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Sample records for california current ecosystem

  1. Mesopelagic fish biomass in the southern California current ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davison, Peter; Lara-Lopez, Ana; Anthony Koslow, J.

    2015-02-01

    Mesopelagic fishes are the most common vertebrates on Earth, forming an important link between lower trophic levels and higher predators, and also between surface production and the deep sea. The biomass of these fishes is a key parameter for ecological modeling of oceanic ecosystems, but it is poorly known. The two most common methods to estimate the biomass of these fishes, acoustic and trawl surveys, are both sensitive to the ability of fishes to avoid nets. We show that size-dependent changes in trawl capture efficiency can affect acoustic estimates of biomass estimates 5-fold. We used both acoustic and trawl-based methods (informed by morphological data and acoustic modeling of individual backscattering) to estimate the biomass of mesopelagic fishes of southern California to be 25-37 g m-2 of ocean surface, a comparable density to that of inshore epipelagic zooplanktivorous fishes. Our results indicate that mesopelagic fishes are likely to play a major role in regional food webs.

  2. Shearwaters as ecosystem indicators: Towards fishery-independent metrics of fish abundance in the California Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyday, Shannon E.; Ballance, Lisa T.; Field, David B.; David Hyrenbach, K.

    2015-06-01

    Shearwaters are ideal for monitoring ocean conditions in the California Current because these predators are abundant, conspicuous, and responsive to oceanographic variability. Herein we evaluated black-vented (Puffinus opisthomelas), Buller's (P. bulleri), flesh-footed (P. carneipes), pink-footed (P. creatopus), short-tailed (P. tenuirostris), and sooty (P. griseus) shearwaters as fishery-independent indicators of predatory or prey fish availability. We analyzed four years (1996, 2001, 2005, 2008) of monthly (August-November) National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration seabird surveys, and United States Geological Survey Pacific Coast Fisheries Database catch, from the California coast to 200 nm offshore. An ordination of shearwater abundance and fish catch revealed that the shearwaters and 11 fish/squid species were significantly correlated with one or more of three principal components, which explained 86% of the variation and revealed distinct species assemblages. We evaluated multiple linear regression models for 19 fisheries using five shearwater metrics: density, aggregation, and behavior (traveling, stationary, feeding), three oceanographic indices, and latitude. Eight of these models had a shearwater metric as the primary predictor. In particular, feeding black-vented shearwater abundance explained 75% of dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus) longline catch. This research illustrates the utility of shearwaters as ecosystem indicators, with direct application for predicting fishery catch of commercial importance.

  3. Climate change and decadal shifts in the phenology of larval fishes in the California Current ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Asch, Rebecca G.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change has prompted an earlier arrival of spring in numerous ecosystems. It is uncertain whether such changes are occurring in Eastern Boundary Current Upwelling ecosystems, because these regions are subject to natural decadal climate variability, and regional climate models predict seasonal delays in upwelling. To answer this question, the phenology of 43 species of larval fishes was investigated between 1951 and 2008 off southern California. Ordination of the fish community showed earlier phenological progression in more recent years. Thirty-nine percent of seasonal peaks in larval abundance occurred earlier in the year, whereas 18% were delayed. The species whose phenology became earlier were characterized by an offshore, pelagic distribution, whereas species with delayed phenology were more likely to reside in coastal, demersal habitats. Phenological changes were more closely associated with a trend toward earlier warming of surface waters rather than decadal climate cycles, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and North Pacific Gyre Oscillation. Species with long-term advances and delays in phenology reacted similarly to warming at the interannual time scale as demonstrated by responses to the El Niño Southern Oscillation. The trend toward earlier spawning was correlated with changes in sea surface temperature (SST) and mesozooplankton displacement volume, but not coastal upwelling. SST and upwelling were correlated with delays in fish phenology. For species with 20th century advances in phenology, future projections indicate that current trends will continue unabated. The fate of species with delayed phenology is less clear due to differences between Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change models in projected upwelling trends. PMID:26159416

  4. Climate change and decadal shifts in the phenology of larval fishes in the California Current ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Asch, Rebecca G

    2015-07-28

    Climate change has prompted an earlier arrival of spring in numerous ecosystems. It is uncertain whether such changes are occurring in Eastern Boundary Current Upwelling ecosystems, because these regions are subject to natural decadal climate variability, and regional climate models predict seasonal delays in upwelling. To answer this question, the phenology of 43 species of larval fishes was investigated between 1951 and 2008 off southern California. Ordination of the fish community showed earlier phenological progression in more recent years. Thirty-nine percent of seasonal peaks in larval abundance occurred earlier in the year, whereas 18% were delayed. The species whose phenology became earlier were characterized by an offshore, pelagic distribution, whereas species with delayed phenology were more likely to reside in coastal, demersal habitats. Phenological changes were more closely associated with a trend toward earlier warming of surface waters rather than decadal climate cycles, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation and North Pacific Gyre Oscillation. Species with long-term advances and delays in phenology reacted similarly to warming at the interannual time scale as demonstrated by responses to the El Niño Southern Oscillation. The trend toward earlier spawning was correlated with changes in sea surface temperature (SST) and mesozooplankton displacement volume, but not coastal upwelling. SST and upwelling were correlated with delays in fish phenology. For species with 20th century advances in phenology, future projections indicate that current trends will continue unabated. The fate of species with delayed phenology is less clear due to differences between Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change models in projected upwelling trends. PMID:26159416

  5. Declining Abundance of Beaked Whales (Family Ziphiidae) in the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Jeffrey E.; Barlow, Jay P.

    2013-01-01

    Beaked whales are among the most diverse yet least understood groups of marine mammals. A diverse set of mostly anthropogenic threats necessitates improvement in our ability to assess population status for this cryptic group. The Southwest Fisheries Science Center (NOAA) conducted six ship line-transect cetacean abundance surveys in the California Current off the contiguous western United States between 1991 and 2008. We used a Bayesian hidden-process modeling approach to estimate abundance and population trends of beaked whales using sightings data from these surveys. We also compiled records of beaked whale stranding events (3 genera, at least 8 species) on adjacent beaches from 1900 to 2012, to help assess population status of beaked whales in the northern part of the California Current. Bayesian posterior summaries for trend parameters provide strong evidence of declining beaked whale abundance in the study area. The probability of negative trend for Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris) during 1991–2008 was 0.84, with 1991 and 2008 estimates of 10771 (CV?=?0.51) and ?7550 (CV?=?0.55), respectively. The probability of decline for Mesoplodon spp. (pooled across species) was 0.96, with 1991 and 2008 estimates of 2206 (CV?=?0.46) and 811 (CV?=?0.65). The mean posterior estimates for average rate of decline were 2.9% and 7.0% per year. There was no evidence of abundance trend for Baird's beaked whale (Berardius bairdii), for which annual abundance estimates in the survey area ranged from ?900 to 1300 (CV?1.3). Stranding data were consistent with the survey results. Causes of apparent declines are unknown. Direct impacts of fisheries (bycatch) can be ruled out, but impacts of anthropogenic sound (e.g., naval active sonar) and ecosystem change are plausible hypotheses that merit investigation. PMID:23341907

  6. Temporal and spatial patterns of microbial community biomass and composition in the Southern California Current Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Andrew G.; Landry, Michael R.; Selph, Karen E.; Wokuluk, John J.

    2015-02-01

    As part of the California Current Ecosystem Long Term Ecological Research (CCE-LTER) Program, samples for epifluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry (FCM) were collected at ten 'cardinal' stations on the California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI) grid during 25 quarterly cruises from 2004 to 2010 to investigate the biomass, composition and size-structure of microbial communities within the southern CCE. Based on our results, we divided the region into offshore, and inshore northern and southern zones. Mixed-layer phytoplankton communities in the offshore had lower biomass (16±2 ?g C L-1; all errors represent the 95% confidence interval), smaller size-class cells and biomass was more stable over seasonal cycles. Offshore phytoplankton biomass peaked during the winter months. Mixed-layer phytoplankton communities in the northern and southern inshore zones had higher biomass (78±22 and 32±9 ?g C L-1, respectively), larger size-class cells and stronger seasonal biomass patterns. Inshore communities were often dominated by micro-size (20-200 ?m) diatoms; however, autotrophic dinoflagellates dominated during late 2005 to early 2006, corresponding to a year of delayed upwelling in the northern CCE. Biomass trends in mid and deep euphotic zone samples were similar to those seen in the mixed-layer, but with declining biomass with depth, especially for larger size classes in the inshore regions. Mixed-layer ratios of autotrophic carbon to chlorophyll a (AC:Chl a) had a mean value of 51.5±5.3. Variability of nitracline depth, bin-averaged AC:Chl a in the mixed-layer ranged from 40 to 80 and from 22 to 35 for the deep euphotic zone, both with significant positive relationships to nitracline depth. Total living microbial carbon, including auto- and heterotrophs, consistently comprised about half of particulate organic carbon (POC).

  7. Species associations and redundancy in relation to biological hotspots within the northern California Current ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reese, Douglas C.; Brodeur, Richard D.

    2015-06-01

    The dynamic nature of biological hotspots, while well recognized, is not well understood. We hypothesize that the persistence of hotspots in the northern California Current System (CCS), despite seasonal and annual changes in the nekton community species composition, is related to associations among species and their functional redundancy. To address this hypothesis, sampling was conducted during June and August of 2000 and 2002 within two hotspots occurring between Newport, Oregon and Crescent City, California in the coastal CCS. Associations were examined to identify potentially complementary and redundant species. The strongest negative associations were between jellyfish and fish species, with strong positive associations evident among several fish species. Dominant species varied seasonally and annually, although evidence indicated replacement of dominant species by other similar species with respect to functional group and preferred habitat. This finding suggests that the persistence of these biological hotspots is related to species redundancy and is an important attribute contributing to stability within this highly variable system.

  8. El Niño and similar perturbation effects on the benthos of the Humboldt, California, and Benguela Current upwelling ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arntz, W. E.; Gallardo, V. A.; Gutiérrez, D.; Isla, E.; Levin, L. A.; Mendo, J.; Neira, C.; Rowe, G. T.; Tarazona, J.; Wolff, M.

    2006-03-01

    To a certain degree, Eastern Boundary Current (EBC) ecosystems are similar: Cold bottom water from moderate depths, rich in nutrients, is transported to the euphotic zone by a combination of trade winds, Coriolis force and Ekman transport. The resultant high primary production fuels a rich secondary production in the upper pelagic and nearshore zones, but where O2 exchange is restricted, it creates oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) at shelf and upper slope (Humboldt and Benguela Current) or slope depths (California Current). These hypoxic zones host a specifically adapted, small macro- and meiofauna together with giant sulphur bacteria that use nitrate to oxydise H2S. In all EBC, small polychaetes, large nematodes and other opportunistic benthic species have adapted to the hypoxic conditions and co-exist with sulphur bacteria, which seem to be particularly dominant off Peru and Chile. However, a massive reduction of macrobenthos occurs in the core of the OMZ. In the Humboldt Current area the OMZ ranges between <100 and about 600 m, with decreasing thickness in a poleward direction. The OMZ merges into better oxygenated zones towards the deep sea, where large cold-water mega- and macrofauna occupy a dominant role as in the nearshore strip. The Benguela Current OMZ has a similar upper limit but remains shallower. It also hosts giant sulphur bacteria but little is known about the benthic fauna. However, sulphur eruptions and intense hypoxia might preclude the coexistence of significant mega- und macrobenthos. Conversely, off North America the upper limit of the OMZ is considerably deeper (e.g., 500-600 m off California and Oregon), and the lower boundary may exceed 1000m. The properties described are valid for very cold and cold (La Niña and "normal") ENSO conditions with effective upwelling of nutrient-rich bottom water. During warm (El Niño) episodes, warm water masses of low oxygen concentration from oceanic and equatorial regions enter the upwelling zones, bringing a variety of (sub)tropical immigrants. The autochthonous benthic fauna emigrates to deeper water or poleward, or suffers mortality. However, some local macrofaunal species experience important population proliferations, presumably due to improved oxygenation (in the southern hemisphere), higher temperature tolerance, reduced competition or the capability to use different food. Both these negative and positive effects of El Niño influence local artisanal fisheries and the livelihood of coastal populations. In the Humboldt Current system the hypoxic seafloor at outer shelf depths receives important flushing from the equatorial zone, causing havoc on the sulphur bacteria mats and immediate recolonisation of the sediments by mega- and macrofauna. Conversely, off California, the intruding equatorial water masses appear to have lower oxygen than ambient waters, and may cause oxygen deficiency at upper slope depths. Effects of this change have not been studied in detail, although shrimp and other taxa appear to alter their distribution on the continental margin. Other properties and reactions of the two Pacific EBC benthic ecosystems to El Niño seem to differ, too, as does the overall impact of major episodes (e.g., 1982/1983(1984) vs. 1997/1998). The relation of the "Benguela Niño" to ENSO seems unclear although many Pacific-Atlantic ocean and atmosphere teleconnections have been described. Warm, low-oxygen equatorial water seems to be transported into the upwelling area by similar mechanisms as in the Pacific, but most major impacts on the eukaryotic biota obviously come from other, independent perturbations such as an extreme eutrophication of the sediments ensuing in sulphidic eruptions and toxic algal blooms. Similarities and differences of the Humboldt and California Current benthic ecosystems are discussed with particular reference to ENSO impacts since 1972/73. Where there are data available, the authors include the Benguela Current ecosystem as another important, non-Pacific EBC, which also suffers from the effects of hypoxia.

  9. Do inverse ecosystem models accurately reconstruct plankton trophic flows? Comparing two solution methods using field data from the California Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stukel, Michael R.; Landry, Michael R.; Ohman, Mark D.; Goericke, Ralf; Samo, Ty; Benitez-Nelson, Claudia R.

    2012-03-01

    Despite the increasing use of linear inverse modeling techniques to elucidate fluxes in undersampled marine ecosystems, the accuracy with which they estimate food web flows has not been resolved. New Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) solution methods have also called into question the biases of the commonly used L2 minimum norm (L 2MN) solution technique. Here, we test the abilities of MCMC and L 2MN methods to recover field-measured ecosystem rates that are sequentially excluded from the model input. For data, we use experimental measurements from process cruises of the California Current Ecosystem (CCE-LTER) Program that include rate estimates of phytoplankton and bacterial production, micro- and mesozooplankton grazing, and carbon export from eight study sites varying from rich coastal upwelling to offshore oligotrophic conditions. Both the MCMC and L 2MN methods predicted well-constrained rates of protozoan and mesozooplankton grazing with reasonable accuracy, but the MCMC method overestimated primary production. The MCMC method more accurately predicted the poorly constrained rate of vertical carbon export than the L 2MN method, which consistently overestimated export. Results involving DOC and bacterial production were equivocal. Overall, when primary production is provided as model input, the MCMC method gives a robust depiction of ecosystem processes. Uncertainty in inverse ecosystem models is large and arises primarily from solution under-determinacy. We thus suggest that experimental programs focusing on food web fluxes expand the range of experimental measurements to include the nature and fate of detrital pools, which play large roles in the model.

  10. Limacina helicina shell dissolution as an indicator of declining habitat suitability owing to ocean acidification in the California Current Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Bednaršek, N; Feely, R A; Reum, J C P; Peterson, B; Menkel, J; Alin, S R; Hales, B

    2014-06-22

    Few studies to date have demonstrated widespread biological impacts of ocean acidification (OA) under conditions currently found in the natural environment. From a combined survey of physical and chemical water properties and biological sampling along the Washington-Oregon-California coast in August 2011, we show that large portions of the shelf waters are corrosive to pteropods in the natural environment. We show a strong positive correlation between the proportion of pteropod individuals with severe shell dissolution damage and the percentage of undersaturated water in the top 100 m with respect to aragonite. We found 53% of onshore individuals and 24% of offshore individuals on average to have severe dissolution damage. Relative to pre-industrial CO2 concentrations, the extent of undersaturated waters in the top 100 m of the water column has increased over sixfold along the California Current Ecosystem (CCE). We estimate that the incidence of severe pteropod shell dissolution owing to anthropogenic OA has doubled in near shore habitats since pre-industrial conditions across this region and is on track to triple by 2050. These results demonstrate that habitat suitability for pteropods in the coastal CCE is declining. The observed impacts represent a baseline for future observations towards understanding broader scale OA effects. PMID:24789895

  11. Limacina helicina shell dissolution as an indicator of declining habitat suitability owing to ocean acidification in the California Current Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Bednaršek, N.; Feely, R. A.; Reum, J. C. P.; Peterson, B.; Menkel, J.; Alin, S. R.; Hales, B.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies to date have demonstrated widespread biological impacts of ocean acidification (OA) under conditions currently found in the natural environment. From a combined survey of physical and chemical water properties and biological sampling along the Washington–Oregon–California coast in August 2011, we show that large portions of the shelf waters are corrosive to pteropods in the natural environment. We show a strong positive correlation between the proportion of pteropod individuals with severe shell dissolution damage and the percentage of undersaturated water in the top 100 m with respect to aragonite. We found 53% of onshore individuals and 24% of offshore individuals on average to have severe dissolution damage. Relative to pre-industrial CO2 concentrations, the extent of undersaturated waters in the top 100 m of the water column has increased over sixfold along the California Current Ecosystem (CCE). We estimate that the incidence of severe pteropod shell dissolution owing to anthropogenic OA has doubled in near shore habitats since pre-industrial conditions across this region and is on track to triple by 2050. These results demonstrate that habitat suitability for pteropods in the coastal CCE is declining. The observed impacts represent a baseline for future observations towards understanding broader scale OA effects. PMID:24789895

  12. Top-down modeling and bottom-up dynamics: Linking a fisheries-based ecosystem model with climate hypotheses in the Northern California Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, J. C.; Francis, R. C.; Aydin, K.

    2006-02-01

    In this paper we present results from dynamic simulations of the Northern California Current ecosystem, based on historical estimates of fishing mortality, relative fishing effort, and climate forcing. Climate can affect ecosystem productivity and dynamics both from the bottom-up (through short- and long-term variability in primary and secondary production) as well as from the top-down (through variability in the abundance and spatial distribution of key predators). We have explored how the simplistic application of climate forcing through both bottom-up and top-down mechanisms improves the fit of the model dynamics to observed population trends and reported catches for exploited components of the ecosystem. We find that using climate as either a bottom-up or a top-down forcing mechanism results in substantial improvements in model performance, such that much of the variability observed in single species models and dynamics can be replicated in a multi-species approach. Using multiple climate variables (both bottom-up and top-down) simultaneously did not provide significant improvement over a model with only one forcing. In general, results suggest that there do not appear to be strong trophic interactions among many of the longer-lived, slower-growing rockfish, roundfish and flatfish in this ecosystem, although strong interactions were observed in shrimp, salmon and small flatfish populations where high turnover and predation rates have been coupled with substantial changes in many predator populations over the last 40 years.

  13. Delta Revival: Restoring a California Ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey; California Bay Delta Authority

    2003-01-01

    'Delta Revival: Restoring a California Ecosystem' shows scientists from many disciplines working together to guide the unprecendented restoration of the Sacramento- San Joaquin Delta east of San Francisco Bay.

  14. Mapping Groundwater Dependent Ecosystems in California

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Jeanette; Merrifield, Matt

    2010-01-01

    Background Most groundwater conservation and management efforts focus on protecting groundwater for drinking water and for other human uses with little understanding or focus on the ecosystems that depend on groundwater. However, groundwater plays an integral role in sustaining certain types of aquatic, terrestrial and coastal ecosystems, and their associated landscapes. Our aim was to illuminate the connection between groundwater and surface ecosystems by identifying and mapping the distribution of groundwater dependent ecosystems (GDEs) in California. Methodology/Principal Findings To locate where groundwater flow sustains ecosystems we identified and mapped groundwater dependent ecosystems using a GIS. We developed an index of groundwater dependency by analyzing geospatial data for three ecosystem types that depend on groundwater: (1) springs and seeps; (2) wetlands and associated vegetation alliances; and (3) stream discharge from groundwater sources (baseflow index). Each variable was summarized at the scale of a small watershed (Hydrologic Unit Code-12; mean size?=?9,570 ha; n?=?4,621), and then stratified and summarized to 10 regions of relative homogeneity in terms of hydrologic, ecologic and climatic conditions. We found that groundwater dependent ecosystems are widely, although unevenly, distributed across California. Although different types of GDEs are clustered more densely in certain areas of the state, watersheds with multiple types of GDEs are found in both humid (e.g. coastal) and more arid regions. Springs are most densely concentrated in the North Coast and North Lahontan, whereas groundwater dependent wetlands and associated vegetation alliances are concentrated in the North and South Lahontan and Sacramento River hydrologic regions. The percentage of land area where stream discharge is most dependent on groundwater is found in the North Coast, Sacramento River and Tulare Lake regions. GDE clusters are located at the highest percentage in the North Coast (an area of the highest annual rainfall totals), North Lahontan (an arid, high desert climate with low annual rainfall), and Sacramento River hydrologic regions. That GDEs occur in such distinct climatic and hydrologic settings reveals the widespread distribution of these ecosystems. Conclusions/Significance Protection and management of groundwater-dependent ecosystems are hindered by lack of information on their diversity, abundance and location. By developing a methodology that uses existing datasets to locate GDEs, this assessment addresses that knowledge gap. We report here on the application of this method across California, but believe the method can be expanded to regions where spatial data exist. PMID:20585640

  15. California current system - Predators and the preyscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ainley, David G.; Adams, Peter B.; Jahncke, Jaime

    2015-06-01

    The preyscape of the California Current System (CCS), one of the most productive marine areas on Earth (Glantz and Thompson, 1981), is highly variable, as evidenced by the papers in this issue, and as such presents a challenge to Ecosystem-based fishery management (EBFM), which attempts to integrate ecosystem considerations as part of fishery management and conservation decisions. Approaches to EBFM for the waters off Washington, Oregon, and California, the CCS, have been initiated (PFMC, 2007, 2013), and are continually being developed. To inform this process, a workshop was held in September 2013 to: i) gather together the existing information on forage fish and predator dynamics in the CCS; ii) consider temporal (seasonal, annual, decadal) and spatial availability of prey complexes and why these patterns of availability occur and change; iii) summarize and present that information for discussion to a large range of experts in oceanography, fish and fisheries management, seabirds, marine mammals, and ecosystem management; and, iv) synthesize this information to be useable by fishery agencies. The papers in this special Journal of Marine Systems issue address these four points. While the full results and recommendations can be found here - "http://www.pointblue.org/uploads/assets/calcurrent/REPORT_Forage_Fish_Workshop_FINAL.pdf"

  16. Through the stomach of a predator: Regional patterns of forage in the diet of albacore tuna in the California Current System and metrics needed for ecosystem-based management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaser, Sarah M.; Waechter, Katrina E.; Bransome, Nicole C.

    2015-06-01

    Foraging habits of predators can reveal patterns in prey ecology and guide ecosystem-based management by informing species interactions. This study describes the diet habits of albacore tuna in three regions (north, central, south) of the California Current System (CCS) and estimates the total predation mortality imposed on twenty prey taxa. The northern CCS was defined by predation on decapods, euphausiids, anchovy and hake. The central CCS was defined by predation on squid, hake and Pacific saury. The southern CCS was defined by predation on anchovy. We estimate North Pacific albacore consumed each year, on average, 54,000 mt of decapods and euphausiids, 43,000 mt of cephalopods, 84,000 mt of juvenile hake, 1600 mt of myctophids, 21,000 mt of juvenile sardine, 10,000 mt of juvenile rockfishes, almost 43,000 mt of Pacific saury, and over 107,000 mt of juvenile anchovy. While variability in predation certainly exists, this and prior studies show that diet habits of albacore are fairly stable through time. The northern CCS appears to be a more significant source of energy for albacore. When designing ecosystem-based approaches to the management of CCS-based fisheries, we recommend that the forage contribution of saury, hake and anchovy to the albacore population be considered.

  17. Predictability of the California Current System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Arthur J.; Chereskin, T.; Cornuelle, B. D.; Niiler, P. P.; Moisan, J. R.; Lindstrom, Eric (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The physical and biological oceanography of the Southern California Bight (SCB), a highly productive subregion of the California Current System (CCS) that extends from Point Conception, California, south to Ensenada, Mexico, continues to be extensively studied. For example, the California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI) program has sampled this region for over 50 years, providing an unparalleled time series of physical and biological data. However, our understanding of what physical processes control the large-scale and mesoscale variations in these properties is incomplete. In particular, the non-synoptic and relatively coarse spatial sampling (70km) of the hydrographic grid does not completely resolve the mesoscale eddy field (Figure 1a). Moreover, these unresolved physical variations exert a dominant influence on the evolution of the ecosystem. In recent years, additional datasets that partially sample the SCB have become available. Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) measurements, which now sample upper-ocean velocity between stations, and sea level observations along TOPEX tracks give a more complete picture of the mesoscale variability. However, both TOPEX and ADCP are well-sampled only along the cruise or orbit tracks and coarsely sampled in time and between tracks. Surface Lagrangian drifters also sample the region, although irregularly in time and space. SeaWiFS provides estimates of upper-ocean chlorophyll-a (chl-alpha), usually giving nearly complete coverage for week-long intervals, depending on cloud coverage. Historical ocean color data from the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) has been used extensively to determine phytoplankton patterns and variability, characterize the primary production across the SCB coastal fronts, and describe the seasonal and interannual variability in pigment concentrations. As in CalCOFI, these studies described much of the observed structures and their variability over relatively large space and time scales.

  18. Taxonomic Distinctness of Demersal Fishes of the California Current: Moving Beyond Simple Measures of Diversity for Marine Ecosystem-Based Management

    PubMed Central

    Tolimieri, Nick; Anderson, Marti J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Large-scale patterns or trends in species diversity have long interested ecologists. The classic pattern is for diversity (e.g., species richness) to decrease with increasing latitude. Taxonomic distinctness is a diversity measure based on the relatedness of the species within a sample. Here we examined patterns of taxonomic distinctness in relation to latitude (ca. 32–48 °N) and depth (ca. 50–1220 m) for demersal fishes on the continental shelf and slope of the US Pacific coast. Methodology/Principal Findings Both average taxonomic distinctness (AvTD) and variation in taxonomic distinctness (VarTD) changed with latitude and depth. AvTD was highest at approximately 500 m and lowest at around 200 m bottom depth. Latitudinal trends in AvTD were somewhat weaker and were depth-specific. AvTD increased with latitude on the shelf (50–150 m) but tended to decrease with latitude at deeper depths. Variation in taxonomic distinctness (VarTD) was highest around 300 m. As with AvTD, latitudinal trends in VarTD were depth-specific. On the shelf (50–150 m), VarTD increased with latitude, while in deeper areas the patterns were more complex. Closer inspection of the data showed that the number and distribution of species within the class Chondrichthyes were the primary drivers of the overall patterns seen in AvTD and VarTD, while the relatedness and distribution of species in the order Scorpaeniformes appeared to cause the relatively low observed values of AvTD at around 200 m. Conclusions/Significance These trends contrast to some extent the patterns seen in earlier studies for species richness and evenness in demersal fishes along this coast and add to our understanding of diversity of the demersal fishes of the California Current. PMID:20498727

  19. Fog Water and Ecosystem Function: Heterogeneity in a California

    E-print Network

    Templer, Pamela

    Fog Water and Ecosystem Function: Heterogeneity in a California Redwood Forest Holly A. Ewing,1 Biology, University of Connecticut, 75 N. Eagleville Road, Storrs, Connecticut 06269, USA ABSTRACT Fog and nitrogen (N) fluxes from hori- zontally moving fog and vertically delivered rain as well as redwood tree

  20. Future scenarios of impacts to ecosystem services on California rangelands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byrd, Kristin; Alvarez, Pelayo; Flint, Lorraine; Flint, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The 18 million acres of rangelands in the Central Valley of California provide multiple benefits or “ecosystem services” to people—including wildlife habitat, water supply, open space, recreation, and cultural resources. Most of this land is privately owned and managed for livestock production. These rangelands are vulnerable to land-use conversion and climate change. To help resource managers assess the impacts of land-use change and climate change, U.S. Geological Survey scientists and their cooperators developed scenarios to quantify and map changes to three main rangeland ecosystem services—wildlife habitat, water supply, and carbon sequestration. Project results will help prioritize strategies to conserve these rangelands and the ecosystem services that they provide.

  1. Climate-ecosystem change off southern California: Time-dependent seabird predator-prey numerical responses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sydeman, William J.; Thompson, Sarah Ann; Santora, Jarrod A.; Koslow, J. Anthony; Goericke, Ralf; Ohman, Mark D.

    2015-02-01

    Climate change may increase both stratification and upwelling in marine ecosystems, but these processes may affect productivity in opposing or complementary ways. For the Southern California region of the California Current Ecosystem (CCE), we hypothesized that changes in stratification and upwelling have affected marine bird populations indirectly through changes in prey availability. To test this hypothesis, we derived trends and associations between stratification and upwelling, the relative abundance of potential prey including krill and forage fish, and seabirds based on the long-term, multi-disciplinary CalCOFI/CCE-LTER program. Over the period 1987 through 2011, spring and summer seabird density (all species combined) declined by ~2% per year, mostly in the northern sector of the study region. Krill showed variable trends with two species increasing and one deceasing, resulting in community reorganization. Nearshore forage fish, dominated by northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax) as well as offshore mesopelagic species, show declines in relative abundance over this period. The unidirectional decline in springtime seabird density is largely explained by declining nearshore fish abundance in the previous season (winter). Interannual variability in seabird density, especially in the 2000s, is explained by variability in krill abundance. Changes in the numerical responses of seabirds to prey abundance correspond to a putative ecosystem shift in 1998-1999 and support aspects of optimal foraging (diet) theory. Predator-prey interactions and numerical responses clearly explain aspects of the upper trophic level patterns of change in the pelagic ecosystem off southern California.

  2. 76 FR 41753 - Sierra National Forest, Bass Lake Ranger District, California, Grey's Mountain Ecosystem...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ...Ranger District, California, Grey's Mountain Ecosystem Restoration Project AGENCY...Grove Historical Area and west of Graham Mountain. Treatment areas have been initially...Background Information: The Grey's Mountain Ecosystem Restoration Project...

  3. 76 FR 41753 - Sierra National Forest, Bass Lake Ranger District, California, Grey's Mountain Ecosystem...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... Forest Service Sierra National Forest, Bass Lake Ranger District, California, Grey's Mountain Ecosystem... Area and west of Graham Mountain. Treatment areas have been initially identified to provide a... Friday. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Information: The Grey's Mountain Ecosystem...

  4. Whither the Rangeland?: Protection and Conversion in California's Rangeland Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, D. Richard; Marty, Jaymee; Holland, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Land use change in rangeland ecosystems is pervasive throughout the western United States with widespread ecological, social and economic implications. In California, rangeland habitats have high biodiversity value, provide significant habitat connectivity and form the foundation for a number of ecosystem services. To comprehensively assess the conservation status of these habitats, we analyzed the extent and drivers of habitat loss and the degree of protection against future loss across a 13.5 M ha study area in California. We analyzed rangeland conversion between 1984 and 2008 using time series GIS data and classified resulting land uses with aerial imagery. In total, over 195,000 hectares of rangeland habitats were converted during this period. The majority of conversions were to residential and associated commercial development (49% of the area converted), but agricultural intensification was surprisingly extensive and diverse (40% across six categories). Voluntary enrollment in an agricultural tax incentive program provided widespread protection from residential and commercial conversions across 37% of the remaining rangeland habitat extent (7.5 M ha), though this program did not protect rangeland from conversion to more intensive agricultural uses. Additionally, 24% of the remaining rangeland was protected by private conservation organizations or public agencies through land or easement ownership while 38% had no protection status at all. By developing a spatial method to analyze the drivers of loss and patterns of protection, this study demonstrates a novel approach to prioritize conservation strategies and implementation locations to avert habitat conversion. We propose that this approach can be used in other ecosystem types, and can serve as a regional conservation baseline assessment to focus strategies to effect widespread, cost-effective conservation solutions. PMID:25141171

  5. Avian Conservation Practices Strengthen Ecosystem Services in California Vineyards

    PubMed Central

    Jedlicka, Julie A.; Greenberg, Russell; Letourneau, Deborah K.

    2011-01-01

    Insectivorous Western Bluebirds (Sialia mexicana) occupy vineyard nest boxes established by California winegrape growers who want to encourage avian conservation. Experimentally, the provision of available nest sites serves as an alternative to exclosure methods for isolating the potential ecosystem services provided by foraging birds. We compared the abundance and species richness of avian foragers and removal rates of sentinel prey in treatments with songbird nest boxes and controls without nest boxes. The average species richness of avian insectivores increased by over 50 percent compared to controls. Insectivorous bird density nearly quadrupled, primarily due to a tenfold increase in Western Bluebird abundance. In contrast, there was no significant difference in the abundance of omnivorous or granivorous bird species some of which opportunistically forage on grapes. In a sentinel prey experiment, 2.4 times more live beet armyworms (Spodoptera exigua) were removed in the nest box treatment than in the control. As an estimate of the maximum foraging services provided by insectivorous birds, we found that larval removal rates measured immediately below occupied boxes averaged 3.5 times greater than in the control. Consequently the presence of Western Bluebirds in vineyard nest boxes strengthened ecosystem services to winegrape growers, illustrating a benefit of agroecological conservation practices. Predator addition and sentinel prey experiments lack some disadvantages of predator exclusion experiments and were robust methodologies for detecting ecosystem services. PMID:22096555

  6. Persistence of chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination in a California marine ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Young, D.R.; Gossett, R.W.; Heesen, T.C.

    1989-01-01

    Despite major reductions in the dominant DDT and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) input off Los Angeles (California, U.S.A.) in the early 1970s, the levels of these pollutants decreased only slightly from 1972 to 1975 both in surficial bottom sediments and in a flatfish bioindicator (Dover sole, Microstomus pacificus) collected near the submarine outfall. Concentrations of these pollutants in the soft tissues of the mussel Mytilus californianus, collected intertidally well inshore of the highly contaminated bottom sediments, followed much more closely the decreases in the outfall discharges. These observations suggest that contaminated sediments on the seafloor were the principal (although not necessarily direct) cause of the relatively high and persistent concentrations of DDT and PCB residues in tissues. The study indicated that residues of the higher-molecular-weight chlorinated hydrocarbons, such as DDT and PCB, can be highly persistent once released to coastal marine ecosystems and that their accumulation in surficial bottom sediments is the most likely cause of this persistence observed in the biota of the discharge zone.

  7. Evaluating Ecosystem Services Provided by Non-Native Species: An Experimental Test in California Grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Claudia; Hallett, Lauren M.; Harpole, W. Stanley; Suding, Katharine N.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of ecosystem services – the benefits that nature provides to human's society – has gained increasing attention over the past decade. Increasing global abiotic and biotic change, including species invasions, is threatening the secure delivery of these ecosystem services. Efficient evaluation methods of ecosystem services are urgently needed to improve our ability to determine management strategies and restoration goals in face of these new emerging ecosystems. Considering a range of multiple ecosystem functions may be a useful way to determine such strategies. We tested this framework experimentally in California grasslands, where large shifts in species composition have occurred since the late 1700's. We compared a suite of ecosystem functions within one historic native and two non-native species assemblages under different grazing intensities to address how different species assemblages vary in provisioning, regulatory and supporting ecosystem services. Forage production was reduced in one non-native assemblage (medusahead). Cultural ecosystem services, such as native species diversity, were inherently lower in both non-native assemblages, whereas most other services were maintained across grazing intensities. All systems provided similar ecosystem services under the highest grazing intensity treatment, which simulated unsustainable grazing intensity. We suggest that applying a more comprehensive ecosystem framework that considers multiple ecosystem services to evaluate new emerging ecosystems is a valuable tool to determine management goals and how to intervene in a changing ecosystem. PMID:25222028

  8. Predator-driven nutrient recycling in California stream ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Munshaw, Robin G; Palen, Wendy J; Courcelles, Danielle M; Finlay, Jacques C

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient recycling by consumers in streams can influence ecosystem nutrient availability and the assemblage and growth of photoautotrophs. Stream fishes can play a large role in nutrient recycling, but contributions by other vertebrates to overall recycling rates remain poorly studied. In tributaries of the Pacific Northwest, coastal giant salamanders (Dicamptodon tenebrosus) occur at high densities alongside steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and are top aquatic predators. We surveyed the density and body size distributions of D. tenebrosus and O. mykiss in a California tributary stream, combined with a field study to determine mass-specific excretion rates of ammonium (N) and total dissolved phosphorus (P) for D. tenebrosus. We estimated O. mykiss excretion rates (N, P) by bioenergetics using field-collected data on the nutrient composition of O. mykiss diets from the same system. Despite lower abundance, D. tenebrosus biomass was 2.5 times higher than O. mykiss. Mass-specific excretion summed over 170 m of stream revealed that O. mykiss recycle 1.7 times more N, and 1.2 times more P than D. tenebrosus, and had a higher N:P ratio (8.7) than that of D. tenebrosus (6.0), or the two species combined (7.5). Through simulated trade-offs in biomass, we estimate that shifts from salamander biomass toward fish biomass have the potential to ease nutrient limitation in forested tributary streams. These results suggest that natural and anthropogenic heterogeneity in the relative abundance of these vertebrates and variation in the uptake rates across river networks can affect broad-scale patterns of nutrient limitation. PMID:23520520

  9. Predator-Driven Nutrient Recycling in California Stream Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Munshaw, Robin G.; Palen, Wendy J.; Courcelles, Danielle M.; Finlay, Jacques C.

    2013-01-01

    Nutrient recycling by consumers in streams can influence ecosystem nutrient availability and the assemblage and growth of photoautotrophs. Stream fishes can play a large role in nutrient recycling, but contributions by other vertebrates to overall recycling rates remain poorly studied. In tributaries of the Pacific Northwest, coastal giant salamanders (Dicamptodon tenebrosus) occur at high densities alongside steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and are top aquatic predators. We surveyed the density and body size distributions of D. tenebrosus and O. mykiss in a California tributary stream, combined with a field study to determine mass-specific excretion rates of ammonium (N) and total dissolved phosphorus (P) for D. tenebrosus. We estimated O. mykiss excretion rates (N, P) by bioenergetics using field-collected data on the nutrient composition of O. mykiss diets from the same system. Despite lower abundance, D. tenebrosus biomass was 2.5 times higher than O. mykiss. Mass-specific excretion summed over 170 m of stream revealed that O. mykiss recycle 1.7 times more N, and 1.2 times more P than D. tenebrosus, and had a higher N:P ratio (8.7) than that of D. tenebrosus (6.0), or the two species combined (7.5). Through simulated trade-offs in biomass, we estimate that shifts from salamander biomass toward fish biomass have the potential to ease nutrient limitation in forested tributary streams. These results suggest that natural and anthropogenic heterogeneity in the relative abundance of these vertebrates and variation in the uptake rates across river networks can affect broad-scale patterns of nutrient limitation. PMID:23520520

  10. The Economic Value of Coastal Ecosystems in California

    EPA Science Inventory

    The status of marine ecosystems affects the well being of human societies. These ecosystems include but are not limited to estuaries, lagoons, reefs, and systems further offshore such as deep ocean vents. The coastal regions that connect terrestrial and marine ecosystems are of p...

  11. Sea Surface Temperature Influence on Terrestrial Gross Primary Production along the Southern California Current.

    PubMed

    Reimer, Janet J; Vargas, Rodrigo; Rivas, David; Gaxiola-Castro, Gilberto; Hernandez-Ayon, J Martin; Lara-Lara, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Some land and ocean processes are related through connections (and synoptic-scale teleconnections) to the atmosphere. Synoptic-scale atmospheric (El Niño/Southern Oscillation [ENSO], Pacific Decadal Oscillation [PDO], and North Atlantic Oscillation [NAO]) decadal cycles are known to influence the global terrestrial carbon cycle. Potentially, smaller scale land-ocean connections influenced by coastal upwelling (changes in sea surface temperature) may be important for local-to-regional water-limited ecosystems where plants may benefit from air moisture transported from the ocean to terrestrial ecosystems. Here we use satellite-derived observations to test potential connections between changes in sea surface temperature (SST) in regions with strong coastal upwelling and terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) across the Baja California Peninsula. This region is characterized by an arid/semiarid climate along the southern California Current. We found that SST was correlated with the fraction of photosynthetic active radiation (fPAR; as a proxy for GPP) with lags ranging from 0 to 5 months. In contrast ENSO was not as strongly related with fPAR as SST in these coastal ecosystems. Our results show the importance of local-scale changes in SST during upwelling events, to explain the variability in GPP in coastal, water-limited ecosystems. The response of GPP to SST was spatially-dependent: colder SST in the northern areas increased GPP (likely by influencing fog formation), while warmer SST at the southern areas was associated to higher GPP (as SST is in phase with precipitation patterns). Interannual trends in fPAR are also spatially variable along the Baja California Peninsula with increasing secular trends in subtropical regions, decreasing trends in the most arid region, and no trend in the semi-arid regions. These findings suggest that studies and ecosystem process based models should consider the lateral influence of local-scale ocean processes that could influence coastal ecosystem productivity. PMID:25923109

  12. Sea Surface Temperature Influence on Terrestrial Gross Primary Production along the Southern California Current

    PubMed Central

    Reimer, Janet J.; Vargas, Rodrigo; Rivas, David; Gaxiola-Castro, Gilberto; Hernandez-Ayon, J. Martin; Lara-Lara, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    Some land and ocean processes are related through connections (and synoptic-scale teleconnections) to the atmosphere. Synoptic-scale atmospheric (El Niño/Southern Oscillation [ENSO], Pacific Decadal Oscillation [PDO], and North Atlantic Oscillation [NAO]) decadal cycles are known to influence the global terrestrial carbon cycle. Potentially, smaller scale land-ocean connections influenced by coastal upwelling (changes in sea surface temperature) may be important for local-to-regional water-limited ecosystems where plants may benefit from air moisture transported from the ocean to terrestrial ecosystems. Here we use satellite-derived observations to test potential connections between changes in sea surface temperature (SST) in regions with strong coastal upwelling and terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) across the Baja California Peninsula. This region is characterized by an arid/semiarid climate along the southern California Current. We found that SST was correlated with the fraction of photosynthetic active radiation (fPAR; as a proxy for GPP) with lags ranging from 0 to 5 months. In contrast ENSO was not as strongly related with fPAR as SST in these coastal ecosystems. Our results show the importance of local-scale changes in SST during upwelling events, to explain the variability in GPP in coastal, water-limited ecosystems. The response of GPP to SST was spatially-dependent: colder SST in the northern areas increased GPP (likely by influencing fog formation), while warmer SST at the southern areas was associated to higher GPP (as SST is in phase with precipitation patterns). Interannual trends in fPAR are also spatially variable along the Baja California Peninsula with increasing secular trends in subtropical regions, decreasing trends in the most arid region, and no trend in the semi-arid regions. These findings suggest that studies and ecosystem process based models should consider the lateral influence of local-scale ocean processes that could influence coastal ecosystem productivity. PMID:25923109

  13. Effects of drought stress on microbial dynamics in seasonally dry California ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeffer, S. M.; Boot, C. M.; Doyle, A.; Clark, J.; Schimel, J. P.

    2008-12-01

    One of the key environmental factors controlling microbial activity is moisture. This water limitation is particularly strong in semi-arid and arid ecosystems such as those found along California's coast and interior range-lands. Cool, wet winters separated by long, dry summers present some the most challenging conditions for microbial survival and growth. Infrequent pulses of precipitation directly control microbial dynamics through soil wet-dry cycles, which in turn control the export of materials and nutrients into streams and groundwater. Recent research suggests that living microbial biomass can increase during the driest, hottest part of the year. We measured dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen (DOC, DON), microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, inorganic nitrogen (NH4+, NO3-), and nitrification potential from July of 2007 to the present in California semi-arid grasslands. We also monitored inorganic nitrogen concentrations in soil pore water, shallow ground water, and stream water over the same period. Seasonal trends in DOC and DON show that they accumulate over the dry summer, and then decrease with the onset of the winter rains. Microbial biomass carbon showed a similar pattern, being higher in the summer and declining during winter (188.94±13.34 and 139.21±8.45 ?g C g-1 dry soil respectively. However, biomass nitrogen remained unchanged over the same period (11.21±0.84 and 10.86±0.74 ?g N g-1 dry soil respectively). Nitrification potentials were lowest during the winter wet season (5.26±0.40 ?g N d-1 g-1 dry soil) and highest during the dry summer season (8.91±0.60 ?g N d-1 g-1 dry soil). However, the seasonal patterns in NH4+ and NO3- availability suggest that net nitrification was not substantial until after the winter rains began. It is not currently known whether this increase in biomass represents actual growth of new organisms, or is a result of microbes accumulating internal solutes to avoid drying out. At the landscape-scale, these microbial dynamics control the amount and composition of nutrient export from these ecosystems into groundwater and streams. Long, dry summers allow nutrients to accumulate, and then a single large precipitation event can lead to a large pulse being released. Microbial dynamics in natural ecosystems, such as NO3- production via nitrification, can have important implications for water quality (in the case of NO3-) in urban areas located downstream.

  14. California Coastal Upwelling Onset Variability: Cross-Shore and Bottom-Up Propagation in the Planktonic Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Chenillat, Fanny; Rivière, Pascal; Capet, Xavier; Franks, Peter J. S.; Blanke, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    The variability of the California Current System (CCS) is primarily driven by variability in regional wind forcing. In particular, the timing of the spring transition, i.e., the onset of upwelling-favorable winds, varies considerably in the CCS with changes in the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation. Using a coupled physical-biogeochemical model, this study examines the sensitivity of the ecosystem functioning in the CCS to a lead or lag in the spring transition. An early spring transition results in an increased vertical nutrient flux at the coast, with the largest ecosystem consequences, both in relative amplitude and persistence, hundreds of kilometers offshore and at the highest trophic level of the modeled food web. A budget analysis reveals that the propagation of the perturbation offshore and up the food web is driven by remineralization and grazing/predation involving both large and small plankton species. PMID:23690935

  15. In the Schools: California Treat: Three Days in Five Ecosystems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigby, Jennifer A.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a 3-day program sponsored by the Orange County Marine Institute that provides biological, cultural, and historical learning experiences. Discusses the setting and activities of the five ecosystems explored by the students. The Chaparral to Ocean Science Camp includes chaparral, riparian, woodland, intertidal, and pelagic environments.…

  16. PERSISTENCE OF CHLORINATED HYDROCARBON CONTAMINATION IN A CALIFORNIA MARINE ECOSYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite major reductions in the dominant DDT and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) input off Los Angeles (California, USA) in the early 1970s, the levels of these pollutants decreased only slightly from 1972 to 1975 both in surficial bottom sediments and in a flatfish bioindicator ...

  17. 2013. Wetlands. In: Mooney, H. and Zavaleta, E., editors. Ecosystems of California: A Source Book. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, p.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This publication is an introduction to wetland ecosystems in California, their geographic distribution, and historical ecology. Hydroclimatology and hydrology are explained as key drivers and patterns of variability in wetland habitats and biological communities. Primary wetland types are describe...

  18. Where the wild things are: Predicting hotspots of seabird aggregations in the California Current System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nur, N.; Jahncke, J.; Herzog, M.P.; Howar, J.; Hyrenbach, K.D.; Zamon, J.E.; Ainley, D.G.; Wiens, J.A.; Morgan, K.; Balance, L.T.; Stralberg, D.

    2011-01-01

    Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) provide an important tool for conservation of marine ecosystems. To be most effective, these areas should be strategically located in a manner that supports ecosystem function. To inform marine spatial planning and support strategic establishment of MPAs within the California Current System, we identified areas predicted to support multispecies aggregations of seabirds ("hotspot????). We developed habitat-association models for 16 species using information from at-sea observations collected over an 11-year period (1997-2008), bathymetric data, and remotely sensed oceanographic data for an area from north of Vancouver Island, Canada, to the USA/Mexico border and seaward 600 km from the coast. This approach enabled us to predict distribution and abundance of seabirds even in areas of few or no surveys. We developed single-species predictive models using a machine-learning algorithm: bagged decision trees. Single-species predictions were then combined to identify potential hotspots of seabird aggregation, using three criteria: (1) overall abundance among species, (2) importance of specific areas ("core area????) to individual species, and (3) predicted persistence of hotspots across years. Model predictions were applied to the entire California Current for four seasons (represented by February, May, July, and October) in each of 11 years. Overall, bathymetric variables were often important predictive variables, whereas oceanographic variables derived from remotely sensed data were generally less important. Predicted hotspots often aligned with currently protected areas (e.g., National Marine Sanctuaries), but we also identified potential hotspots in Northern California/Southern Oregon (from Cape Mendocino to Heceta Bank), Southern California (adjacent to the Channel Islands), and adjacent to Vancouver Island, British Columbia, that are not currently included in protected areas. Prioritization and identification of multispecies hotspots will depend on which group of species is of highest management priority. Modeling hotspots at a broad spatial scale can contribute to MPA site selection, particularly if complemented by fine-scale information for focal areas. ?? 2011 by the Ecological Society of America.

  19. Regime shifts in the Humboldt Current ecosystem [review article

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alheit, Jürgen; Niquen, Miguel

    2004-02-01

    Of the four major eastern boundary currents, the Humboldt Current (HC) stands out because it is extremely productive, dominated by anchovy dynamics and subject to frequent direct environmental perturbations of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The long-term dynamics of the HC ecosystem are controlled by shifts between alternating anchovy and sardine regimes that restructure the entire ecosystem from phytoplankton to the top predators. These regime shifts are caused by lasting periods of warm or cold temperature anomalies related to the approach or retreat of warm subtropical oceanic waters to the coast of Peru and Chile. Phases with mainly negative temperature anomalies parallel anchovy regimes (1950-1970; 1985 to the present) and the rather warm period from 1970 to 1985 was characterized by sardine dominance. The transition periods (turning points) from one regime to the other were 1968-1970 and 1984-1986. Like an El Nino, the warm periods drastically change trophic relationships in the entire HC ecosystem, exposing the Peruvian anchovy to a multitude of adverse conditions. Positive temperature anomalies off Peru drive the anchovy population close to the coast as the coastal upwelling cells usually offer the coolest environment, thereby substantially decreasing the extent of the areas of anchovy distribution and spawning. This enhances the effects of negative density-dependent processes such as egg and larval cannibalism and dramatically increases its catchability. Increased spatial overlap between anchovies and the warmer water preferring sardines intensifies anchovy egg mortality further as sardines feed heavily on anchovy eggs. Food sources for juvenile and adult anchovies which prey on a mixed diet of phyto- and zooplankton are drastically reduced because of decreased plankton production due to restricted upwelling in warm years, as demonstrated by lower zooplankton and phytoplankton volumes and the diminution of the fraction of large copepods, their main food source. Horse mackerel and mackerel, the main predators of anchovy, increase predation pressure on juvenile and adult anchovies due to extended invasion into the anchovy habitat in warmer years. In contrast to these periods of warm and cold temperature anomalies on the decadal scale, ENSO events do not play an important role for long-term anchovy dynamics, as the anchovy can recover even from strong ENSO events within 1-2 years. Consequently, the strong 1972-1973 ENSO event (in combination with overfishing) was not the cause of the famous crash of the Peruvian anchovy fishery in the 1970s.

  20. The impact of El Niño events on the pelagic food chain in the northern California Current.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Jennifer L; Peterson, William T; Rykaczewski, Ryan R

    2015-12-01

    The zooplankton of the northern California Current are typically characterized by an abundance of lipid-rich copepods that support rapid growth and survival of ecologically, commercially, and recreationally valued fish, birds, and mammals. Disruption of this food chain and reduced ecosystem productivity are often associated with climatic variability such as El Niño events. We examined the variability in timing, magnitude, and duration of positive temperature anomalies and changes in copepod species composition in the northern California Current in relation to 10 tropical El Niño events. Measurable impacts on mesozooplankton of the northern California Current were observed during seven of 10 of these events. The occurrence of anomalously warm water and the response of the copepod community was rapid (lag of zero to 2 months) following the initiation of canonical Eastern Pacific (EP) events, but delayed (lag of 2-8 months) following 'Modoki' Central Pacific (CP) events. The variable lags in the timing of a physical and biological response led to impacts in the northern California Current peaking in winter during EP events and in the spring during CP events. The magnitude and duration of the temperature and copepod anomalies were strongly and positively related to the magnitude and duration of El Niño events, but were also sensitive to the phase of the lower frequency Pacific Decadal Oscillation. When fisheries managers and biological oceanographers are faced with the prospect of a future El Niño event, prudent management and observation will require consideration of the background oceanographic conditions, the type of event, and both the magnitude and duration of the event when assessing the potential physical and biological impacts on the northern California Current. PMID:26220498

  1. Depth-integrated estimates of ecosystem metabolism in a high-elevation lake (Emerald Lake, Sierra Nevada, California)

    E-print Network

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    Depth-integrated estimates of ecosystem metabolism in a high-elevation lake (Emerald Lake, Sierra in an oligotrophic high-elevation lake (Emerald Lake, California) were used to investigate volumetric and areal rates

  2. Compound-Specific ?15N Amino Acid Measurements in Littoral Mussels in the California Upwelling Ecosystem: A New Approach to Generating Baseline ?15N Isoscapes for Coastal Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Vokhshoori, Natasha L.; McCarthy, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    We explored ?15N compound-specific amino acid isotope data (CSI-AA) in filter-feeding intertidal mussels (Mytilus californianus) as a new approach to construct integrated isoscapes of coastal primary production. We examined spatial ?15N gradients in the California Upwelling Ecosystem (CUE), determining bulk ?15N values of mussel tissue from 28 sites between Port Orford, Oregon and La Jolla, California, and applying CSI-AA at selected sites to decouple trophic effects from isotopic values at the base of the food web. Bulk ?15N values showed a strong linear trend with latitude, increasing from North to South (from ?7‰ to ?12‰, R2?=?0.759). In contrast, CSI-AA trophic position estimates showed no correlation with latitude. The ?15N trend is therefore most consistent with a baseline ?15N gradient, likely due to the mixing of two source waters: low ?15N nitrate from the southward flowing surface California Current, and the northward transport of the California Undercurrent (CUC), with15N-enriched nitrate. This interpretation is strongly supported by a similar linear gradient in ?15N values of phenylalanine (?15NPhe), the best AA proxy for baseline ?15N values. We hypothesize ?15NPhe values in intertidal mussels can approximate annual integrated ?15N values of coastal phytoplankton primary production. We therefore used ?15NPhe values to generate the first compound-specific nitrogen isoscape for the coastal Northeast Pacific, which indicates a remarkably linear gradient in coastal primary production ?15N values. We propose that ?15NPhe isoscapes derived from filter feeders can directly characterize baseline ?15N values across major biochemical provinces, with potential applications for understanding migratory and feeding patterns of top predators, monitoring effects of climate change, and study of paleo- archives. PMID:24887109

  3. Environmental conditions impacting juvenile Chinook salmon growth off central California: An ecosystem model analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiechter, J.; Huff, D. D.; Martin, B. T.; Jackson, D. W.; Edwards, C. A.; Rose, K. A.; Curchitser, E. N.; Hedstrom, K. S.; Lindley, S. T.; Wells, B. K.

    2015-04-01

    A fully coupled ecosystem model is used to identify the effects of environmental conditions and upwelling variability on growth of juvenile Chinook salmon in central California coastal waters. The ecosystem model framework consists of an ocean circulation submodel, a biogeochemical submodel, and an individual-based submodel for salmon. Simulation results indicate that years favorable for juvenile salmon growth off central California are characterized by particularly intense early season upwelling (i.e., March through May), leading to enhanced krill concentrations during summer near the location of ocean entry (i.e., Gulf of the Farallones). Seasonally averaged growth rates in the model are generally consistent with observed values and suggest that juvenile salmon emigrating later in the season (i.e., late May and June) achieve higher weight gains during their first 90 days of ocean residency.

  4. Concentrations, deposition, and effects of nitrogenous pollutants in selected California ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Bytnerowicz, A; Padgett, P E; Parry, S D; Fenn, M E; Arbaugh, M J

    2001-11-28

    Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen (N) in California ecosystems is ecologically significant and highly variable, ranging from about 1 to 45 kg/ha/year. The lowest ambient concentrations and deposition values are found in the eastern and northern parts of the Sierra Nevada Mountains and the highest in parts of the San Bernardino and San Gabriel Mountains that are most exposed to the Los Angeles air pollution plume. In the Sierra Nevada Mountains, N is deposited mostly in precipitation, although dry deposition may also provide substantial amounts of N. On the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada, the majority of airborne N is in reduced forms as ammonia (NH3) and particulate ammonium (NH4+) from agricultural activities in the California Central Valley. In southern California, most of the N air pollution is in oxidized forms as nitrogen oxides (NOx), nitric acid (HNO3), and particulate nitrate (NO3-) resulting from fossil fuel combustion and subsequent complex photochemical reactions. In southern California, dry deposition of gases and particles provides most (up to 95%) of the atmospheric N to forests and other ecosystems. In the mixed-conifer forest zone, elevated deposition of N may initially benefit growth of vegetation, but chronic effects may be expressed as deterioration of forest health and sustainability. HNO3 vapor alone has a potential for toxic effects causing damage of foliar surfaces of pines and oaks. In addition, dry deposition of predominantly HNO3 has lead to changes in vegetation composition and contamination of ground- and stream water where terrestrial N loading is high. Long-term, complex interactions between N deposition and other environmental stresses such as elevated ozone (O3), drought, insect infestations, fire suppression, or intensive land management practices may affect water quality and sustainability of California forests and other ecosystems. PMID:12805794

  5. California DOT 1. Briefly summarize your current pavement smoothness requirements.

    E-print Network

    California DOT 1. Briefly summarize your current pavement smoothness requirements. For HMA pavement to OGFC placed on existing pavement not constructed under the same project. If concrete pavement is placed ordered. 39-1.12B Straightedge The top layer of HMA pavement must not vary from the lower edge of a12-foot

  6. Climate, fishing, and fluctuations of sardine and anchovy in the California Current.

    PubMed

    Lindegren, Martin; Checkley, David M; Rouyer, Tristan; MacCall, Alec D; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2013-08-13

    Since the days of Elton, population cycles have challenged ecologists and resource managers. Although the underlying mechanisms remain debated, theory holds that both density-dependent and density-independent processes shape the dynamics. One striking example is the large-scale fluctuations of sardine and anchovy observed across the major upwelling areas of the world. Despite a long history of research, the causes of these fluctuations remain unresolved and heavily debated, with significant implications for fisheries management. We here model the underlying causes of these fluctuations, using the California Current Ecosystem as a case study, and show that the dynamics, accurately reproduced since A.D. 1661 onward, are explained by interacting density-dependent processes (i.e., through species-specific life-history traits) and climate forcing. Furthermore, we demonstrate how fishing modifies the dynamics and show that the sardine collapse of the 1950s was largely unavoidable given poor recruitment conditions. Our approach provides unique insight into the origin of sardine-anchovy fluctuations and a knowledge base for sustainable fisheries management in the California Current Ecosystem and beyond. PMID:23836661

  7. Climate, fishing, and fluctuations of sardine and anchovy in the California Current

    PubMed Central

    Lindegren, Martin; Checkley, David M.; Rouyer, Tristan; MacCall, Alec D.; Stenseth, Nils Chr.

    2013-01-01

    Since the days of Elton, population cycles have challenged ecologists and resource managers. Although the underlying mechanisms remain debated, theory holds that both density-dependent and density-independent processes shape the dynamics. One striking example is the large-scale fluctuations of sardine and anchovy observed across the major upwelling areas of the world. Despite a long history of research, the causes of these fluctuations remain unresolved and heavily debated, with significant implications for fisheries management. We here model the underlying causes of these fluctuations, using the California Current Ecosystem as a case study, and show that the dynamics, accurately reproduced since A.D. 1661 onward, are explained by interacting density-dependent processes (i.e., through species-specific life-history traits) and climate forcing. Furthermore, we demonstrate how fishing modifies the dynamics and show that the sardine collapse of the 1950s was largely unavoidable given poor recruitment conditions. Our approach provides unique insight into the origin of sardine–anchovy fluctuations and a knowledge base for sustainable fisheries management in the California Current Ecosystem and beyond. PMID:23836661

  8. Seasonal Trends in Airborne Fungal Spores in Coastal California Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morfin, J.; Crandall, S. G.; Gilbert, G. S.

    2014-12-01

    Airborne fungal spores cause disease in plants and animals and may trigger respiratory illnesses in humans. In terrestrial systems, fungal sporulation, germination, and persistence are strongly regulated by local meteorological conditions. However, few studies investigate how microclimate affects the spatio-temporal dynamics of airborne spores. We measured fungal aerospora abundance and microclimate at varying spatial and time scales in coastal California in three habitat-types: coast redwood forest, mixed-evergreen forest, and maritime chaparral. We asked: 1) is there a difference in total airborne spore concentration between habitats, 2) when do we see peak spore counts, and 3) do spore densities correlate with microclimate conditions? Fungal spores were caught from the air with a volumetric vacuum air spore trap during the wet season (January - March) in 2013 and 2014, as well as monthly in 2014. Initial results suggest that mixed-evergreen forests exhibit the highest amounts of spore abundance in both years compared to the other habitats. This may be due to either a higher diversity of host plants in mixed-evergreen forests or a rich leaf litter layer that may harbor a greater abundance of saprotrophic fungi. Based on pilot data, we predict that temperature and to a lesser degree, relative humidity, will be important microclimate predictors for high spore densities. These data are important for understanding when and under what weather conditions we can expect to see high levels of fungal spores in the air; this can be useful information for managers who are interested in treating diseased plants with fungicides.

  9. Responses of terrestrial ecosystems and carbon budgets to current and future environmental

    E-print Network

    Moorcroft, Paul R.

    Responses of terrestrial ecosystems and carbon budgets to current and future environmental) for the structure and function of terrestrial ecosystems under current and future climate. We examine the influence and temperature (21). Soil respiration often spikes after episodic precipitation events (22). Plant growth

  10. Effects of selenium supplementation in cattle on aquatic ecosystems in northern California

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, B.; Nader, G.; Oliver, M.; Delmas, R.; Drake, D.; George, H. )

    1992-09-15

    The potential impact on aquatic ecosystems of supplementing the diets of beef cattle with selenium (Se) was studied on 4 northern California ranches. All study sites included an area of concentrated use by cattle that had diets supplemented with Se. In each case, a stream flowed through the site and provided a control sampling area upstream and a treated sampling area downstream. Specimens of water, sediment, algae, aquatic plants, aquatic invertebrates, and fish were analyzed fluorometrically for total Se content. Significant differences in Se concentration were not found between specimens from upstream control areas and those from downstream areas subjected to use by Se-treated cattle. Evidence was not found that Se supplementation in cattle at maximal permitted concentrations caused Se accumulation in associated aquatic ecosystems.

  11. California nearshore processes - ERTS 1. [coastal currents and sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steller, D. D.; Pirie, D. M.

