented and discussed in light of past observations and theory. Details of the CZCS data processing are described, and details of the principal estimator pattern methodology used here are given.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Strub, P. Ted; James, Corinne; Thomas, Andrew C.; Abbott, Mark R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">126</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PrOce..83...65M"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Humboldt <span class="hlt">Current</span> System: <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> components and processes, fisheries, and sediment studies</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the Humboldt <span class="hlt">Current</span> System (HCS), biological and non-biological components, <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> processes, and fisheries are known to be affected by multi-decadal, inter-annual, annual, and intra-seasonal scales. The interplay between atmospheric variability, the poleward undercurrent, the shallow oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), and the fertilizing effect of coastal upwelling and overall high primary production rates drive bio-physical interactions, the carbon biomass, and fluxes of gases and particulate and dissolved matter through the water column. Coastal upwelling (permanent and seasonally modulated off Peru and northern Chile, and markedly seasonal between 30S and 40S) is the key process responsible for the high biological productivity in the HCS. At present, the western coast of South America produces more fish per unit area than any other region in the world ocean (i.e. ?7.5 10 6 t of anchoveta were landed in 2007). Climate changes on different temporal scales lead to alterations in the distribution ranges of anchoveta and sardine populations and shifts in their dominance throughout the HCS. The factors affecting the coastal marine <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> that reverberate in the fisheries are crucial from a social perspective, since the economic consequences of mismanagement can be severe. Fish remains are often well-preserved in sediment settings under the hypoxic conditions of the OMZ off Peru and Chile, and reveal multi-decadal variability and centennial-scale changes in fish populations. Sediment studies from the Chilean continental margin encompassing the last 20,000 years of deposition reveal changes in sub-surface conditions in the HCS during deglaciation, interpreted to include: a major reorganization of the OMZ; a deglacial increase in denitrification decoupled from local marine productivity; and higher deglacial and Holocene paleoproductivities compared to the Last Glacial Maximum in central-south Chile (35-37S) while this scheme is reversed for north-central Chile. Multi-scale, interdisciplinary approaches and focused research groups are needed to understand air-sea interactions, plankton dynamics, biomass removal by fisheries, and the transformation and fluxes of matter across the different HCS components. In this paper, we present a multidisciplinary synthesis of the HCS that covers its physics, atmosphere, primary and secondary production, medium and high trophic levels, fisheries including management aspects, and relevant sedimentary studies.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Montecino, Vivian; Lange, Carina B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">127</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40868323"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling studies of the effects of wind forcing and thermohaline gradients on the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">This process-oriented study uses a high-resolution, multi-level, primitive equation model to study the combined effects of wind forcing and thermohaline gradients on the ocean circulation of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System (CCS). The ocean circulation is generated by the model using a combination of climatological wind stress forcing and thermohaline gradients. In the first experiment, the effects of thermohaline gradients alone</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mary L. Batteen; Philip W. Vance</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">128</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=apis&pg=2&id=EJ1038648"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Comparison between Value-Added School Estimates and <span class="hlt">Currently</span> Used Metrics of School Accountability in <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study compared a value-added approach to school accountability to the <span class="hlt">currently</span> used metrics of accountability in <span class="hlt">California</span> of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) and Academic Performance Index (API). Five-year student panel data (N?=?53,733) from 29 elementary schools in a large <span class="hlt">California</span> school district were used to address the research</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fagioli, Loris P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">129</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.stanford.edu/group/Palumbi/manuscripts/pespeni,%20chan,%20et%20al%202013%20ICB.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">SignsofAdaptationtoLocalpHConditionsacrossanEnvironmental Mosaic in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">for rapid evolution in natural populations in response to the high rate of contemporary climatic change to changing conditions. Here we review what is known about genetic capacity for adaptation in the purple sea of the Northeast Pacific Ocean. We also present new results testing for adaptation to local pH conditions in six</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Palumbi, Stephen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">130</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC41D..04B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Integrated climate/land use/hydrological change scenarios for assessing threats to <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services on <span class="hlt">California</span> rangelands</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In <span class="hlt">California</span> there are over 18 million acres of rangelands in the Central Valley and the interior Coast Range, most of which are privately owned and managed for livestock production. Ranches provide extensive wildlife habitat and generate multiple <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services that carry considerable market and non-market values. These rangelands are under pressure from urbanization and conversion to intensive agriculture, as well as from climate change that can alter the flow of these services. To understand the coupled and isolated impacts of land use and climate change on rangeland <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services, we developed six spatially explicit (250 m) coupled climate/land use/hydrological change scenarios for the Central Valley and oak woodland regions of <span class="hlt">California</span> consistent with three IPCC emission scenarios - A2, A1B and B1. Three land use land cover (LULC) change scenarios were each integrated with two downscaled global climate models (GCMs) (a warm, wet future and a hot, dry future) and related hydrologic data. We used these scenarios to quantify wildlife habitat, water supply (recharge potential and streamflow) and carbon sequestration on rangelands and to conduct an economic analysis associated with changes in these benefits. The USGS FOREcasting SCEnarios of land-use change model (FORE-SCE), which runs dynamically with downscaled GCM outputs, was used to generate maps of yearly LULC change for each scenario from 2006 to 2100. We used the USGS Basin Characterization Model (BCM), a regional water balance model, to generate change in runoff, recharge, and stream discharge based on land use change and climate change. Metrics derived from model outputs were generated at the landscape scale and for six case-study watersheds. At the landscape scale, over a quarter of the million acres set aside for conservation in the B1 scenario would otherwise be converted to agriculture in the A2 scenario, where temperatures increase by up to 4.5 C compared to 1.3 C in the B1 scenario. A comparison of two watersheds - Alameda Creek, an urbanized watershed, and Upper Stony Creek, impacted by intensified agriculture, demonstrates the relative contribution of urbanization and climate change to water supply. In Upper Stony Creek, where 24% of grassland is converted to agriculture in the A1B scenario, a hotter, dryer 4-year time period could lead to a 40% reduction in streamflow compared to present day. In Alameda Creek, for the same scenario, 47% of grassland is converted to urbanized lands and streamflow may increase by 11%, resulting in a recharge:runoff ratio of 0.26; though if urbanization does not take place, streamflow could decrease by 64% and the recharge:runoff ratio would be 1.2. Model outputs quantify the impact of urbanization on water supply and show the importance of soil storage capacity. Scenarios have applications for climate-smart conservation and land use planning by identifying outcomes associated with coupled future land use scenarios and more variable and extreme potential future climates.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Byrd, K. B.; Flint, L. E.; Casey, C. F.; Alvarez, P.; Sleeter, B. M.; Sohl, T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">131</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.energy.ca.gov/2012publications/CEC-500-2012-023/CEC-500-2012-023.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> VEGETATION</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> VEGETATION: PHYSIOLOGY, LIFE HISTORY, AND <span class="hlt">ECOSYSTEM</span> CHANGE A White Paper from the <span class="hlt">California</span> Energy Commission's <span class="hlt">California</span> Climate Change Center of the uncertainties with climate change effects on terrestrial <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> is understanding where transitions</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">132</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20738561"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interannual distribution of Pacific hake Merluccius productus larvae in the southern part of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The interannual distribution of early life stages of Pacific hake Merluccius productus, within the southern part of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> (32-23 degrees N) from 1951 to 2001, was examined to describe the relationship between spawning habitat and environmental conditions. Mean annual abundance was affected by different factors along the west coast of the Baja <span class="hlt">California</span> Peninsula. In the northern areas (Ensenada and Punta Baja), reduced abundance of larvae coincided with the El Nio and a North Pacific Ocean climatic regime shift, but in the southern areas (San Ignacio to Baha Magdalena), the drastic reductions suggested a fishery effect for large adults of the coastal migratory population, starting in 1966. Two spawning stocks, coastal and dwarf, were evident in comparisons of latitudinal differences in occurrence of early stages and differences in temperature preferences that seemed to break at Punta Eugenia. PMID:20738561</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Funes-Rodrguez, R; Elorduy-Garay, J F; Hinojosa-Medina, A; Zrate-Villafranco, A</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">133</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://retrocee.engr.ucdavis.edu/faculty/lund/students/RobynSuddethDissertation.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multi-Objective Analysis for <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Reconciliation on an Engineered Floodplain: The Yolo Bypass in <span class="hlt">California</span>'s Central Valley</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">conservation and restoration (Keddy et al. 2009, Bayley 1995, Welcomme 2008). On the west coast of the United Bypass in <span class="hlt">California</span>'s Central Valley By ROBYN JEAN SUDDETH B.A. (University of <span class="hlt">California</span>, Los Angeles) 2004 M.A. (University of <span class="hlt">California</span>, Davis) 2009 DISSERTATION Submitted in partial satisfaction</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pasternack, Gregory B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">134</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoRL..41.7611S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Swept away by a turbidity <span class="hlt">current</span> in Mendocino submarine canyon, <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">present unique observations and measurements of a dilute turbidity <span class="hlt">current</span> made with a remotely operated vehicle in 400 m water depth near the head of Mendocino Canyon, <span class="hlt">California</span>. The flow had a two-layer structure with a thin (0.5 to 30 m), relatively dense (<0.04 vol %) and fast (up to ~1.7 m/s) wedge-shaped lower layer overlain by a thicker (up to 89 m) more dilute and slower <span class="hlt">current</span>. The fast moving lower layer lagged the slow moving, dilute flow front by 14 min, which we infer resulted from the interaction of two initial pulses. The two layers were strongly coupled, and the sharp interface between the layers was characterized by a wave-like instability. This is the first field-scale data from a turbidity <span class="hlt">current</span> to show (i) the complex dynamics of the head of a turbidity <span class="hlt">current</span> and (ii) the presence of multiple layers within the same event.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sumner, E. J.; Paull, C. K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">135</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70104148"> <span id="translatedtitle">Environmental fate of fungicides and other <span class="hlt">current</span>-use pesticides in a central <span class="hlt">California</span> estuary</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">current</span> study documents the fate of <span class="hlt">current</span>-use pesticides in an agriculturally-dominated central <span class="hlt">California</span> coastal estuary by focusing on the occurrence in water, sediment and tissue of resident aquatic organisms. Three fungicides (azoxystrobin, boscalid, and pyraclostrobin), one herbicide (propyzamide) and two organophosphate insecticides (chlorpyrifos and diazinon) were detected frequently. Dissolved pesticide concentrations in the estuary corresponded to the timing of application while bed sediment pesticide concentrations correlated with the distance from potential sources. Fungicides and insecticides were detected frequently in fish and invertebrates collected near the mouth of the estuary and the contaminant profiles differed from the sediment and water collected. This is the first study to document the occurrence of many <span class="hlt">current</span>-use pesticides, including fungicides, in tissue. Limited information is available on the uptake, accumulation and effects of <span class="hlt">current</span>-use pesticides on non-target organisms. Additional data are needed to understand the impacts of pesticides, especially in small agriculturally-dominated estuaries.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smalling, Kelly L.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.; Orlando, James L.; Phillips, Bryn M.; Anderson, Brian S.; Siegler, Katie; Hunt, John W.; Hamilton, Mary</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">136</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PrOce..83..107B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Trophic structure and diversity in rocky intertidal upwelling <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>: A comparison of community patterns across <span class="hlt">California</span>, Chile, South Africa and New Zealand</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Benguela, <span class="hlt">California</span>, and Humboldt represent three of the major eastern boundary upwelling <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> in the world. Upwelling <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> are highly productive, and this productivity forms the base of the food chain, potentially leading to <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> similar in trophic structure and diversity among upwelling regions. Here we compare the biological and trophic structure of rocky intertidal communities in each of these major upwelling regions. Our comparison includes a fourth region, New Zealand, which spans a similar latitudinal range, and experiences intermittent upwelling. The influence of oceanographic conditions on these communities was evaluated by using the long-term mean and standard deviation of satellite-based sea surface temperature (SST). Large differences emerged in the taxonomic richness in each of these systems, with <span class="hlt">California</span> as the most and the Humboldt as the least taxonomically rich. Across all regions, richness tended to decrease progressively from lower trophic levels (macrophytes) to higher trophic levels (carnivores), and richness was inversely correlated with the proportion of variance in SST contained in the seasonal cycle, suggesting that strongly seasonal, predictable environments are relatively low in diversity. The functional and trophic structures were remarkably similar across these four regions of the world. Macrophytes were slightly dominant over filter-feeders in terms of space occupancy in all regions except the Benguela. Densities of herbivorous grazers were greatest in <span class="hlt">California</span> and Benguela and far outnumbered carnivore densities in all regions. Despite some similarities, the overall structure of the communities from these regions differed significantly supporting the hypothesis that the biological and ecological consequences of similar physical forcing mechanisms (e.g. upwelling) are likely to be context-dependent.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Blanchette, C. A.; Wieters, E. A.; Broitman, B. R.; Kinlan, B. P.; Schiel, D. R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">137</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B43C0507W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Climatic impacts on phenology in chaparral- and coastal sage scrub-dominated <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> in southern <span class="hlt">California</span> using MODIS-derived time series</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Remote sensing monitoring of vegetation phenology can be an important tool for detecting the impacts of climate change on whole <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> functioning at local to regional scales. This study elucidates climate-phenology relations and the changes occurring in the phenology of both chaparral and coastal sage scrub-dominated <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> in southern <span class="hlt">California</span>. Whole <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> phenology is monitored for the period 2001-2012 using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) derived from MODIS MOD13Q1. Changes in phenology are assessed through a comparison of the time series with temperature, precipitation, and Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) data and by computing time series phenology metrics. Overall we find that the vegetation index values have fluctuated around a stable mean for vegetation types for the entire time period. However, interannual variability is high, likely due to annual variations in climate. The most significant statistical correlation in chaparral <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> were found between NDVI and PDSI, indicating that chaparral phenology is likely driven by drought and soil water deficit at the multi-monthly timescale. However, coastal sage scrub correlations were highest between NDVI and temperature + precipitation combined with no time lag. This reflects a more immediate response by these shallow rooted and deciduous species. The start of the growing season in both plant communities occurred early in rainy years, and later in years with lower PDSI (drought-associated). This suggests that future predicted climate change in southern <span class="hlt">California</span> may cause increased interannual variability in chaparral phenology cycles, with early initiation of the growing season occurring in years following large rain events, and later initiation in drought years. Coastal sage scrub-dominated areas will be less influenced by lower frequency, long-term drought, but more immediately affected by discrete precipitation events and timing.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Willis, K. S.; Gillespie, T.; Okin, G. S.; MacDonald, G. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">138</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.cebc.cnrs.fr/publipdf/2005/HEM75.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">EFFECTS OF BIODIVERSITY ON <span class="hlt">ECOSYSTEM</span> FUNCTIONING: A CONSENSUS OF <span class="hlt">CURRENT</span> KNOWLEDGE</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Humans are altering the composition of biological communities through a variety of activities that increase rates of species invasions and species extinctions, at all scales, from local to global. These changes in components of the Earth's biodiversity cause concern for ethical and aesthetic reasons, but they also have a strong potential to alter <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> properties and the goods and services</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">D. U. Hooper; F. S. Chapin; J. J. Ewel; A. Hector; P. Inchausti; S. Lavorel; J. H. Lawton; D. M. Lodge; M. Loreau; S. Naeem; B. Schmid; H. Setl; A. J. Symstad; J. Vandermeer; D. A. Wardle</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">139</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=116500"> <span id="translatedtitle">MICROBIAL INDICATORS OF AQUATIC <span class="hlt">ECOSYSTEM</span> CHANGE: <span class="hlt">CURRENT</span> APPLICATIONS TO EUTROPHICATION STUDIES. (R828677C001)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Human encroachment on aquatic <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> is increasing at an unprecedented rate. The impacts of human pollution and habitat alteration are most evident and of greatest concern at the microbial level, where a bulk of production and nutrient cycling takes place. Aquatic ecosyste...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">140</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.uvm.edu/giee/pubpdfs/Burkhard_2010_Ecological_Complexity.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> services Bridging ecology, economy and social sciences Humanenvironmental systems are challenged by <span class="hlt">current</span> and</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">adaptive <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. This requires integrative and innovative adaptive management approaches to meet, suitable models, indicators and the integration of system components are still needed. The ongoing study-based benefits and related values: (i) ecological benefits and values, (ii) socio- cultural benefits and values</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vermont, University of</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return 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id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">8</a> <a onClick='return 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showDiv("page_9");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">141</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900060071&hterms=pigment&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dpigment"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal and interannual variability of pigment concentrations across a <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> frontal zone</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The seasonal and interannual variability of the latitudinal position of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> frontal zone was investigated by examining satellite images of phytoplankton pigment from the coastal-zone color scanner for the periods 1979-1983 and 1986. The pigment concentrations associated with the zonal front were also determined. A general seasonal cycle of pigment concentrations is was established. It was found that variations in the frontal structure are controlled primarily by changes in pigment concentration north of the front. Seasonal variations were found to be minimal south of the front, where pigment concentrations remain low throughout the spring, summer, and fall.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thomas, A. C.; Strub, P. T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1990-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">142</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850020217&hterms=ecology+phytoplankton&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Decology%2Bphytoplankton"> <span id="translatedtitle">Towards a study of synoptic-scale variability of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">current</span> system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A West Coast satellite time series advisory group was established to consider the scientific rationale for the development of complete west coast time series of imagery of sea surface temperature (as derived by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer on the NOAA polar orbiter, and near-surface phytoplankton pigment concentrations (as derived by the Coastal Zone Color Scanner on Nimbus 7). The scientific and data processing requirements for such time series are also considered. It is determined that such time series are essential if a number of scientific questions regarding the synoptic-scale dynamics of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System are to be addressed. These questions concern both biological and physical processes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">143</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70012672"> <span id="translatedtitle">Harmonic analysis of tides and tidal <span class="hlt">currents</span> in South San Francisco Bay, <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Water level observations from tide stations and <span class="hlt">current</span> observations from <span class="hlt">current</span>-meter moorings in South San Francisco Bay (South Bay), <span class="hlt">California</span> have been harmonically analysed. At each tide station, 13 harmonic constituents have been computed by a least-squares regression without inference. Tides in South Bay are typically mixed; there is a phase lag of approximately 1 h and an amplification of 1??5 from north to south for a mean semi-diurnal tide. Because most of the <span class="hlt">current</span>-meter records are between 14 and 29 days, only the five most important harmonics have been solved for east-west and north-south velocity components. The eccentricity of tidal-<span class="hlt">current</span> ellipse is generally very small, which indicates that the tidal <span class="hlt">current</span> in South Bay is strongly bidirectional. The analyses further show that the principal direction and the magnitude of tidal <span class="hlt">current</span> are well correlated with the basin bathymetry. Patterns of Eulerian residual circulation deduced from the <span class="hlt">current</span>-meter data show an anticlockwise gyre to the west and a clockwise gyre to the east of the main channel in the summer months due to the prevailing westerly wind. Opposite trends have been observed during winter when the wind was variable. ?? 1985.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cheng, R.T.; Gartner, J.W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">144</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/11291125"> <span id="translatedtitle">Productividad primaria del fitoplancton en la zona euftica del Sistema de la Corriente de <span class="hlt">California</span> estimada mediante imgenes del CZCS Phytoplankton primary productivity in the euphotic zone of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System estimated from CZCS imagery</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We estimated phytoplankton primary productivity (PP) in the euphotic zone of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System using chlorophyll concentration (Chl) from CZCS imagery. The area was divided into two regions, Southern <span class="hlt">California</span> (SC) and Baja <span class="hlt">California</span> (BC), with inshore and offshore subregions, and into two seasons, cool and warm. The Chl and PP values were in general higher and more variable</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">OA Barocio-Len; R Milln-Nez; E Santamara-del-ngel; A Gonzlez-Silvera</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">145</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMOS51A1092G"> <span id="translatedtitle">The deepening of the wind-mixed layer in the southern part of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Predictions of mixed layer depth (MLD) are regularly made using ocean general circulation models, although simple models are also useful tools in several situations. In this study, we report that Pollard, Rhines and Thompson (PRT) one-dimensional model shows considerable capability in reproducing the MLD annual cycle in the coastal and transition domains of the southern part of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> (24-32N). MLD is predicted from PRT model as Au*/?Nf, where u* is shear velocity, N is buoyancy frequency and f is Coriolis parameter. Satellite-derived data (QuickScat) are used to calculate the shear velocity term. The hindcast study is applied to a decade (1997-2008) of conductivity-temperature-depth observations collected by quarterly survey cruises under supervision of Mexican Investigations of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> (IMECOCAL) program. Seasonal MLD observed values are obtained using a potential density criterion with an error of 3 m. The range of difference between model and observed values is between 2 and 7 m; the largest significant discrepancy occurs at the middle of the IMECOCAL domain during winter (January). Modeling results are consistent with a balance between surface heat flux and wind-driven offshore heat flux estimated from our dataset.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gomez-Valdes, J.; Jeronimo, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">146</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/97qm6g3w35675717.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Defining marine habitat of juvenile Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha , and coho salmon, O. kisutch , in the northern <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigated habitat use by juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho salmon (O. kisutch) to identify environmental characteristics that may define their optimal marine habitat. We utilized physical and biological\\u000a data from four cruises in the northern <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> system from Newport, Oregon, to Crescent City, <span class="hlt">California</span>, in June\\u000a and August 2000 and 2002. A non-parametric statistical method was</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Suzan S. Pool; Douglas C. Reese; Richard D. Brodeur</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">147</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://wwww.prbo.org/cms/docs/marine/sydeman%20et%20al%202001.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Climate change, reproductive performance and diet composition of marine birds in the southern <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> system, 19691997</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We studied the effects of low-frequency climate change on the reproductive performance of 11 species of marine bird in the southern <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> system, 19691997. Reproductive performance of Brown Pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) and Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocrax auritus) in southern <span class="hlt">California</span> demonstrated an increase in the 1970s and early 1980s, attributable to recovery from organochlorine contamination (primarily DDE). Brandt's Cormorant (Phalacrocorax</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">William J. Sydeman; Michelle M. Hester; Julie A. Thayer; Franklin Gress; Paige Martin; Joelle Buffa</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">148</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMPA13A1741P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Using the Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS) to Analyze Impacts of Climate Change on <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> within Northern <span class="hlt">California</span> Climate Regions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The projected impacts of climate change on Northern <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> using model outputs from the Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS) for the period 1950-2099 based on 1km downscaled climate data from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) model are analyzed in this study. The impacts are analyzed for the Special Report Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1B and A2, both maintaining present levels of urbanization constant and under projected urban expansion. The analysis is in support of the Climate Adaptation Science Investigation at NASA Ames Research Center. A statistical analysis is completed for time series of temperature, precipitation, gross primary productivity (GPP), evapotranspiration, soil runoff, and vapor pressure deficit. Trends produced from this analysis show that increases in maximum and minimum temperatures lead to declines in peak GPP, length of growing seasons, and overall declines in runoff within the watershed. For Northern <span class="hlt">California</span>, GPP is projected under the A2 scenario to decrease by 18-25% by the 2090 decade as compared to the 2000 decade. These trends indicate a higher risk to crop production and other <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services, as conditions would be less hospitable to vegetation growth. The increase in dried out vegetation would then lead to a higher risk of wildfire and mudslides in the mountainous regions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pitts, K.; Little, M.; Loewenstein, M.; Iraci, L. T.; Milesi, C.; Schmidt, C.; Skiles, J. W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">149</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMOS53B1693M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Constraining the timing of turbidity <span class="hlt">current</span> driven sediment transport down Monterey Canyon, offshore <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Turbidity <span class="hlt">currents</span> are responsible for transport of sand down the Monterey Submarine Canyon, offshore <span class="hlt">California</span>, from the shoreline to Monterey Fan. However the timing of sediment transport events and their frequencies are not fully understood despite recent monitoring of canyon events and AMS 14C dating of foraminifera from hemipelagic sediments bracketing sand deposited during turbidity flows. Quartz optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating in sand sequences provides a complementary means of dating sand transport. OSL dates reflect the time interval since the sand grains were last exposed to sunlight. However, the technique has never been applied extensively to canyon sediments before. Here we report both quartz OSL ages of sand deposits and benthic foraminifera ages sampled from the axial channel within Monterey Submarine Canyon and Fan via ROV-collected vibracores. This allows a rare opportunity to directly test the frequency and timing of turbidity <span class="hlt">current</span> events at different points in the canyon. We use both single-grain and small (~2 mm area) single aliquot regeneration OSL approaches on vibracore samples from various water depths to determine sand transport frequency. Within the upper canyon (<2,000 m water depths) the OSL data require sub-decadal to decadal transit times. Sand bearing fining upward sequences yielding middle Holocene to last few hundred year ages indicate turbidity <span class="hlt">currents</span> occur at 150 to 250 year event frequencies within the fan channel out to 3,600 m water depth. We suggest that turbidity <span class="hlt">currents</span> have been active during the <span class="hlt">current</span> sea-level high stand and that the submarine fan has recorded turbidity <span class="hlt">currents</span> over the entire Holocene. The increased age spread in single grain OSL dates with water depth provides evidence of sediment mixing and reworking during turbidity flows. Apparently, sand is stored within the canyon for various amounts of time while it is in route to its <span class="hlt">current</span> location on the fan.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McGann, M.; Stevens, T.; Paull, C. K.; Ussler, W.; Buylaert, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">150</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PrOce.102...19R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interannual variability in the Northern <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> food web structure: Changes in energy flow pathways and the role of forage fish, euphausiids, and jellyfish</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Northern <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> (NCC) is a seasonally productive and open <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>. It is home to both a diverse endemic community and to seasonally transient species. Productivity and food web structure vary seasonally, interannually, and decadally due to variability in coastal upwelling, climate-scale physical processes, and the migratory species entering the system. The composition of the pelagic community varies between years, including changes to mid-trophic level groups that represent alternate energy-transfer pathways between lower and upper trophic levels (forage fishes, euphausiids, jellyfish). Multiple data sets, including annual spring and summer mesoscale surveys of the zooplankton, pelagic fish, and seabird communities, were used to infer NCC trophic network arrangements and develop end-to-end models for each of the 2003-2007 upwelling seasons. Each model was used to quantify the interannual variability in energy-transfer efficiency from bottom to top trophic levels. When each model was driven under an identical nutrient input rate, substantial differences in the energy available to each functional group were evident. Scenario analyses were used to examine the roles of forage fishes, euphausiids, and jellyfish (small gelatinous zooplankton and large carnivorous jellyfish) as alternate energy transfer pathways. Euphausiids were the more important energy transfer pathway; a large proportion of the lower trophic production consumed was transferred to higher trophic levels. In contrast, jellyfish acted as a production loss pathway; little of the production consumed was passed upwards. Analysis of the range of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> states observed interannually and understanding system sensitivity to variability among key trophic groups improves our ability to predict NCC <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> response to short- and long-term environmental change.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ruzicka, James J.; Brodeur, Richard D.; Emmett, Robert L.; Steele, John H.; Zamon, Jeannette E.; Morgan, Cheryl A.; Thomas, Andrew C.; Wainwright, Thomas C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">151</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=201093"> <span id="translatedtitle">MULTILOCUS SIMPLE SEQUENCE REPEATS AND SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISM MARKERS FOR GENOTYPING AND ASSESSING GENETIC DIVERSITY OF XYLELLA FASTIDIOSA IN <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To develop effective disease management strategies, we need to understand population structure and genetic diversity of pathogens in agricultural <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. <span class="hlt">Current</span> information regarding population structure and genetic diversity of Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) in <span class="hlt">California</span> is insufficient to adequate...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">152</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.B31I..07P"> <span id="translatedtitle">Controls on the fate, structure and function of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen in a <span class="hlt">California</span> grassland, oak woodland and conifer <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In <span class="hlt">California</span>, oak woodlands and grasslands, have been expanding their geographic range over the past 100 years, and are projected to extend upward along the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada foothills in response to climate change. Since vegetation type plays a large role in soil formation and carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling, shifts in vegetation distribution could impact C and N storage and processing. This study was designed to determine if dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON) production, composition, biodegradation and sorption in the mineral soil of a grassland, oak woodland and conifer <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> is related to the type of plant material from which it is derived and how these processes are correlated with temperature. A field experiment where leachates from transplanted soil columns were collected over two rainy seasons at a grassland, oak woodland and conifer field location was combined with laboratory batch adsorption and biodegradation using litter and soil from the same sites. Specific ultra-violet absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA 254), 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR) and fractionation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) into hydrophilic and hydrophobic factions was used to determine the structural composition of the DOC solutions. In the laboratory, surface litter from the grass, oak and a conifer site were incubated with de-ionized water for 5, 15 or 96 hours at 4, 20 or 30oC. Incubation time had little effect on DOC structure while vegetation type and temperature had significant effects on DOC functional groups. Increased incubation time and temperature significantly increased DOC and DON concentration. Percent biodegradable DOC was positively correlated to increasing heteroaliphatic functional groups. Since grass, oak and pine DOM solutions had the highest levels of biodegradation using soil inoculums from the sites where the surface litter originated, biodegradation appears to be related to site microbial activity. In batch adsorption studies, an increase in incubation temperature is related to an increase in sorption and biodegradation. There were no significant correlations between adsorption and DOC functional groups. Soil iron and aluminum content were found to play a larger role in DOC adsorption than DOC functional group concentration. Therefore, sorption appears to be primarily controlled by <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> soil characteristics and a thermodynamic relationship with temperature rather than surface litter type. In the field experiment, neither DOC, DON nor SUVA 254 values of column leachates differed significantly with surface litter or soil type. However, the 15 month incubation of the soil columns containing all three soil types at all three field locations resulted in several significant changes in soil C and N parameters. Percent C, water extractable DOC and soil C:N all increased in the soil from the pine location that was incubated at the oak and grass location. These changes indicate that the soils at mixed conifer sites in the Sierra Nevada foothills could store increased levels of soil C if grassland and oak woodland vegetation shift into the areas <span class="hlt">currently</span> dominated by mixed conifers.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pittiglio, S. L.; Zasoski, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">153</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910063762&hterms=salty&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dsalty"> <span id="translatedtitle">The nature of the cold filaments in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The velocity fields and water properties associated with cold filaments in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> are described on the basis of data from the Coastal Transition Zone experiment. Combined with previous field surveys and satellite imagery, these show seasonal variability with maximum dynamic height ranges and velocities in summer and minimum values in late winter and early spring. North of Point Arena in spring-summer, the flow field on the outer edge of the cold water exhibits the character of a meandering jet, carrying fresh, nutrient-poor water from the farther north on its offshore side and cold, salty, nutrient-rich water on its inshore side. At Point Arena in midsummer, the jet often flows offshore and continues south without meandering back onshore as strongly as it does farther north. At the surface, the jet often separates biological communities and may appear as a barrier to cross-jet transport, especially north of Point Arena in March-May.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Strub, P. T.; Kosro, P. M.; Huyer, Adriana</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1991-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">154</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998DSRII..45.1507B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modeling studies of the effects of wind forcing and thermohaline gradients on the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This process-oriented study uses a high-resolution, multi-level, primitive equation model to study the combined effects of wind forcing and thermohaline gradients on the ocean circulation of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System (CCS). The ocean circulation is generated by the model using a combination of climatological wind stress forcing and thermohaline gradients. In the first experiment, the effects of thermohaline gradients alone are evaluated; in the second experiment, previously conducted, the effects of wind forcing are isolated; while in the third experiment, the combined effects of wind forcing and thermohaline gradients are investigated. The results from the combined experiment show that even though the effects of wind forcing dominate the CCS, the additional effects of thermohaline gradients results in the following: the seasonal development of a poleward surface <span class="hlt">current</span> and an equatorward undercurrent in the poleward end of the model region; an onshore geostrophic component, which results in a temperature front and stronger surface and subsurface <span class="hlt">currents</span> between Cape Mendocino and Point Arena; and a region of maximum eddy kinetic energy inshore of 125W between Cape Mendocino and Point Arena, associated with the temperature front. These model simulations are qualitatively similar to recent hydrographic, altimetric, drifter, and moored observations of the CCS.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Batteen, Mary L.; Vance, Philip W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">155</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21265453"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimating the impacts of fishing on dependent predators: a case study in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Juvenile rockfish (Sebastes spp.) are important prey to seabirds in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System, particularly during the breeding season. Both seabird breeding success and the abundance of pelagic juvenile rockfish show high interannual variability. This covariation is largely a response to variable ocean conditions; however, fishing on adult rockfish may have had consequences for seabird productivity (e.g., the number of chicks fledged per breeding pair) by reducing the availability of juvenile rockfish to provisioning seabird parents. We tested the hypothesis that fishing has decreased juvenile rockfish availability and thereby limited seabird productivity over the past 30 years. We quantified relationships between observed juvenile rockfish relative abundance and seabird productivity, used fisheries stock assessment approaches to estimate the relative abundance of juvenile rockfish in the absence of fishing, and compared the differences in seabird productivity that would have resulted without rockfish fisheries. We examined the abundance of juvenile rockfish and the corresponding productivity of three seabird species breeding on Southeast Farallon Island (near San Francisco, <span class="hlt">California</span>, USA) from the early 1980s to the present. Results show that while the relative abundance of juvenile rockfish has declined to approximately 50% of the estimated unfished biomass, seabirds achieved 75-95% of the estimated un-impacted levels of productivity, depending upon the species of bird and various model assumptions. These results primarily reflect seabirds with "conservative" life histories (one egg laid per year) and may be different for species with more flexible life history strategies (greater reproductive effort). Our results are consistent with the premise that the impacts of local rockfish fisheries on seabird productivity are less than impacts that have occurred to the prey resources themselves due to ocean climate and the ability of seabirds to buffer against changes in prey availability through prey-switching and other behavioral mechanisms. PMID:21265453</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Field, J C; MacCall, A D; Bradley, R W; Sydeman, W J</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">156</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMPP22B..05H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cooling of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> southern dynamic boundary during Northern Hemisphere warmings</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">How global climate warming will affect surface ocean circulation and biological productivity patterns in eastern boundary <span class="hlt">currents</span> has profound implications for regional climate, water resources, surface ocean circulation, biogeochemical cycling of nutrients and carbon, and fisheries along its margins. Here we show a millennial long reconstruction of some seasonal proxies of summer Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) and organic carbon content (Corg) in the sediments from a suboxic basin located at the southern dynamic boundary of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System (CCS) (25N) where summer SSTs are controlled by changes in the equatorward advection of northern, cool CC waters and associated coastal upwelling processes. This reconstruction reveals how the variability of both processes during the spring to summer season are inversely linked with centennial to multi-decadal changes in NH continental temperatures. The reconstructed records show relatively cool summer SSTs and relatively higher Corg during the Medieval Warm Period (MWP) and warmer ones and lower Corg during the LIA and a trend towards cooling and relatively higher Corg for the past 2 centuries in parallel to the Northern Hemisphere (NH) warming out of the Little Ice Age (LIA). One of the implications of these observations is that the processes that control the cooling, biogeochemical cycling of nutrients, carbon fluxes and biological productivity of the CCS may intensify as a consequence of global warming and increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations with still unknown biogeochemical and ecological implications.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Herguera, J.; Mortyn, P.; Martnez-Bot, M.; Bernal Franco, G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">157</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.B44C..08K"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quantifying radaition and energy balances at a heterogeneous oak savanna <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> in <span class="hlt">California</span>: a three dimensional modeling appraoch</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Most land surface and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> models assume that a vegetated canopy can be abstracted as a turbid medium when they compute mass, energy, and carbon exchange. Since savanna <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> are inherently complex and spatially heterogeneous, a turbid media models fail to simulate radiation environments at savanna <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. In this study, we describe a three dimensional radiation budget model (Forest Light Environmental Simulator, FLiES) coupled with a soil and canopy energy balance and canopy physiology model (CANOAK). The model was able to simulate spatial and diurnal patterns of radiation properties both shortwave and longwave radiation as well as latent and sensible heat, and tree canopy photosynthesis. Explicit consideration of woody elements (branches and stems) is crucial for realistic computation of radiation environments in savanna <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> because of its nature of low LAI and a relatively high fraction of woody elements. We found that the heat storage term of woody elements could be non-negligible amount (12-17% of total net radiation). We found that all woodland components (tree leaves, understory grasses, woody materials, and the soil) cannot be negligible for modeling the radiation and energy balances as they all absorb a significant amount of the solar radiation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kobayashi, H.; Baldocchi, D. D.; Ryu, Y.; Chen, Q.; Ma, S.; Osuna, J. L.; Ustin, S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">158</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.mbgnet.net/salt/index.htm"> <span id="translatedtitle">Marine <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Marine <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> introduction to shorelines, temperate oceans, and tropical oceans. Shoreline topics cover sandy and rocky shores, barrier islands, tide pools, estuaries, salt marshes, mud flats, mangrove forests, tides, waves, <span class="hlt">currents</span>, and shoreline animals. Students can learn about temperate ocean zonation, light, forests, patterns, and animals. The tropical oceans chapter features coral reefs and tropical ocean animals. This site would provide a comprehensive introduction for a marine <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> or an ocean science unit.