    1974-01-01

    The detectability of many nearshore processes from ERTS is made possible due to the suspended sediment present in the coastal waters. From viewing and analyzing the California coastal imagery collected during the last year and a half, the overall current patterns and their changes have become evident. It is now possible to map monthly and seasonal changes that occur throughout the year. The original objectives of detecting currents, sediment transport, estuaries and river discharge have now been expanded to include the use of ERTS information in operational problems of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. This incorporates the detected nearshore features into planning and organizing shore protection facilities.

  12. Multivariate ocean-climate indicators (MOCI) for the central California Current: Environmental change, 1990-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sydeman, William J.; Thompson, Sarah Ann; García-Reyes, Marisol; Kahru, Mati; Peterson, William T.; Largier, John L.

    2014-01-01

    Temporal environmental variability may confound interpretations of management actions, such as reduced fisheries mortality when Marine Protected Areas are implemented. To aid in the evaluation of recent ecosystem protection decisions in central-northern California, we designed and implemented multivariate ocean-climate indicators (MOCI) of environmental variability. To assess the validity of the MOCI, we evaluated interannual and longer-term variability in relation to previously recognized environmental variability in the region, and correlated MOCI to a suite of biological indicators including proxies for lower- (phytoplankton, copepods, krill), and upper-level (seabirds) taxa. To develop the MOCI, we selected, compiled, and synthesized 14 well-known atmospheric and oceanographic indicators of large-scale and regional processes (transport and upwelling), as well as local atmospheric and oceanic response variables such as wind stress, sea surface temperature, and salinity. We derived seasonally-stratified MOCI using principal component analysis. Over the 21-year study period (1990-2010), the ENSO cycle weakened while extra-tropical influences increased with a strengthening of the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO) and cooling of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). Correspondingly, the Northern Oscillation Index (NOI) strengthened, leading to enhanced upwelling-favorable wind stress and cooling of air and ocean surface temperatures. The seasonal MOCI related well to subarctic copepod biomass and seabird productivity, but poorly to chlorophyll-a concentration and krill abundance. Our results support a hypothesis of enhanced sub-arctic influence (transport from the north) and upwelling intensification in north-central California over the past two decades. Such environmental conditions may favor population growth for species with sub-arctic zoogeographic affinities within the central-northern California Current coastal ecosystem.

  13. Accumulation of current-use and organochlorine pesticides in crab embryos from Northern California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smalling, Kelly L.; Morgan, Steven; Kuivila, Kathryn K.

    2010-01-01

    Invertebrates have long been used as resident sentinels for assessing ecosystem health and productivity. The shore crabs, Hemigrapsus oregonensis and Pachygrapsus crassipes, are abundant in estuaries and beaches throughout northern California, USA and have been used as indicators of habitat conditions in several salt marshes. The overall objectives of the present study were to conduct a lab-based study to test the accumulation of current-use pesticides, validate the analytical method and to analyze field-collected crabs for a suite of 74 current-use and legacy pesticides. A simple laboratory uptake study was designed to determine if embryos could bioconcentrate the herbicide molinate over a 7-d period. At the end of the experiment, embryos were removed from the crabs and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Although relatively hydrophilic (log KOW of 2.9), molinate did accumulate with an estimated bioconcentration factor (log BCF) of approximately 2.5. Following method validation, embryos were collected from two different Northern California salt marshes and analyzed. In field-collected embryos 18 current-use and eight organochlorine pesticides were detected including synthetic pyrethroids and organophosphate insecticides, as well as DDT and its degradates. Lipid-normalized concentrations of the pesticides detected in the field-collected crab embryos ranged from 0.1 to 4 ppm. Pesticide concentrations and profiles in crab embryos were site specific and could be correlated to differences in land-use practices. These preliminary results indicate that embryos are an effective sink for organic contaminants in the environment and have the potential to be good indicators of ecosystem health, especially when contaminant body burden analyses are paired with reproductive impairment assays.

  14. Background trends in California Current surface chlorophyll concentrations: A state-space view

    E-print Network

    Thomas, Andrew

    Background trends in California Current surface chlorophyll concentrations: A state-space view-measured chlorophyll concentrations of the California Current, from British Columbia to Baja California, to isolate chlorophyll. Location-specific trend estimation shows increases are strongest (> 0.2 mg CHL mÀ3 decadeÀ1

  15. Estimating California ecosystem carbon change using process model and land cover disturbance data: 1951-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, J.; Vogelmann, J.E.; Zhu, Z.; Key, C.H.; Sleeter, B.M.; Price, D.T.; Chen, J.M.; Cochrane, M.A.; Eidenshink, J.C.; Howard, S.M.; Bliss, N.B.; Jiang, H.

    2011-01-01

    Land use change, natural disturbance, and climate change directly alter ecosystem productivity and carbon stock level. The estimation of ecosystem carbon dynamics depends on the quality of land cover change data and the effectiveness of the ecosystem models that represent the vegetation growth processes and disturbance effects. We used the Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS) and a set of 30- to 60-m resolution fire and land cover change data to examine the carbon changes of California's forests, shrublands, and grasslands. Simulation results indicate that during 1951-2000, the net primary productivity (NPP) increased by 7%, from 72.2 to 77.1TgCyr-1 (1 teragram=1012g), mainly due to CO2 fertilization, since the climate hardly changed during this period. Similarly, heterotrophic respiration increased by 5%, from 69.4 to 73.1TgCyr-1, mainly due to increased forest soil carbon and temperature. Net ecosystem production (NEP) was highly variable in the 50-year period but on average equalled 3.0TgCyr-1 (total of 149TgC). As with NEP, the net biome production (NBP) was also highly variable but averaged -0.55TgCyr-1 (total of -27.3TgC) because NBP in the 1980s was very low (-5.34TgCyr-1). During the study period, a total of 126Tg carbon were removed by logging and land use change, and 50Tg carbon were directly removed by wildland fires. For carbon pools, the estimated total living upper canopy (tree) biomass decreased from 928 to 834TgC, and the understory (including shrub and grass) biomass increased from 59 to 63TgC. Soil carbon and dead biomass carbon increased from 1136 to 1197TgC. Our analyses suggest that both natural and human processes have significant influence on the carbon change in California. During 1951-2000, climate interannual variability was the key driving force for the large interannual changes of ecosystem carbon source and sink at the state level, while logging and fire were the dominant driving forces for carbon balances in several specific ecoregions. From a long-term perspective, CO2 fertilization plays a key role in maintaining higher NPP. However, our study shows that the increase in C sequestration by CO2 fertilization is largely offset by logging/land use change and wildland fires. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  16. The current state of knowledge of ecosystems and ecosystem services in Russia: A status report.

    PubMed

    Bukvareva, Elena N; Grunewald, Karsten; Bobylev, Sergey N; Zamolodchikov, Dimitry G; Zimenko, Alexey V; Bastian, Olaf

    2015-10-01

    This paper focusses on a conceptual overview of ways to address a comprehensive analysis of ecosystem services (ES) in a country as large and heterogeneous as Russia. As a first step, a methodology for assessing the services for the federal subjects of Russia was chosen, i.e., its constituent provinces and similar entities, in physical terms. Russia harbors a great diversity of natural conditions and ecosystems which are suppliers of ES, and likewise a variety of the socio-economic conditions that shape the demand for these services and their consumption. The methodological approach described permits several important tasks to be addressed: the evaluation of the degree of satisfaction of people's needs for ES, the identification of ecological donor and acceptor regions, and zoning of the country's territory for ES assessment. The next step is to prepare a prototype of a National Report on ES in Russia, for which we are presenting the planned structure. PMID:25990583

  17. The North Pacific High and wintertime pre-conditioning of California current productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, Isaac D.; Black, Bryan A.; Sydeman, William J.; Bograd, Steven J.; Hazen, Elliott L.; Santora, Jarrod A.; Wells, Brian K.