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">159</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PrOce..84..242A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Top-down and bottom-up factors affecting seabird population trends in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">current</span> system (1985-2006)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To characterize the environmental factors affecting seabird population trends in the central portion of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">current</span> system (CCS), we analyzed standardized vessel-based surveys collected during the late spring (May-June) upwelling season over 22 yr (1985-2006). We tested the working hypothesis that population trends are related to species-specific foraging ecology, and predicted that temporal variation in population size should be most extreme in diving species with higher energy expenditure during foraging. We related variation in individual species abundance (number km -2) to seasonally lagged (late winter, early spring, late spring) and concurrent ocean conditions, and to long-term trends (using a proxy variable: year) during a multi-decadal period of major fluctuations in the El Nio-Southern oscillation (ENSO) and the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO). We considered both remote (Multivariate ENSO Index, PDO) and local (coastal upwelling indices and sea-surface temperature) environmental variables as proxies for ocean productivity and prey availability. We also related seabird trends to those of potentially major trophic competitors, humpback ( Megaptera novaeangliae) and blue ( Balaenoptera musculus) whales, which increased in number 4-5-fold midway during our study. Cyclical oscillations in seabird abundance were apparent in the black-footed albatross ( Phoebastria nigripes), and decreasing trends were documented for ashy storm-petrel ( Oceanodroma homochroa), pigeon guillemot ( Cepphus columbus), rhinoceros auklet ( Cerorhinca monocerata), Cassins auklet ( Ptychoramphus aleuticus), and western gull ( Larus occidentalis); the sooty shearwater ( Puffinus griseus), exhibited a marked decline before signs of recovery at the end of the study period. The abundance of nine other focal species varied with ocean conditions, but without decadal or long-term trends. Six of these species have the largest global populations in the CCS, and four are highly energetic, diving foragers. Furthermore, three of the diving species trends were negatively correlated with the abundance of humpback whales in the study area, a direct competitor for the same prey. Therefore, on the basis of literature reviewed, we hypothesize that the seabirds were affected by the decreasing carrying capacity of the CCS, over-exploitation of some prey stocks and interference competition from the previously exploited, but now increasing, baleen whale populations. Overall, our study highlights the complexity of the ecological factors driving seabird population trends in the highly variable and rapidly changing CCS <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ainley, David G.; David Hyrenbach, K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">160</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70020579"> <span id="translatedtitle">Changes in production and respiration during a spring phytoplankton bloom in San Francisco Bay, <span class="hlt">California</span>, USA: Implications for net <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> metabolism</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We present results of an intensive sampling program designed to measure weekly changes in <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> respiration (oxygen consumption in the water column and sediments) around the 1996 spring bloom in South San Francisco Bay, <span class="hlt">California</span>, USA. Measurements were made at a shallow site (2 m, where mean photic depth was 60% of the water column height) and a deep site (15 m, mean photic depth was only 20% of the water column). We also estimated phytoplankton primary production weekly at both sites to develop estimates of net oxygen flux as the sum of pelagic production (PP), pelagic respiration (PR) and benthic respiration (BR). Over the 14 wk period from February 5 to May 14, PP ranged from 2 to 210, PR from 9 to 289, and BR from 0.1 to 48 mmol O2 m-2 d-1, illustrating large variability of estuarine oxygen fluxes at the weekly time scale. Pelagic production exceeded total respiration at the shallow site, but not at the deep site, demonstrating that the shallow domains are net autotrophic but the deep domains are net heterotrophic, even during the period of the spring bloom. If we take into account the potential primary production by benthic microalgae, the estuary as a whole is net autotrophic during spring, net heterotrophic during the nonbloom seasons, and has a balanced net metabolism over a full annual period. The seasonal shift from net autotrophy to heterotrophy during the transition from spring to summer was accompanied by a large shift from dominance by pelagic respiration to dominance by benthic respiration. This suggests that changes in net <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> metabolism can reflect changes in the pathways of energy flow in shallow coastal <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Caffrey, J.M.; Cloern, J.E.; Grenz, C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous 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showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">161</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://aps-web.ucsd.edu/sustainability/FM/PDFs/Campus_Forest_Environmental_Benefits_Report_1-09.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Services and Environmental Benefits</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Services and Environmental Benefits of the UC San Diego Campus Forest 10 February 2009 #12;2 #12;3 <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Services and Environmental Benefits of the UC San Diego Campus Forest 10 of the University of <span class="hlt">California</span>, San Diego (UCSD), is a rich and varied <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> stretching from the Pacific Ocean</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tsien, Roger Y.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">162</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr20131133"> <span id="translatedtitle">Salton Sea <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> monitoring and assessment plan</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Salton Sea, <span class="hlt">Californias</span> largest lake, provides essential habitat for several fish and wildlife species and is an important cultural and recreational resource. It has no outlet, and dissolved salts contained in the inflows concentrate in the Salton Sea through evaporation. The salinity of the Salton Sea, which is <span class="hlt">currently</span> nearly one and a half times the salinity of ocean water, has been increasing as a result of evaporative processes and low freshwater inputs. Further reductions in inflows from water conservation, recycling, and transfers will lower the level of the Salton Sea and accelerate the rate of salinity increases, reduce the suitability of fish and wildlife habitat, and affect air quality by exposing lakebed playa that could generate dust. Legislation enacted in 2003 to implement the Quantification Settlement Agreement (QSA) stated the Legislatures intent for the State of <span class="hlt">California</span> to undertake the restoration of the Salton Sea <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>. As required by the legislation, the <span class="hlt">California</span> Resources Agency (now <span class="hlt">California</span> Natural Resources Agency) produced the Salton Sea <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Restoration Study and final Programmatic Environmental Impact Report (PEIR; <span class="hlt">California</span> Resources Agency, 2007) with the stated purpose to develop a preferred alternative by exploring alternative ways to restore important ecological functions of the Salton Sea that have existed for about 100 years. A decision regarding a preferred alternative <span class="hlt">currently</span> resides with the <span class="hlt">California</span> State Legislature (Legislature), which has yet to take action. As part of efforts to identify an <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> restoration program for the Salton Sea, and in anticipation of direction from the Legislature, the <span class="hlt">California</span> Department of Water Resources (DWR), <span class="hlt">California</span> Department of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW), U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) established a team to develop a monitoring and assessment plan (MAP). This plan is the product of that effort. The goal of the MAP is to provide a guide for data collection, analysis, management, and reporting to inform management actions for the Salton Sea <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>. Monitoring activities are directed at species and habitats that could be affected by or drive future restoration activities. The MAP is not intended to be a prescriptive document. Rather, it is envisioned to be a flexible, program-level guide that articulates high-level goals and objectives, and establishes broad sideboards within which future project-level investigations and studies will be evaluated and authorized. As such, the MAP, by design, does not, for example, include detailed protocols describing how investigations will be implemented. It is anticipated that detailed study proposals will be prepared as part of an implementation plan that will include such things as specific sampling objectives, sampling schemes, and statistical and spatial limits.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Case(compiler), H. L., III; Boles, Jerry; Delgado, Arturo; Nguyen, Thang; Osugi, Doug; Barnum, Douglas A.; Decker, Drew; Steinberg, Steven; Steinberg, Sheila; Keene, Charles; White, Kristina; Lupo, Tom; Gen, Sheldon; Baerenklau, Ken A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">163</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMOS31B1731J"> <span id="translatedtitle">Potential Improvements to Remote Primary Productivity Estimation in the Southern <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A 26-year record of depth integrated primary productivity (PP) in the Southern <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System (SCCS) is analyzed with the goal of improving satellite net primary productivity (PP) estimates. The ratio of integrated primary productivity to surface chlorophyll correlates strongly to surface chlorophyll concentration (chl0). However, chl0 does not correlate to chlorophyll-specific productivity, and appears to be a proxy for vertical phytoplankton distribution rather than phytoplankton physiology. Modest improvements in PP model performance are achieved by tuning existing algorithms for the SCCS, particularly by empirical parameterization of photosynthetic efficiency in the Vertically Generalized Production Model. Much larger improvements are enabled by improving accuracy of subsurface chlorophyll and light profiles. In a simple vertically resolved production model, substitution of in situ surface data for remote sensing estimates offers only marginal improvements in model r2 and total log10 root mean squared difference, while inclusion of in situ chlorophyll and light profiles improves these metrics significantly. Autonomous underwater gliders, capable of measuring subsurface fluorescence on long-term, long-range deployments, significantly improve PP model fidelity in the SCCS. We suggest their use (and that of other autonomous profilers such as Argo floats) in conjunction with satellites as a way forward for improved PP estimation in coastal upwelling systems.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jacox, M.; Edwards, C. A.; Kahru, M.; Rudnick, D. L.; Kudela, R. M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">164</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70015716"> <span id="translatedtitle">Emergence of burrowing urchins from <span class="hlt">California</span> continental shelf sediments-A response to alongshore <span class="hlt">current</span> reversals?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Two sequences of bottom photographs taken every two or four hours for two months during the Coastal Ocean Dynamics Experiment (CODE) off the Russian River, <span class="hlt">California</span>, reveal the dynamic nature of interations between the water column, the sediments, and benthic organisms in the mid-shelf silt deposit. Time-lapse photographs taken between late spring and early summer in 1981 and 1982 show that the subsurface-dwelling urchin Brisaster latifrons (one of the largest invertebrates found in shelf-depth fine sediment off the U.S. Pacific coast) occasionally emerged from the sediment, plowed the sediment surface during the course of a few hours to several days, then buried themselves again. Frame-by-frame study of the film sequences shows that the urchins typically emerged following relaxation of coastal upwelling, periods characterized by <span class="hlt">current</span> direction reversals and increases in bottom water turbidity. Among the possible causes of the emergence of urchins and the consequent bioturbation of the upper few cm of sediment, a response to an enhanced food supply seems most plausible. Circumstantial evidence suggests the possibility that phytoplankton sedimentation during periods of upwelling relaxation could provide a new source of food at the sediment surface. ?? 1989.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nichols, F.H.; Cacchione, D.A.; Drake, D.E.; Thompson, J.K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1989-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">165</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014DSRI...92...11F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Biogeography and phenology of satellite-measured phytoplankton seasonality in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">current</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Thirteen years (1998-2010) of satellite-measured chlorophyll a are used to establish spatial patterns in climatological phytoplankton biomass seasonality across the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System (CCS) and its interannual variability. Multivariate clustering based on the shape of the local climatological seasonal cycle divides the study area into four groups: two with spring-summer maxima representing the northern and southern coastal upwelling zones, one with a summer minimum offshore in mid-latitudes and a fourth with very weak seasonality in between. Multivariate clustering on the seasonal cycles from all 13 years produces the same four seasonal cycle types and provides a view of the interannual variability in seasonal biogeography. Over the study period these seasonal cycles generally appear in similar locations as the climatological clusters. However, considerable interannual variability in the geography of the seasonal cycles is evident across the CCS, the most spatially extensive of which are associated with the 1997-1999 El Nio-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) signal and the 2005 delayed spring transition off the Oregon and northern and central <span class="hlt">California</span> coasts. We quantify linear trends over the study period in the seasonal timing of the two seasonal cycles that represent the biologically productive coastal upwelling zones using four different metrics of phenology. In the northern upwelling region, the date of the spring maximum is delaying (1.34 days yr-1) and the central tendency of the summer elevated chlorophyll period is advancing (0.63 days yr-1). In the southern coastal upwelling region, both the initiation and cessation of the spring maximum are delaying (1.78 days yr-1 and 2.44 days yr-1, respectively) and the peak is increasing in duration over the study period. Connections between observed interannual shifts in phytoplankton seasonality and physical forcing, expressed as either basin-scale climate signals or local forcing, show phytoplankton seasonality in the CCS to be influenced by changes in the seasonality of the wind mixing power offshore, coastal upwelling in the near-shore regions and basin-scale signals such as ENSO across the study area.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Foukal, Nicholas P.; Thomas, Andrew C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">166</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/wri884027"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tides, and tidal and residual <span class="hlt">currents</span> in Suisun and San Pablo bays, <span class="hlt">California</span>; results of measurements, 1986</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Current</span> meter data collected at 11 stations and water level data collected at one station in Suisun and San Pablo Bays, <span class="hlt">California</span>, in 1986 are compiled in this report. <span class="hlt">Current</span>-meter measurements include <span class="hlt">current</span> speed and direction, and water temperature and salinity (computed from temperature and conductivity). For each of the 19 <span class="hlt">current</span>-meter records, data are presented in two forms. These are: (1) results of harmonic analysis; and (2) plots of tidal <span class="hlt">current</span> speed and direction versus time and plots of temperature and salinity versus time. Spatial distribution of the properties of tidal <span class="hlt">currents</span> are given in graphic form. In addition, Eulerian residual <span class="hlt">currents</span> have been compiled by using a vector-averaging technique. Water level data are presented in the form of a time-series plot and the results of harmonic analysis. (USGS)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gartner, J.W.; Yost, B.T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">167</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.9309B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Landscape anthropogenic disturbance in the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>: is the <span class="hlt">current</span> landscape sustainable?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mediterranean landscape during the last centuries has been subject to strong anthropogenic disturbances who shifted natural vegetation cover in a cultural landscape. Most of the natural forest were destroyed in order to allow cultivation and grazing activities. In the last century, fast growing conifer plantations were introduced in order to increase timber production replacing slow growing natural forests. In addition, after the Second World War most of the grazing areas were changed in unmanaged mediterranean conifer forest frequently spread by fires. In the last decades radical socio economic changes lead to a dramatic abandonment of the cultural landscape. One of the most relevant result of these human disturbances, and in particular the replacement of deciduous forests with coniferous forests, has been the increasing in the number of forest fires, mainly human caused. The presence of conifers and shrubs, more prone to fire, triggered a feedback mechanism that makes difficult to return to the stage of potential vegetation causing huge economic, social and environmental damages. The aim of this work is to investigate the sustainability of the <span class="hlt">current</span> landscape. A future landscape scenario has been simulated considering the natural succession in absence of human intervention assuming the <span class="hlt">current</span> fire regime will be unaltered. To this end, a new model has been defined, implementing an ecological succession model coupled with a simply Forest Fire Model. The ecological succession model simulates the vegetation dynamics using a rule-based approach discrete in space and time. In this model Plant Functional Types (PFTs) are used to describe the landscape. Wildfires are randomly ignited on the landscape, and their propagation is simulated using a stochastic cellular automata model. The results show that the success of the natural succession toward a potential vegetation cover is prevented by the frequency of fire spreading. The actual landscape is then unsustainable because of the high cost of fire fighting activities. The right path to success consists in development of suitable land use planning and forest management to mitigate the consequences of past anthropogenic disturbances.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Biondi, Guido; D'Andrea, Mirko; Fiorucci, Paolo; Franciosi, Chiara; Lima, Marco</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">168</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41166611"> <span id="translatedtitle">Carbon stocks and timber yield in two boreal forest <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> under <span class="hlt">current</span> and changing climatic conditions subjected to varying management regimes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">A process-based <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> model was used to identify how thinning and climate change affected carbon sequestration in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), Norway spruce (Picea abies) and silver birch (Betula pendula) stands in the southern and northern boreal conditions in Finland. <span class="hlt">Current</span> climate data and two climate change scenarios together with eight management scenarios were used in the simulations. The trees</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Elemer Briceo-Elizondo; Jordi Garcia-Gonzalo; Heli Peltola; Seppo Kellomki</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">169</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40419511"> <span id="translatedtitle">Top-down and bottom-up factors affecting seabird population trends in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">current</span> system (19852006)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">To characterize the environmental factors affecting seabird population trends in the central portion of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">current</span> system (CCS), we analyzed standardized vessel-based surveys collected during the late spring (MayJune) upwelling season over 22yr (19852006). We tested the working hypothesis that population trends are related to species-specific foraging ecology, and predicted that temporal variation in population size should be most</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">David G. Ainley; K. David Hyrenbach</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">170</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25197496"> <span id="translatedtitle">Metagenomic analysis of microbial consortium from natural crude oil that seeps into the marine <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> offshore Southern <span class="hlt">California</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Crude oils can be major contaminants of the marine <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> and microorganisms play a significant role in the degradation of its main constituents. To increase our understanding of the microbial hydrocarbon degradation process in the marine <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>, we collected crude oil from an active seep area located in the Santa Barbara Channel (SBC) and generated a total of about 52 Gb of raw metagenomic sequence data. The assembled data comprised ~500 Mb, representing ~1.1 million genes derived primarily from chemolithoautotrophic bacteria. Members of Oceanospirillales, a bacterial order belonging to the Deltaproteobacteria, recruited less than 2% of the assembled genes within the SBC metagenome. In contrast, the microbial community associated with the oil plume that developed in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout in 2010, was dominated by Oceanospirillales, which comprised more than 60% of the metagenomic data generated from the DWH oil plume. This suggests that Oceanospirillales might play a less significant role in the microbially mediated hydrocarbon conversion within the SBC seep oil compared to the DWH plume oil. We hypothesize that this difference results from the SBC oil seep being mostly anaerobic, while the DWH oil plume is aerobic. Within the Archaea, the phylum Euryarchaeota, recruited more than 95% of the assembled archaeal sequences from the SBC oil seep metagenome, with more than 50% of the sequences assigned to members of the orders Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales. These orders contain organisms capable of anaerobic methanogenesis and methane oxidation (AOM) and we hypothesize that these orders - and their metabolic capabilities - may be fundamental to the ecology of the SBC oil seep. PMID:25197496</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hawley, Erik R; Piao, Hailan; Scott, Nicole M; Malfatti, Stephanie; Pagani, Ioanna; Huntemann, Marcel; Chen, Amy; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Foster, Brian; Copeland, Alex; Jansson, Janet; Pati, Amrita; Tringe, Susannah; Gilbert, Jack A; Lorenson, Thomas D; Hess, Matthias</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">171</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4149020"> <span id="translatedtitle">Metagenomic analysis of microbial consortium from natural crude oil that seeps into the marine <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> offshore Southern <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Crude oils can be major contaminants of the marine <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> and microorganisms play a significant role in the degradation of its main constituents. To increase our understanding of the microbial hydrocarbon degradation process in the marine <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>, we collected crude oil from an active seep area located in the Santa Barbara Channel (SBC) and generated a total of about 52 Gb of raw metagenomic sequence data. The assembled data comprised ~500 Mb, representing ~1.1 million genes derived primarily from chemolithoautotrophic bacteria. Members of Oceanospirillales, a bacterial order belonging to the Deltaproteobacteria, recruited less than 2% of the assembled genes within the SBC metagenome. In contrast, the microbial community associated with the oil plume that developed in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout in 2010, was dominated by Oceanospirillales, which comprised more than 60% of the metagenomic data generated from the DWH oil plume. This suggests that Oceanospirillales might play a less significant role in the microbially mediated hydrocarbon conversion within the SBC seep oil compared to the DWH plume oil. We hypothesize that this difference results from the SBC oil seep being mostly anaerobic, while the DWH oil plume is aerobic. Within the Archaea, the phylum Euryarchaeota, recruited more than 95% of the assembled archaeal sequences from the SBC oil seep metagenome, with more than 50% of the sequences assigned to members of the orders Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales. These orders contain organisms capable of anaerobic methanogenesis and methane oxidation (AOM) and we hypothesize that these orders and their metabolic capabilities may be fundamental to the ecology of the SBC oil seep. PMID:25197496</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hawley, Erik R.; Piao, Hailan; Scott, Nicole M.; Malfatti, Stephanie; Pagani, Ioanna; Huntemann, Marcel; Chen, Amy; Glavina del Rio, Tijana; Foster, Brian; Copeland, Alex; Jansson, Janet; Pati, Amrita; Tringe, Susannah; Gilbert, Jack A.; Lorenson, Thomas D.; Hess, Matthias</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">172</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1170076"> <span id="translatedtitle">Metagenomic analysis of microbial consortium from natural crude oil that seeps into the marine <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> offshore Southern <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Crude oils can be major contaminants of the marine <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> and microorganisms play a significant role in the degradation of the main constituents of crude oil. To increase our understanding of the microbial hydrocarbon degradation process in the marine <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>, we collected crude oil from an active seep area located in the Santa Barbara Channel (SBC) and generated a total of about 52 Gb of raw metagenomic sequence data. The assembled data comprised ~500 Mb, representing ~1.1 million genes derived primarily from chemolithoautotrophic bacteria. Members of Oceanospirillales, a bacterial order belonging to the Deltaproteobacteria, recruited less than 2% of the assembled genes within the SBC metagenome. In contrast, the microbial community associated with the oil plume that developed in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout in 2010, was dominated by Oceanospirillales, which comprised more than 60% of the metagenomic data generated from the DWH oil plume. This suggests that Oceanospirillales might play a less significant role in the microbially mediated hydrocarbon conversion within the SBC seep oil compared to the DWH plume oil. We hypothesize that this difference results from the SBC oil seep being mostly anaerobic, while the DWH oil plume is aerobic. Within the Archaea, the phylum Euryarchaeota, recruited more than 95% of the assembled archaeal sequences from the SBC oil seep metagenome, with more than 50% of the sequences assigned to members of the orders Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales. These orders contain organisms capable of anaerobic methanogenesis and methane oxidation (AOM) and we hypothesize that these orders and their metabolic capabilities may be fundamental to the ecology of the SBC oil seep.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hawley, Erik R.; Piao, Hailan; Scott, Nicole M.; Malfatti, Stephanie; Pagani, Ioanna; Huntemann, Marcel; Chen, Amy; del Rio, Tijana G.; Foster, Brian; Copeland, A.; Jansson, Janet K.; Pati, Amrita; Gilbert, Jack A.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Lorenson, Thomas D.; Hess, Matthias</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-08-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">173</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PrOce..83..369L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Influence of a multiyear event of low salinity on the zooplankton from Mexican eco-regions of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Data are presented from the southern part of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System (CCS) for the period 1997-2007, derived from the IMECOCAL monitoring program. Apart from El Nio 1997 to 1998, and La Nia 1998-1999 the strongest perturbation occurred in 2002 due to an intrusion of subarctic water affecting all the CCS. The response of zooplankton biomass to the strong cooling and freshening of the upper layer was an immediate drop followed by a progressive recovery between 2003 and 2007. Though the low salinity influence ended in 2006, the increased zooplankton trend continued, reinforced by increased upwelling activity beginning 2005 off north Baja <span class="hlt">California</span> region (30-32N) and beginning 2006 off central Baja <span class="hlt">California</span> (24-30N). Multiple regression analysis was done between regional variables and Upwelling Index (UI) and two basin-scale proxies: the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The significant influence of the NPGO on surface salinity, salinity stratification, zooplankton volume and secondary consumers (zooplankton carnivores) suggests a basin scale control on these variables more than local mechanisms. The signature of the NPGO was also evident in the base of the trophic web, but more related to the group of crustacean herbivores in the north eco-region, and the tunicates in central Baja <span class="hlt">California</span>. In this last region, the effect from NPGO on the zooplankton volume and tunicates was antagonist with UI indicative of similar importance of basin and local processes. However, when the time interval is limited to the post-subarctic intrusion (2003-2007) the significance of multiple regression models and physical variables was lost. Therefore, though data and bio-physical coupling analysis off Baja <span class="hlt">California</span> suggest a better relation with NPGO compared to PDO, it is still not sufficient to explain the magnitude of the perturbation observed in 2002.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lavaniegos, Bertha E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">174</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001PrOce..49..309S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Climate change, reproductive performance and diet composition of marine birds in the southern <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> system, 1969 1997</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We studied the effects of low-frequency climate change on the reproductive performance of 11 species of marine bird in the southern <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> system, 1969-1997. Reproductive performance of Brown Pelican ( Pelecanus occidentalis) and Double-crested Cormorant ( Phalacrocrax auritus) in southern <span class="hlt">California</span> demonstrated an increase in the 1970s and early 1980s, attributable to recovery from organochlorine contamination (primarily DDE). Brandt's Cormorant ( Phalacrocorax penicillatus) in central <span class="hlt">California</span> was the only species to demonstrate a secular increase in performance through time, a pattern that remains unexplained. Ashy Storm-petrel ( Oceanodroma homochroa) and Pelagic Cormorant ( Phalacrocorax pelagicus) demonstrated curvilinear patterns of change, with decreasing reproductive performance in the past decade. All other species including Western Gull ( Larus occidentalis), Pigeon Guillemot ( Cepphus columba), Xantus's Murrelet ( Synthiloboramphus hypoleucus), Common Murre ( Uria aalge), Cassin's Auklet ( Ptychoramphus aleuticus) and Rhinoceros Auklet ( Cerorhinca monocerata) showed diminishing reproductive performance through time. Patterns of change for the murre and auklets were not significant, presumably because of a lack of reproductive variation for these species, which display a conservative breeding effort (i.e. single-egg clutches). Changes in the birds' abilities to provision young and maintain chick survival during May-July each year appeared most closely related to overall changes in reproductive performance. Dietary change indicated a decline in use of juvenile rockfish ( Sebastes spp.) by marine birds in central <span class="hlt">California</span>. There was also significant interannual variability in consumption of juvenile rockfish and the euphausiid Thysanoessa spinifera. Patterns of change in marine bird reproductive performance were generally concordant between southern and central <span class="hlt">California</span> after considering the period of recovery for Brown Pelican and Double-crested Cormorant. The decline in reproductive performance and changes in diet composition do not appear directly related to the polarity reversal of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation in 1976/1977. Instead, reproductive performance and dietary characteristics indicate substantial change in the late 1980s, suggesting another regime-shift at that time.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sydeman, William J.; Hester, Michelle M.; Thayer, Julie A.; Gress, Franklin; Martin, Paige; Buffa, Joelle</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">175</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012BGD.....910371H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spatiotemporal variability and long-term trends of ocean acidification in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Due to seasonal upwelling, the upper ocean waters of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System (CCS) have a naturally low pH and aragonite saturation state (?arag), making this region particularly prone to the effects of ocean acidification. Here, we use the Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS) to conduct preindustrial and transient (1995-2050) simulations of ocean biogeochemistry in the CCS. The transient simulations were forced with increasing atmospheric pCO2 as projected by the NCAR CSM 1.4 model run under either the IPCC SRES A2 or B1 scenarios. Using ROMS, we investigate the timing of transition decades during which pH and ?arag depart from their modeled preindustrial (1750) and present-day (2011) variability envelopes. We report these transition decades by noting the midpoint of the ten-year transition periods. In addition, we also analyze the timing of near permanent aragonite undersaturation in the upper 100 m of the water column. Our results show that an interplay of physical and biogeochemical processes create large seasonal variability in pH (∼ 0.14) and ?arag (∼ 0.2). Despite this large variability, we find that present-day pH and ?arag have already moved out of their preindustrial variability envelopes due to the rapidly increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO2. The simulations following the A2 emissions scenario suggest that nearshore surface pH of the northern and central CCS will move out of their present-day variability envelopes by 2045 and 2037, respectively. However, surface ?arag of the northern and central CCS subregions are projected to depart from their present-day variability envelopes sooner, by 2030 and 2035, respectively. By 2025, the aragonite saturation horizon of the central CCS is projected to shoal into the upper 75 m for the duration of the annual cycle, causing near permanent undersaturation in subsurface waters. Overall, our study shows that the CCS joins the Arctic and Southern Oceans as one of only a few known ocean regions presently approaching this dual threshold of undersaturation with respect to aragonite and a departure from its variability envelope. In these regions, organisms may be forced to rapidly adjust to conditions that are both inherently chemically challenging and also substantially different from prior conditions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hauri, C.; Gruber, N.; Vogt, M.; Doney, S. C.; Feely, R. A.; Lachkar, Z.; Leinweber, A.; McDonnell, A. M. P.; Munnich, M.; Plattner, G.-K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">176</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013BGeo...10..193H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spatiotemporal variability and long-term trends of ocean acidification in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Due to seasonal upwelling, the upper ocean waters of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System (CCS) have a naturally low pH and aragonite saturation state (?arag), making this region particularly prone to the effects of ocean acidification. Here, we use the Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS) to conduct preindustrial and transient (1995-2050) simulations of ocean biogeochemistry in the CCS. The transient simulations were forced with increasing atmospheric pCO2 and increasing oceanic dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations at the lateral boundaries, as projected by the NCAR CSM 1.4 model for the IPCC SRES A2 scenario. Our results show a large seasonal variability in pH (range of ~ 0.14) and ?arag (~ 0.2) for the nearshore areas (50 km from shore). This variability is created by the interplay of physical and biogeochemical processes. Despite this large variability, we find that present-day pH and ?arag have already moved outside of their simulated preindustrial variability envelopes (defined by 1 temporal standard deviation) due to the rapidly increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO2. The nearshore surface pH of the northern and central CCS are simulated to move outside of their present-day variability envelopes by the mid-2040s and late 2030s, respectively. This transition may occur even earlier for nearshore surface ?arag, which is projected to depart from its present-day variability envelope by the early- to mid-2030s. The aragonite saturation horizon of the central CCS is projected to shoal into the upper 75 m within the next 25 yr, causing near-permanent undersaturation in subsurface waters. Due to the model's overestimation of ?arag, this transition may occur even earlier than simulated by the model. Overall, our study shows that the CCS joins the Arctic and Southern oceans as one of only a few known ocean regions presently approaching the dual threshold of widespread and near-permanent undersaturation with respect to aragonite and a departure from its variability envelope. In these regions, organisms may be forced to rapidly adjust to conditions that are both inherently chemically challenging and also substantially different from past conditions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hauri, C.; Gruber, N.; Vogt, M.; Doney, S. C.; Feely, R. A.; Lachkar, Z.; Leinweber, A.; McDonnell, A. M. P.; Munnich, M.; Plattner, G.-K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">177</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013BGeo...10.7395S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Measurements of nitrite production in and around the primary nitrite maximum in the central <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Nitrite (NO2-) is a substrate for both oxidative and reductive microbial metabolism. NO2- accumulates at the base of the euphotic zone in oxygenated, stratified open-ocean water columns, forming a feature known as the primary nitrite maximum (PNM). Potential pathways of NO2- production include the oxidation of ammonia (NH3) by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea as well as assimilatory nitrate (NO3-) reduction by phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria. Measurements of NH3 oxidation and NO3- reduction to NO2- were conducted at two stations in the central <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> in the eastern North Pacific to determine the relative contributions of these processes to NO2- production in the PNM. Sensitive (< 10 nmol L-1), precise measurements of [NH4+] and [NO2-] indicated a persistent NH4+ maximum overlying the PNM at every station, with concentrations as high as 1.5 ?mol L-1. Within and just below the PNM, NH3 oxidation was the dominant NO2- producing process, with rates of NH3 oxidation to NO2- of up to 31 nmol L-1 d-1, coinciding with high abundances of ammonia-oxidizing archaea. Though little NO2- production from NO3- was detected, potentially nitrate-reducing phytoplankton (photosynthetic picoeukaryotes, Synechococcus, and Prochlorococcus) were present at the depth of the PNM. Rates of NO2- production from NO3- were highest within the upper mixed layer (4.6 nmol L-1 d-1) but were either below detection limits or 10 times lower than NH3 oxidation rates around the PNM. One-dimensional modeling of water column NO2- production agreed with production determined from 15N bottle incubations within the PNM, but a modeled net biological sink for NO2- just below the PNM was not captured in the incubations. Residence time estimates of NO2- within the PNM ranged from 18 to 470 days at the mesotrophic station and was 40 days at the oligotrophic station. Our results suggest the PNM is a dynamic, rather than relict, feature with a source term dominated by ammonia oxidation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Santoro, A. E.; Sakamoto, C. M.; Smith, J. M.; Plant, J. N.; Gehman, A. L.; Worden, A. Z.; Johnson, K. S.; Francis, C. A.; Casciotti, K. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">178</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16510388"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seasonality of photosynthetic parameters in a multi-specific and vertically complex forest <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> in the Sierra Nevada of <span class="hlt">California</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Understanding seasonal variations of photosynthetic parameters is critical for accurate modeling of carbon dioxide (CO2) uptake by <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. Maximum carboxylation velocity (Vcmax), maximum rate of electron transport (Jmax), leaf respiration in the light (R(day)), light-saturated assimilation (Amax) and maximum quantum yield (Phi) were calculated from leaf gas exchange measurements made monthly throughout the year on leaves of three co-occuring evergreen species in a Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex P. Laws. & C. Laws. forest with shrubs in the understory (Arctostaphylos manzanita Parry and Ceanothus cordulatus Kellogg.). The seasonality and relationships of the photosynthetic parameters with environmental and physiological variables differed among the species. The nitrogen-fixing species, C. cordulatus had the highest values of the parameters and the largest seasonal variation, whereas A. manzanita exhibited the lowest seasonality and weaker correlations with environmental variables. In general, variations in Vcmax were highly correlated with light, leaf mass per area and leaf nitrogen content on an area basis. Temporal scaling of the parameters with each other seemed possible for C. cordulatus and P. ponderosa. However, lags between these variables and Vcmax likely reflect the influences of other factors. The acclimation relationships found along vertical light gradients within canopies in other studies cannot be applied to seasonal variations. The Jmax to Vcmax ratio varied seasonally for P. ponderosa and A. manzanita, being lower at high light, high air temperature and low soil water content. PMID:16510388</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Misson, Laurent; Tu, Kevin P; Boniello, Ralph A; Goldstein, Allen H</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">179</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950029611&hterms=pigment&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dpigment"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of the seasonal and interannual variability of phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Peru and <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> systems</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Monthly composite images from the global coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) data set are used to provide an initial illustration and comparison of seasonal and interannual variability of phytoplankton pigment concentration along the western coasts of South and North America in the Peru <span class="hlt">Current</span> system (PCS) and <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> system (CCS). The analysis utilizes the entire time series of available data (November 1978 to June 1986) to form a mean annual cycle and an index of interannual variability for a series of both latitudinal and cross-shelf regions within each <span class="hlt">current</span> system. Within 100 km of the coast, the strongest seasonal cycles in the CCS are in two regions, one between 34 deg and 45 deg N and the second between 24 deg and 29 deg N, each with maximum concentrations (greater than 3.0 mg m(exp-3)) in May-June. Weaker seasonal variability is present north of 45 deg N and in the Southern <span class="hlt">California</span> Bight region (32 deg N). Within the PCS, in the same 100-km-wide coastal region, highest (greater than 45 deg S) and lowest (less than 20 deg S) latitude regions have a similar seasonal cycle with maximum concentrations (greater than 1.5 mg m(exp -3)) during the austral spring, summer, and fall, matching that evident throughout the CCS. Between these regions, off northern and central Chile, the seasonal maximum occurs during July-August (austral winter), contrary to the influence of upwelling favorable winds. Within the CCS, the dominant feature of interannual variability in the 8-year time series is a strong negative concentration anomaly in 1983, an El Nino year. The relative value of this negative anomaly is strongest off central <span class="hlt">California</span> and is followed by an even stronger negative anomaly is strongest off central <span class="hlt">California</span> and is followed by an even stronger negative anomaly in 1984 off Baja, <span class="hlt">California</span>. In the PCS, strong negative anomalies during the 1982-1983 El Nino period are evident only off the Peruvian coast and are evident there only in the regions 100 km or more from the coast. Although negative anomalies associated with the El Nino were not present at higher latitudes (more than approximately 20 deg S) in the PCS, the extremely sparse sampling weakens our confidence in the results of the interannual analysis in this region. An upper estimate of the systematic winter bias remaining in the global CZCS data after reprocessing with the multiple scattering algorithm is given in the appendix.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thomas, A. C.; Huang, F.; Strub, P. T.; James, C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">180</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019505"> <span id="translatedtitle">Recovery strategies for the <span class="hlt">California</span> clapper rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) in the heavily-urbanized San Francisco estuarine <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">California</span> clapper rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus), a Federal- and State-listed endangered marsh bird, has a geographic range restricted to one of the most heavily-urbanized estuaries in the world. The rail population has long been in a state of decline, although the exact contribution of each of the many contributing causes remains unclear. The rail is one of the key targets of emerging plans to conserve and restore tidal marshlands. Reduction of tidal marsh habitat, estimated at 85-95%, has been the major historical cause of rail decline. Increased predation intensity may be the more important present problem, because habitat fragmentation and alteration coupled with the invasion of the red fox have made the remaining populations more vulnerable to predators. Population viability analysis shows that adult survivorship is the key demographic variable; reversals in population fate occur over a narrow range of ecologically realistic values. Analysis of habitat requirements and population dynamics of the clapper rail in the San Francisco Estuary shows that decreased within-marsh habitat quality, particularly reduction of tidal flows and alteration of drainage, is an important barrier to population recovery. Management and restoration activities should emphasize the development of well-channelized high tidal marsh, because this is the key requirement of rail habitat. Developing effective restoration programs depends upon having information that field research will not provide. The effect of spatial pattern of reserves requires accurate estimation of the effects of predation and inter-marsh movement, both of which are practically impossible to measure adequately. It will be necessary to develop and use simulation models that can be applied to geographic data to accomplish this task.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Foin, T.C.; Garcia, E.J.; Gill, R.E.; Culberson, S.D.; Collins, J.N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" 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id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">181</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/sir20095090"> <span id="translatedtitle">Direct-<span class="hlt">Current</span> Resistivity Profiling at the Pecos River <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Project Study Site near Mentone, Texas, 2006</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Texas A&M University AgriLife, did a surface geophysical investigation at the Pecos River <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Project study site near Mentone in West Texas intended to determine shallow (to about 14 meters below the water [river] surface) subsurface composition (lithology) in and near treated (eradicated of all saltcedar) and control (untreated) riparian zone sites during June-August 2006. Land-based direct-<span class="hlt">current</span> resistivity profiling was applied in a 240-meter section of the riverbank at the control site, and waterborne direct-<span class="hlt">current</span> continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) was applied along a 2.279-kilometer reach of the river adjacent to both sites to collect shallow subsurface resistivity data. Inverse modeling was used to obtain a nonunique estimate of the true subsurface resistivity from apparent resistivity calculated from the field measurements. The land-based survey showed that the sub-surface at the control site generally is of relatively low resis-tivity down to about 4 meters below the water surface. Most of the section from about 4 to 10 meters below the water surface is of relatively high resistivity. The waterborne CRP surveys convey essentially the same electrical representation of the lithology at the control site to 10 meters below the water surface; but the CRP surveys show considerably lower resistivity than the land-based survey in the subsection from about 4 to 10 meters below the water surface. The CRP surveys along the 2.279-kilometer reach of the river adjacent to both the treated and control sites show the same relatively low resistivity zone from the riverbed to about 4 meters below the water surface evident at the control site. A slightly higher resistivity zone is observed from about 4 to 14 meters below the water surface along the upstream approximately one-half of the profile than along the downstream one-half. The variations in resistivity could not be matched to variations in lithology because sufficient rock samples were not available.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Teeple, Andrew P.; McDonald, Alyson K.; Payne, Jason D.; Kress, Wade H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">182</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996RvGeo..34..127C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Phytoplankton bloom dynamics in coastal <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>: A review with some general lessons from sustained investigation of San Francisco Bay, <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Phytoplankton blooms are prominent features of biological variability in shallow coastal <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> such as estuaries, lagoons, bays, and tidal rivers. Long-term observation and research in San Francisco Bay illustrates some patterns of phytoplankton spatial and temporal variability and the underlying mechanisms of this variability. Blooms are events of rapid production and accumulation of phytoplankton biomass that are usually responses to changing physical forcings originating in the coastal ocean (e.g., tides), the atmosphere (wind), or on the land surface (precipitation and river runoff). These physical forcings have different timescales of variability, so algal blooms can be short-term episodic events, recurrent seasonal phenomena, or rare events associated with exceptional climatic or hydrologic conditions. The biogeochemical role of phytoplankton primary production is to transform and incorporate reactive inorganic elements into organic forms, and these transformations are rapid and lead to measurable geochemical change during blooms. Examples include the depletion of inorganic nutrients (N, P, Si), supersaturation of oxygen and removal of carbon dioxide, shifts in the isotopic composition of reactive elements (C, N), production of climatically active trace gases (methyl bromide, dimethylsulfide), changes in the chemical form and toxicity of trace metals (As, Cd, Ni, Zn), changes in the biochemical composition and reactivity of the suspended particulate matter, and synthesis of organic matter required for the reproduction and growth of heterotrophs, including bacteria, zooplankton, and benthic consumer animals. Some classes of phytoplankton play special roles in the cycling of elements or synthesis of specific organic molecules, but we have only rudimentary understanding of the forces that select for and promote blooms of these species. Mounting evidence suggests that the natural cycles of bloom variability are being altered on a global scale by human activities including the input of toxic contaminants and nutrients, manipulation of river flows, and translocation of species. This hypothesis will be a key component of our effort to understand global change at the land-sea interface. Pursuit of this hypothesis will require creative approaches for distinguishing natural and anthropogenic sources of phytoplankton population variability, as well as recognition that the modes of human disturbance of coastal bloom cycles operate interactively and cannot be studied as isolated processes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cloern, James E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">183</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PrOce.106...16E"> <span id="translatedtitle">Interannual variability in bottom-up processes in the upstream range of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> system: An isotopic approach</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The abundance and composition of zooplankton, fish and seabirds show dramatic interannual variability in temperate coastal regions. Understanding links between this variability and bottom-up processes is an important goal for biological oceanographers. Because zooplankton stable isotopes (?15N and ?13C) are potentially influenced by variability in phytoplankton nutrient utilization, primary production, and zooplankton trophic structure, they have the potential to elucidate links between bottom-up processes, food web structure, and abundance or species composition of higher trophic levels. Here we measure correlations between zooplankton stable isotopes and oceanographic variables in two time series from the west coast of Vancouver Island, upstream of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> upwelling system. We then relate interannual variability in zooplankton stable isotopes to interannual variability in zooplankton species composition. Zooplankton stable isotopes show striking patterns of seasonal, regional and interannual variability. A strong positive correlation between annual averages of zooplankton ?15N and sea-surface temperature is evident in both time series. Zooplankton ?15N is also negatively correlated with interannual anomalies of subarctic copepod biomass in both time series. We propose two different mechanisms to explain these correlations: variability in the strength and direction of horizontal advection, or local fluctuations nutrient availability. We conclude that they are most likely caused by local, temperature-driven fluctuations in nitrate concentrations and primary production. We show that the positive correlation between zooplankton ?15N and temperature is widespread, extending to regions outside of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> system. Our findings suggest that interannual variability in zooplankton composition is linked with bottom-up variability in nitrate availability and primary production in the upstream portion of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> system. Our results also highlight the potential of integrating biochemical parameters in zooplankton time series for elucidating links between bottom-up processes and the survival of higher trophic levels in the ocean.