    2013-02-01

    Abstract Variations in large-scale atmospheric forcing influence upwelling dynamics and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> productivity in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System (CCS). In this paper, we characterize interannual variability of the North Pacific High over 40 years and investigate how variation in its amplitude and position affect upwelling and biology. We develop a winter upwelling "pre-conditioning" index and demonstrate its utility to understanding biological processes. Variation in the winter NPH can be well described by its areal extent and maximum pressure, which in turn is predictive of winter upwelling. Our winter pre-conditioning index explained 64% of the variation in biological responses (fish and seabirds). Understanding characteristics of the NPH in winter is therefore critical to predicting biological responses in the CCS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70111934','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70111934"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling Hawaiian <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> degradation due to invasive plants under <span class="hlt">current</span> and future climates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Vorsino, Adam E.; Fortini, Lucas B.; Amidon, Fred A.; Miller, Stephen E.; Jacobi, James D.; Price, Jonathan P.; `Ohukani`ohi`a Gon, Sam, III; Koob, Gregory A.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Occupation of native <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> by invasive plant species alters their structure and/or function. In Hawaii, a subset of introduced plants is regarded as extremely harmful due to competitive ability, <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> modification, and biogeochemical habitat degradation. By controlling this subset of highly invasive <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> modifiers, conservation managers could significantly reduce native <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> degradation. To assess the invasibility of vulnerable native <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, we selected a proxy subset of these invasive plants and developed robust ensemble species distribution models to define their respective potential distributions. The combinations of all species models using both binary and continuous habitat suitability projections resulted in estimates of species richness and diversity that were subsequently used to define an invasibility metric. The invasibility metric was defined from species distribution models with 0.8; True Skill Statistic >0.75) as evaluated per species. Invasibility was further projected onto a 2100 Hawaii regional climate change scenario to assess the change in potential habitat degradation. The distribution defined by the invasibility metric delineates areas of known and potential invasibility under <span class="hlt">current</span> climate conditions and, when projected into the future, estimates potential reductions in native <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> extent due to climate-driven invasive incursion. We have provided the code used to develop these metrics to facilitate their wider use (Code S1). This work will help determine the vulnerability of native-dominated <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> to the combined threats of climate change and invasive species, and thus help prioritize <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> and species management actions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT........18A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT........18A"><span id="translatedtitle">Topographic Controls on Southern <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Function and Post-fire Recovery: a Satellite and Near-surface Remote Sensing Approach</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Azzari, George</p> <p></p> <p>Southern Californian wildfires can influence climate in a variety of ways, including changes in surface albedo, emission of greenhouse gases and aerosols, and the production of tropospheric ozone. <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> post-fire recovery plays a key role in determining the strength, duration, and relative importance of these climate forcing agents. Southern <span class="hlt">California</span>'s <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> vary markedly with topography, creating sharp transitions with elevation, aspect, and slope. Little is known about the ways topography influences <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> properties and function, particularly in the context of post-fire recovery. We combined images from the USGS satellite Landsat 5 with flux tower measurements to analyze pre- and post-fire albedo and carbon exchanged by Southern <span class="hlt">California</span>'s <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> in the Santa Ana Mountains. We reduced the sources of external variability in Landsat images using several correction methods for topographic and bidirectional effects. We used time series of corrected images to infer the Net <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Exchange and surface albedo, and calculated the radiative forcing due to CO2 emissions and albedo changes. We analyzed the patterns of recovery and radiative forcing on north- and south-facing slopes, stratified by vegetation classes including grassland, coastal sage scrub, chaparral, and evergreen oak forest. We found that topography strongly influenced post-fire recovery and radiative forcing. Field observations are often limited by the difficulty of collecting ground validation data. <span class="hlt">Current</span> instrumentation networks do not provide adequate spatial resolution for landscape-level analysis. The deployment of consumer-market technology could reduce the cost of near-surface measurements, allowing the installation of finer-scale instrument networks. We tested the performance of the Microsoft Kinect sensor for measuring vegetation structure. We used Kinect to acquire 3D vegetation point clouds in the field, and used these data to compute plant height, crown diameter, and volume. We found good agreement between Kinect-derived and manual measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17..645V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17..645V"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Current</span> <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> processes in steppe near Lake Baikal</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vanteeva, Julia</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The steppes and forest steppes complexes of Priol'khonie at the Lake Baikal (southern Siberia, Russia) were studied in this research. Recreational activity has a significant impact on the Priol'khonie region. During soviet time this area was actively used for agriculture. Nowadays, this territory is the part of Pribaikalskyi National Park and special protection is needed. As the landscapes satisfy different human demands there are many land-management conflicts. The specific climate and soil conditions and human activity lead to erosion processes on study area. Sediment loads are transferred into the Lake Baikal and cause water pollution. Consequently, vegetation cover and phytomass play an important role for regulating hydrological processes in the <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. The process of phytomass formation and its proactive role playing on sedimentation and mitigate silt detaching by rill and inter-rill erosion are considered in the research as important indicators of the <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> functions for steppe landscapes. These indicators were studied for the different land cover types identified on the area because the study area has a large variety of steppe and forest steppe complexes, differing in the form of relief, soil types, vegetation species composition and degree of land degradation. The fieldwork was conducted in the study area in the July and August of 2013. Thirty-two experimental sites (10 x 10 m) which characterized different types of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> were established. The level of landscape degradation was estimated. The method of clipping was used for the valuation of above-ground herbaceous phytomass. The phytomass of tree stands was calculated using the volume-conversion rates for forest-steppe complexes. For the quantification of transferred silt by inter-rill erosion in different conditions (vegetation, slope, soil type, anthropogenic load) a portable rainfall simulator was created with taking into account the characteristics of the study area. The aboveground herbaceous phytomass of the steppe complexes varied from 0.4 to 2.64 t/ha. Apical stony and sloping grass-forb landscapes and areas of settlements and recreation facilities had the lowest values. Forest steppes were characterized by low crown density, non-large stand density, which was represented mainly by larch. Phytomass stock ranged from 30.78 to 282.24 t/ha. Maximum values corresponded to the forest steppe with larch on steep slopes. The maximum values of the silt matter transfer (up to 124 g /m2) corresponded to areas with a strong recreation pressure with the lower value of vegetation cover (from 0 to 45%) and aboveground herbaceous phytomass (0.4 - 0.6 t/ha). During experiment with using rainfall simulator defined different sensibility to soil erosion, for example, for Caragana steppe with sagebrush on the undisturbed area trapped silt is 12 g/m2 and for anthropogenic disturbed patch - 84 g/m2. For Sagebrush steppe trapped silt changed from 4 to 16 g/m2. The study shows strong landscapes transformation leading to loss of biodiversity, the reduction of phytomass production and water percolation.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>1</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li class="active"><span>3</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_3 --> <div id="page_4" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="61"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70021229','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70021229"><span id="translatedtitle">Anthropogenic degradation of the southern <span class="hlt">California</span> desert <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> and prospects for natural recovery and restoration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Lovich, J.E.; Bainbridge, D.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Large areas of the southern <span class="hlt">California</span> desert <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> have been negatively affected by off-highway vehicle use, overgrazing by domestic livestock, agriculture, urbanization, construction of roads and utility corridors, air pollution, military training exercises, and other activities. Secondary contributions to degradation include the proliferation of exotic plant species and a higher frequency of an- thropogenic fire. Effects of these impacts include alteration or destruction of macro- and micro- vegetation elements, establishment of annual plant communities dominated by exotic species, destruction of soil stabilizers, soil compaction, and increased erosion. Published estimates of recovery time are based on return to predisturbance levels of biomass, cover, density, community structure, or soil characteristics. Natural recovery rates depend on the nature and severity of the impact but are generally very slow. Recovery to predisturbance plant cover and biomass may take 50-300 years, while complete <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> recovery may require over 3000 years. Restorative intervention can be used to enhance the success and rate of recovery, but the costs are high and the probability for long-term success is low to moderate. Given the sensitivity of desert habitats to disturbance and the slow rate of natural recovery, the best management option is to limit the extent and intensity of impacts as much as possible.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMS...146..121H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMS...146..121H"><span id="translatedtitle">Diet variability of forage fishes in the Northern <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hill, Andrew D.; Daly, Elizabeth A.; Brodeur, Richard D.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>As fisheries management shifts to an <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>-based approach, understanding energy pathways and trophic relationships in the Northern <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> (NCC) will become increasingly important for predictive modeling and understanding <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> response to changing ocean conditions. In the NCC, pelagic forage fishes are a critical link between seasonal and interannual variation in primary production and upper trophic groups. We compared diets among dominant forage fish (sardines, anchovies, herring, and smelts) in the NCC collected in May and June of 2011 and June 2012, and found high diet variability between and within species on seasonal and annual time scales, and also on decadal scales when compared to results of past studies conducted in the early 2000s. Copepoda were a large proportion by weight of several forage fish diets in 2011 and 2012, which differed from a preponderance of Euphausiidae found in previous studies, even though all years exhibited cool ocean conditions. We also examined diet overlap among these species and with co-occurring subyearling Chinook salmon and found that surf smelt diets overlapped more with subyearling Chinook diets than any other forage fish. Herring and sardine diets overlapped the most with each other in our interdecadal comparisons and some prey items were common to all forage fish diets. Forage fish that show plasticity in diet may be more adapted to ocean conditions of low productivity or anomalous prey fields. These findings highlight the variable and not well-understood connections between ocean conditions and energy pathways within the NCC.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70040702','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70040702"><span id="translatedtitle">Nine endangered taxa, one recovering <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>: Identifying common ground for recovery on Santa Cruz Island, <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>McEachern, A. Kathryn; Wilken, Dieter H.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>It is not uncommon to have several rare and listed taxa occupying habitats in one landscape or management area where conservation amounts to defense against the possibility of further loss. It is uncommon and extremely exciting, however, to have several listed taxa occupying one island that is managed cooperatively for conservation and recovery. On Santa Cruz Island, the largest of the northern <span class="hlt">California</span> island group in the Santa Barbara Channel, we have a golden opportunity to marry ecological knowledge and institutional "good will" in a field test of holistic rare plant conservation. Here, the last feral livestock have been removed, active weed control is underway, and management is focused on understanding and demonstrating system response to conservation management. Yet funding limitations still exist and we need to plan the most fiscally conservative and marketable approach to rare plant restoration. We still experience the tension between desirable quick results and the ecological pace of system recovery. Therefore, our research has focused on identifying fundamental constraints on species recovery at individual, demographic, habitat, and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> levels, and then developing suites of actions that might be taken across taxa and landscapes. At the same time, we seek a performance middle ground that balances an institutional need for quick demonstration of hands-on positive results with a contrasting approach that allows <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> recovery to facilitate species recovery in the long term. We find that constraints vary across breeding systems, life-histories, and island locations. We take a hybrid approach in which we identify several actions that we can take now to enhance population size or habitat occupancy for some taxa by active restoration, while allowing others to recover at the pace of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> change. We make our recommendations on the basis of data we have collected over the last decade, so that management is firmly grounded in ecological observation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21329349','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21329349"><span id="translatedtitle">Anthropogenic <span class="hlt">currents</span> and shoreline water quality in Avalon Bay, <span class="hlt">California</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ho, Lin C; Litton, Rachel M; Grant, Stanley B</p> <p>2011-03-15</p> <p>Shoreline concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and fecal indicator viruses (FIV) in Avalon Bay (Catalina Island, <span class="hlt">California</span>) display a marked diurnal pattern (higher at night and lower during the day) previously attributed to the tidal flux of sewage-contaminated groundwater and the tidal washing of contaminated sediments, coupled with light and dark die-off of FIB and FIV (Boehm, et al., Environ. Sci. Technol. 2009, 43, 8046-8052). In this paper we document the existence of strong (peak velocities between 20 to 40 cm/s) transient <span class="hlt">currents</span> in the nearshore waters of Avalon Bay that occur between 07:00 and 20:00 each day. These <span class="hlt">currents</span>, which have a significant onshore component, are generated by anthropogenic activities in the Bay, including prop wash from local boat traffic and the docking practices of large passenger ferries. A budget analysis carried out on simultaneous measurements of FIB at two cross-shore locations indicates that anthropogenic <span class="hlt">currents</span> contribute to the diurnal cycling of FIB concentrations along the shoreline, by transporting relatively unpolluted water from offshore toward the beach. The data and analysis presented in this paper support the idea that anthropogenic <span class="hlt">currents</span> represent a significant, and previously overlooked, source of variability in shoreline water quality. PMID:21329349</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2889511','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2889511"><span id="translatedtitle">Responses of terrestrial <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> and carbon budgets to <span class="hlt">current</span> and future environmental variability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Medvigy, David; Wofsy, Steven C.; Munger, J. William; Moorcroft, Paul R.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>We assess the significance of high-frequency variability of environmental parameters (sunlight, precipitation, temperature) for the structure and function of terrestrial <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> under <span class="hlt">current</span> and future climate. We examine the influence of hourly, daily, and monthly variance using the <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Demography model version 2 in conjunction with the long-term record of carbon fluxes measured at Harvard Forest. We find that fluctuations of sunlight and precipitation are strongly and nonlinearly coupled to <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> function, with effects that accumulate through annual and decadal timescales. Increasing variability in sunlight and precipitation leads to lower rates of carbon sequestration and favors broad-leaved deciduous trees over conifers. Temperature variability has only minor impacts by comparison. We also find that projected changes in sunlight and precipitation variability have important implications for carbon storage and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> structure and composition. Based on Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change model estimates for changes in high-frequency meteorological variability over the next 100 years, we expect that terrestrial <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> will be affected by changes in variability almost as much as by changes in mean climate. We conclude that terrestrial <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> are highly sensitive to high-frequency meteorological variability, and that accurate knowledge of the statistics of this variability is essential for realistic predictions of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> structure and functioning. PMID:20404190</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.fs.fed.us/psw/publications/documents/psw_gtr183/psw_gtr183_000_toc.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.fs.fed.us/psw/publications/documents/psw_gtr183/psw_gtr183_000_toc.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Proceedings of a Symposium on the Kings River Sustainable Forest <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> Project: Progress</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Proceedings of a Symposium on the Kings River Sustainable Forest <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> Project: Progress and <span class="hlt">Current</span> Status January 26, 1998 Clovis, <span class="hlt">California</span> Technical Editor: Jared Verner Contents Preface .......................................................................................................................... iii The Kings River Sustainable Forest <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> Project: Inception, Objectives, and Progress</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B51I0414D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B51I0414D"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurement of <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Metabolism across Climatic and Vegetation Gradients in <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>DuBois, S.; Serbin, S.; Desai, A. R.; Kruger, E.; Kingdon, C.; Goulden, M.; Townsend, P. A.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Terrestrial <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> models require information on vegetation structure, phenology, demographics, biochemistry, radiation properties, and physiology in order to accurately simulate the responses of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> functioning to global change and disturbances. These models generally depend on a small number of intensive, fine-scaled point-based measurements from eddy covariance towers, detailed vegetation surveys, literature values, and site-scale data assimilation techniques to improve model calibration. However, the limited geographic and/or temporal scope of measurements can lead to inadequate model generalizations of modeled carbon (C), water, and energy fluxes across broad regions and relevant time periods. Remote sensing approaches, particularly imaging spectroscopy (IS) and thermal infrared (TIR) data, have the potential to provide the broad-scale spatial and temporal dynamics in many important vegetation properties related to <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> functioning. As part of the ongoing NASA HyspIRI Airborne Campaign (http://hyspiri.jpl.nasa.gov/airborne) we are assessing the potential of IS+TIR to generate spatially explicit estimates of two important parameters characterizing plant photosynthetic capacity: the maximum rate of CO2 carboxylation by RuBisCo (Vcmax), and the maximum rate of electron transport required for the regeneration of RuBP needed in Calvin Cycle processes (Jmax). These estimates are based on recent evidence that both properties can be predicted at the leaf level using spectroscopy techniques (Ainsworth et al. 2013 [http://tinyurl.com/n5xnzjg]; Serbin et al. 2012 [http://tinyurl.com/mhocmlz]). It follows that estimation of these variables from remotely sensed IS+TIR (i.e. AVIRIS & MASTER) could facilitate the prediction of seasonal C assimilation across large areas using data from the anticipated HyspIRI satellite mission. Our research focuses on two climate-elevation transects in <span class="hlt">California</span>, which span a vegetation gradient from coastal sage and chaparral to oak woodlands and closed-canopy coniferous forests, as well as agro-<span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> located throughout the Central and Imperial Valleys. We are also comparing remotely sensed estimates of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> photosynthetic capacity with C flux data from a series of 10 eddy covariance towers. Results from the 2013 field season highlight the large range in sampled vegetation structure, optical properties (i.e. reflectance and transmittance) and physiology (i.e. Vcmax, Jmax, and cholorphyll fluorescence). Using approaches similar to Serbin et al. (2012) we have confirmed the ability of spectroscopy to estimate Vcmax and Jmax across these diverse and structurally complex vegetation types. <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> products, such as gross primary productivity, estimated from flux towers highlight the relationship between climatic parameters and vegetation productivity. Multiple data-years allow this relationship to be examined under various climatic forcings including drought and heat stress. Based on these preliminary results, our next step is to scale leaf-level information to AVIRIS footprints using radiative transfer and statistical modeling approaches with <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> modeling in order to assess the IS data products against flux tower observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUSMOS22B..05B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUSMOS22B..05B"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Climate Change on Sardine Productivity in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baumgartner, T. R.; Auad, G.; Miller, A. J.</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>The Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax caeruleus) is one of several coastal pelagic, planktivorous species of fish that provide important trophic links within the <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> of the major eastern and western boundary <span class="hlt">currents</span>. Significant and persistent change in sardine productivity has occurred in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> over interdecadal periods in response to reorganization of basin-wide, ocean-atmosphere circulation. Less extreme, but still significant changes in sardine productivity are associated with interannual to decadal-scale climate variability. A precipitous decline of the sardine population began in the mid-1940s with a shift in climate leading to cooling of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> system. While the decline, and ultimately the collapse of the population, was exacerbated by intensive fishing, the sardine also suffered a severe reduction in productivity with the southward contraction of favorable thermal habitat that led to restriction of the population to the waters off Southern <span class="hlt">California</span> and Baja <span class="hlt">California</span>. This southward displacement resulted in geographic separation of the population from the region off central and northern <span class="hlt">California</span> that is characterized by significantly higher concentrations of zooplankton that supported the previous levels of success in spawning and larval development. The climate shift in 1976-77 led to the recovery of the population and extension of its range of distribution northwards into the waters off British Columbia. The relation of reproductive success of the sardine population to interannual and decadal climate change was examined for the period 1982-2005 using a suite of seasonal indices representing climate processes and habitat conditions (including zooplankton food levels) occurring through the different stages in the sardine life cycle. We used both stepwise regression and EOF analyses to determine the association between levels of recruitment success and seasonal indices of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, Ekman pumping (measured at 35°N, 122.5°W), coastal upwelling (at 36°N, 122°W) and zooplankton biomass (represented by values from the center of sardine spawning). The seasonal indices of the PDO are positively correlated with reproductive success, while an inverse relationship between the PDO indices and coastal upwelling is consistent with reduced equatorward flow during coastal warming that favors sardine reproduction. Results also show an unambiguous inverse relationship between Ekman pumping and sardine recruitment success indicating the negative influence of increased offshore transport on the survival of eggs and larvae. There is a surprising lack of association between recruitment success and zooplankton biomass, interpreted to mean that food was not limiting for sardine reproduction during the period analyzed (in the warm regime after 1977). Based on the results of this study, we anticipate that global warming will favor the maintenance of the sardine population over its present range from the Gulf of <span class="hlt">California</span> into the waters of British Columbia throughout the <span class="hlt">current</span> century.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://fishbull.noaa.gov/69-2/cox.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://fishbull.noaa.gov/69-2/cox.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">DDT RESIDUES IN SEAWATER AND PARTICULATE MATTER IN THE <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> <span class="hlt">CURRENT</span> SYSTEM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>DDT RESIDUES IN SEAWATER AND PARTICULATE MATTER IN THE <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> <span class="hlt">CURRENT</span> SYSTEM JAMES L. COX in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">current</span> system were analyzed for DDT residues. DDT residue concentrations in whole seawater are discussed in relation to mechanisms of land-sea DDT residue transfer. DDT residue concentrations</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://fishbull.noaa.gov/841/willason.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://fishbull.noaa.gov/841/willason.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">PATCHINESS AND NUTRITIONAL CONDITION OF ZOOPLANKmN IN THE <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> <span class="hlt">CURRENT</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> suggest that animals in these areas experience pro- longed periods of better nutritionPATCHINESS AND NUTRITIONAL CONDITION OF ZOOPLANKmN IN THE <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> <span class="hlt">CURRENT</span> STEWART W. WILLASON very low digestive enzyme activity. The larger size (weight) and higher lipid content of C. pacl</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PrOce..83...15H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PrOce..83...15H"><span id="translatedtitle">The Benguela <span class="hlt">Current</span>: An <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> of four components</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hutchings, L.; van der Lingen, C. D.; Shannon, L. J.; Crawford, R. J. M.; Verheye, H. M. S.; Bartholomae, C. H.; van der Plas, A. K.; Louw, D.; Kreiner, A.; Ostrowski, M.; Fidel, Q.; Barlow, R. G.; Lamont, T.; Coetzee, J.; Shillington, F.; Veitch, J.; Currie, J. C.; Monteiro, P. M. S.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>The Benguela system is one of the four major eastern boundary upwelling systems of the world. It is unusual as there are two stratified subtropical or warm temperate boundary regions, on either side of the major wind-driven upwelling region(19-34°S), which itself is subdivided at 26°S by the powerful Luderitz upwelling cell. Important biological components cross the boundary areas at different stages to complete the life-history cycle. While the “Bakun triad” of factors responsible for the development of large pelagic fish populations (enrichment, concentration and retention) provide an important unifying principle for understanding the compromise implicit in adaptation to upwelling systems, the role of predation has been neglected, as has the fish yield relative to photosynthesis. The role global climate change will have in the Benguela in terms of shifting boundaries or weakening or intensifying gradients is being explored. The interannual and decadal signals are so strong in the region that long term trends are difficult to distinguish. Intensive resource utilisation and the collapse of several fish stocks occurred in the Benguela region during the 1960s and 1970s, with different recovery trajectories in the north and the south. The Angolan subsystem can be described as a subtropical transition zone between the wind-driven upwelling system and the Equatorial Atlantic, with gentle upwelling-favourable winds, well-defined seasons, intermediate productivity and moderate, declining fisheries. It is separated from the Namibian subsystem by the Angola-Benguela front. The northern Benguela shelf is a typical coastal upwelling system with equatorward winds, cool water, high plankton biomass and moderate to high fish biomass, which is <span class="hlt">currently</span> in a depleted state. A shift from sardines to horse mackerel occurred during the period 1970-1990, while hake have never fully recovered from intensive fishing pressure up to 1990. Widespread oxygen-depleted waters and sulphur eruptions result from local and remote forcing, restricting the habitat available for pelagic and demersal fish species. The Luderitz-Orange River Cone is an intensive perennial upwelling cell where strong winds, high turbulence and strong offshore transport constitute a partial barrier to epipelagic fish species. Upwelling source water alters in salinity and oxygen, across this boundary zone. A decline in upwelling-favourable winds occurred between 1990 and 2005. The southern Benguela region is characterised by a pulsed, seasonal, wind-driven upwelling at discrete centres and warm Agulhas water offshore. High primary productivity forms a belt of enrichment along the coast, constrained by a front. Low-oxygen water, which only occurs close inshore, may adversely affect some resources. The west coast is primarily a nursery ground for several fish species which spawn on the Agulhas Bank and are transported by alongshore jet <span class="hlt">currents</span> to the west coast. The Agulhas Bank forms the southern boundary of the Benguela system and it displays characteristics of both an upwelling and a temperate shallow shelf system, with seasonal stratification and mixing, coastal, shelf-edge and dynamic upwelling, moderate productivity and a well oxygenated shelf. A large biomass of fish occupies the Bank during the summer season, with some evidence for tight coupling between trophic levels. A cool ridge of upwelled water, with links to coastal upwelling and to the Agulhas <span class="hlt">Current</span>, appears to play an important but poorly understood role affecting the distribution and productivity of pelagic fish. A boom in sardine and anchovy populations was accompanied by an eastward shift, followed by 5 years of poor recruitment by sardine but successful recruitment of anchovy, indicating changes in the early life-history patterns of these two species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1016326','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/1016326"><span id="translatedtitle">Fire and aquatic <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> of the western USA: <span class="hlt">Current</span> knowledge and key questions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Bisson, P.A.; Rieman, B.; Luce, C.; Hessburg, Paul F.; Lee, D.; Kershner, J.; Reeves, G.H.; Gresswell, Robert E.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Understanding of the effects of wildland fire and fire management on aquatic and riparian <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> is an evolving field, with many questions still to be resolved. Limitations of <span class="hlt">current</span> knowledge, and the certainty that fire management will continue, underscore the need to summarize available information. Integrating fire and fuels management with aquatic <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> conservation begins with recognizing that terrestrial and aquatic <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> are linked and dynamic, and that fire can play a critical role in maintaining aquatic ecological diversity. To protect aquatic <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> we argue that it will be important to: (1) accommodate fire-related and other ecological processes that maintain aquatic habitats and biodiversity, and not simply control fires or fuels; (2) prioritize projects according to risks and opportunities for fire control and the protection of aquatic <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>; and (3) develop new consistency in the management and regulatory process. Ultimately, all natural resource management is uncertain; the role of science is to apply experimental design and hypothesis testing to management applications that affect fire and aquatic <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. Policy-makers and the public will benefit from an expanded appreciation of fire ecology that enables them to implement watershed management projects as experiments with hypothesized outcomes, adequate controls, and replication.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.B12B..07C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.B12B..07C"><span id="translatedtitle">The diel patterns of soil respiration in four arid <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>: fluxes, sources and hypotheses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carbone, M.; Trumbore, S.; Winston, G.; Serio, D.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Automated measurements provide the high-resolution information that enables us to analyze potential causes for diel variability in soil respiration. These diel patterns are the complex result of biological and physical processes that determine the production and diffusion of CO2 through the soil. We examined the diel patterns of soil respiration from four arid <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>: (1) a pinon-juniper woodland in at the Burns Pinon Ridge Reserve near Joshua Tree National Park, (2) a cold desert shrub community and (3) a perennial grassland near the city of Bishop in the Owens Valley, and (4) a mixed oak-pine forest at the James Reserve in the San Jacinto Mountains. In addition to automated chamber and environmental measurements at these sites, we used isotopic (14C) partitioning techniques to separate the plant and microbial sources contributing to soil respiration at certain time points. Here we present the diel cycles of soil respiration and environmental variables, the source partitioning results, and hypotheses about what processes determine these diel patterns that both span, and are specific to the studied <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. In these systems dominated by Mediterranean or desert climates, we observed that factors like relative humidity can dominate the diel variations in soil respiration for sites with very dry surface litter. At other sites and times of year, diel variation in soil respiration reflects photosynthetic and VPD influence on root respiration. The combination of automated chamber measurements with isotopes provides information useful for separating the plant and heterotrophic control on diel and seasonal soil respiration fluxes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H42E..02H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H42E..02H"><span id="translatedtitle">Water Use in Los Angeles, <span class="hlt">California</span>: Consumption Patterns, <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Response and Impact on Regional Water Budgets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hogue, T. S.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The City of Los Angeles relies heavily on external water sources, primarily the Eastern Sierra, Northern <span class="hlt">California</span> and the Colorado River, and approximately 90% of the City's water supply is snowpack dependent. In recent years, water conservation measures have been implemented in response to regional drought, which include a tiered pricing structure and watering restrictions. As a result of implemented conservation policies, Los Angeles reported the lowest water consumption per capita per day in 2011 among cities over 1 million people in the U.S. This presentation will highlight our ongoing work to better understand the coupling between humans, <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> and water across the City of Los Angeles, especially during the recent drought period. Our work is unique in that we integrate social, ecological, and hydrologic data, including ten years of residential water consumption data for the entire city of Los Angeles, extensive groundwater well data, socio-economic information and remote sensing to evaluate relationships as well as spatial and temporal patterns. Developed statistical models demonstrated that Single-Family Residential (SFR) water use across the City is primarily driven by household income, landscape greenness, water rates and water volume allocation,, with higher consumption rates in the northern, warmer and more affluent parts, and lower consumption rates in the less affluent neighborhoods near Downtown. Landscape use also varies greatly across the city, averaging 50% of total SFR. Our evaluation of conservation efforts shows that the combination of mandatory watering restrictions and price increase led to a water reduction of 23%, while voluntary restrictions led to only a 6% reduction in water use. Relationships of water use to <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> (greenness) and groundwater variability were also evaluated and will be highlighted. Our ultimate goal is to improve predictions of human-water interactions in order to drive policy change and guide future demand strategies under uncertain climate variability and a growing urban population.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRC..118.3223P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRC..118.3223P"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the temperature-nitrate relationship in the coastal upwelling domain of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Palacios, Daniel M.; Hazen, Elliott L.; Schroeder, Isaac D.; Bograd, Steven J.</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Given the importance of nitrate in sustaining high primary production and fishery yields in eastern boundary <span class="hlt">current</span> <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, it is desirable to know the amounts of this nutrient reaching the euphotic zone through the upwelling process. Because such measurements are not routinely available, we developed predictive models of water-column (0-200 m) nitrate based on temperature for a region of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System (30-47°N) within 50 km from the coast. Prediction was done using generalized additive models based on a compilation of 37,607 observations collected over the period 1959-2004 and validated with a separate set of 6430 observations for the period 2005-2011. A temperature-only model had relatively high explanatory power (explained deviance, D2 = 71.6%) but contained important depth, latitudinal, and seasonal biases. A model incorporating salinity in addition to temperature (D2 = 91.2%) corrected for the latitudinal and depth biases but not the seasonal bias. The best model included oxygen, temperature, and salinity (D2 = 96.6%) and adequately predicted nitrate temporal behavior at two widely separated locations (44°39.1'N and 32°54.6'N) with slight or no bias [root-mean-square error (RMSE) = 2.39 and 0.40 µM, respectively). For situations when only temperature is available, a model including depth, month, and latitude as proxy covariates corrects some of the biases, but it had lower predictive skill (RMSE = 2.50 and 5.22 ?M, respectively). The results of this study have applications for the proxy derivation of nitrate availability for primary producers (phytoplankton, macroalgae) in upwelling regions and for biogeochemical and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> modeling studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4013088','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4013088"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling Hawaiian <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Degradation due to Invasive Plants under <span class="hlt">Current</span> and Future Climates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Vorsino, Adam E.; Fortini, Lucas B.; Amidon, Fred A.; Miller, Stephen E.; Jacobi, James D.; Price, Jonathan P.; Gon, Sam 'Ohukani'ohi'a; Koob, Gregory A.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Occupation of native <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> by invasive plant species alters their structure and/or function. In Hawaii, a subset of introduced plants is regarded as extremely harmful due to competitive ability, <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> modification, and biogeochemical habitat degradation. By controlling this subset of highly invasive <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> modifiers, conservation managers could significantly reduce native <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> degradation. To assess the invasibility of vulnerable native <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, we selected a proxy subset of these invasive plants and developed robust ensemble species distribution models to define their respective potential distributions. The combinations of all species models using both binary and continuous habitat suitability projections resulted in estimates of species richness and diversity that were subsequently used to define an invasibility metric. The invasibility metric was defined from species distribution models with <0.7 niche overlap (Warrens I) and relatively discriminative distributions (Area Under the Curve >0.8; True Skill Statistic >0.75) as evaluated per species. Invasibility was further projected onto a 2100 Hawaii regional climate change scenario to assess the change in potential habitat degradation. The distribution defined by the invasibility metric delineates areas of known and potential invasibility under <span class="hlt">current</span> climate conditions and, when projected into the future, estimates potential reductions in native <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> extent due to climate-driven invasive incursion. We have provided the code used to develop these metrics to facilitate their wider use (Code S1). This work will help determine the vulnerability of native-dominated <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> to the combined threats of climate change and invasive species, and thus help prioritize <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> and species management actions. PMID:24805254</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.sfei.org/sites/default/files/biblio_files/Grenier_Davis_2010_water_quality_south_SF_bay_-_RECT.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.sfei.org/sites/default/files/biblio_files/Grenier_Davis_2010_water_quality_south_SF_bay_-_RECT.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Water Quality in South San Francisco Bay, <span class="hlt">California</span>: <span class="hlt">Current</span> Condition and Potential</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Water Quality in South San Francisco Bay, <span class="hlt">California</span>: <span class="hlt">Current</span> Condition and Potential Issues and Wetland Restoration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 2 <span class="hlt">Current</span> Water Quality Aspects of Water Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 3 Potential Future Changes</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.conservationecologylab.com/uploads/1/9/7/6/19763887/micheli_et_al_2013.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.conservationecologylab.com/uploads/1/9/7/6/19763887/micheli_et_al_2013.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Cumulative Human Impacts on Mediterranean and Black Sea Marine <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span>: Assessing <span class="hlt">Current</span> Pressures and</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Lewison, Rebecca</p> <p></p> <p>. Analyses of the intensity and distribution of cumulative impacts of human activities directly connectedCumulative Human Impacts on Mediterranean and Black Sea Marine <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span>: Assessing <span class="hlt">Current</span>­99% of the territorial waters of EU member states are heavily impacted, with high human impact occurring in all</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMOS31C1736S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMOS31C1736S"><span id="translatedtitle">Decadal changes in the Canary <span class="hlt">Current</span> Upwelling <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Santos, A. M.; Luis, J. M.; Relvas-Almeida, P.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The Canary <span class="hlt">Current</span> Upwelling System (CCUS) covers the latitudinal range 12-43 degrees N and has some singularities in relation to the other three major Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems (EBUS), namely a major interruption in the continuity of the system at the Strait of Gibraltar and it is the only one with a sardine species from a different genus (Sardina vs Sardinops). Long-term trends in ocean temperature and coastal upwelling were investigated using the AVHRR Pathfinder SST (sea surface temperature) Version 5.1 dataset, in situ SST from the International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS), and upwelling indices from the Pacific Fisheries Environmental Laboratory (PFEL). The analysis is applied to the eastern boundary of the North Atlantic, from 10 to 45 degrees N extending until 30 degrees W, focusing mainly in the CCUS because the strong dynamic link between the atmosphere and the ocean makes upwelling regions highly sensitive to global change and ideal to monitor and investigate its effects. The detail in SST variability results in a large extent from the fine analysis and the numerical processing carefully designed to avoid trend bias in the climatological studies. The obtained fields of SST trends show a generalized warming of the entire region. However, alternate patches of significantly different warming rates are observed, ranging from large scale down to mesoscale. Known coastal upwelling features are seen to warm at a lower rate than corresponding offshore waters, pointing to an intensification of the upwelling in the last decades. Wind data are used to attempt to explain the variability of some upwelling structures. Our results evidence the main role that mesoscale processes play in the modulation of the spatial and temporal variability of SST, namely at the decadal scale. This result prevents any global conclusion about the intensification of the upwelling at the scale of the entire CCUS. The bulk of the sardine population is located in the southern part of CCUS off NW Africa. Important fluctuations in landings have been observed in the last 70 years but they seem to be out of phase between the two sub-regions - the northern CCUS (Iberia) and southern CCUS (NW Africa). The explanation for these fluctuations has been related, at least partially, to environmental drivers but also to changes in exploitation. Landing time series of sardine, anchovy and sardinella were used to perform an exploratory analysis to investigate the relationships between small pelagic fish species in the CCUS and decadal changes in SST and coastal upwelling. This is a contribution to FCT (Portuguese Science and Technology Foundation) funded projects LONGUP (PTDC/AAC-CLI/105296/2008) and MODELA (PTDC/MAR/098643/2008).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.S33B0328A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.S33B0328A"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Current</span> Development at the Southern <span class="hlt">California</span> Earthquake Data Center (SCEDC)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Appel, V. L.; Clayton, R. W.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>Over the past year, the SCEDC completed or is near completion of three featured projects: Station Information System (SIS) Development: The SIS will provide users with an interface into complete and accurate station metadata for all <span class="hlt">current</span> and historic data at the SCEDC. The goal of this project is to develop a system that can interact with a single database source to enter, update and retrieve station metadata easily and efficiently. The system will provide accurate station/channel information for active stations to the SCSN real-time processing system, as will as station/channel information for stations that have parametric data at the SCEDC i.e., for users retrieving data via STP. Additionally, the SIS will supply information required to generate dataless SEED and COSMOS V0 volumes and allow stations to be added to the system with a minimum, but incomplete set of information using predefined defaults that can be easily updated as more information becomes available. Finally, the system will facilitate statewide metadata exchange for both real-time processing and provide a common approach to CISN historic station metadata. Moment Tensor Solutions: The SCEDC is <span class="hlt">currently</span> archiving and delivering Moment Magnitudes and Moment Tensor Solutions (MTS) produced by the SCSN in real-time and post-processing solutions for events spanning back to 1999. The automatic MTS runs on all local events with magnitudes > 3.0, and all regional events > 3.5. The distributed solution automatically creates links from all USGS Simpson Maps to a text e-mail summary solution, creates a .gif image of the solution, and updates the moment tensor database tables at the SCEDC. Searchable Scanned Waveforms Site: The Caltech Seismological Lab has made available 12,223 scanned images of pre-digital analog recordings of major earthquakes recorded in Southern <span class="hlt">California</span> between 1962 and 1992 at http://www.data.scec.org/research/scans/. The SCEDC has developed a searchable web interface that allows users to search the available files, select multiple files for download and then retrieve a zipped file containing the results. Scanned images of paper records for M>3.5 southern <span class="hlt">California</span> earthquakes and several significant teleseisms are available for download via the SCEDC through this search tool.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_2");'>2</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li class="active"><span>4</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_4 --> <div id="page_5" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="81"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=309504&keyword=Habitat&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=55254579&CFTOKEN=31707493','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=309504&keyword=Habitat&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=55254579&CFTOKEN=31707493"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantitative Models Describing Past and <span class="hlt">Current</span> Nutrient Fluxes and Associated <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Level Responses in the Narragansett Bay <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Multiple drivers, including nutrient loading and climate change, affect the Narragansett Bay <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> in Rhode Island/Massachusetts, USA. Managers are interested in understanding the timing and magnitude of these effects, and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> responses to restoration actions. To provid...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.mbari.org/staff/peti/Pubs/GOC%20transit.2003.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.mbari.org/staff/peti/Pubs/GOC%20transit.2003.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">ALONGSHORE VARIABILITY OF THE <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> <span class="hlt">CURRENT</span> SYSTEM FROM CENTRAL TO BAJA <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> IN WINTER AND SPRING 2003: PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Pennington, J. Timothy</p> <p></p> <p>AND SPRING 2003: PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES ALONGSHORE VARIABILITY OF THE <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> IN WINTER AND SPRING 2003: PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES ALONGSHORE VARIABILITY <span class="hlt">CURRENT</span> SYSTEM FROM CENTRAL TO BAJA <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> IN WINTER AND SPRING 2003: PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3850916','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3850916"><span id="translatedtitle">Cumulative Human Impacts on Mediterranean and Black Sea Marine <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span>: Assessing <span class="hlt">Current</span> Pressures and Opportunities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Micheli, Fiorenza; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Walbridge, Shaun; Ciriaco, Saul; Ferretti, Francesco; Fraschetti, Simonetta; Lewison, Rebecca; Nykjaer, Leo; Rosenberg, Andrew A.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Management of marine <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> requires spatial information on <span class="hlt">current</span> impacts. In several marine regions, including the Mediterranean and Black Sea, legal mandates and agreements to implement <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>-based management and spatial plans provide new opportunities to balance uses and protection of marine <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. Analyses of the intensity and distribution of cumulative impacts of human activities directly connected to the ecological goals of these policy efforts are critically needed. Quantification and mapping of the cumulative impact of 22 drivers to 17 marine <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> reveals that 20% of the entire basin and 60–99% of the territorial waters of EU member states are heavily impacted, with high human impact occurring in all ecoregions and territorial waters. Less than 1% of these regions are relatively unaffected. This high impact results from multiple drivers, rather than one individual use or stressor, with climatic drivers (increasing temperature and UV, and acidification), demersal fishing, ship traffic, and, in coastal areas, pollution from land accounting for a majority of cumulative impacts. These results show that coordinated management of key areas and activities could significantly improve the condition of these marine <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. PMID:24324585</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013DSRII..95...37F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013DSRII..95...37F"><span id="translatedtitle">Foraging ecology and movement patterns of jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Field, John C.; Elliger, Carl; Baltz, Ken; Gillespie, Graham E.; Gilly, William F.; Ruiz-Cooley, R. I.; Pearse, Devon; Stewart, Julia S.; Matsubu, William; Walker, William A.</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>From 2002 to 2010, the jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) has been regularly encountered in large numbers throughout the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System (CCS). This species, usually found in subtropical waters, could affect coastal pelagic <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> and fisheries as both predator and prey. Neither the abundance of jumbo squid nor the optimal ocean conditions in which they flourish are well known. To understand better the potential impacts of this species on both commercial fisheries and on food-web structure we collected nearly 900 specimens from waters of the CCS, covering over 20° of latitude, over a range of depths and seasons. We used demographic information (size, sex, and maturity state) and analyzed stomach contents using morphological and molecular methods to best understand the foraging ecology of this species in different habitats of the CCS. Squid were found to consume a broad array of prey. Prey in offshore waters generally reflected the forage base reported in previous studies (mainly mesopelagic fishes and squids), whereas in more coastal waters (shelf, shelf break and slope habitats) squid foraged on a much broader mix that included substantial numbers of coastal pelagic fishes (Pacific herring and northern anchovy, as well as osmerids and salmonids in northern waters) and groundfish (Pacific hake, several species of rockfish and flatfish). We propose a seasonal movement pattern, based on size and maturity distributions along with qualitative patterns of presence or absence, and discuss the relevance of both the movement and distribution of jumbo squid over space and time. We find that jumbo squid are a generalist predator, which feeds primarily on small, pelagic or mesopelagic micronekton but also on larger fishes when they are available. We also conclude that interactions with and potential impacts on <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> likely vary over space and time, in response to both seasonal movement patterns and highly variable year-to-year abundance of the squid themselves.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMOS23A1570A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMOS23A1570A"><span id="translatedtitle">Predictive Relationships for pH and Carbonate Saturation in the Southern <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System Using Oxygen and Temperature Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alin, S. R.; Feely, R. A.; Dickson, A. G.; Hernandez-Ayon, J. M.; Juranek, L. W.; Ohman, M. D.; Goericke, R.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System is expected to experience the ecological impacts of ocean acidification earlier than most other ocean regions because marine waters in the North Pacific are among the oldest in the global oceans and natural upwelling processes in this eastern boundary <span class="hlt">current</span> system bring CO2-rich water masses to the surface in coastal oceans during late spring-early fall months. We used a multiple linear regression (MLR) approach to generate predictive models using oxygen and temperature as proxy variables to reconstruct pH and carbonate saturation states in the Southern <span class="hlt">California</span> Bight. The calibration data set included high-quality measurements of dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, oxygen, temperature, salinity, and nutrients and was collected during a cruise from British Columbia to Baja <span class="hlt">California</span> in May-June 2007. The resulting relationships predicting pH and aragonite and calcite saturation states (?) from oxygen and temperature data were robust, with r2 values >0.98 and root mean square errors of 0.020 (pH), 0.048 (?arag), and 0.075 (?calc). Predicted vs. measured ocean acidification conditions (i.e. pH, ?arag, and ?calc) matched very well for seven verification data sets collected between 2008 and 2010 during quarterly CalCOFI cruises in the Southern <span class="hlt">California</span> Bight and during several sampling dates on an Ensenada transect occupied several times between 2006 and 2010. Over sub-decadal time scales, these predictive models provide a valuable tool for reconstructing historical time-series of ocean acidification conditions in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> where historical inorganic carbon measurements are scarce. Reconstructed pH and saturation state values based on CalCOFI oxygen and temperature data for all cruises between 2005 and 2010 reveal a seasonal cycle in the upper water column, with higher pH and ? values present during the winter cruises, and stronger gradients including much lower pH and ? values during spring through fall cruises. Deeper in the water column (~300 m), conditions are more stable throughout the annual cycle, with consistently low pH, undersaturation with respect to aragonite, and calcite saturation values <1.5. These predictive relationships can also be used to improve the performance of models used to “nowcast” and forecast ocean acidification in eastern boundary <span class="hlt">current</span> systems like the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoRL..41.5942S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoRL..41.5942S"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of a data-assimilative regional ocean modeling system for assessing <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System ocean conditions, krill, and juvenile rockfish interannual variability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schroeder, Isaac D.; Santora, Jarrod A.; Moore, Andrew M.; Edwards, Christopher A.; Fiechter, Jerome; Hazen, Elliott L.; Bograd, Steven J.; Field, John C.; Wells, Brian K.</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>To be robust and informative, marine <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> models and assessments require parameterized biophysical relationships that rely on realistic water column characteristics at appropriate spatial and temporal scales. We examine how hydrographic properties off <span class="hlt">California</span> from 1990 through 2010 during late winter and spring correspond to krill and juvenile rockfish (Sebastes spp.) abundances. We evaluated coherence among temperature, salinity, depth of 26.0 potential density isopycnal, and stratification strength at regionally and monthly time scales derived from shipboard and mooring observations, and a data-assimilative Regional Ocean Model System reanalysis. The reanalysis captures spatiotemporal physical variability of coastal ocean conditions in winter and spring months and elucidates mechanisms connecting the spatial and temporal upwelling and transport dynamics on observed krill and rockfish abundances in spring. This provides evidence for a mechanistic connection between the phenology of upwelling in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System and seasonal development of the shelf <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3654961','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3654961"><span id="translatedtitle">Indirect Effects of Conservation Policies on the Coupled Human-Natural <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> of the Upper Gulf of <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Morzaria-Luna, Hem Nalini; Ainsworth, Cameron H.; Kaplan, Isaac C.; Levin, Phillip S.; Fulton, Elizabeth A.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>High bycatch of non-target species and species of conservation concern often drives the implementation of fisheries policies. However, species- or fishery-specific policies may lead to indirect consequences, positive or negative, for other species or fisheries. We use an Atlantis <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> model of the Northern Gulf of <span class="hlt">California</span> to evaluate the effects of fisheries policies directed at reducing bycatch of vaquita (Phocoena sinus) on other species of conservation concern, priority target species, and metrics of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> function and structure. Vaquita, a Critically Endangered porpoise endemic to the Upper Gulf of <span class="hlt">California</span>, are frequently entangled by finfish gillnets and shrimp driftnets. We tested five fishery management scenarios, projected over 30 years (2008 to 2038), directed at vaquita conservation. The scenarios consider progressively larger spatial restrictions for finfish gillnets and shrimp driftnets. The most restrictive scenario resulted in the highest biomass of species of conservation concern; the scenario without any conservation measures in place resulted in the lowest. Vaquita experienced the largest population increase of any functional group; their biomass increased 2.7 times relative to initial (2008) levels under the most restrictive spatial closure scenario. Bycatch of sea lions, sea turtles, and totoaba decreased > 80% in shrimp driftnets and at least 20% in finfish gillnet fleets under spatial management. We found indirect effects on species and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> function and structure as a result of vaquita management actions. Biomass and catch of forage fish declined, which could affect lower-trophic level fisheries, while other species such as skates, rays, and sharks increased in both biomass and catch. When comparing across performance metrics, we found that scenarios that increased <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> function and structure resulted in lower economic performance indicators, underscoring the need for management actions that consider ecological and economic tradeoffs as part of the integrated management of the Upper Gulf of <span class="hlt">California</span>. PMID:23691155</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2867361','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2867361"><span id="translatedtitle">Processes influencing seasonal hypoxia in the northern <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Connolly, T. P.; Hickey, B. M.; Geier, S. L.; Cochlan, W. P.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This paper delineates the role of physical and biological processes contributing to hypoxia, dissolved oxygen (DO) < 1.4 mL/L, over the continental shelf of Washington State in the northern portion of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System (CCS). In the historical record (1950–1986) during the summer upwelling season, hypoxia is more prevalent and severe off Washington than further south off northern Oregon. Recent data (2003–2005) show that hypoxia over the Washington shelf occurred at levels previously observed in the historical data. 2006 was an exception, with hypoxia covering ~5000 km2 of the Washington continental shelf and DO concentrations below 0.5 mL/L at the inner shelf, lower than any known previous observations at that location. In the four years studied, upwelling of low DO water and changes in source water contribute to interannual variability, but cannot account for seasonal decreases below hypoxic concentrations. Deficits of DO along salinity surfaces, indicating biochemical consumption of DO, vary significantly between surveys, accounting for additional decreases of 0.5–2.5 mL/L by late summer. DO consumption is associated with denitrification, an indicator of biochemical sediment processes. Mass balances of DO and nitrate show that biochemical processes in the water column and sediments each contribute ~50% to the total consumption of DO in near-bottom water. At shorter than seasonal time scales on the inner shelf, along-shelf advection of hypoxic patches and cross-shelf advection of seasonal gradients are both shown to be important, changing DO concentrations by 1.5 mL/L or more over five days. PMID:20463844</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED041076.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED041076.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Desegregating <span class="hlt">California</span> Schools. <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> Review of Human Resources, Number 3, November 1969.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>California League of Women Voters, San Francisco.</p> <p></p> <p>This bulletin, prepared by the League of Women Voters, attempts to summarize popularly used methods of desegregation and to make specific suggestions for use in the State of <span class="hlt">California</span>. State responsibilities for desegregation are presented against the background of Federal and State court decisions. The status of racial imbalance in <span class="hlt">California</span>…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.B51B0491D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.B51B0491D"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> impacts of compost and manure applications to <span class="hlt">California</span> grazed grassland soils</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>DeLonge, M. S.; Silver, W. L.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Organic matter amendments, such as compost and manure, are often applied to grasslands to improve soil conditions and enhance net primary productivity. It has been proposed that this land management strategy can sequester carbon (C) in soils and may therefore contribute to climate change mitigation. However, the net mitigation potential of organic amendments depends in part on the <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> response following land-application, which is likely to vary with the amendment chemical quality (C, N, C:N). To investigate the differences in <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> response to soil amendments of various qualities, we established research plots on three grazed annual grasslands in northern <span class="hlt">California</span>. The study sites were sampled for soil chemical and physical properties (bulk density, temperature, and moisture), plant community composition, and peak season net primary productivity prior to and following treatment applications. In October 2011, before the rainy season, we applied a thin layer of organic amendments to the study plots. At each site, three replicate plots were treated with fresh manure (1.2 % N, 15.8 % C, C:N = 13.5), three plots were treated with a commercial plant-waste compost (2.4 % N, 26.6 % C, C:N = 11.1), and three plots were left untreated as controls. At one site, 3 additional plots received a thin layer of compost with a lower N concentration and a higher C:N ratio (1.9 % N, 27.4 % C, C:N = 14.5). All plots were sampled for greenhouse gas emissions (N2O, CH4, and CO2, n=3 per plot) using vented chambers shortly after the organic matter was applied, and then intensively following three rain events throughout the rainy season. Results showed that dry amendments were associated with negligible trace gas fluxes, but that these fluxes increased after rain events. Nitrous oxide emissions increased slightly after the first rain event and reached peak levels (approximately 20 ng N cm-1 h-1 for the manure and high N compost only) after three days, following second rain event. The emissions from the high N compost declined more quickly than the manure emissions during the dry-up period. The low N compost exhibited the lowest peak emissions (< 5 ng N cm-1 h-1). Nitrous oxide emissions for all amendments quickly declined and were negligible on both wet and dry days sampled during mid-rainy season. These results suggest that trace gas emissions may not strongly offset the mitigation potential for organic matter amendments. However, differences in the amendment type and quality can influence the offset magnitude. These findings will be presented within the context of other key <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> characteristics, such as plant community composition, net primary productivity, and soil conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr20131170G','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr20131170G"><span id="translatedtitle">SAFRR tsunami scenario: impacts on <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, species, marine natural resources, and fisheries: Chapter G in The SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) Tsunami Scenario</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Brosnan, Deborah; Wein, Anne; Wilson, Rick</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We evaluate the effects of the SAFRR Tsunami Scenario on <span class="hlt">California’s</span> <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, species, natural resources, and fisheries. We discuss mitigation and preparedness approaches that can be useful in Tsunami planning. The chapter provides an introduction to the role of <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> and natural resources in tsunami events (Section 1). A separate section focuses on specific impacts of the SAFRR Tsunami Scenario on <span class="hlt">California’s</span> <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> and endangered species (Section 2). A section on commercial fisheries and the fishing fleet (Section 3) documents the plausible effects on <span class="hlt">California’s</span> commercial fishery resources, fishing fleets, and communities. Sections 2 and 3 each include practical preparedness options for communities and suggestions on information needs or research. Our evaluation indicates that many low-lying coastal habitats, including beaches, marshes and sloughs, rivers and waterways connected to the sea, as well as nearshore submarine habitats will be damaged by the SAFRR Tsunami Scenario. Beach erosion and complex or high volumes of tsunami-generated debris would pose major challenges for ecological communities. Several endangered species and protected areas are at risk. Commercial fisheries and fishing fleets will be affected directly by the tsunami and indirectly by dependencies on infrastructure that is damaged. There is evidence that in some areas intact <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, notably sand dunes, will act as natural defenses against the tsunami waves. However, <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> do not provide blanket protection against tsunami surge. The consequences of ecological and natural resource damage are estimated in the millions of dollars. These costs are driven partly by the loss of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services, as well as cumulative and follow-on impacts where, for example, increased erosion during the tsunami can in turn lead to subsequent damage and loss to coastal properties. Recovery of <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, natural resources and fisheries is likely to be lengthy and expensive. Preparedness is key to enhancing resilience to ecological impacts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMOS53D..05D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMOS53D..05D"><span id="translatedtitle">Prototyping global Earth System Models at high resolution: Representation of climate, <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, and acidification in Eastern Boundary <span class="hlt">Currents</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dunne, J. P.; John, J. G.; Stock, C. A.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The world's major Eastern Boundary <span class="hlt">Currents</span> (EBC) such as the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> Large Marine <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> (CCLME) are critically important areas for global fisheries. Computational limitations have divided past EBC modeling into two types: high resolution regional approaches that resolve the strong meso-scale structures involved, and coarse global approaches that represent the large scale context for EBCs, but only crudely resolve only the largest scales of their manifestation. These latter global studies have illustrated the complex mechanisms involved in the climate change and acidification response in these regions, with the CCLME response dominated not by local adjustments but large scale reorganization of ocean circulation through remote forcing of water-mass supply pathways. While qualitatively illustrating the limitations of regional high resolution studies in long term projection, these studies lack the ability to robustly quantify change because of the inability of these models to represent the baseline meso-scale structures of EBCs. In the present work, we compare <span class="hlt">current</span> generation coarse resolution (one degree) and a prototype next generation high resolution (1/10 degree) Earth System Models (ESMs) from NOAA's Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory in representing the four major EBCs. We review the long-known temperature biases that the coarse models suffer in being unable to represent the timing and intensity of upwelling-favorable winds, along with lack of representation of the observed high chlorophyll and biological productivity resulting from this upwelling. In promising contrast, we show that the high resolution prototype is capable of representing not only the overall meso-scale structure in physical and biogeochemical fields, but also the appropriate offshore extent of temperature anomalies and other EBC characteristics. Results for chlorophyll were mixed; while high resolution chlorophyll in EBCs were strongly enhanced over the coarse resolution ESM, they were still considerably lower than observed values. In terms of representation of large scale circulation and biogeochemistry, results were also mixed, with the high resolution prototype addressing some, but not all, of the biases in the coarse resolution ESM. While considerable work remains to understand the <span class="hlt">current</span> strengths and weaknesses of the high resolution ESM and continue to improve fidelity, this work is a major step forward in demonstrating the added value of high resolution in global ESMs and represents a fundamental leap forward towards both ecological forecasting and long term projection of climate, <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>, and acidification baselines and sensitivity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21506810','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21506810"><span id="translatedtitle">Population structure of three species of Anisakis nematodes recovered from Pacific sardines (Sardinops sagax) distributed throughout the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baldwin, Rebecca E; Rew, Mary Beth; Johansson, Mattias L; Banks, Michael A; Jacobson, Kym C</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>Members of the Anisakidae are known to infect over 200 pelagic fish species and have been frequently used as biological tags to identify fish populations. Despite information on the global distribution of Anisakis species, there is little information on the genetic diversity and population structure of this genus, which could be useful in assessing the stock structure of their fish hosts. From 2005 through 2008, 148 larval anisakids were recovered from Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax) in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> upwelling zone and were genetically sequenced. Sardines were captured off Vancouver Island, British Columbia in the north to San Diego, <span class="hlt">California</span> in the south. Three species, Anisakis pegreffii, Anisakis simplex 'C', and Anisakis simplex s.s., were identified with the use of sequences from the internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2) and the 5.8s subunit of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. The degree of nematode population structure was assessed with the use of the cytochrome c oxidase 2 (cox2) mitochondrial DNA gene. All 3 Anisakis species were distributed throughout the study region from 32°N to 50°N latitude. There was no association between sardine length and either nematode infection intensity or Anisakis species recovered. Larval Anisakis species and mitochondrial haplotype distributions from both parsimony networks and analyses of molecular variance revealed a panmictic distribution of these parasites, which infect sardines throughout the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>. Panmictic distribution of the larval Anisakis spp. populations may be a result of the presumed migratory pathways of the intermediate host (the Pacific sardine), moving into the northern portion of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> in summer and returning to the southern portion to overwinter and spawn in spring. However, the wider geographic range of paratenic (large piscine predators), and final hosts (cetaceans) can also explain the observed distribution pattern. As a result, the recovery of 3 Anisakis species and a panmictic distribution of their haplotypes could not be used to confirm or deny the presence of population subdivision of Pacific sardines in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> system. PMID:21506810</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.H51B0483C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.H51B0483C"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Debris Flows on Stream <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> of the Klamath Mountains, Northern <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cover, M. R.; Delafuente, J. A.; Resh, V. H.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>We examined the long-term effects of debris flows on channel characteristics and aquatic food webs in steep (0.04-0.06 slope), small (4-6 m wide) streams. A large rain-on-snow storm event in January 1997 resulted in numerous landslides and debris flows throughout many basins in the Klamath Mountains of northern <span class="hlt">California</span>. Debris floods resulted in extensive impacts throughout entire drainage networks, including mobilization of valley floor deposits and removal of vegetation. Comparing 5 streams scoured by debris flows in 1997 and 5 streams that had not been scoured as recently, we determined that debris-flows decreased channel complexity by reducing alluvial step frequency and large woody debris volumes. Unscoured streams had more diverse riparian vegetation, whereas scoured streams were dominated by dense, even-aged stands of white alder (Alnus rhombiflia). Benthic invertebrate shredders, especially nemourid and peltoperlid stoneflies, were more abundant and diverse in unscoured streams, reflecting the more diverse allochthonous resources. Debris flows resulted in increased variability in canopy cover, depending on degree of alder recolonization. Periphyton biomass was higher in unscoured streams, but primary production was greater in the recently scoured streams, suggesting that invertebrate grazers kept algal assemblages in an early successional state. Glossosomatid caddisflies were predominant scrapers in scoured streams; heptageniid mayflies were abundant in unscoured streams. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were of similar abundance in scoured and unscoured streams, but scoured streams were dominated by young-of-the-year fish while older juveniles were more abundant in unscoured streams. Differences in the presence of cold-water (Doroneuria) versus warm-water (Calineuria) perlid stoneflies suggest that debris flows have altered stream temperatures. Debris flows have long-lasting impacts on stream communities, primarily through the cascading effects of removal of riparian vegetation. Because debris flow frequency increases following road construction and timber harvest, the long-term biological effects of debris flows on stream <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, including anadromous fish populations, needs to be considered in forest management decisions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.uvm.edu/giee/pubpdfs/Burkhard_2010_Ecological_Complexity.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.uvm.edu/giee/pubpdfs/Burkhard_2010_Ecological_Complexity.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> services Bridging ecology, economy and social sciences Humanenvironmental systems are challenged by <span class="hlt">current</span> and</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Vermont, University of</p> <p></p> <p>adaptive <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. This requires integrative and innovative adaptive management approaches to meetEditorial <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> services ­ Bridging ecology, economy and social sciences Human. <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> degradation, resource depletion, social conflicts or economic up- and downturns are in everyone</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11441174','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11441174"><span id="translatedtitle">Collapse of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> during glacial maxima linked to climate change on land.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Herbert, T D; Schuffert, J D; Andreasen, D; Heusser, L; Lyle, M; Mix, A; Ravelo, A C; Stott, L D; Herguera, J C</p> <p>2001-07-01</p> <p>Time series of alkenone unsaturation indices gathered along the <span class="hlt">California</span> margin reveal large (4 degrees to 8 degrees C) glacial-interglacial changes in sea surface temperature (SST) over the past 550,000 years. Interglacial times with SSTs equal to or exceeding that of the Holocene contain peak abundances in the pollen of redwood, the distinctive component of the temperate rainforest of the northwest coast of <span class="hlt">California</span>. In the region now dominated by the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span>, SSTs warmed 10,000 to 15,000 years in advance of deglaciation at each of the past five glacial maxima. SSTs did not rise in advance of deglaciation south of the modern <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> front. Glacial warming along the <span class="hlt">California</span> margin therefore is a regional signal of the weakening of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> during times when large ice sheets reorganized wind systems over the North Pacific. Both the timing and magnitude of the SST estimates suggest that the Devils Hole (Nevada) calcite record represents regional but not global paleotemperatures, and hence does not pose a fundamental challenge to the orbital ("Milankovitch") theory of the Ice Ages. PMID:11441174</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMOS31B1710Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMOS31B1710Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamic connectivity in the Southern <span class="hlt">California</span> Bight and Georges Bank: Identifying <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> interactions using chaotic time series analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ye, H.; Deyle, E. R.; Hsieh, C.; Sugihara, G.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>We used convergent cross mapping (CCM), a method grounded in nonlinear dynamical systems theory to analyze long-term time series of fish species from the <span class="hlt">California</span> Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations ichthyoplankton (isolated to the Southern <span class="hlt">California</span> Bight [SCB]) and NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service Northeast Fisheries Science Center trawl survey (isolated to the Georges Bank [GB] region) data sets. CCM gives a nonparametric indicator of the realized dynamic influence that one species has on another (i.e. how much the abundance of X at a particular time is dependent on the historical abundance of Y). We found there are more interactions between species in SCB compared to GB. An analysis of the interaction matrix showed that there is also more structure in the connectivity network of SCB compared to GB. We attribute this difference in connectivity to historical overexploitation of fish stocks in the North Atlantic, and reproduce this effect in simple multi-species fishery models. We discuss the implications of these results for <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>-based management and for restoration efforts.; Connectivity Networks for Fishes in the Southern <span class="hlt">California</span> Bight (SCB) and Georges Bank (GB) as determined using cross-mapping.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=222525','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=222525"><span id="translatedtitle">Fine root production across a primary successional <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> chronosequence at Mt. Shasta, <span class="hlt">California</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Estimating changes in belowground biomass and production is essential for understanding fundamental patterns and processes during <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> development. We examined patterns of fine root production, aboveground litterfall, and forest floor accumulation during forest primary succession at the Mt. Sha...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMGC11A0972P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMGC11A0972P"><span id="translatedtitle">Using sensitive montane amphibian species as indicators of hydroclimatic change in meadow <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> of the Sierra Nevada, <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Peek, R.; Viers, J.; Yarnell, S. M.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Climate change can affect sensitive species and <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> in many ways, yet sparse data and the inability to apply various climate models at functional spatial scales often prevents relevant research from being utilized in conservation management plans. Climate change has been linked to declines and disturbances in a multitude of species and habitats, and in <span class="hlt">California</span>, one of the greatest climatic concerns is the predicted reduction in mountain snowpack and associated snowmelt. These decreases in natural storage of water as snow in mountain regions can affect the timing and variability of critical snowmelt runoff periods—important seasonal signals that species in montane <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> have evolved life history strategies around—leading to greater intra-annual variability and diminished summer and fall stream flows. Although many species distribution models exist, few provide ways to integrate continually updated and revised Global Climate Models (GCMs), hydrologic data unique to a watershed, and ecological responses that can be incorporated into conservation strategies. This study documents a novel and applicable method of combining boosted regression tree (BRT) modeling and species distributions with hydroclimatic data as a potential management tool for conservation. Boosted regression trees are suitable for ecological distribution modeling because they can reduce both bias and variance, as well as handle sharp discontinuities common in sparsely sampled species or large study areas. This approach was used to quantify the effects of hydroclimatic changes on the distribution of key riparian-associated amphibian species in montane meadow habitats in the Sierra Nevada at the sub-watershed level. Based on modeling using <span class="hlt">current</span> species range maps in conjunction with three climate scenarios (near, mid, and far), extreme range contractions were observed for all sensitive species (southern long-toed salamander, mountain yellow-legged frog, Yosemite toad) by the year 2100. Among many environmental and hydroclimatic variables used in the model, snowpack and snowmelt (runoff) variables were consistently among the most informative in predicting species occupancy. Few sub-watersheds contained greater than 50% probability of species occupancy throughout the modeled time period; however several core areas were identified as more resilient to climate change for each species. There was overlap among species in areas that were predicted to remain hydroclimatically stable, particularly in sub-watersheds that contain high meadow density. Quantifying these areas of habitat stability, or "resiliency", may ultimately be the most useful outcome of BRT modeling, with the flexibility to utilize multiple GCMs at varying scales. Ultimately managers need to consider both short term and long term conservation goals by identifying and protecting suitable habitat areas most resilient to climate change to give multiple species the best chance to persist. This approach provides a unique tool for conservation management which can be easily applied to a variety of data and species, and provides useful knowledge at both near and long term time scales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMPP33A2092M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMPP33A2092M"><span id="translatedtitle">Hypoxia in high-resolution sediment records: reconstructing the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> Oxygen Minimum Zone on multi-decadal timescales</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moffitt, S. E.; Hill, T. M.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The recent deglaciation event is an ideal laboratory to study the rapid expansion of Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZs) and the ecological ramifications of such events. Santa Barbara Basin (SBB) sediments are high-resolution archives of seafloor <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, recording both global-scale climate and regional-scale hydrographic events. Seafloor hypoxia in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> (CCE) is caused by OMZs in intermediate water depths (300-1200 m), and produces striking evidence in SBB sediment archives. We construct a vertical transect of proxies across SBB (34° 15'N, 119° 45'W) using a core from 418 m water depth (MV0811-15JC), and previously investigated cores from 440 m (MD02-2504) and 570 m (MD02-2503) water depths. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages and planktonic ?18O proxies were quantified at all three depths, while benthic invertebrate communities were quantified in the shallowest core at a 1-cm resolution (~10 years). This high-resolution invertebrate record provides a window into rapid, decadal-scale environmental change in continental margin <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. Seafloor biodiversity is highly variable on 10-10^4 year timescales (across Protist, Mollusc, Arthropod and Echinoderm taxonomic groups), and is tightly coupled to both regional-scale environmental change and global-scale climate events. Additionally, we provide evidence that strongly hypoxic waters shoaled to <300 m water depth at Termination 1A (14.7 ka), implying that the upper boundary of the regional OMZ can expand >150 m on multi-decadal timescales. These data confirm that OMZs have rapidly expanded in the CCE during previous events of global-scale warming, and that continental margin seafloor biodiversity is variable on previously undescribed timescales.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_3");'>3</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li class="active"><span>5</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_5 --> <div id="page_6" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="101"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=59617&keyword=Mosquito&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=42327049&CFTOKEN=33020378','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=59617&keyword=Mosquito&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=42327049&CFTOKEN=33020378"><span id="translatedtitle">ORGANIC POLLUTANT DEPOSITION TO THE SIERRA NEVADA (<span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span>, USA) SNOWPACK AND ASSOCIATED LAKE AND STREAM <span class="hlt">ECOSYSTEM</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>High elevation <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> in the western USA and Canada are receiving deposition of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) that presumably originate in the USA as well as outside its borders. In April 1992 we obtained paired snowpack samples from each of two watersheds located in t...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70135867','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70135867"><span id="translatedtitle">Bottom <span class="hlt">current</span> and sediment transport on San Pedro Shelf, <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Drake, David E.; Cacchione, David A.; Karl, Herman A.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>GEOPROBE (Geological Processes Bottom Environmental) tripods were used to measure bottom <span class="hlt">currents</span>, pressure, and light transmission and scattering and to obtain time-series photographs of the sea floor at depths of 23 m and 67 m on San Pedro shelf between 18 April and 6 June 1978. Winds were light (< 5 m/s) with a mean direction from the southwest throughout the measurement period. Hourly averaged <span class="hlt">currents</span> 1 m above the bottom never exceeded 21 cm/s; average speeds were about 5 cm/s at the 23-m site and 6.8 cm/s at 67 m, and the strongest <span class="hlt">currents</span> were produced by the tides. The mean flow of bottom water was less than 3 cm/s at both GEOPROBES and was rather persistently southward (offshelf). Wave-generated bottom <span class="hlt">currents</span> and bottom-pressure variations were sampled at hourly intervals; average wave period and wave height were 12.8 s and 0.44 m, respectively, at the 23-m site. Wave orbital velocities ranged from about 5 to 30 cm/s at 23 m and from 2 to 8 cm/s at 67 m. Bottom photographs at 67 m show that the relatively sluggish tide-generated and mean <span class="hlt">currents</span> were below threshold velocity for the silty, very fine sand throughout the observational period. Threshold depth for wave rippling of very fine sand averaged about 28 m with a range from about 12 m to 50 m. Wave-generated <span class="hlt">currents</span> were the only <span class="hlt">currents</span> that exceeded threshold levels. The wave <span class="hlt">currents</span> maintained relatively high concentrations of sediment in suspension near the bottom over the inner shelf (< 25 m), and this material (principally silt and clay) was transported offshore by the weak mean flow. Approximately 50% of this material was deposited as the bottom orbital velocities decreased to subthreshold values ( nearly equal 10-15 cm/s). The observed movement of fine sediment across the inner shelf can account for a portion of the mud content of the modern silty sands on the central shelf and on the outer shelf. However, it is clear that the sand fractions, which constitute greater than 70% of the central shelf substrate, must be transported during high-energy winter storms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-02-10/pdf/2010-2279.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-02-10/pdf/2010-2279.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 6696 - Draft Recovery Plan for Tidal Marsh <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> of Northern and Central <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-02-10</p> <p>...80221-1113-0000-C2] Draft Recovery Plan for Tidal Marsh...<span class="hlt">California</span> AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service...SUMMARY: We, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service...availability of a draft recovery plan for Tidal Marsh...Copies of the draft recovery plan are available...from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4224496','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4224496"><span id="translatedtitle">Positive Effects of Non-Native Grasses on the Growth of a Native Annual in a Southern <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pec, Gregory J.; Carlton, Gary C.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Fire disturbance is considered a major factor in the promotion of non-native plant species. Non-native grasses are adapted to fire and can alter environmental conditions and reduce resource availability in native coastal sage scrub and chaparral communities of southern <span class="hlt">California</span>. In these communities persistence of non-native grasses following fire can inhibit establishment and growth of woody species. This may allow certain native herbaceous species to colonize and persist beneath gaps in the canopy. A field manipulative experiment with control, litter, and bare ground treatments was used to examine the impact of non-native grasses on growth and establishment of a native herbaceous species, Cryptantha muricata. C. muricata seedling survival, growth, and reproduction were greatest in the control treatment where non-native grasses were present. C. muricata plants growing in the presence of non-native grasses produced more than twice the number of flowers and more than twice the reproductive biomass of plants growing in the treatments where non-native grasses were removed. Total biomass and number of fruits were also greater in the plants growing in the presence of non-native grasses. Total biomass and reproductive biomass was also greater in late germinants than early germinants growing in the presence of non-native grasses. This study suggests a potential positive effect of non-native grasses on the performance of a particular native annual in a southern <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>. PMID:25379790</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://fishbull.noaa.gov/74-2/hewitt.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://fishbull.noaa.gov/74-2/hewitt.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">DEVELOPMENT AND USE OF SONAR MAPPING FOR PELAGIC STOCK ASSESSMENT IN THE <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> <span class="hlt">CURRENT</span> AREAl</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Research pro- gram notes the use of sonar and echo sounders on the RV Yellowfin for locating fish schools) and in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> area (Smith 1970). For recent reviews of the use of echo sounders and sonars for fishery for locating concentrations of fish for almost as long as practical echo sounding devices have been available</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://damp.coas.oregonstate.edu/barth/pubs/castelaoEtalGRL2005.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://damp.coas.oregonstate.edu/barth/pubs/castelaoEtalGRL2005.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Flow-topography interactions in the northern <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System observed from geostationary satellite data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Balasubramanian, Ravi</p> <p></p> <p>Flow-topography interactions in the northern <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System observed from geostationary: Castelao, R. M., J. A. Barth, and T. P. Mavor (2005), Flow-topography interactions in the northern in regions of simple topography, to the north of Newport (44.65°N). Recently, however, interest in regions</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060032980&hterms=current+events&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dcurrent%2Bevents','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060032980&hterms=current+events&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dcurrent%2Bevents"><span id="translatedtitle">The State of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> in 1999-2000: Forward to a New Regime?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>DiGiacomo, P.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Following an extended absence, the reintroduction of ocean color sensors to space in the mid to late 1990's provided an invaluable opportunity for evaluating the biological impact of the 1997-99 El Nino/La Nina events in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System (CCS).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://online.sfsu.edu/cochlan/Bills_2012_Site/Publications_files/Hickey_et_al_2006_GRL%20copy.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://online.sfsu.edu/cochlan/Bills_2012_Site/Publications_files/Hickey_et_al_2006_GRL%20copy.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Evolution of chemical, biological, and physical water properties in the northern <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> in 2005</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Cochlan, William P.</p> <p></p> <p>Evolution of chemical, biological, and physical water properties in the northern <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span>-integrated local wind stress but consistent in timing with ``remote'' forcing of water properties in this region, L22S02, doi:10.1029/2006GL026782. 1. Introduction [2] Seasonal water properties on the continental</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.seasurface.umaine.edu/pdf/2006_GRL_Thomas&Brickley.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.seasurface.umaine.edu/pdf/2006_GRL_Thomas&Brickley.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Satellite measurements of chlorophyll distribution during spring 2005 in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Thomas, Andrew</p> <p></p> <p>Satellite measurements of chlorophyll distribution during spring 2005 in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span>; published 2 September 2006. [1] Eight years of satellite data quantify spring 2005 surface chlorophyll ) north of 45°N. Positive chlorophyll anomalies dominate from $40°N to 27°N during this period. Strongest</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.seasurface.umaine.edu/pdf/2009_ProgOc_thomas_etal.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.seasurface.umaine.edu/pdf/2009_ProgOc_thomas_etal.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Interannual variability in chlorophyll concentrations in the Humboldt and <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Thomas, Andrew</p> <p></p> <p>Interannual variability in chlorophyll concentrations in the Humboldt and <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span>WiFS data provide the first systematic comparison of 10 years (1997­2007) of chlorophyll interannual occur in austral summers of 2002­2003, 2003­2004. Relationships of chlorophyll anomalies to forcing</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ic.ucsc.edu/~kudela/OS130/Readings/2009_Kahru_et_al_NPP_CalCOFI_JGR.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://ic.ucsc.edu/~kudela/OS130/Readings/2009_Kahru_et_al_NPP_CalCOFI_JGR.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Trends in primary production in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> detected with satellite data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Kudela, Raphael M.</p> <p></p> <p>Trends in primary production in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> detected with satellite data Mati Kahru,1 algorithms using satellite data were evaluated on a large archive of net primary production (NPP the Behrenfeld-Falkowski Vertically Generalized Production Model. Satellite- derived time series of NPP were</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/oceanography/faculty/csmith/Files/Smith-%20Bigger%20is%20Better.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/oceanography/faculty/csmith/Files/Smith-%20Bigger%20is%20Better.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">In press in: Whales, Whaling and Marine <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span>, James Estes, ed., University of <span class="hlt">California</span> Press, 12/03 Bigger is Better: The Role of Whales as Detritus in Marine <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Smith, Craig</p> <p></p> <p>1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 In press in: Whales, Whaling and Marine <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span>, James Estes, ed., University of <span class="hlt">California</span> Press, 12/03 Bigger is Better: The Role of Whales Pope Road Honolulu, HI 96734 USA Email: csmith@soest.hawaii.edu 1 #12;Abstract. Dead whales</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.B43D0464A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.B43D0464A"><span id="translatedtitle">Carbon Sequestration and Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Urban Turfgrass <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> in Southern <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ampleman, M. D.; Czimczik, C. I.; Townsend-Small, A.; Trumbore, S. E.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>Irrigated turfgrass <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> sequester carbon in soil organic matter, but they may also release nitrous oxide, due to fertilization associated with intensive management practices. Nitrous oxide is an important green house gas with a global warming potential (GWP) of 300 times that of carbon dioxide on a 100 yr time horizon. Although regular irrigation and fertilization of turfgrass create favorable conditions for both C storage and N2O release via nitrification and denitrification by soil microbes, emissions from these highly managed <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> are poorly constrained. We quantified N2O emissions and C storage rates for turf grass in four urban parks in the city of Irvine, CA. The turf grass systems we studied were managed by the City of Irvine. Parks were established between 1975 and 2006 on former range land with the same initial parent material; are exposed to the same climate; and form a time series (chronosequence) for investigating rates of C accumulation. We also investigated the effects of management (e.g. grass species, fertilization rate), soil moisture and temperature, and park age on N2O emission from these parks. We quantified N2O emissions using static soil chamber with four 7 min. sampling intervals, and analyzed the samples using an electron capture gas chromatograph. Soil carbon accumulation rates were determined from the slope of the organic C inventory (from 0-20 cm depth) plotted against park age. C storage rates for soils in "leisure" areas were close to 2 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, similar to rates associated with forest regrowth in northeastern US forests. However, as park age and C storage increased, N2O emissions increased as well, such that emissions from the older parks (~20 ngN m-2 s-1) were comparable to published temperate agricultural fluxes. Initial estimates suggest that the GWP associated with N2O emissions approximately offsets the effect of C storage in these <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3897708','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3897708"><span id="translatedtitle">Land Use Compounds Habitat Losses under Projected Climate Change in a Threatened <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Riordan, Erin Coulter; Rundel, Philip W.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Given the rapidly growing human population in mediterranean-climate systems, land use may pose a more immediate threat to biodiversity than climate change this century, yet few studies address the relative future impacts of both drivers. We assess spatial and temporal patterns of projected 21st century land use and climate change on <span class="hlt">California</span> sage scrub (CSS), a plant association of considerable diversity and threatened status in the mediterranean-climate <span class="hlt">California</span> Floristic Province. Using a species distribution modeling approach combined with spatially-explicit land use projections, we model habitat loss for 20 dominant shrub species under unlimited and no dispersal scenarios at two time intervals (early and late century) in two ecoregions in <span class="hlt">California</span> (Central Coast and South Coast). Overall, projected climate change impacts were highly variable across CSS species and heavily dependent on dispersal assumptions. Projected anthropogenic land use drove greater relative habitat losses compared to projected climate change in many species. This pattern was only significant under assumptions of unlimited dispersal, however, where considerable climate-driven habitat gains offset some concurrent climate-driven habitat losses. Additionally, some of the habitat gained with projected climate change overlapped with projected land use. Most species showed potential northern habitat expansion and southern habitat contraction due to projected climate change, resulting in sharply contrasting patterns of impact between Central and South Coast Ecoregions. In the Central Coast, dispersal could play an important role moderating losses from both climate change and land use. In contrast, high geographic overlap in habitat losses driven by projected climate change and projected land use in the South Coast underscores the potential for compounding negative impacts of both drivers. Limiting habitat conversion may be a broadly beneficial strategy under climate change. We emphasize the importance of addressing both drivers in conservation and resource management planning. PMID:24466116</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.H51A1192K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.H51A1192K"><span id="translatedtitle">Root distribution in a <span class="hlt">California</span> semi-arid oak savanna <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> as determined by conventional sampling and ground penetrating radar</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koteen, L. E.; Raz-Yaseef, N.; Baldocchi, D. D.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Koteen, Laura E., Raz-Yaseef, Naama, and Dennis D. Baldocchi University of <span class="hlt">California</span>, Berkeley <span class="hlt">California</span>'s blue oak, Quercus douglasii, is a unique tree in several ways. Despite the intense heat of <span class="hlt">California</span>'s central valley and Sierra foothills, and absence of precipitation during dry summer months, blue oaks are winter deciduous, and rely on a suite of drought adaptation measures for highly-efficient water use. To date, much more is known about aboveground dynamics in semi-arid oak savanna <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> than belowground. Yet, the root system is instrumental in ensuring oak survival and in determining the magnitude and timing of land-atmospheric fluxes via its control of water and nutrient supply to aboveground processes and soil moisture content. Tree root distribution is notoriously heterogeneous. Therefore a comprehensive sampling effort is needed in order to optimally represent it. To further understand the patterns of water use in oak savanna <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> in the Sierra foothills of <span class="hlt">California</span>, we have sought to characterize the root system by depth. To accomplish this goal, we have sampled the root system using conventional sampling methods (i.e. pit and core sampling), in conjunction with ground penetrating radar (GPR). Using both methods together made it possible to compensate for the limitations of each: Fine roots can only be detected by conventional sampling, and involve time intensive work in the lab, limiting sample size. GPR, on the other hand, allows for much greater spatial coverage and therefore more comprehensive characterization of the coarse root component. An extensive field campaign was executed during May 2011. 7 tree areas where chosen, representing the range of tree sizes and composition at the research site: 2 small trees, 2 large trees and 2 tree clusters. One additional very large tree that has undergone extensive additional physiological measurements was also chosen in order to posit and test hypotheses about linkages among root, soil water and photosynthetic processes. We extracted root cores according to a radial sampling scheme, with a 5 cm diameter soil auger at distances of 0.5, 1 and 1.5 the mean canopy radius from the tree. Soil cores were removed in intervals from 0-10, 10-20, 20-40, 40-60, and 60 cm to bedrock, which varied in depth from 20 cm to 1 meter. Fine roots were rinsed of soil, separated from debris, dried and weighed. GPR measurements were conducted using Noggin1000 (Sensors and Software Inc.). Prior to measurements, 8 by 8 m grids were prepared, with line density of 20 cm. Following GPR measurements, 2 pits of size 60 by 100 cm were dug down to the bedrock. Coarse roots were removed in regular depth intervals, sieved and taken to the lab. In the lab, coarse roots were washed of soil, dried, sorted into size classes and weighed. GPR visual data was analyzed using appropriate software, and the number of pixels identified as roots was linked to root biomass from pits. Lastly, 3D imaging of the root structure was achieved through the use of visualization software. The knowledge we have gained through this research will be used to improve our understanding of tree water usage, and soil moisture dynamics in this semi-arid oak savanna system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC23B0931R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMGC23B0931R"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantification of Lateral Carbon Flux in a Chaparral <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> in Southern <span class="hlt">California</span> Alessandra Rossi, Walter Oechel, Patrick Murphy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rossi, A.; Oechel, W. C.; Murphy, P.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The lateral transport of carbon is a horizontal transfer of carbon away from the area it was withdrawn from the atmosphere (Ciais et al. 2006). Research regarding horizontal C transport has received much less attention in arid and semi-arid regions compared to other types of <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. Drylands represent around 47.2% (Lal 2004) of the global terrestrial area and despite characterized by relatively low carbon flux, drylands comprise approximately 15.5% of the world's total soil organic carbon (SOC) (Eswaran et al. 2000, Schlesinger, 1991). Moreover, these dry areas contain at least as much soil inorganic carbon (SIC) as SOC (Eswaran et al. 2000). Therefore, these areas potentially have a large contribution to the global carbon budget and they deserve attention. A long-term observation of CO2 flux with the eddy covariance technique has been conducted since 1997 at Sky Oaks Field Station in Southern <span class="hlt">California</span>, an area of Mediterranean climate at the climatic transition between semiarid area and desert. The long term record of CO2 flux showed the area has been a sink of CO2 of over -0.2 kgCm-2yr-1. In addition to evaluating vertical carbon fluxes, we initiated a project to evaluate lateral carbon transports using litter traps, sediment fences and two small weirs adjacent to the eddy covariance site. Preliminary results indicate that the lateral transfer of C in the area may offset the vertical influx to this shrub <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>. However, it is still necessary to develop the methodology to compare vertical carbon flux and the lateral carbon fluxes more accurately.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMPA13A1743L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMPA13A1743L"><span id="translatedtitle">Using the Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS) to Analyze Impacts of Climate Change on <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Little, M.; Pitts, K.; Loewenstein, M.; Iraci, L. T.; Milesi, C.; Schmidt, C.; Skiles, J. W.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The projected impacts of climate change on <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> using model outputs from the Terrestrial Observation and Prediction System (TOPS) for the period 1950-2099 based on 1km downscaled climate data from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) model were analyzed in this study. The impacts were analyzed using Special Report Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1B and A2, maintaining present levels of urbanization constant and under projected urban expansion. The state data was separated into regions of similar climate, and watersheds of interest. A statistical analysis was completed for time series of temperature, precipitation, gross primary productivity (GPP), evapotranspiration, soil runoff, and vapor pressure deficit for the years 1950 through 2099. Trends produced from this analysis showed that increases in maximum and minimum temperatures lead to declines in peak GPP, length of growing seasons, and overall declines in runoff. However, changes in climate coupled with increases in impervious area due to intense urbanization are associated with an increase in winter runoff in scenario A2. The analysis is in support of the Climate Adaptation Science Investigation at NASA Ames Research Center, which is located within the Coyote Watershed of <span class="hlt">California</span>. One result for this watershed shows that with projections of increased temperatures and increased urbanization there would be an extended dry summer season, which could threaten water availability. To counter this risk at NASA Ames Research Center, a study of the irrigation system was done to evaluate the amount of total water used for irrigation alone, and possible options for water conservation at the Center are considered to build a sustainable facility in a changing environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900055333&hterms=pigment&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dpigment','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900055333&hterms=pigment&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dpigment"><span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal and nonseasonal variability of satellite-derived surface pigment concentration in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Strub, P. Ted; James, Corinne; Thomas, Andrew C.; Abbott, Mark R.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The large-scale patterns of satellite-derived surface pigment concentration off the west coast of North America are presented and are averaged into monthly mean surface wind fields over the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> system (CCS) for the July 1979 to June 1986 period. The patterns are discussed in terms of both seasonal and nonseasonal variability for the indicated time period. The large-scale seasonal characteristics of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> are summarized. The data and methods used are described, and the problems known to affect the satellite-derived pigment concentrations and the wind data used in the study are discussed. The statistical analysis results are then presented and discussed in light of past observations and theory. Details of the CZCS data processing are described, and details of the principal estimator pattern methodology used here are given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/107133','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/107133"><span id="translatedtitle">The impact of El Nino on island <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> in the gulf of <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Polis, G.A.; Hurd, S.D.</p> <p>1995-09-01</p> <p>The El Nino event of 1992-1993 had significant effects on all functional levels of the terrestrial food web of islands in the Gulf of <span class="hlt">California</span>. These islands are normally very dry; however, during this El Nino event, annual precipitation was nearly five times the median annual precipitation. This caused tremendous increases in plant cover and a significant rise in aerial arthropod abundance. At first, spiders benefited from increased productivity: in 1992, spiders increased to their highest densities in the three years of the study. However, in 1993, despite continued high plant cover and insect prey abundance, spider densities dropped precipitously. This decrease appears to be due to the emergence of numerous parasitoid wasps that formed a hidden trophic influence. Wasps were ineffective at controlling spider densities during dry years due to the absence of their adult food, nectar and pollen from flowering land plants. Abundant flowers during El Nino allowed the wasp population to increase and reproduce successfully.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=api&pg=2&id=EJ1038648','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=api&pg=2&id=EJ1038648"><span id="translatedtitle">A Comparison between Value-Added School Estimates and <span class="hlt">Currently</span> Used Metrics of School Accountability in <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Fagioli, Loris P.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This study compared a value-added approach to school accountability to the <span class="hlt">currently</span> used metrics of accountability in <span class="hlt">California</span> of Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) and Academic Performance Index (API). Five-year student panel data (N?=?53,733) from 29 elementary schools in a large <span class="hlt">California</span> school district were used to address the research…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_4");'>4</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li class="active"><span>6</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_6 --> <div id="page_7" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="121"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3953659','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3953659"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Sewage Discharge on Trophic State and Water Quality in a Coastal <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> of the Gulf of <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Vargas-González, Héctor Hugo; Arreola-Lizárraga, José Alfredo; Mendoza-Salgado, Renato Arturo; Méndez-Rodríguez, Lía Celina; Lechuga-Deveze, Carlos Hernando; Padilla-Arredondo, Gustavo; Cordoba-Matson, Miguel</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This paper provides evidence of the effects of urban wastewater discharges on the trophic state and environmental quality of a coastal water body in a semiarid subtropical region in the Gulf of <span class="hlt">California</span>. The concentrations of dissolved inorganic nutrients and organic matter from urban wastewater primary treatment were estimated. La Salada Cove was the receiving water body and parameters measured during an annual cycle were temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, nitrite, nitrate, ammonia, orthophosphate, and chlorophyll a. The effects of sewage inputs were determined by using Trophic State Index (TRIX) and the Arid Zone Coastal Water Quality Index (AZCI). It was observed that urban wastewater of the city of Guaymas provided 1,237?ton N yr?1 and 811?ton P yr?1 and TRIX indicated that the receiving water body showed symptoms of eutrophication from an oligotrophic state to a mesotrophic state; AZCI also indicated that the environmental quality of the water body was poor. The effects of urban wastewater supply with insufficient treatment resulted in symptoms of eutrophication and loss of ecological functions and services of the coastal <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> in La Salada Cove. PMID:24711731</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19475924','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19475924"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatiotemporal trends in fish mercury from a mine-dominated <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>: Clear Lake, <span class="hlt">California</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Suchanek, Thomas H; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Slotton, Darell G; Harner, E James; Colwell, Arthur E; Anderson, Norman L; Mullen, Lauri H; Flanders, John R; Adam, David P; McElroy, Kenneth J</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>Clear Lake, <span class="hlt">California</span>, USA, receives acid mine drainage and mercury (Hg) from the Sulphur Bank Mercury Mine, a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) Superfund Site that was active intermittently from 1873 to 1957 and partially remediated in 1992. Mercury concentrations were analyzed primarily in four species of Clear Lake fishes: inland silversides (Menidia beryllina, planktivore), common carp (Cyprinus carpio, benthic scavenger/omnivore), channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, benthic omnivorous predator), and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides, piscivorous top predator). These data represent one of the largest fish Hg data sets for a single site, especially in <span class="hlt">California</span>. Spatially, total Hg (TotHg) in silversides and bass declined with distance from the mine, indicating that the mine site represents a point source for Hg loading to Clear Lake. Temporally, fish Hg has not declined significantly over 12 years since mine site remediation. Mercury concentrations were variable throughout the study period, with no monotonic trends of increase or decrease, except those correlated with boom and bust cycles of an introduced fish, threadfin shad (Dorosoma petenense). However, stochastic events such as storms also influence juvenile largemouth bass Hg as evidenced during an acid mine drainage overflow event in 1995. Compared to other sites regionally and nationally, most fish in Clear Lake exhibit Hg concentrations similar to other Hg-contaminated sites, up to approximately 2.0 mg/kg wet mass (WM) TotHg in largemouth bass. However, even these elevated concentrations are less than would be anticipated from such high inorganic Hg loading to the lake. Mercury in some Clear Lake largemouth bass exceeded all human health fish consumption guidelines established over the past 25 years by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (1.0 mg/kg WM), the National Academy of Sciences (0.5 mg/kg WM), and the U.S. EPA (0.3 mg/kg WM). Mercury in higher trophic level fishes exceeds ecotoxicological risk assessment estimates for concentrations that would be safe for wildlife, specifically the nonlisted Common Merganser and the recently delisted Bald Eagle. Fish populations of 11 out of 18 species surveyed exhibited a significant decrease in abundance with increasing proximity to the mine; this decrease is correlated with increasing water and sediment Hg. These trends may be related to Hg or other lake-wide gradients such as distribution of submerged aquatic vegetation. PMID:19475924</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18569313','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18569313"><span id="translatedtitle">Trace metals accumulation patterns in a mangrove lagoon <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>, Mazatlan Harbor, southeast Gulf of <span class="hlt">California</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jara-Marini, M E; Soto-Jimenez, M F; Paez-Osuna, F</p> <p>2008-07-15</p> <p>Water, surface sediments, the mussel Mytella strigata, the mangrove oyster Crassostrea corteziensis, and the green macroalgae Caulerpa sertularioides from four locations in Mazatlan Harbor on the southeast coast of the Gulf of <span class="hlt">California</span>, were analyzed to determine concentrations and distribution patterns of cadmium, copper, mercury, lead, and zinc. Total metal concentrations in water in the present study exceed the background levels in open sea and coastal waters. Total metal concentrations in sediments were ordered as follows: Zn > Pb > Cu > Cd > Hg, but for the bioavailable fraction were ordered as Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd > Hg. The concentrations in bioavailable levels fall between the Threshold Effects Level (TEL), and Probable Effects Level (PEL), criteria for sediment quality. Distribution patterns for metals in organisms were ordered Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd > Hg with seasonal variations for Pb and Zn. Correlations between Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were indicative of similar assimilation and storage mechanisms and common sources of contamination. These correlations also indicated that bioavailability was not simultaneous for Cd and Pb. Bioconcentration factors (BCF) show different patterns in different organisms. For the oyster the metals were ordered Zn > Cu > Cd approximately Hg > Pb, for the mussel Hg > Cu approximately Zn approximately Cd > Pb and for the macroalgae Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd > Hg. Based on BCF results in the lagoon system, the oyster C cortezienzes can be used as a biomonitor of Zn and Cu exposure, the mussel M. strigata of Hg exposure and the green macroalgae C. serticularioides of exposure to all five metals studied. PMID:18569313</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24129960','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24129960"><span id="translatedtitle">An adaptive, comprehensive monitoring strategy for chemicals of emerging concern (CECs) in <span class="hlt">California</span>'s Aquatic <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Maruya, Keith A; Schlenk, Daniel; Anderson, Paul D; Denslow, Nancy D; Drewes, Jörg E; Olivieri, Adam W; Scott, Geoffrey I; Snyder, Shane A</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>A scientific advisory panel was convened by the State of <span class="hlt">California</span> to recommend monitoring for chemicals of emerging concern (CECs) in aquatic systems that receive discharge of municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent and stormwater runoff. The panel developed a risk-based screening framework that considered environmental sources and fate of CECs observed in receiving waters across the State. Using existing occurrence and risk threshold data in water, sediment, and biological tissue, the panel applied the framework to identify a priority list of CECs for initial monitoring in three representative receiving water scenarios. The initial screening list of 16 CECs identified by the panel included consumer and commercial chemicals, flame retardants, pesticides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products, and natural hormones. The panel designed an iterative, phased strategy with interpretive guidelines that direct and update management actions commensurate with potential risk identified using the risk-based framework and monitoring data. Because of the ever-changing nature of chemical use, technology, and management practices, the panel offered recommendations to improve CEC monitoring, including development of bioanalytical screening methods whose responses integrate exposure to complex mixtures and that can be linked to higher-order effects; development or refinement of models that predict the input, fate, and effects of future chemicals; and filling of key data gaps on CEC occurrence and toxicity. Finally, the panel stressed the need for adaptive management, allowing for future review of, and if warranted, modifications to the strategy to incorporate the latest science available to the water resources community. PMID:24129960</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMGC13B1082G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMGC13B1082G"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the yield potential of dryland canola under <span class="hlt">current</span> and future climates in <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>George, N.; Kaffka, S.; Beeck, C.; Bucaram, S.; Zhang, J.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Models predict that the climate of <span class="hlt">California</span> will become hotter, drier and more variable under future climate change scenarios. This will lead to both increased irrigation demand and reduced irrigation water availability. In addition, it is predicted that most common Californian crops will suffer a concomitant decline in productivity. To remain productive and economically viable, future agricultural systems will need to have greater water use efficiency, tolerance of high temperatures, and tolerance of more erratic temperature and rainfall patterns. Canola (Brassica napus) is the third most important oilseed globally, supporting large and well-established agricultural industries in Canada, Europe and Australia. It is an agronomically useful and economically valuable crop, with multiple end markets, that can be grown in <span class="hlt">California</span> as a dryland winter rotation with little to no irrigation demand. This gives canola great potential as a new crop for Californian farmers both now and as the climate changes. Given practical and financial limitations it is not always possible to immediately or widely evaluate a crop in a new region. Crop production models are therefore valuable tools for assessing the potential of new crops, better targeting further field research, and refining research questions. APSIM is a modular modeling framework developed by the Agricultural Production Systems Research Unit in Australia, it combines biophysical and management modules to simulate cropping systems. This study was undertaken to examine the yield potential of Australian canola varieties having different water requirements and maturity classes in <span class="hlt">California</span> using APSIM. The objective of the work was to identify the agricultural regions of <span class="hlt">California</span> most ideally suited to the production of Australian cultivars of canola and to simulate the production of canola in these regions to estimate yield-potential. This will establish whether the introduction and in-field evaluation of better-adapted canola varieties can be justified, and the potential value of a <span class="hlt">California</span> canola industry both now and in the future. Winter annual crops like canola use rainfall in a Mediterranean climate like <span class="hlt">California</span> more efficiently than spring or summer crops. Our results suggest that under <span class="hlt">current</span> production costs and seed prices, dry farmed canola will have good potential in certain areas of the <span class="hlt">California</span>. Canola yields decline with annual winter precipitation, however economically viable yields are still achieved at relatively precipitation levels (200 mm). Results from simulation, combined with related economic modeling (reported elsewhere) suggest that canola will be viable in a variety of production systems in the northern Sacramento Valley and some coastal locations, even under drier future climate scenarios. The in-field evaluation of Australian canola varieties should contribute to maintain or improving resource use efficiency and farm profitability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990JGR....9511501S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990JGR....9511501S"><span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal and nonseasonal variability of satellite-derived surface pigment concentration in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Strub, P. Ted; James, Corinne; Thomas, Andrew C.; Abbott, Mark R.</p> <p>1990-07-01</p> <p>Satellite-derived pigment concentrations from the west coast time series (WCTS) are averaged into monthly mean fields over the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> system (CCS) for the period July 1979 to June 1986. Errors caused by the scattering algorithm used in the WCTS are reduced by an empirical correction function, although winter values (November-February) remain unreliable. For the March-October period we look at both the mean seasonal development and the nonseasonal monthly anomalies of pigment concentration. These are compared with fields of alongshore wind stress, mixing power of the wind (u*3) and wind stress curl. Outside of the Southern <span class="hlt">California</span> Bight there is a strong seasonal cycle with a spring-summer maximum, a northward progression of high pigment concentrations from <span class="hlt">California</span> to Oregon and a double maximum off Washington (spring and summer, with a lull in between). Within the Southern <span class="hlt">California</span> Bight, seasonality is low, with a relative minimum in late summer. Off Baja <span class="hlt">California</span> the pattern is similar to that off northern <span class="hlt">California</span>. In regions where previous work has been done, there is general agreement with the seasonal cycles found here. Nonseasonal variability in pigment concentration over the large-scale CCS (400 km wide) is most closely related statistically to synoptic fields of wind stress curl. Within 100 km of the coast, the strongest relations are between pigment concentration and both u*3 and alongshore wind stress. Correlations with these wind variables account for only 25% of the monthly variance in anomalous satellite-derived pigment concentrations. This is partly due to the noise in both wind and pigment data sets but also demonstrates the fact that much of the anomalous pigment variability is not a response to anomalous wind forcing on these time scales. Correlations are also low between anomalous pigment concentrations and anomalous sea level heights, which serve as a crude proxy for the strength of the alongshore <span class="hlt">current</span> over the shelf. The largest nonseasonal anomaly in the data occurred during the 1982-1983 El Niño, which caused a large-scale decrease in pigment concentration, stronger and longer lasting in the south than in the north.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70104148','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70104148"><span id="translatedtitle">Environmental fate of fungicides and other <span class="hlt">current</span>-use pesticides in a central <span class="hlt">California</span> estuary</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Smalling, Kelly L.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.; Orlando, James L.; Phillips, Bryn M.; Anderson, Brian S.; Siegler, Katie; Hunt, John W.; Hamilton, Mary</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">current</span> study documents the fate of <span class="hlt">current</span>-use pesticides in an agriculturally-dominated central <span class="hlt">California</span> coastal estuary by focusing on the occurrence in water, sediment and tissue of resident aquatic organisms. Three fungicides (azoxystrobin, boscalid, and pyraclostrobin), one herbicide (propyzamide) and two organophosphate insecticides (chlorpyrifos and diazinon) were detected frequently. Dissolved pesticide concentrations in the estuary corresponded to the timing of application while bed sediment pesticide concentrations correlated with the distance from potential sources. Fungicides and insecticides were detected frequently in fish and invertebrates collected near the mouth of the estuary and the contaminant profiles differed from the sediment and water collected. This is the first study to document the occurrence of many <span class="hlt">current</span>-use pesticides, including fungicides, in tissue. Limited information is available on the uptake, accumulation and effects of <span class="hlt">current</span>-use pesticides on non-target organisms. Additional data are needed to understand the impacts of pesticides, especially in small agriculturally-dominated estuaries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoRL..41.7611S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014GeoRL..41.7611S"><span id="translatedtitle">Swept away by a turbidity <span class="hlt">current</span> in Mendocino submarine canyon, <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sumner, E. J.; Paull, C. K.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>We present unique observations and measurements of a dilute turbidity <span class="hlt">current</span> made with a remotely operated vehicle in 400 m water depth near the head of Mendocino Canyon, <span class="hlt">California</span>. The flow had a two-layer structure with a thin (0.5 to 30 m), relatively dense (<0.04 vol %) and fast (up to ~1.7 m/s) wedge-shaped lower layer overlain by a thicker (up to 89 m) more dilute and slower <span class="hlt">current</span>. The fast moving lower layer lagged the slow moving, dilute flow front by 14 min, which we infer resulted from the interaction of two initial pulses. The two layers were strongly coupled, and the sharp interface between the layers was characterized by a wave-like instability. This is the first field-scale data from a turbidity <span class="hlt">current</span> to show (i) the complex dynamics of the head of a turbidity <span class="hlt">current</span> and (ii) the presence of multiple layers within the same event.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42..419T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42..419T"><span id="translatedtitle">Particulate ?15N in laminated marine sediments as a proxy for mixing between the <span class="hlt">California</span> Undercurrent and the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span>: A proof of concept</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tems, Caitlin E.; Berelson, William M.; Prokopenko, Maria G.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>measurements of particulate ?15N in coastal marine laminated sediments provide a high-resolution proxy for fluctuations in the intensity of denitrification in the water column. In the eastern tropical North Pacific oxygen minimum zone, this denitrification signal is transported northward by the <span class="hlt">California</span> Undercurrent, thus serving as a tracer of ocean circulation. This is verified through comparisons between salinity in the thermocline off Southern <span class="hlt">California</span> (Santa Monica Basin) and the difference between ?15Nsed within age equivalent sediments from a southern (Pescadero Slope) and northern (Santa Monica Basin) site. Trends in this parameter, ??15Nsed, relate to Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) phase changes between 1900 and 1990. We hypothesize that the decline in ??15Nsed during warm PDO phases is due to a strengthening of the <span class="hlt">California</span> Undercurrent transporting 15N-enriched nitrate from the eastern tropical North Pacific northward. The deviation from this trend after 1990 suggests recent changes in circulation and/or <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> water nutrient biogeochemistry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987CSR.....7....1B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987CSR.....7....1B"><span id="translatedtitle">Pattern and persistence of a nearshore planktonic <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> off Southern <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barnett, Arthur M.; Jahn, Andrew E.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Three related data sets from a baseline environmental survey on the continental shelf at San Onofre, <span class="hlt">California</span>, consisting of: (1) zooplankton pumped from discrete depths on transects between the 8- and 30-m contours, sampled from 1976 to 1980; (2) zooplankton from oblique net hauls on a transect from 8 to 100 m sampled at 2-week intervals for 1 y, 1978-1979; and (3) vertical profiles of temperature, nutrients and plant pigments corresponding closely in time and space to the oblique net hauls, are used to describe cross-shelf zooplankton abundance patterns, community composition, and seasonal and shorter-term variations in cross-shelf zonation and their relation to variations in physical and chemical measures. Of 15 taxa tested for multiyear average patterns, three—the copepods Acartia clausi and Oithona oculata, and barnacle larvae—had centers of abundance shoreward of the 30-m contour and near the bottom. No differences were detected in the cross-shelf pattern between San Onofre and a transect 12 km southeast. Throughout the year, nearshore and offshore assemblages were distinguishable, the change occurring at about the 30-m contour. The offshore one, represented by the copepods Calanus pacificus, Eucalanus californicus and Rhincalanus nasutus, occupied water having less chlorophyll and less near-surface nutrient, i.e. of more oceanic character. In spring and summer, most nearshore taxa shifted slightly seaward, leaving a third assemblage, characterized by a very high abundance of Acartia spp. copepodids and maximum abundances of A. clausi and O. oculata near the beach. Three upwelling episodes resulted in marked increases in chlorophyll and nutrients, but not in cross-shelf gradients of these properties, as were noted at most other times. Maximum disturbance of cross-shelf zooplankton zonation was observed during a wintertime intrusion of offshore surface water, but the zonation was never obliterated. Nearshore zooplankton patterns appear to be protected from dislocation by the shallow shelf and sustained by phytoplankton distributed in a manner peculiar to the nearshore zone. Typically, shallow nearshore waters were richer in chlorophyll and nutrients than offshore waters of the same depth. The cross-shelf chlorophyll and nutrient profiles, in turn, appear to result from increased eddy diffusion and nutrient recycling in shallow waters, perhaps augmented by longshore transport from quasi-permanent, local upwelling nodes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ECSS...89..191S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ECSS...89..191S"><span id="translatedtitle">Litterfall dynamics and nutrient decomposition of arid mangroves in the Gulf of <span class="hlt">California</span>: Their role sustaining <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> heterotrophy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sánchez-Andrés, R.; Sánchez-Carrillo, S.; Alatorre, L. C.; Cirujano, S.; Álvarez-Cobelas, M.</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>This study shows results on litterfall dynamics and decay in mangrove stands of Avicennia germinans distributed along a latitudinal gradient (three forest sites) in the Gulf of <span class="hlt">California</span>, in order to assess whether internal sources could support the observed mangrove <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> organic deficit in this arid tropic. Total mean annual litterfall production increased southward (712.6 ± 53.3, 1501.3 ± 145.1 and 1506.2 ± 280.5 g DW m -2 y -1, in the Yaqui, Mayo and Fuerte areas respectively), leaves being the main component of litter in all locations during the entire year, followed by fruits. The wet season (June-September) showed the highest litterfall rates through fruits. The temporal trend of litterfall production was significantly explained through mean air temperature ( R2 = 68%) whilst total annual litter production in the entire region showed a statistically significant relationship with total soil phosphorus, salinity, total nitrogen, organic matter and tree height ( R2 = 0.67). Throughout 117 days of the decomposition experiment, the litter lost 50% of its original dry weight in 5.8 days (average decay rate of 0.032 ± 0.04 g DW d -1) and there were not significant differences in the remaining mass after 6 days. The percentage of both C and P released from the litter correlated significantly with the ratio of tidal inundated days to total experiment days ( R2 = 0.62, p = 0.03 and R2 = 0.67, p = 0.02, respectively); however, the frequency of tidal inundation only showed a significant increase in C release from Avicennia litter after 6 and above 48 days of decomposition. Whereas the total C content of litter bags decreased linearly over the decomposition to (% Total C = 5.52 - 0.46 days, R2 = 0.81, p = 0.0005), N content displayed an irregular pattern with a significant increase of decay between 48 and 76 days from the beginning of the experiment. The pattern for relative P content of litter revealed reductions of up to 99% of the original (%tot- P = -9.77 to 1.004 days, R2 = 0.72, p = 0.01) although most of the P reduction occurred between 17 and 34 days after the experiment started. Soil N and P contents, which exhibited significant differences in the course of the decomposition experiment, appeared to show significant differences between sampling sites, although they were not related to tidal influence, nor by leaf and nutrient leaching. In a global basis, C/ N litter ratios decreased linearly ( C/ N = 32.86 - 0.1006 days, R2 = 0.62, p = 0.02), showing a strong and significant correlation with meteorological variables ( R2 = 0.99, p = 0.01). C/ P ratios of litter increased through an exponential function ( C/ P = 119.35e 0.04day, R2 = 0.89, p < 0.001). Changes in the remaining percentage of litter mass during the experiment were significantly correlated with soil C/ N ratio ( R2 = 0.56, p = 0.03) as well as with the soil C/ P ratio ( R2 = 0.98, p < 0.001). Our results of litter decomposition dynamics in this mangrove support the fact of null net primary productivity of the arid mangrove wetlands: fast litter decomposition compensates the <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> organic deficit in order to sustain the mangrove productivity. Litter decomposition plays a key role in the <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> metabolism in mangroves of arid tropics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900060071&hterms=pigment&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dpigment','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900060071&hterms=pigment&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3Dpigment"><span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal and interannual variability of pigment concentrations across a <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> frontal zone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Thomas, A. C.; Strub, P. T.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The seasonal and interannual variability of the latitudinal position of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> frontal zone was investigated by examining satellite images of phytoplankton pigment from the coastal-zone color scanner for the periods 1979-1983 and 1986. The pigment concentrations associated with the zonal front were also determined. A general seasonal cycle of pigment concentrations is was established. It was found that variations in the frontal structure are controlled primarily by changes in pigment concentration north of the front. Seasonal variations were found to be minimal south of the front, where pigment concentrations remain low throughout the spring, summer, and fall.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850020217','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850020217"><span id="translatedtitle">Towards a study of synoptic-scale variability of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">current</span> system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>A West Coast satellite time series advisory group was established to consider the scientific rationale for the development of complete west coast time series of imagery of sea surface temperature (as derived by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer on the NOAA polar orbiter, and near-surface phytoplankton pigment concentrations (as derived by the Coastal Zone Color Scanner on Nimbus 7). The scientific and data processing requirements for such time series are also considered. It is determined that such time series are essential if a number of scientific questions regarding the synoptic-scale dynamics of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System are to be addressed. These questions concern both biological and physical processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=116500&keyword=microbial+AND+community+AND+ecology+AND+human&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=43002666&CFTOKEN=74330455','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=116500&keyword=microbial+AND+community+AND+ecology+AND+human&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=43002666&CFTOKEN=74330455"><span id="translatedtitle">MICROBIAL INDICATORS OF AQUATIC <span class="hlt">ECOSYSTEM</span> CHANGE: <span class="hlt">CURRENT</span> APPLICATIONS TO EUTROPHICATION STUDIES. (R828677C001)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><p>Human encroachment on aquatic <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> is increasing at an unprecedented rate. The impacts of human pollution and habitat alteration are most evident and of greatest concern at the microbial level, where a bulk of production and nutrient cycling takes place. Aquatic ecosyste...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70012672','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70012672"><span id="translatedtitle">Harmonic analysis of tides and tidal <span class="hlt">currents</span> in South San Francisco Bay, <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Cheng, R.T.; Gartner, J.W.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Water level observations from tide stations and <span class="hlt">current</span> observations from <span class="hlt">current</span>-meter moorings in South San Francisco Bay (South Bay), <span class="hlt">California</span> have been harmonically analysed. At each tide station, 13 harmonic constituents have been computed by a least-squares regression without inference. Tides in South Bay are typically mixed; there is a phase lag of approximately 1 h and an amplification of 1??5 from north to south for a mean semi-diurnal tide. Because most of the <span class="hlt">current</span>-meter records are between 14 and 29 days, only the five most important harmonics have been solved for east-west and north-south velocity components. The eccentricity of tidal-<span class="hlt">current</span> ellipse is generally very small, which indicates that the tidal <span class="hlt">current</span> in South Bay is strongly bidirectional. The analyses further show that the principal direction and the magnitude of tidal <span class="hlt">current</span> are well correlated with the basin bathymetry. Patterns of Eulerian residual circulation deduced from the <span class="hlt">current</span>-meter data show an anticlockwise gyre to the west and a clockwise gyre to the east of the main channel in the summer months due to the prevailing westerly wind. Opposite trends have been observed during winter when the wind was variable. ?? 1985.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PrOce..83..107B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PrOce..83..107B"><span id="translatedtitle">Trophic structure and diversity in rocky intertidal upwelling <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>: A comparison of community patterns across <span class="hlt">California</span>, Chile, South Africa and New Zealand</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Blanchette, C. A.; Wieters, E. A.; Broitman, B. R.; Kinlan, B. P.; Schiel, D. R.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>The Benguela, <span class="hlt">California</span>, and Humboldt represent three of the major eastern boundary upwelling <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> in the world. Upwelling <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> are highly productive, and this productivity forms the base of the food chain, potentially leading to <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> similar in trophic structure and diversity among upwelling regions. Here we compare the biological and trophic structure of rocky intertidal communities in each of these major upwelling regions. Our comparison includes a fourth region, New Zealand, which spans a similar latitudinal range, and experiences intermittent upwelling. The influence of oceanographic conditions on these communities was evaluated by using the long-term mean and standard deviation of satellite-based sea surface temperature (SST). Large differences emerged in the taxonomic richness in each of these systems, with <span class="hlt">California</span> as the most and the Humboldt as the least taxonomically rich. Across all regions, richness tended to decrease progressively from lower trophic levels (macrophytes) to higher trophic levels (carnivores), and richness was inversely correlated with the proportion of variance in SST contained in the seasonal cycle, suggesting that strongly seasonal, predictable environments are relatively low in diversity. The functional and trophic structures were remarkably similar across these four regions of the world. Macrophytes were slightly dominant over filter-feeders in terms of space occupancy in all regions except the Benguela. Densities of herbivorous grazers were greatest in <span class="hlt">California</span> and Benguela and far outnumbered carnivore densities in all regions. Despite some similarities, the overall structure of the communities from these regions differed significantly supporting the hypothesis that the biological and ecological consequences of similar physical forcing mechanisms (e.g. upwelling) are likely to be context-dependent.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4411113','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4411113"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Current</span> Status of Western Yellow-Billed Cuckoo along the Sacramento and Feather Rivers, <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>To evaluate the <span class="hlt">current</span> status of the western population of the Yellow-billed Cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus) along the Sacramento and Feather rivers in <span class="hlt">California’s</span> Sacramento Valley, we conducted extensive call playback surveys in 2012 and 2013. We also quantified the amount and distribution of potential habitat. Our survey transects were randomly located and spatially balanced to sample representative areas of the potential habitat. We estimated that the total area of potential habitat was 8,134 ha along the Sacramento River and 2,052 ha along the Feather River, for a total of 10,186 ha. Large-scale restoration efforts have created potential habitat along both of these rivers. Despite this increase in the amount of habitat, the number of cuckoos we detected was extremely low. There were 8 detection occasions in 2012 and 10 occasions in 2013 on the Sacramento River, in both restored and remnant habitat. We had no detections on the Feather River in either year. We compared our results to 10 historic studies from as far back as 1972 and found that the Yellow-billed Cuckoo had unprecedentedly low numbers in 2010, 2012, and 2013. The <span class="hlt">current</span> limiting factor for the Yellow-billed Cuckoo in the Sacramento Valley is likely not the amount of appropriate vegetation, as restoration has created more habitat over the last 30 years. Reasons for the cuckoo decline on the Sacramento and Feather rivers are unclear. PMID:25915801</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EurSS..48..664R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EurSS..48..664R"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Current</span> stage of the restoration of Chernozems in rangeland <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> of the steppe zone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rusanov, A. M.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>The results of two rounds of soil and geobotanic surveys of rangeland <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> in the steppe zone are presented. The same sites with southern chernozems (Calcic Chernozems) under steppe plant communities at different stages of pasture degradation were investigated at the end of the 1980s, when they suffered maximum anthropogenic loads, and in 2011-2013, after a long period of relative rest. In the 1980s, degradation of soil physical properties in rangeland <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> under the impact of long-term unsustainable management was noted. At the same time, it was found that the major qualitative and quantitative properties of humus in the chernozems were preserved independently from the level of pasture degradation. The following period of moderate grazing pressure had a favorable effect on the soil properties. Owing to the good characteristics of the soil humus, the restoration of the physical properties of chernozems-including their structural state, water permeability, and bulk density-took place in a relatively short period. It is argued that the soil bulk density is a natural regulator of the species composition of steppe vegetation, because true grasses (Poaceae)-typical representatives of the steppe flora-have a fibrous root system requiring the soils with low density values. The improvement of the properties of chernozems is related to the development of secondary <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> with a higher portion of grasses in place of damaged rangelands and to the increase in the area of nominal virgin phytocenoses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PrOce..79..352T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PrOce..79..352T"><span id="translatedtitle">Trophic modeling of the Northern Humboldt <span class="hlt">Current</span> <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span>, Part I: Comparing trophic linkages under La Niña and El Niño conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tam, Jorge; Taylor, Marc H.; Blaskovic, Verónica; Espinoza, Pepe; Michael Ballón, R.; Díaz, Erich; Wosnitza-Mendo, Claudia; Argüelles, Juan; Purca, Sara; Ayón, Patricia; Quipuzcoa, Luis; Gutiérrez, Dimitri; Goya, Elisa; Ochoa, Noemí; Wolff, Matthias</p> <p>2008-10-01</p> <p>The El Niño of 1997-98 was one of the strongest warming events of the past century; among many other effects, it impacted phytoplankton along the Peruvian coast by changing species composition and reducing biomass. While responses of the main fish resources to this natural perturbation are relatively well known, understanding the <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> response as a whole requires an ecotrophic multispecies approach. In this work, we construct trophic models of the Northern Humboldt <span class="hlt">Current</span> <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> (NHCE) and compare the La Niña (LN) years in 1995-96 with the El Niño (EN) years in 1997-98. The model area extends from 4°S-16°S and to 60 nm from the coast. The model consists of 32 functional groups of organisms and differs from previous trophic models of the Peruvian system through: (i) division of plankton into size classes to account for EN-associated changes and feeding preferences of small pelagic fish, (ii) increased division of demersal groups and separation of life history stages of hake, (iii) inclusion of mesopelagic fish, and (iv) incorporation of the jumbo squid ( Dosidicus gigas), which became abundant following EN. Results show that EN reduced the size and organization of energy flows of the NHCE, but the overall functioning (proportion of energy flows used for respiration, consumption by predators, detritus and export) of the <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> was maintained. The reduction of diatom biomass during EN forced omnivorous planktivorous fish to switch to a more zooplankton-dominated diet, raising their trophic level. Consequently, in the EN model the trophic level increased for several predatory groups (mackerel, other large pelagics, sea birds, pinnipeds) and for fishery catch. A high modeled biomass of macrozooplankton was needed to balance the consumption by planktivores, especially during EN condition when observed diatoms biomass diminished dramatically. Despite overall lower planktivorous fish catches, the higher primary production required-to-catch ratio implied a stronger ecological impact of the fishery and stresses the need for precautionary management of fisheries during and after EN. During EN energetic indicators such as the lower primary production/total biomass ratio suggest a more energetically efficient <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>, while reduced network indicators such as the cycling index and relative ascendency indicate of a less organized state of the <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>. Compared to previous trophic models of the NHCE we observed: (i) a shrinking of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> size in term of energy flows, (ii) slight changes in overall functioning (proportion of energy flows used for respiration, consumption by predators and detritus), and (iii) the use of alternate pathways leading to a higher ecological impact of the fishery for planktivorous fish.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18789522','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18789522"><span id="translatedtitle">Lead pollution in subtropical <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> on the SE Gulf of <span class="hlt">California</span> Coast: a study of concentrations and isotopic composition.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Soto-Jiménez, Martin F; Páez-Osuna, Federico; Scelfo, Genine; Hibdon, Sharon; Franks, Rob; Aggarawl, Jugdeep; Flegal, A Russell</p> <p>2008-10-01</p> <p>Lead pollution was investigated in environmental matrices and biological indicators collected from two typical subtropical coastal <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> in the southeast Gulf of <span class="hlt">California</span>, Mexico. Lead concentrations and isotopic compositions ((206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(207)Pb) were measured using high resolution inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS) and thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), respectively. Lead in surface estuary sediments (10.0-34.2microgg(-1)) and particulate Pb (25.0-128.7microgg(-1), >98% of total Pb) in the water column were significantly higher than levels in natural bedrock soils (15.1+/-8.3microgg(-1)) and river runoff (1.9+/-1.4microgg(-1)). Aquatic plants had Pb concentrations between 2.5 and 7.2microgg(-1), while those in macroalgae ranged from 3 to 5microgg(-1). The ranges of mean Pb concentrations in the aquatic animals studied (ranges in microgg(-1)) were as follows: zooplankton 32+/-3, mussels 2.3-3.9, oysters 1.9-7.9, snail 2.0-7.7, barnacles 0.1-18.5, fish 1.4-8.9, crab 6.3-40.2 and polychaetae 8.5-16.7. Pb values in 20-40% of oyster and fish samples and in all samples of crab exceeded acceptable levels for a food source for human consumption. Pb isotope ratios (206)Pb/(207)Pb, (208)Pb/(207)Pb in biota ranged from 1.188 to 1.206 and 2.448 to 2.470, respectively. A plot of (206)Pb/(207)Pb versus (208)Pb/(207)Pb for the environmental and biological samples collected from two study areas indicates that they contain lead from ores mined in Mexico and used in the past to produce leaded gasoline in use until 1997, natural Pb weathered from the Sierra Madre Occidental mother rock, and the later influence of inputs from a more radiogenic source related to industrial activity in the United States. Statistical software IsoSource results revealed that the Pb contained in environmental matrices and biomonitors is mostly derived from gasoline (20-90%) and US emissions (10-40%). PMID:18789522</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70142976','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70142976"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> consequences of changing inputs of terrestrial dissolved organic matter to lakes: <span class="hlt">current</span> knowledge and future challenges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Solomon, Christopher T.; Jones, Stuart E.; Weidel, Brian C.; Buffam, Ishi; Fork, Megan L; Karlsson, Jan; Larsen, Soren; Lennon, Jay T.; Read, Jordan S.; Sadro, Steven; Saros, Jasmine E.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Lake <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> and the services that they provide to people are profoundly influenced by dissolved organic matter derived from terrestrial plant tissues. These terrestrial dissolved organic matter (tDOM) inputs to lakes have changed substantially in recent decades, and will likely continue to change. In this paper, we first briefly review the substantial literature describing tDOM effects on lakes and ongoing changes in tDOM inputs. We then identify and provide examples of four major challenges which limit predictions about the implications of tDOM change for lakes, as follows: First, it is <span class="hlt">currently</span> difficult to forecast future tDOM inputs for particular lakes or lake regions. Second, tDOM influences <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> via complex, interacting, physical-chemical-biological effects and our holistic understanding of those effects is still rudimentary. Third, non-linearities and thresholds in relationships between tDOM inputs and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> processes have not been well described. Fourth, much understanding of tDOM effects is built on comparative studies across space that may not capture likely responses through time. We conclude by identifying research approaches that may be important for overcoming those challenges in order to provide policy- and management-relevant predictions about the implications of changing tDOM inputs for lakes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRC..116.3018K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JGRC..116.3018K"><span id="translatedtitle">Dissolved iron and macronutrient distributions in the southern <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>King, Andrew L.; Barbeau, Katherine A.</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>The distribution of dissolved iron in the southern <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System (sCCS) is presented from seven research cruises between 2002 and 2006. Dissolved iron concentrations were generally low in most of the study area (<0.5 nM), although high mixed layer and water column dissolved iron concentrations (up to 8 nM) were found to be associated with coastal upwelling, both along the continental margin and some island platforms. A significant supply of iron was probably not from a deep remineralized source but rather from the continental shelf and bottom boundary layer as identified in previous studies along the central and northern <span class="hlt">California</span> coast. With distance offshore, dissolved iron decreased more rapidly relative to nitrate in a transition zone 10-250 km offshore during spring and summer, resulting in relatively high ratios of nitrate:dissolved iron. Higher nitrate:dissolved iron ratios could be the result of utilization and scavenging in addition to an overall lower supply of iron relative to nitrate in the offshore transition zones. The low supply of iron leads to phytoplankton iron limitation and a depletion in silicic acid relative to nitrate in the coastal upwelling and transition zones of the sCCS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997JGR...102.8587M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997JGR...102.8587M"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling the vertical distribution of chlorophyll in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>MilláN-NúñEz, Roberto; Alvarez-Borrego, Saúl; Trees, Charles C.</p> <p>1997-04-01</p> <p>Remote sensing of ocean color provides data on the average photosynthetic pigment concentration in the first optical depth. To model primary productivity in the water column, estimates of the vertical distribution of pigment concentration are required. We used a Gaussian distribution function proposed by Platt et al. [1988] to represent the pigment vertical profile with four parameters. Empirical relationships were derived to estimate these parameters for the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System between 28° and 37°N, using <span class="hlt">California</span> Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI) data (1978-1992). The studied area was divided into six spatial subregions and temporally into warm and cool seasons. Regression models were developed for each subregion and season to estimate each of the parameters as functions of surface chlorophyll. Comparison of chlorophyll profiles obtained during the 1994 CalCOFI cruises (not used for constructing the models) with those estimated with our models shows a general agreement. Assuming a homogeneous biomass profile resulted in underestimation of integrated primary productivity (pp) by as much as 30%, whereas the modeled profiles gave equal or overestimated pp (up to 23%), with respect to the values derived from the real 1994 profiles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910063762&hterms=offshore+onshore&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Doffshore%2Bonshore','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910063762&hterms=offshore+onshore&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Doffshore%2Bonshore"><span id="translatedtitle">The nature of the cold filaments in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Strub, P. T.; Kosro, P. M.; Huyer, Adriana</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The velocity fields and water properties associated with cold filaments in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> are described on the basis of data from the Coastal Transition Zone experiment. Combined with previous field surveys and satellite imagery, these show seasonal variability with maximum dynamic height ranges and velocities in summer and minimum values in late winter and early spring. North of Point Arena in spring-summer, the flow field on the outer edge of the cold water exhibits the character of a meandering jet, carrying fresh, nutrient-poor water from the farther north on its offshore side and cold, salty, nutrient-rich water on its inshore side. At Point Arena in midsummer, the jet often flows offshore and continues south without meandering back onshore as strongly as it does farther north. At the surface, the jet often separates biological communities and may appear as a barrier to cross-jet transport, especially north of Point Arena in March-May.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PrOce.102...19R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PrOce.102...19R"><span id="translatedtitle">Interannual variability in the Northern <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> food web structure: Changes in energy flow pathways and the role of forage fish, euphausiids, and jellyfish</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ruzicka, James J.; Brodeur, Richard D.; Emmett, Robert L.; Steele, John H.; Zamon, Jeannette E.; Morgan, Cheryl A.; Thomas, Andrew C.; Wainwright, Thomas C.</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>The Northern <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> (NCC) is a seasonally productive and open <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>. It is home to both a diverse endemic community and to seasonally transient species. Productivity and food web structure vary seasonally, interannually, and decadally due to variability in coastal upwelling, climate-scale physical processes, and the migratory species entering the system. The composition of the pelagic community varies between years, including changes to mid-trophic level groups that represent alternate energy-transfer pathways between lower and upper trophic levels (forage fishes, euphausiids, jellyfish). Multiple data sets, including annual spring and summer mesoscale surveys of the zooplankton, pelagic fish, and seabird communities, were used to infer NCC trophic network arrangements and develop end-to-end models for each of the 2003-2007 upwelling seasons. Each model was used to quantify the interannual variability in energy-transfer efficiency from bottom to top trophic levels. When each model was driven under an identical nutrient input rate, substantial differences in the energy available to each functional group were evident. Scenario analyses were used to examine the roles of forage fishes, euphausiids, and jellyfish (small gelatinous zooplankton and large carnivorous jellyfish) as alternate energy transfer pathways. Euphausiids were the more important energy transfer pathway; a large proportion of the lower trophic production consumed was transferred to higher trophic levels. In contrast, jellyfish acted as a production loss pathway; little of the production consumed was passed upwards. Analysis of the range of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> states observed interannually and understanding system sensitivity to variability among key trophic groups improves our ability to predict NCC <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> response to short- and long-term environmental change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70031952','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70031952"><span id="translatedtitle">Rapid formation of hyperpycnal sediment gravity <span class="hlt">currents</span> offshore of a semi-arid <span class="hlt">California</span> river</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Warrick, J.A.; Xu, Jie; Noble, M.A.; Lee, H.J.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Observations of sediment dispersal from the Santa Clara River of southern <span class="hlt">California</span> during two moderately sized river discharge events suggest that river sediment rapidly formed a negatively buoyant (hyperpycnal) bottom plume along the seabed within hours of peak discharge. An array of acoustic and optical sensors were placed at three stations 1 km from the Santa Clara River mouth in 10-m water depth during January-February 2004. These combined observations suggest that fluid mud concentrations of suspended sediment (>10 g/l) and across-shore gravity <span class="hlt">currents</span> (???5 cm/s) were observed in the lower 20-40 cm of the water column 4-6 h after discharge events. Gravity <span class="hlt">currents</span> were wave dominated, rather than auto-suspending, and appeared to consist of silt-to-clay sized sediment from the river. Sediment mass balances suggest that 25-50% of the discharged river sediment was transported by these hyperpycnal <span class="hlt">currents</span>. Sediment settling purely by flocs (???1 mm/s) cannot explain the formation of the observed hyperpycnal plumes, therefore we suggest that some enhanced sediment settling from mixing, convective instabilities, or diverging plumes occurred that would explain the formation of the gravity <span class="hlt">currents</span>. These combined results provide field evidence that high suspended-sediment concentrations from rivers (>1 g/l) may rapidly form hyperpycnal sediment gravity <span class="hlt">currents</span> immediately offshore of river mouths, and these pathways can explain a significant portion of the river-margin sediment budget. The fate of this sediment will be strongly influenced by bathymetry, whereas the fate of the remaining sediment will be much more influenced by ocean <span class="hlt">currents</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMOS23C1677D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMOS23C1677D"><span id="translatedtitle">An evaluation of the latitudinal gradient of chlorophyll in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dietrich, W.; Broughton, J.; Kudela, R. M.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Tracking of spatial and temporal trends in phytoplankton abundance and distribution is an important step toward understanding large-scale macroecological processes in the ocean. Measurements of ocean radiance from satellite-borne sensors, such as SeaWiFS and MODIS, can be used to estimate surface chlorophyll concentration, which is a good indicator of phytoplankton biomass. The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the latitudinal gradient in chlorophyll concentration within the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> first reported by Ware and Thomson (2005). They found that average chlorophyll concentration tended to increase steadily from 32-48°N latitude. This concentration gradient was reevaluated using a longer dataset and an algorithm refined for the region. Radiance data from the MODIS-Aqua instrument were obtained for every year from 2002 through 2013. Data included annual averages of remote sensing radiance as well as monthly averages for February, April, and August. These months were chosen to represent each of the three oceanographic seasons present in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span>. Estimates of chlorophyll concentration were derived from these data using the CALFIT algorithm developed by Kahru et al. (2012). The resulting maps of chlorophyll concentration were processed in MATLAB and linear regressions were performed using SYSTAT 13 software. A statistically significant (p < 0.05) latitudinal trend in chlorophyll was observed in the annual averaged data as well as in the averaged seasonal data from February and August. No significant trend was observed in the averaged April data. Chlorophyll concentration was positively correlated with latitude in every instance, except in April 2003 and April 2005, where a negative correlation was observed. The positive latitudinal trend was strongest during August and weakest during April. Strong peaks in chlorophyll were observed near San Francisco Bay and the mouth of the Columbia River, suggesting that river-borne nutrient input may be the dominant factor responsible for the existence of this chlorophyll gradient.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015DSRII.112...91K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015DSRII.112...91K"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-satellite time series of inherent optical properties in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kahru, Mati; Lee, Zhongping; Kudela, Raphael M.; Manzano-Sarabia, Marlenne; Greg Mitchell, B.</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Satellite ocean color radiometry is a powerful method to study ocean biology but the relationships between satellite measurements and the in situ ocean properties are not well understood. Moreover, the measurements made with one satellite sensor may not be directly compatible with similar measurements from another sensor. We estimate inherent optical properties (IOPs) in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> by applying empirically optimized versions of the Quasi-Analytical Algorithm (QAA) of Lee et al. (2002) to satellite remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) from four ocean color sensors (OCTS, SeaWiFS, MODISA and MERIS). The set of estimated IOPs includes the total absorption coefficient at 490 nm (a490), phytoplankton absorption coefficient at 440 nm (aph440), absorption by dissolved and detrital organic matter at 440 nm (adg440) and particle backscattering coefficient at 490 nm (bbp490). The empirical inversion models are created by minimizing the deviations between satellite match-ups with in situ measurements and between the estimates of individual overlapping satellite sensors. The derived empirical algorithms were then applied to satellite Level-3 daily Rrs to create merged multi-sensor time series of the near-surface optical characteristics in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> region for a time period of over 16 years (November 1996-December 2012). Due to the limited number of in situ match-ups and their uneven distribution as well as the large errors in the satellite-derived Rrs, the uncertainty in the retrieved IOPs is still significant and difficult to quantify. The merged time series show the dominant annual cycle but also significant variability at interannual time scales. The ratio of adg440 to aph440 is around 1 in the transition zone, is >1 in the coastal zone and generally <1 offshore. adg440 decreases towards south and towards offshore. The long-term (~16 years) trend in aph440, representative of phytoplankton biomass, shows a significant (P<0.01) increasing trend in a wide band (~500 km) along the coast and a significant decreasing trends in the oligotrophic North Pacific gyre. The trend of increasing aph440 in the upwelling areas off <span class="hlt">California</span> is positively correlated with the increasing wind speed along the coast.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=201093','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=201093"><span id="translatedtitle">MULTILOCUS SIMPLE SEQUENCE REPEATS AND SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISM MARKERS FOR GENOTYPING AND ASSESSING GENETIC DIVERSITY OF XYLELLA FASTIDIOSA IN <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>To develop effective disease management strategies, we need to understand population structure and genetic diversity of pathogens in agricultural <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. <span class="hlt">Current</span> information regarding population structure and genetic diversity of Xylella fastidiosa (Xf) in <span class="hlt">California</span> is insufficient to adequate...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25201299','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25201299"><span id="translatedtitle">Is tourism damaging <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> in the Andes? <span class="hlt">Current</span> knowledge and an agenda for future research.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Barros, Agustina; Monz, Christopher; Pickering, Catherine</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Despite the popularity of tourism and recreation in the Andes in South America and the regions conservation value, there is limited research on the ecological impacts of these types of anthropogenic use. Using a systematic quantitative literature review method, we found 47 recreation ecology studies from the Andes, 25 of which used an experimental design. Most of these were from the Southern Andes in Argentina (13 studies) or Chile (eight studies) with only four studies from the Northern Andes. These studies documented a range of impacts on vegetation, birds and mammals; including changes in plant species richness, composition and vegetation cover and the tolerance of wildlife of visitor use. There was little research on the impacts of visitors on soils and aquatic systems and for some ecoregions in the Andes. We identify research priorities across the region that will enhance management strategies to minimise visitor impacts in Andean <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. PMID:25201299</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H31H0718C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.H31H0718C"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterizing changes in streamflow under historical and <span class="hlt">current</span> climates for the Russian River, <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Curtis, J.; Flint, L. E.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Precipitation in <span class="hlt">California</span> is naturally more variable than elsewhere in the United States, and climate change is expected to increase the frequency and severity of precipitation and streamflow anomalies. As part of a larger effort to assess flow conditions under historical, <span class="hlt">current</span>, and future climates, we characterized the change in the Russian River's mainstem flows between two 30-year periods that represent historical (1951 to 1980) and <span class="hlt">current</span> (1981 to 2010) climate conditions. Analyses included measured data from one mainstem gage (Ukiah) that represents natural flow conditions, and three mainstem gages (Hopland, Healdsburg, and Guerneville) regulated by diversion into the Russian River from the adjacent Eel River and by reservoir storage. Analysis of natural flows at the Ukiah gage under the <span class="hlt">current</span> climate indicates statistically significant increases in low flow metrics that include: median monthly flows from July to October; number of zero flow days; and 1-, 3-, 5-, 7-, 30- and 90-day minimum flows. In contrast to the Ukiah gage, decreases in low flows under the <span class="hlt">current</span> climate at the three regulated-streamflow gages varied with distance downstream. Statistically significant declines in median monthly flows occurred during the second period (1981-2010) from August to November at Hopland, September to November at Healdsburg and in October at Guerneville. Although mean annual flow declined at all four gages during the second period and median monthly low flows declined at the downstream gages, median monthly low flows and minimum flows at the Ukiah gage which represents natural flows increased during the driest months (July to October). Results from this study will be used to support ecological studies and water resource planning within the Russian River watershed. The relative importance of climate and watershed response on the quality and quantity of streamflow under historical and <span class="hlt">current</span> climates will be assessed and results compared to analyses of unimpaired flows estimated using a basin-scale water balance model calibrated to low flow conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRC..120.3913L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRC..120.3913L"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling long-term change of planktonic <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> in the northern South China Sea and the upstream Kuroshio <span class="hlt">Current</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Qian P.; Wang, Yanjun; Dong, Yuan; Gan, Jianping</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Field studies suggested that the biogeochemical settings and community structures are substantial different between the central Northern South China Sea (NSCS) and the upstream Kuroshio <span class="hlt">Current</span> (KC). In particular, the water column of KC is characterized by substantially lower nutrients and productivity but higher Trichodesmium abundance and nitrogen fixation compared to the NSCS. The mechanism driving the difference of the two marine <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, however, remains inadequately understood. Here, a one-dimensional biogeochemical model was developed to simulate the long-term variability of lower-trophic planktonic <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> for two pelagic stations in the NSCS and the KC near the Luzon Strait. The physical model included the vertical mixing driven by air-sea interaction and the Ekman pumping induced by wind stress curl. The biological model was constructed by modifying a nitrogen-based NPZD model with the incorporation of phosphorus cycle and diazotroph nitrogen fixation. After validation by several field data sets, the model was used to study the impact of long-term physical forcing on <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> variability in the two distinct stations. Our results suggested that nutrient transport above nitracline during summer was largely controlled by vertical turbulent mixing, while Ekman pumping was important for nutrient transport below the nitracline. Our results also indicated that diazotroph community structure and N2 fixation in the NSCS and the KC could be strongly influenced by physical processes through the impacts on vertical nutrient fluxes. The disadvantage of diazotroph in the NSCS in compared to the KC during the summer could be attributed to its high nitrate fluxes from subsurface leading to outcompete of diazotrophs by faster growing nondiazotroph phytoplankton.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030038','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70030038"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> during the past 12,000 yr based on diatoms and silicoflagellates</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Barron, John A.; Bukry, David</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Detailed diatom and silicoflagellates records in three cores from the offshore region of southern Oregon to central <span class="hlt">California</span> reveal the evolution of the northern part of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> during the past 12,000 yr. The early Holocene, prior to ? 9 ka, was characterized by relatively warm sea surface temperatures (SST), owing to enhanced northerly flow of the subtropical waters comparable to the modern Davidson <span class="hlt">Current</span>. Progressive strengthening of the North Pacific High lead to intensification of the southward flow of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> at ? 8 ka, resulting in increased coastal upwelling and relatively cooler SST which persisted until ? 5 ka. Reduced southward flow of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> between ? 4.8 ka and 3.6 ka may have been responsible for a period of decreased upwelling. Modern seasonal oceanographic cycles, as evidenced by increased spring–early summer coastal upwelling and warming of early fall SST evolved between 3.5 and 3.2 ka. Widespread occurrence of paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic change between ? 3.5–3.0 ka along the eastern margins of the North Pacific was likely a response to increasing ENSO variability in the tropical Pacific.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015DSRI..100..127W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015DSRI..100..127W"><span id="translatedtitle">Transport patterns of Pacific sardine Sardinops sagax eggs and larvae in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Weber, Edward D.; Chao, Yi; Chai, Fei; McClatchie, Sam</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>We simulated transport of Pacific sardine eggs captured offshore of <span class="hlt">California</span> in spring of 2001-2012 using a regional ocean circulation model. Eggs were assumed to have developed into larvae within a few days and were modeled using five behavioral patterns: passive transport, diel vertical migration, diel vertical migration combined with swimming against the <span class="hlt">current</span>, diel migration combined with migration toward shore, and diel migration combined with migration toward the best habitat. Simulated larvae with no swimming behavior were advected far offshore to poor habitat where they were unlikely to survive. Diel vertical migration resulted in less offshore transport because larvae were less affected by surface <span class="hlt">currents</span> during the day. However, in half the years simulated nearly all juveniles were also located in poor habitat by late summer in this scenario. Swimming against the <span class="hlt">current</span> combined with diel vertical migration resulted in similar transport patterns to the diel-vertical-migration scenario because <span class="hlt">currents</span> dominated the transport of eggs and small larvae during the spring and early summer. Migration toward shore resulted in a large fraction of juveniles being located in appropriate habitat during late summer in all years. Migration toward the best habitat was the best strategy modeled. This strategy resulted in a slightly greater proportion of larvae being located in appropriate habitat at the end of summer than the swimming-toward-shore scenario, despite the fact that most larvae were located farther offshore. These results suggest that larval sardine might use directed horizontal swimming behavior to remain in suitable habitat conditions. A large fraction of larvae were transported south into Mexican waters by late summer in all five scenarios. Surveying juvenile sardines in fall near the border of the U.S. and Mexico may be an efficient means of estimating recruitment because the advection pattern of eggs and larvae to the south is opposite the adult migration pattern to the north. This pattern may cause juveniles to be spatially segregated from adults at the time they are being recruited.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25915801','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25915801"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Current</span> Status of Western Yellow-Billed Cuckoo along the Sacramento and Feather Rivers, <span class="hlt">California</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dettling, Mark D; Seavy, Nathaniel E; Howell, Christine A; Gardali, Thomas</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>To evaluate the <span class="hlt">current</span> status of the western population of the Yellow-billed Cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus) along the Sacramento and Feather rivers in <span class="hlt">California</span>'s Sacramento Valley, we conducted extensive call playback surveys in 2012 and 2013. We also quantified the amount and distribution of potential habitat. Our survey transects were randomly located and spatially balanced to sample representative areas of the potential habitat. We estimated that the total area of potential habitat was 8,134 ha along the Sacramento River and 2,052 ha along the Feather River, for a total of 10,186 ha. Large-scale restoration efforts have created potential habitat along both of these rivers. Despite this increase in the amount of habitat, the number of cuckoos we detected was extremely low. There were 8 detection occasions in 2012 and 10 occasions in 2013 on the Sacramento River, in both restored and remnant habitat. We had no detections on the Feather River in either year. We compared our results to 10 historic studies from as far back as 1972 and found that the Yellow-billed Cuckoo had unprecedentedly low numbers in 2010, 2012, and 2013. The <span class="hlt">current</span> limiting factor for the Yellow-billed Cuckoo in the Sacramento Valley is likely not the amount of appropriate vegetation, as restoration has created more habitat over the last 30 years. Reasons for the cuckoo decline on the Sacramento and Feather rivers are unclear. PMID:25915801</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6720942','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6720942"><span id="translatedtitle">Energy from <span class="hlt">California</span> agriculture and forest resources: <span class="hlt">current</span> and future potential and constraints</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sachs, R.H.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>More than 0.3 Quad of energy in the form of liquid, solid, and gaseous fuels can be produced from <span class="hlt">California</span> forests and farms without altering significantly the supply of food, feed or fiber. The costs of biomass to fuels via direct combustion and gasification conversion systems is now lower than the petroleum or natural gas-derived fuels that they would replace. Yields of 10 tons dry matter per acre per year would be expected from all irrigated agricultural regions if the most productive crops such as corn, sorghum, sugar beets, certain forages and tree crops are grown. Double cropping, e.g., winter grain followed by corn or sorghum in the summer, may increase yields above 10 tons dry matter per year. As much as 4 tons per acre should be available as residues from corn or sorghum for energy conversion systems. With selected crop acreage and utilization schemes up to 5 billion gallons of fermentation ethanol can be produced annually from high starch and sugar crops. With little change in <span class="hlt">current</span> crop production and utilization over 1 billion gallons of ethanol and methanol can be produced by conversion of <span class="hlt">current</span> collectable crop, forestry and urban residues.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PrOce..84..242A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PrOce..84..242A"><span id="translatedtitle">Top-down and bottom-up factors affecting seabird population trends in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">current</span> system (1985-2006)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ainley, David G.; David Hyrenbach, K.