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">El-Sabaawi, Rana W.; Trudel, Marc; Mackas, David L.; Dower, John F.; Mazumder, Asit</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">184</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/15038110"> <span id="translatedtitle">Climatic Warming and the Decline of Zooplankton in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Since 1951, the biomass of macrozooplankton in waters off southern <span class="hlt">California</span> has decreased by 80 percent. During the same period, the surface layer warmed-by more than 1.5^circC in some places-and the temperature difference across the thermocline increased. Increased stratification resulted in less lifting of the thermocline by wind-driven upwelling. A shallower source of upwelled waters provided less inorganic nutrient for</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dean Roemmich; John McGowan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">185</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://222.aslo.org/lo/toc/vol_51/issue_6/2607.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Copepod biodiversity as an indicator of changes in ocean and climate conditions of the northern <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">current</span> <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We evaluated copepod taxonomic diversity as a potential biological indicator of ocean conditions in the northeast Pacific Ocean using data collected biweekly between May 1996 and December 2004 and from 1969 to 1973 and 1983 off Newport, Oregon. During the summer, low copepod biodiversity is accompanied by high biomass, with the opposite patterns prevailing in the winter. High biodiversity, and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rian C. Hooff; William T. Peterson</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">186</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880067901&hterms=pigment&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dpigment"> <span id="translatedtitle">Variability of pigment biomass in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> system as determined by satellite imagery. I - Spatial variability</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spatial variability of chlorophyll in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> system was analyzed using Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) imagery. A total of 48 images were analyzed to produce seasonal averages and variances, gradients, and power spectra. Roughly one third to one half of the variance in pigment biomass can be explained by consistent, large-scale gradients. In general, biomass is higher in the north and in nearshore areas. Nearshore areas also have proportionally more small-scale variability than the areas offshore. Slopes of the power spectra for nearshore areas are about -2.2 (for spatial scales of 10-100 km), while slopes for offshore areas are about -3. In addition, the power spectra show evidence of a change in slope at about 10 km, with slopes of about -1 for shorter-length scales. This may indicate that biological processes dominate the smaller scales, while mesoscale eddies and geostrophic <span class="hlt">currents</span> dominate the larger scales.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Smith, Raymond C.; Zhang, Xueyun; Michaelsen, Joel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">187</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000DSRII..47..871N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Subtidal <span class="hlt">currents</span> over the central <span class="hlt">California</span> slope: evidence for offshore veering of the undercurrent and for direct, wind-driven slope <span class="hlt">currents</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In February 1991, an array of six <span class="hlt">current</span>-meter moorings was deployed for one year across the central <span class="hlt">California</span> outer shelf and slope. The main line of the array extended 30 km offshore of the shelf break, out to water depths of 1400 m. A more sparsely-instrumented line, displaced 30 km to the northwest, extended 14 km offshore. Though shorter, the northern line spanned similar water depths because the gradient of the topography steepened in the northern region. A poleward flow pattern, typical of the <span class="hlt">California</span> undercurrent, was seen across both lines in the array over most of the year. The poleward flow was surface intensified. In general, the portion of the undercurrent that crossed the southern line had larger amplitudes and penetrated more deeply into the water column than the portion that crossed the northern line. Transport over the year ranged from 0 to 2.5 Sverdrups (Sv) poleward across the southern line; 0 to 1 Sv poleward across the northern line. We suggest the difference in transport was caused by topographic constraints, which tended to force the poleward flow offshore of the northern measurement sites. The slope of the topography steepened too abruptly to allow the poleward flow to follow isobaths when <span class="hlt">currents</span> were strong. When <span class="hlt">current</span> velocities lessened, a more coherent flow pattern was seen across both lines in the array. In general, the poleward flow patterns in the undercurrent were not affected by local winds or by the local alongshore pressure gradient. Nor was a strong seasonal pattern evident. Rather unexpectedly, a small but statistically significant fraction of the <span class="hlt">current</span> variance over the mid- and outer slope was driven by the surface wind stress. An alongshelf wind stress caused <span class="hlt">currents</span> to flow along the slope, parallel to the wind field, down to depths of 400 m below the surface and out to distances of 2 Rossby radii past the shelf break. The transfer functions were weak, 3-4 cm/s per dyn cm -2, but comparable to wind-driven <span class="hlt">current</span> amplitudes of 4-6 cm/s per unit wind stress over the middle shelf. Equatorward, alongshelf winds also caused water from 200-300 m over the slope to upwell onto the shelf as the surface water moved offshore.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Noble, Marlene A.; Ramp, Steven R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">188</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70022617"> <span id="translatedtitle">Subtidal <span class="hlt">currents</span> over the central <span class="hlt">California</span> slope: Evidence for offshore veering of the undercurrent and for direct, wind-driven slope <span class="hlt">currents</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In February 1991, an array of six <span class="hlt">current</span>-meter moorings was deployed for one year across the central <span class="hlt">California</span> outer shelf and slope. The main line of the array extended 30 km offshore of the shelf break, out to water depths of 1400 m. A more sparsely-instrumented line, displaced 30 km to the northwest, extended 14 km offshore. Though shorter, the northern line spanned similar water depths because the gradient of the topography steepened in the northern region. A poleward flow pattern, typical of the <span class="hlt">California</span> undercurrent, was seen across both lines in the array over most of the year. The poleward flow was surface intensified. In general, the portion of the undercurrent that crossed the southern line had larger amplitudes and penetrated more deeply into the water column than the portion that crossed the northern line. Transport over the year ranged from 0 to 2.5 Sverdrups (Sv) poleward across the southern line; 0 to 1 Sv poleward across the northern line. We suggest the difference in transport was caused by topographic constraints, which tended to force the poleward flow offshore of the northern measurement sites. The slope of the topography steepened too abruptly to allow the poleward flow to follow isobaths when <span class="hlt">currents</span> were strong. When <span class="hlt">current</span> velocities lessened, a more coherent flow pattern was seen across both lines in the array. In general, the poleward flow patterns in the undercurrent were not affected by local winds or by the local alongshore pressure gradient. Nor was a strong seasonal pattern evident. Rather unexpectedly, a small but statistically significant fraction of the <span class="hlt">current</span> variance over the mid- and outer slope was driven by the surface wind stress. An alongshelf wind stress caused <span class="hlt">currents</span> to flow along the slope, parallel to the wind field, down to depths of 400 m below the surface and out to distances of 2 Rossby radii past the shelf break. The transfer functions were weak, 3-4 cm/s per dyn cm-2, but comparable to wind-driven <span class="hlt">current</span> amplitudes of 4-6 cm/s per unit wind stress over the middle shelf. Equatorward, alongshelf winds also caused water from 200-300 m over the slope to upwell onto the shelf as the surface water moved offshore.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Noble, M.A.; Ramp, S.R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">189</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A33F..06T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Decadal Changes in Ozone and Emissions in Central <span class="hlt">California</span> and <span class="hlt">Current</span> Issues</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The relationships among ozone, emissions, and meteorology are very complex in central <span class="hlt">California</span>, and must be well studied and understood in order to facilitate better air quality planning. Factors significantly impacting changes in emissions such as economic and population growth, and adopted emission controls make the matter even more complex. Here we review the history of ozone pollution in central <span class="hlt">California</span> since the 1970s to plan for the future. Since the 1970s, changes in emissions have been accompanied by likewise dramatic changes in region-to-region differences in air quality. We focus on the coastal San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) and the inland San Joaquin Valley (SJV). In the 1970s, the SFBA population was approaching 5 million people while the considerably larger and more rural SJV population remained below 2 million. The SFBA population was mostly confined to coastal locations. Peak ozone levels occurred mostly around the population centers and especially over the Bay itself. Hourly average ozone levels routinely approached 160 ppb. These high ozone levels promoted regulations under which SFBA emissions were continuously reduced through the present. By the 1990s, SFBA emissions had been reduced considerably despite the region's population growing to around 6 million. Relative to the 1970s, in 1990s the SFBA had lower peak ozone levels that were shifted to inland locations where much of the population growth was occurring. The SFBA still exceeded the federal 1-hour standard. A rapidly changing economic landscape in the 1970s promoted vast changes in the central <span class="hlt">California</span> population distribution. In the SJV, the OPEC oil crisis promoted significant development of petroleum resources. Meanwhile, family farms were quickly being replaced with commercial-scale farming operations. The SJV population rapidly expanded to around 3 million people by the early 1990s. During this time, SJV emissions increased considerably, largely from increases in mobile source activities. The previously sparsely populated SJV had quickly developed an even more severe ozone problem than previous years. From 1990 to 2010, the SFBA population expanded to inland locations and then even further into the sheltered SJV. SFBA emissions for ROG and NOx were decreased around 40% and 15%, respectively during this period. High ozone levels became rather infrequent for coastal SFBA locations. During the same period, the SJV population continued to expand rapidly while emissions decreased, especially for ROG. Peak ozone levels remained around 100 ppb and shifted to locations downwind of Fresno and Bakersfield. Central <span class="hlt">California</span> has experienced perhaps the most dramatic population growth and shifts in the United States during the contemporary economic era. These changes in population have led to some of the most difficult air quality management problems faced by regulators in the United States. Lessons learned from central <span class="hlt">California</span> highlight the potential benefits of acting early and also the necessity for a long-term, flexible approach using sustained regulations to accompany population changes.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tanrikulu, S.; Beaver, S.; Soong, S.; Tran, C.; Cordova, J.; Palazoglu, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">190</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880067902&hterms=pigment&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dpigment"> <span id="translatedtitle">Variability of pigment biomass in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> system as determined by satellite imagery. II - Temporal variability</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Characteristics of temporal variability in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> system are analyzed using a 30-month time series of CZCS imagery. About 20-25 percent of the variance is produced by a periodic annual cycle with peak values in winter. Analysis of ship-based chlorophyll measurements indicates that the winter peak is only characteristic of the upper portion of the euphotic zone and that total water column chlorophyll peaks during the spring upwelling season. Satellite studies of intraannual variability are modulated by strong 5- to 6-day oscillation in the availability of usable imagery, resulting from a combination of satellite orbital dynamics, which produces images of the study area roughly 4 out of every 6 days, and an oscillation in cloud cover, which controls the availability of clear imagery. The cloud cover oscillation, which is also present in coastal winds, undoubtedly affects the ocean surface and biases the data obtained by satellites. Analysis of data using a 5-day time step indicates that the predominant mode of nonseasonal variability is characterized by in-phase fluctuations throughout the southern and central <span class="hlt">California</span> coastal region.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Michaelsen, Joel; Zhang, Xueyun; Smith, Raymond C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">191</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020045387&hterms=Fukushima&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3D%2522Fukushima%2522"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal to Decadal-Scale Variability in Satellite Ocean Color and Sea Surface Temperature for the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Support for this project was used to develop satellite ocean color and temperature indices (SOCTI) for the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System (CCS) using the historic record of CZCS West Coast Time Series (WCTS), OCTS, WiFS and AVHRR SST. The ocean color satellite data have been evaluated in relation to CalCOFI data sets for chlorophyll (CZCS) and ocean spectral reflectance and chlorophyll OCTS and SeaWiFS. New algorithms for the three missions have been implemented based on in-water algorithm data sets, or in the case of CZCS, by comparing retrieved pigments with ship-based observations. New algorithms for absorption coefficients, diffuse attenuation coefficients and primary production have also been evaluated. Satellite retrievals are being evaluated based on our large data set of pigments and optics from CalCOFI.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mitchell, B. Greg; Kahru, Mati; Marra, John (Technical Monitor)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">192</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PApGe.171.3385A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Observed and Modeled <span class="hlt">Currents</span> from the Tohoku-oki, Japan and other Recent Tsunamis in Northern <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigate the <span class="hlt">currents</span> produced by recent tsunamis in Humboldt Bay and Crescent City, <span class="hlt">California</span>. The region is susceptible to both near-field and far-field tsunamis and has a historic record of damaging events. Crescent City Harbor, located approximately 100 kms north of Humboldt Bay, suffered US 28 million in damages from strong <span class="hlt">currents</span> produced by the 2006 Kuril Islands tsunami and an additional US 26 million from the 2011 Japan tsunami. In order to better evaluate these <span class="hlt">currents</span> in northern <span class="hlt">California</span>, we deployed a Nortek Aquadopp 600 kHz 2D acoustic Doppler <span class="hlt">current</span> profiler (ADCP) with a 1-min sampling interval in Humboldt Bay, near the existing National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Ocean Service (NOS) tide gauge station. The instrument recorded the tsunamis produced by the Mw 8.8 Chile earthquake on February 27, 2010 and the Mw 9.0 Japan earthquake on March 11, 2011. One other tsunami was recorded on the Humboldt Bay tide gauge during the period of ADCP operation, but was not visible on the ADCP, suggesting a threshold water level value of about 0.2 m to produce an observable ADCP record. The 2010 tsunami <span class="hlt">currents</span> persisted in Humboldt Bay for approximately 30 h with peak amplitudes of about 0.35 m/s. The 2011 tsunami signal lasted for over 40 h with peak amplitude of 0.84 m/s. The strongest <span class="hlt">currents</span> corresponded to the maximum change in water level approximately 67 min after the initial wave arrival. No damage was observed in Humboldt Bay for either event. In Crescent City, <span class="hlt">currents</span> for the first three and one-half hours of the 2011 Japan tsunami were estimated using security camera video footage from the Harbor Master, approximately 70 m away from the NOAA-NOS tide gauge station. The largest amplitude tide gauge water-level oscillations and most of the damage occurred within this time window. The <span class="hlt">currents</span> reached a velocity of approximately 4.5 m/s and six cycles exceeded 3 m/s during this period. Measured <span class="hlt">current</span> velocities both in Humboldt Bay and in Crescent City were compared to calculated velocities from the Method of Splitting Tsunamis (MOST) numerical model. The frequency and pattern of <span class="hlt">current</span> amplification and decay at both locations are replicated by the MOST model for the first several hours after the tsunami onset. MOST generally underestimates 2011 peak <span class="hlt">current</span> velocities by about 10-30 %, with a few peaks by as much as 50 %. At Humboldt Bay, MOST predicted attenuation of the signal after 4 h but the actual signal persisted at a nearly constant level for at least twice as long. The results from this project demonstrate that ADCPs can effectively record tsunami <span class="hlt">currents</span> for small to moderate events and can be used to calibrate and validate models (i.e., MOST) in order to better understand hazardous tsunami conditions within harbors.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Admire, Amanda R.; Dengler, Lori A.; Crawford, Gregory B.; Uslu, Burak U.; Borrero, Jose C.; Greer, S. Dougal; Wilson, Rick I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">193</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMOS13H..03M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Climatic Impacts and resilience of coastal <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> and fisheries</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Marine and coastal <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> and human communities around the world are impacted by local anthropogenic pressures and by climate change, resulting in decreased ocean productivity, altered food web dynamics, habitat degradation, economic losses, and health and safety risks as a consequence of the changing and more variable climate. Climatic impacts occur both through altered physical conditions and variability, e.g., seawater temperature and sea level, and through a suite of chemical changes, including ocean acidification and hypoxia. In particular, time series analyses have highlighted declines in dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in the ocean over the last several decades. In addition to these global trends of decreasing DO, hypoxic conditions have been documented at several coastal locations within productive upwelling-driven <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, including the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> region, resulting in high mortality of ecologically and commercially important nearshore marine species and significant economic losses. The capacity of local <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> and associated human communities to adapt to these pressures depends on their resilience, that is the ability of <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> to absorb disturbance while retaining function and continuing to provide <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services, and the ability of people to adapt to change in their environment by altering their behaviors and interactions. I will present global assessments of the cumulative impacts of climatic and local anthropogenic pressures on marine <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, and results of interdisciplinary research investigating the <span class="hlt">current</span> impacts of climate change on coastal marine <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> and human communities of the Pacific coast of Baja <span class="hlt">California</span>, Mexico, and the influences of local and global feedbacks on the resilience and adaptive capacity of these systems.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Micheli, F.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">194</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMIN33E..01F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Facilitating Next Generation Science Collaboration: Respecting and Mediating Vocabularies with Semantics in <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> Assessments.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A newly funded initiative is developing and deploying an integrated <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> assessment (IEA) system using an information science and semantic technologies. The intention is to advance the capacity of an IEA to provide the foundation for synthesis and quantitative analysis of natural and socio-economic <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> information to support <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>-based management. In particular, the initiative is create the capacity to assess the impacts of changing climate on two large marine <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>: the northeast U.S. and the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span>. These assessments will be essential parts of the science-based decision-support tools used to develop adaptive management measures. Enhanced collaboration is required to achieve these goals: interaction and information sharing within and among diverse data providers, analysis tool developers and user groups that constitute the broader coastal and marine <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> science application community. This presentation indicates how semantic solutions are fundamental to this initiative.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fox, P. A.; Maffei, A. R.; Ecoop Team</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">195</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nau.edu/~envsci/ENV330website/ENV330/downloads/GrumbineEcosystemmngt.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">What Is <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Management?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The evolving concept of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> management is the focus of much <span class="hlt">current</span> debate. To clarify discussion and provide a frammork for implementatiotq I trace the histor- ical development of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> management, provide a working definitioq and summarize dominant themes taken from an extensive literature reuiew. The general goal of maintaining ecological integ?Yty is discussed along with five specific goals: maintaining</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">R. Edward Grumbine</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1994-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">196</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003DSRII..50.2537H"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ocean warming and seabird communities of the southern <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System (1987-98): response at multiple temporal scales</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Declines in ocean productivity and shifts in species assemblages along the West Coast of North America during the second half of the XXth century have been attributed to the concurrent warming of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span>. This paper addresses changes in the avifauna off southern <span class="hlt">California</span> between May 1987 and September 1998, in response to shifting water mass distributions over short (<1 year) and long (interannual) temporal scales. More specifically, our research focuses on the relative importance of distinct foraging guilds and species assemblages with an affinity for warm and cold water. Over the long term, the avifauna off southern <span class="hlt">California</span> shifted from a 'high-productivity' community typical of eastern boundary upwelling systems, to a 'low-productivity' assemblage similar to those inhabiting the subtropical gyres. Overall seabird abundance decreased; the relative importance of cold-water seabirds that dive in pursuit of prey declined; and warm-water species that feed at the surface and plunge to capture prey became more numerous. These community-level changes are consistent with the northward shifts in species ranges and the declining ocean productivity anticipated as a result of global warming. However, the response of individual taxa with an affinity for warm-water and cold-water conditions has been more difficult to predict, due to differences in species-specific responses to ocean warming. The three cold-water species investigated (Sooty Shearwater Puffinus griseus, Cassin's Auklet Ptychoramphus aleuticus, and Rhinoceros Auklet Cerorhinca monocerata) decreased in abundance during this study. On the other hand, only one of the six warm-water species considered (Pink-footed Shearwater, Puffinus creatopus) increased significantly over the long term. Yet, the warm-water Leach's Storm-petrel ( Oceanodroma leucorhoa) increased between 1987 and 1993, and then declined between 1994 and 1998. Moreover, cross-correlations between seasonally adjusted anomalies of bird abundance and ocean temperature revealed that seabirds responded differently to ocean warming over intermediate (1-8 years), and long (8-12 years) time scales. We hypothesize that this nonlinear behavior of seabird populations in response to ocean warming is caused by the juxtaposition of distinct behavioral and demographic responses operating at different temporal scales.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hyrenbach, K. David; Veit, Richard R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">197</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6201581"> <span id="translatedtitle">Variability in biomass yields of large marine <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> (LMEs) during climate change</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Results of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> studies relating to variations in biomass yields are examined in relation to principle driving forces including climate change, coastal pollution, habitat degradation, and overexploitation of living marine resources. Among the <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> compared with regard to the different prime driving forces, affecting sustainability of biomass yields, are the Black Sea, the Baltic Sea, the Barents Sea, Kuroshio <span class="hlt">Current</span>, <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span>, Great Barrier Reef, Gulf of Mexico, Yellow Sea, Icelandic Shelf, and Northeast US Shelf <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. The designation and management of large marine <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> (LMEs) is, at present, an evolving scientific and geopolitical process. Sufficient progress has been made to allow for useful comparisons among different processes influencing large-scale changes in the biomass yields of LMEs. The most severely impacted LMEs are off the coasts of the continents.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sherman, K. (NOAA, NMFS, NEFSC, Narragansett Lab., RI (United States))</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">198</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://escholarship.org/uc/item/07x1t32x?query=urban+AND+runoff+AND+management"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Ecological Street Tree: Mainstreaming the Production of Street Tree-based <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Services in Northern <span class="hlt">California</span> Cities, 1980-2008</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">runoff management Wildlife habitat Source: Friends of the Urbanrunoff management. <span class="hlt">California</span> Department of Forestry and Fire Protection (Cal Fire) funded urbanrunoff ? (weaker) management Wildlife habitat Source: Newsletters published by Sacramento Tree Foundation, Canopy, and Friends of the Urban</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Seamans, Georgia Norma Silvera</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">199</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22457967"> <span id="translatedtitle">Climate change impacts on marine <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In marine <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, rising atmospheric CO2 and climate change are associated with concurrent shifts in temperature, circulation, stratification, nutrient input, oxygen content, and ocean acidification, with potentially wide-ranging biological effects. Population-level shifts are occurring because of physiological intolerance to new environments, altered dispersal patterns, and changes in species interactions. Together with local climate-driven invasion and extinction, these processes result in altered community structure and diversity, including possible emergence of novel <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. Impacts are particularly striking for the poles and the tropics, because of the sensitivity of polar <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> to sea-ice retreat and poleward species migrations as well as the sensitivity of coral-algal symbiosis to minor increases in temperature. Midlatitude upwelling systems, like the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span>, exhibit strong linkages between climate and species distributions, phenology, and demography. Aggregated effects may modify energy and material flows as well as biogeochemical cycles, eventually impacting the overall <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> functioning and services upon which people and societies depend. PMID:22457967</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Doney, Scott C; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Duffy, J Emmett; Barry, James P; Chan, Francis; English, Chad A; Galindo, Heather M; Grebmeier, Jacqueline M; Hollowed, Anne B; Knowlton, Nancy; Polovina, Jeffrey; Rabalais, Nancy N; Sydeman, William J; Talley, Lynne D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">200</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ARMS....4...11D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Climate Change Impacts on Marine <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In marine <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, rising atmospheric CO2 and climate change are associated with concurrent shifts in temperature, circulation, stratification, nutrient input, oxygen content, and ocean acidification, with potentially wide-ranging biological effects. Population-level shifts are occurring because of physiological intolerance to new environments, altered dispersal patterns, and changes in species interactions. Together with local climate-driven invasion and extinction, these processes result in altered community structure and diversity, including possible emergence of novel <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. Impacts are particularly striking for the poles and the tropics, because of the sensitivity of polar <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> to sea-ice retreat and poleward species migrations as well as the sensitivity of coral-algal symbiosis to minor increases in temperature. Midlatitude upwelling systems, like the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span>, exhibit strong linkages between climate and species distributions, phenology, and demography. Aggregated effects may modify energy and material flows as well as biogeochemical cycles, eventually impacting the overall <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> functioning and services upon which people and societies depend.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Doney, Scott C.; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Emmett Duffy, J.; Barry, James P.; Chan, Francis; English, Chad A.; Galindo, Heather M.; Grebmeier, Jacqueline M.; Hollowed, Anne B.; Knowlton, Nancy; Polovina, Jeffrey; Rabalais, Nancy N.; Sydeman, William J.; Talley, Lynne D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">201</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.H24F..04E"> <span id="translatedtitle">Water Management Adaptations for Aquatic <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Services Under a Changing Climate. Analytical Framework and Case Study for Chinook Salmon in <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Spring-run Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) are vulnerable to climate change because, before spawning in autumn, adults hold in river pools where temperature increases during summer. As these species naturally experience temperatures close to tolerable thresholds, climate-induced flow and temperature changes can increase their vulnerability. Our objective was to assemble an analytical framework to assess temperature and streamflow thresholds that would lead to critical reductions in spring-run Chinook salmon abundance, and to evaluate management adaptations to ameliorate these impacts. The analytical framework coupled climate data with watershed hydrology and salmon population dynamics models. We used WEAP, an integrated watershed hydrology, water management, and temperature model; and SALMOD, a spatially explicit and size/stage structured model that predicts population dynamics of salmon in freshwater systems. The models simulated weekly mean streamflow, temperature, and salmon abundance in Butte Creek, <span class="hlt">California</span>. We calibrated and validated the models to adequately fit historical data. With the analytical framework built, we used bias-corrected and spatially downscaled climate data from six General Circulation Models and two emission scenarios for the period 2010 - 2099 to run the two linked models, and generated a range of potential future outcomes. WEAP predicted that summer base flows were lower, and water temperatures were higher for climate scenarios vs. historical conditions. SALMOD predicted increased summer thermal mortality of adult salmon; the population was predicted to decline for all climate scenarios and model combinations. We tested management adaptations, including cessation of water diverted for power production, and storage of cold reservoir water upstream for release during hot weather. Some adaptations resulted in cooler temperatures, more adults surviving to spawn, and extended population survival time. The coupled models, together with climate data, constitute a framework able to predict streamflow- and temperature-related mortality of spring-run Chinook salmon, and to evaluate water management adaptations to ameliorate negative climate impacts on fish in <span class="hlt">current</span> or future scenarios.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Escobar, M.; Mosser, C. M.; Thompson, L. C.; Purkey, D.; Moyle, P. B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">202</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nwcouncil.org/media/6653824/R_Thom.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluating Cumulative <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Evaluating Cumulative <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Response of the Columbia River Response of the Columbia River</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Evaluating Cumulative <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Evaluating Cumulative <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Response of the Columbia River Response of the Columbia River Estuary <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> to Past and Estuary <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> to Past and <span class="hlt">Current</span> metrics and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> state resulting from cumulative restoration impacts. 2 #12;Managers Want Answers</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">203</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026474"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimating suspended solids concentrations from backscatter intensity measured by acoustic Doppler <span class="hlt">current</span> profiler in San Francisco Bay, <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The estimation of mass concentration of suspended solids is one of the properties needed to understand the characteristics of sediment transport in bays and estuaries. However, useful measurements or estimates of this property are often problematic when employing the usual methods of determination from collected water samples or optical sensors. Analysis of water samples tends to undersample the highly variable character of suspended solids, and optical sensors often become useless from biological fouling in highly productive regions. Acoustic sensors, such as acoustic Doppler <span class="hlt">current</span> profilers that are now routinely used to measure water velocity, have been shown to hold promise as a means of quantitatively estimating suspended solids from acoustic backscatter intensity, a parameter used in velocity measurement. To further evaluate application of this technique using commercially available instruments, profiles of suspended solids concentrations are estimated from acoustic backscatter intensity recorded by 1200- and 2400-kHz broadband acoustic Doppler <span class="hlt">current</span> profilers located at two sites in San Francisco Bay, <span class="hlt">California</span>. ADCP backscatter intensity is calibrated using optical backscatterance data from an instrument located at a depth close to the ADCP transducers. In addition to losses from spherical spreading and water absorption, calculations of acoustic transmission losses account for attenuation from suspended sediment and correction for nonspherical spreading in the near field of the acoustic transducer. Acoustic estimates of suspended solids consisting of cohesive and noncohesive sediments are found to agree within about 8-10% (of the total range of concentration) to those values estimated by a second optical backscatterance sensor located at a depth further from the ADCP transducers. The success of this approach using commercially available Doppler profilers provides promise that this technique might be appropriate and useful under certain conditions in spite of some theoretical limitations of the method. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gartner, J.W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">204</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=LZ&pg=7&id=EJ502176"> <span id="translatedtitle">Inside <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The third in a series of articles featuring the urban <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>. Discusses the inner workings of an <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> and the links that connect its elements, including the link between people and the environment. Graphics illustrate "layers" of the landscape. (LZ)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Moll, Gary; And Others</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">205</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ficus.usf.edu/exhibits/ecosystems/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Florida <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Provided by FICUS (the Florida Internet Center for Understanding Sustainability) and the University of South Florida, this gem of a site covers Florida's native upland, freshwater, and marine <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. Streamlined in organization but solid in content, Florida <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> offers introductory information and photographic images of a dozen <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, ranging from Pine Flatwoods and Dry Prairies to Mangrove Swamps and Coral Reefs. For students and educators interested in subtropical <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, this is a nice place to start.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">206</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.springerlink.com/index/h434pg672v222732.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tides, tidal <span class="hlt">currents</span> and their effects on the intertidal <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> of the southern bay, Inhaca Island, Mozambique</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Sediment characteristics and tidal <span class="hlt">currents</span> were studied in the 1500 ha intertidal area south of Inhaca Island,Mozambique. The tide is semi-diurnal with a range at spring of about 3 m. The area connects directly to the oceanthrough the Ponta Torres Strait and (indirectly) through several narrow tidal channels ending up in Maputo Bay.Velocities of up to 0.75 m s-1 were</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Willem F. de Boer; Lars Rydberg; Victor Saide</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">207</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70047601"> <span id="translatedtitle">Natural <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Natural <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> analyzes the association of observed changes in climate with changes in the geographic distributions and phenology (the timing of blossoms or migrations of birds) for Southwestern <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> and their species, portraying <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> disturbancessuch as wildfires and outbreaks of forest pathogensand carbon storage and release, in relation to climate change.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fleishman, Erica; Belnap, Jayne; Cobb, Neil; Enquist, Carolyn A.F.; Ford, Karl; MacDonald, Glen; Pellant, Mike; Schoennagel, Tania; Schmit, Lara M.; Schwartz, Mark; van Drunick, Suzanne; Westerling, Anthony LeRoy; Keyser, Alisa; Lucas, Ryan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">208</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Ecosystem&pg=4&id=EJ721634"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Journalism</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">If the organisms in a prairie <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> created a newspaper, what would it look like? What important news topics of the <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> would the organisms want to discuss? Imaginative and enthusiastic third-grade students were busy pondering these questions as they tried their hands at "<span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> journalism." The class had recently completed a study of</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robertson, Amy; Mahlin, Kathryn</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">209</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.fs.fed.us/psw/publications/documents/psw_gtr058/psw_gtr058_2a_barbero.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Classifying Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> in the Mediterranean Rim Countries and in</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Classifying Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> in the Mediterranean Rim Countries and in Southwestern U.S.A.1 of Mediterranean-type <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span>, June 22-26, 1981, San Diego, <span class="hlt">California</span>. 2 Université d'Aix-Marseille III, Centre and in Mediterranean <span class="hlt">California</span>. We shall not discuss again the physiognomic and climatic analogies existing between</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Standiford, Richard B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">210</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40868983"> <span id="translatedtitle">Long-term change and stability in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System: lessons from CalCOFI and other long-term data sets</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System (CCS) is a highly variable system, both spatially and temporally, that is strongly affected by low-frequency climatic fluctuations. This paper reviews evidence for long-term (decadal-scale) change in the physics and biology of the CCS over the last 50100 years, as well as evidence for stability in planktonic community structure and long-term persistence of populations. Increases in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ginger A Rebstock</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">211</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4201512"> <span id="translatedtitle">Carbon and Nitrogen Isotopes from Top Predator Amino Acids Reveal Rapidly Shifting Ocean Biochemistry in the Outer <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Climatic variation alters biochemical and ecological processes, but it is difficult both to quantify the magnitude of such changes, and to differentiate long-term shifts from inter-annual variability. Here, we simultaneously quantify decade-scale isotopic variability at the lowest and highest trophic positions in the offshore <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System (CCS) by measuring ?15N and ?13C values of amino acids in a top predator, the sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus). Using a time series of skin tissue samples as a biological archive, isotopic records from individual amino acids (AAs) can reveal the proximate factors driving a temporal decline we observed in bulk isotope values (a decline of ?1 ) by decoupling changes in primary producer isotope values from those linked to the trophic position of this toothed whale. A continuous decline in baseline (i.e., primary producer) ?15N and ?13C values was observed from 1993 to 2005 (a decrease of ?4 for ?15N source-AAs and 3 for ?13C essential-AAs), while the trophic position of whales was variable over time and it did not exhibit directional trends. The baseline ?15N and ?13C shifts suggest rapid ongoing changes in the carbon and nitrogen biogeochemical cycling in the offshore CCS, potentially occurring at faster rates than long-term shifts observed elsewhere in the Pacific. While the mechanisms forcing these biogeochemical shifts remain to be determined, our data suggest possible links to natural climate variability, and also corresponding shifts in surface nutrient availability. Our study demonstrates that isotopic analysis of individual amino acids from a top marine mammal predator can be a powerful new approach to reconstructing temporal variation in both biochemical cycling and trophic structure. PMID:25329915</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ruiz-Cooley, Rocio I.; Koch, Paul L.; Fiedler, Paul C.; McCarthy, Matthew D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">212</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRC..118.3622L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Variability and trends of ocean acidification in the Southern <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System: A time series from Santa Monica Bay</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We investigate the temporal variability and trends of pH and of the aragonite saturation state, ?arag, in the southern <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System on the basis of a 6 year time series from Santa Monica Bay, using biweekly observations of dissolved inorganic carbon and combined calculated and measured alkalinity. Median values of pH and ?arag in the upper 20 m are comparable to observations from the subtropical gyres, but the temporal variability is at least a factor of 5 larger, primarily driven by short-term upwelling events and mesoscale processes. ?arag and pH decrease rapidly with depth, such that the saturation horizon is reached already at 130 m, on average, but it occasionally shoals to as low as 30 m. No statistically significant linear trends emerge in the upper 100 m, but ?arag and pH decrease, on average, at rates of -0.0090.006 yr-1 and -0.0040.003 yr-1 in the 100-250 m depth range. These are somewhat larger, but not statistically different from the expected trends based on the recent increase in atmospheric CO2. About half of the variability in the deseasonalized data can be explained by the El Nio Southern Oscillation, with warm phases (El Nio) being associated with above normal pH and ?arag. The observed variability and trend in ?arag and pH is well captured by a multiple linear regression model on the basis of a small number of readily observable independent variables. This permits the estimation of these variables for related sites in the region.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Leinweber, A.; Gruber, N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">213</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr20101040"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Health in Mineralized Terrane-Data from Podiform Chromite (Chinese Camp Mining District, <span class="hlt">California</span>), Quartz Alunite (Castle Peak and Masonic Mining Districts, Nevada/<span class="hlt">California</span>), and Mo/Cu Porphyry (Battle Mountain Mining District, Nevada) Deposits</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The myriad definitions of soil/<span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> quality or health are often driven by <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> and management concerns, and they typically focus on the ability of the soil to provide functions relating to biological productivity and/or environmental quality. A variety of attempts have been made to create indices that quantify the complexities of soil quality and provide a means of evaluating the impact of various natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Though not without their limitations, indices can improve our understanding of the controls behind <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> processes and allow for the distillation of information to help link scientific and management communities. In terrestrial systems, indices were initially developed and modified for agroecosystems; however, the number of studies implementing such indices in nonagricultural systems is growing. Soil quality indices (SQIs) are typically composed of biological (and sometimes physical and chemical) parameters that attempt to reduce the complexity of a system into a metric of a soil's ability to carry out one or more functions. The indicators utilized in SQIs can be as varied as the studies themselves, reflecting the complexity of the soil and <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> in which they function. Regardless, effective soil quality indicators should correlate well with soil or <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> processes, integrate those properties and processes, and be relevant to management practices. Commonly applied biological indicators include measures associated with soil microbial activity or function (for example, carbon and nitrogen mineralization, respiration, microbial biomass, enzyme activity. Cost, accessibility, ease of interpretation, and presence of existing data often dictate indicator selection given the number of available measures. We employed a large number of soil biological, chemical, and physical measures, along with measures of vegetation cover, density, and productivity, in order to test the utility and sensitivity of these measures within various mineralized terranes. We were also interested in examining these relations in the context of determining appropriate reference conditions with which to compare reclamation efforts. The purpose of this report is to present the data used to develop indices of soil and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> quality associated with mineralized terranes (areas enriched in metal-bearing minerals), specifically podiform chromite, quartz alunite, and Mo/Cu porphyry systems. Within each of these mineralized terranes, a nearby unmineralized counterpart was chosen for comparison. The data consist of soil biological, chemical, and physical parameters, along with vegetation measurements for each of the sites described below. Synthesis of these data and index development will be the subject of future publications.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Blecker, Steve W.; Stillings, Lisa L.; Amacher, Michael C.; Ippolito, James A.; DeCrappeo, Nicole M.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">214</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.state.nj.us/education/21cclc/casp/lsc/unit2/Lesson3.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Freshwater <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this activity, learners create a freshwater <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> in a large plastic bottle. Learners cut and prepare bottles, then fill with water, aquatic plants, snails and fish. Learners observe their mini-<span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> over time to see what changes--such as the color of the water, the water temperature, plant growth, and behavior and/or population of the snails or fish. The activity serves as a model for larger freshwater <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> such as ponds, lakes, rivers, streams, wetlands, reservoirs and groundwater.