</p> <p>2010-03-01</p> <p>To characterize the environmental factors affecting seabird population trends in the central portion of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">current</span> system (CCS), we analyzed standardized vessel-based surveys collected during the late spring (May-June) upwelling season over 22 yr (1985-2006). We tested the working hypothesis that population trends are related to species-specific foraging ecology, and predicted that temporal variation in population size should be most extreme in diving species with higher energy expenditure during foraging. We related variation in individual species abundance (number km -2) to seasonally lagged (late winter, early spring, late spring) and concurrent ocean conditions, and to long-term trends (using a proxy variable: year) during a multi-decadal period of major fluctuations in the El Niño-Southern oscillation (ENSO) and the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO). We considered both remote (Multivariate ENSO Index, PDO) and local (coastal upwelling indices and sea-surface temperature) environmental variables as proxies for ocean productivity and prey availability. We also related seabird trends to those of potentially major trophic competitors, humpback ( Megaptera novaeangliae) and blue ( Balaenoptera musculus) whales, which increased in number 4-5-fold midway during our study. Cyclical oscillations in seabird abundance were apparent in the black-footed albatross ( Phoebastria nigripes), and decreasing trends were documented for ashy storm-petrel ( Oceanodroma homochroa), pigeon guillemot ( Cepphus columbus), rhinoceros auklet ( Cerorhinca monocerata), Cassin’s auklet ( Ptychoramphus aleuticus), and western gull ( Larus occidentalis); the sooty shearwater ( Puffinus griseus), exhibited a marked decline before signs of recovery at the end of the study period. The abundance of nine other focal species varied with ocean conditions, but without decadal or long-term trends. Six of these species have the largest global populations in the CCS, and four are highly energetic, diving foragers. Furthermore, three of the diving species trends were negatively correlated with the abundance of humpback whales in the study area, a direct competitor for the same prey. Therefore, on the basis of literature reviewed, we hypothesize that the seabirds were affected by the decreasing carrying capacity of the CCS, over-exploitation of some prey stocks and interference competition from the previously exploited, but now increasing, baleen whale populations. Overall, our study highlights the complexity of the ecological factors driving seabird population trends in the highly variable and rapidly changing CCS <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740004025','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740004025"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">California</span> coast nearshore processes study. [nearshore <span class="hlt">currents</span>, sediment transport, estuaries, and river discharge</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pirie, D. M.; Steller, D. D. (principal investigators)</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>The author has identified the following significant results. Large scale sediment plumes from intermittent streams and rivers form detectable seasonal patterns on ERTS-1 imagery. The ocean <span class="hlt">current</span> systems, as plotted from three <span class="hlt">California</span> coast ERTS mosaics, were identified. Offshore patterns of sediment in areas such as the Santa Barbara Channel are traceable. These patterns extend offshore to heretofore unanticipated ranges as shown on the ERTS-1 imagery. Flying spot scanner enhancements of NASA tapes resulted in details of subtle and often invisible (to the eye) nearshore features. The suspended sediments off San Francisco and in Monterey Bay are emphasized in detail. These are areas of extremely changeable offshore sediment transport patterns. Computer generated contouring of radiance levels resulted in maps that can be used in determining surface and nearsurface suspended sediment distribution. Tentative calibrations of ERTS-1 spectral brightness against sediment load have been made using shipboard measurements. Information from the combined enhancement and interpretation techniques is applicable to operational coastal engineering programs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMS...146...99C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMS...146...99C"><span id="translatedtitle">Temporal and sex-specific variability in Rhinoceros Auklet diet in the central <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carle, Ryan D.; Beck, Jessie N.; Calleri, David M.; Hester, Michelle M.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>We used stable isotopes (?15N and ?13C) and compared prey provided to chicks by each sex to evaluate seasonal and sex-specific diets in Rhinoceros Auklets (Cerorhinca monocerata) in the central <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> system during 2012-2013. Mixing models indicated northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax) were important prey for adults during fall/winter and juvenile rockfishes (Sebastes spp.) were important prey during incubation both years. Adult trophic level increased between incubation and chick-rearing periods in both years. During 2012, ?15N and ?13C of chick-rearing males and females differed significantly; mixing models indicated that females ate more Pacific saury (Cololabis saira) and less market squid (Doryteuthis opalescens) than males. Likewise, females delivered significantly more Pacific saury and less market squid to chicks than males during 2012. Chick growth (g d- 1) and chick survival to fledging were significantly lower during 2012 than 2013, likely because chicks were fed lesser quality prey or fed less frequently in 2012. Lesser body mass of females during incubation in 2012 indicated sex-specific diet differences may have been related to female energetic constraints. The observed variability in Rhinoceros Auklet diet underscores the importance of managing multiple prey populations in this system so that generalist predators have sufficient resources through changing conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/sir2004-5147/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/sir2004-5147/"><span id="translatedtitle">Mercury in the Walker River Basin, Nevada and <span class="hlt">California</span>--sources, distribution, and potential effects on the <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Seiler, Ralph L.; Lico, Michael S.; Wiemeyer Evers, David C.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Mercury is one of the most serious contaminants of water, sediment, and biota in Nevada because of its use during 19th century mining activities to recover gold and silver from ores. In 1998, mercury problems were discovered in the Walker River Basin of <span class="hlt">California</span> and Nevada when blood drawn from three common loons from Walker Lake was analyzed and found to have severely elevated mercury levels. From 1999 to 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service collected water, sediment, and biological samples to determine mercury sources, distribution, and potential effects on the Walker River Basin <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>. Total-mercury concentrations ranged from 0.62 to 57.11 ng/L in streams from the Walker River system and ranged from 1.02 to 26.8 ng/L in lakes and reservoirs. Total-mercury concentrations in streambed sediment ranged from 1 to 13,600 ng/g, and methylmercury concentrations ranged from 0.07 to 32.1 ng/g. The sediment-effects threshold for mercury for fresh-water invertebrates is 200 ng/g, which was exceeded at nine stream sites in the Walker River Basin. The highest mercury concentrations were in streams with historic mines and milling operations in the watershed. The highest mercury concentration in sediment, 13,600 ng/g, was found in Bodie Creek near Bodie, Calif., a site of extensive gold mining and milling activities during the 19th century. Sediment cores taken from Walker Lake show total-mercury concentrations exceeding 1,000 ng/g at depths greater than 15 cm below lake bottom. The presence of 137Cs above 8 cm in one core indicates that the upper 8 cm was deposited sometime after 1963. The mercury peak at 46 cm in that core, 2,660 ng/g, likely represents the peak of mining and gold extraction in the Bodie and Aurora mining districts between 1870 and 1880. Mercury concentrations in aquatic invertebrates at all sites downstream from mining activities in the Rough Creek watershed, which drains the Bodie and Aurora mining districts, were elevated (range 0.263 to 0.863 ?g/g, dry weight). Mercury concentrations in the Walker Lake tui chub, the most abundant and likely prey for common loons, ranged from approximately 0.09 ?g/g to approximately 0.9 ?g/g (wet weight). Larger tui chub in the lake, which are most likely older, had the highest mercury concentrations. Blood samples from 94 common loons collected at Walker Lake between 1998 and 2001 contained a mean mercury concentration of 2.96 ?g/g (standard deviation 1.72 ?g/g). These levels were substantially higher than those found in more than 1,600 common loons tested across North America. Among the 1,600 common loons, the greatest blood mercury concentration, 9.46 ?g/g, was from a loon at Walker Lake. According to risk assessments for northeastern North America, blood mercury concentrations exceeding 3.0 ?g/g cause behavioral, reproductive, and physiological effects. At least 52 percent of the loons at Walker Lake are at risk for adverse effects from mercury on the basis of their blood-mercury concentrations. The larger loons staging in the spring are the most at risk group. The elevated mercury levels found in tui chub and common loons indicate that there is a potential threat to the well being and reproduction of fish and wildlife that use Walker Lake. Wildlife that use Weber Reservoir may also be at risk because it is the first reservoir downstream from mining activities in the Bodie and Aurora areas and mercury concentrations in sediment were elevated. Additional data on mercury concentrations in top level predators, such as piscivorous fish and birds, are needed to assess public health and other environmental risks.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1174257','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1174257"><span id="translatedtitle">Using a Regional Cluster of AmeriFlux Sites in Central <span class="hlt">California</span> to Advance Our Knowledge on Decadal-Scale <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span>-Atmosphere Carbon Dioxide Exchange</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Baldocchi, Dennis</p> <p>2015-03-24</p> <p>Continuous eddy convariance measurements of carbon dioxide, water vapor and heat were measured continuously between an oak savanna and an annual grassland in <span class="hlt">California</span> over a 4 year period. These systems serve as representative sites for biomes in Mediterranean climates and experience much seasonal and inter-annual variability in temperature and precipitation. These sites hence serve as natural laboratories for how whole <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> will respond to warmer and drier conditions. The savanna proved to be a moderate sink of carbon, taking up about 150 gC m-2y-1 compared to the annual grassland, which tended to be carbon neutral and often a source during drier years. But this carbon sink by the savanna came at a cost. This <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> used about 100 mm more water per year than the grassland. And because the savanna was darker and rougher its air temperature was about 0.5 C warmer. In addition to our flux measurements, we collected vast amounts of ancillary data to interpret the site and fluxes, making this site a key site for model validation and parameterization. Datasets consist of terrestrial and airborne lidar for determining canopy structure, ground penetrating radar data on root distribution, phenology cameras monitoring leaf area index and its seasonality, predawn water potential, soil moisture, stem diameter and physiological capacity of photosynthesis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://escholarship.org/uc/item/1jt8z9bb?query=shark+AND+species','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://escholarship.org/uc/item/1jt8z9bb?query=shark+AND+species"><span id="translatedtitle">Binational Studies Leading to an <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span>-based Management Strategy for Common Thresher Shark in the Southern <span class="hlt">California</span> Bight (SCB).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Graham, Jeffrey B.; Cartamil, Daniel P.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>which thresher sharks and other pelagic species are taken,shark and other fisheries within <span class="hlt">California</span> waters operate largely without information about the population status and fisheries exploitation of these same speciesshark movement patterns have shed light on the essential habitat used by the juvenile life-history stage of this species,</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr20131133','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr20131133"><span id="translatedtitle">Salton Sea <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> monitoring and assessment plan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Case(compiler), H. L., III; Boles, Jerry; Delgado, Arturo; Nguyen, Thang; Osugi, Doug; Barnum, Douglas A.; Decker, Drew; Steinberg, Steven; Steinberg, Sheila; Keene, Charles; White, Kristina; Lupo, Tom; Gen, Sheldon; Baerenklau, Ken A.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The Salton Sea, <span class="hlt">California’s</span> largest lake, provides essential habitat for several fish and wildlife species and is an important cultural and recreational resource. It has no outlet, and dissolved salts contained in the inflows concentrate in the Salton Sea through evaporation. The salinity of the Salton Sea, which is <span class="hlt">currently</span> nearly one and a half times the salinity of ocean water, has been increasing as a result of evaporative processes and low freshwater inputs. Further reductions in inflows from water conservation, recycling, and transfers will lower the level of the Salton Sea and accelerate the rate of salinity increases, reduce the suitability of fish and wildlife habitat, and affect air quality by exposing lakebed playa that could generate dust. Legislation enacted in 2003 to implement the Quantification Settlement Agreement (QSA) stated the Legislature’s intent for the State of <span class="hlt">California</span> to undertake the restoration of the Salton Sea <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>. As required by the legislation, the <span class="hlt">California</span> Resources Agency (now <span class="hlt">California</span> Natural Resources Agency) produced the Salton Sea <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Restoration Study and final Programmatic Environmental Impact Report (PEIR; <span class="hlt">California</span> Resources Agency, 2007) with the stated purpose to “develop a preferred alternative by exploring alternative ways to restore important ecological functions of the Salton Sea that have existed for about 100 years.” A decision regarding a preferred alternative <span class="hlt">currently</span> resides with the <span class="hlt">California</span> State Legislature (Legislature), which has yet to take action. As part of efforts to identify an <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> restoration program for the Salton Sea, and in anticipation of direction from the Legislature, the <span class="hlt">California</span> Department of Water Resources (DWR), <span class="hlt">California</span> Department of Fish and Wildlife (CDFW), U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) established a team to develop a monitoring and assessment plan (MAP). This plan is the product of that effort. The goal of the MAP is to provide a guide for data collection, analysis, management, and reporting to inform management actions for the Salton Sea <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>. Monitoring activities are directed at species and habitats that could be affected by or drive future restoration activities. The MAP is not intended to be a prescriptive document. Rather, it is envisioned to be a flexible, program-level guide that articulates high-level goals and objectives, and establishes broad sideboards within which future project-level investigations and studies will be evaluated and authorized. As such, the MAP, by design, does not, for example, include detailed protocols describing how investigations will be implemented. It is anticipated that detailed study proposals will be prepared as part of an implementation plan that will include such things as specific sampling objectives, sampling schemes, and statistical and spatial limits.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/1988/4027/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/wri/1988/4027/report.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Tides, and tidal and residual <span class="hlt">currents</span> in Suisun and San Pablo bays, <span class="hlt">California</span>; results of measurements, 1986</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Gartner, J.W.; Yost, B.T.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Current</span> meter data collected at 11 stations and water level data collected at one station in Suisun and San Pablo Bays, <span class="hlt">California</span>, in 1986 are compiled in this report. <span class="hlt">Current</span>-meter measurements include <span class="hlt">current</span> speed and direction, and water temperature and salinity (computed from temperature and conductivity). For each of the 19 <span class="hlt">current</span>-meter records, data are presented in two forms. These are: (1) results of harmonic analysis; and (2) plots of tidal <span class="hlt">current</span> speed and direction versus time and plots of temperature and salinity versus time. Spatial distribution of the properties of tidal <span class="hlt">currents</span> are given in graphic form. In addition, Eulerian residual <span class="hlt">currents</span> have been compiled by using a vector-averaging technique. Water level data are presented in the form of a time-series plot and the results of harmonic analysis. (USGS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70020579','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70020579"><span id="translatedtitle">Changes in production and respiration during a spring phytoplankton bloom in San Francisco Bay, <span class="hlt">California</span>, USA: Implications for net <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> metabolism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Caffrey, J.M.; Cloern, J.E.; Grenz, C.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>We present results of an intensive sampling program designed to measure weekly changes in <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> respiration (oxygen consumption in the water column and sediments) around the 1996 spring bloom in South San Francisco Bay, <span class="hlt">California</span>, USA. Measurements were made at a shallow site (2 m, where mean photic depth was 60% of the water column height) and a deep site (15 m, mean photic depth was only 20% of the water column). We also estimated phytoplankton primary production weekly at both sites to develop estimates of net oxygen flux as the sum of pelagic production (PP), pelagic respiration (PR) and benthic respiration (BR). Over the 14 wk period from February 5 to May 14, PP ranged from 2 to 210, PR from 9 to 289, and BR from 0.1 to 48 mmol O2 m-2 d-1, illustrating large variability of estuarine oxygen fluxes at the weekly time scale. Pelagic production exceeded total respiration at the shallow site, but not at the deep site, demonstrating that the shallow domains are net autotrophic but the deep domains are net heterotrophic, even during the period of the spring bloom. If we take into account the potential primary production by benthic microalgae, the estuary as a whole is net autotrophic during spring, net heterotrophic during the nonbloom seasons, and has a balanced net metabolism over a full annual period. The seasonal shift from net autotrophy to heterotrophy during the transition from spring to summer was accompanied by a large shift from dominance by pelagic respiration to dominance by benthic respiration. This suggests that changes in net <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> metabolism can reflect changes in the pathways of energy flow in shallow coastal <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014DSRI...92...11F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014DSRI...92...11F"><span id="translatedtitle">Biogeography and phenology of satellite-measured phytoplankton seasonality in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">current</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Foukal, Nicholas P.; Thomas, Andrew C.</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Thirteen years (1998-2010) of satellite-measured chlorophyll a are used to establish spatial patterns in climatological phytoplankton biomass seasonality across the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System (CCS) and its interannual variability. Multivariate clustering based on the shape of the local climatological seasonal cycle divides the study area into four groups: two with spring-summer maxima representing the northern and southern coastal upwelling zones, one with a summer minimum offshore in mid-latitudes and a fourth with very weak seasonality in between. Multivariate clustering on the seasonal cycles from all 13 years produces the same four seasonal cycle types and provides a view of the interannual variability in seasonal biogeography. Over the study period these seasonal cycles generally appear in similar locations as the climatological clusters. However, considerable interannual variability in the geography of the seasonal cycles is evident across the CCS, the most spatially extensive of which are associated with the 1997-1999 El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) signal and the 2005 delayed spring transition off the Oregon and northern and central <span class="hlt">California</span> coasts. We quantify linear trends over the study period in the seasonal timing of the two seasonal cycles that represent the biologically productive coastal upwelling zones using four different metrics of phenology. In the northern upwelling region, the date of the spring maximum is delaying (1.34 days yr-1) and the central tendency of the summer elevated chlorophyll period is advancing (0.63 days yr-1). In the southern coastal upwelling region, both the initiation and cessation of the spring maximum are delaying (1.78 days yr-1 and 2.44 days yr-1, respectively) and the peak is increasing in duration over the study period. Connections between observed interannual shifts in phytoplankton seasonality and physical forcing, expressed as either basin-scale climate signals or local forcing, show phytoplankton seasonality in the CCS to be influenced by changes in the seasonality of the wind mixing power offshore, coastal upwelling in the near-shore regions and basin-scale signals such as ENSO across the study area.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGD....1214833Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGD....1214833Y"><span id="translatedtitle">How past fire disturbances have contributed to the <span class="hlt">current</span> carbon balance of boreal <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yue, C.; Ciais, P.; Zhu, D.; Wang, T.; Peng, S. S.; Piao, S. L.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Boreal fires have immediate effects on regional carbon budgets by emitting CO2 into the atmosphere at the time of burning, but also have legacy effects by initiating a long-term carbon sink during post-fire vegetation recovery. Quantifying these different effects on the <span class="hlt">current</span>-day pan-boreal (44-84° N) carbon balance and relative contributions of legacy sinks by past fires is important for understanding and predicting the carbon dynamics in this region. Here we used the global dynamic vegetation model ORCHIDEE-SPITFIRE to attribute the contributions by fires in different decades of 1850-2009 to the carbon balance of 2000-2009, taking into account the atmospheric CO2 change and climate change since 1850. The fire module of ORCHIDEE-SPITFIRE was turned off in each decade sequentially, and turned on before and after, to model the legacy carbon trajectory by fires in each past decade. We found that, unsurprisingly, fires that occured in 2000-2009 are a carbon source (-0.17 Pg C yr-1) for the 2000s-decade carbon balance, whereas fires in all decades before 2000 contribute carbon sinks with a collective contribution of 0.23 Pg C yr-1. This leaves a net fire sink effect of 0.06 Pg C yr-1, or 6.3 % of the simulated regional carbon sink (0.95 Pg C yr-1). Further, fires with an age of 10-40 years (i.e. those occurred during 1960-1999) contribute more than half of the total sink effect of fires. The small net sink effect of fires indicates that <span class="hlt">current</span>-day fire emissions are roughly in balance with legacy sinks. The future role of fires in the regional carbon balance remains uncertain and will depend on whether changes in fires and associated carbon emissions will exceed the enhanced sink effects of previous fires, both being strongly affected by global change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900042574&hterms=sea+level&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3D%2528sea%2Blevel%2529','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19900042574&hterms=sea+level&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3D%2528sea%2Blevel%2529"><span id="translatedtitle">Continuous assimilation of Geosat altimetric sea level observations into a numerical synoptic ocean model of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>White, Warren B.; Tai, Chang-Kou; Holland, William R.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The Geosat altimetric sea level observations for the period from January to December 1987 were continuously assimilated into a realistic wind-driven numerical synoptic ocean model of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> in order to evaluate the effectiveness of using a realistic synoptic ocean model for interpolating (dynamically) real altimetric sea level observations onto a regular grid. The accuracy of dynamical interpolation was tested by comparing the gridded sea level residuals to ones estimated from in situ observations (by expendable bathythermographs) collected in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> region during the same period. The comparison yielded nearly exact agreement at low frequency (i.e., semiannual cycle), but less agreement on month-to-month time scales of variability, possibly due to the unfiltered nature of the in situ estimates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.H23M..06V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.H23M..06V"><span id="translatedtitle">Water, Energy, and <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span>: A Case Study of <span class="hlt">California</span>'s Sierra Nevada to Assess Vulnerability to Climate Change and Opportunities for Adaptation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Viers, J. H.; Null, S.; Ligare, S. T.; Rheinheimer, D. E.; Williams, J. N.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>We report here on a major effort to define and quantify metrics of vulnerability to climate change for the west-slope of <span class="hlt">California’s</span> Sierra Nevada. We have defined the vulnerability of flowing surface waters used for human and ecological purposes as a function of exposure and sensitivity to anticipated hydrologic alteration mediated by regional climate warming and as measured by changes in the flow regime. This effort includes the development, parameterization, and calibration of the WEAP21 water management model to depict climate warming scenarios for fifteen major west-slope basins of the Sierra Nevada at the sub-watershed scale. The outcomes of this modeling effort include dimensions of water delivery, hydropower energy production, recreation, and aquatic <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> functioning. For example, our previously reported simulations indicated that, with uniform +6° C warming in surface air temperature, hydrologic alteration would be non-uniformly distributed across basins, with variance driven by latitude and basin hypsography. By incorporating a variable climatic time series, we were able to identify basins with substantial reductions in mean annual discharge, progressive negative shifts in annual hydrographic center of mass, and increased duration of low flow events. We found that basins with the greatest simulated change from baseline conditions were also the most variable across water years, presenting challenges to future water management schemes. Further, when simulated hydrologic alterations were studied for changes to hydropower energy production - assuming that operating rules remain stationary - we determined that, while wetter months generated on average more hydropower, annual discharge losses reduced overall generation capacity with dramatic decreases in dry months that are both hotter and experience greater energy demand. These simulated alterations to baseline hydrology with warming scenarios also indicated cascading impacts on other beneficial uses of water, such as substantial reductions in whitewater kayaking opportunities in unregulated rivers during summer months. With respect to ecohydrological conditions in the Sierra Nevada, stream water temperatures are perhaps the most important, as this water quality parameter not only helps govern <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> productivity, but can also represent sub-lethal and lethal conditions when biotic thresholds are surpassed. To better understand vulnerability of <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, we contrast unimpaired and regulated simulations of hydrology and concomitant water temperatures to isolate the effects of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> management, and evaluate departures from baseline conditions. The net result of modeled simulations, when viewed in the context of vulnerability, is a number of thematic metrics that can be evaluated within a spatiotemporal framework to assess opportunities for science-based adaptive resource management. We explore these opportunities for institutional adaptation by reviewing policy options that address inefficiencies and conflicts in water management with a specific focus on the relicensing of dams, environmental flow requirements, and management of the water, energy, and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> nexus.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010107999','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20010107999"><span id="translatedtitle">Bio-Optical Measurement and Modeling of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> and Polar Oceans</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mitchell, B. Greg; Fargion, Giulietta S. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The principal goals of our research are to validate standard or experimental products through detailed bio-optical and biogeochemical measurements, and to combine ocean optical observations with advanced radiative transfer modeling to contribute to satellite vicarious radiometric calibration and advanced algorithm development. To achieve our goals requires continued efforts to execute complex field programs globally, as well as development of advanced ocean optical measurement protocols. We completed a comprehensive set of ocean optical observations in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span>, Southern Ocean, Indian Ocean requiring a large commitment to instrument calibration, measurement protocols, data processing and data merger. We augmented separately funded projects of our own, as well as others, to acquire ill situ data sets we have collected on various global cruises supported by separate grants or contracts. In collaboration with major oceanographic ship-based observation programs funded by various agencies (CalCOFI, US JGOFS, NOAA AMLR, INDOEX and Japan/East Sea) our SIMBIOS effort has resulted in data from diverse bio-optical provinces. For these global deployments we generate a high-quality, methodologically consistent, data set encompassing a wide-range of oceanic conditions. Global data collected in recent years have been integrated with our on-going CalCOFI database and have been used to evaluate SeaWiFS algorithms and to carry out validation studies. The combined database we have assembled now comprises more than 700 stations and includes observations for the clearest oligotrophic waters, highly eutrophic blooms, red-tides and coastal case 2 conditions. The data has been used to validate water-leaving radiance estimated with SeaWiFS as well as bio-optical algorithms for chlorophyll pigments. The comprehensive data is utilized for development of experimental algorithms (e.g. high-low latitude pigment transition, phytoplankton absorption, and cDOM). During this period we completed 9 peer-reviewed publications in high quality journals, and presented aspects of our work at more than 10 scientific conferences.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020016073&hterms=bio&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dbio','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20020016073&hterms=bio&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Dbio"><span id="translatedtitle">Bio-Optical Measurement and Modeling of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> and Polar Oceans. Chapter 13</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mitchell, B. Greg</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>This Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) project contract supports in situ ocean optical observations in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span>, Southern Ocean, Indian Ocean as well as merger of other in situ data sets we have collected on various global cruises supported by separate grants or contracts. The principal goals of our research are to validate standard or experimental products through detailed bio-optical and biogeochemical measurements, and to combine ocean optical observations with advanced radiative transfer modeling to contribute to satellite vicarious radiometric calibration and advanced algorithm development. In collaboration with major oceanographic ship-based observation programs funded by various agencies (CalCOFI, US JGOFS, NOAA AMLR, INDOEX and Japan/East Sea) our SIMBIOS effort has resulted in data from diverse bio-optical provinces. For these global deployments we generate a high-quality, methodologically consistent, data set encompassing a wide-range of oceanic conditions. Global data collected in recent years have been integrated with our on-going CalCOFI database and have been used to evaluate Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) algorithms and to carry out validation studies. The combined database we have assembled now comprises more than 700 stations and includes observations for the clearest oligotrophic waters, highly eutrophic blooms, red-tides and coastal case two conditions. The data has been used to validate water-leaving radiance estimated with SeaWiFS as well as bio optical algorithms for chlorophyll pigments. The comprehensive data is utilized for development of experimental algorithms (e.g., high-low latitude pigment transition, phytoplankton absorption, and cDOM).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.B51A0190P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.B51A0190P"><span id="translatedtitle">Dissolved Organic Carbon and Nitrogen Leaching From Soil Formed in Grass, Oak and Pine <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> of <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pittiglio, S. L.; Zasoski, R. J.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>Dissolved organic matter (DOM) leaching from decomposing detritus accumulated above mineral soils is an important carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) flux that influences biogeochemical processes, C sequestration and the health of individual <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. This study compared the retention and transformation of DOM leached through soils formed under three contrasting vegetation types. In a laboratory study, columns of surface soil (10 cm diameter, 10 cm height) from either a grass, oak or pine site were leached with DOM derived from either grass, oak or pine litter. In the field, the laboratory study was replicated by burying columns of soil from the grass, oak and pine sites under the organic horizon at each sites. Leachates from in-situ field columns were collected biweekly beginning in January 2005. Samples were analyzed for volume, pH, total N, NO3-, NH4+, DON and DOC. In the laboratory leaching studies soils retained DOC derived from its native <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> to a greater extent. These results suggest that the microbial community from each <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> is adapted to consume the native DOC. No clear trends were found with DOC in the field study. Leachates from the field columns did show significantly lower levels of DON from pine soil columns at all sampling dates and sites. Similar results were found in the laboratory study with pine soil decreasing initial total N inputs from 32.9 to 3.6 mg kg-1. While all three sites contain kaolinite, vermiculite and chlorite, soil from the pine site also has high levels of iron oxides and gibbsite. The greater iron content likely contributes to higher DON retention since these minerals are know to have high affinities for the retention of DOM. The results from the field and laboratory experiments show that both soil minerals and the soil microbial communities play an important role in DOM retention in the subsoil.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PrOce..83..228A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PrOce..83..228A"><span id="translatedtitle">Species-specific patterns of diel migration into the Oxygen Minimum Zone by euphausiids in the Humboldt <span class="hlt">Current</span> <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Antezana, Tarsicio</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>A series of stratified bongo net samples taken over a 2 day period at ca. 18°S, about 20 nm off the coast of Peru, South America, suggest species-specific patterns of diel vertical migration into the Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) of the Humboldt <span class="hlt">Current</span> <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> (HCE). The OMZ was the most dramatic feature of the water column and seemed to determine the extent of migration: Stylocheiron affine migrated only to the shallow oxycline; whereas Euphausia mucronata, Euphausia eximia, Euphausia distinguenda and Euphausia tenera migrated to the core of the OMZ; and Nematoscelis gracilis to beneath the core of the OMZ. Some differences were also found in the timing and duration of the ascent and descent, and residence times in shallow and deep layers. E. mucronata, N. gracilis and E. distinguenda displayed a normal descent during sunrise, and ascent during sunset. E. eximia and E. tenera also descended during sunrise but seemed to begin their ascent earlier in the afternoon and consequently shortened their deep residence times. S. affine showed the most extended residence times at the shallow layer and the shortest vertical displacement. Day and night vertical stratification and differences in the timing of migration into and out of the OMZ of the HCE suggest a community structure based on habitat partitioning whereby species avoided co-occurrence in time and space. Species-specific patterns of vertical stratification and migratory chronology are examined with regard to body and gill sizes, feeding adaptations of euphausiids, and potential food resources at the OMZ.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001PrOce..49..309S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001PrOce..49..309S"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate change, reproductive performance and diet composition of marine birds in the southern <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> system, 1969 1997</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sydeman, William J.; Hester, Michelle M.; Thayer, Julie A.; Gress, Franklin; Martin, Paige; Buffa, Joelle</p> <p></p> <p>We studied the effects of low-frequency climate change on the reproductive performance of 11 species of marine bird in the southern <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> system, 1969-1997. Reproductive performance of Brown Pelican ( Pelecanus occidentalis) and Double-crested Cormorant ( Phalacrocrax auritus) in southern <span class="hlt">California</span> demonstrated an increase in the 1970s and early 1980s, attributable to recovery from organochlorine contamination (primarily DDE). Brandt's Cormorant ( Phalacrocorax penicillatus) in central <span class="hlt">California</span> was the only species to demonstrate a secular increase in performance through time, a pattern that remains unexplained. Ashy Storm-petrel ( Oceanodroma homochroa) and Pelagic Cormorant ( Phalacrocorax pelagicus) demonstrated curvilinear patterns of change, with decreasing reproductive performance in the past decade. All other species including Western Gull ( Larus occidentalis), Pigeon Guillemot ( Cepphus columba), Xantus's Murrelet ( Synthiloboramphus hypoleucus), Common Murre ( Uria aalge), Cassin's Auklet ( Ptychoramphus aleuticus) and Rhinoceros Auklet ( Cerorhinca monocerata) showed diminishing reproductive performance through time. Patterns of change for the murre and auklets were not significant, presumably because of a lack of reproductive variation for these species, which display a conservative breeding effort (i.e. single-egg clutches). Changes in the birds' abilities to provision young and maintain chick survival during May-July each year appeared most closely related to overall changes in reproductive performance. Dietary change indicated a decline in use of juvenile rockfish ( Sebastes spp.) by marine birds in central <span class="hlt">California</span>. There was also significant interannual variability in consumption of juvenile rockfish and the euphausiid Thysanoessa spinifera. Patterns of change in marine bird reproductive performance were generally concordant between southern and central <span class="hlt">California</span> after considering the period of recovery for Brown Pelican and Double-crested Cormorant. The decline in reproductive performance and changes in diet composition do not appear directly related to the polarity reversal of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation in 1976/1977. Instead, reproductive performance and dietary characteristics indicate substantial change in the late 1980s, suggesting another regime-shift at that time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PrOce..83..369L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009PrOce..83..369L"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of a multiyear event of low salinity on the zooplankton from Mexican eco-regions of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lavaniegos, Bertha E.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Data are presented from the southern part of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System (CCS) for the period 1997-2007, derived from the IMECOCAL monitoring program. Apart from El Niño 1997 to 1998, and La Niña 1998-1999 the strongest perturbation occurred in 2002 due to an intrusion of subarctic water affecting all the CCS. The response of zooplankton biomass to the strong cooling and freshening of the upper layer was an immediate drop followed by a progressive recovery between 2003 and 2007. Though the low salinity influence ended in 2006, the increased zooplankton trend continued, reinforced by increased upwelling activity beginning 2005 off north Baja <span class="hlt">California</span> region (30-32°N) and beginning 2006 off central Baja <span class="hlt">California</span> (24-30°N). Multiple regression analysis was done between regional variables and Upwelling Index (UI) and two basin-scale proxies: the North Pacific Gyre Oscillation (NPGO), and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). The significant influence of the NPGO on surface salinity, salinity stratification, zooplankton volume and secondary consumers (zooplankton carnivores) suggests a basin scale control on these variables more than local mechanisms. The signature of the NPGO was also evident in the base of the trophic web, but more related to the group of crustacean herbivores in the north eco-region, and the tunicates in central Baja <span class="hlt">California</span>. In this last region, the effect from NPGO on the zooplankton volume and tunicates was antagonist with UI indicative of similar importance of basin and local processes. However, when the time interval is limited to the post-subarctic intrusion (2003-2007) the significance of multiple regression models and physical variables was lost. Therefore, though data and bio-physical coupling analysis off Baja <span class="hlt">California</span> suggest a better relation with NPGO compared to PDO, it is still not sufficient to explain the magnitude of the perturbation observed in 2002.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr20141041','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr20141041"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurements of slope <span class="hlt">currents</span> and internal tides on the Continental Shelf and slope off Newport Beach, <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Rosenberger, Kurt J.; Noble, Marlene A.; Norris, Benjamin</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>An array of seven moorings housing <span class="hlt">current</span> meters and oceanographic sensors was deployed for 6 months at 5 sites on the Continental Shelf and slope off Newport Beach, <span class="hlt">California</span>, from July 2011 to January 2012. Full water-column profiles of <span class="hlt">currents</span> were acquired at all five sites, and a profile of water-column temperature was also acquired at two of the five sites for the duration of the deployment. In conjunction with this deployment, the Orange County Sanitation District deployed four bottom platforms with <span class="hlt">current</span> meters on the San Pedro Shelf, and these meters provided water-column profiles of <span class="hlt">currents</span>. The data from this program will provide the basis for an investigation of the interaction between the deep water flow over the slope and the internal tide on the Continental Shelf.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013BGeo...10.7395S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013BGeo...10.7395S"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurements of nitrite production in and around the primary nitrite maximum in the central <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Santoro, A. E.; Sakamoto, C. M.; Smith, J. M.; Plant, J. N.; Gehman, A. L.; Worden, A. Z.; Johnson, K. S.; Francis, C. A.; Casciotti, K. L.</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>Nitrite (NO2-) is a substrate for both oxidative and reductive microbial metabolism. NO2- accumulates at the base of the euphotic zone in oxygenated, stratified open-ocean water columns, forming a feature known as the primary nitrite maximum (PNM). Potential pathways of NO2- production include the oxidation of ammonia (NH3) by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea as well as assimilatory nitrate (NO3-) reduction by phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria. Measurements of NH3 oxidation and NO3- reduction to NO2- were conducted at two stations in the central <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> in the eastern North Pacific to determine the relative contributions of these processes to NO2- production in the PNM. Sensitive (< 10 nmol L-1), precise measurements of [NH4+] and [NO2-] indicated a persistent NH4+ maximum overlying the PNM at every station, with concentrations as high as 1.5 ?mol L-1. Within and just below the PNM, NH3 oxidation was the dominant NO2- producing process, with rates of NH3 oxidation to NO2- of up to 31 nmol L-1 d-1, coinciding with high abundances of ammonia-oxidizing archaea. Though little NO2- production from NO3- was detected, potentially nitrate-reducing phytoplankton (photosynthetic picoeukaryotes, Synechococcus, and Prochlorococcus) were present at the depth of the PNM. Rates of NO2- production from NO3- were highest within the upper mixed layer (4.6 nmol L-1 d-1) but were either below detection limits or 10 times lower than NH3 oxidation rates around the PNM. One-dimensional modeling of water column NO2- production agreed with production determined from 15N bottle incubations within the PNM, but a modeled net biological sink for NO2- just below the PNM was not captured in the incubations. Residence time estimates of NO2- within the PNM ranged from 18 to 470 days at the mesotrophic station and was 40 days at the oligotrophic station. Our results suggest the PNM is a dynamic, rather than relict, feature with a source term dominated by ammonia oxidation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70048398','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70048398"><span id="translatedtitle">Estimating <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> carbon stocks at Redwood National and State Parks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>van Mantgem, Phillip J.; Madej, Mary Ann; Seney, Joseph; Deshais, Janelle</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Accounting for <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> carbon is increasingly important for park managers. In this case study we present our efforts to estimate carbon stocks and the effects of management on carbon stocks for Redwood National and State Parks in northern <span class="hlt">California</span>. Using <span class="hlt">currently</span> available information, we estimate that on average these parks’ soils contain approximately 89 tons of carbon per acre (200 Mg C per ha), while vegetation contains about 130 tons C per acre (300 Mg C per ha). estoration activities at the parks (logging-road removal, second-growth forest management) were shown to initially reduce <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> carbon, but may provide for enhanced <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> carbon storage over the long term. We highlight <span class="hlt">currently</span> available tools that could be used to estimate <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> carbon at other units of the National Park System.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1170076','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1170076"><span id="translatedtitle">Metagenomic analysis of microbial consortium from natural crude oil that seeps into the marine <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> offshore Southern <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hawley, Erik R.; Piao, Hailan; Scott, Nicole M.; Malfatti, Stephanie; Pagani, Ioanna; Huntemann, Marcel; Chen, Amy; del Rio, Tijana G.; Foster, Brian; Copeland, A.; Jansson, Janet K.; Pati, Amrita; Gilbert, Jack A.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Lorenson, Thomas D.; Hess, Matthias</p> <p>2014-01-02</p> <p>Crude oils can be major contaminants of the marine <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> and microorganisms play a significant role in the degradation of the main constituents of crude oil. To increase our understanding of the microbial hydrocarbon degradation process in the marine <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>, we collected crude oil from an active seep area located in the Santa Barbara Channel (SBC) and generated a total of about 52 Gb of raw metagenomic sequence data. The assembled data comprised ~500 Mb, representing ~1.1 million genes derived primarily from chemolithoautotrophic bacteria. Members of Oceanospirillales, a bacterial order belonging to the Deltaproteobacteria, recruited less than 2% of the assembled genes within the SBC metagenome. In contrast, the microbial community associated with the oil plume that developed in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout in 2010, was dominated by Oceanospirillales, which comprised more than 60% of the metagenomic data generated from the DWH oil plume. This suggests that Oceanospirillales might play a less significant role in the microbially mediated hydrocarbon conversion within the SBC seep oil compared to the DWH plume oil. We hypothesize that this difference results from the SBC oil seep being mostly anaerobic, while the DWH oil plume is aerobic. Within the Archaea, the phylum Euryarchaeota, recruited more than 95% of the assembled archaeal sequences from the SBC oil seep metagenome, with more than 50% of the sequences assigned to members of the orders Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales. These orders contain organisms capable of anaerobic methanogenesis and methane oxidation (AOM) and we hypothesize that these orders and their metabolic capabilities may be fundamental to the ecology of the SBC oil seep.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25197496','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25197496"><span id="translatedtitle">Metagenomic analysis of microbial consortium from natural crude oil that seeps into the marine <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> offshore Southern <span class="hlt">California</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hawley, Erik R; Piao, Hailan; Scott, Nicole M; Malfatti, Stephanie; Pagani, Ioanna; Huntemann, Marcel; Chen, Amy; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Foster, Brian; Copeland, Alex; Jansson, Janet; Pati, Amrita; Tringe, Susannah; Gilbert, Jack A; Lorenson, Thomas D; Hess, Matthias</p> <p>2014-06-15</p> <p>Crude oils can be major contaminants of the marine <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> and microorganisms play a significant role in the degradation of its main constituents. To increase our understanding of the microbial hydrocarbon degradation process in the marine <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>, we collected crude oil from an active seep area located in the Santa Barbara Channel (SBC) and generated a total of about 52 Gb of raw metagenomic sequence data. The assembled data comprised ~500 Mb, representing ~1.1 million genes derived primarily from chemolithoautotrophic bacteria. Members of Oceanospirillales, a bacterial order belonging to the Deltaproteobacteria, recruited less than 2% of the assembled genes within the SBC metagenome. In contrast, the microbial community associated with the oil plume that developed in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout in 2010, was dominated by Oceanospirillales, which comprised more than 60% of the metagenomic data generated from the DWH oil plume. This suggests that Oceanospirillales might play a less significant role in the microbially mediated hydrocarbon conversion within the SBC seep oil compared to the DWH plume oil. We hypothesize that this difference results from the SBC oil seep being mostly anaerobic, while the DWH oil plume is aerobic. Within the Archaea, the phylum Euryarchaeota, recruited more than 95% of the assembled archaeal sequences from the SBC oil seep metagenome, with more than 50% of the sequences assigned to members of the orders Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales. These orders contain organisms capable of anaerobic methanogenesis and methane oxidation (AOM) and we hypothesize that these orders - and their metabolic capabilities - may be fundamental to the ecology of the SBC oil seep. PMID:25197496</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://damp.coas.oregonstate.edu/barth/pubs/barthGRL2003.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://damp.coas.oregonstate.edu/barth/pubs/barthGRL2003.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Anomalous Southward Advection During 2002 in the Northern <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span>: Evidence from Lagrangian Surface Drifters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Balasubramanian, Ravi</p> <p></p> <p>­25 days. Given a source of cold, Subarctic water to the north, this anomalous southward displacement for the <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> response, i.e., increased primary productivity, may be contrasted with interannual variability et al., 2003; Kosro, 2002]. In this sense, they average over the short-term influence of local wind</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950029611&hterms=pigment&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dpigment','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950029611&hterms=pigment&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dpigment"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of the seasonal and interannual variability of phytoplankton pigment concentrations in the Peru and <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Thomas, A. C.; Huang, F.; Strub, P. T.; James, C.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Monthly composite images from the global coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) data set are used to provide an initial illustration and comparison of seasonal and interannual variability of phytoplankton pigment concentration along the western coasts of South and North America in the Peru <span class="hlt">Current</span> system (PCS) and <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> system (CCS). The analysis utilizes the entire time series of available data (November 1978 to June 1986) to form a mean annual cycle and an index of interannual variability for a series of both latitudinal and cross-shelf regions within each <span class="hlt">current</span> system. Within 100 km of the coast, the strongest seasonal cycles in the CCS are in two regions, one between 34 deg and 45 deg N and the second between 24 deg and 29 deg N, each with maximum concentrations (greater than 3.0 mg m(exp-3)) in May-June. Weaker seasonal variability is present north of 45 deg N and in the Southern <span class="hlt">California</span> Bight region (32 deg N). Within the PCS, in the same 100-km-wide coastal region, highest (greater than 45 deg S) and lowest (less than 20 deg S) latitude regions have a similar seasonal cycle with maximum concentrations (greater than 1.5 mg m(exp -3)) during the austral spring, summer, and fall, matching that evident throughout the CCS. Between these regions, off northern and central Chile, the seasonal maximum occurs during July-August (austral winter), contrary to the influence of upwelling favorable winds. Within the CCS, the dominant feature of interannual variability in the 8-year time series is a strong negative concentration anomaly in 1983, an El Nino year. The relative value of this negative anomaly is strongest off central <span class="hlt">California</span> and is followed by an even stronger negative anomaly is strongest off central <span class="hlt">California</span> and is followed by an even stronger negative anomaly in 1984 off Baja, <span class="hlt">California</span>. In the PCS, strong negative anomalies during the 1982-1983 El Nino period are evident only off the Peruvian coast and are evident there only in the regions 100 km or more from the coast. Although negative anomalies associated with the El Nino were not present at higher latitudes (more than approximately 20 deg S) in the PCS, the extremely sparse sampling weakens our confidence in the results of the interannual analysis in this region. An upper estimate of the systematic winter bias remaining in the global CZCS data after reprocessing with the multiple scattering algorithm is given in the appendix.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED496306.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED496306.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Keeping <span class="hlt">California</span> School Districts Fiscally Healthy: <span class="hlt">Current</span> Practices and Ongoing Challenges. Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>EdSource, 2007</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>When people talk about school district efficiency, their first thoughts are about financial management. Are districts balancing their budgets, paying bills on time, and maximizing their revenues? This report takes a closer look at financial management in <span class="hlt">California</span> school districts. The report is a summary of the 2006 research study, "School…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=259502','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=259502"><span id="translatedtitle">PACIFIC AREA-WIDE PROGRAM: <span class="hlt">CURRENT</span> STATUS OF THE <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> PERENNIAL NURSERY SECTOR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The perennial crop nursery industry supplies over 60% of the total fruit, nut, and rose plants sold in the USA. Although methyl bromide (MB) use has decreased in many <span class="hlt">California</span> industries due to the phaseout, perennial nursery producers largely continue to use MB under Critical Use Exemptions (CUE)...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3701056','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3701056"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Current</span> Status and Future Prospects for the Assessment of Marine and Coastal <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Services: A Systematic Review</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Liquete, Camino; Piroddi, Chiara; Drakou, Evangelia G.; Gurney, Leigh; Katsanevakis, Stelios; Charef, Aymen; Egoh, Benis</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background Research on <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services has grown exponentially during the last decade. Most of the studies have focused on assessing and mapping terrestrial <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services highlighting a knowledge gap on marine and coastal <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services (MCES) and an urgent need to assess them. Methodology/Principal Findings We reviewed and summarized existing scientific literature related to MCES with the aim of extracting and classifying indicators used to assess and map them. We found 145 papers that specifically assessed marine and coastal <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services from which we extracted 476 indicators. Food provision, in particular fisheries, was the most extensively analyzed MCES while water purification and coastal protection were the most frequently studied regulating and maintenance services. Also recreation and tourism under the cultural services was relatively well assessed. We highlight knowledge gaps regarding the availability of indicators that measure the capacity, flow or benefit derived from each <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> service. The majority of the case studies was found in mangroves and coastal wetlands and was mainly concentrated in Europe and North America. Our systematic review highlighted the need of an improved <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> service classification for marine and coastal systems, which is herein proposed with definitions and links to previous classifications. Conclusions/Significance This review summarizes the state of available information related to <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services associated with marine and coastal <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. The cataloging of MCES indicators and the integrated classification of MCES provided in this paper establish a background that can facilitate the planning and integration of future assessments. The final goal is to establish a consistent structure and populate it with information able to support the implementation of biodiversity conservation policies. PMID:23844080</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AdG.....6...63T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AdG.....6...63T"><span id="translatedtitle">Changes in the diet of hake associated with El Niño 1997-1998 in the northern Humboldt <span class="hlt">Current</span> <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tam, J.; Purca, S.; Duarte, L. O.; Blaskovic, V.; Espinoza, P.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Hake (Merluccius gayi peruanus) predation plays an important role in the dynamics of the Humboldt <span class="hlt">Current</span> <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> (HCE). Changes in the hake trophic habits associated with physical variability are expected to impact prey populations and to propagate through the food web. Time series (1995-2002) of (a) stomach contents of hake, (b) biomass estimations of fish prey species of hake, and (c) depth of the 15°C isotherm was analysed with the aim of exploring the impacts of El Niño 1997-1998 on the diet of hake. Biomass estimations of fish prey species were used to indicate resource availability, and depth of the 15°C isotherm to represent variability associated with the ENSO cycle in the physical environment of hake. The richness of prey species increased during the months when 15°C isotherm reached its deepest position, supporting the hypothesis of increased biodiversity (tropicalization) of the HCE during El Niño events. An increased variability in stomach fullness of hake was detected after 1999 which could indicate high heterogeneity in the food supply as a consequence of impacts of the warm event in the biotic community structure of the HCE, a physiological impairment of hake or an effect of the abrupt reduction in the mean total length of hake, postulated as a compensatory response to fishery pressure. Hake can be characterized as an opportunist predator according to the observed changes in its diet during 1995-2002. Overall, the diet of hake in the northern HCE exhibited transitory (e.g. increased richness of prey species in the stomach contents) and medium term (e.g. increased variability in feeding activity) responses associated with El Niño 1997-1998, which should be incorporated both in population dynamics and food web analyses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1715606M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1715606M"><span id="translatedtitle">Is the <span class="hlt">current</span> increase in fire recurrence causing a shift in the soil fertility of Iberian <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mayor, Ángeles G.; Keizer, Jan Jacob; González-Pelayo, Óscar; Valdecantos, Alejandro; Vallejo, Ramón; de Ruiter, Peter</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Since the mid of the last century fire recurrence has increased in the Iberian peninsula and the overall Mediterranean basin due to changes in land use and climate. The warmer and drier climate projected for this region will further increase the risk of wildfire occurrence and of increasing fire recurrence. Although the impact of wildfires on soil nutrient content in this region has been extensively studied, still few works have assessed this impact on the basis of fire recurrence. This study assesses the changes in soil nutrient status of two Iberian <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, Várzea (N Portugal) and Valencia (E Spain), affected by different levels of fire recurrence and where short inter-fire periods have promoted a transition from pine woodlands to shrublands. Trends towards soil fertility loss with increasing fire recurrence (one, two, three or four fires in 37 years) were observed in the two study sites. The sites differed when soil fertility of areas burned several times were compared with long unburned references. In Valencia, overall soil fertility of the surface mineral soil was lower in areas burned two or three times than in long unburned areas, twenty and eight years after the last fire, respectively. On the contrary, total organic matter in Várzea was higher in burned than in unburned soils one year after the occurrence of one or four fires. However, a negative impact of fire was observed for integrated indicators of soil quality, such as hot-water carbon and potentially mineralizable nitrogen, suggesting that fire also had an adverse effect on substrate quality in Várzea. Our results suggest that the <span class="hlt">current</span> trend of increasing fire recurrence in Southern Europe may result in losses or alterations of soil organic matter, particularly when fire promotes a transition from pine woodland to shrubland.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2009/5090/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2009/5090/"><span id="translatedtitle">Direct-<span class="hlt">Current</span> Resistivity Profiling at the Pecos River <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Project Study Site near Mentone, Texas, 2006</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Teeple, Andrew P.; McDonald, Alyson K.; Payne, Jason D.; Kress, Wade H.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Texas A&M University AgriLife, did a surface geophysical investigation at the Pecos River <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Project study site near Mentone in West Texas intended to determine shallow (to about 14 meters below the water [river] surface) subsurface composition (lithology) in and near treated (eradicated of all saltcedar) and control (untreated) riparian zone sites during June-August 2006. Land-based direct-<span class="hlt">current</span> resistivity profiling was applied in a 240-meter section of the riverbank at the control site, and waterborne direct-<span class="hlt">current</span> continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) was applied along a 2.279-kilometer reach of the river adjacent to both sites to collect shallow subsurface resistivity data. Inverse modeling was used to obtain a nonunique estimate of the true subsurface resistivity from apparent resistivity calculated from the field measurements. The land-based survey showed that the sub-surface at the control site generally is of relatively low resis-tivity down to about 4 meters below the water surface. Most of the section from about 4 to 10 meters below the water surface is of relatively high resistivity. The waterborne CRP surveys convey essentially the same electrical representation of the lithology at the control site to 10 meters below the water surface; but the CRP surveys show considerably lower resistivity than the land-based survey in the subsection from about 4 to 10 meters below the water surface. The CRP surveys along the 2.279-kilometer reach of the river adjacent to both the treated and control sites show the same relatively low resistivity zone from the riverbed to about 4 meters below the water surface evident at the control site. A slightly higher resistivity zone is observed from about 4 to 14 meters below the water surface along the upstream approximately one-half of the profile than along the downstream one-half. The variations in resistivity could not be matched to variations in lithology because sufficient rock samples were not available.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eil.stanford.edu/publications/julie_ekstrom/EkstromDataset.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://eil.stanford.edu/publications/julie_ekstrom/EkstromDataset.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Ekstrom, Draft 11/14/08 <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> Large Marine <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span>: Publicly Available Dataset of State and</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Stanford University</p> <p></p> <p>Dataset of State and Federal Laws and Regulations Julia A. Ekstrom Affiliation (at time work was performed ecological datasets, development of analogous techniques for analysis of management systems necessitates a dataset to represent how marine-related uses, activities, and resources are managed across a full suite</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70022617','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70022617"><span id="translatedtitle">Subtidal <span class="hlt">currents</span> over the central <span class="hlt">California</span> slope: Evidence for offshore veering of the undercurrent and for direct, wind-driven slope <span class="hlt">currents</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Noble, M.A.; Ramp, S.R.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>In February 1991, an array of six <span class="hlt">current</span>-meter moorings was deployed for one year across the central <span class="hlt">California</span> outer shelf and slope. The main line of the array extended 30 km offshore of the shelf break, out to water depths of 1400 m. A more sparsely-instrumented line, displaced 30 km to the northwest, extended 14 km offshore. Though shorter, the northern line spanned similar water depths because the gradient of the topography steepened in the northern region. A poleward flow pattern, typical of the <span class="hlt">California</span> undercurrent, was seen across both lines in the array over most of the year. The poleward flow was surface intensified. In general, the portion of the undercurrent that crossed the southern line had larger amplitudes and penetrated more deeply into the water column than the portion that crossed the northern line. Transport over the year ranged from 0 to 2.5 Sverdrups (Sv) poleward across the southern line; 0 to 1 Sv poleward across the northern line. We suggest the difference in transport was caused by topographic constraints, which tended to force the poleward flow offshore of the northern measurement sites. The slope of the topography steepened too abruptly to allow the poleward flow to follow isobaths when <span class="hlt">currents</span> were strong. When <span class="hlt">current</span> velocities lessened, a more coherent flow pattern was seen across both lines in the array. In general, the poleward flow patterns in the undercurrent were not affected by local winds or by the local alongshore pressure gradient. Nor was a strong seasonal pattern evident. Rather unexpectedly, a small but statistically significant fraction of the <span class="hlt">current</span> variance over the mid- and outer slope was driven by the surface wind stress. An alongshelf wind stress caused <span class="hlt">currents</span> to flow along the slope, parallel to the wind field, down to depths of 400 m below the surface and out to distances of 2 Rossby radii past the shelf break. The transfer functions were weak, 3-4 cm/s per dyn cm-2, but comparable to wind-driven <span class="hlt">current</span> amplitudes of 4-6 cm/s per unit wind stress over the middle shelf. Equatorward, alongshelf winds also caused water from 200-300 m over the slope to upwell onto the shelf as the surface water moved offshore.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880067901&hterms=pigment&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dpigment','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880067901&hterms=pigment&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dpigment"><span id="translatedtitle">Variability of pigment biomass in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> system as determined by satellite imagery. I - Spatial variability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Smith, Raymond C.; Zhang, Xueyun; Michaelsen, Joel</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Spatial variability of chlorophyll in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> system was analyzed using Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) imagery. A total of 48 images were analyzed to produce seasonal averages and variances, gradients, and power spectra. Roughly one third to one half of the variance in pigment biomass can be explained by consistent, large-scale gradients. In general, biomass is higher in the north and in nearshore areas. Nearshore areas also have proportionally more small-scale variability than the areas offshore. Slopes of the power spectra for nearshore areas are about -2.2 (for spatial scales of 10-100 km), while slopes for offshore areas are about -3. In addition, the power spectra show evidence of a change in slope at about 10 km, with slopes of about -1 for shorter-length scales. This may indicate that biological processes dominate the smaller scales, while mesoscale eddies and geostrophic <span class="hlt">currents</span> dominate the larger scales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A41E0111T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A41E0111T"><span id="translatedtitle">Fog as an <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> service: Quantifying fog-mediated reductions in maximum temperature across coastal to inland transects in northern <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Torregrosa, A.; Flint, L. E.; Flint, A. L.; Combs, C.; Peters, J.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Several studies have documented the human benefits of temperature cooling derived from coastal fog such as the reduction in the number of hospital visits/emergency response requests from heat stress-vulnerable population sectors or decreased energy consumption during periods when summer maximum temperatures are lower than normal. In this study we quantify the hourly, daily, monthly and seasonal thermal effect of fog and low clouds (FLC) hours on maximum summer temperatures across a northern <span class="hlt">California</span> landscape. The FLC data summaries are calculated from the CIRA (Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere) 10 year archive that were derived from hourly night and day images using channels 1 (Visible), 2 (3.6 ?m) and 4 (10.7 ?m) NOAA GOES (Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite). The FLC summaries were analyzed with two sets of site based data, meteorological (met) station-based measurements and downscaled interpolated PRISM data for selected point locations spanning a range of coastal to inland geographic conditions and met station locations. In addition to finding a 0.4 degree C per hour of FLC effect, our results suggest variability related to site specific thermal response. For example, sites closest to the coast have less thermal variability between low cloud and sunny days than sites further from the coast suggesting a much stronger influence of ocean temperature than of FLC thermal dynamics. The thermal relief provided by summertime FLC is equivalent in magnitude to the temperature increase projected by the driest and hottest of regional downscaled climate models using the A2 ('worst') IPCC scenario. Extrapolating these thermal calculations can facilitate future quantifications of the <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> service provided by summertime low clouds and fog.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880067902&hterms=pigment&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dpigment','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880067902&hterms=pigment&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dpigment"><span id="translatedtitle">Variability of pigment biomass in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> system as determined by satellite imagery. II - Temporal variability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Michaelsen, Joel; Zhang, Xueyun; Smith, Raymond C.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Characteristics of temporal variability in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> system are analyzed using a 30-month time series of CZCS imagery. About 20-25 percent of the variance is produced by a periodic annual cycle with peak values in winter. Analysis of ship-based chlorophyll measurements indicates that the winter peak is only characteristic of the upper portion of the euphotic zone and that total water column chlorophyll peaks during the spring upwelling season. Satellite studies of intraannual variability are modulated by strong 5- to 6-day oscillation in the availability of usable imagery, resulting from a combination of satellite orbital dynamics, which produces images of the study area roughly 4 out of every 6 days, and an oscillation in cloud cover, which controls the availability of clear imagery. The cloud cover oscillation, which is also present in coastal winds, undoubtedly affects the ocean surface and biases the data obtained by satellites. Analysis of data using a 5-day time step indicates that the predominant mode of nonseasonal variability is characterized by in-phase fluctuations throughout the southern and central <span class="hlt">California</span> coastal region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMS...146...50E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMS...146...50E"><span id="translatedtitle">Changes in forage fish community indicated by the diet of the Brandt's cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatus) in the central <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Elliott, Meredith L.; Bradley, Russell W.; Robinette, Dan P.; Jahncke, Jaime</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>The population, productivity and diet of two Brandt's cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatus) colonies located in the central <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> were compared. The offshore colony on Southeast Farallon Island has experienced a declining population over time and anomalously low productivity in recent years. The nearshore colony near Point Arguello has been increasing and its productivity has remained stable. The diets of cormorants at the two colonies elucidated by analysis of regurgitated pellets, while different, have shown similar decreases in the consumption of northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax) since 2008, followed by increased consumption of rockfish (Sebastes spp.) and flatfish (order Pleuronectiformes). By using the diet results from another seabird nesting in central <span class="hlt">California</span>, the rhinoceros auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata), and one from which whole fish can be obtained, we found that the rockfish species assemblage has changed with offshore rockfish species decreasing while nearshore ones have increased. This change in the rockfish species has negatively impacted Brandt's cormorants at the offshore colony by forcing them to make longer foraging trips to meet energy needs of themselves and their chicks; this has led to low breeding success and a declining population at this site. On the other hand, the nearshore colony has abundant nearby food resources, and it has prospered. These results underscore the value of using seabird data from multiple colonies to better understand changes occurring in the marine environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPA21A..02V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPA21A..02V"><span id="translatedtitle">Is it restoration or reconciliation? <span class="hlt">California</span>'s experience restoring the Sacramento - San Joaquin River Delta provides lessons learned and pathways forward to sustain critical <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> functions and services in a highly managed riverine delta.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Viers, J. H.; Kelsey, R.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Reconciling the needs of nature and people in <span class="hlt">California</span>'s Sacramento - San Joaquin River Delta represents one of the most critical <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> management imperatives in western North America. Over 150 years the Delta has been managed for near-term human benefits and in the process 95% of riverine and deltaic wetlands have been lost throughout the region. Despite extensive land conversion and alteration of hydrological and physical processes, the Delta remains important habitat for migratory birds and is home to over 60% of <span class="hlt">California</span>'s native fish species. It is also the waterwheel for the state's vast water distribution network and is maintained by a system of constructed levees that are at risk from catastrophic failure due to sea level rise, floods, and/or seismic activity. Such a collapse would have dire consequences for > 25M humans and world's 10th largest economy that depend on its freshwater. Thus, the ultimate cost of this <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> alteration and simplification is a riverscape that is no longer reliable for nature or people. For 30 years, attempts to 'restore' Delta <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> and improve reliability have met with mixed results. For example, reconnection of floodplains to floodwaters has resulted in improved ecological health for native fishes and recharge to localized aquifers. Uncoordinated releases of discharges below dams, however, have resulted in diminished water quality and populations of indicator species. Attempts to create wildlife friendly farms have been countered by an increase in perennial agriculture and commensurate increases in irrigation water demand. From these lessons learned, we demonstrate three key components of a reconciled Delta that will be necessary in the future: 1) full restoration of critical habitats, reconnecting land and water to rebuild <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> function; 2) landscape redesign, incorporating natural and engineered infrastructure to create a biologically diverse, resilient landscape to support both agriculture and natural <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, while reducing the impacts of climate change; and 3) recognition that some <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> components, including less resilient species, may be lost and other novel components may emerge. These findings serve to reconcile conflicting demands and restoring <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> functions in highly altered wetland landscapes worldwide.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PApGe.171.3385A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014PApGe.171.3385A"><span id="translatedtitle">Observed and Modeled <span class="hlt">Currents</span> from the Tohoku-oki, Japan and other Recent Tsunamis in Northern <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Admire, Amanda R.; Dengler, Lori A.; Crawford, Gregory B.; Uslu, Burak U.; Borrero, Jose C.; Greer, S. Dougal; Wilson, Rick I.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>We investigate the <span class="hlt">currents</span> produced by recent tsunamis in Humboldt Bay and Crescent City, <span class="hlt">California</span>. The region is susceptible to both near-field and far-field tsunamis and has a historic record of damaging events. Crescent City Harbor, located approximately 100 kms north of Humboldt Bay, suffered US 28 million in damages from strong <span class="hlt">currents</span> produced by the 2006 Kuril Islands tsunami and an additional US 26 million from the 2011 Japan tsunami. In order to better evaluate these <span class="hlt">currents</span> in northern <span class="hlt">California</span>, we deployed a Nortek Aquadopp 600 kHz 2D acoustic Doppler <span class="hlt">current</span> profiler (ADCP) with a 1-min sampling interval in Humboldt Bay, near the existing National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Ocean Service (NOS) tide gauge station. The instrument recorded the tsunamis produced by the Mw 8.8 Chile earthquake on February 27, 2010 and the Mw 9.0 Japan earthquake on March 11, 2011. One other tsunami was recorded on the Humboldt Bay tide gauge during the period of ADCP operation, but was not visible on the ADCP, suggesting a threshold water level value of about 0.2 m to produce an observable ADCP record. The 2010 tsunami <span class="hlt">currents</span> persisted in Humboldt Bay for approximately 30 h with peak amplitudes of about 0.35 m/s. The 2011 tsunami signal lasted for over 40 h with peak amplitude of 0.84 m/s. The strongest <span class="hlt">currents</span> corresponded to the maximum change in water level approximately 67 min after the initial wave arrival. No damage was observed in Humboldt Bay for either event. In Crescent City, <span class="hlt">currents</span> for the first three and one-half hours of the 2011 Japan tsunami were estimated using security camera video footage from the Harbor Master, approximately 70 m away from the NOAA-NOS tide gauge station. The largest amplitude tide gauge water-level oscillations and most of the damage occurred within this time window. The <span class="hlt">currents</span> reached a velocity of approximately 4.5 m/s and six cycles exceeded 3 m/s during this period. Measured <span class="hlt">current</span> velocities both in Humboldt Bay and in Crescent City were compared to calculated velocities from the Method of Splitting Tsunamis (MOST) numerical model. The frequency and pattern of <span class="hlt">current</span> amplification and decay at both locations are replicated by the MOST model for the first several hours after the tsunami onset. MOST generally underestimates 2011 peak <span class="hlt">current</span> velocities by about 10-30 %, with a few peaks by as much as 50 %. At Humboldt Bay, MOST predicted attenuation of the signal after 4 h but the actual signal persisted at a nearly constant level for at least twice as long. The results from this project demonstrate that ADCPs can effectively record tsunami <span class="hlt">currents</span> for small to moderate events and can be used to calibrate and validate models (i.e., MOST) in order to better understand hazardous tsunami conditions within harbors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020045387','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020045387"><span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal to Decadal-Scale Variability in Satellite Ocean Color and Sea Surface Temperature for the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mitchell, B. Greg; Kahru, Mati; Marra, John (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Support for this project was used to develop satellite ocean color and temperature indices (SOCTI) for the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System (CCS) using the historic record of CZCS West Coast Time Series (WCTS), OCTS, WiFS and AVHRR SST. The ocean color satellite data have been evaluated in relation to CalCOFI data sets for chlorophyll (CZCS) and ocean spectral reflectance and chlorophyll OCTS and SeaWiFS. New algorithms for the three missions have been implemented based on in-water algorithm data sets, or in the case of CZCS, by comparing retrieved pigments with ship-based observations. New algorithms for absorption coefficients, diffuse attenuation coefficients and primary production have also been evaluated. Satellite retrievals are being evaluated based on our large data set of pigments and optics from CalCOFI.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJBm..tmp..138M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IJBm..tmp..138M"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamically downscaling predictions for deciduous tree leaf emergence in <span class="hlt">California</span> under <span class="hlt">current</span> and future climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Medvigy, David; Kim, Seung Hee; Kim, Jinwon; Kafatos, Menas C.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Models that predict the timing of deciduous tree leaf emergence are typically very sensitive to temperature. However, many temperature data products, including those from climate models, have been developed at a very coarse spatial resolution. Such coarse-resolution temperature products can lead to highly biased predictions of leaf emergence. This study investigates how dynamical downscaling of climate models impacts simulations of deciduous tree leaf emergence in <span class="hlt">California</span>. Models for leaf emergence are forced with temperatures simulated by a general circulation model (GCM) at ~200-km resolution for 1981-2000 and 2031-2050 conditions. GCM simulations are then dynamically downscaled to 32- and 8-km resolution, and leaf emergence is again simulated. For 1981-2000, the regional average leaf emergence date is 30.8 days earlier in 32-km simulations than in ~200-km simulations. Differences between the 32 and 8 km simulations are small and mostly local. The impact of downscaling from 200 to 8 km is ~15 % smaller in 2031-2050 than in 1981-2000, indicating that the impacts of downscaling are unlikely to be stationary.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.B22C..04P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.B22C..04P"><span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal and spatial variation of bug flux in a northern <span class="hlt">California</span> drainage network under a Mediterranean climate: implications for reciprocal subsidies between coupled <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Power, M. E.; Moreno-Mateos, D.; Uno, H.; Bode, C.; Rainey, W.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Background/Question/Methods. Network configuration of river drainages affects ecological exchange between mainstem channels and smaller tributaries, and between coupled terrestrial and aquatic habitats. Seasonal complementarity of fluxes may enhance predator densities and persistence in linked habitats under continental climate regimes (Nakano and Murakami 2001). In a Mediterranean watershed (the upper South Fork Eel River of Northern <span class="hlt">California</span> (39°44’N, 123°37’W)), we studied spatial and seasonal patterns in insect fluxes among river, wetland, and forest habitats. We quantified insect emergence with vertical traps, and lateral fluxes between six wetland and eight river reaches and the upland forest adjacent to each. Insect horizontal fluxes were sampled using sticky traps along 50-150 m transects from the moister to the dryer habitats. We also studied vertical gradients of insect fluxes over rivers (up to 7 m) and in the forest (up to 40 m). Ca. 1800 traps and 40,000 insects were quantified. Results/Conclusions. In contrast to linked forest-river <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> in Hokkaido, peaks of insect fluxes in aquatic versus terrestrial habitats of the Eel River basin were less offset, and the seasonality of terrestrial versus river peaks was reversed. From late April through May, when the whole landscape was moist, there was no spatial variation in insect abundance-activity along forest, wetland, or river transects, and abundances averaged 315 insects m-2d-1. As the uplands dried out, from June to September, insect abundance peaked in wetlands and near the river, but dropped in the forest to average 32 insects m-2d-1 . The wetlands, with three abundance peaks distributed through spring, summer, and fall, maintained insect fluxes when river and forest fluxes were low. Vertically arrayed sticky traps over the river documented maximal insect activity-abundance near the water surface. In some positions, movements appeared random (equal downstream and upstream fluxes), but at other sites movements were strongly directional. For example, Amaletus mayflies that reared as larvae in the productive mainstem swarmed as adults into a small, dark, steep tributary, where extensive crusts of dead adults over tributary pools suggested that they mated and died. We are investigating how insectivorous birds and bats track and respond to these seasonal shifts in food supply points and spatial fluxes through the basin network of linked habitats.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=32974&keyword=Desert&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=46642489&CFTOKEN=74286137','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=32974&keyword=Desert&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=46642489&CFTOKEN=74286137"><span id="translatedtitle">CARBON DIOXIDE SEQUESTRATION IN TERRESTRIAL <span class="hlt">ECOSYSTEMS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The terrestrial biosphere plays a prominent role in the global carbon (C) cycle. errestrial <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> are <span class="hlt">currently</span> accumulating C and it appears feasible to manage existing terrestrial (forest, agronomic, desert) <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> to maintain or increase C storage. orest <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> ca...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70156405','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70156405"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of <span class="hlt">current</span>-use pesticides in aquatic and terrestrial organisms collected throughout <span class="hlt">California</span>, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Smalling, Kelly L.; Kuivila, Kathyrn M.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>A wide variety of pesticides are applied concurrently in agricultural and urban areas and transported off site dissolved in water and bound to sediments. But the exposure of aquatic and terrestrial organisms to <span class="hlt">current</span>-use pesticides and the resulting effects are not well understood. One approach is to directly analyze tissue concentrations of contaminants. The overall objective of this study was to develop a sensitive method to analyze <span class="hlt">current</span>-use pesticides with a wide range of Kow's in tissue to better understand the accumulation of these contaminants in different aquatic and terrestrial organisms. This method was then used to analyze <span class="hlt">current</span>-use pesticides in tissues from a variety of organisms from sites with different land-use practices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.seasurface.umaine.edu/pdf/2012_Ruzicka_etal_ProginOc.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.seasurface.umaine.edu/pdf/2012_Ruzicka_etal_ProginOc.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Interannual variability in the Northern <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> food web structure: Changes in energy flow pathways and the role of forage fish, euphausiids, and</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Thomas, Andrew</p> <p></p> <p>Interannual variability in the Northern <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> food web structure: Changes in energy, interannually, and decadally due to variability in coastal upwelling, climate-scale physical pro- cesses, including changes to mid-trophic level groups that represent alternate energy-transfer pathways between</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CSR....66...58B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013CSR....66...58B"><span id="translatedtitle">Coastal iron and nitrate distributions during the spring and summer upwelling season in the central <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> upwelling regime</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Biller, Dondra V.; Coale, Tyler H.; Till, Ralph C.; Smith, Geoffrey J.; Bruland, Kenneth W.</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Distributions of iron and nitrate in the central <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System upwelling regime (cCCS) from 34 to 41°N were determined during cruises in May 2010 and August 2011. High spatial and temporal resolution data for dissolved Fe and NO3- (nitrate+nitrite) in the cCCS from this study greatly expands upon previous studies that were narrower in scope (e.g., focused on just the Monterey Bay region). Shelf sediments from mid-shelf mud belts in this region provide the dominant source of Fe, and there are areas in the cCCS where insufficient Fe is upwelled to accompany elevated levels of other macronutrients (nitrate, phosphate, silicate) to fuel extensive diatom blooms. Surface dissolved Fe concentrations were related to continental shelf width and upwelling strength, and surface Fe concentrations tended to be lower in the late summer than early spring. We present extensive benthic boundary layer (BBL) dissolved and leachable particulate Fe data from both seasons in the mid-shelf region along the central <span class="hlt">California</span> coast. Leachable particulate Fe concentrations were strongly related to the width of the mid-shelf mud belts (i.e., the continental shelf between the 50 and 90 m isobaths). Dissolved Fe concentrations in the BBL over the mid-shelf were generally highest in wide mud belt areas as well as in areas with very low dissolved oxygen concentrations but did not show a clear seasonal trend. Evidence for probable Fe limitation in upwelled waters was found by using surface dissolved Fe:NO3- ratios and the estimated specific growth rate of coastal diatoms based on either Fe or NO3- concentrations. Several coastal upwelling regions with only moderate to narrow continental shelves (Pt. Arena to Cape Mendocino and the Big Sur Coast) exhibited evidence for Fe limitation in both the spring and summer upwelling seasons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GBioC..29..476W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GBioC..29..476W"><span id="translatedtitle">Predicting long-term carbon sequestration in response to CO2 enrichment: How and why do <span class="hlt">current</span> <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> models differ?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Walker, Anthony P.; Zaehle, Sönke; Medlyn, Belinda E.; De Kauwe, Martin G.; Asao, Shinichi; Hickler, Thomas; Parton, William; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Wang, Ying-Ping; Wârlind, David; Norby, Richard J.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Large uncertainty exists in model projections of the land carbon (C) sink response to increasing atmospheric CO2. Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiments lasting a decade or more have investigated <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> responses to a step change in atmospheric CO2 concentration. To interpret FACE results in the context of gradual increases in atmospheric CO2 over decades to centuries, we used a suite of seven models to simulate the Duke and Oak Ridge FACE experiments extended for 300 years of CO2 enrichment. We also determine key modeling assumptions that drive divergent projections of terrestrial C uptake and evaluate whether these assumptions can be constrained by experimental evidence. All models simulated increased terrestrial C pools resulting from CO2 enrichment, though there was substantial variability in quasi-equilibrium C sequestration and rates of change. In two of two models that assume that plant nitrogen (N) uptake is solely a function of soil N supply, the net primary production response to elevated CO2 became progressively N limited. In four of five models that assume that N uptake is a function of both soil N supply and plant N demand, elevated CO2 led to reduced <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> N losses and thus progressively relaxed nitrogen limitation. Many allocation assumptions resulted in increased wood allocation relative to leaves and roots which reduced the vegetation turnover rate and increased C sequestration. In addition, self-thinning assumptions had a substantial impact on C sequestration in two models. Accurate representation of N process dynamics (in particular N uptake), allocation, and forest self-thinning is key to minimizing uncertainty in projections of future C sequestration in response to elevated atmospheric CO2.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1209197-predicting-long-term-carbon-sequestration-response-co2-enrichment-how-why-do-current-ecosystem-models-differ','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1209197-predicting-long-term-carbon-sequestration-response-co2-enrichment-how-why-do-current-ecosystem-models-differ"><span id="translatedtitle">Predicting long-term carbon sequestration in response to CO2 enrichment: How and why do <span class="hlt">current</span> <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> models differ?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGESBeta</a></p> <p>Walker, Anthony P.; Zaehle, Sönke; Medlyn, Belinda E.; De Kauwe, Martin G.; Asao, Shinichi; Hickler, Thomas; Parton, William; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Wang, Ying -Ping; Wårlind, David; et al</p> <p>2015-04-27</p> <p>Large uncertainty exists in model projections of the land carbon (C) sink response to increasing atmospheric CO2. Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiments lasting a decade or more have investigated <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> responses to a step change in atmospheric CO2 concentration. To interpret FACE results in the context of gradual increases in atmospheric CO2 over decades to centuries, we used a suite of seven models to simulate the Duke and Oak Ridge FACE experiments extended for 300 years of CO2 enrichment. We also determine key modeling assumptions that drive divergent projections of terrestrial C uptake and evaluate whether these assumptions can bemore »constrained by experimental evidence. All models simulated increased terrestrial C pools resulting from CO2 enrichment, though there was substantial variability in quasi-equilibrium C sequestration and rates of change. In two of two models that assume that plant nitrogen (N) uptake is solely a function of soil N supply, the net primary production response to elevated CO2 became progressively N limited. In four of five models that assume that N uptake is a function of both soil N supply and plant N demand, elevated CO2 led to reduced <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> N losses and thus progressively relaxed nitrogen limitation. Many allocation assumptions resulted in increased wood allocation relative to leaves and roots which reduced the vegetation turnover rate and increased C sequestration. Additionally, self-thinning assumptions had a substantial impact on C sequestration in two models. As a result, accurate representation of N process dynamics (in particular N uptake), allocation, and forest self-thinning is key to minimizing uncertainty in projections of future C sequestration in response to elevated atmospheric CO2.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP53B1215H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP53B1215H"><span id="translatedtitle">Linkages Between Upwelling and Shell Characteristics of Mytilus californianus: Morphology and Stable Isotope (?13C, ?18O) Signatures of a Carbonate Archive from the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hosfelt, J. D.; Hill, T. M.; Russell, A. D.; Bean, J. R.; Sanford, E.; Gaylord, B.