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">New Jersey</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">215</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1048304"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> feedbacks to climate change in <span class="hlt">California</span>: Development, testing, and analysis using a coupled regional atmosphere and land-surface model (WRF3-CLM3.5)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A regional atmosphere model [Weather Research and Forecasting model version 3 (WRF3)] and a land surface model [Community Land Model, version 3.5 (CLM3.5)] were coupled to study the interactions between the atmosphere and possible future <span class="hlt">California</span> land-cover changes. The impact was evaluated on <span class="hlt">California</span>'s climate of changes in natural vegetation under climate change and of intentional afforestation. The ability of WRF3 to simulate <span class="hlt">California</span>'s climate was assessed by comparing simulations by WRF3-CLM3.5 and WRF3-Noah to observations from 1982 to 1991. Using WRF3-CLM3.5, the authors performed six 13-yr experiments using historical and future large-scale climate boundary conditions from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Climate Model version 2.1 (GFDL CM2.1). The land-cover scenarios included historical and future natural vegetation from the Mapped Atmosphere-Plant-Soil System-Century 1 (MC1) dynamic vegetation model, in addition to a future 8-million-ha <span class="hlt">California</span> afforestation scenario. Natural vegetation changes alone caused summer daily-mean 2-m air temperature changes of -0.7 to +1 C in regions without persistent snow cover, depending on the location and the type of vegetation change. Vegetation temperature changes were much larger than the 2-m air temperature changes because of the finescale spatial heterogeneity of the imposed vegetation change. Up to 30% of the magnitude of the summer daily-mean 2-m air temperature increase and 70% of the magnitude of the 1600 local time (LT) vegetation temperature increase projected under future climate change were attributable to the climate-driven shift in land cover. The authors projected that afforestation could cause local 0.2-1.2 C reductions in summer daily-mean 2-m air temperature and 2.0-3.7 C reductions in 1600 LT vegetation temperature for snow-free regions, primarily because of increased evapotranspiration. Because some of these temperature changes are of comparable magnitude to those projected under climate change this century, projections of climate and vegetation change in this region need to consider these climate-vegetation interactions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Subin, Z.M.; Riley, W.J.; Kueppers, L.M.; Jin, J.; Christianson, D.S.; Torn, M.S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">216</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=UC+AND+Irvine&id=ED093255"> <span id="translatedtitle">Attributes, Attitudes, and Aspirations: A Statistical Profile of the <span class="hlt">Current</span> Freshman Class at UC [University of <span class="hlt">California</span>] Irvine.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This study presents an analysis of the responses of University of <span class="hlt">California</span>, Irvine freshmen to the 1973 Student Information Form, a questionnaire developed by the American Council on Education. Part 1 compares UC Irvine freshmen with freshmen attending other universities. Part 2 analyses responses by school or program of enrollment. Data</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bailiff, Norman Lynn, Jr.; Christian, C. E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">217</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oikonos.org/projects/Hyrenbach_et_al_2006_FOG.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Use of marine sanctuaries by far-ranging predators: commuting flights to the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System by breeding Hawaiian albatrosses</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Quantifying the dispersion and habitats of far-ranging seabirds, turtles, and cetaceans is essential to assess whether zoning strategies can help protect upper- trophic marine predators. In this paper, we focus on Black-footed Albatross (Phoebastria nigripes) use of three US national marine sanctuaries off central <span class="hlt">California</span>: Cordell Bank, Gulf of the Farallones, and Monterey Bay. We assessed the significance of these</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">K. D. HYRENBACH; C. KEIPER; S. G. ALLEN; D. G. AINLEY; D. J. ANDERSON</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">218</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://james.howison.name/pubs/SoftwareMetricsPaper-WorkingPaper.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Understanding the scientific software <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> and its impact</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Understanding the scientific software <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> and its impact: <span class="hlt">current</span> and future measures James the information needs of domain scientists, software component producers, infrastructure providers, and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> conclude with policy recommendations #12;designed to improve insight into the scientific software <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Howison, James</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">219</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2716330"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spatial analysis of plague in <span class="hlt">California</span>: niche modeling predictions of the <span class="hlt">current</span> distribution and potential response to climate change</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background Plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, is a public and wildlife health concern in <span class="hlt">California</span> and the western United States. This study explores the spatial characteristics of positive plague samples in <span class="hlt">California</span> and tests Maxent, a machine-learning method that can be used to develop niche-based models from presence-only data, for mapping the potential distribution of plague foci. Maxent models were constructed using geocoded seroprevalence data from surveillance of <span class="hlt">California</span> ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi) as case points and Worldclim bioclimatic data as predictor variables, and compared and validated using area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) statistics. Additionally, model results were compared to locations of positive and negative coyote (Canis latrans) samples, in order to determine the correlation between Maxent model predictions and areas of plague risk as determined via wild carnivore surveillance. Results Models of plague activity in <span class="hlt">California</span> ground squirrels, based on recent climate conditions, accurately identified case locations (AUC of 0.913 to 0.948) and were significantly correlated with coyote samples. The final models were used to identify potential plague risk areas based on an ensemble of six future climate scenarios. These models suggest that by 2050, climate conditions may reduce plague risk in the southern parts of <span class="hlt">California</span> and increase risk along the northern coast and Sierras. Conclusion Because different modeling approaches can yield substantially different results, care should be taken when interpreting future model predictions. Nonetheless, niche modeling can be a useful tool for exploring and mapping the potential response of plague activity to climate change. The final models in this study were used to identify potential plague risk areas based on an ensemble of six future climate scenarios, which can help public managers decide where to allocate surveillance resources. In addition, Maxent model results were significantly correlated with coyote samples, indicating that carnivore surveillance programs will continue to be important for tracking the response of plague to future climate conditions. PMID:19558717</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Holt, Ashley C; Salkeld, Daniel J; Fritz, Curtis L; Tucker, James R; Gong, Peng</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">220</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr0214"> <span id="translatedtitle">Land use change and effects on water quality and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> health in the Lake Tahoe basin, Nevada and <span class="hlt">California</span>: year-1 progress</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">As part of the requirements for the Geographic Research and Applications Prospectus grants, this Open-File Report is the second of two that resulted from the first year of the project. The first Open-File Report (OFR 01-418) introduced the project, reviewed the existing body of literature, and outlined the research approach. This document will present an update of the research approach and offer some preliminary results from multiple efforts, specifically, the production of historical digital orthophoto quadrangles, the development of the land use/land cover (LULC) classification system, the development of a temporal transportation layer, the classification of anthropogenic cover types from the IKONOS imagery, a preliminary evaluation of landscape ecology metrics (quantification of spatial and temporal patterns of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> structure and function with appropriate indices) and their utility in comparing two LULC systems, and a new initiative in community-based science and facilitation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Forney, William; Raumann, Christian G.; Minor, T.B.; Smith, J.L.; Vogel, John; Vitales, Robert</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form 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href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">221</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.H51D0854C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Recent Debris Flows on Stream <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> and Food Webs in Small Watersheds in the Central Klamath Mountains, NW <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Debris flows are common erosional processes in steep mountain areas throughout the world, but little is known about the long-term ecological effects of debris flows on stream <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. Based on debris flow histories that were developed for each of ten tributary basins, we classified channels as having experienced recent (1997) or older (pre-1997) debris flows. Of the streams classified as older debris flow streams, three streams experienced debris flows during floods in 1964 or 1974, while two streams showed little or no evidence of debris flow activity in the 20th century. White alder (Alnus rhombifolia) was the dominant pioneer tree species in recent debris flow streams, forming localized dense patches of canopy cover. Maximum temperatures and daily temperature ranges were significantly higher in recent debris flow streams than in older debris flow streams. Debris flows resulted in a shift in food webs from allochthonous to autochthonous energy sources. Primary productivity, as measured by oxygen change during the day, was greater in recent debris flow streams, resulting in increased abundances of grazers such as the armored caddisfly Glossosoma spp. Detritivorous stoneflies were virtually absent in recent debris flow streams because of the lack of year-round, diverse sources of leaf litter. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were abundant in four of the recent debris flow streams. Poor recolonizers, such as the Pacific giant salamander (Dicamptodon tenebrosus), coastal tailed frog (Ascaphus truei), and signal crayfish (Pacifistacus leniusculus), were virtually absent in recent debris flow streams. Forest and watershed managers should consider the role of forest disturbances, such as road networks, on debris flow frequency and intensity, and the resulting ecological effects on stream <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cover, M. R.; de La Fuente, J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">222</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMPP11C1848O"> <span id="translatedtitle">Foraminiferal area density as a proxy for ocean acidification over the last 200 years in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Anthropogenic activities have resulted in an increase in atmospheric CO2 from 280 ppm to 400 ppm over the last 250 years. It is estimated that approximately one-third of this anthropogenically produced CO2 is sequestered in the global ocean, increasing the inventory of bicarbonate (HCO3-) and hydrogen ions (H+) and consuming carbonate (CO32-) as a result of carbonate buffering reactions. This increase in [H+] lowers seawater pH, the phenomenon known as ocean acidification (OA). Estimates indicate that mean seawater pH has already decreased by 0.1 pH units since 1750 and IPCC reports indicate it is likely that CO2 concentrations will reach 790 ppm by 2100 further reducing pH by 0.3 units. Marine calcifiers, such as foraminifera, utilize CO32- dissolved in seawater during calcification, a process that is highly sensitive to changes in pH due to the chemical reactions described above. The reduction in surface ocean carbonate ion concentration ([CO32-]) caused by OA has impaired calcification of planktonic foraminifera and other marine calcifiers. It has been proposed that planktonic foraminiferal shell weight or shell thickness is positively correlated with ambient [CO32-] and has been used as proxy to reconstruct past changes in the surface ocean carbonate system. An ideal location for the application of this proxy is the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System (CSS), an Eastern Boundary Upwelling System (EBUS), which is characterized as having naturally lower pH. Upwelling introduces CO2-enriched bottom waters to the surface ocean, intensifying the effects of increasing dissolved CO2 as a result of anthropogenic activities. Upwelling produces a wide range of surface water [CO32-] making the Santa Barbara Basin (SBB) an ideal site to carry out a foraminiferal shell weight calibration study. Area density (?A) is a new method for collecting size-normalized shell weights that will be used in this study. Species-specific calibrations have been derived for two symbiont-barren planktonic foraminifera, N. pachyderma (dextral) and G. bulloides. ?A measurements of these species collected from 35 months of sediment trap material are regressed with corresponding calcification depth-specific [CO32-]. Preliminary results show that ?A for both species demonstrate a positive linear relationship with ambient [CO32-]. Seasonal upwelling patterns are clearly recorded in ?A measurements with lower values occurring during periods of peak upwelling, which typically initiates in early spring. Preliminary observations suggest that distinguishing different morphotypes and ontogenic stages of the planktonic foraminifera used in this study could optimize the calibration equations. Final calibration equations will be applied to ?A measurements for a 200-year core record collected near the sediment trap mooring in the SBB. This reconstruction will quantify changes in [CO32-] as a result of OA since the onset of the industrial revolution, providing insights for future reduction in calcification efficiency of foraminifera as a result of OA and increasing carbon emissions.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Osborne, E.; Thunell, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">223</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/39539193"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ecotoxicology of tropical marine <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The negative effects of chemical contaminants on tropical marine <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> are of increasing concern as human populations expand adjacent to these communities. Watershed streams and ground water carry a variety of chemicals from agricultural, industrial, and domestic activities, while winds and <span class="hlt">currents</span> transport pollutants from atmospheric and oceanic sources to these coastal <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. The implications of the limited information available</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Esther C. Peters; Nancy J. Gassman; Julie C. Firman; Robert H. Richmond; Elizabeth A. Power</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">224</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=80866"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">ECOSYSTEM</span> HEALTH: ENERGY INDICATORS</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">1. <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Health and Ecological Integrity 2. Historical Background on <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Health 3. Energy Systems Analysis, Health and Emergy 4. Energy and <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> 5. Direct Measures of <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Health 6. Indirect Measures of <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Health...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">225</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/ipy07.sci.life.eco.arcticecosys/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Arctic <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Despite seemingly inhospitable conditions, the Arctic environment has a vibrant and diverse <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>. Explore the life that thrives in this region in this interactive activity adapted from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-17</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">226</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/ipy07.sci.life.eco.antarcticecosys/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Antarctic <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In contrast with its largely lifeless interior, the Antarctic coastal marine environment supports a vibrant and diverse <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>. Explore the region's living bounty in this interactive activity adapted from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-17</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">227</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ecosystemvaluation.org/default.htm"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Valuation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Developed as a collaborative project of the US Department of Agriculture, Natural Resource Conservation Service, US Department of Commerce, NOAA-Sea Grant Office, and University of Maryland, Center for Environmental Science, this new Website examines how economists attempt to assign values to <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services. The site is well organized and outlines general and specific topics under the following sections: The Big Picture, Essentials of <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Valuation, Dollar-based <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Valuation Methods, <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Benefit Indicators, and Links. Topics are explained in terms that laypersons will understand (a glossary is also provided) but without compromising the quality of information. Anyone interested in learning more about this controversial but increasingly important area will find this site an excellent starting point.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">228</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://learningcenter.nsta.org/product_detail.aspx?id=10.2505/4/sc05_043_03_42"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Journalism</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Third-grade students display their understanding of life science concepts by creating an imaginative newspaper. This creative writing project engages students in researching, writing, and editing a newspaper based on a prairie <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robertson, Amy; Mahlin, Kathryn</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">229</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25261817"> <span id="translatedtitle">Is restoring an <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> good for your health?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">It is well known that the degradation of <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> can have serious impacts on human health. There is <span class="hlt">currently</span> a knowledge gap on what impact restoring <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> has on human health. In restoring <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> there is a drive to restore the functionality of <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> rather than restoring <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> to 'pristine' condition. Even so, the complete restoration of all <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> functions is not necessarily possible. Given the uncertain trajectory of the <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> during the <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> restoration process the impact of the restoration on human health is also uncertain. Even with this uncertainty, the restoration of <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> for human health is still a necessity. PMID:25261817</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Speldewinde, P C; Slaney, D; Weinstein, P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2015-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">230</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19659684"> <span id="translatedtitle">Obscuring <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> function with application of the <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services concept.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Conservationists commonly have framed ecological concerns in economic terms to garner political support for conservation and to increase public interest in preserving global biodiversity. Beginning in the early 1980s, conservation biologists adapted neoliberal economics to reframe <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> functions and related biodiversity as <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services to humanity. Despite the economic success of programs such as the Catskill/Delaware watershed management plan in the United States and the creation of global carbon exchanges, today's marketplace often fails to adequately protect biodiversity. We used a Marxist critique to explain one reason for this failure and to suggest a possible, if partial, response. Reframing <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> functions as economic services does not address the political problem of commodification. Just as it obscures the labor of human workers, commodification obscures the importance of the biota (<span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> workers) and related abiotic factors that contribute to <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> functions. This erasure of work done by <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> impedes public understanding of biodiversity. Odum and Odum's radical suggestion to use the language of <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> (i.e., emergy or energy memory) to describe economies, rather than using the language of economics (i.e., services) to describe <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, reverses this erasure of the <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> worker. Considering the <span class="hlt">current</span> dominance of economic forces, however, implementing such solutions would require social changes similar in magnitude to those that occurred during the 1960s. Niklas Luhmann argues that such substantive, yet rapid, social change requires synergy among multiple societal function systems (i.e., economy, education, law, politics, religion, science), rather than reliance on a single social sphere, such as the economy. Explicitly presenting <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services as discreet and incomplete aspects of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> functions not only allows potential economic and environmental benefits associated with <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services, but also enables the social and political changes required to ensure valuation of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> functions and related biodiversity in ways beyond their measurement on an economic scale. PMID:19659684</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peterson, Markus J; Hall, Damon M; Feldpausch-Parker, Andrea M; Peterson, Tarla Rai</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-02-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">231</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Economy&pg=3&id=ED515629"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">California</span> Workforce: <span class="hlt">California</span> Faces a Skills Gap</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">California</span>'s education system is not keeping up with the changing demands of the state's economy--soon, <span class="hlt">California</span> will face a shortage of skilled workers. Projections to 2025 suggest that the economy will continue to need more and more highly educated workers, but that the state will not be able to meet that demand. If <span class="hlt">current</span> trends persist,</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Public Policy Institute of California, 2011</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">232</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://cedarcreek.umn.edu/biblio/fulltext/t1978.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Linking <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> and parasite Michel Loreau,1</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">13 CHAPTER 1 Linking <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> and parasite ecology Michel Loreau,1 Jacques Roy,2 and David Tilman3 Parasites are rarely considered in <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> studies. The <span class="hlt">current</span> interest in the relationship between biodiversity and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> functioning, however, has stimulated the emergence of new synthetic approaches</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Minnesota, University of</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">233</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=8539"> <span id="translatedtitle">SOUTH FLORIDA <span class="hlt">ECOSYSTEM</span> ASSESSMENT PROJECT</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The South Florida <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Assessment Project is an innovative, large-scale monitoring and assessment program designed to measure <span class="hlt">current</span> and changing conditions of ecological resources in South Florida using an integrated holistic approach. Using the United States Environmenta...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">234</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.neodaas.ac.uk/papers/reid_meps2001/reid_meps2001.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pulses in the eastern margin <span class="hlt">current</span> and warmer water off the north west European shelf linked to North Sea <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> changes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">The North Sea <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> has recently under- gone dramatic changes, observed as altered biomass of indi- vidual species spanning a range of life forms from algae to birds, with evidence for an approximate doubling in the abun- dance of both phytoplankton and benthos as part of a regime shift after 1987. Remarkably, these changes, in part recorded in the Phytoplankton</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Philip C. Reid; N. Penny Holliday; Tim J. Smyth</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">235</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://caliber.ucpress.net/doi/abs/10.1641/B581010"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Tragedy of <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Services</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Derived from funds of natural capital, <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services contribute greatly to human welfare, yet are rarely traded in markets. Most supporting (e.g., soil formation) and regulating (e.g., water purification, pest regulation) <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services, and some cultural (e.g., aesthetic enrichment) and provisioning (e.g., capture fisheries, fuel wood) <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services are declining because of a complex social trap, the tragedy of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services, which results in part from the overconsumption of common-pool resources. Additionally, <span class="hlt">current</span> economic incentives encourage the development of funds of natural capital on private lands for marketable commodities at the expense of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services that benefit the public. Such <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services are therefore underprovided. Most critically, property law reinforces these market failures by creating incentives to convert funds of natural capital into marketable goods and by assigning no property rights to <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> service benefits. Although there is no one pathway out of this tragedy of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services, potentially effective remedies lie in the evolution of the common law of property, in the reform of economic incentives, and in the development of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> service districts.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Christopher L. Lant (Southern Illinois University;)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-11-03</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">236</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70012809"> <span id="translatedtitle">COMPARISON OF RECORDING <span class="hlt">CURRENT</span> METERS USED FOR MEASURING VELOCITIES IN SHALLOW WATERS OF SAN FRANCISCO BAY, <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The authors determine the feasibility of collecting reliable <span class="hlt">current</span>-meter data in shallow water under natural conditions. The study involved field testing four types of recording <span class="hlt">current</span> meters (different speed sensors) and comparing data recorded by the meters under different field conditions. Speeds recorded by the <span class="hlt">current</span> meters at slack water and during maximum flows were compared during calm and windy conditions at various tide levels.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gartner, Jeffrey W.; Oltmann, Richard N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1985-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">237</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/925916"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chemical Speciation of Sulfur in Marine Cloud Droplets and Particles: Analysis of Individual Particles from Marine Boundary Layer over the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Detailed chemical speciation of the dry residue particles from individual cloud droplets and interstitial aerosol collected during the Marine Stratus Experiment (MASE) was performed using a combination of complementary microanalysis techniques. Techniques include computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersed analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX), time-of-flight secondary ionization mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). Samples were collected at the ground site located in Point Reyes National Seashore, approximately 1 km from the coast. This manuscript focuses on the analysis of individual particles sampled from air masses that originated over the open ocean and then passed through the area of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">current</span> located along the northern <span class="hlt">California</span> coast. Based on composition, morphology, and chemical bonding information, two externally mixed, distinct classes of sulfur containing particles were identified: chemically modified (aged) sea salt particles and secondary formed sulfate particles. The results indicate substantial heterogeneous replacement of chloride by methanesulfonate (CH3SO3-) and non-sea salt sulfate (nss-SO42-) in sea-salt particles with characteristic ratios of nss-S/Na>0.10 and CH3SO3-/nss-SO42->0.6.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">William R. Wiley Environmental Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Gilles, Mary K; Hopkins, Rebecca J.; Desyaterik, Yury; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Berkowitz, Carl M.; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-03-12</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">238</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.werc.usgs.gov/ResearchTopicPage.aspx?id=1"> <span id="translatedtitle">Coastal <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This United States Geological Survey (USGS) report by the Western Ecological Research Center (WERC) highlights Pacific Ocean coastal <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. The website outlines WERC studies that are providing insight into how coastal <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> function. The role of sea otters in coastal environments, white abalone (snail) reintroduction, the effects of invasive plants and animals, urban activity, industrial and agricultural pollutants, San Francisco Bay reclamation, population growth, and migratory birds are all investigated in these studies. Fact sheets about certain areas of research are provided for further information.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">239</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://escholarship.org/uc/item/5r49q4vv?query=shipping+AND+ballast"> <span id="translatedtitle">Navigating Fragmented Ocean Law in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span>: Tools to Identify and Measure Gaps and Overlaps for <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span>-Based Management</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Shipping and Transportation system was represented with the selection of following components: vessel, dredge, port, navigation, ballast,ballast traffic collis port Table 4.3. QAP Correlation (R) results for links between the modeled Shipping and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ekstrom, Julia A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">240</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1629036"> <span id="translatedtitle">Conservation Planning for <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Services</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Despite increasing attention to the human dimension of conservation projects, a rigorous, systematic methodology for planning for <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services has not been developed. This is in part because flows of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services remain poorly characterized at local-to-regional scales, and their protection has not generally been made a priority. We used a spatially explicit conservation planning framework to explore the trade-offs and opportunities for aligning conservation goals for biodiversity with six <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services (carbon storage, flood control, forage production, outdoor recreation, crop pollination, and water provision) in the Central Coast ecoregion of <span class="hlt">California</span>, United States. We found weak positive and some weak negative associations between the priority areas for biodiversity conservation and the flows of the six <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services across the ecoregion. Excluding the two agriculture-focused servicescrop pollination and forage productioneliminates all negative correlations. We compared the degree to which four contrasting conservation network designs protect biodiversity and the flow of the six services. We found that biodiversity conservation protects substantial collateral flows of services. Targeting <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services directly can meet the multiple <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services and biodiversity goals more efficiently but cannot substitute for targeted biodiversity protection (biodiversity losses of 44% relative to targeting biodiversity alone). Strategically targeting only biodiversity plus the four positively associated services offers much promise (relative biodiversity losses of 7%). Here we present an initial analytical framework for integrating biodiversity and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services in conservation planning and illustrate its application. We found that although there are important potential trade-offs between conservation for biodiversity and for <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services, a systematic planning framework offers scope for identifying valuable synergies. PMID:17076586</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chan, Kai M. A; Shaw, M. Rebecca; Cameron, David R; Underwood, Emma C; Daily, Gretchen C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' 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showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">241</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17076586"> <span id="translatedtitle">Conservation planning for <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Despite increasing attention to the human dimension of conservation projects, a rigorous, systematic methodology for planning for <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services has not been developed. This is in part because flows of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services remain poorly characterized at local-to-regional scales, and their protection has not generally been made a priority. We used a spatially explicit conservation planning framework to explore the trade-offs and opportunities for aligning conservation goals for biodiversity with six <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services (carbon storage, flood control, forage production, outdoor recreation, crop pollination, and water provision) in the Central Coast ecoregion of <span class="hlt">California</span>, United States. We found weak positive and some weak negative associations between the priority areas for biodiversity conservation and the flows of the six <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services across the ecoregion. Excluding the two agriculture-focused services-crop pollination and forage production-eliminates all negative correlations. We compared the degree to which four contrasting conservation network designs protect biodiversity and the flow of the six services. We found that biodiversity conservation protects substantial collateral flows of services. Targeting <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services directly can meet the multiple <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services and biodiversity goals more efficiently but cannot substitute for targeted biodiversity protection (biodiversity losses of 44% relative to targeting biodiversity alone). Strategically targeting only biodiversity plus the four positively associated services offers much promise (relative biodiversity losses of 7%). Here we present an initial analytical framework for integrating biodiversity and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services in conservation planning and illustrate its application. We found that although there are important potential trade-offs between conservation for biodiversity and for <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services, a systematic planning framework offers scope for identifying valuable synergies. PMID:17076586</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chan, Kai M A; Shaw, M Rebecca; Cameron, David R; Underwood, Emma C; Daily, Gretchen C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">242</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.energy.ca.gov/recovery/documents/2009-10-01_Letter_to_Manufacturers_Regarding_SEEARP.PDF"> <span id="translatedtitle">STATE OF <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> THE RESOURCES AGENCY ARNOLD SCHWARZENEGGER, Governor <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> ENERGY COMMISSION</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">STATE OF <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> ­ THE RESOURCES AGENCY ARNOLD SCHWARZENEGGER, Governor <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> ENERGY Manufacturers of Major Home Appliances Dear Appliance Manufacturer: <span class="hlt">California</span> is participating in the State), and will be administered within the state by the <span class="hlt">California</span> Energy Commission. <span class="hlt">California</span> is <span class="hlt">currently</span> developing its</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">243</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.6437F"> <span id="translatedtitle">Facilitating Next Generation Science Collaboration: Respecting and Mediating Vocabularies with Information Model Driven Semantics in <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> Assessments.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In Earth and space science, there is steady evolution away from isolated and single purpose data 'systems' toward systems of systems, data <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, or data frameworks that provide access to highly heterogeneous data repositories. As a result, common informatics approaches are being sought for the development and implementation of newer architectures. One clear need is a repeatable method for modeling, implementing and evolving the information architectures. A newly funded U.S. initiative is developing and deploying integrated <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> assessment (IEA) capability for marine <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> using an information science and semantic technologies. The intention is to advance the capacity of an IEA to provide the foundation for synthesis and quantitative analysis of natural and socio-economic <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> information to support <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>-based management. The initiative is creating capacity to assess the impacts of changing climate on two large marine <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>: the northeast U.S. and the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span>. These assessments will be essential parts of the science-based decision-support tools used to develop adaptive management measures. Enhanced collaboration is required to achieve these goals: interaction and information sharing within and among diverse data providers, analysis tool developers and user groups that constitute the broader coastal and marine <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> science application community. This presentation outlines new component design approaches and sets of information model and semantic encodings for mediation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Fox, P.; Maffei, A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">244</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://muirmaid.net/muirmaid_002.htm"> <span id="translatedtitle">Desert <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Desert <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> site describes the geology and climate, plants and animals, and cultural history of the main U.S. desert regions including: the Mojave Desert, the Great Basin, and the Colorado/Sonoran desert. There are also descriptions and photos of water in the desert, coyotes, the desert tortoise, and the creosote bush.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">245</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/14004187"> <span id="translatedtitle">Digital <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span>: <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span>-Oriented Architectures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We view Digital <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> to be the digital counterparts of biological <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. Here, we are concerned with the creation\\u000a of these Digital <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span>, exploiting the self-organising properties of biological <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> to evolve high-level software\\u000a applications. Therefore, we created the Digital <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span>, a novel optimisation technique inspired by biological <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>,\\u000a where the optimisation works at two levels: a first optimisation, migration</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gerard Briscoe; Suzanne Sadedin; Philippe De Wilde</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">246</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40250322"> <span id="translatedtitle">The protection of Antarctic terrestrial <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> from inter- and intra-continental transfer of non-indigenous species by human activities: A review of <span class="hlt">current</span> systems and practices</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Invasions by non-indigenous species are amongst the greatest threats to global biodiversity, causing substantial disruption to, and sometimes local extinction of, individual species and community assemblages which, in turn, can affect <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> structure and function. The terrestrial environment of Antarctica consists of many isolated islands of ice-free ground. Prolonged isolation makes Antarctic biodiversity vulnerable to human-mediated impacts, in particular (1)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kevin A. Hughes; Pete Convey</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">247</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://cires.colorado.edu/limnology/pubs/pdfs/Pub147.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The impact of accelerating land-use change on the N-Cycle of tropical aquatic <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>: <span class="hlt">Current</span> conditions and projected changes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Published data and analyses from temperate and tropical aquatic systems are used to summarize knowledge about the potential impact of land-use alteration on the nitrogen biogeochemistry of tropical aquatic <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, identify important patterns and recommend key needs for research. The tropical N-cycle is traced from pre-disturbance conditions through the phases of disturbance, highlighting major differences between tropical and temperate systems</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. A. Downing; M. Mcclain; R. Twilley; J. M. Melack; J. Elser; N. N. Rabalais; W. M. Lewis; R. E. Turner; J. Corredor; D. Soto; A. Yanez-Arancibia; J. A. Kopaska; R. W. Howarth</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1999-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">248</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22443131"> <span id="translatedtitle">Defining trade-offs among conservation, profitability, and food security in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">current</span> bottom-trawl fishery.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Although it is recognized that marine wild-capture fisheries are an important source of food for much of the world, the cost of sustainable capture fisheries to species diversity is uncertain, and it is often questioned whether industrial fisheries can be managed sustainably. We evaluated the trade-off among sustainable food production, profitability, and conservation objectives in the groundfish bottom-trawl fishery off the U.S. West Coast, where depletion (i.e., reduction in abundance) of six rockfish species (Sebastes) is of particular concern. Trade-offs are inherent in this multispecies fishery because there is limited capacity to target species individually. From population models and catch of 34 stocks of bottom fish, we calculated the relation between harvest rate, long-term yield (i.e., total weight of fish caught), profit, and depletion of each species. In our models, annual <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>-wide yield from all 34 stocks was maximized with an overall 5.4% harvest rate, but profit was maximized at a 2.8% harvest rate. When we reduced harvest rates to the level (2.2% harvest rate) at which no stocks collapsed (<10% of unfished levels), biomass harvested was 76% of the maximum sustainable yield and profit 89% of maximum. A harvest rate under which no stocks fell below the biomass that produced maximum sustainable yield (1% harvest rate), resulted in 45% of potential yield and 67% of potential profit. Major reductions in catch in the late 1990s led to increase in the biomass of the most depleted stocks, but this rebuilding resulted in the loss of >30% of total sustainable yield, whereas yield lost from stock depletion was 3% of total sustainable yield. There are clear conservation benefits to lower harvest rates, but avoiding overfishing of all stocks in a multispecies fishery carries a substantial cost in terms of lost yield and profit. PMID:22443131</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hilborn, Ray; Stewart, Ian J; Branch, Trevor A; Jensen, Olaf P</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">249</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18316112"> <span id="translatedtitle">Tidal salt marsh sediment in <span class="hlt">California</span>, USA: part 3. <span class="hlt">Current</span> and historic toxicity potential of contaminants and their bioaccumulation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To assess potential health risks to benthic organisms from exposure to toxic contaminants, sediment chemistry data from five salt marshes along the coast of <span class="hlt">California</span> were compared with threshold effects levels (TELs) and probable effects levels (PELs). As an integrated estimate of toxicity potential of multiple contaminants, mean PEL quotients (mPELQs) were used to categorize sampling stations into three groups: high (>0.5), medium (0.1-0.5) and low (<0.1). In all sediments from Stege Marsh located in San Francisco Bay, at least one contaminant exceeded PELs by up to 18-fold and mPELQs were higher than 0.7. Mean PELQs in two core sediments from eastern Stege Marsh ranged from 0.7 to 2.1, indicating that benthic organisms in Stege Marsh may have been adversely affected for several decades. To investigate bioavailability and bioaccumulation of contaminants in sediments, longjaw mudsuckers (Gillichthys mirabilis) were transplanted to six Stege Marsh stations for 60 days. Body burdens of organic contaminants clearly showed that they were readily available for benthic organisms. Measured concentrations of organic contaminants in mudsuckers were similar to estimated levels computed using a theoretical bioaccumulation potential model. Levels of PCBs and arsenic in mudsuckers were higher than screening values set as guidelines for the protection of humans and levels of PCBs and DDTs were higher than criteria for wildlife. The results of this study indicate that the levels of contaminants in Stege Marsh sediments may not fully support the well-being of benthic organisms and also may provoke adverse effects on fish-eating animals and humans through trophic transfer. PMID:18316112</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hwang, Hyun-Min; Green, Peter G; Young, Thomas M</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">250</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/sim3306"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">California</span> State Waters Map Series: offshore of San Gregorio, <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In 2007, the <span class="hlt">California</span> Ocean Protection Council initiated the <span class="hlt">California</span> Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of <span class="hlt">California</span>'s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology. The Offshore of San Gregorio map area is located in northern <span class="hlt">California</span>, on the Pacific coast of the San Francisco Peninsula about 50 kilometers south of the Golden Gate. The map area lies offshore of the Santa Cruz Mountains, part of the northwest-trending Coast Ranges that run roughly parallel to the San Andreas Fault Zone. The Santa Cruz Mountains lie between the San Andreas Fault Zone and the San Gregorio Fault system. The nearest significant onshore cultural centers in the map area are San Gregorio and Pescadero, both unincorporated communities with populations well under 1,000. Both communities are situated inland of state beaches that share their names. No harbor facilities are within the Offshore of San Gregorio map area. The hilly coastal area is virtually undeveloped grazing land for sheep and cattle. The coastal geomorphology is controlled by late Pleistocene and Holocene slip in the San Gregorio Fault system. A westward bend in the San Andreas Fault Zone, southeast of the map area, coupled with right-lateral movement along the San Gregorio Fault system have caused regional folding and uplift. The coastal area consists of high coastal bluffs and vertical sea cliffs. Coastal promontories in the northern and southern parts of the map area are the result of right-lateral motion on strands of the San Gregorio Fault system. In the south, headlands near Pescadero Point have been uplifted by motion along the west strand of the San Gregorio Fault (also called the Frijoles Fault), which separates rocks of the Pigeon Point Formation south of the fault from rocks of the Purisima Formation north of the fault. The regional uplift in this map area has caused relatively shallow water depths within <span class="hlt">California</span>'s State Waters and, thus, little accommodation space for sediment accumulation. Sediment is observed offshore in the central part of the map area, in the shelter of the headlands north of the east strand of the San Gregorio Fault (also called the Coastways Fault) around Miramontes Point (about 5 km north of the map area) and also on the outer half of the <span class="hlt">California</span>'s State Waters shelf in the south where depths exceed 40 m. Sediment in the outer shelf of <span class="hlt">California</span>'s State Waters is rippled, indicating some mobility. The Offshore of San Gregorio map area lies within the cold-temperate biogeographic zone that is called either the "Oregonian province" or the "northern <span class="hlt">California</span> ecoregion." This biogeographic province is maintained by the long-term stability of the southward-flowing <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span>, an eastern limb of the North Pacific subtropical gyre that flows from Oregon to Baja <span class="hlt">California</span>. At its midpoint off central <span class="hlt">California</span>, the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> transports subarctic surface (0500 m deep) waters southward, about 150 to 1,300 km from shore. Seasonal northwesterly winds that are, in part, responsible for the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span>, generate coastal upwelling. The south end of the Oregonian province is at Point Conception (about 350 km south of the map area), although its associated phylogeographic group of marine fauna may extend beyond to the area offshore of Los Angeles in southern <span class="hlt">California</span>. The ocean off of central <span class="hlt">California</span> has experienced a warming over the last 50 years that is driving an <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> shift away from the productive subarctic r</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cochrane, Guy R.; Dartnell, Peter; Greene, H. Gary; Watt, Janet T.; Golden, Nadine E.; Endris, Charles A.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Bretz, Carrie K.; Manson, Michael W.; Sliter, Ray W.; Ross, Stephanie L.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Chin, John L.; Cochran, Susan A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">251</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://swfsc.noaa.gov/publications/FED/01262.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Regional Habitat Assessment Prioritization for <span class="hlt">California</span> Stocks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Regional Habitat Assessment Prioritization for <span class="hlt">California</span> Stocks Report of the Southwest Regional://www.st.nmfs.noaa.gov/<span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>/habitat/index This publication may be cited as: NMFS. 2012. Regional habitat assessment prioritization for <span class="hlt">California</span> stocks.................................................................................................................................................1 Creating the Southwest Region Stock List</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">252</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70027808"> <span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of shelf <span class="hlt">currents</span> off central <span class="hlt">California</span> prior to and during the 1997-1998 El Nino</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Moored <span class="hlt">current</span>, temperature, salinity, and pressure data were collected at three sites that transect the narrow continental shelf offshore of Davenport, CA, starting in August 1996 and continuing to the spring of 1998. This data set allowed a comparison of oceanographic conditions prior to (8/96-3/97) and during (8/97-3/98) the last major El Nin??o. During this El Nin??o, mean temperatures over the 8-month time period were about 3??C warmer than during the prior year at all of the sites. Correlations between near-surface and near-bottom temperatures, and between near-surface temperature and wind stress decreased during the El Nin??o compared to conditions the year before. The mean alongshore <span class="hlt">currents</span> were more strongly poleward during El Nin??o at sites over the mid-shelf and near the shelf break. There was a general tendency for the energy in alongshore <span class="hlt">currents</span> to move toward lower frequencies during the El Nin??o, particularly at the sites farther offshore. The processes that forced the shelf flows changed in relative importance throughout the study. The local alongshore wind stress was less important in driving shelf <span class="hlt">currents</span> during the El Nin??o when much of the wind-induced upwelling was confined to less than 5 km of the coast. The observed strong poleward shelf <span class="hlt">currents</span> on the mid- to outer-shelf were not clearly tied to local forcing, but were remotely driven, most likely by slope <span class="hlt">currents</span>. The response of the Davenport shelf to an El Nin??o event may differ from other areas since the shelf is narrow, the wind forcing is weaker than areas to the north and south, and the shelf may be at times isolated by fronts that form at strong upwelling centers. In the winter, strong storm-related winds are important in driving <span class="hlt">currents</span> at periods not only in the synoptic wind band, but also for periods on the order of 20 d and longer.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ryan, H.F.; Noble, M.A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">253</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.state.nj.us/education/21cclc/casp/lsc/unit2/Lesson4.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Marine <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In the wild, small crustaceans known as brine shrimp live in marine habitats such as saltwater lakes. In this activity, learners create a saltwater or marine <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> that becomes an experimental brine shrimp hatchery. Learners observe the brine shrimp life cycle and test the effect of salinity (salt content) on brine shrimp eggs and larvae, as well as consider the potential impact of other variables such as water temperature and pollution.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jersey, New; Center, Liberty S.; Coalition, New J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2006-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">254</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/985029"> <span id="translatedtitle">Chemical Speciation of Sulfur in Marine Cloud Droplets and Particles: Analysis of Individual Particles from the Marine Boundary Layer Over the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Detailed chemical speciation of the dry residue particles from individual cloud droplets and interstitial aerosol collected during the Marine Stratus Experiment (MASE) was performed using a complementary combination of microanalysis techniques. Techniques include computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersed analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX), time-of-flight secondary ionization mass spectrometry (TOFSIMS), and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). Samples were collected at the ground site located in Point Reyes National Seashore, approximately 1 km from the coast. This manuscript focuses on the analysis of individual particles sampled from an air mass that originated over the open ocean and then passed through the area of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">current</span> located along the northern <span class="hlt">California</span> coast. Based on composition, morphology, and chemical bonding information, two externally mixed, distinct classes of sulfur containing particles were identified: chemically modified (aged) sea salt particles and secondary formed sulfate particles. The results indicate substantial heterogeneous replacement of chloride by methanesulfonate (CH3SO3 -) and non-sea salt sulfate (nss-SO4 2-) in sea-salt particles with the characteristic ratios of CH3SO3 ?/nss-SO4 2?> 0.6. Although this value seems too high for a mid-latitude site, our model calculations suggest that high CH3SO3 -/nss-SO4 2- ratios are expected during the early stages of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) oxidation when CH3SO3H forms more rapidly than H2SO4.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hopkins, Rebecca J.; Desyaterik, Yury; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Berkowitz, Carl M.; Tyliszczak, T.; Gilles, Marry K.; Laskin, Alexander</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-02-27</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">255</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025434"> <span id="translatedtitle">Long-term, high-frequency <span class="hlt">current</span> and temperature measurements along central <span class="hlt">California</span>: Insights into upwelling/relaxation and internal waves on the inner shelf</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Thermistor chains and acoustic Doppler <span class="hlt">current</span> profilers were deployed at the northern and southern ends of Monterey Bay to examine the thermal and hydrodynamic structure of the inner (h ??? 20 m) shelf of central <span class="hlt">California</span>. These instruments sampled temperature and <span class="hlt">current</span> velocity at 2-min intervals over a 13-month period from June 2000 to July 2001. Time series of these data, in conjunction with SST imagery and CODAR sea surface <span class="hlt">current</span> maps, helped to establish the basic hydrography for Monterey Bay. Analysis of time series data revealed that depth integrated flow at both sites was shore parallel (northwest-southeast) with net flows out of the Bay (northwest). The <span class="hlt">current</span> and temperature records were dominated by semi-diurnal and diurnal tidal signals that lagged the surface tides by 3 h on average. Over the course of an internal tidal cycle these flows were asymmetric, with the flow during the flooding internal tide to the southeast typically lasting only one-third as long as the flow to the northwest during the ebbing internal tide. The transitions from ebb to flood were rapid and bore-like in nature; they were also marked by rapid increases in temperature and high shear. During the spring and summer, when thermal stratification was high, we observed almost 2000 high-frequency (Tp ??? 4-20 min) internal waves in packets of 8-10 following the heads of these bore-like features. Previous studies along the West Coast of the US have concluded that warm water bores and high-frequency internal waves may play a significant role in the onshore transport of larvae.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Storlazzi, C.D.; McManus, M.A.; Figurski, J.D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">256</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-03-11/pdf/2010-5344.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 11555 - Notice of Public Meeting: Northeast <span class="hlt">California</span> Resource Advisory Council and Subcommittee</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...<span class="hlt">California</span> Resource Advisory Council and its Sage Steppe <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Subcommittee will meet as indicated below. DATES: The RAC Sage Steppe Ecosytem Subcommittee will meet...coordination for implementing projects under the Sage Steppe <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Restoration...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-03-11</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">257</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PrOce..87..114L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Changing climate in the Gulf of <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We conducted a four year interdisciplinary collaborative project focused in the Gulf of <span class="hlt">California</span>, the most important fishing region for Mexico. We reviewed published reports, collected and analyzed physical, chemical and ecological data sets, and developed models for the physical (atmosphere and ocean) and ecological components of this large marine <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>, to examine prevalent scientific questions regarding climate variability and change in the region, covering three time scales (ENSO, decadal-to-interdecadal, and long-term trend). We were able to describe how the Gulf of <span class="hlt">California</span> influences the northward propagation of coastal trapped Kelvin waves associated with El Nio (ENSO) events, and how this signal, together with changes in the atmospheric forcing, results in a ENSO signature inside the Gulf. For the decadal-to-multidecadal scales, we found coherent trends among series, and with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The long-term temperature signal for the Gulf of <span class="hlt">California</span> shows a warming that occurred in the mid 20th century, approximately a decade before that in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span>. This signal is coherent with fluctuations in the industrial fisheries catch records (sardine and shrimps). For the recent decades we found no significant sustained long-term trend in any of the time series of physical and ecological variables that we considered. Instead, variability seems to be fully dominated by the interaction of PDO and ENSO. We stress the urgent need for more modeling efforts and the establishment of interdisciplinary (physical and biological) observation platforms for the marine environment in the Gulf of <span class="hlt">California</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lluch-Cota, Salvador E.; Pars-Sierra, Alejandro; Magaa-Rueda, Vctor O.; Arregun-Snchez, Francisco; Bazzino, Gastn; Herrera-Cervantes, Hugo; Lluch-Belda, Daniel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">258</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://etd.lib.umt.edu/theses/available/etd-01052012-145421/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Impacts of mountain pine beetle outbreak on biogeochemical cycling in a high elevation whitebark pine <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">??Ecological disturbances can significantly impact biogeochemical cycles in terrestrial <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, but the effects of the <span class="hlt">current</span> widespread mountain pine beetle outbreak on <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> processes like (more)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Keville, Megan</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">259</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2587707"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Overfishing in the Ocean</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fisheries catches represent a net export of mass and energy that can no longer be used by trophic levels higher than those fished. Thus, exploitation implies a depletion of secondary production of higher trophic levels (here the production of mass and energy by herbivores and carnivores in the <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>) due to the removal of prey. The depletion of secondary production due to the export of biomass and energy through catches was recently formulated as a proxy for evaluating the <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> impacts of fishingi.e., the level of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> overfishing. Here we evaluate the historical and <span class="hlt">current</span> risk of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> overfishing at a global scale by quantifying the depletion of secondary production using the best available fisheries and ecological data (i.e., catch and primary production). Our results highlight an increasing trend in the number of unsustainable fisheries (i.e., an increase in the risk of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> overfishing) from the 1950s to the 2000s, and illustrate the worldwide geographic expansion of overfishing. These results enable to assess when and where fishing became unsustainable at the <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> level. At present, total catch per capita from Large Marine <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> is at least twice the value estimated to ensure fishing at moderate sustainable levels. PMID:19066624</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Tudela, Sergi; Palomera, Isabel; Pranovi, Fabio</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">260</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://watercenter.unl.edu/downloads/2013_Keeler_Seminar_Announcement.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">SEMINAR ANNOUNCEMENT What is clean water worth? An <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services framework</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">SEMINAR ANNOUNCEMENT What is clean water worth? An <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services tools for assessing and valuing <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services often fall short of the most important missing components in the <span class="hlt">current</span> <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services toolbox</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Farritor, Shane</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" 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showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">261</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.energy.ca.gov/2013_energypolicy/documents/2013-06-06_Petition_for_CEC_to_perform_net_metering_societal_cost-benefit_study_TN-71170.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> ENERGY COMMISSION <span class="hlt">California</span> Energy Commission</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> ENERGY COMMISSION <span class="hlt">California</span> Energy Commission DOCKETED /3-I"b-P-l PETITION OF AMERICAN LUNG ASSOCIATION IN <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span>, ASIAN PACIFIC ENVIRONMENTAL NETWORK, BRIGHTLINE DEFENSE PROJECT, <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> CENTER FOR SUSTAINABLE ENERGY, <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE ALLIANCE, <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> SOLAR ENERGY</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">262</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/964265"> <span id="translatedtitle">Annual Report to the Bonneville Power Administration, Reporting Period: April 2008 - February 2009 [re: "Survival and Growth in the Columbia River Plume and north <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span>"].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We have made substantial progress toward our objectives outlined in our BPA supported proposal entitled 'Columbia River Basin Juvenile Salmonids: Survival and Growth in the Columbia River Plume and northern <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span>' which we report on herein. During 2008, we were able to successfully conduct 3 mesoscale cruises. We also were able to conduct 7 biweekly predator cruises, along with substantial shore-based visual observations of seabirds. Detailed results of the mesoscale cruises are available in the Cruise Reports and summarized in the next section. We have taken a proactive approach to getting the results of our research to fisheries managers and the general public. We have begun to make annual predictions based on ocean conditions of the relative survival of juvenile coho and Chinook salmon well before they return as adults. This is based on both biological and physical indicators that we measure during our surveys or collect from outside data sources. Examples of our predictions for 2009 and 2010 are available on the following web site: http://www.nwfsc.noaa.gov/research/divisions/fed/oeip/a-ecinhome.cfm.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Northwest Fisheries Science Center, NOAA Fisheries; Cooperative Institute for Marine Resources Studies, Oregon State University; OGI School of Science & Engineering, Oregon Health Sciences University.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-07-17</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">263</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24421878"> <span id="translatedtitle">Quantifying water flow within aquatic <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> using load cell sensors: a profile of <span class="hlt">currents</span> experienced by coral reef organisms around Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Current</span> velocity in aquatic environments has major implications for the diversity, abundance and ecology of aquatic organisms, but quantifying these <span class="hlt">currents</span> has proven difficult. This study utilises a simple and inexpensive instrument (<$150) to provide a detailed <span class="hlt">current</span> velocity profile of the coral-reef system around Lizard Island (Great Barrier Reef, Australia) at a spatial and temporal scale relevant to the ecology of individual benthos and fish. The instrument uses load-cell sensors to provide a correlation between sensor output and ambient <span class="hlt">current</span> velocity of 99%. Each instrument is able to continuously record <span class="hlt">current</span> velocities to >500 cms? and wave frequency to >100 Hz over several weeks. Sensor data are registered and processed at 16 MHz and 10 bit resolution, with a measuring precision of 0.060.04%, and accuracy of 0.510.65% (mean S.D.). Each instrument is also pressure rated to 120 m and shear stresses ?20 kNm? allowing deployment in harsh environments. The instrument was deployed across 27 coral reef sites covering the crest (3 m), mid-slope (6 m) and deep-slope (9 m depth) of habitats directly exposed, oblique or sheltered from prevailing winds. Measurements demonstrate that <span class="hlt">currents</span> over the reef slope and crest varies immensely depending on depth and exposure: <span class="hlt">currents</span> differ up to 9-fold within habitats only separated by 3 m depth and 15-fold between exposed, oblique and sheltered habitats. Comparisons to ambient weather conditions reveal that <span class="hlt">currents</span> around Lizard Island are largely wind driven. Zero to 22.5 knot winds correspond directly to <span class="hlt">currents</span> of 0 to >82 cms?, while tidal <span class="hlt">currents</span> rarely exceed 5.5 cms?. Rather, <span class="hlt">current</span> velocity increases exponentially as a function of wave height (0 to 1.6 m) and frequency (0.54 to 0.20 Hz), emphasizing the enormous effect of wind and waves on organisms in these shallow coral reef habitats. PMID:24421878</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Johansen, Jacob L</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">264</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.cmp.ucr.edu/exhibitions/missions/"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">California</span> Missions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">California</span> Museum of Photography at the University of <span class="hlt">California</span>-Riverside, (last mentioned in the May 30, 2000 Scout Report for Social Sciences) is a site worth visiting again and again; there is always something new to look at in a variety of areas: photography history, <span class="hlt">California</span> lifestyle and culture, fine art photography, and photo journalism. The <span class="hlt">California</span> Missions show includes over 100 historic views of the 21 <span class="hlt">California</span> Missions, some dated as early as 1895.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">265</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.sonoma.edu/users/c/cushman/pdf/cushman%20et%20al.%202010.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Shrubs as <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> engineers in a coastal dune: influences on plant populations, communities and <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Shrubs as <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> engineers in a coastal dune: influences on plant populations, communities the landscape? Location: Coastal hind-dune system, Bodega Head, northern <span class="hlt">California</span>. Methods: In each of 4 years ­ Ericameria ericoides and the nitrogen-fixing Lupinus chamissonis ­ with those in adjacent open dunes. Results</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cushman, J. Hall</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">266</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70042741"> <span id="translatedtitle">A perspective on modern pesticides, pelagic fish declines, and unknown ecological resilience in highly managed <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Pesticides applied on land are commonly transported by runoff or spray drift to aquatic <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, where they are potentially toxic to fishes and other nontarget organisms. Pesticides add to and interact with other stressors of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> processes, including surface-water diversions, losses of spawning and rearing habitats, nonnative species, and harmful algal blooms. Assessing the cumulative effects of pesticides on species or ecological functions has been difficult for historical, legal, conceptual, and practical reasons. To explore these challenges, we examine <span class="hlt">current</span>-use (modern) pesticides and their potential connections to the abundances of fishes in the San Francisco Estuary (<span class="hlt">California</span>). Declines in delta smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus), Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), and other species have triggered mandatory and expensive management actions in the urbanizing estuary and agriculturally productive Central Valley. Our inferences are transferable to other situations in which toxics may drive changes in ecological status and trends.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Scholz, Nathaniel L.; Fleishman, Erica; Brown, Larry; Werner, Inge; Johnson, Michael L.; Brooks, Marjorie L.; Mitchelmore, Carys L.; Schlenk, Daniel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">267</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/5538463"> <span id="translatedtitle">Concepts and issues in marine <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> management</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> management means different things to different people, but the underlying concept is similar to that of the long-standing ethic of conservation. <span class="hlt">Current</span> interest in marine <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> management stems from concerns about overexploitation of world fisheries and the perceived need for broader perspectives in fisheries management. A central scientific question is whether the effects of harvesting (top down) or changes</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">P. A. Larkin; Hut B</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">268</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://courses.washington.edu/esrm200/Franklin_Preserving_Biodiversity_EA_1993.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">PRESERVING BIODIVERSITY: SPECIES, <span class="hlt">ECOSYSTEMS</span>, OR LANDSCAPES?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Efforts to preserve biological diversity must focus increasingly at the <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> level because of the immense number of species, the majority of which are <span class="hlt">currently</span> unknown. An <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> approach is also the only way to conserve processes and habitats (such as forest canopies, belowground habitats, and hyporheic zones) that, with their constituent species, are poorly known. Continued concern with species</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">JERRY F. FRANKLIN</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1993-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">269</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013BGD....10.5803S"> <span id="translatedtitle">Measurements of nitrite production and nitrite-producing organisms in and around the primary nitrite maximum in the central <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Nitrite (NO2-) is a substrate for both oxidative and reductive microbial metabolism. NO2- accumulates at the base of the euphotic zone in oxygenated, stratified open ocean water columns, forming a feature known as the primary nitrite maximum (PNM). Potential pathways of NO2- production include the oxidation of ammonia (NH3) by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria or archaea and assimilatory nitrate (NO3-) reduction by phytoplankton or heterotrophic bacteria. Measurements of NH3 oxidation and NO3- reduction to NO2- were conducted at two stations in the central <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> in the eastern North Pacific to determine the relative contributions of these processes to NO2- production in the PNM. Sensitive (< 10 nmol L-1), high-resolution measurements of [NH4+] and [NO2-] indicated a persistent NH4+ maximum overlying the PNM at every station, with concentrations as high as 1.5 ?mol L-1. Within and just below the PNM, NH3 oxidation was the dominant NO2- producing process with rates of NH3 oxidation of up to 50 nmol L-1 d-1, coinciding with high abundances of ammonia-oxidizing archaea. Though little NO2- production from NO3- was detected, potentially nitrate-reducing phytoplankton (photosynthetic picoeukaryotes, Synechococcus, and Prochlorococcus) were present at the depth of the PNM. Rates of NO2- production from NO3- were highest within the upper mixed layer (4.6 nmol L-1 d-1) but were either below detection limits or 10 times lower than NH3 oxidation rates around the PNM. One-dimensional modeling of water column NO2- profiles supported direct rate measurements of a net biological sink for NO2- just below the PNM. Residence time estimates of NO2- within the PNM were similar at the mesotrophic and oligotrophic stations and ranged from 150-205 d. Our results suggest the PNM is a dynamic, rather than relict, feature with a source term dominated by ammonia oxidation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Santoro, A. E.; Sakamoto, C. M.; Smith, J. M.; Plant, J. N.; Gehman, A. L.; Worden, A. Z.; Johnson, K. S.; Francis, C. A.; Casciotti, K. L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">270</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70046245"> <span id="translatedtitle">Columbia River Estuary <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Classification <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Complex</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Estuarine <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> are controlled by a variety of processes that operate at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Understanding the hierarchical nature of these processes will aid in prioritization of restoration efforts. This hierarchical Columbia River Estuary <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Classification (henceforth "Classification") of the Columbia River estuary is a spatial database of the tidally-influenced reaches of the lower Columbia River, the tidally affected parts of its tributaries, and the landforms that make up their floodplains for the 230 kilometers between the Pacific Ocean and Bonneville Dam. This work is a collaborative effort between University of Washington School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences (henceforth "UW"), U.S. Geological Survey (henceforth "USGS"), and the Lower Columbia Estuary Partnership (henceforth "EP"). Consideration of geomorphologic processes will improve the understanding of controlling physical factors that drive <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> evolution along the tidal Columbia River. The Classification is organized around six hierarchical levels, progressing from the coarsest, regional scale to the finest, localized scale: (1) <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Province; (2) Ecoregion; (3) Hydrogeomorphic Reach; (4) <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Complex; (5) Geomorphic Catena; and (6) Primary Cover Class. For Levels 4 and 5, we mapped landforms within the Holocene floodplain primarily by visual interpretation of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) topography supplemented with aerial photographs, Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) soils data, and historical maps. Mapped landforms are classified as to their <span class="hlt">current</span> geomorphic function, the inferred process regime that formed them, and anthropogenic modification. Channels were classified primarily by a set of depth-based rules and geometric relationships. Classification Level 5 floodplain landforms ("geomorphic catenae") were further classified based on multivariate analysis of land-cover within the mapped landform area and attributed as "sub-catena". The extent of detailed mapping is the interpreted Holocene geologic floodplain of the tidal Columbia River and its tributaries to the estimated head of tide. The extent of this dataset also includes tributary valleys that are not mapped in detail. The upstream extents of tributary valleys are an estimation of the limit of Columbia River influence and are for use as containers in future analyses. The geologic floodplain is the geomorphic surface that is actively accumulating sediment through occasional overbank deposition. Most features within the geologic floodplain are considered to be formed during the recent (Holocene-epoch) climatic regime. There are bedrock and pre-Holocene sedimentary deposits included where they are surrounded by Holocene sediment accumulations or have been shaped by Holocene floods. In some places, Holocene landforms such as landslides, tributary fans, and coastal dunes are mapped that extend outside of the modern floodplain. This map is not a floodplain hazard map or delineation of actual flood boundaries. Although wetlands are included in the Classification, they are based on different criteria than jurisdictional wetlands. The extent of mapping may differ from the actual limit of tidal influence.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Cannon, Charles M.; Ramirez, Mary F.; Heatwole, Danelle W.; Burke, Jennifer L.; Simenstad, Charles A.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Marcoe, Keith Marcoe</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">271</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.bennett.karoo.net/topics/ecosystem.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Internet Geography: <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This site about <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> and biomes contains a map of different <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, and provides rainfall statistics for each biome. There are sections on tropical rainforest, taiga (or boreal forest), savanna, desert, and tundra <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. Each section describes the biome and its origins, where it is found, and how humans impact it. In some cases, sustainable development of the <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> is explained.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">272</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.lter.uaf.edu/pdf/1620_McGuire_2013.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> element cycling Introduction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> element cycling Introduction An <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> consists of all the biological organisms and the physical environments they occupy together within a defined area [1]. The actual boundaries of an <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> are generally defined by researchers studying the <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>, who are usually interested in understanding</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ickert-Bond, Steffi</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">273</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.actionbioscience.org/environment/samper.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">The State of <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The recent Millennium <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Assessment has illustrated that human actions have significantly transformed many of Earths <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. The main findings describe how: humans changed <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> dramatically over the past 50 years, changes to <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services may get worse in the next 50 years, global action at all levels can reverse the degradation, and how <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> degradation increases risks of sudden changes and reduces benefits for future generations.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Christi¡n Samper (National Museum of Natural History of the Smithsonian Institution;)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-08-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">274</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/california_fires_2009"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">California</span> Fires</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href=""></a></p> <p class="result-summary">... title: Smoke from Station Fire Blankets Southern <span class="hlt">California</span> View Larger Image ... to the explosive growth of wildfires throughout southern <span class="hlt">California</span>. The Station fire began August 26, 2009, in La Canada/Flintridge, ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">275</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/california_dust"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">California</span> Dust</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href=""></a></p> <p class="result-summary">... dramatically when forced through narrow canyons and mountain passes. Due to Southern <span class="hlt">California</span>'s uneven terrain, the strength of ... from a small fire located near the southern flank of Palomar Mountain in Southern <span class="hlt">California</span>. This image was acquired during Terra orbit ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">276</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.uu.edu/personal/hli/publications/e-learningecosystem.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">An E-learning <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Based on Cloud Computing Infrastructure</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Recently the research community has believed that an e-learning <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> is the next generation e- learning. However, the <span class="hlt">current</span> models of e-learning <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> lack the support of underlying infrastructures, which can dynamically allocate the required computation and storage resources for e- learning <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. Cloud computing is a promising infrastructure which provides computation and storage resources as services. Hence, this paper</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bo Dong; Qinghua Zheng; Jie Yang; Haifei Li; Mu Qiao</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">277</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/california_fires_2008"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">California</span> Fires</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href=""></a></p> <p class="result-summary">article title: Smoke Blankets Northern <span class="hlt">California</span> View Larger Image ... strikes sparked more than a thousand fires in northern <span class="hlt">California</span>. This image was captured by the Multi-angle Imaging ... June 27, 2008 - Smoke from fires in northern <span class="hlt">California</span>. project: MISR category: gallery ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">278</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/california_coast"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">California</span> Coast</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href=""></a></p> <p class="result-summary">article title: Southern <span class="hlt">California</span> View Larger Image ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) images of Southern <span class="hlt">California</span> were acquired on March 14, 2000 during Terra orbit 1273. North is at ... available at JPL March 14, 2000 - Southern <span class="hlt">California</span> with the Mojave Desert and surrounding area. project: ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">279</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUSM.H22B..04M"> <span id="translatedtitle">Remote sensing and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> modeling for monitoring urban <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">As an increasingly larger fraction of people is living in cities, there is a growing interest in understanding how the mosaic of buildings, roads, concretes, grassy lawns, gardens and other exotic vegetation functions as an <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> and how urban <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> services can be enhanced to ensure adequate quality of life to the bulk of the global population. High resolution remote sensing allows separating the mosaic components and their functions with high degree of precision over small surfaces. On the other hand, moderate to coarse resolution remote sensing integrated with ground observations and modeling provides a feasible approach for studying the functioning of these <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> and their impacts on the carbon and water cycles across a wide range of geographical settings. Here we present a summary of continental scale analyses based on satellite data from the DMSP/OLS, MODIS, and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> modeling to quantify the impact of urban development on the terrestrial carbon and water cycle in the United States. The results show that urban <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> can maintain significantly high levels of photosynthetic capacity, but with fluxes varying largely as a function of vegetation management. Periodical monitoring of these impacts at the regional scale is critical for the appropriate management of urban growth and the sustainable use of natural resources. We will discuss the limitations of the <span class="hlt">current</span> tools and required sensor improvements for the continued monitoring of these impacts.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Milesi, C.; Elvidge, C.; Potter, C.; Nemani, R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">280</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://biology.usgs.gov/pierc/index.htm"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pacific Island <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> Research Center</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Pacific Island <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> Research Center (PIERC) is part of the Biological Division of the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The mission of PIERC is to provide the scientific understanding and technologies needed to support the sound management and conservation of our Nation's biological resources occurring within the cultural, sociological, and political contexts of the State of Hawaii. The geographical isolation of the Hawaiian Islands has resulted in the evolution of a highly endemic biota, while human colonization has severely impacted native plant and animal populations. The PIERC website provides information and research studies about the Hawaiian Islands <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>, as well as staff projects that are <span class="hlt">currently</span> in progress. Topics include birds, mammals, <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> diversity, genetics, wildlife health, plant ecology, and marine biology. There is an education section with outdoor activities, online activities, and a coloring book. Links are provided for further information.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return 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<a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">281</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3742767"> <span id="translatedtitle">Using Seabird Habitat Modeling to Inform Marine Spatial Planning in Central <span class="hlt">Californias</span> National Marine Sanctuaries</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Understanding seabird habitat preferences is critical to future wildlife conservation and threat mitigation in <span class="hlt">California</span>. The objective of this study was to investigate drivers of seabird habitat selection within the Gulf of the Farallones and Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuaries to identify areas for targeted conservation planning. We used seabird abundance data collected by the Applied <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Studies Program (ACCESS) from 20042011. We used zero-inflated negative binomial regression to model species abundance and distribution as a function of near surface ocean water properties, distances to geographic features and oceanographic climate indices to identify patterns in foraging habitat selection. We evaluated seasonal, inter-annual and species-specific variability of at-sea distributions for the five most abundant seabirds nesting on the Farallon Islands: western gull (Larus occidentalis), common murre (Uria aalge), Cassins auklet (Ptychorampus aleuticus), rhinoceros auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata) and Brandts cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatus). The waters in the vicinity of Cordell Bank and the continental shelf east of the Farallon Islands emerged as persistent and highly selected foraging areas across all species. Further, we conducted a spatial prioritization exercise to optimize seabird conservation areas with and without considering impacts of <span class="hlt">current</span> human activities. We explored three conservation scenarios where 10, 30 and 50 percent of highly selected, species-specific foraging areas would be conserved. We compared and contrasted results in relation to existing marine protected areas (MPAs) and the future alternative energy footprint identified by the <span class="hlt">California</span> Ocean Uses Atlas. Our results show that the majority of highly selected seabird habitat lies outside of state MPAs where threats from shipping, oil spills, and offshore energy development remain. This analysis accentuates the need for innovative marine spatial planning efforts and provides a foundation on which to build more comprehensive zoning and management in <span class="hlt">Californias</span> National Marine Sanctuaries. PMID:23967206</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McGowan, Jennifer; Hines, Ellen; Elliott, Meredith; Howar, Julie; Dransfield, Andrea; Nur, Nadav; Jahncke, Jaime</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">282</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=205451"> <span id="translatedtitle">Measuring the contribution of benthic <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> engineering species to the <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services of an estuary: A case study of burrowing shrimps in Yaquina Estuary, Oregon - April 2009</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Burrowing shrimps are regarded as <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> engineering species in many coastal <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> worldwide, including numerous estuaries of the west coast of North America (Baja <span class="hlt">California</span> to British Columbia). In estuaries of the U.S. Pacific Northwest, two species of large burrowing...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">283</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=199527"> <span id="translatedtitle">Measuring the contribution of benthic <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> engineering species to the <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services of an estuary: A case study of burrowing shrimps in Yaquina Estuary, Oregon</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Burrowing shrimps are regarded as <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> engineering species in many coastal <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> worldwide, including numerous estuaries of the west coast of North America (Baja <span class="hlt">California</span> to British Columbia). In estuaries of the U.S. Pacific Northwest, two species of large burrowing...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">284</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988EnMan..12..445S"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> health: I. Measuring <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> health</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> analysis has been advanced by an improved understanding of how <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> are structured and how they function. Ecology has advanced from an emphasis on natural history to consideration of energetics, the relationships and connections between species, hierarchies, and systems theory. Still, we consider <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> as entities with a distinctive character and individual characteristics. <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> maintenance and preservation form the objective of impact analysis, hazard evaluation, and other management or regulation activities. In this article we explore an approach to <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> analysis which identifies and quantifies factors which define the condition or state of an <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> in terms of health criteria. We relate <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> health to human/nonhuman animal health and explore the difficulties of defining <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> health and suggest criteria which provide a functional definition of state and condition. We suggest that, as has been found in human/nonhuman animal health studies, disease states can be recognized before disease is of clinical magnitude. Example disease states for <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> are functionally defined and discussed, together with test systems for their early detection.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Schaeffer, David J.; Herricks, Edwin E.; Kerster, Harold W.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1988-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">285</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JMS...132....1L"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pelagic amphipod assemblage associated with subarctic water off the West Coast of the Baja <span class="hlt">California</span> peninsula</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> system is a large marine <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> with transition gradients between subarctic and tropical biomes containing diverse habitats. Biogeographic species groups must be carefully analyzed in order to detect tendencies shifting the <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> toward a more temperate or tropical state. Species composition of hyperiid amphipods was analyzed in July 2002 for evidence of subarctic water intrusion and for signals of the El Nio event developing in the equatorial Pacific. Multivariate analysis showed a dominance of transition zone species typical of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span>. The main evidence of subarctic water intrusion was the extended distribution of Themisto pacifica, which reached as far south as 27N, with particularly high abundances at 30-32N. The intrusion of subarctic water took place despite evidence that an El Nio event was in progress. The zonal advection due to El Nio intersected the equatorward flow of the subarctic intrusion and probably produced a large cyclonic eddy off Baja <span class="hlt">California</span>. This eddy maintained a limited El Nio influence at a few offshore stations near its southern boundary. The main environmental variables influencing the amphipod assemblage structure were water temperature and the abundance of salps. T. pacifica, a species with cool water affinity, was more sensitive to temperature, whereas subtropical species, such as Vibilia armata, were strongly correlated with the availability of salps.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lavaniegos, Bertha E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">286</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/474312"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ecotoxicology of tropical marine <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The negative effects of chemical contaminants on tropical marine <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> are of increasing concern as human populations expand adjacent to these communities. Watershed streams and ground water carry a variety of chemicals from agricultural, industrial, and domestic activities, while winds and <span class="hlt">currents</span> transport pollutants from atmospheric and oceanic sources to these coastal <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. The implications of the limited information available on impacts of chemical stressors on mangrove forests, seagrass meadows, and coral reefs are discussed in the context of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> management and ecological risk assessment. Three classes of pollutants have received attention: heavy metals, petroleum, and synthetic organics. Heavy metals have been detected in all three <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, causing physiological stress, reduced reproductive success, and outright mortality in associated invertebrates and fishes. Oil spills have been responsible for the destruction of entire coastal shallow-water communities, with recovery requiring years. Herbicides are particularly detrimental to mangroves and seagrasses and adversely affect the animal-algal symbioses in corals. Pesticides interfere with chemical cues responsible for key biological processes, including reproduction and recruitment of a variety of organisms. Information is lacking with regard to long-term recovery, indicator species, and biomarkers for tropical communities. Critical areas that are beginning to be addressed include the development of appropriate benchmarks for risk assessment, baseline monitoring criteria, and effective management strategies to protect tropical marine <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> in the face of mounting anthropogenic disturbance.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Peters, E.C. [Tetra Tech, Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States); Gassman, N.J.; Firman, J.C. [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States). Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science; Richmond, R.H. [Univ. of Guam, Mangilao (Guam). Marine Lab.; Power, E.A. [EVS Environment Consultants, Ltd., North Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">287</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.energy.ca.gov/2009publications/CEC-400-2009-026/CEC-400-2009-026-CMD.PDF"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> ENERGY <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span>'S STATE ENERGY</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> ENERGY COMMISSION <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span>'S STATE ENERGY EFFICIENT APPLIANCE REBATE PROGRAM INITIAL November 2009 CEC-400-2009-026-CMD Arnold Schwarzenegger, Governor #12;#12;<span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> ENERGY COMMISSION Program Manager Paula David Supervisor Appliance and Process Energy Office Valerie T. Hall Deputy Director</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">288</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/885687"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sustaining the Landscape: A Method for Comparing <span class="hlt">Current</span> and Desired Future Conditions of Forest <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> in the North Cumberland Plateau and Mountains</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This project initiates an integrated-landscape conservation approach within the Northern Cumberlands Project Area in Tennessee and Kentucky. The mixed mesophytic forests within the Cumberland Plateau and Mountains are among the most diverse in North America; however, these forests have been impacted by and remain threatened from changes in land use across this landscape. The integrated-landscape conservation approach presented in this report outlines a sequence of six conservation steps. This report considers the first three of these steps in two, successive stages. Stage 1 compares desired future conditions (DFCs) and <span class="hlt">current</span> prevailing conditions (CPCs) at the landscape-scale utilizing remote sensing imagery, remnant forests, and descriptions of historical forest types within the Cumberland Plateau. Subsequently, Stage 2 compares DFCs and CPCs for at-risk forest types identified in Stage 1 utilizing structural, compositional, or functional attributes from USFS Forest Inventory and Analysis data. Ecological indicators will be developed from each stage that express the gaps between these two realizations of the landscape. The results from these first three steps will directly contribute to the final three steps of the integrated-landscape conservation approach by providing guidance for the generation of new conservation strategies in the Northern Cumberland Plateau and Mountains.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Druckenbrod, D.L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2004-12-22</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">289</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://energy.ucdavis.edu/files/09-16-2014-02_Integrated-Assessment-of-Renewable-Technology-Options.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">California</span> Renewable Energy Center Integrated Assessment</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">California</span> Renewable Energy Center Integrated Assessment of Renewable Energy Technology Options #12;<span class="hlt">California</span> Renewable Energy Center <span class="hlt">California</span> has a long history of aggressively pursuing renewable energy Renewable Energy Center APPROACH: 1. Determine <span class="hlt">current</span> in-state technology capability, vis-à-vis state</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">California at Davis, University of</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">290</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.era.lib.ed.ac.uk/handle/1842/8358"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Services <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Function and the <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Approach</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This project focused on mapping the delivery of three <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> services each in one case study area in Scotland and then identify how the Scottish policies such as woodland expansion biodiversity, conservation and food production affect the land...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vallianou, Koralia</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-11-28</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">291</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://msp.ehe.osu.edu/wiki/index.php/MSP:MiddleSchoolPortal/Populations_and_Ecosystems"> <span id="translatedtitle">Populations and <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This resource guide from the Middle School Portal 2 project, written specifically for teachers, provides links to exemplary resources including background information, lessons, career information, and related national science education standards. In this particular publications, students will explores topics such as different types of <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, biological indicators, streams and life within them, micro <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, terrestrial <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, issues in ecology, and ecological footprints.