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Many calcareous organisms are known to record the ambient environmental conditions in which they grow, and their calcium carbonate skeletons are often valuable archives of climate records. Mytilus californianus, a widely distributed species of intertidal mussel, experiences a spatial mosaic of oceanographic conditions as it grows within the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System. Periodic episodes of upwelling bring high-CO2 waters to the surface, during which <span class="hlt">California</span> coastal waters are similar to projected conditions and act as a natural analogue to future ocean acidification. To examine the link between upwelling and shell characteristics of M. californianus, we analyzed the morphology and stable isotope (?13C, ?18O) signatures of mussel specimens collected live from seven study sites within the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System. Morphometric analyses utilized a combination of elliptic Fourier analysis and shell thickness measurements to determine the influence of low pH waters on the growth morphology and ecological fitness of M. californianus. These geochemical and morphological analyses were compared with concurrent high-resolution environmental (T, S, pH, TA, DIC) records from these seven study sites from 2010-2013. With appropriate calibration, new archives from modern M. californianus shells could provide a valuable tool to enable environmental reconstructions within the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System. These archives could in turn be used to predict the future consequences of continuing ocean acidification, as well as reconstruct past (archeological) conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6201581','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6201581"><span id="translatedtitle">Variability in biomass yields of large marine <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> (LMEs) during climate change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sherman, K. )</p> <p>1993-06-01</p> <p>Results of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> studies relating to variations in biomass yields are examined in relation to principle driving forces including climate change, coastal pollution, habitat degradation, and overexploitation of living marine resources. Among the <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> compared with regard to the different prime driving forces, affecting sustainability of biomass yields, are the Black Sea, the Baltic Sea, the Barents Sea, Kuroshio <span class="hlt">Current</span>, <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span>, Great Barrier Reef, Gulf of Mexico, Yellow Sea, Icelandic Shelf, and Northeast US Shelf <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. The designation and management of large marine <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> (LMEs) is, at present, an evolving scientific and geopolitical process. Sufficient progress has been made to allow for useful comparisons among different processes influencing large-scale changes in the biomass yields of LMEs. The most severely impacted LMEs are off the coasts of the continents.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22457967','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22457967"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate change impacts on marine <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Doney, Scott C; Ruckelshaus, Mary; Duffy, J Emmett; Barry, James P; Chan, Francis; English, Chad A; Galindo, Heather M; Grebmeier, Jacqueline M; Hollowed, Anne B; Knowlton, Nancy; Polovina, Jeffrey; Rabalais, Nancy N; Sydeman, William J; Talley, Lynne D</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>In marine <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, rising atmospheric CO2 and climate change are associated with concurrent shifts in temperature, circulation, stratification, nutrient input, oxygen content, and ocean acidification, with potentially wide-ranging biological effects. Population-level shifts are occurring because of physiological intolerance to new environments, altered dispersal patterns, and changes in species interactions. Together with local climate-driven invasion and extinction, these processes result in altered community structure and diversity, including possible emergence of novel <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. Impacts are particularly striking for the poles and the tropics, because of the sensitivity of polar <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> to sea-ice retreat and poleward species migrations as well as the sensitivity of coral-algal symbiosis to minor increases in temperature. Midlatitude upwelling systems, like the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span>, exhibit strong linkages between climate and species distributions, phenology, and demography. Aggregated effects may modify energy and material flows as well as biogeochemical cycles, eventually impacting the overall <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> functioning and services upon which people and societies depend. PMID:22457967</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH13A3726A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH13A3726A"><span id="translatedtitle">Measuring Possible Tsunami <span class="hlt">Currents</span> from the April 1, 2014 Mw 8.2 Chile Earthquake in Crescent City, <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Admire, A. R.; Crawford, G. B.; Dengler, L. A.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Crescent City, <span class="hlt">California</span> has a long history of damaging tsunamis. Thirty-nine tsunamis have been recorded since 1933, including five that caused damage. Crescent City's harbor and small boat basin are particularly vulnerable to strong <span class="hlt">currents</span>. Humboldt State University has installed Acoustic Doppler Profilers (ADPs) in order to directly measure water pressure fluctuations and <span class="hlt">currents</span> caused by tsunamis. An instrument in Humboldt Bay, ~100 km south of Crescent City, recorded tsunamis generated by the 2010 Mw 8.7 Chile and 2011 Mw 9.0 Japan earthquakes and demonstrated the usefulness of ADPs in measuring tsunami <span class="hlt">currents</span>. In 2013, an ADP was deployed in Crescent City's harbor adjacent to the NOAA tide gauge. On April 1, 2014, a Mw 8.2 earthquake occurred in northern Chile, producing a modest Pacific-wide tsunami and a 16 cm peak amplitude on the Crescent City tide gauge. We analyze the ADP data before and during the expected arrival of the April 2 tsunami to see if a tsunami signal is present. Tidal <span class="hlt">currents</span> are generally small (5 cm/s or less). For two months before the tsunami, intermittent, high-frequency variability is present in velocity and pressure at periods on the order of 20, 9 and 5 min, which compare favorably to modal periods predicted using some simplified models of open-ended basins. For several hours after the tsunami arrival on April 2, spectral power levels in velocity and pressure around the 20 min period are notably enhanced. These results suggest that: (1) the observed periods of enhanced variability represent the first three modes (n=0, 1 and 2) of free oscillations in the harbor, (2) the dominant period of (non-tidal) oscillations observed during the April 2, 2014 tsunami (~20 min) and during previous tsunamis (e.g., the water level record for the March 11, 2011 tsunami; also ~20 min) represents harbor resonance corresponding to the lowest order mode, and (3) this event is very near the ADP limit of detectability with peak tsunami <span class="hlt">currents</span> of 5-10 cm/s and higher frequency variability and instrument noise root-mean-squared amplitude of 4-5 cm/s.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRC..120.4654B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRC..120.4654B"><span id="translatedtitle">Enhanced silica ballasting from iron stress sustains carbon export in a frontal zone within the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brzezinski, Mark A.; Krause, Jeffrey W.; Bundy, Randelle M.; Barbeau, Katherine A.; Franks, Peter; Goericke, Ralf; Landry, Michael R.; Stukel, Michael R.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Nutrient dynamics, phytoplankton rate processes, and export were examined in a frontal region between an anticyclone and a pair of cyclones 120 km off the coast in the southern <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System (sCCS). Low silicic acid: nitrate ratios (Si:N) and high nitrate to iron ratios (N:Fe) characteristic of Fe-limiting conditions in the sCCS were associated with the northern cyclone and with the transition zone between the cyclones and the anticyclone. Phytoplankton growth in low-Si:N, high-N:Fe waters responded strongly to added Fe, confirming growth limitation by Fe of the diatom-dominated phytoplankton community. Low Si:N waters had low biogenic silica content, intermediate productivity, but high export compared to intermediate Si:N waters indicating increased export efficiency under Fe stress. Biogenic silica and particulate organic carbon (POC) export were both high beneath low Si:N waters with biogenic silica export being especially enhanced. This suggests that relatively high POC export from low Si:N waters was supported by silica ballasting from Fe-limited diatoms. Higher POC export efficiency in low Si:N waters may have been further enhanced by lower rates of organic carbon remineralization due to reduced grazing of more heavily armored diatoms growing under Fe stress. The results imply that Fe stress can enhance carbon export, despite lowering productivity, by driving higher export efficiency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://essm.tamu.edu/media/100108/2012_grad8x11ESSM.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://essm.tamu.edu/media/100108/2012_grad8x11ESSM.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Graduate studies <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Science</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>sciences; or genetics, systematics, evolution. <span class="hlt">ECOSYSTEM</span> SCIENCE Fundamental scientific knowledge require approaches that work with natural and social systems rather than against them. <span class="hlt">Current</span> and statistics GENETICS, SYSTEMATICS, EVOLUTION Genetics, systematics and evolution allow students</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003DSRII..50.2519S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003DSRII..50.2519S"><span id="translatedtitle">Long-term trends and variability in the larvae of Pacific sardine and associated fish species of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smith, Paul E.; Moser, H. Geoffrey</p> <p>2003-08-01</p> <p>Fifty-year ichthyoplankton and oceanographic time series of the <span class="hlt">California</span> Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations were used to describe changes in larval fish abundance and associated habitat features in the Southern <span class="hlt">California</span> Bight region, extending seaward to the limits of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span>. The ichthyoplankton data set for this analysis was based on single tows taken at all CalCOFI survey stations occupied within the <span class="hlt">current</span> sampling pattern from 1951 to 2000 and consisted of a total of 11,917 samples from which 1,365,988 fish larvae were identified. The analysis included data on habitat temperature, macrozooplankton volumes, and 14 taxa of larval fishes, some of commercial interest (Pacific sardine, Pacific hake, Pacific and jack mackerel, and rockfishes), and a group of important mesopelagic species that represent specific habitats in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> region. Data are presented in a series of graphs showing changes in average abundance, triennial abundance ratios, and normalized quarterly abundance (1988-2000 only). Larval data clearly track the decline and recovery of the Pacific sardine population. Mesopelagic larvae of southern offshore species had the greatest response to the regime shift of 1976-77, increasing markedly in the Southern <span class="hlt">California</span> Bight region after 1977. Likewise, this group of species showed the greatest response to the 1957-59 El Niño. There was no consistent response in larval abundance of Subarctic-Transitional mesopelagic species and nearshore taxa to the 1976-77 regime shift. Most of the species showed a negative shift in triennial larval abundance ratios in relation to hypothesized 1989-90 and 1998-99 regime shifts. These changes are discussed in relation to changes in temperature and macrozooplankton volumes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70147344','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70147344"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of projected water availability with <span class="hlt">current</span> basin management plan, Pajaro Valley, <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Hanson, Randall T.; Lockwood, Brian; Schmid, Wolfgang</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The analysis of projected supply and demand for the Pajaro Valley indicate that the <span class="hlt">current</span> water supply facilities constructed to provide alternative local sources of supplemental water to replace coastal groundwater pumpage, but may not completely eliminate additional overdraft. The simulation of the coastal distribution system (CDS) replicates: 20 miles of conveyance pipeline, managed aquifer recharge and recovery (MARR) system that captures local runoff, and recycled-water treatment facility (RWF) from urban wastewater, along with the use of other blend water supplies, provide partial relief and substitution for coastal pumpage (aka in-lieu recharge). The effects of these Basin Management Plan (BMP) projects were analyzed subject to historical climate variations and assumptions of 2009 urban water demand and land use. Water supplied directly from precipitation, and indirectly from reuse, captured local runoff, and groundwater is necessary but inadequate to satisfy agricultural demand without coastal and regional storage depletion that facilitates seawater intrusion. These facilities reduce potential seawater intrusion by about 45% with groundwater levels in the four regions served by the CDS projected to recover to levels a few feet above sea level. The projected recoveries are not high enough to prevent additional seawater intrusion during dry-year periods or in the deeper aquifers where pumpage is greater. While these facilities could reduce coastal pumpage by about 55% of the historical 2000–2009 pumpage for these regions, and some of the water is delivered in excess of demand, other coastal regions continue to create demands on coastal pumpage that will need to be replaced to reduce seawater intrusion. In addition, inland urban and agricultural demands continue to sustain water levels below sea level causing regional landward gradients that also drive seawater intrusion. Seawater intrusion is reduced by about 45% but it supplies about 55% of the recovery of groundwater levels in the coastal regions served by the CDS. If economically feasible, water from summer agricultural runoff and tile-drain returnflows could be another potential local source of water that, if captured and reused, could offset the imbalance between supply and demand as well as reducing discharge of agricultural runoff into the National Marine Sanctuary of Monterey Bay. A BMP update (2012) identifies projects and programs that will fund a conservation program and will provide additional, alternative water sources to reduce or replace coastal and inland pumpage, and to replenish the aquifers with managed aquifer recharge in an inland portion of the Pajaro Valley.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006DSRII..53..399Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006DSRII..53..399Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Spring-time distributions of migratory marine birds in the southern <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span>: Oceanic eddy associations and coastal habitat hotspots over 17 years</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yen, P. P. W.; Sydeman, W. J.; Bograd, S. J.; Hyrenbach, K. D.</p> <p>2006-02-01</p> <p>We used a 17-year time series of shipboard observations to address the hypothesis that marine birds associate with persistent hydrographic features in the southern <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System (CCS). Overall, approximately 27,000 km of ocean habitat were surveyed, averaging 1600 km per cruise. We identified mesoscale features (eddy centers and the core of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span>), based on dynamic height anomalies, and considered habitat associations for seven migratory seabird species: black-footed albatross ( Phoebastria nigripes), Cook's petrel ( Pterodroma cookii), Leach's storm-petrel ( Oceanodroma leucorhoa), dark shearwaters (mainly sooty shearwater Puffinus griseus, with a few short-tailed shearwaters Puffinus tenuirostris), northern fulmar ( Fulmarus glacialis), red phalarope ( Phalaropus fulicaria), and red-necked phalarope ( Phalaropus lobatus). We explored associations (presence/absence and density relationships) of marine birds with mesoscale features (eddies, <span class="hlt">current</span> jet) and metrics of primary productivity (chlorophyll a and nitrate concentrations). Mesoscale eddies were consistently identified in the study region, but were spatially and temporally variable. The resolved eddies were large-scale features associated with meanders of the equatorward-flowing <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span>. Cook's petrel was found offshore with no specific habitat affinities. Black-footed albatross, red phalarope, and Leach's storm petrel were found in association with offshore eddies and/or the core of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span>, but the functional relationship for these species varied, possibly reflecting differences in flight capabilities. The more coastal species, including the shearwaters, fulmar, and red-necked phalarope, were positively associated with proxies of primary productivity. Of the hydrographic habitats considered, the upwelling region of Point Conception appears to be an important "hotspot" of sustained primary production and marine bird concentrations. Point Conception and other similar coastal locations (upwelling cells) may warrant protection as key foraging grounds for seabirds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JHyd..519..131H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JHyd..519..131H"><span id="translatedtitle">Analysis of projected water availability with <span class="hlt">current</span> basin management plan, Pajaro Valley, <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hanson, R. T.; Lockwood, B.; Schmid, Wolfgang</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>The projection and analysis of the Pajaro Valley Hydrologic Model (PVHM) 34 years into the future using MODFLOW with the Farm Process (MF-FMP) facilitates assessment of potential future water availability. The projection is facilitated by the integrated hydrologic model, MF-FMP that fully couples the simulation of the use and movement of water from precipitation, streamflow, runoff, groundwater flow, and consumption by natural and agricultural vegetation throughout the hydrologic system at all times. MF-FMP allows for more complete analysis of conjunctive-use water-resource systems than previously possible with MODFLOW by combining relevant aspects of the landscape with the groundwater and surface-water components. This analysis is accomplished using distributed cell-by-cell supply-constrained and demand-driven components across the landscape within “water-balance subregions” (WBS) comprised of one or more model cells that can represent a single farm, a group of farms, watersheds, or other hydrologic or geopolitical entities. Analysis of conjunctive use would be difficult without embedding the fully coupled supply-and-demand into a fully coupled simulation, and are difficult to estimate a priori. The analysis of projected supply and demand for the Pajaro Valley indicate that the <span class="hlt">current</span> water supply facilities constructed to provide alternative local sources of supplemental water to replace coastal groundwater pumpage, but may not completely eliminate additional overdraft. The simulation of the coastal distribution system (CDS) replicates: 20 miles of conveyance pipeline, managed aquifer recharge and recovery (MARR) system that captures local runoff, and recycled-water treatment facility (RWF) from urban wastewater, along with the use of other blend water supplies, provide partial relief and substitution for coastal pumpage (aka in-lieu recharge). The effects of these Basin Management Plan (BMP) projects were analyzed subject to historical climate variations and assumptions of 2009 urban water demand and land use. Water supplied directly from precipitation, and indirectly from reuse, captured local runoff, and groundwater is necessary but inadequate to satisfy agricultural demand without coastal and regional storage depletion that facilitates seawater intrusion. These facilities reduce potential seawater intrusion by about 45% with groundwater levels in the four regions served by the CDS projected to recover to levels a few feet above sea level. The projected recoveries are not high enough to prevent additional seawater intrusion during dry-year periods or in the deeper aquifers where pumpage is greater. While these facilities could reduce coastal pumpage by about 55% of the historical 2000-2009 pumpage for these regions, and some of the water is delivered in excess of demand, other coastal regions continue to create demands on coastal pumpage that will need to be replaced to reduce seawater intrusion. In addition, inland urban and agricultural demands continue to sustain water levels below sea level causing regional landward gradients that also drive seawater intrusion. Seawater intrusion is reduced by about 45% but it supplies about 55% of the recovery of groundwater levels in the coastal regions served by the CDS. If economically feasible, water from summer agricultural runoff and tile-drain returnflows could be another potential local source of water that, if captured and reused, could offset the imbalance between supply and demand as well as reducing discharge of agricultural runoff into the National Marine Sanctuary of Monterey Bay. A BMP update (2012) identifies projects and programs that will fund a conservation program and will provide additional, alternative water sources to reduce or replace coastal and inland pumpage, and to replenish the aquifers with managed aquifer recharge in an inland portion of the Pajaro Valley.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4201512','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4201512"><span id="translatedtitle">Carbon and Nitrogen Isotopes from Top Predator Amino Acids Reveal Rapidly Shifting Ocean Biochemistry in the Outer <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ruiz-Cooley, Rocio I.; Koch, Paul L.; Fiedler, Paul C.; McCarthy, Matthew D.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Climatic variation alters biochemical and ecological processes, but it is difficult both to quantify the magnitude of such changes, and to differentiate long-term shifts from inter-annual variability. Here, we simultaneously quantify decade-scale isotopic variability at the lowest and highest trophic positions in the offshore <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System (CCS) by measuring ?15N and ?13C values of amino acids in a top predator, the sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus). Using a time series of skin tissue samples as a biological archive, isotopic records from individual amino acids (AAs) can reveal the proximate factors driving a temporal decline we observed in bulk isotope values (a decline of ?1 ‰) by decoupling changes in primary producer isotope values from those linked to the trophic position of this toothed whale. A continuous decline in baseline (i.e., primary producer) ?15N and ?13C values was observed from 1993 to 2005 (a decrease of ?4‰ for ?15N source-AAs and 3‰ for ?13C essential-AAs), while the trophic position of whales was variable over time and it did not exhibit directional trends. The baseline ?15N and ?13C shifts suggest rapid ongoing changes in the carbon and nitrogen biogeochemical cycling in the offshore CCS, potentially occurring at faster rates than long-term shifts observed elsewhere in the Pacific. While the mechanisms forcing these biogeochemical shifts remain to be determined, our data suggest possible links to natural climate variability, and also corresponding shifts in surface nutrient availability. Our study demonstrates that isotopic analysis of individual amino acids from a top marine mammal predator can be a powerful new approach to reconstructing temporal variation in both biochemical cycling and trophic structure. PMID:25329915</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP33A1204A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP33A1204A"><span id="translatedtitle">Links between carbonate productivity and ENSO variability in the southern <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System for the past 2 Kyrs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Abella-Gutiérrez, J. L.; Herguera, J. C.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>San Lázaro Basin (SLB) is a suboxic basin characteristic for its very high sedimentation rates (1mm/yr) and is located in the dynamic southern boundary of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System (CCS). This southern boundary of the CCS generally extends further south during spring into early summer and retracts towards the north during fall and winter, and this pattern is further amplified or reduced on different time scales, (e.i. interannual timescales by El Niño and La Niña events, or multidecadal ones by the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO)). These oceanographic conditions are related with important differences in the base of the food chain; when the boundary migrates to northern latitudes, the presence of relatively warmer tropical and subtropical waters further stratify the water column, a period when coccolithophorids dominate the microplankton web structure. On the other side, diatoms flourish when the wind-driven circulation expand the subarctic water masses of the CCS to the south and upwelling cells are generated. We find in our cores XRF Ca counts (1 mm resolution) highly correlate with CaCO3 measurements (R=0.56), this last one showing a general decreasing trend over the past 2 Kyrs. The Ca spectrum analysis shows significant peaks for periods centered at 28, 40, 60, 120 yr. The centennial mode of variability of the Ca record shows correlations with Drought area Index from North America. When the variance of this mode is considered, similarities arises with intensity and number of ENSO events from Equatorial archives. Decadal variations of the record are highly correlated (R>0.8) with instrumental measurements of Kaplan sea surface temperature, and the PDO. We will discuss the implications of these periods in the carbonate record and the links between them and other paleoceanographic records in the Pacific.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PrOce.137..103A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PrOce.137..103A"><span id="translatedtitle">Anomalous ichthyoplankton distributions and concentrations in the northern <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> during the 2010 El Niño and La Niña events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Auth, Toby D.; Brodeur, Richard D.; Peterson, Jay O.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>In late spring of 2010, the northern <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> (NCC) experienced a transition from El Niño to La Niña conditions resulting in anomalous distributions and concentrations within the ichthyoplankton community. We analyzed larval fish data collected during the four months before and after this transition and compared them to data from three previous studies conducted in the NCC. In one comparison, concentrations of larvae collected during winter from stations 2 to 46 km offshore along the central Oregon coast were higher in 2010 than in any other year from 1998 to 2011. In a second comparison of nearshore larvae collected during six periods (1971-1972, 1978, 1983, 1998, 1999-2002, and 2003-2005) previous to 2010, concentrations of total larvae and most dominant larval taxa were higher during the winter/spring and lower during the summer/fall seasons in 2010 (corresponding to the shift from El Niño to La Niña conditions) than during similar seasons in any other annual period. In a third comparison, larvae collected from stations 21 to 102 km offshore along the southern Washington to south-central Oregon coast in May 2010, at the end of the El Niño event, were found in higher concentrations than during any May from 2004 to 2009 and 2011. The high concentration of larvae in the winter and spring of 2010 was likely the direct result of El Niño and warm-ocean conditions (high values of the MEI, NOI, and PDO) along with strong downwelling and onshore transport that increased the abundance of offshore taxa over the shelf. Continued monitoring of the NCC is warranted as El Niño effects on larval fish observed in the past may not be indicative of future effects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25329915','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25329915"><span id="translatedtitle">Carbon and nitrogen isotopes from top predator amino acids reveal rapidly shifting ocean biochemistry in the outer <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ruiz-Cooley, Rocio I; Koch, Paul L; Fiedler, Paul C; McCarthy, Matthew D</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Climatic variation alters biochemical and ecological processes, but it is difficult both to quantify the magnitude of such changes, and to differentiate long-term shifts from inter-annual variability. Here, we simultaneously quantify decade-scale isotopic variability at the lowest and highest trophic positions in the offshore <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System (CCS) by measuring ?15N and ?13C values of amino acids in a top predator, the sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus). Using a time series of skin tissue samples as a biological archive, isotopic records from individual amino acids (AAs) can reveal the proximate factors driving a temporal decline we observed in bulk isotope values (a decline of ?1 ‰) by decoupling changes in primary producer isotope values from those linked to the trophic position of this toothed whale. A continuous decline in baseline (i.e., primary producer) ?15N and ?13C values was observed from 1993 to 2005 (a decrease of ?4‰ for ?15N source-AAs and 3‰ for ?13C essential-AAs), while the trophic position of whales was variable over time and it did not exhibit directional trends. The baseline ?15N and ?13C shifts suggest rapid ongoing changes in the carbon and nitrogen biogeochemical cycling in the offshore CCS, potentially occurring at faster rates than long-term shifts observed elsewhere in the Pacific. While the mechanisms forcing these biogeochemical shifts remain to be determined, our data suggest possible links to natural climate variability, and also corresponding shifts in surface nutrient availability. Our study demonstrates that isotopic analysis of individual amino acids from a top marine mammal predator can be a powerful new approach to reconstructing temporal variation in both biochemical cycling and trophic structure. PMID:25329915</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRC..120.5318N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRC..120.5318N"><span id="translatedtitle">Dominant role of eddies and filaments in the offshore transport of carbon and nutrients in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nagai, Takeyoshi; Gruber, Nicolas; Frenzel, Hartmut; Lachkar, Zouhair; McWilliams, James C.; Plattner, Gian-Kasper</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>The coastal upwelling region of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System (CalCS) is a well-known site of high productivity and lateral export of nutrients and organic matter, yet neither the magnitude nor the governing processes of this offshore transport are well quantified. Here we address this gap using a high-resolution (5 km) coupled physical-biogeochemical numerical simulation (ROMS). The results reveal (i) that the offshore transport is a very substantial component of any material budget in this region, (ii) that it reaches more than 800 km into the offshore domain, and (iii) that this transport is largely controlled by mesoscale processes, involving filaments and westward propagating eddies. The process starts in the nearshore areas, where nutrient and organic matter-rich upwelled waters pushed offshore by Ekman transport are subducted at the sharp lateral density gradients of upwelling fronts and filaments located at ˜25-100 km from the coast. The filaments are very effective in transporting the subducted material further offshore until they form eddies at their tips at about 100-200 km from the shore. The cyclonic eddies tend to trap the cold, nutrient, and organic matter-rich waters of the filaments, whereas the anticyclones formed nearby encapsulate the low nutrient and low organic matter waters around the filament. After their detachment, both types of eddies propagate further in offshore direction, with a speed similar to that of the first baroclinic mode Rossby waves, providing the key mechanism for long-range transport of nitrate and organic matter from the coast deep into the offshore environment.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PrOce.137..299A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PrOce.137..299A"><span id="translatedtitle">Diet diversity of jack and chub mackerels and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> changes in the northern Humboldt <span class="hlt">Current</span> system: A long-term study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alegre, Ana; Bertrand, Arnaud; Espino, Marco; Espinoza, Pepe; Dioses, Teobaldo; Ñiquen, Miguel; Navarro, Iván; Simier, Monique; Ménard, Frédéric</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Jack mackerel Trachurus murphyi (JM) and chub mackerel Scomber japonicus (CM) are medium size pelagic fish predators and highly exploited resources. Here we investigated the spatiotemporal patterns of JM and CM diet composition using a large dataset of stomach samples collected from 1973 to 2013 along the Peruvian coast. In total 47,535 stomachs (18,377 CM and 29,158 JM) were analysed, of which 23,570 (12,476 CM and 11,094 JM) were non-empty. Results show that both species are opportunistic and present a trophic overlap. However, despite their smaller maximal size, CM consumed more fish than JM. Both diets presented high spatiotemporal variability. Spatially, the shelf break appears as a strong biogeographical barrier affecting prey species distribution and thus CM and JM diet. Opportunistic foragers are often considered as actual indicators of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> changes; we show here that diet composition of CM and JM reveal <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> changes but is not always a good indicator of changes in prey biomass as prey accessibility and energy content can also play an important role. In addition we found that El Niño events have a surprisingly weak effect on stomach fullness and diet. Finally our results show that the classic paradigm of positive correlation between diversity and temperature is unlikely to occur in the Humboldt <span class="hlt">Current</span> system where productivity seems to be the main driver. We show how energy content of forage species and the strength of the oxygen minimum zone most likely play an important role prey diversity and accessibility, and thus in fish foraging behaviour.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Prairies&id=EJ721634','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Prairies&id=EJ721634"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Journalism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Robertson, Amy; Mahlin, Kathryn</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>If the organisms in a prairie <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> created a newspaper, what would it look like? What important news topics of the <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> would the organisms want to discuss? Imaginative and enthusiastic third-grade students were busy pondering these questions as they tried their hands at "<span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> journalism." The class had recently completed a study of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70047601','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70047601"><span id="translatedtitle">Natural <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Fleishman, Erica; Belnap, Jayne; Cobb, Neil; Enquist, Carolyn A.F.; Ford, Karl; MacDonald, Glen; Pellant, Mike; Schoennagel, Tania; Schmit, Lara M.; Schwartz, Mark; van Drunick, Suzanne; Westerling, Anthony LeRoy; Keyser, Alisa; Lucas, Ryan</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Natural <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> analyzes the association of observed changes in climate with changes in the geographic distributions and phenology (the timing of blossoms or migrations of birds) for Southwestern <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> and their species, portraying <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> disturbances—such as wildfires and outbreaks of forest pathogens—and carbon storage and release, in relation to climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=contacting&id=EJ853256','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=contacting&id=EJ853256"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Jenga!</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Umphlett, Natalie; Brosius, Tierney; Laungani, Ramesh; Rousseau, Joe; Leslie-Pelecky, Diandra L.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>To give students a tangible model of an <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> and have them experience what could happen if a component of that <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> were removed; the authors developed a hands-on, inquiry-based activity that visually demonstrates the concept of a delicately balanced <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> through a modification of the popular game Jenga. This activity can be…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013BGD....1014043T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013BGD....1014043T"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatiotemporal variability and drivers of pCO2 and air-sea CO2 fluxes in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System: an eddy-resolving modeling study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Turi, G.; Lachkar, Z.; Gruber, N.</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>We quantify the CO2 source/sink nature of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System (CalCS) and determine the drivers and processes behind the mean and spatiotemporal variability of the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in the surface ocean. To this end, we analyze eddy-resolving, climatological simulations of a coupled physical-<span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>-biogeochemical ocean model on the basis of the Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS). The model-simulated pCO2 agrees very well with in situ observations over the entire domain with virtually no bias, but the model overestimates pCO2 in the nearshore 100 km, and underestimates the observed temporal variability. In the annual mean, the entire CalCS within 800 km of the coast and from ~ 33° N to 46° N is essentially neutral with regard to atmospheric CO2. The model simulates an integrated uptake flux of -0.9 Tg C yr-1, corresponding to a very small average flux density of -0.05 mol C m-2 yr-1, with an uncertainty of the order of ±0.20 mol C m-2 yr-1. This near zero flux is a consequence of an almost complete regional compensation between the strong outgassing in the nearshore region (first 100 km), with flux densities of more than 3 mol C m-2 yr-1 and a weaker, but more widespread uptake flux in the offshore region with an average flux density of -0.17 mol C m-2 yr-1. This pattern is primarily a result of the interaction between upwelling in the nearshore that brings waters with high concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) to the surface, and an intense biological drawdown of this DIC, driven by the nutrients that are upwelled together with the DIC. The biological drawdown occurs too slowly to prevent the escape of a substantial amount of CO2 into the atmosphere, but this is compensated by the biological generation of undersaturated conditions offshore of 100 km, permitting the CalCS to take up most of the escaped CO2. Thus, the biological pump over the entire CalCS is essentially 100% efficient, making the preformed DIC and nutrient concentrations of the upwelled waters a primary determinant of the overall source/sink nature of the CalCS. The comparison of the standard simulation with one for preindustrial conditions show that the CalCS is taking up anthropogenic CO2 at a rate of about -1 mol C m-2 yr-1, implying that the region was a small source of CO2 to the atmosphere in preindustrial times. The air-sea CO2 fluxes vary substantially in time, both on seasonal and sub-seasonal timescales, largely driven by variations in surface ocean pCO2. There are important differences among the subregions. Notably, the total variance of the fluxes in the central nearshore CalCS is roughly 4-5 times larger than elsewhere. Most of the variability in pCO2 is associated with the seasonal cycle, except in the nearshore, where sub-seasonal variations driven by mesoscale processes dominate. In the regions offshore of 100 km, changes in surface temperature are the main driver, while in the nearshore region, changes in surface temperature, as well as anomalies in DIC and alkalinity (Alk) owing to changes in circulation, biological productivity and air-sea CO2 fluxes dominate. The dominance of eddy-driven variability in the nearshore 100 km leads to a complex spatiotemporal mosaic of surface ocean pCO2 and air-sea CO2 fluxes that require a substantial observational effort to determine the source/sink nature of this region reliably.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1040/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1040/"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Health in Mineralized Terrane-Data from Podiform Chromite (Chinese Camp Mining District, <span class="hlt">California</span>), Quartz Alunite (Castle Peak and Masonic Mining Districts, Nevada/<span class="hlt">California</span>), and Mo/Cu Porphyry (Battle Mountain Mining District, Nevada) Deposits</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Blecker, Steve W.; Stillings, Lisa L.; Amacher, Michael C.; Ippolito, James A.; DeCrappeo, Nicole M.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The myriad definitions of soil/<span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> quality or health are often driven by <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> and management concerns, and they typically focus on the ability of the soil to provide functions relating to biological productivity and/or environmental quality. A variety of attempts have been made to create indices that quantify the complexities of soil quality and provide a means of evaluating the impact of various natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Though not without their limitations, indices can improve our understanding of the controls behind <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> processes and allow for the distillation of information to help link scientific and management communities. In terrestrial systems, indices were initially developed and modified for agroecosystems; however, the number of studies implementing such indices in nonagricultural systems is growing. Soil quality indices (SQIs) are typically composed of biological (and sometimes physical and chemical) parameters that attempt to reduce the complexity of a system into a metric of a soil's ability to carry out one or more functions. The indicators utilized in SQIs can be as varied as the studies themselves, reflecting the complexity of the soil and <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> in which they function. Regardless, effective soil quality indicators should correlate well with soil or <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> processes, integrate those properties and processes, and be relevant to management practices. Commonly applied biological indicators include measures associated with soil microbial activity or function (for example, carbon and nitrogen mineralization, respiration, microbial biomass, enzyme activity. Cost, accessibility, ease of interpretation, and presence of existing data often dictate indicator selection given the number of available measures. We employed a large number of soil biological, chemical, and physical measures, along with measures of vegetation cover, density, and productivity, in order to test the utility and sensitivity of these measures within various mineralized terranes. We were also interested in examining these relations in the context of determining appropriate reference conditions with which to compare reclamation efforts. The purpose of this report is to present the data used to develop indices of soil and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> quality associated with mineralized terranes (areas enriched in metal-bearing minerals), specifically podiform chromite, quartz alunite, and Mo/Cu porphyry systems. Within each of these mineralized terranes, a nearby unmineralized counterpart was chosen for comparison. The data consist of soil biological, chemical, and physical parameters, along with vegetation measurements for each of the sites described below. Synthesis of these data and index development will be the subject of future publications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.fs.fed.us/psw/publications/documents/psw_gtr058/psw_gtr058_4a_miller.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.fs.fed.us/psw/publications/documents/psw_gtr058/psw_gtr058_4a_miller.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Nutrients and Water Relations in Mediterranean-Type <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span>1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>shrubs are believed to occur in <span class="hlt">California</span> where the length of the soil drought is about 100 days or less-type <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span>, June 22 26. 1981 San Diego, <span class="hlt">California</span> 2 Director, Systems Ecology Research Group, San Diego State University, San Diego, <span class="hlt">California</span> 92109 Abstract: Mediterranean regions of the world</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1048304','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1048304"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> feedbacks to climate change in <span class="hlt">California</span>: Development, testing, and analysis using a coupled regional atmosphere and land-surface model (WRF3-CLM3.5)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Subin, Z.M.; Riley, W.J.; Kueppers, L.M.; Jin, J.; Christianson, D.S.; Torn, M.S.</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>A regional atmosphere model [Weather Research and Forecasting model version 3 (WRF3)] and a land surface model [Community Land Model, version 3.5 (CLM3.5)] were coupled to study the interactions between the atmosphere and possible future <span class="hlt">California</span> land-cover changes. The impact was evaluated on <span class="hlt">California</span>'s climate of changes in natural vegetation under climate change and of intentional afforestation. The ability of WRF3 to simulate <span class="hlt">California</span>'s climate was assessed by comparing simulations by WRF3-CLM3.5 and WRF3-Noah to observations from 1982 to 1991. Using WRF3-CLM3.5, the authors performed six 13-yr experiments using historical and future large-scale climate boundary conditions from the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Climate Model version 2.1 (GFDL CM2.1). The land-cover scenarios included historical and future natural vegetation from the Mapped Atmosphere-Plant-Soil System-Century 1 (MC1) dynamic vegetation model, in addition to a future 8-million-ha <span class="hlt">California</span> afforestation scenario. Natural vegetation changes alone caused summer daily-mean 2-m air temperature changes of -0.7 to +1 C in regions without persistent snow cover, depending on the location and the type of vegetation change. Vegetation temperature changes were much larger than the 2-m air temperature changes because of the finescale spatial heterogeneity of the imposed vegetation change. Up to 30% of the magnitude of the summer daily-mean 2-m air temperature increase and 70% of the magnitude of the 1600 local time (LT) vegetation temperature increase projected under future climate change were attributable to the climate-driven shift in land cover. The authors projected that afforestation could cause local 0.2-1.2 C reductions in summer daily-mean 2-m air temperature and 2.0-3.7 C reductions in 1600 LT vegetation temperature for snow-free regions, primarily because of increased evapotranspiration. Because some of these temperature changes are of comparable magnitude to those projected under climate change this century, projections of climate and vegetation change in this region need to consider these climate-vegetation interactions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMPP11C1848O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMPP11C1848O"><span id="translatedtitle">Foraminiferal area density as a proxy for ocean acidification over the last 200 years in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Osborne, E.; Thunell, R.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Anthropogenic activities have resulted in an increase in atmospheric CO2 from 280 ppm to 400 ppm over the last 250 years. It is estimated that approximately one-third of this anthropogenically produced CO2 is sequestered in the global ocean, increasing the inventory of bicarbonate (HCO3-) and hydrogen ions (H+) and consuming carbonate (CO32-) as a result of carbonate buffering reactions. This increase in [H+] lowers seawater pH, the phenomenon known as ocean acidification (OA). Estimates indicate that mean seawater pH has already decreased by 0.1 pH units since 1750 and IPCC reports indicate it is likely that CO2 concentrations will reach 790 ppm by 2100 further reducing pH by 0.3 units. Marine calcifiers, such as foraminifera, utilize CO32- dissolved in seawater during calcification, a process that is highly sensitive to changes in pH due to the chemical reactions described above. The reduction in surface ocean carbonate ion concentration ([CO32-]) caused by OA has impaired calcification of planktonic foraminifera and other marine calcifiers. It has been proposed that planktonic foraminiferal shell weight or shell thickness is positively correlated with ambient [CO32-] and has been used as proxy to reconstruct past changes in the surface ocean carbonate system. An ideal location for the application of this proxy is the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System (CSS), an Eastern Boundary Upwelling System (EBUS), which is characterized as having naturally lower pH. Upwelling introduces CO2-enriched bottom waters to the surface ocean, intensifying the effects of increasing dissolved CO2 as a result of anthropogenic activities. Upwelling produces a wide range of surface water [CO32-] making the Santa Barbara Basin (SBB) an ideal site to carry out a foraminiferal shell weight calibration study. Area density (?A) is a new method for collecting size-normalized shell weights that will be used in this study. Species-specific calibrations have been derived for two symbiont-barren planktonic foraminifera, N. pachyderma (dextral) and G. bulloides. ?A measurements of these species collected from 35 months of sediment trap material are regressed with corresponding calcification depth-specific [CO32-]. Preliminary results show that ?A for both species demonstrate a positive linear relationship with ambient [CO32-]. Seasonal upwelling patterns are clearly recorded in ?A measurements with lower values occurring during periods of peak upwelling, which typically initiates in early spring. Preliminary observations suggest that distinguishing different morphotypes and ontogenic stages of the planktonic foraminifera used in this study could optimize the calibration equations. Final calibration equations will be applied to ?A measurements for a 200-year core record collected near the sediment trap mooring in the SBB. This reconstruction will quantify changes in [CO32-] as a result of OA since the onset of the industrial revolution, providing insights for future reduction in calcification efficiency of foraminifera as a result of OA and increasing carbon emissions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=163145&keyword=organic+AND+food+AND+risk&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=42641560&CFTOKEN=58887588','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=163145&keyword=organic+AND+food+AND+risk&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=42641560&CFTOKEN=58887588"><span id="translatedtitle">AQUATIC <span class="hlt">ECOSYSTEMS</span>,</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Aquatic <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> are a vital part of the urban water cycle (and of urban areas more broadly), and, if healthy, provide a range of goods and services valued by humans (Meyer 1997). For example, aquatic <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> (e.g., rivers, lakes, wetlands) provide potable water, food resou...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.H51D0854C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFM.H51D0854C"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Recent Debris Flows on Stream <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> and Food Webs in Small Watersheds in the Central Klamath Mountains, NW <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cover, M. R.; de La Fuente, J.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>Debris flows are common erosional processes in steep mountain areas throughout the world, but little is known about the long-term ecological effects of debris flows on stream <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. Based on debris flow histories that were developed for each of ten tributary basins, we classified channels as having experienced recent (1997) or older (pre-1997) debris flows. Of the streams classified as older debris flow streams, three streams experienced debris flows during floods in 1964 or 1974, while two streams showed little or no evidence of debris flow activity in the 20th century. White alder (Alnus rhombifolia) was the dominant pioneer tree species in recent debris flow streams, forming localized dense patches of canopy cover. Maximum temperatures and daily temperature ranges were significantly higher in recent debris flow streams than in older debris flow streams. Debris flows resulted in a shift in food webs from allochthonous to autochthonous energy sources. Primary productivity, as measured by oxygen change during the day, was greater in recent debris flow streams, resulting in increased abundances of grazers such as the armored caddisfly Glossosoma spp. Detritivorous stoneflies were virtually absent in recent debris flow streams because of the lack of year-round, diverse sources of leaf litter. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were abundant in four of the recent debris flow streams. Poor recolonizers, such as the Pacific giant salamander (Dicamptodon tenebrosus), coastal tailed frog (Ascaphus truei), and signal crayfish (Pacifistacus leniusculus), were virtually absent in recent debris flow streams. Forest and watershed managers should consider the role of forest disturbances, such as road networks, on debris flow frequency and intensity, and the resulting ecological effects on stream <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015DSRII.112...61J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015DSRII.112...61J"><span id="translatedtitle">Trapped diurnal internal tides, propagating semidiurnal internal tides, and mixing estimates in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System from sustained glider observations, 2006-2012</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Johnston, T. M. Shaun; Rudnick, Daniel L.</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>From 2006-2012, along 3 repeated cross-shore transects (<span class="hlt">California</span> Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations lines 66.7, 80, and 90) in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System, 33 609 shear and 39 737 strain profiles from 66 glider missions are used to estimate mixing via finescale parameterizations from a dataset containing over 52 000 profiles. Elevated diffusivity estimates and energetic diurnal (D1) and semidiurnal (D2) internal tides are found: (a) within 100 km of the coast on lines 66.7 and 80 and (b) over the Santa Rosa-Cortes Ridge (SRCR) in the Southern <span class="hlt">California</span> Bight (SCB) on line 90. While finding elevated mixing near topography and associated with internal tides is not novel, the combination of resolution and extent in this ongoing data collection is unmatched in the coastal ocean to our knowledge. Both D1 and D2 internal tides are energy sources for mixing. At these latitudes, the D1 internal tide is subinertial. On line 90, D1 and D2 tides are equally energetic over the SRCR, the main site of elevated mixing within the SCB. Numerous sources of internal tides at the rough topography in the SCB produce standing and/or partially-standing waves. On lines 66.7 and 80, the dominant energy source below about 100 m for mixing is the D1 internal tide, which has an energy density of the D2 internal tide. On line 80, estimated diffusivity, estimated dissipation, and D1 energy density peak in summer. The D1 energy density shows an increasing trend from 2006 to 2012. Its amplitude and phase are mostly consistent with topographically-trapped D1 internal tides traveling with the topography on their right. The observed offshore decay of the diffusivity estimates is consistent with the exponential decay of a trapped wave with a mode-1 Rossby radius of 20-30 km. Despite the variable mesoscale, it is remarkable that coherent internal tidal phase is found.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22527455','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22527455"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparative bioaccumulation of trace metals using six filter feeder organisms in a coastal lagoon <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> (of the central-east Gulf of <span class="hlt">California</span>).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jara-Marini, M E; Tapia-Alcaraz, J N; Dumer-Gutiérrez, J A; García-Rico, L; García-Hernández, J; Páez-Osuna, F</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>The Tobari Lagoon, located in the central-east coast of the Gulf of <span class="hlt">California</span>, receives effluents from the Yaqui Valley, one of the most extensive agricultural areas of México. The Tobari Lagoon also receives effluents from nearby shrimp farms and untreated municipal sewage. Surface sediment samples and six different species of filter feeders (Crassostrea corteziensis, Crassostrea gigas, Chione gnidia, Anadara tuberculosa, Chione fluctifraga, and Fistulobalanus dentivarians) were collected during the dry and the rainy seasons and analyzed to determine concentrations of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). Seasonal variations in metal concentrations in sediment were evident, especially for Cd, Cu, Hg, and Zn. The total and bioavailable concentrations of the five metals are not elevated in comparison to other areas around the world. The percentages of bioavailable respect to total concentrations of the metals varied from 0.6 % in Hg to 50.2 % for Cu. In the organisms, Hg showed the lowest concentrations (ranged from 0.22 to 0.65 ?g/g) while Zn showed the highest (ranged from 36.6 to 1,702 ?g/g). Linear correlations between the levels of Cu, Pb, and Zn in the soft tissues of C. fluctifraga and C. gnidia, and A. tuberculosa and C. gnidia were found. Seasonal and interspecies variations in the metal levels in filter feeders were found; F. dentivarians, C. corteziensis, and C. gigas exhibited the highest levels, could be used as biomonitors of metals contamination in this area. PMID:22527455</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2008/5094/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2008/5094/"><span id="translatedtitle">Connections Among the Spatial and Temporal Structures in Tidal <span class="hlt">Currents</span>, Internal Bores, and Surficial Sediment Distributions Over the Shelf off Palos Verdes, <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Noble, Marlene A.; Rosenberger, Kurt J.; Xu, Jingping; Signell, Richard P.; Steele, Alex</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The topography of the Continental Shelf in the central portion of the Southern <span class="hlt">California</span> Bight has rapid variations over relatively small spatial scales. The width of the shelf off the Palos Verdes peninsula, just northwest of Los Angeles, <span class="hlt">California</span>, is only 1 to 3 km. About 7 km southeast of the peninsula, the shelf within San Pedro Bay widens to about 20 km. In 2000, the Los Angeles County Sanitation District began deploying a dense array of moorings in this complex region of the central Southern <span class="hlt">California</span> Bight to monitor local circulation patterns. Moorings were deployed at 13 sites on the Palos Verdes shelf and within the northwestern portion of San Pedro Bay. At each site, a mooring supported a string of thermistors and an adjacent bottom platform housed an Acoustic Doppler <span class="hlt">Current</span> Profiler. These instruments collected vertical profiles of <span class="hlt">current</span> and temperature data continuously for one to two years. The variable bathymetry in the region causes rapid changes in the amplitudes and spatial structures of barotropic tidal <span class="hlt">currents</span>, internal tidal <span class="hlt">currents</span>, and in the associated nonlinear baroclinic <span class="hlt">currents</span> that occur at approximate tidal frequencies. The largest barotropic tidal constituent is M2, the principal semidiurnal tide. The amplitude of this tidal <span class="hlt">current</span> changes over fairly short along-shelf length scales. Tidal-<span class="hlt">current</span> amplitudes are largest in the transition region between the two shelves; they increase from about 5 cm/s over the northern San Pedro shelf to nearly 10 cm/s on the southern portion of the Palos Verdes Shelf. Tidal-<span class="hlt">current</span> amplitudes are then reduced to less than 2 cm/s over the very narrow section of the northern Palos Verdes shelf that lies just 6 km upcoast of the southern sites. Models suggest that the amplitude of the barotropic M2 tidal <span class="hlt">currents</span>, which propagate toward the northwest primarily as a Kelvin wave, is adjusting to the short topographic length scales in the region. Semidiurnal sea-level oscillations are, as expected, independent of these topographic variations; they have a uniform amplitude and phase structure over the entire region. Because the cross-shelf angle of the seabed over most of the Palos Verdes shelf is 1 to 3 degrees, which is critical for the local generation and/or enhancement of nonlinear characteristics in semidiurnal internal tides, some internal tidal-<span class="hlt">current</span> events have strong asymmetric <span class="hlt">current</span> oscillations that are enhanced near the seabed. Near-bottom <span class="hlt">currents</span> in these events are directed primarily offshore with amplitudes that exceed 30 cm/s. The spatial patterns in these energetic near-bottom <span class="hlt">currents</span> have fairly short-length scales. They are largest over the inner shelf and in the transition region between the Palos Verdes and San Pedro shelves. This spatial pattern is similar to that found in the barotropic tidal <span class="hlt">currents</span>. Because these baroclinic <span class="hlt">currents</span> have an approximate tidal frequency, an asymmetric vertical structure, and a somewhat stable phase, they can produce a non-zero depth-mean flow for periods of a few months. These baroclinic <span class="hlt">currents</span> can interact with the barotropic tidal <span class="hlt">current</span> and cause an apparent increase (or decrease) in the estimated barotropic tidal-<span class="hlt">current</span> amplitude. The apparent amplitude of the barotropic tidal <span class="hlt">current</span> may change by 30 to 80 percent or more in a <span class="hlt">current</span> record that is less than three months long. The <span class="hlt">currents</span> and surficial sediments in this region are in dynamic equilibrium in that the spatial patterns in bottom stresses generated by near-bed <span class="hlt">currents</span> from surface tides, internal tides, and internal bores partly control the spatial patterns in the local sediments. Coarser sediments are found in the regions with enhanced bottom stresses (that is, over the inner shelf and in the region between the Palos Verdes and San Pedro shelves). Finer sediments are found over the northwestern portion of the Palos Verdes shelf, where near-bottom <span class="hlt">currents</span> are relatively weak. The nonlinear asymmetries in the i</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMNH24A..02B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMNH24A..02B"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Current</span> progress in using multiple electromagnetic indicators to determine location, time, and magnitude of earthquakes in <span class="hlt">California</span> and Peru (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bleier, T. E.; Dunson, C.; Roth, S.; Heraud, J.; Freund, F. T.; Dahlgren, R.; Bryant, N.; Bambery, R.; Lira, A.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Since ultra-low frequency (ULF) magnetic anomalies were discovered prior to the 1989 Loma Prieta, Ca. M7.0 earthquake, QuakeFinder, a small R&D group based in Palo Alto <span class="hlt">California</span> has systematically monitored ULF magnetic signals with a network of 3-axis induction magnetometers since 2000 in <span class="hlt">California</span>. This raw magnetometer data was collected at 20-50 samples per sec., with no preprocessing, in an attempt to collect an accurate time history of electromagnetic waveforms prior to, during, and after large earthquakes within 30 km. of these sensors. Finally in October 2007, the QuakeFinder team observed a series of strange magnetic pulsations at the Alum Rock, <span class="hlt">California</span> site, 14 days prior to M5.4 earthquake. These magnetic signals observed were relatively short, random pulsations, not continuous waveform signals like Pc1 or Pc3 micropulsations. The magnetic pulses have a characteristic uni-polar shapes and 0.5 sec. to 30 sec. durations, much longer than lightning signals. In May of 2010, very similar pulses were observed at Tacna, Peru, 13 days prior to a M6.2 earthquake, using a QuakeFinder station jointly operated under collaboration with the Catholic University in Lima Peru (PUCP). More examples of these pulsations were sought, and a historical review of older <span class="hlt">California</span> magnetic data discovered fewer but similar pulsations occurred at the Hollister, Ca. site operated by UC Berkeley (e.g. San Juan Bautista M5.1 earthquake on August 12, 1998). Further analysis of the direction of arrival of the magnetic pulses showed an interesting “azimuth clustering” observed in both Alum Rock, Ca. and Tacna, Peru data. The complete time series of the Alum Rock data allowed the team to analyze subsequent changes observed in magnetometer “filter banks” (0.001 Hz to 10 Hz filter bands, similar to those used by Fraser-Smith in 1989), but this time using time-adjusted limits based on time of day, time of year, Kp, and site background noise. These site-customized limits showed similar increases in 30 minute averaged energy excursions, but the 30 minute averages had a disadvantage in that they reduced the signal to noise ratio over the individual pulse counting method. In other electromagnetic monitoring methods, air conductivity instrumentation showed major changes in positive air-borne ions observed near the Alum Rock and Tacna sites, peaking during the 24 hours prior to the earthquake. The use of GOES (geosynchronous) satellite infra red (IR) data showed that an unusual apparent “night time heating” occurred in an extended area within 40+ km. of the Alum Rock site, and this IR signature peaked around the time of the magnetic pulse count peak. The combination of these 3 indicators (magnetic pulse counts, air conductivity, and IR night time heating) may be the start in determining the time (within 1-2 weeks), location (within 20-40km) and magnitude (within +/- 1 increment of Richter magnitude) of earthquake greater than M5.4</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/925916','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/925916"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemical Speciation of Sulfur in Marine Cloud Droplets and Particles: Analysis of Individual Particles from Marine Boundary Layer over the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>William R. Wiley Environmental Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Gilles, Mary K; Hopkins, Rebecca J.; Desyaterik, Yury; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Berkowitz, Carl M.; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander</p> <p>2008-03-12</p> <p>Detailed chemical speciation of the dry residue particles from individual cloud droplets and interstitial aerosol collected during the Marine Stratus Experiment (MASE) was performed using a combination of complementary microanalysis techniques. Techniques include computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersed analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX), time-of-flight secondary ionization mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS), and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). Samples were collected at the ground site located in Point Reyes National Seashore, approximately 1 km from the coast. This manuscript focuses on the analysis of individual particles sampled from air masses that originated over the open ocean and then passed through the area of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">current</span> located along the northern <span class="hlt">California</span> coast. Based on composition, morphology, and chemical bonding information, two externally mixed, distinct classes of sulfur containing particles were identified: chemically modified (aged) sea salt particles and secondary formed sulfate particles. The results indicate substantial heterogeneous replacement of chloride by methanesulfonate (CH3SO3-) and non-sea salt sulfate (nss-SO42-) in sea-salt particles with characteristic ratios of nss-S/Na>0.10 and CH3SO3-/nss-SO42->0.6.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17591729','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17591729"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Current</span> status of the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum, susceptibility to neonicotinoid and conventional insecticides on strawberries in southern <span class="hlt">California</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bi, Jian L; Toscano, Nick C</p> <p>2007-08-01</p> <p>Since 1998, the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae), has emerged as a major insect pest of many horticultural crops in coastal <span class="hlt">California</span>. Control of this pest has been heavily dependent upon chemical insecticides. Objectives of this study were to determine the status of the greenhouse whitefly susceptibility to neonicotinoid and conventional insecticides on strawberries in Oxnard/Ventura, a year-round intensive horticultural production area of southern <span class="hlt">California</span>. For bioassay tests, adult whiteflies were collected from commercial strawberry crops, and immatures were directly developed from eggs laid by these adults. LD(50) values of soil-applied imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and dinotefuran were respectively 8.7, 3.2 and 4.9 times higher for the adults, 1.8, 1.2 and 1.5 times higher for the first-instar nymphs and 89.4, 390 and 10.4 times higher for the third-instar nymphs than their top label rates. LC(50) values of foliar-applied imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and acetamiprid were respectively 6.1, 6.0 and 1.7 times higher for the adults and 3.8, 8.7 and 4.4 times higher for the second-instar nymphs than their top label rates. For the adults, LC(90) values of endosulfan, malathion, methomyl, bifenthrin and fenpropathrin were 2.2, 1.2, 1.9, 2.3 and 4.9 times lower than their respective top label rates. Chlorpyrifos was not very effective against the adults, as indicated by its LC(90) being 120% higher than its top label rate. The present results strongly emphasize the need to develop resistance management strategies in the region. PMID:17591729</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70012809','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70012809"><span id="translatedtitle">COMPARISON OF RECORDING <span class="hlt">CURRENT</span> METERS USED FOR MEASURING VELOCITIES IN SHALLOW WATERS OF SAN FRANCISCO BAY, <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Gartner, Jeffrey W.; Oltmann, Richard N.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The authors determine the feasibility of collecting reliable <span class="hlt">current</span>-meter data in shallow water under natural conditions. The study involved field testing four types of recording <span class="hlt">current</span> meters (different speed sensors) and comparing data recorded by the meters under different field conditions. Speeds recorded by the <span class="hlt">current</span> meters at slack water and during maximum flows were compared during calm and windy conditions at various tide levels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=8539&keyword=everglades&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=53434559&CFTOKEN=53978959','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=8539&keyword=everglades&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=53434559&CFTOKEN=53978959"><span id="translatedtitle">SOUTH FLORIDA <span class="hlt">ECOSYSTEM</span> ASSESSMENT PROJECT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The South Florida <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Assessment Project is an innovative, large-scale monitoring and assessment program designed to measure <span class="hlt">current</span> and changing conditions of ecological resources in South Florida using an integrated holistic approach. Using the United States Environmenta...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMOS23E..05M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMOS23E..05M"><span id="translatedtitle">An Overview of the Impacts of Pacific Decadal Climate Variability on Marine <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mantua, N.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Over the past few decades a wealth of evidence has pointed to strong associations between multi-decadal climate changes and marine <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> changes in the Pacific. The period from the late 1970's through the mid-1990's, for example, saw sustained high productivity for most Pacific salmon at the northern end of their range coinciding with sustained low productivity for Pacific salmon at the southern end of their range. It is now recognized that this "north-south inverse production pattern" for Pacific salmon played out over much of the 20th Century in response to Pacific Decadal climate variations. There is abundant direct and indirect evidence for decadal scale climate impacts on many other Pacific marine species, including (among others) sardines and anchovies in the Humboldt and <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Currents</span>, and pollock and crab in the Bering Sea. In special cases, interdecadal <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> changes have been termed "<span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> regime shifts", wherein evidence points to large-scale <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> restructuring at both lower and upper trophic levels. Understanding the mechanisms linking decadal variations in climate to <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> has proven to be a major challenge, and the lack of understanding poses a serious barrier to predicting <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> changes at the time-space scales important to resource managers and the fishing industry.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15940400','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15940400"><span id="translatedtitle">Phreatophytic vegetation and groundwater fluctuations: a review of <span class="hlt">current</span> research and application of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> response modeling with an emphasis on great basin vegetation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Naumburg, Elke; Mata-Gonzalez, Ricardo; Hunter, Rachael G; McLendon, Terry; Martin, David W</p> <p>2005-06-01</p> <p>Although changes in depth to groundwater occur naturally, anthropogenic alterations may exacerbate these fluctuations and, thus, affect vegetation reliant on groundwater. These effects include changes in physiology, structure, and community dynamics, particularly in arid regions where groundwater can be an important water source for many plants. To properly manage <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> subject to changes in depth to groundwater, plant responses to both rising and falling groundwater tables must be understood. However, most research has focused exclusively on riparian <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, ignoring regions where groundwater is available to a wider range of species. Here, we review responses of riparian and other species to changes in groundwater levels in arid environments. Although decreasing water tables often result in plant water stress and reduced live biomass, the converse is not necessarily true for rising water tables. Initially, rising water tables kill flooded roots because most species cannot tolerate the associated low oxygen levels. Thus, flooded plants can also experience water stress. Ultimately, individual species responses to either scenario depend on drought and flooding tolerance and the change in root system size and water uptake capacity. However, additional environmental and biological factors can play important roles in the severity of vegetation response to altered groundwater tables. Using the reviewed information, we created two conceptual models to highlight vegetation dynamics in areas with groundwater fluctuations. These models use flow charts to identify key vegetation and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> properties and their responses to changes in groundwater tables to predict community responses. We then incorporated key concepts from these models into EDYS, a comprehensive <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> model, to highlight the potential complexity of predicting community change under different fluctuating groundwater scenarios. Such models provide a valuable tool for managing vegetation and groundwater use in areas where groundwater is important to both plants and humans, particularly in the context of climate change. PMID:15940400</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3440624','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3440624"><span id="translatedtitle">Stable Isotope Analysis Challenges Wasp-Waist Food Web Assumptions in an Upwelling Pelagic <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Madigan, Daniel J.; Carlisle, Aaron B.; Dewar, Heidi; Snodgrass, Owyn E.; Litvin, Steven Y.; Micheli, Fiorenza; Block, Barbara A.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Eastern boundary <span class="hlt">currents</span> are often described as ‘wasp-waist’ <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> in which one or few mid-level forage species support a high diversity of larger predators that are highly susceptible to fluctuations in prey biomass. The assumption of wasp-waist control has not been empirically tested in all such <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. This study used stable isotope analysis to test the hypothesis of wasp-waist control in the southern <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> large marine <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> (CCLME). We analyzed prey and predator tissue for ?13C and ?15N and used Bayesian mixing models to provide estimates of CCLME trophic dynamics from 2007–2010. Our results show high omnivory, planktivory by some predators, and a higher degree of trophic connectivity than that suggested by the wasp-waist model. Based on this study period, wasp-waist models oversimplify trophic dynamics within the CCLME and potentially other upwelling, pelagic <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. Higher trophic connectivity in the CCLME likely increases <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> stability and resilience to perturbations. PMID:22977729</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1629036','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1629036"><span id="translatedtitle">Conservation Planning for <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Services</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chan, Kai M. A; Shaw, M. Rebecca; Cameron, David R; Underwood, Emma C; Daily, Gretchen C</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Despite increasing attention to the human dimension of conservation projects, a rigorous, systematic methodology for planning for <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services has not been developed. This is in part because flows of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services remain poorly characterized at local-to-regional scales, and their protection has not generally been made a priority. We used a spatially explicit conservation planning framework to explore the trade-offs and opportunities for aligning conservation goals for biodiversity with six <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services (carbon storage, flood control, forage production, outdoor recreation, crop pollination, and water provision) in the Central Coast ecoregion of <span class="hlt">California</span>, United States. We found weak positive and some weak negative associations between the priority areas for biodiversity conservation and the flows of the six <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services across the ecoregion. Excluding the two agriculture-focused services—crop pollination and forage production—eliminates all negative correlations. We compared the degree to which four contrasting conservation network designs protect biodiversity and the flow of the six services. We found that biodiversity conservation protects substantial collateral flows of services. Targeting <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services directly can meet the multiple <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services and biodiversity goals more efficiently but cannot substitute for targeted biodiversity protection (biodiversity losses of 44% relative to targeting biodiversity alone). Strategically targeting only biodiversity plus the four positively associated services offers much promise (relative biodiversity losses of 7%). Here we present an initial analytical framework for integrating biodiversity and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services in conservation planning and illustrate its application. We found that although there are important potential trade-offs between conservation for biodiversity and for <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services, a systematic planning framework offers scope for identifying valuable synergies. PMID:17076586</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRC..118.4795R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRC..118.4795R"><span id="translatedtitle">Air-sea CO2 fluxes in the near-shore and intertidal zones influenced by the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reimer, Janet J.; Vargas, Rodrigo; Smith, Stephen V.; Lara-Lara, Ruben; Gaxiola-Castro, Gilberto; Martín Hernández-Ayón, J.; Castro, Angel; Escoto-Rodriguez, Martin; Martínez-Osuna, Juan</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>The study of air-sea CO2 fluxes (FCO2) in the coastal region is needed to better understand the processes that influence the direction and magnitude of FCO2 and to constrain the global carbon budget. We implemented a 1 year (January through December 2009) paired study to measure FCO2 in the intertidal zone (the coastline to 1.6 km offshore) and the near-shore (˜3 km offshore) off the north-western coast of Baja <span class="hlt">California</span> (Mexico); a region influenced by year-round upwelling. FCO2 was determined in the intertidal zone via eddy covariance; while in the near-shore using mooring buoy sensors then calculated with the bulk method. The near-shore region was a weak annual net source of CO2 to the atmosphere (0.043 mol CO2 m-2 y-1); where 91% of the outgassed FCO2 was contributed during the upwelling season. Sea surface temperature (SST) and ?pCO2 (from upwelling) showed the strongest relationship with FCO2 in the near-shore, suggesting the importance of meso-scale processes (upwelling). FCO2 in the intertidal zone were up to four orders of magnitude higher than FCO2 in the near-shore. Wind speed showed the strongest relationship with FCO2 in the intertidal zone, suggesting the relevance of micro-scale processes. Results show that there are substantial spatial and temporal differences in FCO2 between the near-shore and intertidal zone; likely a result of heterogeneity. We suggest that detailed spatial and temporal measurements are needed across the coastal oceans and continental margins to better understand the mechanisms which control FCO2, as well as reduce uncertainties and constrain regional and global ocean carbon balances.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70027808','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70027808"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of shelf <span class="hlt">currents</span> off central <span class="hlt">California</span> prior to and during the 1997-1998 El Nino</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Ryan, H.F.; Noble, M.A.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Moored <span class="hlt">current</span>, temperature, salinity, and pressure data were collected at three sites that transect the narrow continental shelf offshore of Davenport, CA, starting in August 1996 and continuing to the spring of 1998. This data set allowed a comparison of oceanographic conditions prior to (8/96-3/97) and during (8/97-3/98) the last major El Nin??o. During this El Nin??o, mean temperatures over the 8-month time period were about 3??C warmer than during the prior year at all of the sites. Correlations between near-surface and near-bottom temperatures, and between near-surface temperature and wind stress decreased during the El Nin??o compared to conditions the year before. The mean alongshore <span class="hlt">currents</span> were more strongly poleward during El Nin??o at sites over the mid-shelf and near the shelf break. There was a general tendency for the energy in alongshore <span class="hlt">currents</span> to move toward lower frequencies during the El Nin??o, particularly at the sites farther offshore. The processes that forced the shelf flows changed in relative importance throughout the study. The local alongshore wind stress was less important in driving shelf <span class="hlt">currents</span> during the El Nin??o when much of the wind-induced upwelling was confined to less than 5 km of the coast. The observed strong poleward shelf <span class="hlt">currents</span> on the mid- to outer-shelf were not clearly tied to local forcing, but were remotely driven, most likely by slope <span class="hlt">currents</span>. The response of the Davenport shelf to an El Nin??o event may differ from other areas since the shelf is narrow, the wind forcing is weaker than areas to the north and south, and the shelf may be at times isolated by fronts that form at strong upwelling centers. In the winter, strong storm-related winds are important in driving <span class="hlt">currents</span> at periods not only in the synoptic wind band, but also for periods on the order of 20 d and longer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/985029','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/985029"><span id="translatedtitle">Chemical Speciation of Sulfur in Marine Cloud Droplets and Particles: Analysis of Individual Particles from the Marine Boundary Layer Over the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hopkins, Rebecca J.; Desyaterik, Yury; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Berkowitz, Carl M.; Tyliszczak, T.; Gilles, Marry K.; Laskin, Alexander</p> <p>2008-02-27</p> <p>Detailed chemical speciation of the dry residue particles from individual cloud droplets and interstitial aerosol collected during the Marine Stratus Experiment (MASE) was performed using a complementary combination of microanalysis techniques. Techniques include computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersed analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX), time-of-flight secondary ionization mass spectrometry (TOFSIMS), and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). Samples were collected at the ground site located in Point Reyes National Seashore, approximately 1 km from the coast. This manuscript focuses on the analysis of individual particles sampled from an air mass that originated over the open ocean and then passed through the area of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">current</span> located along the northern <span class="hlt">California</span> coast. Based on composition, morphology, and chemical bonding information, two externally mixed, distinct classes of sulfur containing particles were identified: chemically modified (aged) sea salt particles and secondary formed sulfate particles. The results indicate substantial heterogeneous replacement of chloride by methanesulfonate (CH3SO3 -) and non-sea salt sulfate (nss-SO4 2-) in sea-salt particles with the characteristic ratios of CH3SO3 ?/nss-SO4 2?> 0.6. Although this value seems too high for a mid-latitude site, our model calculations suggest that high CH3SO3 -/nss-SO4 2- ratios are expected during the early stages of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) oxidation when CH3SO3H forms more rapidly than H2SO4.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025434','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70025434"><span id="translatedtitle">Long-term, high-frequency <span class="hlt">current</span> and temperature measurements along central <span class="hlt">California</span>: Insights into upwelling/relaxation and internal waves on the inner shelf</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Storlazzi, C.D.; McManus, M.A.; Figurski, J.D.</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Thermistor chains and acoustic Doppler <span class="hlt">current</span> profilers were deployed at the northern and southern ends of Monterey Bay to examine the thermal and hydrodynamic structure of the inner (h ??? 20 m) shelf of central <span class="hlt">California</span>. These instruments sampled temperature and <span class="hlt">current</span> velocity at 2-min intervals over a 13-month period from June 2000 to July 2001. Time series of these data, in conjunction with SST imagery and CODAR sea surface <span class="hlt">current</span> maps, helped to establish the basic hydrography for Monterey Bay. Analysis of time series data revealed that depth integrated flow at both sites was shore parallel (northwest-southeast) with net flows out of the Bay (northwest). The <span class="hlt">current</span> and temperature records were dominated by semi-diurnal and diurnal tidal signals that lagged the surface tides by 3 h on average. Over the course of an internal tidal cycle these flows were asymmetric, with the flow during the flooding internal tide to the southeast typically lasting only one-third as long as the flow to the northwest during the ebbing internal tide. The transitions from ebb to flood were rapid and bore-like in nature; they were also marked by rapid increases in temperature and high shear. During the spring and summer, when thermal stratification was high, we observed almost 2000 high-frequency (Tp ??? 4-20 min) internal waves in packets of 8-10 following the heads of these bore-like features. Previous studies along the West Coast of the US have concluded that warm water bores and high-frequency internal waves may play a significant role in the onshore transport of larvae.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/sim3306','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/sim3306"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">California</span> State Waters Map Series: offshore of San Gregorio, <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Cochrane, Guy R.; Dartnell, Peter; Greene, H. Gary; Watt, Janet T.; Golden, Nadine E.; Endris, Charles A.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Bretz, Carrie K.; Manson, Michael W.; Sliter, Ray W.; Ross, Stephanie L.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Chin, John L.; Cochran, Susan A.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In 2007, the <span class="hlt">California</span> Ocean Protection Council initiated the <span class="hlt">California</span> Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of <span class="hlt">California</span>'s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology. The Offshore of San Gregorio map area is located in northern <span class="hlt">California</span>, on the Pacific coast of the San Francisco Peninsula about 50 kilometers south of the Golden Gate. The map area lies offshore of the Santa Cruz Mountains, part of the northwest-trending Coast Ranges that run roughly parallel to the San Andreas Fault Zone. The Santa Cruz Mountains lie between the San Andreas Fault Zone and the San Gregorio Fault system. The nearest significant onshore cultural centers in the map area are San Gregorio and Pescadero, both unincorporated communities with populations well under 1,000. Both communities are situated inland of state beaches that share their names. No harbor facilities are within the Offshore of San Gregorio map area. The hilly coastal area is virtually undeveloped grazing land for sheep and cattle. The coastal geomorphology is controlled by late Pleistocene and Holocene slip in the San Gregorio Fault system. A westward bend in the San Andreas Fault Zone, southeast of the map area, coupled with right-lateral movement along the San Gregorio Fault system have caused regional folding and uplift. The coastal area consists of high coastal bluffs and vertical sea cliffs. Coastal promontories in the northern and southern parts of the map area are the result of right-lateral motion on strands of the San Gregorio Fault system. In the south, headlands near Pescadero Point have been uplifted by motion along the west strand of the San Gregorio Fault (also called the Frijoles Fault), which separates rocks of the Pigeon Point Formation south of the fault from rocks of the Purisima Formation north of the fault. The regional uplift in this map area has caused relatively shallow water depths within <span class="hlt">California</span>'s State Waters and, thus, little accommodation space for sediment accumulation. Sediment is observed offshore in the central part of the map area, in the shelter of the headlands north of the east strand of the San Gregorio Fault (also called the Coastways Fault) around Miramontes Point (about 5 km north of the map area) and also on the outer half of the <span class="hlt">California</span>'s State Waters shelf in the south where depths exceed 40 m. Sediment in the outer shelf of <span class="hlt">California</span>'s State Waters is rippled, indicating some mobility. The Offshore of San Gregorio map area lies within the cold-temperate biogeographic zone that is called either the "Oregonian province" or the "northern <span class="hlt">California</span> ecoregion." This biogeographic province is maintained by the long-term stability of the southward-flowing <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span>, an eastern limb of the North Pacific subtropical gyre that flows from Oregon to Baja <span class="hlt">California</span>. At its midpoint off central <span class="hlt">California</span>, the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> transports subarctic surface (0–500 m deep) waters southward, about 150 to 1,300 km from shore. Seasonal northwesterly winds that are, in part, responsible for the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span>, generate coastal upwelling. The south end of the Oregonian province is at Point Conception (about 350 km south of the map area), although its associated phylogeographic group of marine fauna may extend beyond to the area offshore of Los Angeles in southern <span class="hlt">California</span>. The ocean off of central <span class="hlt">California</span> has experienced a warming over the last 50 years that is driving an <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> shift away from the productive subarctic r</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.fs.fed.us/psw/publications/documents/psw_gtr194/psw_gtr194_06.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.fs.fed.us/psw/publications/documents/psw_gtr194/psw_gtr194_06.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Management Decision Support (EMDS) Applied to Watershed Assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Management Decision Support (EMDS) Applied to Watershed Assessment on <span class="hlt">California</span>'s North, the state of <span class="hlt">California</span> initiated the North Coast Watershed Assessment Program (2003a) to assemble information on the status of coastal watersheds that have historically supported anadromous fish. The five</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.fs.fed.us/psw/publications/documents/psw_gtr058/psw_gtr058_1b_tyrrel.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.fs.fed.us/psw/publications/documents/psw_gtr058/psw_gtr058_1b_tyrrel.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Chaparral in Southern <span class="hlt">California</span>1 Robert R. Tyrrel2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>, small, thick, and stiff in order to cope with drought periods. The common genera of Southern <span class="hlt">California</span>Chaparral in Southern <span class="hlt">California</span>1 Robert R. Tyrrel2 1Presented at the Symposium on Dynamics and Management of Mediterranean-type <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span>, June 22-26, 1981, San Diego, <span class="hlt">California</span>. 2Forest Supervisor, San</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-03-11/pdf/2010-5344.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-03-11/pdf/2010-5344.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 11555 - Notice of Public Meeting: Northeast <span class="hlt">California</span> Resource Advisory Council and Subcommittee</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-03-11</p> <p>...<span class="hlt">California</span> Resource Advisory Council and its Sage Steppe <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Subcommittee will meet as indicated below. DATES: The RAC Sage Steppe Ecosytem Subcommittee will meet...coordination for implementing projects under the Sage Steppe <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Restoration...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1209197','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1209197"><span id="translatedtitle">Predicting long-term carbon sequestration in response to CO<sub>2</sub> enrichment: How and why do <span class="hlt">current</span> <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> models differ?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Walker, Anthony P.; Zaehle, Sönke; Medlyn, Belinda E.; De Kauwe, Martin G.; Asao, Shinichi; Hickler, Thomas; Parton, William; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Wang, Ying -Ping; Wårlind, David; Norby, Richard J.</p> <p>2015-04-27</p> <p>Large uncertainty exists in model projections of the land carbon (C) sink response to increasing atmospheric CO<sub>2</sub>. Free-Air CO<sub>2</sub> Enrichment (FACE) experiments lasting a decade or more have investigated <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> responses to a step change in atmospheric CO<sub>2</sub> concentration. To interpret FACE results in the context of gradual increases in atmospheric CO<sub>2</sub> over decades to centuries, we used a suite of seven models to simulate the Duke and Oak Ridge FACE experiments extended for 300 years of CO<sub>2</sub> enrichment. We also determine key modeling assumptions that drive divergent projections of terrestrial C uptake and evaluate whether these assumptions can be constrained by experimental evidence. All models simulated increased terrestrial C pools resulting from CO<sub>2</sub> enrichment, though there was substantial variability in quasi-equilibrium C sequestration and rates of change. In two of two models that assume that plant nitrogen (N) uptake is solely a function of soil N supply, the net primary production response to elevated CO<sub>2</sub> became progressively N limited. In four of five models that assume that N uptake is a function of both soil N supply and plant N demand, elevated CO<sub>2</sub> led to reduced <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> N losses and thus progressively relaxed nitrogen limitation. Many allocation assumptions resulted in increased wood allocation relative to leaves and roots which reduced the vegetation turnover rate and increased C sequestration. Additionally, self-thinning assumptions had a substantial impact on C sequestration in two models. As a result, accurate representation of N process dynamics (in particular N uptake), allocation, and forest self-thinning is key to minimizing uncertainty in projections of future C sequestration in response to elevated atmospheric CO<sub>2</sub>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/964265','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/964265"><span id="translatedtitle">Annual Report to the Bonneville Power Administration, Reporting Period: April 2008 - February 2009 [re: "Survival and Growth in the Columbia River Plume and north <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span>"].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Northwest Fisheries Science Center, NOAA Fisheries; Cooperative Institute for Marine Resources Studies, Oregon State University; OGI School of Science & Engineering, Oregon Health Sciences University.</p> <p>2009-07-17</p> <p>We have made substantial progress toward our objectives outlined in our BPA supported proposal entitled 'Columbia River Basin Juvenile Salmonids: Survival and Growth in the Columbia River Plume and northern <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span>' which we report on herein. During 2008, we were able to successfully conduct 3 mesoscale cruises. We also were able to conduct 7 biweekly predator cruises, along with substantial shore-based visual observations of seabirds. Detailed results of the mesoscale cruises are available in the Cruise Reports and summarized in the next section. We have taken a proactive approach to getting the results of our research to fisheries managers and the general public. We have begun to make annual predictions based on ocean conditions of the relative survival of juvenile coho and Chinook salmon well before they return as adults. This is based on both biological and physical indicators that we measure during our surveys or collect from outside data sources. Examples of our predictions for 2009 and 2010 are available on the following web site: http://www.nwfsc.noaa.gov/research/divisions/fed/oeip/a-ecinhome.cfm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2015/1191/ofr20151191_pamphlet.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2015/1191/ofr20151191_pamphlet.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">California</span> State Waters map series—Offshore of Scott Creek, <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Cochrane, Guy R.; Dartnell, Peter; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Greene, H. Gary; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Golden, Nadine E.; Endris, Charles A.; Hartwell, Stephen R,; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Davenport, Clifton W.; Watt, Janet T.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Sliter, Ray W.; Finlayson, David P.; Maier, Katherine L.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The Offshore of Scott Creek map area lies within the cold-temperate biogeographic zone that is called either the “Oregonian province” or the “northern <span class="hlt">California</span> ecoregion.” This biogeographic province is maintained by the long-term stability of the southward-flowing <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span>, the eastern limb of the North Pacific subtropical gyre that flows from southern British Columbia to Baja <span class="hlt">California</span>. At its midpoint off central <span class="hlt">California</span>, the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> transports subarctic surface (0–500 m deep) waters southward, abou</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=80866&keyword=Cai&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=50215942&CFTOKEN=59682479','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=80866&keyword=Cai&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=50215942&CFTOKEN=59682479"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">ECOSYSTEM</span> HEALTH: ENERGY INDICATORS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>1. <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Health and Ecological Integrity<br>2. Historical Background on <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Health<br>3. Energy Systems Analysis, Health and Emergy<br>4. Energy and <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span><br>5. Direct Measures of <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Health<br>6. Indirect Measures of <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Health</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=188338&keyword=FISHING&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=53012850&CFTOKEN=57661194','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=188338&keyword=FISHING&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=53012850&CFTOKEN=57661194"><span id="translatedtitle">Fishing for Novel Approaches to <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Service Forecasts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> service concept provides a powerful framework for conserving species and the environments they depend upon. Describing <span class="hlt">current</span> distributions of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services and forecasting their future distributions have therefore become central objectives in many conservati...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70042741','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70042741"><span id="translatedtitle">A perspective on modern pesticides, pelagic fish declines, and unknown ecological resilience in highly managed <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Scholz, Nathaniel L.; Fleishman, Erica; Brown, Larry; Werner, Inge; Johnson, Michael L.; Brooks, Marjorie L.; Mitchelmore, Carys L.; Schlenk, Daniel</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Pesticides applied on land are commonly transported by runoff or spray drift to aquatic <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, where they are potentially toxic to fishes and other nontarget organisms. Pesticides add to and interact with other stressors of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> processes, including surface-water diversions, losses of spawning and rearing habitats, nonnative species, and harmful algal blooms. Assessing the cumulative effects of pesticides on species or ecological functions has been difficult for historical, legal, conceptual, and practical reasons. To explore these challenges, we examine <span class="hlt">current</span>-use (modern) pesticides and their potential connections to the abundances of fishes in the San Francisco Estuary (<span class="hlt">California</span>). Declines in delta smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus), Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), and other species have triggered mandatory and expensive management actions in the urbanizing estuary and agriculturally productive Central Valley. Our inferences are transferable to other situations in which toxics may drive changes in ecological status and trends.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013BGD....10.5803S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013BGD....10.5803S"><span id="translatedtitle">Measurements of nitrite production and nitrite-producing organisms in and around the primary nitrite maximum in the central <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Santoro, A. E.; Sakamoto, C. M.; Smith, J. M.; Plant, J. N.; Gehman, A. L.; Worden, A. Z.; Johnson, K. S.; Francis, C. A.; Casciotti, K. L.</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Nitrite (NO2-) is a substrate for both oxidative and reductive microbial metabolism. NO2- accumulates at the base of the euphotic zone in oxygenated, stratified open ocean water columns, forming a feature known as the primary nitrite maximum (PNM). Potential pathways of NO2- production include the oxidation of ammonia (NH3) by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria or archaea and assimilatory nitrate (NO3-) reduction by phytoplankton or heterotrophic bacteria. Measurements of NH3 oxidation and NO3- reduction to NO2- were conducted at two stations in the central <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> in the eastern North Pacific to determine the relative contributions of these processes to NO2- production in the PNM. Sensitive (< 10 nmol L-1), high-resolution measurements of [NH4+] and [NO2-] indicated a persistent NH4+ maximum overlying the PNM at every station, with concentrations as high as 1.5 ?mol L-1. Within and just below the PNM, NH3 oxidation was the dominant NO2- producing process with rates of NH3 oxidation of up to 50 nmol L-1 d-1, coinciding with high abundances of ammonia-oxidizing archaea. Though little NO2- production from NO3- was detected, potentially nitrate-reducing phytoplankton (photosynthetic picoeukaryotes, Synechococcus, and Prochlorococcus) were present at the depth of the PNM. Rates of NO2- production from NO3- were highest within the upper mixed layer (4.6 nmol L-1 d-1) but were either below detection limits or 10 times lower than NH3 oxidation rates around the PNM. One-dimensional modeling of water column NO2- profiles supported direct rate measurements of a net biological sink for NO2- just below the PNM. Residence time estimates of NO2- within the PNM were similar at the mesotrophic and oligotrophic stations and ranged from 150-205 d. Our results suggest the PNM is a dynamic, rather than relict, feature with a source term dominated by ammonia oxidation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2015/1232/ofr20151232_sheet10.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2015/1232/ofr20151232_sheet10.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">California</span> State Waters Map Series—Offshore of Pigeon Point, <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Cochrane, Guy R.; Watt, Janet T.; Dartnell, Peter; Greene, H. Gary; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Golden, Nadine E.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Endris, Charles A.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Davenport, Clifton W.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Sliter, Ray W.; Finlayson, David P.; Maier, Katherine L.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The Offshore of Pigeon Point map area lies within the cold-temperate biogeographic zone that is called either the “Oregonian province” or the “northern <span class="hlt">California</span> ecoregion.” This biogeographic province is maintained by the long-term stability of the southward-flowing <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span>, the eastern limb of the North Pacific subtropical gyre that flows from southern British Columbia to Baja <span class="hlt">California</span>. At its midpoint off central <span class="hlt">California</span>, the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> transports subarctic surface (0–500 m deep) waters southward, about 150 to 1,300 km from shore. Seasonal northwesterly winds that are, in part, responsible for the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span>, </p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=interface+AND+energy&pg=3&id=EJ175320','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=interface+AND+energy&pg=3&id=EJ175320"><span id="translatedtitle">Values and the Family <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hogan, M. Janice</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Given <span class="hlt">current</span> awareness and apparent reality of finite energy resources, there is a need to assess values and resource use. Stresses created by rescaling of consumption patterns and values require intervention programs based on new knowledge of the family-environment interface. The family as an <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> is a useful approach. (Author)</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70046245','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70046245"><span id="translatedtitle">Columbia River Estuary <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Classification <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Complex</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Cannon, Charles M.; Ramirez, Mary F.; Heatwole, Danelle W.; Burke, Jennifer L.; Simenstad, Charles A.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Marcoe, Keith Marcoe</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Estuarine <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> are controlled by a variety of processes that operate at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Understanding the hierarchical nature of these processes will aid in prioritization of restoration efforts. This hierarchical Columbia River Estuary <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Classification (henceforth "Classification") of the Columbia River estuary is a spatial database of the tidally-influenced reaches of the lower Columbia River, the tidally affected parts of its tributaries, and the landforms that make up their floodplains for the 230 kilometers between the Pacific Ocean and Bonneville Dam. This work is a collaborative effort between University of Washington School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences (henceforth "UW"), U.S. Geological Survey (henceforth "USGS"), and the Lower Columbia Estuary Partnership (henceforth "EP"). Consideration of geomorphologic processes will improve the understanding of controlling physical factors that drive <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> evolution along the tidal Columbia River. The Classification is organized around six hierarchical levels, progressing from the coarsest, regional scale to the finest, localized scale: (1) <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Province; (2) Ecoregion; (3) Hydrogeomorphic Reach; (4) <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Complex; (5) Geomorphic Catena; and (6) Primary Cover Class. For Levels 4 and 5, we mapped landforms within the Holocene floodplain primarily by visual interpretation of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) topography supplemented with aerial photographs, Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) soils data, and historical maps. Mapped landforms are classified as to their <span class="hlt">current</span> geomorphic function, the inferred process regime that formed them, and anthropogenic modification. Channels were classified primarily by a set of depth-based rules and geometric relationships. Classification Level 5 floodplain landforms ("geomorphic catenae") were further classified based on multivariate analysis of land-cover within the mapped landform area and attributed as "sub-catena". The extent of detailed mapping is the interpreted Holocene geologic floodplain of the tidal Columbia River and its tributaries to the estimated head of tide. The extent of this dataset also includes tributary valleys that are not mapped in detail. The upstream extents of tributary valleys are an estimation of the limit of Columbia River influence and are for use as containers in future analyses. The geologic floodplain is the geomorphic surface that is actively accumulating sediment through occasional overbank deposition. Most features within the geologic floodplain are considered to be formed during the recent (Holocene-epoch) climatic regime. There are bedrock and pre-Holocene sedimentary deposits included where they are surrounded by Holocene sediment accumulations or have been shaped by Holocene floods. In some places, Holocene landforms such as landslides, tributary fans, and coastal dunes are mapped that extend outside of the modern floodplain. This map is not a floodplain hazard map or delineation of actual flood boundaries. Although wetlands are included in the Classification, they are based on different criteria than jurisdictional wetlands. The extent of mapping may differ from the actual limit of tidal influence.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26437633','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26437633"><span id="translatedtitle">Biodiversity and Resilience of <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Functions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Oliver, Tom H; Heard, Matthew S; Isaac, Nick J B; Roy, David B; Procter, Deborah; Eigenbrod, Felix; Freckleton, Rob; Hector, Andy; Orme, C David L; Petchey, Owen L; Proença, Vânia; Raffaelli, David; Suttle, K Blake; Mace, Georgina M; Martín-López, Berta; Woodcock, Ben A; Bullock, James M</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Accelerating rates of environmental change and the continued loss of global biodiversity threaten functions and services delivered by <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. Much <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> monitoring and management is focused on the provision of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> functions and services under <span class="hlt">current</span> environmental conditions, yet this could lead to inappropriate management guidance and undervaluation of the importance of biodiversity. The maintenance of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> functions and services under substantial predicted future environmental change (i.e., their 'resilience') is crucial. Here we identify a range of mechanisms underpinning the resilience of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> functions across three ecological scales. Although potentially less important in the short term, biodiversity, encompassing variation from within species to across landscapes, may be crucial for the longer-term resilience of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> functions and the services that they underpin. PMID:26437633</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70118896','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70118896"><span id="translatedtitle">Valuation of rangeland <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Gascoigne, W.R.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Economic valuation lends itself well to the anthropocentric orientation of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services. An economic perspective on <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> portrays them as natural assets providing a flow of goods and services valuable to individuals and society collectively. A few examples include the purification of drinking water, reduced risk from flooding and other extreme events, pollination of agricultural crops, climate regulation, and recreation opportunities from plant and animal habitat maintenance, among many others. Once these goods and services are identified and quantified, they can be monetized to complete the valuation process. The monetization of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> goods and services (in the form of dollars) provides a common metric that allows for cross-comparison of attributes and evaluation of differing ecological scenarios. Complicating the monetization process is the fact that most of these goods and services are public and non-market in nature; meaning they are non-rival and non-exclusive and are typically not sold in a traditional market setting where monetary values are revealed. Instead, one must employ non-market valuation techniques, with primary valuation methods typically being very time and resource consuming, intimidating to non-economists, and often impractical. For these reasons, benefit transfer methods have gained popularity. This methodology harnesses the primary collection results of existing studies to make inferences about the economic values of non-market goods and services at an alternative policy site (in place and/or in time). For instance, if a primary valuation study on oak reestablishment on rangelands in southern <span class="hlt">California</span> yielded a value of $30 per-acre associated with water regulation, this result can be transferred, with some adjustments, to say something about the value of an acre of oaks on rangelands in northern portions of the state. The economic valuation of rangeland <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services has many roles. Economic values may be used as input into analyzing the costs and benefits associated with policies being proposed, or possibly already implemented. For example, with monetized values acting as a common metric, one could compare the 'benefits' of converting a rangeland <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> for commercial development (perhaps estimated at the market value of the developed land) with the foregone <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> service values (in addition to any land income lost) resulting from that land conversion. Similarly, <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> service values can be used to determine the level of return on an investment. rhis is a primary objective for private land conservation organizations who typically have very limited resources. <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> service valuation can also have a role in damage assessments from incidents that require compensation such as oil spills. Additionally, valuation can be very informative when investigating regulatory programs that trade ecological assets such as wetland mitigation programs. Typically these programs are based simply on an 'acre for acre' criterion, and do not take into consideration varying welfare values associated with that <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>. Lastly, and most fundamental, <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> service valuation serves as a recognition tool for people of all backgrounds. Identifying and valuing <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> goods and services on rangelands brings to light the value these natural assets have to human welfare that often remain hidden do to their public and non-market attributes. This type of recognition is vital to the preservation of rangeland <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> in the future and the many ecological benefits they provide.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/california_dust','SCIGOV-ASDC'); return false;" href="https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/california_dust"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">California</span> Dust</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/">Atmospheric Science Data Center </a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-05-15</p> <p>... dramatically when forced through narrow canyons and mountain passes. Due to Southern <span class="hlt">California</span>'s uneven terrain, the strength of ... from a small fire located near the southern flank of Palomar Mountain in Southern <span class="hlt">California</span>. This image was acquired during Terra orbit ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=309496&keyword=communication&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=55255639&CFTOKEN=28315816','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=309496&keyword=communication&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=55255639&CFTOKEN=28315816"><span id="translatedtitle">Toward a standard lexicon for <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The complex, widely dispersed, and cumulative environmental challenges <span class="hlt">currently</span> facing society require holistic, transdisciplinary approaches to resolve. The concept of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services (ES) has become more widely accepted both as a framework that cuts across the dimensions of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3742767','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3742767"><span id="translatedtitle">Using Seabird Habitat Modeling to Inform Marine Spatial Planning in Central <span class="hlt">California’s</span> National Marine Sanctuaries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>McGowan, Jennifer; Hines, Ellen; Elliott, Meredith; Howar, Julie; Dransfield, Andrea; Nur, Nadav; Jahncke, Jaime</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Understanding seabird habitat preferences is critical to future wildlife conservation and threat mitigation in <span class="hlt">California</span>. The objective of this study was to investigate drivers of seabird habitat selection within the Gulf of the Farallones and Cordell Bank National Marine Sanctuaries to identify areas for targeted conservation planning. We used seabird abundance data collected by the Applied <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Studies Program (ACCESS) from 2004–2011. We used zero-inflated negative binomial regression to model species abundance and distribution as a function of near surface ocean water properties, distances to geographic features and oceanographic climate indices to identify patterns in foraging habitat selection. We evaluated seasonal, inter-annual and species-specific variability of at-sea distributions for the five most abundant seabirds nesting on the Farallon Islands: western gull (Larus occidentalis), common murre (Uria aalge), Cassin’s auklet (Ptychorampus aleuticus), rhinoceros auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata) and Brandt’s cormorant (Phalacrocorax penicillatus). The waters in the vicinity of Cordell Bank and the continental shelf east of the Farallon Islands emerged as persistent and highly selected foraging areas across all species. Further, we conducted a spatial prioritization exercise to optimize seabird conservation areas with and without considering impacts of <span class="hlt">current</span> human activities. We explored three conservation scenarios where 10, 30 and 50 percent of highly selected, species-specific foraging areas would be conserved. We compared and contrasted results in relation to existing marine protected areas (MPAs) and the future alternative energy footprint identified by the <span class="hlt">California</span> Ocean Uses Atlas. Our results show that the majority of highly selected seabird habitat lies outside of state MPAs where threats from shipping, oil spills, and offshore energy development remain. This analysis accentuates the need for innovative marine spatial planning efforts and provides a foundation on which to build more comprehensive zoning and management in <span class="hlt">California’s</span> National Marine Sanctuaries. PMID:23967206</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/885687','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/885687"><span id="translatedtitle">Sustaining the Landscape: A Method for Comparing <span class="hlt">Current</span> and Desired Future Conditions of Forest <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> in the North Cumberland Plateau and Mountains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Druckenbrod, D.L.</p> <p>2004-12-22</p> <p>This project initiates an integrated-landscape conservation approach within the Northern Cumberlands Project Area in Tennessee and Kentucky. The mixed mesophytic forests within the Cumberland Plateau and Mountains are among the most diverse in North America; however, these forests have been impacted by and remain threatened from changes in land use across this landscape. The integrated-landscape conservation approach presented in this report outlines a sequence of six conservation steps. This report considers the first three of these steps in two, successive stages. Stage 1 compares desired future conditions (DFCs) and <span class="hlt">current</span> prevailing conditions (CPCs) at the landscape-scale utilizing remote sensing imagery, remnant forests, and descriptions of historical forest types within the Cumberland Plateau. Subsequently, Stage 2 compares DFCs and CPCs for at-risk forest types identified in Stage 1 utilizing structural, compositional, or functional attributes from USFS Forest Inventory and Analysis data. Ecological indicators will be developed from each stage that express the gaps between these two realizations of the landscape. The results from these first three steps will directly contribute to the final three steps of the integrated-landscape conservation approach by providing guidance for the generation of new conservation strategies in the Northern Cumberland Plateau and Mountains.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://coast.ocean.washington.edu/coastfiles/MacFadyen2008.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://coast.ocean.washington.edu/coastfiles/MacFadyen2008.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Influences of the Juan de Fuca Eddy on circulation, nutrients, and phytoplankton1 production in the northern <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Hickey, Barbara</p> <p></p> <p>be particularly important to the Juan de18 Fuca Eddy region as it is the primary freshwater source driving from early to late summer as the6 vertically averaged contribution of <span class="hlt">California</span> Undercurrent source the eddy margin. During southward wind conditions, the11 combination of cyclonic geostrophic flow and wind</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/california_fires_2007','SCIGOV-ASDC'); return false;" href="https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/california_fires_2007"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">California</span> Fires</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/">Atmospheric Science Data Center </a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-05-15</p> <p>article title:  Southern <span class="hlt">California</span> Fires     View Larger ... than 250,000 people. These two images show the Southern <span class="hlt">California</span> coast from Los Angeles to San Diego from two of the nine cameras on ... date:  Oct 21, 2007 Images:  <span class="hlt">California</span> Fires location:  United States ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/california_fires_2008','SCIGOV-ASDC'); return false;" href="https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/california_fires_2008"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">California</span> Fires</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/">Atmospheric Science Data Center </a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-05-15</p> <p>article title:  Smoke Blankets Northern <span class="hlt">California</span>     View Larger Image ... strikes sparked more than a thousand fires in northern <span class="hlt">California</span>. This image was captured by the Multi-angle Imaging ... June 27, 2008 - Smoke from fires in northern <span class="hlt">California</span>. project:  MISR category:  gallery ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/california_coast','SCIGOV-ASDC'); return false;" href="https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/california_coast"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">California</span> Coast</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/">Atmospheric Science Data Center </a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-05-15</p> <p>article title:  Southern <span class="hlt">California</span>     View Larger Image ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) images of Southern <span class="hlt">California</span> were acquired on March 14, 2000 during Terra orbit 1273. North is at ... available at JPL March 14, 2000 - Southern <span class="hlt">California</span> with the Mojave Desert and surrounding area. project:  ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=199527&keyword=measure+AND+density&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=41783863&CFTOKEN=89969801','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=199527&keyword=measure+AND+density&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=41783863&CFTOKEN=89969801"><span id="translatedtitle">Measuring the contribution of benthic <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> engineering species to the <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services of an estuary: A case study of burrowing shrimps in Yaquina Estuary, Oregon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Burrowing shrimps are regarded as <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> engineering species in many coastal <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> worldwide, including numerous estuaries of the west coast of North America (Baja <span class="hlt">California</span> to British Columbia). In estuaries of the U.S. Pacific Northwest, two species of large burrowing...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=205451&keyword=measure+AND+density&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=41783863&CFTOKEN=89969801','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=205451&keyword=measure+AND+density&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=41783863&CFTOKEN=89969801"><span id="translatedtitle">Measuring the contribution of benthic <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> engineering species to the <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services of an estuary: A case study of burrowing shrimps in Yaquina Estuary, Oregon - April 2009</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Burrowing shrimps are regarded as <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> engineering species in many coastal <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> worldwide, including numerous estuaries of the west coast of North America (Baja <span class="hlt">California</span> to British Columbia). In estuaries of the U.S. Pacific Northwest, two species of large burrowing...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6374392','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6374392"><span id="translatedtitle">Terrestrial <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> and climatic change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Emanuel, W.R. ); Schimel, D.S. . Natural Resources Ecology Lab.)</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The structure and function of terrestrial <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> depend on climate, and in turn, <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> influence atmospheric composition and climate. A comprehensive, global model of terrestrial <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> dynamics is needed. A hierarchical approach appears advisable given <span class="hlt">currently</span> available concepts, data, and formalisms. The organization of models can be based on the temporal scales involved. A rapidly responding model describes the processes associated with photosynthesis, including carbon, moisture, and heat exchange with the atmosphere. An intermediate model handles subannual variations that are closely associated with allocation and seasonal changes in productivity and decomposition. A slow response model describes plant growth and succession with associated element cycling over decades and centuries. These three levels of terrestrial models are linked through common specifications of environmental conditions and constrain each other. 58 refs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ncst.ucdavis.edu/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/10-01-2015-Shilling-Project-Info-Form.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://ncst.ucdavis.edu/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/10-01-2015-Shilling-Project-Info-Form.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">PROJECT INFORMATION FORM Project Title Highway and <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Monitoring and Adaptation to Sea Level Rise</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>California at Davis, University of</p> <p></p> <p>PROJECT INFORMATION FORM Project Title Highway and <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Monitoring and Adaptation to Sea Level Rise University University of <span class="hlt">California</span> adaptation. We propose to implement an already tested remote camera-based system</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://energy.ucdavis.edu/files/09-16-2014-02_Integrated-Assessment-of-Renewable-Technology-Options.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://energy.ucdavis.edu/files/09-16-2014-02_Integrated-Assessment-of-Renewable-Technology-Options.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">California</span> Renewable Energy Center Integrated Assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>California at Davis, University of</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">California</span> Renewable Energy Center Integrated Assessment of Renewable Energy Technology Options #12;<span class="hlt">California</span> Renewable Energy Center <span class="hlt">California</span> has a long history of aggressively pursuing renewable energy Renewable Energy Center APPROACH: 1. Determine <span class="hlt">current</span> in-state technology capability, vis-à-vis state</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/474312','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/474312"><span id="translatedtitle">Ecotoxicology of tropical marine <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Peters, E.C.; Gassman, N.J.; Firman, J.C.; Richmond, R.H.; Power, E.A.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>The negative effects of chemical contaminants on tropical marine <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> are of increasing concern as human populations expand adjacent to these communities. Watershed streams and ground water carry a variety of chemicals from agricultural, industrial, and domestic activities, while winds and <span class="hlt">currents</span> transport pollutants from atmospheric and oceanic sources to these coastal <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. The implications of the limited information available on impacts of chemical stressors on mangrove forests, seagrass meadows, and coral reefs are discussed in the context of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> management and ecological risk assessment. Three classes of pollutants have received attention: heavy metals, petroleum, and synthetic organics. Heavy metals have been detected in all three <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, causing physiological stress, reduced reproductive success, and outright mortality in associated invertebrates and fishes. Oil spills have been responsible for the destruction of entire coastal shallow-water communities, with recovery requiring years. Herbicides are particularly detrimental to mangroves and seagrasses and adversely affect the animal-algal symbioses in corals. Pesticides interfere with chemical cues responsible for key biological processes, including reproduction and recruitment of a variety of organisms. Information is lacking with regard to long-term recovery, indicator species, and biomarkers for tropical communities. Critical areas that are beginning to be addressed include the development of appropriate benchmarks for risk assessment, baseline monitoring criteria, and effective management strategies to protect tropical marine <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> in the face of mounting anthropogenic disturbance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2015/1098/pdf/ofr20151098_sheet10.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2015/1098/pdf/ofr20151098_sheet10.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">California</span> State Waters Map Series: offshore of Salt Point, <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Golden, Nadine E.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Greene, H. Gary; Cochrane, Guy R.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Manson, Michael W.; Endris, Charles A.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Watt, Janet T.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Sliter, Ray W.; Lowe, Erik N.; Chinn, John L.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Circulation over the continental shelf in the map area is dominated by the southward-flowing <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span>, the eastern limb of the North Pacific Gyre. Associated upwelling brings cool, nutrient-rich </p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024737','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70024737"><span id="translatedtitle">Fish communities of the Sacramento River Basin: Implications for conservation of native fishes in the Central Valley, <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>May, J.T.; Brown, L.R.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The associations of resident fish communities with environmental variables and stream condition were evaluated at representative sites within the Sacramento River Basin, <span class="hlt">California</span> between 1996 and 1998 using multivariate ordination techniques and by calculating six fish community metrics. In addition, the results of the <span class="hlt">current</span> study were compared with recent studies in the San Joaquin River drainage to provide a wider perspective of the condition of resident fish communities in the Central Valley of <span class="hlt">California</span> as a whole. Within the Sacramento drainage, species distributions were correlated with elevational and substrate size gradients; however, the elevation of a sampling site was correlated with a suite of water-quality and habitat variables that are indicative of land use effects on physiochemical stream parameters. Four fish community metrics - percentage of native fish, percentage of intolerant fish, number of tolerant species, and percentage of fish with external anomalies - were responsive to environmental quality. Comparisons between the <span class="hlt">current</span> study and recent studies in the San Joaquin River drainage suggested that differences in water-management practices may have significant effects on native species fish community structure. Additionally, the results of the <span class="hlt">current</span> study suggest that index of biotic integrity-type indices can be developed for the Sacramento River Basin and possibly the entire Central Valley, <span class="hlt">California</span>. The protection of native fish communities in the Central Valley and other arid environments continues to be a conflict between human needs for water resources and the requirements of aquatic <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>; preservation of these <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> will require innovative management strategies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B23C0560K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B23C0560K"><span id="translatedtitle">Photodegradation Pathways in Arid <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>King, J. Y.; Lin, Y.; Adair, E. C.; Brandt, L.; Carbone, M. S.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Recent interest in improving our understanding of decomposition patterns in arid and semi-arid <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> and under potentially drier future conditions has led to a flurry of research related to abiotic degradation processes. Oxidation of organic matter by solar radiation (photodegradation) is one abiotic degradation process that contributes significantly to litter decomposition rates. Our meta-analysis results show that increasing solar radiation exposure corresponds to an average increase of 23% in litter mass loss rate with large variation among studies associated primarily with environmental and litter chemistry characteristics. Laboratory studies demonstrate that photodegradation results in CO2 emissions. Indirect estimates suggest that photodegradation could account for as much as 60% of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> CO2 emissions from dry <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, but these CO2 fluxes have not been measured in intact <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. The <span class="hlt">current</span> data suggest that photodegradation is important, not only for understanding decomposition patterns, but also for modeling organic matter turnover and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> C cycling. However, the mechanisms by which photodegradation operates, along with their environmental and litter chemistry controls, are still poorly understood. Photodegradation can directly influence decomposition rates and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> CO2 flux via photochemical mineralization. It can also indirectly influence biotic decomposition rates by facilitating microbial degradation through breakdown of more recalcitrant compounds into simpler substrates or by suppressing microbial activity directly. All of these pathways influence the decomposition process, but the relative importance of each is uncertain. Furthermore, a specific suite of controls regulates each of these pathways (e.g., environmental conditions such as temperature and relative humidity; physical environment such as canopy architecture and contact with soil; and litter chemistry characteristics such as lignin and cellulose content), and these controls have not yet been identified or quantified. To advance our understanding of photodegradation and its role in decomposition and in <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> C cycling, we must characterize its mechanisms and their associated controls and incorporate this understanding into biogeochemical models. Our objective is to summarize the <span class="hlt">current</span> state of understanding of photodegradation and discuss some paths forward to address remaining critical gaps in knowledge about its mechanisms and influence on <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> C balance.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=105433&keyword=Entropy&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=46346580&CFTOKEN=88763099','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=105433&keyword=Entropy&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=46346580&CFTOKEN=88763099"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">ECOSYSTEM</span> GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Thermodynamically, <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> growth and development is the process by which energy throughflow and stored biomass increase. Several proposed hypotheses describe the natural tendencies that occur as an <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> matures, and here, we consider five: minimum entropy production, maxi...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.era.lib.ed.ac.uk/handle/1842/8358','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.era.lib.ed.ac.uk/handle/1842/8358"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Services <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Function and the <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Approach </span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Vallianou, Koralia</p> <p>2013-11-28</p> <p>This project focused on mapping the delivery of three <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> services each in one case study area in Scotland and then identify how the Scottish policies such as woodland expansion biodiversity, conservation and food production affect the land...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.gonzo.cbl.umces.edu/documents/nutrients/STAC_ExSumm1992.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.gonzo.cbl.umces.edu/documents/nutrients/STAC_ExSumm1992.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Current</span>Approachesfor Modeling Estuarine <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Boynton, Walter R.</p> <p></p> <p>-Ecosystemnetwork analysis models -Landscapespatial models Ln 8P. Linkage and Coupling o Toward an and Mary, Virginia Inst. of Marine Science* Rich Batiuk, U.S. EPA, ChesapeakeBay ProgramOffice Steve and Mary, Virginia Inst. of Marine Science Gordon Smith, Johns Hopkins University Katrina Smith</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=288286&keyword=eco%2Ci&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=43026976&CFTOKEN=27752871','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=288286&keyword=eco%2Ci&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=43026976&CFTOKEN=27752871"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Health: Energy Indicators.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Just as for human beings health is a concept that applies to the condition of the whole organism, the health of an <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> refers to the condition of the <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> as a whole. For this reason, the study and characterization of <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> is fundamental to establishing accurate ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=309253&keyword=springer&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=42472856&CFTOKEN=13957851','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=309253&keyword=springer&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=42472856&CFTOKEN=13957851"><span id="translatedtitle">Estuarine Total <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Metabolism</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Total <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> metabolism (TEM), both as discrete measurements and as a theoretical concept, has an important history in <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> ecology, particularly in estuaries. Some of the earliest ecological studies were developed to determine how energy flowed through an <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> and w...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.nps.edu/Academics/Centers/RSC/documents/10Mar_Jablonski.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.nps.edu/Academics/Centers/RSC/documents/10Mar_Jablonski.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">POSTGRADUATE MONTEREY, <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>satellite imagery to the task of locating kelp in the <span class="hlt">California</span> coastal waters. The task is <span class="hlt">currently</span> done. It proved difficult to eliminate all of it in the classification of kelp. The Receiver Operating the line of no-discrimination, so they are a very good detector and discriminator of kelp and water. Using</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www-odp.tamu.edu/publications/prosp/167_PRS/167PROSP.PDF','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www-odp.tamu.edu/publications/prosp/167_PRS/167PROSP.PDF"><span id="translatedtitle">167 Prospectus <span class="hlt">California</span> Margin</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>. Each of the three transects across the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> will compare deep-water sites near the core), for those sites that require it, can be obtained from the following World Wide Web site: http margin, Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Leg 63, occurred immediately before the first deployment</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://bio.research.ucsc.edu/people/bernardi/Bernardi/Publications/2011Herbivory.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://bio.research.ucsc.edu/people/bernardi/Bernardi/Publications/2011Herbivory.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Herbivory, Connectivity, and <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Resilience: Response of a Coral Reef to a Large-Scale Perturbation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Bernardi, Giacomo</p> <p></p> <p>Herbivory, Connectivity, and <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Resilience: Response of a Coral Reef to a Large of <span class="hlt">California</span> Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, <span class="hlt">California</span>, United States of America Abstract Coral reefs world-wide are threatened by escalating local and global impacts, and some impacted reefs have shifted from coral dominance</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=259733&keyword=Biodiversity&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=56084943&CFTOKEN=13536650','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=259733&keyword=Biodiversity&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=56084943&CFTOKEN=13536650"><span id="translatedtitle">LINKING COMMUNITY STRUCTURE AND <span class="hlt">ECOSYSTEM</span> FUNCTION IN AQUATIC <span class="hlt">ECOSYSTEMS</span> DEGRADED BY MOUNTAINTOP MINING</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><p> The Clean Water Act and its subsequent amendments recognize the importance of protecting biological integrity, a concept synonymous with preserving structure and function within lotic <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. This research will improve <span class="hlt">current</span> taxonomically based risk assessment models,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED474908.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED474908.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">California</span>'s Accountability System and the API. Expert Report. Submitted for: Eliezer Williams vs. State of <span class="hlt">California</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Russell, Michael</p> <p></p> <p>This paper was presented as expert testimony in the Williams vs. State of <span class="hlt">California</span> class action lawsuit. That case, filed on behalf of <span class="hlt">California</span> public schoolchildren, charged the State with denying thousands of students the basic tools for a sound education. This paper addresses whether <span class="hlt">California</span>'s <span class="hlt">current</span> output-based accountability system…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=38528&keyword=team+AND+production&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=52449697&CFTOKEN=73086210','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=38528&keyword=team+AND+production&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=52449697&CFTOKEN=73086210"><span id="translatedtitle">PHOTOCHEMICAL AIR POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON MIXED CONIFER <span class="hlt">ECOSYSTEMS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In 1972, a multi-disciplinary team of ecologists assembled to monitor and analyze some of the ecological consequences of photochemical oxidant air pollutants in <span class="hlt">California</span> Mixed Conifer Forest <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> of the San Bernardino Mountains east of Los Angeles. The purposes included g...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUSMNB21G..03O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUSMNB21G..03O"><span id="translatedtitle">A Conceptual Model for Floodplains in <span class="hlt">California</span>'s Central Valley and a Method for Identifying Representative Floods and Floodplains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Opperman, J. J.; Andrews, E.; Bozkurt, S.; Mount, J. F.; Moyle, P. B.</p> <p>2005-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Currently</span>, significant resources are being invested in restoring native species and <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> in <span class="hlt">California</span>'s Central Valley and the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, led by the <span class="hlt">California</span> Bay-Delta Authority (CBDA). Functioning floodplains provide numerous ecological benefits and floodplain restoration is emerging as important component of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> restoration in this region. We developed a conceptual model that describes the linkages between physical (hydrologic and geomorphic) processes and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> processes and responses on Central Valley floodplains. Central to this model is the role of hydrological variability in driving topographic diversity, <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> heterogeneity and ecological processes. We attempt to capture the extremely complex linkages between hydrological variability and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> response through `representative floods.' A representative flood encompasses a set of hydrological variables, such as frequency and duration, which produce a characteristic suite of ecological benefits. For example, frequent, long duration flooding in the spring provides spawning and rearing habitat for native fish and promotes high phytoplankton productivity which can be exported to riverine and delta <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. Less frequent, higher magnitude floods drive extensive geomorphic change upon the floodplain, creating topographic and, ultimately, ecological heterogeneity. Here we describe a process to define, map, and quantify the area inundated by a particular representative flood in the Sacramento River valley. To illustrate we identify the area inundated by a frequent (exceedance probability of 67%), long duration (> 7 days) flood that occurs in the spring. We used paired gauges to find the stage corresponding to the representative flood parameters and compared a plane connecting the gauges to topography in the intervening reach of river. We found that this type of representative flood inundates very little area in the Sacramento Valley; primary areas of inundation are within the Yolo Bypass, an engineered floodplain that flanks the Sacramento River. This analysis can be used to identify areas of floodplain that potentially provide the ecological benefits described in the conceptual model and can guide restoration programs seeking to increase these benefits.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://gallery.usgs.gov/photos/02_24_2010_y17Gxk3WVq_02_24_2010_5','SCIGOVIMAGE-USGS'); return false;" href="http://gallery.usgs.gov/photos/02_24_2010_y17Gxk3WVq_02_24_2010_5"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">California</span> Condor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://gallery.usgs.gov/">USGS Multimedia Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">California</span> condors are one of the most endangered birds in North America. In the early 1990s, captive-bred condors were reintroduced into the wild in <span class="hlt">California</span>. As of January 2010, about 190 condors now live in the wild and more reintroductions are being considered. To facilitate this, USGS researc...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMPP24A..01B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMPP24A..01B"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-proxy reconstructions and the power of integration across marine, terrestrial, and freshwater <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barrett, P. J.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Over the past decade, dendrochronology (tree-ring analysis) techniques have been increasingly applied to growth increments of various bivalve, fish, and coral species. In particular, the use of crossdating ensures that all increments in a dataset have assigned the correct calendar year of formation and that the resulting chronology is exactly placed in time. Such temporal alignment facilitates direct comparisons among chronologies that span diverse taxa and <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, illustrating the pervasive, synchronizing influence of climate from alpine forests to the continental slope. Such an approach can be particularly beneficial to reconstructions in that each species captures climate signals from its unique 'perspective' of life history and habitat. For example, combinations of tree-ring data and chronologies for the long-lived bivalve Pacific geoduck (Panopea generosa) capture substantially more variance in regional sea surface temperatures than either proxy could explain alone. Just as importantly, networks of chronologies spanning multiple trophic levels can help identify climate variables critical to <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> functioning, which can then be targeted to generate most biologically relevant reconstructions possible. Along the west coast of North America, fish and bivalve chronologies in combination with records of seabird reproductive success indicate that winter sea-level pressure is closely associated with <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> productivity, which can be hind-cast over the past six centuries using coastal tree-ring chronologies. Thus, multiple proxies not only increase reconstruction skill, but also help isolate climate variables most closely linked to <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> structure and functioning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMPP24A..01B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMPP24A..01B"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-proxy reconstructions and the power of integration across marine, terrestrial, and freshwater <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Black, B.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Over the past decade, dendrochronology (tree-ring analysis) techniques have been increasingly applied to growth increments of various bivalve, fish, and coral species. In particular, the use of crossdating ensures that all increments in a dataset have assigned the correct calendar year of formation and that the resulting chronology is exactly placed in time. Such temporal alignment facilitates direct comparisons among chronologies that span diverse taxa and <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, illustrating the pervasive, synchronizing influence of climate from alpine forests to the continental slope. Such an approach can be particularly beneficial to reconstructions in that each species captures climate signals from its unique 'perspective' of life history and habitat. For example, combinations of tree-ring data and chronologies for the long-lived bivalve Pacific geoduck (Panopea generosa) capture substantially more variance in regional sea surface temperatures than either proxy could explain alone. Just as importantly, networks of chronologies spanning multiple trophic levels can help identify climate variables critical to <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> functioning, which can then be targeted to generate most biologically relevant reconstructions possible. Along the west coast of North America, fish and bivalve chronologies in combination with records of seabird reproductive success indicate that winter sea-level pressure is closely associated with <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> productivity, which can be hind-cast over the past six centuries using coastal tree-ring chronologies. Thus, multiple proxies not only increase reconstruction skill, but also help isolate climate variables most closely linked to <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> structure and functioning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/679353','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/679353"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of ozone on <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> -- <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> indicators of concern</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Innes, J.L.</p> <p>1998-12-31</p> <p>Ozone has been recognized as an important cause of damage to crops since the 1950s. Damage to trees was first identified in the 1960s and is now known to be widespread in both North America and Europe. Most impact studies have emphasized the importance of determining growth losses attributable to ozone and as a result have concentrated on species of commercial importance. This is illustrated by the critical loads approach to ozone risk assessment in Europe, which is <span class="hlt">currently</span> based on the AOT40 -- 10 ppmh threshold. At higher levels, it has been argued that a 10% growth reduction occurs in European beech (Fagus sylvatica). Such an approach suffers from a number of serious limitations, not least the widespread impacts on <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> that may occur at lower ozone exposures and the very poor quantitative basis for setting this threshold. In Europe, there has been increasing emphasis on the conservation and management of species without any direct economic importance. This has arisen from a growing environmental awareness of the general public. The trend has been accelerated by the perceived environmental benefits of the large amounts of land that has been taken out of agricultural production (as a result of the ``set-aside`` policy of the European Union) and the public concern about the ecological and environmental impacts of industrial forestry. In agricultural landscapes, hedgerow species and weed species are being looked at as important parts of the agricultural <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>. In particular, weed species are an important part of the food chain for the wildlife present in such <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. In forests, much greater emphasis is being given to the authenticity of the forest <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. Particular emphasis is being given to <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> management techniques such as continuous cover forestry and the furthering of natural regeneration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol25/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol25-sec230-23.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol25/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol25-sec230-23.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 230.23 - <span class="hlt">Current</span> patterns and water circulation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>...Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> § 230.23 <span class="hlt">Current</span> patterns...the physical movements of water in the aquatic <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>. <span class="hlt">Currents</span> and circulation...Location, structure, and dynamics of aquatic communities; shoreline and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol24/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol24-sec230-23.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="http://www.gpo.gov:80/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol24/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol24-sec230-23.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 230.23 - <span class="hlt">Current</span> patterns and water circulation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>...Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> § 230.23 <span class="hlt">Current</span> patterns...the physical movements of water in the aquatic <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>. <span class="hlt">Currents</span> and circulation...Location, structure, and dynamics of aquatic communities; shoreline and...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B13F0585N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.B13F0585N"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluating the Spatial Distribution of Toxic Air Contaminants in Multiple <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Indicators in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nanus, L.; Simonich, S. L.; Rocchio, J.; Flanagan, C.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Toxic air contaminants originating from agricultural areas of the Central Valley in <span class="hlt">California</span> threaten vulnerable sensitive receptors including surface water, vegetation, snow, sediments, fish, and amphibians in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region. The spatial distribution of toxic air contaminants in different <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> indicators depends on variation in atmospheric concentrations and deposition, and variation in air toxics accumulation in <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. The spatial distribution of organic air toxics and mercury at over 330 unique sampling locations and sample types over two decades (1990-2009) in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region were compiled and maps were developed to further understand spatial patterns and linkages between air toxics deposition and ecological effects. Potential <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> impacts in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region include bioaccumulation of air toxics in both aquatic and terrestrial <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, reproductive disruption, and immune suppression. The most sensitive ecological end points in the region that are affected by bioaccumulation of toxic air contaminants are fish. Mercury was detected in all fish and approximately 6% exceeded human consumption thresholds. Organic air toxics were also detected in fish yielding variable spatial patterns. For amphibians, which are sensitive to pesticide exposure and potential immune suppression, increasing trends in <span class="hlt">current</span> and historic use pesticides are observed from north to south across the region. In other indicators, such as vegetation, pesticide concentrations in lichen increase with increasing elevation. <span class="hlt">Current</span> and historic use pesticides and mercury were also observed in snowpack at high elevations in the study area. This study shows spatial patterns in toxic air contaminants, evaluates associated risks to sensitive receptors, and identifies data gaps. Future research on atmospheric modeling and information on sources is needed in order to predict which <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> are the most sensitive to toxic air contaminants in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15601765','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15601765"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> consequences of bird declines.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sekercio?lu, Ca?an H; Daily, Gretchen C; Ehrlich, Paul R</p> <p>2004-12-28</p> <p>We present a general framework for characterizing the ecological and societal consequences of biodiversity loss and applying it to the global avifauna. To investigate the potential ecological consequences of avian declines, we developed comprehensive databases of the status and functional roles of birds and a stochastic model for forecasting change. Overall, 21% of bird species are <span class="hlt">currently</span> extinction-prone and 6.5% are functionally extinct, contributing negligibly to <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> processes. We show that a quarter or more of frugivorous and omnivorous species and one-third or more of herbivorous, piscivorous, and scavenger species are extinction-prone. Furthermore, our projections indicate that by 2100, 6-14% of all bird species will be extinct, and 7-25% (28-56% on oceanic islands) will be functionally extinct. Important <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> processes, particularly decomposition, pollination, and seed dispersal, will likely decline as a result. PMID:15601765</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70033696','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70033696"><span id="translatedtitle">Are hotspots of evolutionary potential adequately protected in southern <span class="hlt">California</span>?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Vandergast, A.G.; Bohonak, A.J.; Hathaway, S.A.; Boys, J.; Fisher, R.N.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Reserves are often designed to protect rare habitats, or "typical" exemplars of ecoregions and geomorphic provinces. This approach focuses on <span class="hlt">current</span> patterns of organismal and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>-level biodiversity, but typically ignores the evolutionary processes that control the gain and loss of biodiversity at these and other levels (e.g., genetic, ecological). In order to include evolutionary processes in conservation planning efforts, their spatial components must first be identified and mapped. We describe a GIS-based approach for explicitly mapping patterns of genetic divergence and diversity for multiple species (a "multi-species genetic landscape"). Using this approach, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA datasets from 21 vertebrate and invertebrate species in southern <span class="hlt">California</span> to identify areas with common phylogeographic breaks and high intrapopulation diversity. The result is an evolutionary framework for southern <span class="hlt">California</span> within which patterns of genetic diversity can be analyzed in the context of historical processes, future evolutionary potential and <span class="hlt">current</span> reserve design. Our multi-species genetic landscapes pinpoint six hotspots where interpopulation genetic divergence is consistently high, five evolutionary hotspots within which genetic connectivity is high, and three hotspots where intrapopulation genetic diversity is high. These 14 hotspots can be grouped into eight geographic areas, of which five largely are unprotected at this time. The multi-species genetic landscape approach may provide an avenue to readily incorporate measures of evolutionary process into GIS-based systematic conservation assessment and land-use planning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4386330','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4386330"><span id="translatedtitle">Anthropogenic warming has increased drought risk in <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Swain, Daniel L.; Touma, Danielle</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">California</span> is <span class="hlt">currently</span> in the midst of a record-setting drought. The drought began in 2012 and now includes the lowest calendar-year and 12-mo precipitation, the highest annual temperature, and the most extreme drought indicators on record. The extremely warm and dry conditions have led to acute water shortages, groundwater overdraft, critically low streamflow, and enhanced wildfire risk. Analyzing historical climate observations from <span class="hlt">California</span>, we find that precipitation deficits in <span class="hlt">California</span> were more than twice as likely to yield drought years if they occurred when conditions were warm. We find that although there has not been a substantial change in the probability of either negative or moderately negative precipitation anomalies in recent decades, the occurrence of drought years has been greater in the past two decades than in the preceding century. In addition, the probability that precipitation deficits co-occur with warm conditions and the probability that precipitation deficits produce drought have both increased. Climate model experiments with and without anthropogenic forcings reveal that human activities have increased the probability that dry precipitation years are also warm. Further, a large ensemble of climate model realizations reveals that additional global warming over the next few decades is very likely to create ?100% probability that any annual-scale dry period is also extremely warm. We therefore conclude that anthropogenic warming is increasing the probability of co-occurring warm–dry conditions like those that have created the acute human and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> impacts associated with the “exceptional” 2012–2014 drought in <span class="hlt">California</span>. PMID:25733875</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25733875','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25733875"><span id="translatedtitle">Anthropogenic warming has increased drought risk in <span class="hlt">California</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Diffenbaugh, Noah S; Swain, Daniel L; Touma, Danielle</p> <p>2015-03-31</p> <p><span class="hlt">California</span> is <span class="hlt">currently</span> in the midst of a record-setting drought. The drought began in 2012 and now includes the lowest calendar-year and 12-mo precipitation, the highest annual temperature, and the most extreme drought indicators on record. The extremely warm and dry conditions have led to acute water shortages, groundwater overdraft, critically low streamflow, and enhanced wildfire risk. Analyzing historical climate observations from <span class="hlt">California</span>, we find that precipitation deficits in <span class="hlt">California</span> were more than twice as likely to yield drought years if they occurred when conditions were warm. We find that although there has not been a substantial change in the probability of either negative or moderately negative precipitation anomalies in recent decades, the occurrence of drought years has been greater in the past two decades than in the preceding century. In addition, the probability that precipitation deficits co-occur with warm conditions and the probability that precipitation deficits produce drought have both increased. Climate model experiments with and without anthropogenic forcings reveal that human activities have increased the probability that dry precipitation years are also warm. Further, a large ensemble of climate model realizations reveals that additional global warming over the next few decades is very likely to create ? 100% probability that any annual-scale dry period is also extremely warm. We therefore conclude that anthropogenic warming is increasing the probability of co-occurring warm-dry conditions like those that have created the acute human and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> impacts associated with the "exceptional" 2012-2014 drought in <span class="hlt">California</span>. PMID:25733875</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/california_fires_2009','SCIGOV-ASDC'); return false;" href="https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/california_fires_2009"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">California</span> Fires</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/">Atmospheric Science Data Center </a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-05-15</p> <p>... title:  Smoke from Station Fire Blankets Southern <span class="hlt">California</span>     View Larger Image ... that had not burned in decades, and years of extended drought contributed to the explosive growth of wildfires throughout southern ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PalOc..30.1168T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PalOc..30.1168T"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System as a transmitter of millennial scale climate change on the northeastern Pacific margin from 10 to 50 ka</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Taylor, M. A.; Hendy, I. L.; Pak, D. K.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>A high-resolution record of ?18O and Mg/Ca-based temperatures spanning 10-50 ka has been reconstructed from the Vancouver margin of the northeastern Pacific Ocean (MD02-2496) from two planktonic foraminiferal species, Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (s.) and Globigerina bulloides. While ?18Ocalcite appears synchronous with Dansgaard-Oeschger Interstadials throughout the record, millennial scale variability in sea surface temperatures and reconstructed ?18Oseawater are frequently out of phase with Greenland climate. Changes in water mass characteristics such as ?18Ocalcite and enriched ?15N events apparently responded to millennial-scale climate change during Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3), such that negative ?18Ocalcite excursions coincided with heavier ?15N. These water mass characteristic shifts are suggestive of the presence of surface water advected from the Eastern Tropical North Pacific by relative strengthening of the <span class="hlt">California</span> Undercurrent (CUC) bringing warm, salty tropical waters poleward. The linkage between the strength of the CUC on the NE Pacific margin and millennial-scale climate change may be related to increased sea surface heights off Central America as the Intertropical Convergence Zone shifted northward in response to changes in North Atlantic Ocean circulation. Poor correlations between proxies exist through late MIS 3 into MIS 2. Ice sheet growth could have disrupted the linkage between CUC and the NE Pacific margin as the Laurentide Ice sheet disrupted atmospheric circulation and the Cordilleran Ice Sheet increasingly influenced regional paleoceanography.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3995663','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3995663"><span id="translatedtitle">Emergent Global Patterns of <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Structure and Function from a Mechanistic General <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Emmott, Stephen; Hutton, Jon; Lyutsarev, Vassily; Smith, Matthew J.; Scharlemann, Jörn P. W.; Purves, Drew W.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Anthropogenic activities are causing widespread degradation of <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> worldwide, threatening the <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services upon which all human life depends. Improved understanding of this degradation is urgently needed to improve avoidance and mitigation measures. One tool to assist these efforts is predictive models of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> structure and function that are mechanistic: based on fundamental ecological principles. Here we present the first mechanistic General <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Model (GEM) of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> structure and function that is both global and applies in all terrestrial and marine environments. Functional forms and parameter values were derived from the theoretical and empirical literature where possible. Simulations of the fate of all organisms with body masses between 10 µg and 150,000 kg (a range of 14 orders of magnitude) across the globe led to emergent properties at individual (e.g., growth rate), community (e.g., biomass turnover rates), <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> (e.g., trophic pyramids), and macroecological scales (e.g., global patterns of trophic structure) that are in general agreement with <span class="hlt">current</span> data and theory. These properties emerged from our encoding of the biology of, and interactions among, individual organisms without any direct constraints on the properties themselves. Our results indicate that ecologists have gathered sufficient information to begin to build realistic, global, and mechanistic models of <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, capable of predicting a diverse range of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> properties and their response to human pressures. PMID:24756001</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cedarcreek.umn.edu/biblio/fulltext/Tilman-etal_annurev-ecolsys-2014.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://cedarcreek.umn.edu/biblio/fulltext/Tilman-etal_annurev-ecolsys-2014.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Biodiversity and <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Functioning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Thomas, David D.</p> <p></p> <p>Biodiversity and <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Functioning David Tilman,1,2 Forest Isbell,1,3 and Jane M. Cowles1 1 2014 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved Keywords biodiversity, <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> functioning, stability, and restoration of biodiversity should be a high global priority. 471 Annu.Rev.Ecol.Evol.Syst.2014</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/965595','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/965595"><span id="translatedtitle">Where Will <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> Go?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Janetos, Anthony C.</p> <p>2008-09-29</p> <p>Climate-induced changes in <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> have been both modeled and documented extensively over the past 15-20 years. Those changes occur in the context of many other stresses and interacting factors, but it is clear that many, if not most, <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> are sensitive to changing climate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=new+AND+species&pg=3&id=EJ813056','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=new+AND+species&pg=3&id=EJ813056"><span id="translatedtitle">The Library as <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Walter, Scott</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Ecology is the study of interactions between organisms and their environment, and the academic library could be considered to be an <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>, i.e., a "biological organization" in which multiple species must interact, both with one another and with their environment. The metaphor of the library as <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> is flexible enough to be applied not…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Carbon+AND+cycle&pg=4&id=ED055855','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Carbon+AND+cycle&pg=4&id=ED055855"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span>, Teacher's Guide.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>California Univ., Berkeley. Science Curriculum Improvement Study.</p> <p></p> <p>The Science Curriculum Improvement Study has developed this teacher's guide to "<span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span>," the sixth part of a six unit life science curriculum sequence. The six basic units, emphasizing organism-environment interactions, are organisms, life cycles, populations, environments, communities, and <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. They make use of scientific and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.B43F..04F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005AGUFM.B43F..04F"><span id="translatedtitle">Linking the Seasonal Variation of Vegetation Indices to Tower Flux Measurements in an Oak-Savanna <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> in <span class="hlt">California</span>: Comparing the Performance of Ground Based Sensors to Remotely Sensed Products from MODIS, AVIRIS and IKONOS.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Falk, M.; Baldocchi, D. D.; Mercado, I. R.; Ma, S.; Hehn, T.</p> <p>2005-12-01</p> <p>Across the globe, there are now over 200 FLUXNET sites sampling tower fluxes over many vegetation types. However the spatial resolution of the tower sites is limited and additional information is needed to provide the Global Change Research community with an accurate way to identify and quantify carbon sources and sinks on regional, continental and global scales. Remote sensing is a major tool capable of providing information about the dynamics of the terrestrial biosphere with continuous spatial and temporal coverage on a global scale. For this purpose vegetation indices are chosen specifically to enhance the contribution of vegetation properties to surface reflectances. Remote sensing products generally produce information on GPP (or net primary productivity, NPP), in terms of a light use efficiency (?) and the amount of absorbed visible sunlight (fPAR). Linking remote sensing with FLUXNET sites is crucial in providing reliable estimates of the magnitude and dynamics of the terrestrial carbon budget. An important issue is the spatial mismatch between the NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) and the footprint of tower observations. In this study we have conducted seasonal observations of VI's using three different ground based sensors: a high resolution spectrometer on a weekly basis, and a spectrally-selective light emitting diode spectrometer and a broadband radiometer providing continuous measurements for a highly dynamic oak-savanna <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>. We investigate seasonal changes in ?, drought induced changes in carbon uptake (NEE) and their link to different VI's like the Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI), Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) and the Photochemical Reaction Index (PRI). Using a combination of spatially coarse MODIS data with high resolution snapshots from IKONOS and AVIRIS platforms together with the ground based spectral observations, we expand the tower site results to regional scale. We find that NDVI is an overall poor correlator with NEE for the dynamic grassland with pronounced winter time photosythesis and extensive drought stress. EVI and especially PRI provide better linkage of spectral reflectance data to the actual photosynthetic activity of the grassland <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.geos.ed.ac.uk/homes/paulvg/present/env_dev_2009.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.geos.ed.ac.uk/homes/paulvg/present/env_dev_2009.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> & Development Paul van Gardingen</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Society, <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> & Development Paul van Gardingen Professor of International Development & Executive Director, Edinburgh International Development Centre The University of Edinburgh #12;"An <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> Assessment) #12;Another Millennium Challenge! #12;Society, <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> & Development · People and communities</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=18052&keyword=evolution+AND+wrong&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=43038745&CFTOKEN=15778848','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=18052&keyword=evolution+AND+wrong&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=43038745&CFTOKEN=15778848"><span id="translatedtitle">SEVEN PILLARS OF <span class="hlt">ECOSYSTEM</span> MANAGEMENT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> management is widely proposed in the popular and professional literature as the modern and preferred way of managing natural resources and <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. Advocates glowingly describe <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> management as an approach that will protect the environment, maintain healthy ec...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/219534','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/219534"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Current</span> titles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1995-07-01</p> <p>This booklet is published for those interested in <span class="hlt">current</span> research being conducted at the National Center for Electron Microscopy. The NCEM is a DOE-designated national user facility and is available at no charge to qualified researchers. Access is controlled by an external steering committee. Interested researchers may contact Gretchen Hermes at (510) 486-5006 or address below for a User`s Guide. Copies of available papers can be ordered from: Theda Crawford National Center for Electron Microscopy, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, One Cyclotron Rd., MS72, Berkeley, <span class="hlt">California</span>, USA 94720.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6486307','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6486307"><span id="translatedtitle">What next for <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lang, P.</p> <p>1982-11-01</p> <p>The effect of Governor Jerry Brown on the solar industry in <span class="hlt">California</span> is reviewed. It is pointed out that <span class="hlt">currently</span> there are 7000 solar businesses; before Gov. Brown's administration there were virtually none. The effect of Gov. Brown's administration on the use of solar and renewable energy sources, as well as energy conservation are reviewed. Specific topics include: (1) political action; (2) business sense; (3) increased competition; (4) marketing; and (5) consumer protection. (MJJ)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.uvm.edu/~dneher/Publications/agroforestysystems.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.uvm.edu/~dneher/Publications/agroforestysystems.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Soil community composition and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> processes Comparing agricultural <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> with natural <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Neher, Deborah A.</p> <p></p> <p>Soil community composition and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> processes Comparing agricultural <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> with natural, nitrogen, pesticides Abstract. Soil organisms play principal roles in several <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> functions, i decomposition, and acting as an environmental buffer. Agricultural soils would more closely resemble soils</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.caryinstitute.org/reprints/Pace_Groffman_Ecosystems_1998.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.caryinstitute.org/reprints/Pace_Groffman_Ecosystems_1998.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Successes, Limitations, and Frontiers in <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Science: Reflections</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>COMMENTARY Successes, Limitations, and Frontiers in <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Science: Reflections on the Seventh science through analysis of notable successes, <span class="hlt">current</span> limitations, and future frontiers. Consider first success--what would you name as your five favorite developments in <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> sci- ence over the past</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://perrings.faculty.asu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/Simonit-Perrings-PNAS-2013.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://perrings.faculty.asu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/Simonit-Perrings-PNAS-2013.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Bundling <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services in the Panama Canal watershed</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Bundling <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services in the Panama Canal watershed Silvio Simonit1 and Charles Perrings eco cover change in watersheds affects the supply of a number of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services, including water supply regulation through carbon sequestration. The Panama Canal watershed is <span class="hlt">currently</span> being reforested to protect</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.B54B..03T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.B54B..03T"><span id="translatedtitle">Linking the Response of Annual Grasslands to Warming and Altered Rainfall Across Scales of Gene Expression, Species, and <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Torn, M. S.; Bernard, S. M.; Castanha, C.; Fischer, M. L.; Hopkins, F. M.; Placella, S. A.; St. Clair, S. B.; Salve, R.; Sudderth, E.; Herman, D.; Ackerly, D.; Firestone, M. K.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>Climate change can influence terrestrial <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> at multiple biological levels: gene expression, species, and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>. We are studying <span class="hlt">California</span> grassland mesocosms with seven annual species (five grasses, two forbs) that were started in 2005. In the 2006-2007 growing season, they were exposed to three rainfall treatments (297, 552, and 867 mm y-1) and soil and air temperature (ambient and elevated +4oC) in replicated greenhouses. This presentation will combine plant and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> level results with transcript level analyses associated with key enzymes, such as rubisco and glutamine synthetase (GS). Because rainfall is the dominant climate variable for most processes in this Mediterranean <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>, the effect of warming was strongly mediated by rainfall. In fact, we saw significant interactions between temperature and rainfall treatments at all three biological levels. For example, at the <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> level, warming led to a decrease in aboveground and total NPP under low rainfall, and an increase under high rainfall. For the dominant species, Avena barbata, warming had no effect under high rainfall, but suppressed Avena NPP in low rainfall. At the same time, warmer, wetter conditions accelerated Avena flowering by almost 15 days. This shift in phenology was presaged by observations at the transcript level. Specifically, in the high temperature, high rainfall treatment, the levels of mRNAs for RbcS and GS2 (encoding the small subunit of rubisco and the chloroplastic isoform of GS, respectively) declined while GS1 (encoding the cytosolic isoform of GS) was upregulated several weeks before heading. The transcript level response (along with soil and plant nitrogen data) indicated the leaf had switched from a carbon and nitrogen sink to a source - consistent with more mature plant function and earlier flowering. Soil CO2 respiration also showed strong rain-by-temperature interactions that were due mainly to changes in root response (respiration and/or exudates) rather than in microbial respiration. Overall, the pervasive rain-by-temperature interactions mean that it may be very difficult to predict the effect of warming alone, without accounting for changes in precipitation (in our Mediterranean system). While predictions of warming of 3-6°C in the next 100 years are fairly certain, changes in precipitation are much more uncertain, with some forecasts drier and others wetter for a given location. We suggest that uncertainty about future precipitation and the interacting influences of temperature and moisture on <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> are <span class="hlt">currently</span> key limitations in predicting <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> response to climate change, particularly in Mediterranean <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> such as the one studied here.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26100889','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26100889"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing niche width of endothermic fish from genes to <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Madigan, Daniel J; Carlisle, Aaron B; Gardner, Luke D; Jayasundara, Nishad; Micheli, Fiorenza; Schaefer, Kurt M; Fuller, Daniel W; Block, Barbara A</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Endothermy in vertebrates has been postulated to confer physiological and ecological advantages. In endothermic fish, niche expansion into cooler waters is correlated with specific physiological traits and is hypothesized to lead to greater foraging success and increased fitness. Using the seasonal co-occurrence of three tuna species in the eastern Pacific Ocean as a model system, we used cardiac gene expression data (as a proxy for thermal tolerance to low temperatures), archival tag data, and diet analyses to examine the vertical niche expansion hypothesis for endothermy in situ. Yellowfin, albacore, and Pacific bluefin tuna (PBFT) in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> system used more surface, mesopelagic, and deep waters, respectively. Expression of cardiac genes for calcium cycling increased in PBFT and coincided with broader vertical and thermal niche utilization. However, the PBFT diet was less diverse and focused on energy-rich forage fishes but did not show the greatest energy gains. <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span>-based management strategies for tunas should thus consider species-specific differences in physiology and foraging specialization. PMID:26100889</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.usace.army.mil/Portals/2/docs/civilworks/Project%20Planning/wrda/2014/proposals/HarborSouthBay_WRPM_ExhibitF.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.usace.army.mil/Portals/2/docs/civilworks/Project%20Planning/wrda/2014/proposals/HarborSouthBay_WRPM_ExhibitF.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">State of <span class="hlt">California</span> County of Los Angeles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>US Army Corps of Engineers</p> <p></p> <p>Exhibit F #12;State of <span class="hlt">California</span> County of Los Angeles West Basin Municipal Water District IN SUPPORT OF THE EXPANSION OF THE HARBOR/SOUTH BAY WATER RECYCLING PROJECT WHEREAS, <span class="hlt">California</span> is now facing one of the most severe droughts on record, and is <span class="hlt">currently</span> under a declared State of Emergency</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=multicultural&pg=3&id=EJ981001','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=multicultural&pg=3&id=EJ981001"><span id="translatedtitle">Multicultural Graduation Requirements among <span class="hlt">California</span>'s Community Colleges</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hess, Shelly L.; Uerling, Donald F.; Piland, William E.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This examination of the <span class="hlt">current</span> status of multicultural education among <span class="hlt">California</span> community colleges emerged from a perspective that the inclusion of multicultural education has become a major goal of <span class="hlt">California</span>'s leaders within the past five years. The literature revealed minority students tend to have lower retention rates because they become…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..MAR.P1268L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..MAR.P1268L"><span id="translatedtitle">Stability of Heterogeneous <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Yang-Yu; Yan, Gang; Barabasi, Alber-Laszlo</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Stability of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> measures the tendency of a community to return to equilibrium after environmental perturbation, which is severely constrained by the underlying network structure. Despite significant advances in uncovering the relationship between stability and network structure, little attention has been paid to the impact of the degree heterogeneity that exists in real <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. Here we show that for networks with mixed interactions of competition and mutualism the degree heterogeneity always destabilizes the <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>. Surprisingly, for predator-prey interactions (e.g., food webs) high heterogeneity is destabilizing yet moderate heterogeneity is stabilizing. These findings deepen our understanding of the stability of real <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> and may also have implications in studying the stability of more general complex dynamical systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EOSTr..93S.364S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EOSTr..93S.364S"><span id="translatedtitle">List identifies threatened <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Showstack, Randy</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) announced on 9 September that it will develop a new Red List of <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> that will identify which <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> are vulnerable or endangered. The list, which is modeled on the group's Red List of Threatened Species™, could help to guide conservation activities and influence policy processes such as the Convention on Biological Diversity, according to the group. “We will assess the status of marine, terrestrial, freshwater, and subterranean <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> at local, regional, and global levels,” stated Jon Paul Rodriguez, leader of IUCN's <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> Red List Thematic Group. “The assessment can then form the basis for concerted implementation action so that we can manage them sustainably if their risk of collapse is low or restore them if they are threatened and then monitor their recovery.”</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=48905&keyword=differential+AND+equation&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=52651630&CFTOKEN=91786387','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=48905&keyword=differential+AND+equation&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=52651630&CFTOKEN=91786387"><span id="translatedtitle">PERSISTENCE IN MODEL <span class="hlt">ECOSYSTEMS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Mathematical models aid in understanding environmental systems and in developing testable hypotheses relevant to the fate and ecological effects of toxic substances in such systems. Within the framework of microcosm or laboratory <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> modeling, some differential equation mod...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Food+AND+chain&pg=6&id=EJ124850','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Food+AND+chain&pg=6&id=EJ124850"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> in the Laboratory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Madders, M.