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Lefever, Mary</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">292</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://conference.ifas.ufl.edu/GEER2006/combined.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Greater Everglades <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Restoration</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Greater Everglades <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Restoration (G.E.E.R.) Science Conference 'HILQLQJ6XFFHVV Naples Beach a Committee of the South Florida <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Restoration Task Force and Working Group #12;Greater Everglades <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Restoration (G.E.E.R.) Science Conference Page ii #12;December 11-15, 2000 z Naples, Florida Page</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Watson, Craig A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">293</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://askabiologist.asu.edu/?q=node/133"> <span id="translatedtitle">I Spy an <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">We hear the word <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> in the news and at school but just what are <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>? It turns out there are lots of <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. You might even learn you have some inside you! Also in: Français | Español</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Biology</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-09-22</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">294</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www2.nau.edu/~bah/BIO471/Reader/McGrady-Steed_et_al_1997.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Biodiversity regulates <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> predictability</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">1-6 . Here we describe a previously unrecognized effect of biodiversity on <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> predictability, where predictability is inversely related to temporal and spatial variation in <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> properties. By manipulating biodiversity in aquatic microbial communities, we show that one process, <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> respiration, becomes more predictable as biodiversity increases. Analysis of similar patterns extracted from other studies 2,3,6 indicates that biodiversity also</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Patricia M. Harris; Peter J. Morin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1997-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">295</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=288286"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Health: Energy Indicators.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Just as for human beings health is a concept that applies to the condition of the whole organism, the health of an <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> refers to the condition of the <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> as a whole. For this reason, the study and characterization of <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> is fundamental to establishing accurate ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">296</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.uu.edu/personal/hli/publications/Jampots_INC09.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Jampots: a Mashup System towards an E-Learning <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Bo Dong1, 2</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Jampots: a Mashup System towards an E-Learning <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Bo Dong1, 2 , Qinghua Zheng1, 2 , Lingzhi believed that an E-Learning <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> is the next generation E-Learning. Nowadays, the <span class="hlt">current</span> trend of Web-Learning <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>. A mashup approach to an E-Learning <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> enhances the flourish and sustainability of E</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li, Haifei</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">297</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://repository.tamu.edu/handle/1969.1/94250"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">California</span>'s Energy Policy: Conservation Works</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Conservation is the foundation of <span class="hlt">California</span>'s energy policy and the largest single source of the state's 'new energy supply'. Our goal is to use economic market forces and government programs to direct energy Investments away from our <span class="hlt">current</span>...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Greene, D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">298</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.teachengineering.org/view_lesson.php?url=collection/cub_/lessons/cub_bio/cub_bio_lesson01.xml"> <span id="translatedtitle">Environments and <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Students explore the biosphere and its associated environments and <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> in the context of creating a model <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>, learning along the way about the animals and resources. Students investigate different types of <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, learn new vocabulary, and consider why a solid understanding of one's environment and the interdependence of an <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> can inform the choices we make and the way we engineer our communities. This lesson is part of a series of six lessons in which students use their growing understanding of various environments and the engineering design process, to design and create their own model biodome <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Integrated Teaching And Learning Program</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">299</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=259733"> <span id="translatedtitle">LINKING COMMUNITY STRUCTURE AND <span class="hlt">ECOSYSTEM</span> FUNCTION IN AQUATIC <span class="hlt">ECOSYSTEMS</span> DEGRADED BY MOUNTAINTOP MINING</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Clean Water Act and its subsequent amendments recognize the importance of protecting biological integrity, a concept synonymous with preserving structure and function within lotic <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. This research will improve <span class="hlt">current</span> taxonomically based risk assessment models,...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">300</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.B51H0451V"> <span id="translatedtitle">A 115-year ?15N record of cumulative nitrogen pollution in <span class="hlt">California</span> serpentine grasslands</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Until the 1980s, <span class="hlt">Californias</span> biodiverse serpentine grasslands were threatened primarily by development and protected by reserve creation. However, nitrogen (N) fertilization due to increasing fossil fuel emissions in the expanding Bay Area is thought to be contributing to rapid, recent invasion of these <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> by exotic annual grasses that are displacing rare and endemic serpentine species. Documenting the cumulative effects of N deposition in this <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> can direct policy and management actions to mitigate the role of N deposition in its transformation. Natural abundance stable isotopes of N in vegetation have been increasingly used as bio-indicators of N deposition patterns and subsequent changes to plant N cycling and assimilation. However, the long-term record of atmospheric reactive N enrichment and the resulting changes in <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> N dynamics have yet to be adequately reconstructed in many <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. Museum archives of vascular plant tissue are valuable sources of materials to reconstruct temporal and spatial isotopic patterns of N inputs to <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. Here, we present N stable isotope data from archived and <span class="hlt">current</span> specimens of an endemic <span class="hlt">California</span> serpentine grassland species, leather oak (Quercus durata), since 1895 across the greater San Francisco Bay region. We measured spatial and temporal trends in stable isotope composition (?15N and ?13C) and concentration (%N and %C) of historical and <span class="hlt">current</span> samples of leather oak leaves from sites within the Bay Area, impacted by increasing development, and sites northeast of the Bay Area, with significantly lower rates of urbanization and industrialization. Specifically, we sampled dry museum and fresh leaf specimens from serpentine sites within Lake (n=27) and Santa Clara (n=30) counties dating from 1895 to 2010. Leaf ?15N values were stable from 1895 to the 1950s and then decreased strongly throughout the last 50 years as fossil fuel emissions rapidly increased in the Bay Area, indicating that N pollution is being retained in serpentine grassland <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. Leaf ?15N values in the high-deposition region declined at a rate of -0.041 yr-1, while leaf ?15N values in the low-deposition region did not show a strong pattern. In both regions, leaf ?13C values declined through time as atmospheric CO2 concentrations increased in response to fossil fuel combustion (the Suess effect). Leaf %N and %C values did not present any clear patterns at sites within or outside of the Bay Area. We conclude that using natural abundance stable isotope values in leaves can indicate variation in N pollution inputs across wide spatial and temporal scales and that archived plant samples can provide valuable baselines against which to assess changes in regional N cycling and subsequent ecological impacts on vegetation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vallano, D.; Zavaleta, E. S.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' 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onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">301</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED393192.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Projecting <span class="hlt">California</span>'s Fiscal Future.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper presents findings of a study that analyzed the trends that will shape the <span class="hlt">California</span> budget over the next decade. The study assumed that <span class="hlt">current</span> demographic and economic trends, tax policies, and mandated spending programs will continue through the next decade, and projects their implications for state general-fund revenues and spending</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Carroll, Stephen; And Others</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">302</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www-odp.tamu.edu/publications/prosp/167_PRS/167PROSP.PDF"> <span id="translatedtitle">167 Prospectus <span class="hlt">California</span> Margin</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">. Each of the three transects across the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> will compare deep-water sites near the core), for those sites that require it, can be obtained from the following World Wide Web site: http margin, Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Leg 63, occurred immediately before the first deployment</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">303</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://mercury2.iab.uaf.edu/lee_taylor/pdfs/McFarland_2010_in%20situ%20plant%20uptake%20AAvsNH4-N.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Cross-<span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Comparisons of In Situ Plant Uptake of Amino</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cross-<span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Comparisons of In Situ Plant Uptake of Amino Acid-N and NH4 + Jack W. McFarland,1. Estimates of plant uptake of amino acid-N relative to NH4 + were 39 higher in ecto- mycorrhizal of <span class="hlt">California</span>, Riverside, <span class="hlt">California</span> 92521, USA ABSTRACT Plant and microbial use of nitrogen (N) can</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Taylor, Lee</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">304</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.epa.gov/superfund/students/clas_act/haz-ed/act06.htm"> <span id="translatedtitle">Examining the Effects of Pollution on <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this lesson students become familiar with several types of tests used to measure the environmental effects of hazardous waste pollution. In the process, they learn that no single assessment procedure is applicable to all <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> and no single test is adequate to assess pollution impacts on an entire <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>. They also examine a case study of a tidal bay and discuss the limitations of <span class="hlt">current</span> <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> assessment methods for establishing cause-and-effect relationships, especially for mixtures of chemicals in the environment.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">305</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25237100"> <span id="translatedtitle">Climate change. Six centuries of variability and extremes in a coupled marine-terrestrial <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Reported trends in the mean and variability of coastal upwelling in eastern boundary <span class="hlt">currents</span> have raised concerns about the future of these highly productive and biodiverse marine <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. However, the instrumental records on which these estimates are based are insufficiently long to determine whether such trends exceed preindustrial limits. In the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span>, a 576-year reconstruction of climate variables associated with winter upwelling indicates that variability increased over the latter 20th century to levels equaled only twice during the past 600 years. This modern trend in variance may be unique, because it appears to be driven by an unprecedented succession of extreme, downwelling-favorable, winter climate conditions that profoundly reduce productivity for marine predators of commercial and conservation interest. PMID:25237100</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Black, Bryan A; Sydeman, William J; Frank, David C; Griffin, Daniel; Stahle, David W; Garca-Reyes, Marisol; Rykaczewski, Ryan R; Bograd, Steven J; Peterson, William T</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-09-19</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">306</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Sci...345.1498B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Six centuries of variability and extremes in a coupled marine-terrestrial <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Reported trends in the mean and variability of coastal upwelling in eastern boundary <span class="hlt">currents</span> have raised concerns about the future of these highly productive and biodiverse marine <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. However, the instrumental records on which these estimates are based are insufficiently long to determine whether such trends exceed preindustrial limits. In the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span>, a 576-year reconstruction of climate variables associated with winter upwelling indicates that variability increased over the latter 20th century to levels equaled only twice during the past 600 years. This modern trend in variance may be unique, because it appears to be driven by an unprecedented succession of extreme, downwelling-favorable, winter climate conditions that profoundly reduce productivity for marine predators of commercial and conservation interest.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Black, Bryan A.; Sydeman, William J.; Frank, David C.; Griffin, Daniel; Stahle, David W.; Garca-Reyes, Marisol; Rykaczewski, Ryan R.; Bograd, Steven J.; Peterson, William T.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">307</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=38528"> <span id="translatedtitle">PHOTOCHEMICAL AIR POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON MIXED CONIFER <span class="hlt">ECOSYSTEMS</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In 1972, a multi-disciplinary team of ecologists assembled to monitor and analyze some of the ecological consequences of photochemical oxidant air pollutants in <span class="hlt">California</span> Mixed Conifer Forest <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> of the San Bernardino Mountains east of Los Angeles. The purposes included g...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">308</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://gallery.usgs.gov/photos/02_24_2010_y17Gxk3WVq_02_24_2010_5"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">California</span> Condor</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://gallery.usgs.gov/">USGS Multimedia Gallery</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">California</span> condors are one of the most endangered birds in North America. In the early 1990s, captive-bred condors were reintroduced into the wild in <span class="hlt">California</span>. As of January 2010, about 190 condors now live in the wild and more reintroductions are being considered. To facilitate this, USGS researc...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-02-24</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">309</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/679353"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of ozone on <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> -- <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> indicators of concern</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ozone has been recognized as an important cause of damage to crops since the 1950s. Damage to trees was first identified in the 1960s and is now known to be widespread in both North America and Europe. Most impact studies have emphasized the importance of determining growth losses attributable to ozone and as a result have concentrated on species of commercial importance. This is illustrated by the critical loads approach to ozone risk assessment in Europe, which is <span class="hlt">currently</span> based on the AOT40 -- 10 ppmh threshold. At higher levels, it has been argued that a 10% growth reduction occurs in European beech (Fagus sylvatica). Such an approach suffers from a number of serious limitations, not least the widespread impacts on <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> that may occur at lower ozone exposures and the very poor quantitative basis for setting this threshold. In Europe, there has been increasing emphasis on the conservation and management of species without any direct economic importance. This has arisen from a growing environmental awareness of the general public. The trend has been accelerated by the perceived environmental benefits of the large amounts of land that has been taken out of agricultural production (as a result of the ``set-aside`` policy of the European Union) and the public concern about the ecological and environmental impacts of industrial forestry. In agricultural landscapes, hedgerow species and weed species are being looked at as important parts of the agricultural <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>. In particular, weed species are an important part of the food chain for the wildlife present in such <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. In forests, much greater emphasis is being given to the authenticity of the forest <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. Particular emphasis is being given to <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> management techniques such as continuous cover forestry and the furthering of natural regeneration.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Innes, J.L. [Swiss Federal Inst. for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, Birmensdorf (Switzerland)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-12-31</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">310</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED474908.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">California</span>'s Accountability System and the API. Expert Report. Submitted for: Eliezer Williams vs. State of <span class="hlt">California</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper was presented as expert testimony in the Williams vs. State of <span class="hlt">California</span> class action lawsuit. That case, filed on behalf of <span class="hlt">California</span> public schoolchildren, charged the State with denying thousands of students the basic tools for a sound education. This paper addresses whether <span class="hlt">California</span>'s <span class="hlt">current</span> output-based accountability system</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Russell, Michael</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">311</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23886247"> <span id="translatedtitle">Refocusing Mussel Watch on contaminants of emerging concern (CECs): the <span class="hlt">California</span> pilot study (2009-10).</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To expand the utility of the Mussel Watch Program, local, regional and state agencies in <span class="hlt">California</span> partnered with NOAA to design a pilot study that targeted contaminants of emerging concern (CECs). Native mussels (Mytilus spp.) from 68 stations, stratified by land use and discharge scenario, were collected in 2009-10 and analyzed for 167 individual pharmaceuticals, industrial and commercial chemicals and <span class="hlt">current</span> use pesticides. Passive sampling devices (PSDs) and caged Mytilus were co-deployed to expand the list of CECs, and to assess the ability of PSDs to mimic bioaccumulation by Mytilus. A performance-based quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) approach was developed to ensure a high degree of data quality, consistency and comparability. Data management and analysis were streamlined and standardized using automated software tools. This pioneering study will help shape future monitoring efforts in <span class="hlt">California</span>'s coastal <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, while serving as a model for monitoring CECs within the region and across the nation. PMID:23886247</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Maruya, Keith A; Dodder, Nathan G; Schaffner, Rebecca A; Weisberg, Stephen B; Gregorio, Dominic; Klosterhaus, Susan; Alvarez, David A; Furlong, Edward T; Kimbrough, Kimani L; Lauenstein, Gunnar G; Christensen, John D</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-04-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">312</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMPP24A..01B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multi-proxy reconstructions and the power of integration across marine, terrestrial, and freshwater <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. (Invited)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Over the past decade, dendrochronology (tree-ring analysis) techniques have been increasingly applied to growth increments of various bivalve, fish, and coral species. In particular, the use of crossdating ensures that all increments in a dataset have assigned the correct calendar year of formation and that the resulting chronology is exactly placed in time. Such temporal alignment facilitates direct comparisons among chronologies that span diverse taxa and <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, illustrating the pervasive, synchronizing influence of climate from alpine forests to the continental slope. Such an approach can be particularly beneficial to reconstructions in that each species captures climate signals from its unique 'perspective' of life history and habitat. For example, combinations of tree-ring data and chronologies for the long-lived bivalve Pacific geoduck (Panopea generosa) capture substantially more variance in regional sea surface temperatures than either proxy could explain alone. Just as importantly, networks of chronologies spanning multiple trophic levels can help identify climate variables critical to <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> functioning, which can then be targeted to generate most biologically relevant reconstructions possible. Along the west coast of North America, fish and bivalve chronologies in combination with records of seabird reproductive success indicate that winter sea-level pressure is closely associated with <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> productivity, which can be hind-cast over the past six centuries using coastal tree-ring chronologies. Thus, multiple proxies not only increase reconstruction skill, but also help isolate climate variables most closely linked to <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> structure and functioning.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Barrett, P. J.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">313</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMPP24A..01B"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multi-proxy reconstructions and the power of integration across marine, terrestrial, and freshwater <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. (Invited)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Over the past decade, dendrochronology (tree-ring analysis) techniques have been increasingly applied to growth increments of various bivalve, fish, and coral species. In particular, the use of crossdating ensures that all increments in a dataset have assigned the correct calendar year of formation and that the resulting chronology is exactly placed in time. Such temporal alignment facilitates direct comparisons among chronologies that span diverse taxa and <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, illustrating the pervasive, synchronizing influence of climate from alpine forests to the continental slope. Such an approach can be particularly beneficial to reconstructions in that each species captures climate signals from its unique 'perspective' of life history and habitat. For example, combinations of tree-ring data and chronologies for the long-lived bivalve Pacific geoduck (Panopea generosa) capture substantially more variance in regional sea surface temperatures than either proxy could explain alone. Just as importantly, networks of chronologies spanning multiple trophic levels can help identify climate variables critical to <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> functioning, which can then be targeted to generate most biologically relevant reconstructions possible. Along the west coast of North America, fish and bivalve chronologies in combination with records of seabird reproductive success indicate that winter sea-level pressure is closely associated with <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> productivity, which can be hind-cast over the past six centuries using coastal tree-ring chronologies. Thus, multiple proxies not only increase reconstruction skill, but also help isolate climate variables most closely linked to <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> structure and functioning.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Black, B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">314</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.dot.ca.gov/"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">California</span> Department of Transportation</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">California</span> Department of Transportation (CALTRANS) manages over 50,000 miles of <span class="hlt">California</span>'s highway and freeway lanes, provides inter-city rail services, and also works on a host of other transportation initiatives. Visitors can dive right in via the Highlights section, which offers an overview of the <span class="hlt">California</span> State Rail Plan, information about webinars, and links to long-term transit feasibility studies. Other sections of the site cover Travel, Business, Engineering, News, and Maps. This last area contains the QuickMap, which offers a real-time map of <span class="hlt">current</span> traffic conditions, along with maps designed for truckers and motor home owners. The Engineering section contains information about ongoing projects, along with financial information and planning documents. Finally, the site includes a separate page about the Bay Bridge and links to press releases and video clips.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-08-12</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">315</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.sciencenetlinks.com/lessons.cfm?BenchmarkID=5&DocID=275"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Services - Water Purification</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This lesson, provided by Science NetLinks, teaches students the importance of healthy <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> by investigating the example of natural water purification. Students will learn how <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> remove pollution from the water and how much it costs humans to do this artificially once <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> are no longer healthy. The class will then create a "River Newspaper" reporting on the condition of the local environment.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Science Netlinks;</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-06-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">316</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.fi.edu/tfi/units/life/habitat/habitat.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Living Things: Habitats & <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Text and photographs regarding habitats, populations and communities, biomes, niches and <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> in general with numerous links to lessons, activities, and organizations on specific subtopics in ecology.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">317</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1692979"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multiple states in river and lake <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Nonlinear models of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> dynamics that incorporate positive feedbacks and multiple, internally reinforced states have considerable explanatory power. However, linear models may be adequate, particularly if <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> behaviour is primarily controlled by external processes. In lake <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, internal (mainly biotic) processes are thought to have major impacts on system behaviour, whereas in rivers, external (mainly physical) factors have traditionally been emphasized. We consider the hypothesis that models that exhibit multiple states are useful for understanding the behaviour of lake <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, but not as useful for understanding stream <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. Some of the best-known examples of multiple states come from lake <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. We review some of these examples, and we also describe examples of multiple states in rivers. We conclude that the hypothesis is an oversimplification; the importance of physical forcing in rivers does not eliminate the possibility of internal feedbacks that create multiple states, although in rivers these feedbacks are likely to include physical as well as biotic processes. Nonlinear behaviour in aquatic <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> may be more common than <span class="hlt">current</span> theory indicates. PMID:12079525</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dent, C Lisa; Cumming, Graeme S; Carpenter, Stephen R</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">318</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.bioone.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1641%2FB571009"> <span id="translatedtitle">Global Conservation of Biodiversity and <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Services</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This peer-reviewed article from the November 2007 issue of BioScience examines conservation strategies to preserve biodiversity and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services.Habitat destruction has driven much of the <span class="hlt">current</span> biodiversity extinction crisis, and it compromises the essential benefits, or <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services, that humans derive from functioning <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. Securing both species and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services might be accomplished with common solutions. Yet it is unknown whether these two major conservation objectives coincide broadly enough worldwide to enable global strategies for both goals to gain synergy. In this article, we assess the concordance between these two objectives, explore how the concordance varies across different regions, and examine the global potential for safeguarding biodiversity and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services simultaneously. We find that published global priority maps for biodiversity conservation harbor a disproportionate share of estimated terrestrial <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> service value (ESV). Overlap of biodiversity priorities and ESV varies among regions, and in areas that have high biodiversity priority but low ESV, specialized conservation approaches are necessary. Overall, however, our findings suggest opportunities for safeguarding both biodiversity and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services. Sensitivity analyses indicate that results are robust to known limitations of available ESV data. Capitalizing on these opportunities will require the identification of synergies at fine scales, and the development of economic and policy tools to exploit them.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Will Turner (University of the Philippines;World Agroforestry Center); Katrina Brandon (University of the Philippines;World Agroforestry Center); Thomas Brooks (University of the Philippines;World Agroforestry Center); Robert Constanza (University of Vermont;Gund Institute for Ecological Economics); Gustavo da Fonseca (Federal University of Minas Gerais;); Rosimeiry Portela (;)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-11-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">319</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24443361"> <span id="translatedtitle">Combined climate- and prey-mediated range expansion of Humboldt squid (Dosidicus gigas), a large marine predator in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Climate-driven range shifts are ongoing in pelagic marine environments, and <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> must respond to combined effects of altered species distributions and environmental drivers. Hypoxic oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) in midwater environments are shoaling globally; this can affect distributions of species both geographically and vertically along with predator-prey dynamics. Humboldt (jumbo) squid (Dosidicus gigas) are highly migratory predators adapted to hypoxic conditions that may be deleterious to their competitors and predators. Consequently, OMZ shoaling may preferentially facilitate foraging opportunities for Humboldt squid. With two separate modeling approaches using unique, long-term data based on in situ observations of predator, prey, and environmental variables, our analyses suggest that Humboldt squid are indirectly affected by OMZ shoaling through effects on a primary food source, myctophid fishes. Our results suggest that this indirect linkage between hypoxia and foraging is an important driver of the ongoing range expansion of Humboldt squid in the northeastern Pacific Ocean. PMID:24443361</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Stewart, Julia S; Hazen, Elliott L; Bograd, Steven J; Byrnes, Jarrett E K; Foley, David G; Gilly, William F; Robison, Bruce H; Field, John C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">320</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.hear.org/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Hawaiian <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> at Risk Project</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Hawaiian <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> at Risk Project works "to provide technology, methods, and information to decision-makers, resource managers, and the general public to help support effective science-based management of harmful non-native species in Hawaii and the Pacific." <span class="hlt">Current</span> and past supporters of the HEAR project include the U.S. Geologic Survey, Pacific Island <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> Research Center, University of Hawaii, National Biological Information Infrastructure-Pacific Basin Information Node, and others. The HEAR website links to a plethora of online resources including: full-text articles and reports, an Alien Species in Hawaii Information Index, A Global Compendium of Weeds, literature references, species fact sheets, numerous images, and more. HEAR also hosts electronic mailing lists, and bulletin boards for both job and general announcements including postings for professional meetings, and research grant opportunities.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> 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<div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">321</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B13F0585N"> <span id="translatedtitle">Evaluating the Spatial Distribution of Toxic Air Contaminants in Multiple <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Indicators in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Toxic air contaminants originating from agricultural areas of the Central Valley in <span class="hlt">California</span> threaten vulnerable sensitive receptors including surface water, vegetation, snow, sediments, fish, and amphibians in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region. The spatial distribution of toxic air contaminants in different <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> indicators depends on variation in atmospheric concentrations and deposition, and variation in air toxics accumulation in <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. The spatial distribution of organic air toxics and mercury at over 330 unique sampling locations and sample types over two decades (1990-2009) in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region were compiled and maps were developed to further understand spatial patterns and linkages between air toxics deposition and ecological effects. Potential <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> impacts in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region include bioaccumulation of air toxics in both aquatic and terrestrial <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, reproductive disruption, and immune suppression. The most sensitive ecological end points in the region that are affected by bioaccumulation of toxic air contaminants are fish. Mercury was detected in all fish and approximately 6% exceeded human consumption thresholds. Organic air toxics were also detected in fish yielding variable spatial patterns. For amphibians, which are sensitive to pesticide exposure and potential immune suppression, increasing trends in <span class="hlt">current</span> and historic use pesticides are observed from north to south across the region. In other indicators, such as vegetation, pesticide concentrations in lichen increase with increasing elevation. <span class="hlt">Current</span> and historic use pesticides and mercury were also observed in snowpack at high elevations in the study area. This study shows spatial patterns in toxic air contaminants, evaluates associated risks to sensitive receptors, and identifies data gaps. Future research on atmospheric modeling and information on sources is needed in order to predict which <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> are the most sensitive to toxic air contaminants in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nanus, L.; Simonich, S. L.; Rocchio, J.; Flanagan, C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">322</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://researcharchive.calacademy.org/research/botany/wildflow/"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">California</span> Wildflowers</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">California</span> Academy of Sciences's (CAS) Botany Department hosts this interesting and beautiful site on <span class="hlt">California</span>'s wildflowers. Spectacular color photographs of over 125 species of wildflowers serve as illustrations to this electronic field guide. Users may browse species by flower color (white through brown), common name (Alpine Lily to Yerba Mansa), latin name (Achillea millefolium to Zigadenus fremontii), or family name (Alismataceae through Violaceae). Additionally, floristic regions are provided in a color-coded map of <span class="hlt">California</span>. For each species, the taxonomic identity (common, Latin, and family names), a description, photographs, and distribution information are provided. Educators and students of botany will find this site particularly useful; others will want to go see <span class="hlt">California</span> in bloom.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">323</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.registrar.ucla.edu/archive/catalog/36-37catalog.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">UNIVERSITY OF <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> PUBLISHED AT BERKELEY , <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">UNIVERSITY OF <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> BULLETIN PUBLISHED AT BERKELEY , <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> Volume XXX September 20, 1936 · Number 9 GENERAL CATALOGUE #1936,037* UNIVERSITY OF <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> AT LOS ANGELES For sale by the STUDENTS of <span class="hlt">California</span> 193637 The administrative bulletins of the University of <span class="hlt">California</span> present infor- mation</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Grether, Gregory</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">324</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=species+AND+interactions&pg=2&id=EJ813056"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Library as <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ecology is the study of interactions between organisms and their environment, and the academic library could be considered to be an <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>, i.e., a "biological organization" in which multiple species must interact, both with one another and with their environment. The metaphor of the library as <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> is flexible enough to be applied not</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Walter, Scott</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">325</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Carbon+AND+cycle&pg=4&id=ED055855"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span>, Teacher's Guide.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Science Curriculum Improvement Study has developed this teacher's guide to "<span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span>," the sixth part of a six unit life science curriculum sequence. The six basic units, emphasizing organism-environment interactions, are organisms, life cycles, populations, environments, communities, and <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. They make use of scientific and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">California Univ., Berkeley. Science Curriculum Improvement Study.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">326</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://essm.tamu.edu/media/100108/2012_grad8x11ESSM.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Graduate studies <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Science</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Graduate studies in <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Science and Management Ph.D. M.S. M.Agr. or Natural Resources Development MNRD Department of <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Science and Management College of Agriculture and Life Sciences. The thesisbased Master of Science and Ph.D. degrees are designed for research or academic careers</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">327</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70033696"> <span id="translatedtitle">Are hotspots of evolutionary potential adequately protected in southern <span class="hlt">California</span>?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Reserves are often designed to protect rare habitats, or "typical" exemplars of ecoregions and geomorphic provinces. This approach focuses on <span class="hlt">current</span> patterns of organismal and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>-level biodiversity, but typically ignores the evolutionary processes that control the gain and loss of biodiversity at these and other levels (e.g., genetic, ecological). In order to include evolutionary processes in conservation planning efforts, their spatial components must first be identified and mapped. We describe a GIS-based approach for explicitly mapping patterns of genetic divergence and diversity for multiple species (a "multi-species genetic landscape"). Using this approach, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA datasets from 21 vertebrate and invertebrate species in southern <span class="hlt">California</span> to identify areas with common phylogeographic breaks and high intrapopulation diversity. The result is an evolutionary framework for southern <span class="hlt">California</span> within which patterns of genetic diversity can be analyzed in the context of historical processes, future evolutionary potential and <span class="hlt">current</span> reserve design. Our multi-species genetic landscapes pinpoint six hotspots where interpopulation genetic divergence is consistently high, five evolutionary hotspots within which genetic connectivity is high, and three hotspots where intrapopulation genetic diversity is high. These 14 hotspots can be grouped into eight geographic areas, of which five largely are unprotected at this time. The multi-species genetic landscape approach may provide an avenue to readily incorporate measures of evolutionary process into GIS-based systematic conservation assessment and land-use planning.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vandergast, A.G.; Bohonak, A.J.; Hathaway, S.A.; Boys, J.; Fisher, R.N.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">328</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://coast.ocean.washington.edu/coastfiles/MacFadyen2008.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Influences of the Juan de Fuca Eddy on circulation, nutrients, and phytoplankton1 production in the northern <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System2</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Current</span>. Results from three years of field studies5 demonstrate that the eddy increases in spatial extent-driven <span class="hlt">currents</span> in the surface Ekman12 layer cause the eddy to be "leaky" on its southern perimeter. Eddy surfaceInfluences of the Juan de Fuca Eddy on circulation, nutrients, and phytoplankton1 production</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hickey, Barbara</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">329</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol25/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol25-sec230-23.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 230.23 - <span class="hlt">Current</span> patterns and water circulation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href=""></a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Impacts on Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> 230.23 <span class="hlt">Current</span> patterns and water circulation. ...circulation are the physical movements of water in the aquatic <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>. <span class="hlt">Currents</span> and circulation respond to natural forces...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">330</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol24/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol24-sec230-23.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 230.23 - <span class="hlt">Current</span> patterns and water circulation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Impacts on Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> 230.23 <span class="hlt">Current</span> patterns and water circulation. ...circulation are the physical movements of water in the aquatic <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>. <span class="hlt">Currents</span> and circulation respond to natural forces...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">331</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol26/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol26-sec230-23.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 230.23 - <span class="hlt">Current</span> patterns and water circulation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Impacts on Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> 230.23 <span class="hlt">Current</span> patterns and water circulation. ...circulation are the physical movements of water in the aquatic <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>. <span class="hlt">Currents</span> and circulation respond to natural forces...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">332</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol25/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol25-sec230-23.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 230.23 - <span class="hlt">Current</span> patterns and water circulation.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p class="result-summary">...Impacts on Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> 230.23 <span class="hlt">Current</span> patterns and water circulation. ...circulation are the physical movements of water in the aquatic <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>. <span class="hlt">Currents</span> and circulation respond to natural forces...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-07-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">333</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.bioone.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1641%2F0006-3568%282003%29053%5B1199%3AERTGCC%5D2.0.CO%3B2"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Responses to Global Climate Change: Moving Beyond Color Mapping</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This peer-reviewed article from BioScience is on the effects of climate change on <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. <span class="hlt">Current</span> assessments of climate-change effects on <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> use two key approaches: (1) empirical synthesis and modeling of species range shifts and life-cycle processes that coincide with recent evidence of climate warming, from which scenarios of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> change are inferred; and (2) experiments examining plant-soil interactions under simulated climate warming. Both kinds of assessment offer indisputable evidence that climate change and its effects on <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> are ongoing. However, both approaches often provide conservative estimates of the effects of climate change on <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, because they do not consider the interplay and feedback among higher trophic levels in <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, which may have a large effect on plant species composition and on <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services such as productivity. Understanding the impacts of these top-down processes on <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> is critical for determining large-scale <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> response to climate change. Using examples of links between climate forcing, trophic interactions, and changes in <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> state in selected terrestrial, freshwater, and marine systems, we show that the ability to understand and accurately forecast future effects of climate change requires an integrated perspective, linking climate and the biotic components of the <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> as a whole.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">OSWALD J. SCHMITZ, ERIC POST, CATHERINE E. BURNS, and KEVIN M. JOHNSTON (;)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">334</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pss.buffalo.edu/slf/GSBblerschErieIntro2010.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Restoration through Interdisciplinary Exchange</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Restoration through Interdisciplinary Exchange David M. Blersch dblersch Shade of Blue and You 21 September 2010 #12;National Science Foundation <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Restoration through;National Science Foundation <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Restoration through Interdisciplinary Exchange UB's ERIE Program www</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Sachs, Frederick</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">335</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.energy.ca.gov/2013publications/CEC-500-2013-105/CEC-500-2013-105.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">California</span> Geothermal Energy Collaborative</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">California</span> Geothermal Energy Collaborative Geothermal Education and Outreach Guide of <span class="hlt">California</span> Davis, and the <span class="hlt">California</span> Geothermal Energy Collaborative. We specifically would like to thank support of the <span class="hlt">California</span> Geothermal Energy Collaborative. We also thank Charlene Wardlow of Ormat for her</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">336</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.serc.si.edu/labs/co2/pdf/2003_GCB_Hymusetal.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on net <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> CO2 exchange of a scrub-oak <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">We report the results of a 2-year study of effects of the elevated (<span class="hlt">current</span> ambient plus 350lmol CO2 mol ? 1 ) atmospheric CO2 concentration (Ca) on net <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> CO2 exchange (NEE) of a scrub-oak <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>. The measurements were made in open-top chambers (OTCs) modified to function as open gas-exchange systems. The OTCs enclosed samples of the <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> (ca. 10</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">GRAHAM J. H YMUS; C. R OSS H INKLE</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2003-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">337</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://escholarship.org/uc/item/76c8k4nt?query=Estuar*+AND+Ecolog*"> <span id="translatedtitle">Signatures of Restoration and Management Changes in the Water Quality of a Central <span class="hlt">California</span> Estuary</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In Advances in ecological research: Estuaries, 29, ed. D.B.Historical ecology of a central <span class="hlt">California</span> estuary: 150Ecological signatures of anthropogenically altered tidal exchange in estua- rine <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. Estuaries</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Gee, Alison K.; Wasson, Kerstin; Shaw, Susan L.; Haskins, John</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">338</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/6564655"> <span id="translatedtitle">An <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> modelling approach for deriving water quality criteria</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ecological effects of chemicals on <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> are the result of direct effects of the chemical, determined in single-species toxicity testing, and indirect effects due to ecological interactions between species. <span class="hlt">Current</span> experimental methods to account for such interactions are expensive. Hence, mathematical models of <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> have been proposed as an alternative. The use of these models often requires extensive calibration, which</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">F. De Laender; K. A. C. De Schamphelaere; C. R. Janssen; P. A. Vanrolleghem</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">339</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://cedarcreek.umn.edu/biblio/fulltext/t1824.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mechanisms of plant species impacts on <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> nitrogen cycling</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Plant species are hypothesized to impact <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> nitrogen cycling in two distinctly different ways. First, differences in nitrogen use efficiency can lead to positive feedbacks on the rate of nitrogen cycling. Alternatively, plant species can also control the inputs and losses of nitrogen from <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. Our <span class="hlt">current</span> understanding of litter decomposition shows that most nitrogen present within litter is not</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">J. M. H. Knops; K. L. Bradley; D. A. Wedin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">340</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://perrings.faculty.asu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/Simonit-Perrings-PNAS-2013.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bundling <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services in the Panama Canal watershed</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Bundling <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services in the Panama Canal watershed Silvio Simonit1 and Charles Perrings eco cover change in watersheds affects the supply of a number of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services, including water supply regulation through carbon sequestration. The Panama Canal watershed is <span class="hlt">currently</span> being reforested to protect</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">341</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/59216871"> <span id="translatedtitle">Rust and Beetle Interactions in Pinus albicaulis <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Current</span> mountain pine beetle activity in whitebark pine <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> in the Greater Yellowstone <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> is unprecedented in extent and severity. Dynamics among beetles, white pine blister rust, and climate change are placing this foundation species in a precarious state. Stand- and tree-level data was recorded to quantify how the severity of rust and the presence of an alternate host influence</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Nancy Bockino; Daniel B. Tinker</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">342</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.faculty.virginia.edu/pace/documents/Publications/Lovett%20et%20al%202006%20Ecosystems.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Is Net <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Production Equal to <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Carbon Accumulation?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">COMMENTARY Is Net <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Production Equal to <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Carbon Accumulation? Gary M. Lovett,* Jonathan J. Cole, and Michael L. Pace Institute of <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Studies, Millbrook, New York 12545, USA ABSTRACT Net <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> production (NEP), defined as the difference between gross primary production</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Pace, Michael L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">343</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.geos.ed.ac.uk/homes/paulvg/present/ecosystems_2009.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">"<span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Services, Biodiversity and Poverty Reduction</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">"<span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Services, Biodiversity and Poverty Reduction: Is conservation the answer?" Paul van Centre The University of Edinburgh #12;Our Millennium Challenges? #12;"An <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> is a dynamic complex unit." "<span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> services are the benefits people receive from <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>" (Millennium <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">344</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nps.gov/archive/seki/fire/obj_eco.htm"> <span id="translatedtitle">Objects or <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span>? Giant Sequoia Management in National Parks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This is a 1992 paper on policies and programs aimed at protecting giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum) in the national parks of the <span class="hlt">California</span> Sierra Nevada: Yosemite, Kings Canyon, and Sequoia. The policies have evolved from the protection of individual trees to the preservation of entire <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. National Park Service management strategies for giant sequoia focus on the restoration of native <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> processes. This includes the use of prescribed fire to simulate natural ignitions. Basic research is being carried out to improve our understanding of the factors influencing giant sequoia reproduction, growth, and survival.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">David Parsons</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">345</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=246433"> <span id="translatedtitle">Lakes <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Services Online</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Northeastern lakes provide valuable <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services that benefit residents and visitors and are increasingly important for provisioning of recreational opportunities and amenities. Concurrently, however, population growth threatens lakes by, for instance, increasing nutrient ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">346</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/lsps07.sci.life.oate.ecosystem/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Analyzing an <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this interactive activity adapted from the University of Alberta, identify the living and nonliving things in an <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>. Then look further at the living things to identify the producers, the consumers, and examples of mimicry.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Foundation, Wgbh E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-08-09</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">347</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.actionbioscience.org/environment/longcore_rich.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Light Pollution and <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Artificial light at night acts as a pollutant, with significant and adverse impacts to <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. It can, for example, cause disorientation or act as an unnatural stimulus to wildlife, and disrupt reproduction for many species.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Travis Longcore (University of Southern California; )</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-05-20</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">348</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EOSTr..93S.364S"> <span id="translatedtitle">List identifies threatened <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) announced on 9 September that it will develop a new Red List of <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> that will identify which <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> are vulnerable or endangered. The list, which is modeled on the group's Red List of Threatened Species, could help to guide conservation activities and influence policy processes such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, according to the group. We will assess the status of marine, terrestrial, freshwater, and subterranean <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> at local, regional, and global levels, stated Jon Paul Rodriguez, leader of IUCN's <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> Red List Thematic Group. The assessment can then form the basis for concerted implementation action so that we can manage them sustainably if their risk of collapse is low or restore them if they are threatened and then monitor their recovery.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Showstack, Randy</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-09-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">349</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.era.lib.ed.ac.uk/handle/1842/6380"> <span id="translatedtitle">Monetising cultural <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">ABSTRACT In the context of increasing degradation of the environment, the economic valuation of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services represents an attempt to quantify the contribution of nature to human wellbeing. This approach has been ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Vinci, Igor</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-11-29</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">350</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.B54B..03T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Linking the Response of Annual Grasslands to Warming and Altered Rainfall Across Scales of Gene Expression, Species, and <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Climate change can influence terrestrial <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> at multiple biological levels: gene expression, species, and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>. We are studying <span class="hlt">California</span> grassland mesocosms with seven annual species (five grasses, two forbs) that were started in 2005. In the 2006-2007 growing season, they were exposed to three rainfall treatments (297, 552, and 867 mm y-1) and soil and air temperature (ambient and elevated +4oC) in replicated greenhouses. This presentation will combine plant and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> level results with transcript level analyses associated with key enzymes, such as rubisco and glutamine synthetase (GS). Because rainfall is the dominant climate variable for most processes in this Mediterranean <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>, the effect of warming was strongly mediated by rainfall. In fact, we saw significant interactions between temperature and rainfall treatments at all three biological levels. For example, at the <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> level, warming led to a decrease in aboveground and total NPP under low rainfall, and an increase under high rainfall. For the dominant species, Avena barbata, warming had no effect under high rainfall, but suppressed Avena NPP in low rainfall. At the same time, warmer, wetter conditions accelerated Avena flowering by almost 15 days. This shift in phenology was presaged by observations at the transcript level. Specifically, in the high temperature, high rainfall treatment, the levels of mRNAs for RbcS and GS2 (encoding the small subunit of rubisco and the chloroplastic isoform of GS, respectively) declined while GS1 (encoding the cytosolic isoform of GS) was upregulated several weeks before heading. The transcript level response (along with soil and plant nitrogen data) indicated the leaf had switched from a carbon and nitrogen sink to a source - consistent with more mature plant function and earlier flowering. Soil CO2 respiration also showed strong rain-by-temperature interactions that were due mainly to changes in root response (respiration and/or exudates) rather than in microbial respiration. Overall, the pervasive rain-by-temperature interactions mean that it may be very difficult to predict the effect of warming alone, without accounting for changes in precipitation (in our Mediterranean system). While predictions of warming of 3-6C in the next 100 years are fairly certain, changes in precipitation are much more uncertain, with some forecasts drier and others wetter for a given location. We suggest that uncertainty about future precipitation and the interacting influences of temperature and moisture on <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> are <span class="hlt">currently</span> key limitations in predicting <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> response to climate change, particularly in Mediterranean <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> such as the one studied here.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Torn, M. S.; Bernard, S. M.; Castanha, C.; Fischer, M. L.; Hopkins, F. M.; Placella, S. A.; St. Clair, S. B.; Salve, R.; Sudderth, E.; Herman, D.; Ackerly, D.; Firestone, M. K.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2007-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">351</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.4-h.org/images/youth-development-programs/science/4H2O/Ecosystem%20FINAL.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Exploring an <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">In this ecology activity, learners make a model water-based <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> called a terraqua column. The column (in a large soda bottle) includes pond water, duckweed, sand or gravel, and small snails. Learners observe what happens in their living model and consider such questions as what happens to animals and plants when humans harm an <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>. This activity is aligned to National Science Standards (NS.5-8.3 Life Science).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">National 4-H Council</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2009-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">352</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.cs.purdue.edu/cgvlab/papers/aliaga/i3d11.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Urban <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Design Bedrich Benes</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Urban <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Design Bedrich Benes Michel Abdul Massih Philip Jarvis Purdue University Daniel G. Aliaga Carlos A. Vanegas a) b) c) Figure 1: This example demonstrates the need for urban <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. The image in a) shows a terrain occupied by a wild <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> and b) displays the same <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> grown over</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Aliaga, Daniel G.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">353</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=guitar&id=EJ960784"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">California</span> Dreaming</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">After getting her master's degree from UCLA, Nancy Wills dreamed of starting a school-based guitar program so she could teach students to make music on the instrument she'd loved since she was a kid growing up outside of Yosemite, <span class="hlt">California</span>. She had a strong belief that guitar was perfect for schools, ideal for individualized playing but also</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Olson, Cathy Applefeld</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">354</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.registrar.ucla.edu/archive/catalog/34-35catalog.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">UNIVERSITY OF <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> PUBLISHED AT BERKELEY, <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">UNIVERSITY OF <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> . BULLETIN PUBLISHED AT BERKELEY, <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> THIRD SERIES , VOLUME XXVIII, NUMBER 9, NOVEMBER 1, 1934 GENERAL CATALOGUE 1934'35 UNIVERSITY OF <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> AT LOS ANGELES FOR SALE of the University of Oalifornia 19sd·,86 The administrative bulletins of the University of <span class="hlt">California</span> present infor</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Grether, Gregory</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">355</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.registrar.ucla.edu/archive/catalog/38-39catalog.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">..NIVERSITY OF <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> PUBLISHED AT BERKELEY , <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">..NIVERSITY OF <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> BULLETIN PUBLISHED AT BERKELEY , <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> Volume XXXII September 20 STORE LOSANGELES Price,Twenty-fivecents #12;AdministrativeBulletins of the University of <span class="hlt">California</span> 1938-S9 The administrative bulletins of the University of <span class="hlt">California</span> present infor- mation concerning</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Grether, Gregory</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">356</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.registrar.ucla.edu/archive/catalog/37-38catalog.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">VERSITY OF <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> PUBLISHED AT BERKELEY , <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">VERSITY OF <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> BULLETIN PUBLISHED AT BERKELEY , <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> Volume XXXI . - September 20, 1937 - Number 9 GENERAL CATALOGUE · 1937-36 UNIVERSITY OF <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> AT LOS ANGELES For sale by the STUDENTS' COOPERATIVEBOOS STORE LOS ANGELES Price, Twenty-five cents #12;RSITY OF <span class="hlt">CAL-IFORNIA</span> BULLETIN</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Grether, Gregory</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">357</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.energy.ca.gov/2009publications/CPUC-1000-2009-002/CPUC-1000-2009-002.PDF"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">California</span> Solar Initiative <span class="hlt">California</span> Public Utilities Commission</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Studios.com EBay Headquarters Location: San Jose, CA System Size: 650 kW Installer: SolarCity, installed May 2008<span class="hlt">California</span> Solar Initiative <span class="hlt">California</span> Public Utilities Commission Staff Progress Report January 2009 #12;2 <span class="hlt">California</span> Solar Initiative CPUC Staff Progress Report - January 2009 The <span class="hlt">California</span> Public</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">358</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://sofia.usgs.gov/flaecohist/index.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">South Florida <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> History Project</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> History Project is designed to integrate studies of terrestrial, marine, and freshwater <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> in South Florida. Projects cover Biscayne Bay, Florida Bay, and terrestrial <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. Each project gives an introduction, investigation methods, evidence of past <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> changes, and modern distribution of flora and fauna. Recent <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> history is based on paleontology, palynology, geochemistry, hydrology, and sedimentology as seen in core samples. There are links to open-file reports, salinity maps, a database, poster presentations, and a Kid's Corner.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">359</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=california&pg=3&id=EJ981001"> <span id="translatedtitle">Multicultural Graduation Requirements among <span class="hlt">California</span>'s Community Colleges</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This examination of the <span class="hlt">current</span> status of multicultural education among <span class="hlt">California</span> community colleges emerged from a perspective that the inclusion of multicultural education has become a major goal of <span class="hlt">California</span>'s leaders within the past five years. The literature revealed minority students tend to have lower retention rates because they become</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Hess, Shelly L.; Uerling, Donald F.; Piland, William E.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">360</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.uvm.edu/~dneher/Publications/agroforestysystems.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Soil community composition and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> processes Comparing agricultural <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> with natural <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Soil community composition and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> processes Comparing agricultural <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> with natural <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> D. A. NEHER Department of Biology, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606, USA; E-mail: dneher, nitrogen, pesticides Abstract. Soil organisms play principal roles in several <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> functions, i</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Neher, Deborah A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a 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title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">361</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.com.univ-mrs.fr/~boudouresque/Master_Oceanographie_Biologie_Ecologie_Marine/Cours_BENT_Lejeusne_pub_Tegner.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">IS THERE EVIDENCE FOR LONG-TERM CLIMATIC CHANGE IN SOUTHERN <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> KELP FORESTS?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Evidence for long-term natural change in coastal <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> has to be separated from the effects of in- tense anthropogenic impacts, especially in heavily pop- ulated areas. The kelp forests of southern <span class="hlt">California</span>, highly productive <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> organized around the giant kelp, Mucvocystis pyrijeferu, support a variety of fisheries, and the kelp is harvested for extraction of alginates. Because of the importance</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">MIA J TEGNER; PAUL K DAYTON; PETER B EDWAKDS; KRISTIN L RISER</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">362</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/fs20133023"> <span id="translatedtitle">Fine-grained sediment dispersal along the <span class="hlt">California</span> coast</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Fine-grained sediment (silt and clay) enters coastal waters from rivers, eroding coastal bluffs, resuspension of seabed sediment, and human activities such as dredging and beach nourishment. The amount of sediment in coastal waters is an important factor in ocean <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> health, but little information exists on both the natural and human-driven magnitudes of fine-grained sediment delivery to the coastal zone, its residence time there, and its transport out of the systeminformation upon which to base environmental assessments. To help fill these information gaps, the U.S. Geological Survey has partnered with Federal, State, and local agencies to monitor fine-grained sediment dispersal patterns and fate in the coastal regions of <span class="hlt">California</span>. Results of these studies suggest that the waves and <span class="hlt">currents</span> of many of the nearshore coastal settings of <span class="hlt">California</span> are adequately energetic to transport fine-grained sediment quickly through coastal systems. These findings will help with the management and regulation of fine-grained sediment along the U.S. west coast.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Warrick, Jonathan A.; Storlazzi, Curt D.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">363</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.scs.carleton.ca/shared/research/tech_reports/2010/TR-11-06%20Barrera.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seeding a Security-Enhancing Infrastructure for Multi-market Application <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Seeding a Security-Enhancing Infrastructure for Multi-market Application <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> David Barrera1 only one market; however, social and economic pressures have resulted in multiple-market <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> computing as we know it is <span class="hlt">currently</span> undergoing a transition. The emerging software <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> frequently</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Van Oorschot, Paul</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">364</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.uu.edu/personal/hli/publications/E-learningEcosystem.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">An E-learning <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Based on Cloud Computing Infrastructure Bo Dong1, 2</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">An E-learning <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Based on Cloud Computing Infrastructure Bo Dong1, 2 , Qinghua Zheng1, 2 that an e-learning <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> is the next generation e- learning. However, the <span class="hlt">current</span> models of e-learning <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> lack the support of underlying infrastructures, which can dynamically allocate the required</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li, Haifei</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">365</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://awsassets.wwf.org.za/downloads/22_ecological_risk_assessment__a_tool_for_implementing_an_ecosystem_approach_for_souther.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ecological Risk Assessment: A Tool for Implementing an <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Approach for</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">#12;#12;Ecological Risk Assessment: A Tool for Implementing an <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Approach for Southern <span class="hlt">Current</span> Large Marine <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Programme (BCLME), the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) and Integrating Multiple Demands on Coastal Zones with Emphasis on Aquatic <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> and Fisheries (INCOFISH</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">de Villiers, Marienne</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">366</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=248784"> <span id="translatedtitle">A Binary Approach to Define and Classify Final <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Goods and Services</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services literature decries the lack of consistency and standards in the application of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services as well as the inability of <span class="hlt">current</span> approaches to explicitly link <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services to human well-being. Recently, SEEA and CICES have conceptually identifie...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">367</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/41223580"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> management and environmental policy in the United States: open window or closed door?</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> management is a recent policy alternative proposed to address a new generation of environmental issues. At least 18 federal agencies are <span class="hlt">currently</span> exploring the concept of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> management and its implications for their activities. Each of the major regulatory, land and natural resource management agencies has drafted policy guidance regarding <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> management. And federal sector efforts are just one</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Richard Haeuber</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1998-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">368</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1611689T"> <span id="translatedtitle">Vulnerability and resilience of European <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> towards extreme climatic events: The <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> perspective</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Extremes of meteorological events may but do not have to cause damages in <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. Climate change is expected to have a strong impact on the resilience and stability of <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> worldwide. So far, the impacts of trends and extremes of physical drivers on <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> have generally been studied regardless of the extremeness of the <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> response. We base our analysis on a Probabilistic Risk Assessment concept of Van Oijen et al. (2013) quantifying the vulnerability of vegetation dynamics in relation to the extremeness of meteorological drivers such as temperature, precipitation or drought indices. Here, the definition of extreme, hazardous weather conditions is based on the <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> response. Instead of searching for extreme meteorological events, we define extreme <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> responses in terms of threshold levels of carbon uptake, and search for the meteorological conditions which are responsible. Having defined hazardous events in this way, we quantify the vulnerability or resilience of <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> to such hazards. We apply this approach on results of different vegetation models (such as LPJmL, Orchidee, JSBACH or CLM4) and the forest model BASFOR using climatic input for Europe from the WATCH-ERAI-REMO climate dataset with the SRES A1B emission scenario. Our results show that under <span class="hlt">current</span> climatic conditions, the southern part of Europe already suffers severe heat and drought stress which is reflected in our approach by vulnerability values being high for precipitation, relatively high for the SPEI index, moderately high for temperature and quite high for the consecutive dry days. Thus, hazard occurrence is frequent enough to determine <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> vulnerability but this depends on the definition of the threshold of hazardous <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> responses. Vulnerability values in the Mediterranean increase towards the end of the 21st century for all models indicating that a tipping point towards drought damages has been reached for the chosen climate scenario.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Thonicke, Kirsten; Rolinski, Susanne; Walz, Ariane; von Bloh, Werner; van Oijen, Marcel; Davin, Edouard; Vieli, Barla; Kato, Tomomichi; Beer, Christian</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">369</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1510320R"> <span id="translatedtitle">Estimating the vulnerability of European <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> to extreme events: The <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> perspective</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Extremes of meteorological events may but do not have to cause damages in <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. Climate change is expected to have a strong impact on the productivity and stability of <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> worldwide. So far, the impacts of extreme drivers on <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> have generally been studied regardless of the extremeness of the <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> response. We base our analysis on a Probabilistic Risk Assessment concept of Van Oijen et al. quantifying the vulnerability of vegetation dynamics in relation to the extremeness of meteorological drivers such as temperature or precipitation. Here, the definition of extreme, hazardous weather conditions is based on the <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> response. Hence, instead of searching for extreme meteorological events, we define extreme <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> responses in terms of threshold levels of carbon uptake, and search for the meteorological conditions responsible. Having defined hazardous events in this way, we quantify the vulnerability of <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> to the such hazards. We apply this approach on results of the dynamic process-based vegetation model LPJmL using climatic input for Europe from the WATCH-ERAI-REMO climate scenario with the SRES A1B emission scenario. Our results show that under <span class="hlt">current</span> climatic conditions, the southern part of Europe already suffers severe heat and drought stress which is reflected in our approach by vulnerability values being high for precipitation, relatively high for the SPEI index, moderately high for temperature and quite high for the consecutive dry days. Thus, hazard occurrence is frequent enough to determine <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> vulnerability but this depends on the definition of the threshold of hazardous <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> responses.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rolinski, Susanne; Thonicke, Kirsten; Rammig, Anja; Walz, Ariane; van Oijen, Marcel</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-04-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">370</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=8540"> <span id="translatedtitle">SOUTH FLORIDA <span class="hlt">ECOSYSTEM</span> ASSESSMENT PROJECT: FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT - PHASE I</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The South Florida <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Assessment Project is an innovative, large-scale monitoring and assessment program designed to measure <span class="hlt">current</span> and changing conditions of ecological resources in South Florida using an integrated holistic approach. Using the United States Environmenta...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">371</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=17863"> <span id="translatedtitle">CLIMATE CHANGE AND <span class="hlt">ECOSYSTEMS</span> OF THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This paper discusses the <span class="hlt">current</span> status of forested, wetland, freshwater and coastal <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>; the combined impacts of habitat alteration, pollution and non-native invasive species on those systems; how climatic changes could interact with existing stresses; potential managemen...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">372</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983EnMan...7...65D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Insect pest management in forest <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Understanding the role of insects in forest <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> is vital to the development of environmentally and economically sound pest management strategies in forestry Most of the research on forest insects has been confined to phytophagous species associated with economically important tree species The roles of most other insects in forest environments have generally been ignored, including the natural enemies and associates of phytophagous species identified as being important In the past few years several investigations have begun to reevaluate the role of phytophagous species responsible for perturbation in forest <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, and it appears that these species may be playing an important role in the primary productivity of those <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> Also, there is an increasing awareness that forest pest managers have been treating the symptoms and not the causes of the problems in the forest Many insect problems are associated with poor sites or sites where trees are growing poorly because of crowding As a result, there is considerable emphasis on the hazard rating of stands of trees for their susceptibility to various phytophagous insects The next step is to manipulate forest stands to make them less susceptible to forest pest complexes A thinning study in <span class="hlt">California</span> is used as an example and shows that tree mortality in ponderosa pine ( Pinus ponderosa) attributable to the western pine beetle ( Dendroctonus brevicomis) can be reduced by commercial thinning to reduce stocking</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Dahlsten, Donald L.; Rowney, David L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1983-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">373</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.B51H0446L"> <span id="translatedtitle">A nitrogen mass balance for <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Human activities have greatly altered the global nitrogen cycle and these changes are apparent in water quality, air quality, <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> and human health. However, the relative magnitude of the sources of new reactive nitrogen and the fate of this nitrogen is not well established. Further, the biogeochemical aspects of the nitrogen cycle are often studied in isolation from the economic and social implications of all the transformations of nitrogen. The <span class="hlt">California</span> Nitrogen Assessment is an interdisciplinary project whose aim is evaluating the <span class="hlt">current</span> state of nitrogen science, practice, and policy in the state of <span class="hlt">California</span>. Because of the close proximity of large population centers, highly productive and diverse agricultural lands and significant acreage of undeveloped land, <span class="hlt">California</span> is a particularly interesting place for this analysis. One component of this assessment is developing a mass balance of nitrogen as well as identifying gaps in knowledge and quantifying uncertainty. The main inputs of new reactive nitrogen to the state are 1) synthetic nitrogen fertilizer, 2) biological nitrogen fixation, and 3) atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Permanent losses of nitrogen include 1) gaseous losses (N2, N2O, NHx, NOy), 2) riverine discharge, 3) wastewater discharge to the ocean, and 4) net groundwater recharge. A final term is the balance of food, feed, and fiber to support the human and animal populations. The largest input of new reactive nitrogen to <span class="hlt">California</span> is nitrogen fertilizer, but both nitrogen fixation and atmospheric deposition contribute significantly. Non-fertilizer uses, such as the production of nylon and polyurethane, constitutes about 5% of the synthetic N synthesized production. The total nitrogen fixation in <span class="hlt">California</span> is roughly equivalent on the 400,000 ha of alfalfa and the approximately 40 million ha of natural lands. In addition, even with highly productive agricultural lands, the large population of livestock, in particular dairy cows, requires a net influx of N in feed to the state. In terms of exports, the riverine N loads are smaller than many more mesic climates. Because many of the large population centers are on the coast, N discharged directly from wastewater treatment plants into the ocean is almost four times greater than the N discharge of all of the watersheds in the state combined. Gas losses are estimated through a combination of bottom up approaches using field data, emissions inventories, and numerical models. The largest uncertainties are in emissions of N2 and NH3. Calculated by difference, groundwater N loading represents the largest loss term in the mass balance. Contamination of groundwater with nitrates is a serious concern in many areas of the state. Given the long residence time of groundwater in many aquifers like the Central Valley the <span class="hlt">current</span> and past N inputs to groundwater pose a hazard to drinking water supplies for decades to come. These calculations along with the analysis of management and policy tools will help elucidate the spatial location or activities that would be best to target to reduce the negative consequences of human alteration of the nitrogen cycle.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Liptzin, D.; Dahlgren, R. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">374</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=264177"> <span id="translatedtitle">Postharvest dried apricot color degradation of three <span class="hlt">California</span> apricot accessions</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Californias</span> dry apricot industry has provided high quality products for nearly a century, annually accounting for approximately 20% of available tonnage. The Patterson cultivar <span class="hlt">currently</span> dominates <span class="hlt">California</span> dry apricot sales, but the cultivar is not without faults. Newer cultivars and breeding a...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">375</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://eric.ed.gov/?q=johnson&pg=5&id=ED515619"> <span id="translatedtitle">Pathways for School Finance in <span class="hlt">California</span>. Technical Appendix</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This is a technical appendix for the report, "Pathways for School Finance in <span class="hlt">California</span>" (ED515651). "Pathways for School Finance in <span class="hlt">California</span>" simulates alternatives to <span class="hlt">California</span>'s <span class="hlt">current</span> school finance system. This appendix provides more information about the revenues used in those simulations. The first section describes the districts and</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Rose, Heather; Sonstelie, Jon; Weston, Margaret</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">376</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://academic.research.microsoft.com/Publication/40134832"> <span id="translatedtitle">Ecological Signatures of Anthropogenically Altered Tidal Exchange in Estuarine <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">One of the most conspicuous anthropogenic disturbances to estuaries worldwide has been the alteration of freshwater and tidal\\u000a influence through the construction of water control structures (dikes, tide gates, culverts). Few studies have rigorously\\u000a compared the responses of differing groups of organisms that serve as contrasting conservation targets to such anthropogenic\\u000a disturbances in estuarine <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. Elkhorn Slough in central <span class="hlt">California</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Amy F. Ritter; Kerstin Wasson; Steve I. Lonhart; Rikke K. Preisler; Andrea Woolfolk; Katie A. Griffith; Sarah Connors; Kimberly W. Heiman</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2008-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">377</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://policyinstitute.ucdavis.edu/files/CCST-Transportation.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">California</span>'s Energy Future</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">#12;<span class="hlt">California</span>'s Energy Future: Transportation Energy Use in <span class="hlt">California</span> December 2011 Christopher to a contract between the <span class="hlt">California</span> Energy Commission (CEC) and the <span class="hlt">California</span> Council on Science andTechnology (CCST). It does not represent the views of the CEC, its employees, or the State of <span class="hlt">California</span>. The CEC</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">California at Davis, University of</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">378</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://policyinstitute.ucdavis.edu/files/CCST-biofuels.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">California</span>'s Energy Future</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">#12;<span class="hlt">California</span>'s Energy Future ­ The Potential for Biofuels May 2013 Heather Youngs and Christopher the <span class="hlt">California</span> Energy Commission (CEC) and the <span class="hlt">California</span> Council on Science andTechnology (CCST). It does not represent the views of the CEC, its employees, or the State of <span class="hlt">California</span>. The CEC, the State of <span class="hlt">California</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">California at Davis, University of</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">379</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://arxiv.org/pdf/1202.2429.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Building sustainable <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>-oriented architectures</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">Currently</span>, organizations are transforming their business processes into e-services and service-oriented architectures to improve coordination across sales, marketing, and partner channels, to build flexible and scalable systems, and to reduce integration-related maintenance and development costs. However, this new paradigm is still fragile and lacks many features crucial for building sustainable and progressive computing infrastructures able to rapidly respond and adapt to the always-changing market and environmental business. This paper proposes a novel framework for building sustainable <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span>- Oriented Architectures (EOA) using e-service models. The backbone of this framework is an <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> layer comprising several computing units whose aim is to deliver universal interoperability, transparent communication, automated management, self-integration, self-adaptation, and security to all the interconnected services, components, and devices in the <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>. Overall, the proposed model seeks to deliver a co...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Bassil, Youssef</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">380</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://shipwrecks.slc.ca.gov/"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">California</span> Shipwrecks</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This new site from the <span class="hlt">California</span> State Lands Commission offers a nice collection of resources for actual or armchair underwater archaeologists. The core of the site is a database of over 1500 <span class="hlt">California</span> shipwrecks, searchable by keyword in twelve fields. Search returns include ship's name, type, years built and sunk, cause, owner, captain, length, beam, tonnage, engine, and county. The other major feature at the site is an exhibition on the wreck and recovery of the Brother Jonathan. The exhibit includes the story of the ship and its specifications, a passenger list, a photo exhibit of artifacts and video of the wreck, and some comments on the significance of the archaeological remains. Other sections of the site include brief articles on the sinking of eight ships, video and audio clips, and links to related sites.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' 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onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_10");' href="#">10</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_11");' href="#">11</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_12");' href="#">12</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_13");' href="#">13</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_14");' href="#">14</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_15");' href="#">15</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_16");' href="#">16</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_17");' href="#">17</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_18");' href="#">18</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#">19</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">20</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#">21</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_22");' href="#">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">381</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ARMS....6..439A"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sea Ice <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Polar sea ice is one of the largest <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> on Earth. The liquid brine fraction of the ice matrix is home to a diverse array of organisms, ranging from tiny archaea to larger fish and invertebrates. These organisms can tolerate high brine salinity and low temperature but do best when conditions are milder. Thriving ice algal communities, generally dominated by diatoms, live at the ice/water interface and in recently flooded surface and interior layers, especially during spring, when temperatures begin to rise. Although protists dominate the sea ice biomass, heterotrophic bacteria are also abundant. The sea ice <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> provides food for a host of animals, with crustaceans being the most conspicuous. Uneaten organic matter from the ice sinks through the water column and feeds benthic <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. As sea ice extent declines, ice algae likely contribute a shrinking fraction of the total amount of organic matter produced in polar waters.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Arrigo, Kevin R.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">382</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25386759"> <span id="translatedtitle">Remote sensing of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> health: opportunities, challenges, and future perspectives.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Maintaining a healthy <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> is essential for maximizing sustainable ecological services of the best quality to human beings. Ecological and conservation research has provided a strong scientific background on identifying ecological health indicators and correspondingly making effective conservation plans. At the same time, ecologists have asserted a strong need for spatially explicit and temporally effective <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> health assessments based on remote sensing data. <span class="hlt">Currently</span>, remote sensing of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> health is only based on one <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> attribute: vigor, organization, or resilience. However, an effective <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> health assessment should be a comprehensive and dynamic measurement of the three attributes. This paper reviews opportunities of remote sensing, including optical, radar, and LiDAR, for directly estimating indicators of the three <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> attributes, discusses the main challenges to develop a remote sensing-based spatially-explicit comprehensive <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> health system, and provides some future perspectives. The main challenges to develop a remote sensing-based spatially-explicit comprehensive <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> health system are: (1) scale issue; (2) transportability issue; (3) data availability; and (4) uncertainties in health indicators estimated from remote sensing data. However, the Radarsat-2 constellation, upcoming new optical sensors on Worldview-3 and Sentinel-2 satellites, and improved technologies for the acquisition and processing of hyperspectral, multi-angle optical, radar, and LiDAR data and multi-sensoral data fusion may partly address the <span class="hlt">current</span> challenges. PMID:25386759</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li, Zhaoqin; Xu, Dandan; Guo, Xulin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">383</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4279526"> <span id="translatedtitle">Remote Sensing of <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Health: Opportunities, Challenges, and Future Perspectives</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Maintaining a healthy <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> is essential for maximizing sustainable ecological services of the best quality to human beings. Ecological and conservation research has provided a strong scientific background on identifying ecological health indicators and correspondingly making effective conservation plans. At the same time, ecologists have asserted a strong need for spatially explicit and temporally effective <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> health assessments based on remote sensing data. <span class="hlt">Currently</span>, remote sensing of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> health is only based on one <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> attribute: vigor, organization, or resilience. However, an effective <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> health assessment should be a comprehensive and dynamic measurement of the three attributes. This paper reviews opportunities of remote sensing, including optical, radar, and LiDAR, for directly estimating indicators of the three <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> attributes, discusses the main challenges to develop a remote sensing-based spatially-explicit comprehensive <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> health system, and provides some future perspectives. The main challenges to develop a remote sensing-based spatially-explicit comprehensive <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> health system are: (1) scale issue; (2) transportability issue; (3) data availability; and (4) uncertainties in health indicators estimated from remote sensing data. However, the Radarsat-2 constellation, upcoming new optical sensors on Worldview-3 and Sentinel-2 satellites, and improved technologies for the acquisition and processing of hyperspectral, multi-angle optical, radar, and LiDAR data and multi-sensoral data fusion may partly address the <span class="hlt">current</span> challenges. PMID:25386759</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Li, Zhaoqin; Xu, Dandan; Guo, Xulin</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">384</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/projects/grayslk/index.htm"> <span id="translatedtitle">Grays Lake <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This case study looks at the marsh <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> of Grays Lake in southeast Idaho, and is hosted by the Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC). Grays Lake has been the focus of numerous research studies to understand factors affecting breeding water birds, habitat management practices, populations, and geological factors. This report gives general information about the Grays Lake <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>, including climate, habitats, plant communities, wildlife, water, and geology. More specific details are given through flora and fauna lists, historical and cultural overviews, details about the Grays Lake National Wildlife Refuge, and research information on management of wetlands.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">385</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70042306"> <span id="translatedtitle">Bioenergetics in <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A bioenergetics model for a fish can be defined as a quantitative description of the fishs energy budget. Bioenergetics modeling can be applied to a fish population in a lake, river, or ocean to estimate the annual consumption of food by the fish population; such applications have proved to be useful in managing fisheries. In addition, bioenergetics models have been used to better understand fish growth and consumption in <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, to determine the importance of the role of fish in cycling nutrients within <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, and to identify the important factors regulating contaminant accumulation in fish from lakes, rivers, and oceans.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Madenjian, Charles P.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">386</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6528716"> <span id="translatedtitle">Antarctic terrestrial <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Maritime and Continental Antarctic terrestrial <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> are considered in the context of environmental impacts - habitat destruction, alien introductions, and pollution. Four types of pollution are considered: nutrients, radionuclides, inert materials, and noxious chemicals. Their ability to recover from perturbation is discussed in the light of present scientific knowledge, and the methods used to control impacts are reviewed. It is concluded that techniques of waste disposal are still inadequate, adequate training in environmental and conservation principles for Antarctic personnel in many countries is lacking, and scientific investigations may be a much more serious threat than tourism to the integrity of these <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. Some priorities crucial to future management are suggested.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Walton, D.W.H.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1987-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">387</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/california_san_francisco"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">California</span>: San Francisco Bay</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href=""></a></p> <p class="result-summary">article title: Northern <span class="hlt">California</span> and San Francisco Bay ... 17, 2000 (MISR) and August 25, 1997 (AirMISR) - Northern <span class="hlt">California</span> and the San Francisco Bay. project: MISR ... date: Aug 17, 2000 Images: <span class="hlt">California</span> San Francisco Bay location: United States ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-05-15</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">388</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.energy.ca.gov/2009publications/CEC-600-2009-008/CEC-600-2009-008-CTD.PDF"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> INVESTMENT PLAN FOR</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> ENERGY COMMISSION INVESTMENT PLAN FOR THE ALTERNATIVE AND RENEWABLE FUEL was prepared by the <span class="hlt">California</span> Energy Commission's Transportation Committee as part of the Alternative-2009-008-CTD Arnold Schwarzenegger, Governor #12;#12;<span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> ENERGY COMMISSION</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">389</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMIN51A1689D"> <span id="translatedtitle">Enabling the Integrated Assessment of Large Marine <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span>: Informatics to the Forefront of Science-Based Decision Support</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Integrated assessments of large marine <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> require the understanding of interactions between environmental, ecological, and socio-economic factors that affect production and utilization of marine natural resources. Assessing the functioning of complex coupled natural-human systems calls for collaboration between natural and social scientists across disciplinary and national boundaries. We are developing a platform to implement and sustain informatics solutions for these applications, providing interoperability among very diverse and heterogeneous data and information sources, as well as multi-disciplinary organizations and people. We have partnered with NOAA NMFS scientists to facilitate the deployment of an integrated <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> approach to management in the Northeast U.S. (NES) and <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> Large Marine <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> (LMEs). Our platform will facilitate the collaboration and knowledge sharing among NMFS natural and social scientists, promoting community participation in integrating data, models, and knowledge. Here, we present collaborative software tools developed to aid the production of the <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Status Report (ESR) for the NES LME. The ESR addresses the D-P-S portion of the DPSIR (Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response) management framework: reporting data, indicators, and information products for climate drivers, physical and human (fisheries) pressures, and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> state (primary and secondary production and higher trophic levels). We are developing our tools in open-source software, with the main tool based on a web application capable of providing the ability to work on multiple data types from a variety of sources, providing an effective way to share the source code used to generate data products and associated metadata as well as track workflow provenance to allow in the reproducibility of a data product. Our platform retrieves data, conducts standard analyses, reports data quality and other standardized metadata, provides iterative and interactive visualization, and enables the download of data plotted in the ESR. Data, indicators, and information products include time series, geographic maps, and uni-variate and multi-variate analyses. Also central to the success of this initiative is the commitment to accommodate and train scientists of multiple disciplines who will learn to interact effectively with this new integrated and interoperable <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> assessment capability. Traceability, repeatability, explanation, verification, and validation of data, indicators, and information products are important for cross-disciplinary understanding and sharing with managers, policymakers, and the public. We are also developing an ontology to support the implementation of the DPSIR framework. These new capabilities will serve as the essential foundation for the formal synthesis and quantitative analysis of information on relevant natural and socio-economic factors in relation to specified <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> management goals which can be applied in other LMEs.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Di Stefano, M.; Fox, P. A.; Beaulieu, S. E.; Maffei, A. R.; West, P.; Hare, J. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">390</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMNH33A1640R"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">California</span> Tsunami Policy Working Group</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary"><span class="hlt">California</span> has established a Tsunami Policy Working Group of specialists from government and industry, from diverse fields including tsunami, seismic, and flood hazards, local and regional planning, structural engineering, natural hazard policy, and coastal engineering that have come together to facilitate the development of policy recommendations for tsunami hazard mitigation. The group is acting on findings from two major efforts: the USGS SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) Project - Tsunami Scenario, a comprehensive impact analysis of a large credible tsunami originating from a M 9.0 earthquake on the Aleutian Islands striking <span class="hlt">California</span>'s Coastline, and the State's Tsunami Hazard Mitigation and Education Program carried out by the <span class="hlt">California</span> Emergency Management Agency and the <span class="hlt">California</span> Geological Survey. The latter program is <span class="hlt">currently</span> involved with several projects to help coastal communities reduce their tsunami risk, including two pilot projects (Crescent City in Del Norte County and the City of Huntington Beach in Orange County) where tsunami risk is among the highest in <span class="hlt">California</span>, and a third pilot study focusing on the maritime community. The pilot projects are developing and testing probabilistic tsunami hazard products that will assist land-use and construction decisions for coastal development. The role of the policy group is to identify gaps and issues in <span class="hlt">current</span> tsunami hazard mitigation, make recommendations that will help eliminate these impediments and to provide advice that will assist in the development and implementation of effective tsunami hazard products that will help coastal communities improve tsunami resiliency.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Real, C. R.; Johnson, L. A.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2012-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">391</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED450293.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">California</span> School Psychologist, 2000.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This publication of the <span class="hlt">California</span> Association of School Psychologists reflects a broad array of topics for those who serve a diverse group of students with a range of needs. The articles in this volume address several <span class="hlt">current</span> topics, including cognitive assessment with bilingual students; cultural considerations when working with parents;</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jimerson, Shane R., Ed.; Wilson, Marilyn, Ed.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">392</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED469197.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">California</span> School Psychologist, 2002.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This volume of the journal for the <span class="hlt">California</span> Association of School Psychologists provides <span class="hlt">current</span> information on a broad array of topics related to the work of school psychologists. Articles in this volume provide information addressing an assortment of important issues in the field, including: the translations and validation of an assessment for</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jimerson, Shane R., Ed.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">393</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.energy.ca.gov/2006publications/CEC-500-2006-087/CEC-500-2006-087.PDF"> <span id="translatedtitle">Arnold Schwarzenegger THE CENTRAL <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor THE CENTRAL <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> OZONE STUDY Prepared For: <span class="hlt">California</span> Energy Commission Public Interest Energy Research Program Prepared By: <span class="hlt">California</span> Air Resources Board Planning and Technical Support Division <span class="hlt">California</span> Air Resources Board <span class="hlt">California</span> Environmental Protection</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">394</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.energy.ca.gov/2006publications/CEC-500-2006-119/CEC-500-2006-119-D.PDF"> <span id="translatedtitle">Arnold Schwarzenegger <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> OCEAN WAVE</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> OCEAN WAVE ENERGY ASSESSMENT Prepared For: <span class="hlt">California</span> this report as follows: Previsic, Mirko. 2006. <span class="hlt">California</span> Ocean Wave Energy Assessment. <span class="hlt">California</span> Energy Systems Integration · Transportation <span class="hlt">California</span> Ocean Wave Energy Assessment is the final report</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">395</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/44978"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">California</span>'s electricity crisis</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The collapse of <span class="hlt">California</span>'s electricity restructuring and competition program has attracted attention around the world. Prices in <span class="hlt">California</span>'s competitive wholesale electricity market increased by 500% between the second ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Joskow, Paul L.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2001-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">396</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ableweb.org/volumes/vol-4/8-leonard.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Energetics of an Aquatic <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This activity is meant to give students an understanding of aquatic <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> and the processes and concepts that they are composed of and to give students a feel for how <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> affect the larger community.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">William H. Leonard (University of Nebraska;)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1982-06-21</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">397</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=191351"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Restoration Research at GWERD</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ground Water and <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> Restoration Division, Ada, OK Mission: Conduct research and technical assistance to provide the scientific basis to support the development of strategies and technologies to protect and restore ground water, surface water, and <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> impacted b...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">398</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008oibi.book..309K"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Vehicle <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Ubiquitous computing in the vehicle industry has primarily focused on sensor data serving different ubiquitous on-board services (e.g., crash detection, antilock brake systems, or air conditioning). These services mainly address vehicle drivers while driving. However, in view of the role of vehicles in today's society, it goes without saying that vehicles relate to more than just the driver or occupants; they are part of a larger <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>, including traffic participants, authorities, customers and the like. To serve the <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> with ubiquitous services based on vehicle sensor data, there is a need for an open information infrastructure that enables service development close to the customer. This paper presents results from a research project on designing such an infrastructure at a major European vehicle manufacturer. Our empirical data shows how the vehicle manufacturer's conceptualization of services disagrees with the needs of vehicle stakeholders in a more comprehensive vehicle <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>. In light of this, we discuss the effect on information infrastructure design and introduce the distinction between information infrastructure as product feature and service facilitator. In a more general way, we highlight the importance of information infrastructure to contextualize the vehicle as part of a larger <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> and thus support open innovation.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Kuschel, Jonas</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">399</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://el.erdc.usace.army.mil/wots/webinar/Conyngham_WOTS_Webinar-Monitoring.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Monitoring forg <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Restoration</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">,...assessing project performance, determining whether ecological success has been achieved, or whether adaptive authorized projects, andpp , p y p j , other programmatic authorities Development of a monitoring plan management. BUILDING STRONG® #12;Section 2039-Monitoring <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> R t tiRestoration The plan must specify</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">US Army Corps of Engineers</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">400</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://apps.usd.edu/esci/exams/ecosyst.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Global <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This site contains 11 questions on the topic of <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, which covers food chains and organism characteristics. This is part of the Principles of Earth Science course at the University of South Dakota. Users submit an answer and are provided immediate verification.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Timothy Heaton</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' 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id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");' href="#" title="Previous Page"> <img id="PreviousPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.previous.18x20.png" alt="Previous Page" /></a> <span id="PageLinks" class="pageLinks"> <span> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#">1</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_2");' href="#">2</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_3");' href="#">3</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_4");' href="#">4</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_5");' href="#">5</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_6");' href="#">6</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_7");' href="#">7</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_8");' href="#">8</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_9");' href="#">9</a> <a onClick='return 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src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">401</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://concord.org/stem-resources/experiment-ecosystems"> <span id="translatedtitle">Experiment with <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The goal of this activity is to give students the opportunity to think like a scientist, making hypotheses, doing experiments, making observations, and analyzing data. Students are encouraged to construct and conduct their own experiments with <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> comprising grass, rabbits, and up to two predator species: hawks and foxes. (Evolution Readiness Activity 10 of 10.)</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Consortium, The C.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2011-12-11</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">402</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://euro.ecom.cmu.edu/resources/elibrary/epay/MobileProximity.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">MOBILE PROXIMITY PAYMENT: <span class="hlt">ECOSYSTEM</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">MOBILE PROXIMITY PAYMENT: <span class="hlt">ECOSYSTEM</span> AND OVERVIEW OF NFC TECHNOLOGY 1. Introduction Handsets confirm topic in the mobile payment field and promises a revolution in the world of payments. This article traces the state-of-the-art in mobile proximity payment field and traces the most probable evolution</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Shamos, Michael I.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">403</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.gullivermedia.com.au/resources-for-schools/for-schools.php"> <span id="translatedtitle">Living Landscape Australian <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This site provides access to the 10 episodes of "The Living Landscape an Australian <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> Series" produced by Gulliver Media and Education Queensland. This series previously aired on ABC TV in the "For Schools" slot. The episodes run between 15 minutes and 22 minutes each. Still images from the series are also available for download.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">404</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://woodshole.er.usgs.gov/project-pages/coast-enviro/boseco/Default.htm"> <span id="translatedtitle">Boston Harbor <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This United States Geological Survey (USGS) site is designed to summarize and make available results of scientific research conducted in Boston Harbor, Massachusetts since 1985. A computer image of the harbor indicates <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> zones with descriptions (watershed, estuary, inner shelf, and basin), sewage outfall sites, and rock types. Links are provided for more information on this region.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">405</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21141670"> <span id="translatedtitle">Biocomplexity in mangrove <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Mangroves are an ecological assemblage of trees and shrubs adapted to grow in intertidal environments along tropical coasts. Despite repeated demonstration of their economic and societal value, more than 50% of the world's mangroves have been destroyed, 35% in the past two decades to aquaculture and coastal development, altered hydrology, sea-level rise, and nutrient overenrichment. Variations in the structure and function of mangrove <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> have generally been described solely on the basis of a hierarchical classification of the physical characteristics of the intertidal environment, including climate, geomorphology, topography, and hydrology. Here, we use the concept of emergent properties at multiple levels within a hierarchical framework to review how the interplay between specialized adaptations and extreme trait plasticity that characterizes mangroves and intertidal environments gives rise to the biocomplexity that distinguishes mangrove <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. The traits that allow mangroves to tolerate variable salinity, flooding, and nutrient availability influence <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> processes and ultimately the services they provide. We conclude that an integrated research strategy using emergent properties in empirical and theoretical studies provides a holistic approach for understanding and managing mangrove <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. PMID:21141670</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Feller, I C; Lovelock, C E; Berger, U; McKee, K L; Joye, S B; Ball, M C</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">406</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://actionbioscience.org/environment/esa.html"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Services: A Primer</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The issue-focused reprint explains how natural <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> produce services upon which we are dependent. For example, they: provide us with clean water and air, pollinate our crops and disperse seeds, protect us from extreme weather and ultraviolet light, and control pests and disease-carrying organisms.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Ecological Society of America (;)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2000-06-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">407</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4238378"> <span id="translatedtitle">Microbial and biogeochemical responses to projected future nitrate enrichment in the <span class="hlt">California</span> upwelling system</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Coastal <span class="hlt">California</span> is a dynamic upwelling region where nitrogen (N) and iron (Fe) can both limit productivity and influence biogeochemistry over different spatial and temporal scales. With global change, the flux of nitrate from upwelling is expected to increase over the next century, potentially driving additional oceanic regions toward Fe limitation. In this study we explored the effect of changes in Fe/N ratio on native phytoplankton from five <span class="hlt">currently</span> Fe-replete sites near the major <span class="hlt">California</span> upwelling centers at Bodega Bay and Monterey Bay using nutrient addition incubation experiments. Despite the high nitrate levels (1330 ? M) in the upwelled water, phytoplankton at three of the five sites showed increased growth when 10 ? M nitrate was added. None of the sites showed enhanced growth following addition of 10 nM Fe. Nitrate additions favored slow sinking single-celled diatoms over faster sinking chain-forming diatoms, suggesting that future increases in nitrate flux could affect carbon and silicate export and alter grazer populations. In particular, solitary cells of Cylindrotheca were more abundant than the toxin-producing genus Pseudonitzschia following nitrate addition. These responses suggest the biogeochemistry of coastal <span class="hlt">California</span> could change in response to future increases in nitrate, and multiple stressors like ocean acidification and hypoxia may further result in <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> shifts. PMID:25477873</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Mackey, Katherine R. M.; Chien, Chia-Te; Paytan, Adina</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">408</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.mykoweb.com/CAF/intro.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Fungi of <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This site was developed by two individuals with a strong interest in fungi and is intended to augment published field guides with numerous color photos of each species and frequent updates to taxonomy and nomenclature. The site includes only species that are found in <span class="hlt">California</span>; however, many of these species may be found in other parts of North America. The site's <span class="hlt">current</span> 357 species are easy to navigate through its alphabetical listing of scientific name. Those users unfamiliar with scientific names will appreciate the simplified key that uses diagrams and descriptions to identify groups of fungi fitting certain characteristics.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">409</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.fs.fed.us/psw/publications/documents/gtr-133/chap4.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">California</span> Spotted Owl: General Biology and Ecological Relations</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Understanding a species' ecology and life history and its role in <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> functions is vital to successful management of that species. The extent to which this understanding is compre- hensive and correct is also critical. This chapter emphasizes life history elements and ecological relations of the <span class="hlt">California</span> spot- ted owl that bear directly on planning for its management. In that</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Jared Verner; R. J. Gutirrez; Gordon I. Gould</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1992-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">410</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.werc.usgs.gov/sandiego/pdfs/Fisher_etal1996con_bio_amphibs.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Decline of Amphibians in <span class="hlt">California</span>'s Great Central Valley</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://academic.research.microsoft.com/">Microsoft Academic Search </a></p> <p class="result-summary">Declines in amphibian populations are rarely reported on the community or <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> level. We combined broad-scale field sampling with historical analyses of museum records to quantify amphibian de- clines in <span class="hlt">California</span>'s Great Central Valley. Overall, amphibians showed an unambiguous pattern of decline, although the intensity of decline varied both geographically and taxonomically. The greatest geographical de- cline was detected in</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Robert N. Fisher; H. Bradley Shaffer</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1996-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">411</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/gip153"> <span id="translatedtitle">Seafloor off Lighthouse Point Park, Santa Cruz, <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The seafloor off Lighthouse Point Park, Santa Cruz, <span class="hlt">California</span>, is extremely varied, with sandy flats, boulder fields, faults, and complex bedrock ridges. These ridges support rich marine <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>; some of them form the "reefs" that produce world-class surf breaks. Colors indicate seafloor depth, from red-orange (about 2 meters or 7 feet) to magenta (25 meters or 82 feet).</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Storlazzi, Curt; Golden, Nadine E.; Gibbons, Helen</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">412</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23967206"> <span id="translatedtitle">Using seabird habitat modeling to inform marine spatial planning in central <span class="hlt">California</span>'s National Marine Sanctuaries.</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Understanding seabird habitat preferences is critical to future wildlife conservation and threat mitigation in <span class="hlt">California</span>. The objective of this study was to investigate drivers of seabird habitat selection within the Gulf of the Farallones and Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuaries to identify areas for targeted conservation planning. We used seabird abundance data collected by the Applied <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Studies Program (ACCESS) from 2004-2011. We used zero-inflated negative binomial regression to model species abundance and distribution as a function of near surface ocean water properties, distances to geographic features and oceanographic climate indices to identify patterns in foraging habitat selection. We evaluated seasonal, inter-annual and species-specific variability of at-sea distributions for the five most abundant seabirds nesting on the Farallon Islands: western gull (Larus occidentalis), common murre (Uria aalge), Cassin's auklet (Ptychorampus aleuticus), rhinoceros auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata) and Brandt's cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatus). The waters in the vicinity of Cordell Bank and the continental shelf east of the Farallon Islands emerged as persistent and highly selected foraging areas across all species. Further, we conducted a spatial prioritization exercise to optimize seabird conservation areas with and without considering impacts of <span class="hlt">current</span> human activities. We explored three conservation scenarios where 10, 30 and 50 percent of highly selected, species-specific foraging areas would be conserved. We compared and contrasted results in relation to existing marine protected areas (MPAs) and the future alternative energy footprint identified by the <span class="hlt">California</span> Ocean Uses Atlas. Our results show that the majority of highly selected seabird habitat lies outside of state MPAs where threats from shipping, oil spills, and offshore energy development remain. This analysis accentuates the need for innovative marine spatial planning efforts and provides a foundation on which to build more comprehensive zoning and management in <span class="hlt">California</span>'s National Marine Sanctuaries. PMID:23967206</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">McGowan, Jennifer; Hines, Ellen; Elliott, Meredith; Howar, Julie; Dransfield, Andrea; Nur, Nadav; Jahncke, Jaime</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">413</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/eimsapi.dispdetail?deid=130928"> <span id="translatedtitle">COUNTERACTING <span class="hlt">ECOSYSTEM</span> LOSSES DUE TO DEVELOPMENT</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Interventions into <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> to develop the built/socio-physical environment involve normative decisions regarding human well-being that inevitably compromise <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> capacities, but <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> sustainability is conditioned by properties established by <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> and unrelated ...</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">414</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://ocean.mit.edu/~mick/download/Follows-ModelingMarineEcosys.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Modelling Marine <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> Mick Follows</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Modelling Marine <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> Mick Follows Dept of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology http://ocean.mit.edu/~mick/Downloads.html #12;What is the marine <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>?What is the marine <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>? · Food webFood web · Focus onFocus on phytoplanktonphytoplankton Bacteria, archaea #12</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Follows, Mick</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">415</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.phys.unsw.edu.au/~mgb/Bibliography/iau213_ecosystem_poster.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">The Galactic <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Michael Burton</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The Galactic <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Michael Burton School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Australia. THE UNIVERSITY OF NEW SOUTH WALES DEPARTMENT OF ASTROPHYSICS SCHOOL OF PHYSICS Abstract <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> are systems. <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> operate autonomously, by a process of self-regulation. Their flows of energy mean they cannot</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Burton, Michael</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">416</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.nationalgeographic.com/xpeditions/lessons/08/g35/antarctica.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">Antarctica: A Cold Desert <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This Antarctica lesson has students locate the continent on a globe and on a map, describe and illustrate major Antarctic <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, and explain relationships between those <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. They will also construct a rough map of Antarctic <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> and explore relationships among the creatures that populate them. This lesson can be adapted to focus on other regions, including the one in which students live.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">417</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.fs.fed.us/psw/publications/documents/psw_gtr183/psw_gtr183_000_toc.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Proceedings of a Symposium on the Kings River Sustainable Forest <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> Project: Progress</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">and <span class="hlt">Current</span> Status January 26, 1998 Clovis, <span class="hlt">California</span> Technical Editor: Jared Verner Contents Preface.................................................................................... 1 Jared Verner and Mark T. Smith A Landscape Analysis Plan</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Standiford, Richard B.</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">418</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.energy.ca.gov/2008publications/CPUC-1000-2008-020/CPUC-1000-2008-020.PDF"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">California</span> Solar Initiative <span class="hlt">California</span> Public Utilities Commission</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Cover Photo Credits: Photographer: Andrew McKinney Name of Installer: Marin Solar System owner: Zerull Location: San Rafael, CA System size: 14 kW Funded by the <span class="hlt">California</span> Solar Initiative <span class="hlt">California</span> Solar Initiative <span class="hlt">California</span> Public Utilities Commission Staff Progress Report</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">419</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3579441"> <span id="translatedtitle">Spatio-temporal history of the disjunct family Tecophilaeaceae: a tale involving the colonization of three Mediterranean-type <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Background and Aims Tecophilaeaceae (27 species distributed in eight genera) have a disjunct distribution in <span class="hlt">California</span>, Chile and southern and tropical mainland Africa. Moreover, although the family mainly occurs in arid <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, it has colonized three Mediterranean-type <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. In this study, the spatio-temporal history of the family is examined using DNA sequence data from six plastid regions. Methods Modern methods in divergence time estimation (BEAST), diversification (LTT and GeoSSE) and biogeography (LAGRANGE) are applied to infer the evolutionary history of Tecophilaeaceae. To take into account dating and phylogenetic uncertainty, the biogeographical inferences were run over a set of dated Bayesian trees and the analyses were constrained according to palaeogeographical evidence. Key Results The analyses showed that the <span class="hlt">current</span> distribution and diversification of the family were influenced primarily by the break up of Gondwana, separating the family into two main clades, and the establishment of a Mediterranean climate in Chile, coinciding with the radiation of Conanthera. Finally, unlike many other groups, no shifts in diversification rates were observed associated with the dispersals in the Cape region of South Africa. Conclusions Although modest in size, Tecophilaeaceae have a complex spatio-temporal history. The family is now most diverse in arid <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> in southern Africa, but is expected to have originated in sub-tropical Africa. It has subsequently colonized Mediterranean-type <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, but well before the onset of the Mediterranean climate in these regions. Only one lineage, genus Conanthera, has apparently diversified to any extent under the impetus of a Mediterranean climate. PMID:23277471</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Buerki, Sven; Manning, John C.; Forest, Flix</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2013-01-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">420</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/01/01/61/60/PDF/Chouvelon_et_al_2014_ICES_J_MAR_SCI.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Species-and size-related patterns in stable isotopes and mercury concentrations in fish help refine marine <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> indicators and provide evidence for distinct management</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">refine marine <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> indicators and provide evidence for distinct management units for hake could be helpful in refining <span class="hlt">currently</span> proposed indicators of marine <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, and also help Directive (MSFD) that aims at implementing an <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>-based management of European marine <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Paris-Sud XI, Université de</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div id="filter_results_form" class="filter_results_form floatContainer" style="visibility: visible;"> <div style="width:100%" id="PaginatedNavigation" class="paginatedNavigationElement"> <a id="FirstPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");' href="#" title="First Page"> <img id="FirstPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.first.18x20.png" alt="First Page" /></a> <a id="PreviousPageLink" onclick='return 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href="#">21</a> <a style="font-weight: bold;">22</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#">23</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_24");' href="#">24</a> <a onClick='return showDiv("page_25");' href="#">25</a> </span> </span> <a id="NextPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");' href="#" title="Next Page"> <img id="NextPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.next.18x20.png" alt="Next Page" /></a> <a id="LastPageLink" onclick='return showDiv("page_25.0");' href="#" title="Last Page"> <img id="LastPageLinkImage" class="Icon" src="http://www.science.gov/scigov/images/icon.last.18x20.png" alt="Last Page" /></a> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">421</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMOS12A..01C"> <span id="translatedtitle">Utilizing <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Information to Improve Decision Support Systems for Marine Fisheries (Invited)</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Successful ecological forecasting of fishery yields has eluded resource managers for decades. However, recent advances in observing systems, computational power and understanding of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> function offer credible evidence that the variability of the ocean <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> and its impact on fishery yield can be forecast accurately enough and with enough lead time to be useful to society. Advances in space-based real time sensors, high performance computing, very high-resolution physical models, and robust <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> theory make possible operational forecasts of both fish availability and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> health. Accurate and timely forecasts can provide the information needed to maintain the long-term sustainability of fish stocks and protect the <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> of which the fish are an integral part, while maximizing social and economic benefits and preventing wasteful overinvestment of economic resources. Here we review progress in improving the decision support systems by forecasting two marine fisheries: 1) the coastal Peru small pelagic fishery and 2) the central <span class="hlt">California</span> salmon fishery.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Chavez, F.; Chai, F.; Chao, Y.; Wells, B.; Safari Team</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2010-12-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">422</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.registrar.ucla.edu/archive/catalog/27-28catalog.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">UNIVERSITY OF <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> ANNOUNCEMENT</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">UNIVERSITY OF <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> ANNOUNCEMENT b OF THE University of Californiaat Los Angeles FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR, 1927-28 SEPTEMBER, 1927 UNIVERSITY OF <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> PRESS BERKELEY , <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> For Sale of this Announcement, see No. 3 below. For the Catalogue of Officers and Students, Section II, University of <span class="hlt">California</span></p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Grether, Gregory</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">423</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.energy.ca.gov/2007publications/CEC-100-2007-005/CEC-100-2007-005-F.PDF"> <span id="translatedtitle">NUCLEAR POWER in <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">NUCLEAR POWER in <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span>: 2007 STATUS REPORT <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> ENERGY COMMISSION October 2007 CEC-100, <span class="hlt">California</span> Contract No. 700-05-002 Prepared For: <span class="hlt">California</span> Energy Commission Barbara Byron, Senior Nuclear public workshops on nuclear power. The Integrated Energy Policy Report Committee, led by Commissioners</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">424</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.energy.ca.gov/2005publications/CEC-700-2005-011/CEC-700-2005-011-SF.PDF"> <span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">California</span>'s Water Energy Relationship</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">1 <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> ENERGY COMMISSION <span class="hlt">California</span>'s Water ­ Energy Relationship Prepared in Support The <span class="hlt">California</span>'s Water-Energy Relationship report is the product of contributions by many <span class="hlt">California</span> Energy, Lorraine White and Zhiqin Zhang. Staff would also like to thank the members of the Water-Energy Working</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">425</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.sfei.org/sites/default/files/Aquatic_Herbicide_Impacts.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of Potential Aquatic Herbicide Impacts to <span class="hlt">California</span> Aquatic <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.osti.gov/epsearch/">E-print Network</a></p> <p class="result-summary">of Pesticide Regulation (DPR) (Table 1). The active ingredi- ents found in many aquatic herbicides are the same ingredient and any adjuvants) usually differ. For example, a terrestrial-use form of gly- phosate, known) that registration and labeling of aquatic pesticides under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">426</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16422526"> <span id="translatedtitle">[Research advances in <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> flux].</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p class="result-summary">To develop the long-term localized observation and investigation on <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> flux is of great importance. On the basis of generalizing the concepts and connotations of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> flux, this paper introduced the construction and development histories of Global Flux Networks, Regional Flux Networks (Ameri-Flux, Euro-Flux and Asia-Flux) and China-Flux, as well as the main methodologies, including micrometeorological methods (such as eddy correlation method, mass balance method, energy balance method and air dynamic method)and chamber methods (static and dynamic chamber methods), and their basic operation principles. The research achievements, approaches and advances of CO2, N2O, CH4, and heat fluxes in forest <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>, farmland <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>, grassland <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> and water <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> were also summarized. In accordance with the realities and necessities of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> flux research in China, some suggestions and prospects were put forward. PMID:16422526</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Zhang, Xudong; Peng, Zhenhua; Qi, Lianghua; Zhou, Jinxing</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2005-10-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">427</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.mojavedata.gov/"> <span id="translatedtitle">Mojave Desert <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Project</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">A Department of Defense (DOD) program, the Mojave <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Database Program (MEDP) represents the DOD's "first attempt to meld together a shared scientific database that can be used to affect dynamic sustainable land management decisions." Although the mission statement of MEDP reflects a somewhat oxymoronic goal, e.g., maintaining "critical DOD installations within the Mojave Desert <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> ... while protecting the environment," the site nevertheless represents an opportunity for researchers to access environmental models and potentially influence land management within the Mojave Ecoregion. The searchable site offers information about and/or access to Geospatial Data, Metadata, Geomorphic Landform Data, and a Spatial Bibliography, among other regional resources. An excellent selection of links points users to a wealth of additional and variously detailed (governmental) information.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">428</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.accessexcellence.org/AE/AEC/AEF/1995/freeman_ecosystem.php"> <span id="translatedtitle">Building an <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">This activity is designed to follow our students from grade 7 - 12. Each year adds to or builds upon previous years. The project is centered around a 400 gallon, 4 tank system which is placed in sunlight in the lobby of our science building. It was seeded with water from nearby rivers, lakes, ponds, and creeks. The only mechanical part is a pump which returns water from tank 4 back to tank 1. This aquatic <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> is a constant, woven through the curriculum as students progress through science. At the end of 3-5 science courses students have greater awareness of the role of detritivores and decomposers in the cycling of matter and understand how human activities may upset the balance in an <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>. One goal is for students to see the relationship between what is studied in a classroom and the real world; another is for them to understand the role of wetlands in making water suitable to sustain life.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Charlotte C. Freeman (Girls Preparatory School REV)</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">1995-06-30</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">429</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://www.sciencenetlinks.com/lessons.cfm?BenchmarkID=5&DocID=79"> <span id="translatedtitle">Managing the Everglades <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">The purpose of this Science NetLinks lesson is to explore the Everglades <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> using the Internet; to develop an understanding about conservation of resources in the context of the Everglades; explore relationships between species and habitats; and develop an understanding of how human beings have altered the equilibrium in the Everglades. This lesson uses the Internet to explore the Everglades <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> using the resources on the Everglades National Park website. It uses the Internet to provide students with experiences that they may not be able to acquire firsthand. The activities are based on the website of the Everglades National Park. This investigation is most appropriate for a 9th or 10th grade biology class.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Science Netlinks;</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2002-05-04</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">430</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014NatSR...4E4444W"> <span id="translatedtitle">Sound management may sequester methane in grazed rangeland <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span></span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Considering their contribution to global warming, the sources and sinks of methane (CH4) should be accounted when undertaking a greenhouse gas inventory for grazed rangeland <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mitigation potential of <span class="hlt">current</span> ecological management programs implemented in the main rangeland regions of China. The influences of rangeland improvement, utilization and livestock production on CH4 flux/emission were assessed to estimate CH4 reduction potential. Results indicate that the grazed rangeland <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> is <span class="hlt">currently</span> a net source of atmospheric CH4. However, there is potential to convert the <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> to a net sink by improving management practices. Previous assessments of capacity for CH4 uptake in grazed rangeland <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> have not considered improved livestock management practices and thus underestimated potential for CH4 uptake. Optimal fertilization, rest and light grazing, and intensification of livestock management contribute mitigation potential significantly.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author">Wang, Chengjie; Han, Guodong; Wang, Shiping; Zhai, Xiajie; Brown, Joel; Havstad, Kris M.; Ma, Xiuzhi; Wilkes, Andreas; Zhao, Mengli; Tang, Shiming; Zhou, Pei; Jiang, Yuanyuan; Lu, Tingting; Wang, Zhongwu; Li, Zhiguo</p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate">2014-03-01</p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result odd" lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">431</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://cluster3.lib.berkeley.edu/EART/browse.html"> <span id="translatedtitle">University of <span class="hlt">California</span> Digital Map Collection</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://nsdl.org/nsdl_dds/services/ddsws1-1/service_explorer.jsp">NSDL National Science Digital Library</a></p> <p class="result-summary">Since the Scout Report last visited the Digital Map Collection at the University of <span class="hlt">California</span>, there have been many worthy additions to this cartographic cornucopia. The maps are both historic and contemporary, and they include zoning maps, land use maps, historic maps of the state's coastline, and so on. Visitors can elect to browse all of the <span class="hlt">California</span> digital maps, or the non-<span class="hlt">California</span> digital maps here. <span class="hlt">Currently</span>, there are over 475 <span class="hlt">California</span> maps, and visitors can browse the offerings by call number title, keyword, title, and more. On the non-<span class="hlt">California</span> side of things, there are over 10,000 maps, and they deal with just about every topic under the geographical sun. The site is rounded out by a list of digital topographic map sets, and a link to a more specialized search engine for the maps.</p> <div class="credits"> <p class="dwt_author"></p> <p class="dwt_publisher"></p> <p class="publishDate"></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="floatContainer result " lang="en"> <div class="resultNumber element">432</div> <div class="resultBody element"> <p class="result-title"><a target="resultTitleLink" href="http://science.gov/scigov/link.html?type=RESULT&redirectUrl=http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED510167.pdf"> <span id="translatedtitle">Leaders for <span class="hlt">California</span>'s Schools. Policy Brief 09-4</span></a>  </p> <div class="result-meta"> <p class="source"><a target="_blank" id="logoLink" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resourc