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>Describes the materials and laboratory techniques for the study of food chains and food webs, pyramids of numbers and biomass, energy pyramids, and oxygen gradients. Presents a procedure for investigating the effects of various pollutants on an entire <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>. (GS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=246433&keyword=jh&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=42094329&CFTOKEN=56157148','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=246433&keyword=jh&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=42094329&CFTOKEN=56157148"><span id="translatedtitle">Lakes <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Services Online</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Northeastern lakes provide valuable <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services that benefit residents and visitors and are increasingly important for provisioning of recreational opportunities and amenities. Concurrently, however, population growth threatens lakes by, for instance, increasing nutrient ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.era.lib.ed.ac.uk/handle/1842/6380','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.era.lib.ed.ac.uk/handle/1842/6380"><span id="translatedtitle">Monetising cultural <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services? </span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Vinci, Igor</p> <p>2012-11-29</p> <p>ABSTRACT In the context of increasing degradation of the environment, the economic valuation of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services represents an attempt to quantify the contribution of nature to human wellbeing. This approach has been ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Johnson&pg=6&id=ED515619','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Johnson&pg=6&id=ED515619"><span id="translatedtitle">Pathways for School Finance in <span class="hlt">California</span>. Technical Appendix</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rose, Heather; Sonstelie, Jon; Weston, Margaret</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This is a technical appendix for the report, "Pathways for School Finance in <span class="hlt">California</span>" (ED515651). "Pathways for School Finance in <span class="hlt">California</span>" simulates alternatives to <span class="hlt">California</span>'s <span class="hlt">current</span> school finance system. This appendix provides more information about the revenues used in those simulations. The first section describes the districts and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://gerberlab.faculty.asu.edu/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/docs/underwood_et_al_08.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://gerberlab.faculty.asu.edu/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/docs/underwood_et_al_08.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Contributed Paper Estimating Sustainable Bycatch Rates for <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Gerber, Leah R.</p> <p></p> <p>Contributed Paper Estimating Sustainable Bycatch Rates for <span class="hlt">California</span> Sea Lion Populations the <span class="hlt">California</span> sea lion (Zalophus californianus) population in the Gulf of <span class="hlt">California</span>. We used data on fisheries and sea lion entanglement in gill nets to estimate <span class="hlt">current</span> fishing pressure and fishing rates under which</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=264177','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=264177"><span id="translatedtitle">Postharvest dried apricot color degradation of three <span class="hlt">California</span> apricot accessions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">California’s</span> dry apricot industry has provided high quality products for nearly a century, annually accounting for approximately 20% of available tonnage. The Patterson cultivar <span class="hlt">currently</span> dominates <span class="hlt">California</span> dry apricot sales, but the cultivar is not without faults. Newer cultivars and breeding a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20600133','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20600133"><span id="translatedtitle">Nutrient flows between <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> can destabilize simple food chains.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Marleau, Justin N; Guichard, Frédéric; Mallard, François; Loreau, Michel</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>Dispersal of organisms has large effects on the dynamics and stability of populations and communities. However, <span class="hlt">current</span> metacommunity theory largely ignores how the flows of limiting nutrients across <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> can influence communities. We studied a meta-<span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> model where two autotroph-consumer communities are spatially coupled through the diffusion of the limiting nutrient. We analyzed regional and local stability, as well as spatial and temporal synchrony to elucidate the impacts of nutrient recycling and diffusion on trophic dynamics. We show that nutrient diffusion is capable of inducing asynchronous local destabilization of biotic compartments through a diffusion-induced spatiotemporal bifurcation. Nutrient recycling interacts with nutrient diffusion and influences the susceptibility of the meta-<span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> to diffusion-induced instabilities. This interaction between nutrient recycling and transport is further shown to depend on <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> enrichment. It more generally emphasizes the importance of meta-<span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> theory for predicting species persistence and distribution in managed <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. PMID:20600133</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.registrar.ucla.edu/archive/catalog/34-35catalog.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.registrar.ucla.edu/archive/catalog/34-35catalog.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">UNIVERSITY OF <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> PUBLISHED AT BERKELEY, <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>, NUMBER 9, NOVEMBER 1, 1934 GENERAL CATALOGUE 1934'35 UNIVERSITY OF <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> AT LOS ANGELES FOR SALE Angeles. The Schedule of Classes, University of <span class="hlt">California</span> at Los Angeles : containing the time -schedule OF THE UNIVERSITY OF <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> . ENTERED JULY 1; 1911 , AT THE POST OFFICE AT BERKELEY, <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span>, AS SECOND-CLASS</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/california_fires_2003','SCIGOV-ASDC'); return false;" href="https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/california_fires_2003"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">California</span> Fires</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/">Atmospheric Science Data Center </a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-05-15</p> <p>article title:  Wildfires Rage in Southern <span class="hlt">California</span>     ... Image Large plumes of smoke rising from devastating wildfires burning near Los Angeles and San Diego on Sunday, October 26, 2003, ... at JPL October 26, 2003 - Smoke from wildfires near Los Angeles and San Diego. project:  MISR ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=orchestras&pg=5&id=EJ960784','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=orchestras&pg=5&id=EJ960784"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">California</span> Dreaming</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Olson, Cathy Applefeld</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>After getting her master's degree from UCLA, Nancy Wills dreamed of starting a school-based guitar program so she could teach students to make music on the instrument she'd loved since she was a kid growing up outside of Yosemite, <span class="hlt">California</span>. She had a strong belief that guitar was perfect for schools, ideal for individualized playing but also…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=142396&keyword=gps&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=46808468&CFTOKEN=90666448','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=142396&keyword=gps&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=46808468&CFTOKEN=90666448"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> DAIRIES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>These dairy records were collected by the <span class="hlt">California</span> Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) as part of a trial for disease surveillance and prevention purposes. Some records contain GPS coordinates, while the remaining records were obtained through address matching methods u...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19739552','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19739552"><span id="translatedtitle">The value of producing food, energy, and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services within an agro-<span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Porter, John; Costanza, Robert; Sandhu, Harpinder; Sigsgaard, Lene; Wratten, Steve</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>Agricultural <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> produce food, fiber, and non-marketed <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services (ES). Agriculture also typically involves high negative external costs associated with, for example, fossil fuel use. We estimated, via field-scale ecological monitoring and economic value-transfer methods, the market and nonmarket ES value of a combined food and energy (CFE) agro-<span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> that simultaneously produces food, fodder, and bioenergy. Such novel CFE agro-<span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> can provide a significantly increased net crop, energy, and nonmarketed ES compared with conventional agriculture, and require markedly less fossil-based inputs. Extrapolated to the European scale, the value of nonmarket ES from the CFE system exceeds <span class="hlt">current</span> European farm subsidy payments. Such integrated food and bioenergy systems can thus provide environmental value for money for European Union farming and nonfarming communities. PMID:19739552</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=8540&keyword=everglades&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=53434559&CFTOKEN=53978959','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=8540&keyword=everglades&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=53434559&CFTOKEN=53978959"><span id="translatedtitle">SOUTH FLORIDA <span class="hlt">ECOSYSTEM</span> ASSESSMENT PROJECT: FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT - PHASE I</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The South Florida <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Assessment Project is an innovative, large-scale monitoring and assessment program designed to measure <span class="hlt">current</span> and changing conditions of ecological resources in South Florida using an integrated holistic approach. Using the United States Environmenta...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=17863&keyword=urban+AND+migration&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=45016127&CFTOKEN=55831322','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=17863&keyword=urban+AND+migration&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=45016127&CFTOKEN=55831322"><span id="translatedtitle">CLIMATE CHANGE AND <span class="hlt">ECOSYSTEMS</span> OF THE MID-ATLANTIC REGION</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This paper discusses the <span class="hlt">current</span> status of forested, wetland, freshwater and coastal <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>; the combined impacts of habitat alteration, pollution and non-native invasive species on those systems; how climatic changes could interact with existing stresses; potential managemen...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/miomap/RESULTS-MIOMAP/Barnosky&Shabel%20PCAS%2056(Suppl%20I)%20HR.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/miomap/RESULTS-MIOMAP/Barnosky&Shabel%20PCAS%2056(Suppl%20I)%20HR.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Reprinted from the Proceedings of the <span class="hlt">California</span> Academy of Sciences, ser. 4, 56(Suppl. I)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>California at Berkeley, University of</p> <p></p> <p>Reprinted from the Proceedings of the <span class="hlt">California</span> Academy of Sciences, ser. 4, 56(Suppl. I) 3 June in studies of Earth's biodiversity at scales ranging from genes to whole <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. In part, the explosion, 2005 50 Reprinted from the Proceedings of the <span class="hlt">California</span> Academy of Sciences, ser. 4, 56(Suppl. I) #12</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.geog.ucsb.edu/~bodo/pdf/baguskas14_SCI_tree_mortality.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.geog.ucsb.edu/~bodo/pdf/baguskas14_SCI_tree_mortality.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluating spatial patterns of drought-induced tree mortality in a coastal <span class="hlt">California</span> pine forest</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Bookhagen, Bodo</p> <p></p> <p>Evaluating spatial patterns of drought-induced tree mortality in a coastal <span class="hlt">California</span> pine forest of Geography, University of <span class="hlt">California</span>-Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-4060, USA b Forest <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> mortality Coastal fog Drought-stress Remote sensing Random Forest a b s t r a c t In a coastal, fog</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=248784&keyword=earth&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=43028031&CFTOKEN=41140176','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=248784&keyword=earth&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=43028031&CFTOKEN=41140176"><span id="translatedtitle">A Binary Approach to Define and Classify Final <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Goods and Services</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services literature decries the lack of consistency and standards in the application of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services as well as the inability of <span class="hlt">current</span> approaches to explicitly link <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services to human well-being. Recently, SEEA and CICES have conceptually identifie...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15527958','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15527958"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> growth and development.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fath, Brian D; Jørgensen, Sven E; Patten, Bernard C; Straskraba, Milan</p> <p>2004-11-01</p> <p>One of the most important features of biosystems is how they are able to maintain local order (low entropy) within their system boundaries. At the <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> scale, this organization can be observed in the thermodynamic parameters that describe it, such that these parameters can be used to track <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> growth and development during succession. Thermodynamically, <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> growth is the increase of energy throughflow and stored biomass, and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> development is the internal reorganization of these energy mass stores, which affect transfers, transformations, and time lags within the system. Several proposed hypotheses describe thermodynamically the orientation or natural tendency that <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> follow during succession, and here, we consider five: minimize specific entropy production, maximize dissipation, maximize exergy storage (includes biomass and information), maximize energy throughflow, and maximize retention time. These thermodynamic orientors were previously all shown to occur to some degree during succession, and here we present a refinement by observing them during different stages of succession. We view <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> succession as a series of four growth and development stages: boundary, structural, network, and informational. We demonstrate how each of these ecological thermodynamic orientors behaves during the different growth and development stages, and show that while all apply during some stages only maximizing energy throughflow and maximizing exergy storage are applicable during all four stages. Therefore, we conclude that the movement away from thermodynamic equilibrium, and the subsequent increase in organization during <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> growth and development, is a result of system components and configurations that maximize the flux of useful energy and the amount of stored exergy. Empirical data and theoretical models support these conclusions. PMID:15527958</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://polisci.berkeley.edu/sites/default/files/2013%20Travers%20Conf%20Program.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://polisci.berkeley.edu/sites/default/files/2013%20Travers%20Conf%20Program.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">California</span>'s Energy Future</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Sekhon, Jasjeet S.</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">California</span>'s Energy Future The 16th Annual Travers Conference on Ethics and Accountability April 19 of <span class="hlt">California</span>, Berkeley And The Commonwealth Club of <span class="hlt">California</span> #12;2 Co-sponsored by The Travers Program University of <span class="hlt">California</span>, Berkeley And The Commonwealth Club of <span class="hlt">California</span> The 16th Annual Travers Conference</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP13C..07D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPP13C..07D"><span id="translatedtitle">Constructing an Eocene Marine <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Sensitivity Scale</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>D'haenens, S.; Bornemann, A.; Speijer, R. P.; Hull, P. M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>A key question in the face of <span class="hlt">current</span> global environmental change is how marine <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> will respond and evolve in the future. To answer this, we first need to understand the relationship between environmental and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> change - i.e., the <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> sensitivity. Addressing this question requires understanding of how biota respond to (a succession of) sudden environmental perturbations of varying sizes and durations in varying background conditions (i.e., climatic, oceanographic, biotic). Here, we compare new and published data from the Early to Middle Eocene greenhouse world to understand the sensitivity of marine <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> to background environmental change and hyperthermal events. This work focuses on the early Paleogene, because it is considered to be a good analog for a future high CO2 world. Newly generated high-resolution multiproxy datasets based on northern Atlantic DSDP Leg 48 and IODP Leg 342 material will allow us to compare the marine <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> responses (including bentho-pelagic systems) to abiotic drivers across climatic disruptions of differing magnitude. Initial results of a benthic foraminiferal community comparison including the PETM and ETM2 hyperthermals in the northeastern Atlantic DSDP sites 401 and 5501 suggest that benthic <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> sensitivity may actually be non-linearly linked to background climate states as reflected by a range of geochemical proxies (XRF, TOC, CaCO3, grain sizes, XRD clay mineralogy and foraminiferal ?18O, ?13C, Mg/Ca)2,3, in contrast to planktic communities4. Testing the type of scaling across different taxa, communities, initial background conditions and time scales may be the first big step to disentangle the often synergistic effects of environmental change on <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>5. References: 1D'haenens et al., 2012, in prep. 2Bornemann et al., 2014, EPSL 3D'haenens et al., 2014, PA 4Gibbs et al., 2012, Biogeosc. 5 Norris et al., 2013, Science</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ARMS....6..439A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ARMS....6..439A"><span id="translatedtitle">Sea Ice <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arrigo, Kevin R.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Polar sea ice is one of the largest <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> on Earth. The liquid brine fraction of the ice matrix is home to a diverse array of organisms, ranging from tiny archaea to larger fish and invertebrates. These organisms can tolerate high brine salinity and low temperature but do best when conditions are milder. Thriving ice algal communities, generally dominated by diatoms, live at the ice/water interface and in recently flooded surface and interior layers, especially during spring, when temperatures begin to rise. Although protists dominate the sea ice biomass, heterotrophic bacteria are also abundant. The sea ice <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> provides food for a host of animals, with crustaceans being the most conspicuous. Uneaten organic matter from the ice sinks through the water column and feeds benthic <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. As sea ice extent declines, ice algae likely contribute a shrinking fraction of the total amount of organic matter produced in polar waters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/california_san_francisco','SCIGOV-ASDC'); return false;" href="https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/california_san_francisco"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">California</span>: San Francisco Bay</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/">Atmospheric Science Data Center </a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-05-15</p> <p>article title:  Northern <span class="hlt">California</span> and San Francisco Bay     ... 17, 2000 (MISR) and August 25, 1997 (AirMISR) - Northern <span class="hlt">California</span> and the San Francisco Bay. project:  MISR ... date:  Aug 17, 2000 Images:  <span class="hlt">California</span> San Francisco Bay location:  United States ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://oaktrust.library.tamu.edu//handle/1969.1/3593','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://oaktrust.library.tamu.edu//handle/1969.1/3593"><span id="translatedtitle">Santa Cruz folio, <span class="hlt">California</span> </span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Branner, John Casper, 1850-1922.</p> <p>1909-01-01</p> <p>This paper describes the <span class="hlt">California</span> Energy Commission’s (Commission) energy policies and programs that save energy and money for <span class="hlt">California’s</span> manufacturing and food processing industries to help retain businesses in-state and reduce greenhouse gases...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4279526','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4279526"><span id="translatedtitle">Remote Sensing of <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Health: Opportunities, Challenges, and Future Perspectives</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Li, Zhaoqin; Xu, Dandan; Guo, Xulin</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Maintaining a healthy <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> is essential for maximizing sustainable ecological services of the best quality to human beings. Ecological and conservation research has provided a strong scientific background on identifying ecological health indicators and correspondingly making effective conservation plans. At the same time, ecologists have asserted a strong need for spatially explicit and temporally effective <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> health assessments based on remote sensing data. <span class="hlt">Currently</span>, remote sensing of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> health is only based on one <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> attribute: vigor, organization, or resilience. However, an effective <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> health assessment should be a comprehensive and dynamic measurement of the three attributes. This paper reviews opportunities of remote sensing, including optical, radar, and LiDAR, for directly estimating indicators of the three <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> attributes, discusses the main challenges to develop a remote sensing-based spatially-explicit comprehensive <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> health system, and provides some future perspectives. The main challenges to develop a remote sensing-based spatially-explicit comprehensive <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> health system are: (1) scale issue; (2) transportability issue; (3) data availability; and (4) uncertainties in health indicators estimated from remote sensing data. However, the Radarsat-2 constellation, upcoming new optical sensors on Worldview-3 and Sentinel-2 satellites, and improved technologies for the acquisition and processing of hyperspectral, multi-angle optical, radar, and LiDAR data and multi-sensoral data fusion may partly address the <span class="hlt">current</span> challenges. PMID:25386759</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMNH33A1640R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMNH33A1640R"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">California</span> Tsunami Policy Working Group</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Real, C. R.; Johnson, L. A.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">California</span> has established a Tsunami Policy Working Group of specialists from government and industry, from diverse fields including tsunami, seismic, and flood hazards, local and regional planning, structural engineering, natural hazard policy, and coastal engineering that have come together to facilitate the development of policy recommendations for tsunami hazard mitigation. The group is acting on findings from two major efforts: the USGS SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) Project - Tsunami Scenario, a comprehensive impact analysis of a large credible tsunami originating from a M 9.0 earthquake on the Aleutian Islands striking <span class="hlt">California</span>'s Coastline, and the State's Tsunami Hazard Mitigation and Education Program carried out by the <span class="hlt">California</span> Emergency Management Agency and the <span class="hlt">California</span> Geological Survey. The latter program is <span class="hlt">currently</span> involved with several projects to help coastal communities reduce their tsunami risk, including two pilot projects (Crescent City in Del Norte County and the City of Huntington Beach in Orange County) where tsunami risk is among the highest in <span class="hlt">California</span>, and a third pilot study focusing on the maritime community. The pilot projects are developing and testing probabilistic tsunami hazard products that will assist land-use and construction decisions for coastal development. The role of the policy group is to identify gaps and issues in <span class="hlt">current</span> tsunami hazard mitigation, make recommendations that will help eliminate these impediments and to provide advice that will assist in the development and implementation of effective tsunami hazard products that will help coastal communities improve tsunami resiliency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=142418&keyword=data+AND+protection+AND+act+AND+1998&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=51301227&CFTOKEN=83789509','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=142418&keyword=data+AND+protection+AND+act+AND+1998&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=51301227&CFTOKEN=83789509"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> RCRA TSD FACILITY BOUNDARIES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Polygon coverage of RCRA TSD facility boundaries in <span class="hlt">California</span>. These are derived from original maps and descriptions located in the US EPA Region 9 Records Center files. <span class="hlt">Current</span> TSD facility designations were extracted from the ARIS (RCRIS) database in June 1998. Auxiliary tabl...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED450292.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED450292.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">California</span> School Psychologist, 1999.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Wilson, Marilyn, Ed.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>This publication of the <span class="hlt">California</span> Association of School Psychologists includes articles written by practitioners, trainers, and students. The topics represent a sampling of the broad range of students that school psychologists are asked to serve today. Two articles discuss <span class="hlt">current</span> findings relevant to working with the populations of students who…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED457500.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED457500.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">California</span> School Psychologist, 2001.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jimerson, Shane R., Ed.; Wilson, Marilyn, Ed.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>This volume of the journal for the <span class="hlt">California</span> Association of School Psychologists provides <span class="hlt">current</span> information on a broad array of topics related to the work of school psychologists. The articles contribute important information on contemporary issues in the field, such as using a strength-based perspective when assessing students, student support…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Endangered+AND+species&pg=4&id=ED367545','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Endangered+AND+species&pg=4&id=ED367545"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">California</span> Endangered Species Resource Guide.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>California State Dept. of Education, Los Angeles.</p> <p></p> <p>This document was developed in response to <span class="hlt">California</span> Senate Bill No. 885, "The Endangered Species Education Project," that called for a statewide program in which schools adopt a local endangered species, research past and <span class="hlt">current</span> efforts to preserve the species' habitat, develop and implement an action plan to educate the community about the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMIN51A1689D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMIN51A1689D"><span id="translatedtitle">Enabling the Integrated Assessment of Large Marine <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span>: Informatics to the Forefront of Science-Based Decision Support</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Di Stefano, M.; Fox, P. A.; Beaulieu, S. E.; Maffei, A. R.; West, P.; Hare, J. A.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Integrated assessments of large marine <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> require the understanding of interactions between environmental, ecological, and socio-economic factors that affect production and utilization of marine natural resources. Assessing the functioning of complex coupled natural-human systems calls for collaboration between natural and social scientists across disciplinary and national boundaries. We are developing a platform to implement and sustain informatics solutions for these applications, providing interoperability among very diverse and heterogeneous data and information sources, as well as multi-disciplinary organizations and people. We have partnered with NOAA NMFS scientists to facilitate the deployment of an integrated <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> approach to management in the Northeast U.S. (NES) and <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> Large Marine <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> (LMEs). Our platform will facilitate the collaboration and knowledge sharing among NMFS natural and social scientists, promoting community participation in integrating data, models, and knowledge. Here, we present collaborative software tools developed to aid the production of the <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Status Report (ESR) for the NES LME. The ESR addresses the D-P-S portion of the DPSIR (Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response) management framework: reporting data, indicators, and information products for climate drivers, physical and human (fisheries) pressures, and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> state (primary and secondary production and higher trophic levels). We are developing our tools in open-source software, with the main tool based on a web application capable of providing the ability to work on multiple data types from a variety of sources, providing an effective way to share the source code used to generate data products and associated metadata as well as track workflow provenance to allow in the reproducibility of a data product. Our platform retrieves data, conducts standard analyses, reports data quality and other standardized metadata, provides iterative and interactive visualization, and enables the download of data plotted in the ESR. Data, indicators, and information products include time series, geographic maps, and uni-variate and multi-variate analyses. Also central to the success of this initiative is the commitment to accommodate and train scientists of multiple disciplines who will learn to interact effectively with this new integrated and interoperable <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> assessment capability. Traceability, repeatability, explanation, verification, and validation of data, indicators, and information products are important for cross-disciplinary understanding and sharing with managers, policymakers, and the public. We are also developing an ontology to support the implementation of the DPSIR framework. These new capabilities will serve as the essential foundation for the formal synthesis and quantitative analysis of information on relevant natural and socio-economic factors in relation to specified <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> management goals which can be applied in other LMEs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6528716','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6528716"><span id="translatedtitle">Antarctic terrestrial <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Walton, D.W.H.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The Maritime and Continental Antarctic terrestrial <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> are considered in the context of environmental impacts - habitat destruction, alien introductions, and pollution. Four types of pollution are considered: nutrients, radionuclides, inert materials, and noxious chemicals. Their ability to recover from perturbation is discussed in the light of present scientific knowledge, and the methods used to control impacts are reviewed. It is concluded that techniques of waste disposal are still inadequate, adequate training in environmental and conservation principles for Antarctic personnel in many countries is lacking, and scientific investigations may be a much more serious threat than tourism to the integrity of these <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. Some priorities crucial to future management are suggested.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001Natur.413..591S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001Natur.413..591S"><span id="translatedtitle">Catastrophic shifts in <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Scheffer, Marten; Carpenter, Steve; Foley, Jonathan A.; Folke, Carl; Walker, Brian</p> <p>2001-10-01</p> <p>All <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> are exposed to gradual changes in climate, nutrient loading, habitat fragmentation or biotic exploitation. Nature is usually assumed to respond to gradual change in a smooth way. However, studies on lakes, coral reefs, oceans, forests and arid lands have shown that smooth change can be interrupted by sudden drastic switches to a contrasting state. Although diverse events can trigger such shifts, recent studies show that a loss of resilience usually paves the way for a switch to an alternative state. This suggests that strategies for sustainable management of such <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> should focus on maintaining resilience.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026823','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026823"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">California</span> earthquake history</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Toppozada, T.; Branum, D.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents an overview of the advancement in our knowledge of <span class="hlt">California</span>'s earthquake history since ??? 1800, and especially during the last 30 years. We first review the basic statewide research on earthquake occurrences that was published from 1928 through 2002, to show how the <span class="hlt">current</span> catalogs and their levels of completeness have evolved with time. Then we review some of the significant new results in specific regions of <span class="hlt">California</span>, and some of what remains to be done. Since 1850, 167 potentially damaging earthquakes of M ??? 6 or larger have been identified in <span class="hlt">California</span> and its border regions, indicating an average rate of 1.1 such events per year. Table I lists the earthquakes of M ??? 6 to 6.5 that were also destructive since 1812 in <span class="hlt">California</span> and its border regions, indicating an average rate of one such event every ??? 5 years. Many of these occurred before 1932 when epicenters and magnitudes started to be determined routinely using seismographs in <span class="hlt">California</span>. The number of these early earthquakes is probably incomplete in sparsely populated remote parts of <span class="hlt">California</span> before ??? 1870. For example, 6 of the 7 pre-1873 events in table I are of M ??? 7, suggesting that other earthquakes of M 6.5 to 6.9 occurred but were not properly identified, or were not destructive. The epicenters and magnitudes (M) of the pre-instrumental earthquakes were determined from isoseismal maps that were based on the Modified Mercalli Intensity of shaking (MMI) at the communities that reported feeling the earthquakes. The epicenters were estimated to be in the regions of most intense shaking, and values of M were estimated from the extent of the areas shaken at various MMI levels. MMI VII or greater shaking is the threshold of damage to weak buildings. Certain areas in the regions of Los Angeles, San Francisco, and Eureka were each shaken repeatedly at MMI VII or greater at least six times since ??? 1812, as depicted by Toppozada and Branum (2002, fig. 19).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70140924','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70140924"><span id="translatedtitle">Refocusing Mussel Watch on contaminants of emerging concern (CECs): the <span class="hlt">California</span> pilot study (2009-10)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Maruya, Keith A.; Dodder, Nathan G.; Schaffner, Rebecca A.; Weisberg, Stephen B.; Gregorio, Dominic; Klosterhaus, Susan; Alvarez, David A.; Furlong, Edward T.; Kimbrough, Kimani L.; Lauenstein, Gunnar G.; Christensen, John D.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>To expand the utility of the Mussel Watch Program, local, regional and state agencies in <span class="hlt">California</span> partnered with NOAA to design a pilot study that targeted contaminants of emerging concern (CECs). Native mussels (Mytilus spp.) from 68 stations, stratified by land use and discharge scenario, were collected in 2009–10 and analyzed for 167 individual pharmaceuticals, industrial and commercial chemicals and <span class="hlt">current</span> use pesticides. Passive sampling devices (PSDs) and caged Mytilus were co-deployed to expand the list of CECs, and to assess the ability of PSDs to mimic bioaccumulation by Mytilus. A performance-based quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) approach was developed to ensure a high degree of data quality, consistency and comparability. Data management and analysis were streamlined and standardized using automated software tools. This pioneering study will help shape future monitoring efforts in <span class="hlt">California’s</span> coastal <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, while serving as a model for monitoring CECs within the region and across the nation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4238378','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4238378"><span id="translatedtitle">Microbial and biogeochemical responses to projected future nitrate enrichment in the <span class="hlt">California</span> upwelling system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mackey, Katherine R. M.; Chien, Chia-Te; Paytan, Adina</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Coastal <span class="hlt">California</span> is a dynamic upwelling region where nitrogen (N) and iron (Fe) can both limit productivity and influence biogeochemistry over different spatial and temporal scales. With global change, the flux of nitrate from upwelling is expected to increase over the next century, potentially driving additional oceanic regions toward Fe limitation. In this study we explored the effect of changes in Fe/N ratio on native phytoplankton from five <span class="hlt">currently</span> Fe-replete sites near the major <span class="hlt">California</span> upwelling centers at Bodega Bay and Monterey Bay using nutrient addition incubation experiments. Despite the high nitrate levels (13–30 ? M) in the upwelled water, phytoplankton at three of the five sites showed increased growth when 10 ? M nitrate was added. None of the sites showed enhanced growth following addition of 10 nM Fe. Nitrate additions favored slow sinking single-celled diatoms over faster sinking chain-forming diatoms, suggesting that future increases in nitrate flux could affect carbon and silicate export and alter grazer populations. In particular, solitary cells of Cylindrotheca were more abundant than the toxin-producing genus Pseudonitzschia following nitrate addition. These responses suggest the biogeochemistry of coastal <span class="hlt">California</span> could change in response to future increases in nitrate, and multiple stressors like ocean acidification and hypoxia may further result in <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> shifts. PMID:25477873</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/273125','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/273125"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> approach: Healthy <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> and sustainable economies. Volume 3. Case studies. Final report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>1996-03-01</p> <p>The case study report of the Interagency <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Management Task Force presents findings and recommendations from seven survey teams, details the nature, history, and <span class="hlt">current</span> status of each <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>, and summarizes survey team interviews with many participating parties. The volume targets those interested in how <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> partnerships work. <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> include: Anacostia River watershed--state and local agencies are restoring components of this system of marshes, rivers, forests in urban environments: Coastal Louisiana--a federal task force and the state of Louisiana are restoring wetlands to reverse the trend of losses; Great Lakes basin--local communities joined with governmental agencies to reverse pollution and habitat degradation; Pacific Northwest forests--an interagency effort is protecting both forest <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> and the region`s economic health; Prince William Sound--a state/federal trustee council is restoring the <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> following the Exxon Valdez oil spill: South Florida--a federal task force is restoring habitat in the Everglades; and Southern Appalachians--the Man and Biosphere program is working with communities to restore habitats.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/44978','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/44978"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">California</span>'s electricity crisis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Joskow, Paul L.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>The collapse of <span class="hlt">California</span>'s electricity restructuring and competition program has attracted attention around the world. Prices in <span class="hlt">California</span>'s competitive wholesale electricity market increased by 500% between the second ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPA51B4054C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMPA51B4054C"><span id="translatedtitle">Integrated Climate Change Impacts Assessment in <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cayan, D. R.; Franco, G.; Meyer, R.; Anderson, M.; Bromirski, P. D.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>This paper summarizes lessons learned from an ongoing series of climate change assessments for <span class="hlt">California</span>, conducted by the scientific community and State and local agencies. A series of three Assessments have considered vulnerability and adaptation issues for both managed and natural systems. <span class="hlt">California</span>'s vulnerability is many faceted, arising because of an exceptionally drought prone climate, open coast and large estuary exposure to sea level rise, sensitive <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> and complex human footprint and economy. Key elements of the assessments have been a common set of climate and sea-level rise scenarios, based upon IPCC GCM simulations. Regionalized and localized output from GCM projections was provided to research teams investigating water supply, agriculture, coastal resources, <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services, forestry, public health, and energy demand and hydropower generation. The assessment results are helping to investigate the broad range of uncertainty that is inherent in climate projections, and users are becoming better equipped to process an envelope of potential climate and impacts. Some projections suggest that without changes in <span class="hlt">California</span>'s present fresh-water delivery system, serious water shortages would take place, but that technical solutions are possible. Under a warmer climate, wildfire vulnerability is heightened markedly in some areas--estimated increases in burned area by the end of the 21st Century exceed 100% of the historical area burned in much of the forested areas of Northern <span class="hlt">California</span> Along <span class="hlt">California</span> coast and estuaries, projected rise in mean sea level will accelerate flooding occurrences, prompting the need for better education and preparedness. Many policymakers and agency personnel in <span class="hlt">California</span> are factoring in results from the assessments and recognize the need for a sustained assessment process. An ongoing challenge, of course, is to achieve more engagement with a broader community of decision makers, and notably with the private sector.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25914391','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25914391"><span id="translatedtitle">Considerations in evaluating potential socioeconomic impacts of offshore platform decommissioning in <span class="hlt">California</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kruse, Sarah A; Bernstein, Brock; Scholz, Astrid J</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The 27 oil and gas platforms offshore southern <span class="hlt">California</span> will eventually reach the end of their useful lifetimes (estimated between 2015 and 2030) and will be decommissioned. <span class="hlt">Current</span> state and federal laws and regulations allow for alternative uses in lieu of the complete removal required in existing leases. Any decommissioning pathway will create a complex mix of costs, benefits, opportunities, and constraints for multiple user groups. To assist the <span class="hlt">California</span> Natural Resources Agency in understanding these issues, we evaluated the potential socioeconomic impacts of the 2 most likely options: complete removal and partial removal of the structure to 85 feet below the waterline with the remaining structure left in place as an artificial reef-generally defined as a manmade structure with some properties that mimic a natural reef. We estimated impacts on commercial fishing, commercial shipping, recreational fishing, nonconsumptive boating, and nonconsumptive SCUBA diving. Available data supported quantitative estimates for some impacts, semiquantitative estimates for others, and only qualitative approximations of the direction of impact for still others. Even qualitative estimates of the direction of impacts and of user groups' likely preferred options have been useful to the public and decision makers and provided valuable input to the project's integrative decision model. Uncertainty surrounds even qualitative estimates of the likely direction of impact where interactions between multiple impacts could occur or where user groups include subsets that would experience the same option differently. In addition, we were unable to quantify effects on <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> value and on the larger regional <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>, because of data gaps on the population sizes and dynamics of key species and the uncertainty surrounding the contribution of platforms to available hard substrate and related natural populations offshore southern <span class="hlt">California</span>. PMID:25914391</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=83666&keyword=Grasslands&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=42758819&CFTOKEN=51733492','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=83666&keyword=Grasslands&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=42758819&CFTOKEN=51733492"><span id="translatedtitle">TERRESTRIAL <span class="hlt">ECOSYSTEM</span> SIMULATOR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The Terrestrial Habitats Project at the Western Ecology Division (Corvallis, OR) is developing tools and databases to meet the needs of Program Office clients for assessing risks to wildlife and terrestrial <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. Because habitat is a dynamic condition in real-world environm...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.k-state.edu/ecophyslab/pdf's/ch15%20Seastedt%20et%20al.%202013.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.k-state.edu/ecophyslab/pdf's/ch15%20Seastedt%20et%20al.%202013.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Case Study: <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Transformations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Nippert, Jesse</p> <p></p> <p>142 Chapter 15 Case Study: <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Transformations Along The Colorado Front Range: Prairie Dog-tailed prairie dog. Directional changes in climate and atmospheric chemistry are altering the environment foothills and mixed-grass to short-grass prairie. Among these direc- tional changes are elevated average</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://euro.ecom.cmu.edu/resources/elibrary/epay/MobileProximity.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://euro.ecom.cmu.edu/resources/elibrary/epay/MobileProximity.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">MOBILE PROXIMITY PAYMENT: <span class="hlt">ECOSYSTEM</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Shamos, Michael I.</p> <p></p> <p>(ATMs) and shared banking networks, debit and credit card systems, electronic money and stored value and heterogeneous. The Mobile Payment <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> involves a number of partners, such as: · banks; · Mobile Network providers, SIM suppliers; · merchants at point of sales; · Trusted Service Managers (TSMs), i</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5415511','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5415511"><span id="translatedtitle">Shelf-sea <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Walsh, J J</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>An analysis of the food chain dynamics of the Oregon, Alaskan, and New York shelves is made with respect to differences in physical forcing of these <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. The world's shelves are 10% of the area of the ocean, yield 99% of the world's fish catch, and may be a major sink in the global CO/sub 2/ budget.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/gip152','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/gip152"><span id="translatedtitle">Seafloor off Pleasure Point, Santa Cruz County, <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Storlazzi, Curt D.; Golden, Nadine E.; Gibbons, Helen</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The seafloor off Pleasure Point, Santa Cruz County, <span class="hlt">California</span>, is extremely varied, with sandy flats, boulder fields, faults, and complex bedrock ridges. These ridges support rich marine <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>; some of them form the "reefs" that produce world-class surf breaks. Colors indicate seafloor depth, from red-orange (about 2 meters or 7 feet) to magenta (25 meters or 82 feet)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/gip153','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/gip153"><span id="translatedtitle">Seafloor off Lighthouse Point Park, Santa Cruz, <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Storlazzi, Curt D.; Golden, Nadine E.; Gibbons, Helen</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The seafloor off Lighthouse Point Park, Santa Cruz, <span class="hlt">California</span>, is extremely varied, with sandy flats, boulder fields, faults, and complex bedrock ridges. These ridges support rich marine <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>; some of them form the "reefs" that produce world-class surf breaks. Colors indicate seafloor depth, from red-orange (about 2 meters or 7 feet) to magenta (25 meters or 82 feet).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/gip154','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/gip154"><span id="translatedtitle">Seafloor off Natural Bridges State Beach, Santa Cruz, <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Storlazzi, Curt D.; Golden, Nadine E.; Gibbons, Helen</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The seafloor off Natural Bridges State Beach, Santa Cruz, <span class="hlt">California</span>, is extremely varied, with sandy flats, boulder fields, faults, and complex bedrock ridges. These ridges support rich marine <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>; some of them form the "reefs" that produce world-class surf breaks. Colors indicate seafloor depth, from red-orange (about 2 meters or 7 feet) to magenta (25 meters or 82 feet).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.fs.fed.us/psw/publications/documents/psw_gtr184/psw_gtr184_041_Giusti.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.fs.fed.us/psw/publications/documents/psw_gtr184/psw_gtr184_041_Giusti.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Inconsistent Application of Environmental Laws and Policies to <span class="hlt">California</span>'s Oak</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>, and the final land use designation. Hence, situations arise where the scale of impacts to the <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> can to individual tree protection. Introduction Oaks span across many of <span class="hlt">California</span>'s diverse climatic zones to be removed for urban and agricultural development despite modern environmental protection policies (Jensen</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=191351&keyword=man&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=47356308&CFTOKEN=70532769','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=191351&keyword=man&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=47356308&CFTOKEN=70532769"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Restoration Research at GWERD</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Ground Water and <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> Restoration Division, Ada, OK Mission: Conduct research and technical assistance to provide the scientific basis to support the development of strategies and technologies to protect and restore ground water, surface water, and <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> impacted b...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=49006&keyword=programming+AND+c%2B%2B&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=43235964&CFTOKEN=50180952','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=49006&keyword=programming+AND+c%2B%2B&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=43235964&CFTOKEN=50180952"><span id="translatedtitle">POEM: PESTICIDE ORCHARD <span class="hlt">ECOSYSTEM</span> MODEL</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The Pesticide Orchard <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Model (POEM) is a mathematical model of organophosphate pesticide movement in an apple orchard <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>. In addition submodels on invertebrate population dynamics are included. The fate model allows the user to select the pesticide, its applicatio...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=84967&keyword=contaminant+AND+contamination+AND+food&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=55114360&CFTOKEN=29793984','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=84967&keyword=contaminant+AND+contamination+AND+food&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=55114360&CFTOKEN=29793984"><span id="translatedtitle">BIOGEOCHEMICAL INDICATORS IN AQUATIC <span class="hlt">ECOSYSTEMS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Loadings of excess organic wastes and associated nutrients to aquatic systems has numerous deleterious consequences with respect to the <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services provided by these important <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> including perturbation of organic matter and nutrient cycling rates, reduction in diss...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3579441','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3579441"><span id="translatedtitle">Spatio-temporal history of the disjunct family Tecophilaeaceae: a tale involving the colonization of three Mediterranean-type <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Buerki, Sven; Manning, John C.; Forest, Félix</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background and Aims Tecophilaeaceae (27 species distributed in eight genera) have a disjunct distribution in <span class="hlt">California</span>, Chile and southern and tropical mainland Africa. Moreover, although the family mainly occurs in arid <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, it has colonized three Mediterranean-type <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. In this study, the spatio-temporal history of the family is examined using DNA sequence data from six plastid regions. Methods Modern methods in divergence time estimation (BEAST), diversification (LTT and GeoSSE) and biogeography (LAGRANGE) are applied to infer the evolutionary history of Tecophilaeaceae. To take into account dating and phylogenetic uncertainty, the biogeographical inferences were run over a set of dated Bayesian trees and the analyses were constrained according to palaeogeographical evidence. Key Results The analyses showed that the <span class="hlt">current</span> distribution and diversification of the family were influenced primarily by the break up of Gondwana, separating the family into two main clades, and the establishment of a Mediterranean climate in Chile, coinciding with the radiation of Conanthera. Finally, unlike many other groups, no shifts in diversification rates were observed associated with the dispersals in the Cape region of South Africa. Conclusions Although modest in size, Tecophilaeaceae have a complex spatio-temporal history. The family is now most diverse in arid <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> in southern Africa, but is expected to have originated in sub-tropical Africa. It has subsequently colonized Mediterranean-type <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, but well before the onset of the Mediterranean climate in these regions. Only one lineage, genus Conanthera, has apparently diversified to any extent under the impetus of a Mediterranean climate. PMID:23277471</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Habitat&pg=2&id=EJ967533','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Habitat&pg=2&id=EJ967533"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> in the Learning Environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Louviere, Gregory</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Habitats, ecology and evolution are a few of the many metaphors commonly associated with the domain of biological <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. Surprisingly, these and other similar biological metaphors are proving to be equally associated with a phenomenon known as digital <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. Digital <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> make a direct connection between biological properties and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Biodiversity&pg=6&id=EJ785378','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Biodiversity&pg=6&id=EJ785378"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigating <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> in a Biobottle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Breene, Arnica; Gilewski, Donna</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Biobottles are miniature <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> made from 2-liter plastic soda bottles. They allow students to explore how organisms in an <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> are connected to each other, examine how biotic and abiotic factors influence plant and animal growth and development, and discover how important biodiversity is to an <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>. This activity was inspired by an…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED478712.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED478712.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Teaching about <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span>. ERIC Digest.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Haury, David L.</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> are available to educators as interactive units and as such the National Science Education Standards (NSES) and the Excellence in Environmental Education: Guidelines for Learning (EEE) put considerable emphasis on <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. This ERIC Digest describes the NSES and EEE guidelines for grades 5-8 and 9-12 to provide a basic <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=310586','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=310586"><span id="translatedtitle">Biogeochemical processes underpin <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Elemental cycling is critical to the function of <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> and delivery of key <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services because many of these elements are essential nutrients or detrimental toxicants that directly affect the health of organisms and <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. A team of authors from North Carolina State University and ...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.registrar.ucla.edu/archive/catalog/36-37catalog.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.registrar.ucla.edu/archive/catalog/36-37catalog.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">UNIVERSITY OF <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> PUBLISHED AT BERKELEY , <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>· Number 9 GENERAL CATALOGUE #1936,037* UNIVERSITY OF <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> AT LOS ANGELES For sale by the STUDENTS of Business Administration. The Schedule of Classes, University of <span class="hlt">California</span> at Los Angeles : containing . ENTERED JULY 1, 1911, AT THE POST OFFICE AT BERKELEY, <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> , AS SECOND -CLASS MATTER , UNDER THE ACT</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.registrar.ucla.edu/archive/catalog/37-38catalog.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.registrar.ucla.edu/archive/catalog/37-38catalog.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">VERSITY OF <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> PUBLISHED AT BERKELEY , <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>, 1937 - Number 9 GENERAL CATALOGUE · 1937-36 UNIVERSITY OF <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> AT LOS ANGELES For sale of Business Administration. The Schedule of Classes , University of <span class="hlt">California</span> at Los Angeles: containing, 1911, AT THE POST OFFICE AT BERKELEY, <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> , AS SECOND -CLASS MATTER , UNDER THE ACT OF CONGRESS</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED510167.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED510167.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Leaders for <span class="hlt">California</span>'s Schools. Policy Brief 09-4</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Loeb, Susanna; Valant, Jon</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>In this policy brief the authors present an overview of the <span class="hlt">current</span> state of school leadership in <span class="hlt">California</span>. They examine the challenges that <span class="hlt">California</span> must overcome to recruit, hire, train, and retain strong and talented principals, with a particular focus on the limitations of <span class="hlt">current</span> state and district policies. They also propose a set of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3648534','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3648534"><span id="translatedtitle">Scientific Foundations for an IUCN Red List of <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Keith, David A.; Rodríguez, Jon Paul; Rodríguez-Clark, Kathryn M.; Nicholson, Emily; Aapala, Kaisu; Alonso, Alfonso; Asmussen, Marianne; Bachman, Steven; Basset, Alberto; Barrow, Edmund G.; Benson, John S.; Bishop, Melanie J.; Bonifacio, Ronald; Brooks, Thomas M.; Burgman, Mark A.; Comer, Patrick; Comín, Francisco A.; Essl, Franz; Faber-Langendoen, Don; Fairweather, Peter G.; Holdaway, Robert J.; Jennings, Michael; Kingsford, Richard T.; Lester, Rebecca E.; Nally, Ralph Mac; McCarthy, Michael A.; Moat, Justin; Oliveira-Miranda, María A.; Pisanu, Phil; Poulin, Brigitte; Regan, Tracey J.; Riecken, Uwe; Spalding, Mark D.; Zambrano-Martínez, Sergio</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>An understanding of risks to biodiversity is needed for planning action to slow <span class="hlt">current</span> rates of decline and secure <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services for future human use. Although the IUCN Red List criteria provide an effective assessment protocol for species, a standard global assessment of risks to higher levels of biodiversity is <span class="hlt">currently</span> limited. In 2008, IUCN initiated development of risk assessment criteria to support a global Red List of <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. We present a new conceptual model for <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> risk assessment founded on a synthesis of relevant ecological theories. To support the model, we review key elements of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> definition and introduce the concept of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> collapse, an analogue of species extinction. The model identifies four distributional and functional symptoms of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> risk as a basis for assessment criteria: A) rates of decline in <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> distribution; B) restricted distributions with continuing declines or threats; C) rates of environmental (abiotic) degradation; and D) rates of disruption to biotic processes. A fifth criterion, E) quantitative estimates of the risk of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> collapse, enables integrated assessment of multiple processes and provides a conceptual anchor for the other criteria. We present the theoretical rationale for the construction and interpretation of each criterion. The assessment protocol and threat categories mirror those of the IUCN Red List of species. A trial of the protocol on terrestrial, subterranean, freshwater and marine <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> from around the world shows that its concepts are workable and its outcomes are robust, that required data are available, and that results are consistent with assessments carried out by local experts and authorities. The new protocol provides a consistent, practical and theoretically grounded framework for establishing a systematic Red List of the world’s <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. This will complement the Red List of species and strengthen global capacity to report on and monitor the status of biodiversity PMID:23667454</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMOS12A..01C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMOS12A..01C"><span id="translatedtitle">Utilizing <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Information to Improve Decision Support Systems for Marine Fisheries (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chavez, F.; Chai, F.; Chao, Y.; Wells, B.; Safari Team</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Successful ecological forecasting of fishery yields has eluded resource managers for decades. However, recent advances in observing systems, computational power and understanding of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> function offer credible evidence that the variability of the ocean <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> and its impact on fishery yield can be forecast accurately enough and with enough lead time to be useful to society. Advances in space-based real time sensors, high performance computing, very high-resolution physical models, and robust <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> theory make possible operational forecasts of both fish availability and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> health. Accurate and timely forecasts can provide the information needed to maintain the long-term sustainability of fish stocks and protect the <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> of which the fish are an integral part, while maximizing social and economic benefits and preventing wasteful overinvestment of economic resources. Here we review progress in improving the decision support systems by forecasting two marine fisheries: 1) the coastal Peru small pelagic fishery and 2) the central <span class="hlt">California</span> salmon fishery.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/mapping/csmp/COPC07SeafloorMapping.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/mapping/csmp/COPC07SeafloorMapping.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> OCEAN PROTECTION COUNCIL</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> OCEAN PROTECTION COUNCIL Staff Recommendation October 25th , 2007 <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> SEAFLOOR of the <span class="hlt">California</span> Seafloor Mapping Program, involving data acquisition for nearshore and offshore substrate) to take actions needed to provide up to $15,000,000 for the planning or implementation of the <span class="hlt">California</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://gallery.usgs.gov/photos/12_16_2015_sWn0QEc55K_12_16_2015_15','SCIGOVIMAGE-USGS'); return false;" href="http://gallery.usgs.gov/photos/12_16_2015_sWn0QEc55K_12_16_2015_15"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">California</span> Coast Seafloor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://gallery.usgs.gov/">USGS Multimedia Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Photograph showing the seafloor off the <span class="hlt">California</span> coast. This photograph supports the <span class="hlt">California</span> Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), which was initiated in 2007 by the <span class="hlt">California</span> Ocean Protection Council. Data collected during this project reveal the seafloor offshore of the <span class="hlt">California</span> coast in unprec...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730005624','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730005624"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">California</span> coast nearshore processes study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pirie, D. M. (principal investigator)</p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>The author has identified the following significant results. In the Santa Barbara Channel the effect of the <span class="hlt">California</span> and the Anacapa <span class="hlt">Currents</span> are clearly seen in image 1109-18073M. The large triangular shaped lobe of suspended particulate matter that stretches almost to Anacapa Island from the Ventura River area is disrupted approximately midchannel by the east-moving Anacapa <span class="hlt">Current</span>. In the Point Conception area a lobe of suspended material approximately 20 miles long can be seen moving eastward as a result of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span>. In the San Francisco Bay area the major results include the detection and delineation of the San Francisco Bay, the location and vector of suspended sediment in the San Francisco Bay, and the ability to differentiate morphologic units within the San Francisco Bay tidelands. Several densitometer line traces seaward of the Golden Gate Bridge on image 1075-18173-4 outline the San Francisco Bay and give evidence of good water penetration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=29782&keyword=conifer&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=43883680&CFTOKEN=93851076','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=29782&keyword=conifer&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=43883680&CFTOKEN=93851076"><span id="translatedtitle">OXIDANT AIR POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON A WESTERN CONIFEROUS FOREST <span class="hlt">ECOSYSTEM</span>: TASK A, PLANNING CONFERENCE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This is a report on a planning conference to develop a protocol for a study on the impact of oxidant air pollution from an urban area on a forest <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> and recreational area. The conference was held July 21-23, 1971 at the Arrowhead Conference Center in <span class="hlt">California</span> to discuss ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ecosystem+AND+service&pg=2&id=ED514455','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ecosystem+AND+service&pg=2&id=ED514455"><span id="translatedtitle">Global Educational <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span>: Case Study of a Partnership with K-12 Schools, Community Organizations, and Business</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lewis, Donna S.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to describe a collaborative partnership model known as the Global Educational <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span>, which involves three K-12 schools in Northern <span class="hlt">California</span>, community organizations (representing science, technology, health, and arts), and Xilinx, Inc. from the perspectives of the leaders of the involved partner organizations in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.sscnet.ucla.edu/06S/geog111-1/syllabus.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.sscnet.ucla.edu/06S/geog111-1/syllabus.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Geography 111: Forest <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> MW 9:00 to 10:30 AM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>;4 Forests of the World Tropical Temperate Forest of the US 5 Forests of <span class="hlt">California</span> North Central South Forest Uses Historical Tropical Temperate 8. Forest Policy History of US Forest Policy US PolicyGeography 111: Forest <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> MW 9:00 to 10:30 AM Royce 362 Dr. Thomas W. Gillespie 1181 Bunche</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.plantsciences.ucdavis.edu/plantsciences_faculty/tate/Recent%20Outreach/Eviner_10-18-2011.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.plantsciences.ucdavis.edu/plantsciences_faculty/tate/Recent%20Outreach/Eviner_10-18-2011.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Managing the drivers of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services in <span class="hlt">California</span>'s grasslands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Tate, Kenneth</p> <p></p> <p>, Malmstrom and Rice #12;Can we use native species that have the same phenology as noxious weeds to control and Rice #12;Can we use phenology as a tool to manage noxious weeds? ­ Despite overlapping phenology in growth timing between weeds and forage species to manage for weed control? Months into growing season 0 2</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ucrtoday.ucr.edu/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/Inside-UCR-18-Nov-2015.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://ucrtoday.ucr.edu/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/Inside-UCR-18-Nov-2015.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">UNIVERSITY OF <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span>, RIVER-News for Faculty and Staff of the</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>UNIVERSITY OF <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span>, RIVER- News for Faculty and Staff of the University of <span class="hlt">California</span>," but there were also signs that addressed more <span class="hlt">current</span> issues, such as the Middle East and "Solidarity with Mizzou</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2011/3136/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2011/3136/"><span id="translatedtitle">Changing Arctic <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>--research to understand and project changes in marine and terrestrial <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> of the Arctic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Geiselman, Joy; DeGange, Anthony R.; Oakley, Karen; Derksen, Dirk; Whalen, Mary</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> and their wildlife communities are not static; they change and evolve over time due to numerous intrinsic and extrinsic factors. A period of rapid change is occurring in the Arctic for which our <span class="hlt">current</span> understanding of potential <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> and wildlife responses is limited. Changes to the physical environment include warming temperatures, diminishing sea ice, increasing coastal erosion, deteriorating permafrost, and changing water regimes. These changes influence biological communities and the ways in which human communities interact with them. Through the new initiative Changing Arctic <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> (CAE) the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) strives to (1) understand the potential suite of wildlife population responses to these physical changes to inform key resource management decisions such as those related to the Endangered Species Act, and (2) provide unique insights into how Arctic <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> are responding under new stressors. Our studies examine how and why changes in the ice-dominated <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> of the Arctic are affecting wildlife and will provide a better foundation for understanding the degree and manner in which wildlife species respond and adapt to rapid environmental change. Changes to Arctic <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> will be felt broadly because the Arctic is a production zone for hundreds of species that migrate south for the winter. The CAE initiative includes three major research themes that span Arctic ice-dominated <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> and that are structured to identify and understand the linkages between physical processes, <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, and wildlife populations. The USGS is applying knowledge-based modeling structures such as Bayesian Networks to integrate the work.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930004526','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930004526"><span id="translatedtitle">Assimilation of satellite color observations in a coupled ocean GCM-<span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sarmiento, Jorge L.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Monthly average coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) estimates of chlorophyll concentration were assimilated into an ocean global circulation model(GCM) containing a simple model of the pelagic <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>. The assimilation was performed in the simplest possible manner, to allow the assessment of whether there were major problems with the <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> model or with the assimilation procedure. The <span class="hlt">current</span> <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> model performed well in some regions, but failed in others to assimilate chlorophyll estimates without disrupting important <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> properties. This experiment gave insight into those properties of the <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> model that must be changed to allow data assimilation to be generally successful, while raising other important issues about the assimilation procedure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10746738','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10746738"><span id="translatedtitle">Desert <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>: similarities, characteristics, and health benefits.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Carpio-Obeso, M P; Shorr, M; Valdez-Salas, B</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Salty bodies of water in desert zones are known worldwide. The Salton Sea in <span class="hlt">California</span>, USA, and the Dead Sea between Israel and Jordan are located in arid areas at approximately the same latitude, which might explain some similarities. Both the Salton and Dead Seas have <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> consisting of a singular saline sea/hot desert interface. The Salton Sea, the largest inland body of water in <span class="hlt">California</span>, is a saline lake in the Coachella and Imperial Valleys. The Imperial Valley is one of the 10 top agricultural areas in the United States. Several thermoelectric plants exploiting geothermal wells operate around the Salton Sea, and some areas comprise a National Wildlife Refuge. The Dead Sea (Sea of Salt in Hebrew), the lowest saline lake on earth, contains high concentrations of salts and is a reservoir of minerals with a unique evaporation regime. The Dead Sea salts are the raw materials for the production of several chemical and health products. Magnesium salts and sulfur-containing mud are used for treating human skin disorders, allergies, arthritis, and respiratory diseases. After visiting both zones, we recorded, analyzed, and compared the similarities and differences between the areas. Some differences were found in the geographic, orographic, hydraulic, and climatic properties, but the main difference is in the economic-industrial aspect. The characteristics and health aspects are described in this report. PMID:10746738</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGC51C0994S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMGC51C0994S"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of a terrestrial <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> model to assess <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services in Asia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shoyama, K.; Yamagata, Y.; Ito, A.; Kohyama, T.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Net primary production (NPP) is a measure of the production rate of organic matter and the gross rate of carbon fixation. NPP is considered as appropriate concept for analyzing variations of the <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> induced by land use. Human appropriation of net primary production (HANPP) is a major indicator of human pressures on <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. Land use induced changes in the productivity affect the processes and functions of <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> and they are associated with the provision of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services, such as the provision of biomass through agriculture and forestry, and the regulation services such as the absorption capacity for GHG emissions. A number of studies have been assessed the amount of human induced changes of NPP in the global level and calculated in spatially explicit way. However, the analysis of socio-economic drivers of the changes is still remaining as the main topic in the field. The interrelations between HANPP and social structures and processes are priority of global change research. The methodologies for credible HANPP assessment have been established in the previous studies. The proposed three parameters are (1)NPPptn: NPP of the vegetation that would be assumed to prevail in the absence of human use (potential vegetation), (2)NPPact: NPP of the <span class="hlt">currently</span> prevailing vegetation (actual vegetation), (3)NPPh: human harvest of NPP (e.g., through agriculture and forestry). We estimated these parameters in Asia using a process-based <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> model that describes carbon and nitrogen dynamics of plants and soils for terrestrial <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> of the globe. The socio-economic data on crop and timber harvest was applied to estimate the amount of human harvest of NPP. The parameters were calculated for each political unit to discuss social structures responding to various <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. Based on the estimated parameters, we suggest the effective methodology combining spatially explicit gridded data and socio-economic statistical data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.H51H..01B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.H51H..01B"><span id="translatedtitle">Integrated Science Investigations of the Salton Sea, <span class="hlt">California</span>, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barnum, D.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>The Salton Sea is the latest waterbody to be formed by Colorado River floodwaters within the Salton Trough. Over the past 100 years, floodwaters have been replaced by agricultural drainage water and municipal discharges so that today, most of the water reaching the Salton Sea is agricultural drainwater flowing down the New, Alamo and Whitewater Rivers. An evaporation of about 6 feet per year and inputs of more than 4 million tons of salt per year have increased salinity of the waters of the Salton Sea. The <span class="hlt">current</span> salinity level of approximately 46 parts per thousand is about 25% more saline than ocean water. Diverting water from the Imperial Valley agricultural lands to urban Southern <span class="hlt">California</span>, and anticipated loss of inflows from Mexico and increasing water conservation activities will result in less water flowing into the Salton Sea. A Restoration Program is being conducted to evaluate the effects of diminished inflows on the Salton Sea <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> and recommend alternatives to avoid or minimize those effects. The Salton Sea has become increasingly important as habitat for migratory birds because of wetland losses. <span class="hlt">California</span> has lost approximately 91% of interior wetland acreage from pre-settlement until the mid-1980's. The Salton Sea provides critical habitat linking distant wetlands of Pacific and Central Flyways to wintering habitats in Mexico and Central and South America. More than 400 species of birds have been observed in the Salton Sea <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span>. Large percentages of the populations for several bird species such as the endangered Yuma Clapper Rail, the Eared Grebe, Snowy Plover and American White Pelican utilize the Salton Sea. Approximately 20 species of conservation concern utilize the Salton Sea <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>. Fish-eating birds such as Great Blue Herons, <span class="hlt">California</span> Brown Pelicans, Double-crested Cormorants and several species of egrets are highly dependent upon the fishery of the Salton Sea. The Salton Sea fishery is now primarily comprised of tilapia. However, as recently as 2001 the fishery was comprised of tilapia and 3 species of salt water fish, and was described as one of the most productive fisheries in the world. The loss of the fishery has significant consequences for the fish-eating birds and a productive sport fishing industry. Arresting salinity as a means for sustaining the fishery of the Salton Sea is a major focus for the Salton Sea Restoration Project. Other issues affecting restoration include selenium, hydrogen sulfide generating sediments, air quality issues associated with the amount of the <span class="hlt">current</span> Salton Sea that will become dry, loss of migratory bird habitat as the lake level recedes, and loss of invertebrate communities. The USGS Salton Sea Science Office is working with state, local and tribal governments, academic institutions, and other federal agencies to develop integrated plans for evaluating nutrient dynamics, contaminants for migratory birds and human health, evaluations of various restoration alternatives, avian population dynamics, air quality related studies including sediment characterization of the Salton Sea lake bed and emissions data analysis, larval fish abundance and distribution data analysis, salinity tolerance limits for fish, and wetland habitat restoration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ece.ucsb.edu/wcsl/Publications/Bruvold_dissertation_2005.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.ece.ucsb.edu/wcsl/Publications/Bruvold_dissertation_2005.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">UNIVERSITY OF <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> Santa Barbara</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Madhow, Upamanyu</p> <p></p> <p>UNIVERSITY OF <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> Santa Barbara Cross-Layer Design for Efficient Wireless Medium Access 2005 Doctor of Philosopy (expected) Electrical and Computer Engineering University of <span class="hlt">California</span>, Santa Barbara, <span class="hlt">California</span> 2000 Master of Science Electrical and Computer Engineering University of <span class="hlt">California</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://escholarship.org/uc/item/7g7743h6?query=drought+AND+California','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://escholarship.org/uc/item/7g7743h6?query=drought+AND+California"><span id="translatedtitle">Essays on the <span class="hlt">California</span> Drought</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Luoma, Samuel N.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>JUNE 2014 Essays on the <span class="hlt">California</span> Drought Samuel N. Luoma*1 University of <span class="hlt">California</span> Drought Summit, <span class="hlt">California</span> Statedrought, human and ecological demands for water are not aligned with supplies in <span class="hlt">California</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940026126','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940026126"><span id="translatedtitle">Carbon cycling in high-latitude <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Townsend, Alan; Frolking, Stephen; Holland, Elizabeth</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>The carbon-rich soils and peatlands of high-latitude <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> could substantially influence atmospheric concentrations of CO2 and CH4 in a changing climate. <span class="hlt">Currently</span>, cold, often waterlogged conditions retard decomposition, and release of carbon back to the atmosphere may be further slowed by physical protection of organic matter in permafrost. As a result, many northern <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> accumulate carbon over time (Billings et al., 1982; Poole and Miller, 1982), and although such rates of accumulation are low, thousands of years of development have left Arctic <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> with an extremely high soil carbon content; Schlesinger's (1984) average value of 20.4 kg C/m(sup 2) leads to a global estimate of 163 x 10(exp 15) g C. All GCM simulations of a doubled CO2 climate predict the greatest warming to occur in the polar regions (Dickinson, 1986; Mitchell, 1989). Given the extensive northern carbon pools and the strong sensitivity of decomposition processes to temperature, even a slight warming of the soil could dramatically alter the carbon balance of Arctic <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. If warming accelerates rates of decomposition more than rates of primary production, a sizeable additional accumulation of CO2 in the atmosphere could occur. Furthermore, CH4 produced in anaerobic soils and peatlands of the Arctic already composes a good percentage of the global efflux (Cicerone and Oremlund, 1988); if northern soils become warmer and wetter as a whole, CH4 emissions could dramatically rise. A robust understanding of the primary controls of carbon fluxes in Arctic <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> is critical. As a framework for a systematic examination of these controls, we discussed a conceptual model of regional-scale Arctic carbon turnover, including CH4 production, and based upon the Century soil organic matter model.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/814449','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/814449"><span id="translatedtitle">Terrestrial <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Responses to Global Change: A Research Strategy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ecosystems Working Group,</p> <p>1998-09-23</p> <p>Uncertainty about the magnitude of global change effects on terrestrial <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> and consequent feedbacks to the atmosphere impedes sound policy planning at regional, national, and global scales. A strategy to reduce these uncertainties must include a substantial increase in funding for large-scale <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> experiments and a careful prioritization of research efforts. Prioritization criteria should be based on the magnitude of potential changes in environmental properties of concern to society, including productivity; biodiversity; the storage and cycling of carbon, water, and nutrients; and sensitivity of specific <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> to environmental change. A research strategy is proposed that builds on existing knowledge of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> responses to global change by (1) expanding the spatial and temporal scale of experimental <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> manipulations to include processes known to occur at large scales and over long time periods; (2) quantifying poorly understood linkages among processes through the use of experiments that manipulate multiple interacting environmental factors over a broader range of relevant conditions than did past experiments; and (3) prioritizing <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> for major experimental manipulations on the basis of potential positive and negative impacts on <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> properties and processes of intrinsic and/or utilitarian value to humans and on feedbacks of terrestrial <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> to the atmosphere. Models and experiments are equally important for developing process-level understanding into a predictive capability. To support both the development and testing of mechanistic <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> models, a two-tiered design of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> experiments should be used. This design should include both (1) large-scale manipulative experiments for comprehensive testing of integrated <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> models and (2) multifactor, multilevel experiments for parameterization of process models across the critical range of interacting environmental factors (CO{sub 2}, temperature, water, nutrients). With limited resources, these complementary experiments should be focused in high-priority <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, with experimental treatments designed to address the major uncertainties in each system. Critical <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, both managed and unmanaged, have been identified using the above criteria and key uncertainties in <span class="hlt">current</span> understanding of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> processes used to identify critical issues and experiments. The sizes of both the whole-<span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> experiments and the multifactor experimental treatment units must be based on the sizes of the dominant organisms, the scale of major processes in each system, and the spatial heterogeneity of each system. For example, large-scale <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> manipulations in temperate forests should evaluate at a minimum CO{sub 2} and temperature and could be conducted on small, gauged catchments. The multifactor process experiments should address all major environmental driving variables, and the treatment units should be large enough to include multiple individuals of the major tree species. This approach represents a fundamental shift in the scale and integration of experimental <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> research: from the <span class="hlt">current</span> small-scale, single- or two-factor experiments in simple natural or artificial <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> to highly coordinated, large-scale, replicated experiments in complex <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, with multiple interacting factors being evaluated at two (or more) complementary levels of spatial scale and process resolution. These experiments will require an unprecedented long-term funding commitment and concentration of large-scale experimental research at a few major sites, with significant new investment in infrastructure to support large interdisciplinary teams of scientists.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/211961','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/211961"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing risks to <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> quality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Barnthouse, L.W.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p><span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> are not organisms. Because <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> do not reproduce, grow old or sick, and die, the term <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> health is somewhat misleading and perhaps should not be used. A more useful concept is ``<span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> quality,`` which denotes a set of desirable <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> characteristics defined in terms of species composition, productivity, size/condition of specific populations, or other measurable properties. The desired quality of an <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> may be pristine, as in a nature preserve, or highly altered by man, as in a managed forest or navigational waterway. ``Sustainable development`` implies that human activities that influence <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> quality should be managed so that high-quality <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> are maintained for future generations. In sustainability-based environmental management, the focus is on maintaining or improving <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> quality, not on restricting discharges or requiring particular waste treatment technologies. This approach requires management of chemical impacts to be integrated with management of other sources of stress such as erosion, eutrophication, and direct human exploitation. Environmental scientists must (1) work with decision makers and the public to define <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> quality goals, (2) develop corresponding measures of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> quality, (3) diagnose causes for departures from desired states, and (4) recommend appropriate restoration actions, if necessary. Environmental toxicology and chemical risk assessment are necessary for implementing the above framework, but they are clearly not sufficient. This paper reviews the state-of-the science relevant to sustaining the quality of aquatic <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. Using the specific example of a reservoir in eastern Tennessee, the paper attempts to define roles for ecotoxicology and risk assessment in each step of the management process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/621620','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/621620"><span id="translatedtitle">East Asian hydroclimate and agro-<span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> research using the UC-LLNL regional climate system model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Miller, N.L.; Kim, J.; Chung, T.; Oh, J.; Bae, D.</p> <p>1997-05-01</p> <p>Investigations of East Asian hydroclimate and agro-<span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> response to hydroclimate variability have been initiated using the University of <span class="hlt">California</span> Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Regional Climate System Model (RCSM). This system simulates climate from the global scale down to the watershed catchment scale, and consists of data pre- and post-processors, and four model components. The four model components are (1) a mesoscale atmospheric simulation model, (2) a soil-plant-snow model, (3) a watershed hydrology-riverflow modeling suite, and (4) a crop response modeling suite. The first three model components have been coupled, and the system includes two-way feedbacks between the soil-plant-snow model and the mesoscale atmospheric simulation model. Integration of the fourth component - the Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) into the RCSM is part of our <span class="hlt">current</span> research plan. This paper provides a brief overview of agro-<span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> modeling, the RCSM, applications of the RCSM to East Asia, and future directions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://txforestservice.tamu.edu/uploadedFiles/TFS_Main/Urban_and_Community_Forestry/Services_for_Local_Government/Inventories_and_Reports/Mesquite_Texas_EcoStudy2012.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://txforestservice.tamu.edu/uploadedFiles/TFS_Main/Urban_and_Community_Forestry/Services_for_Local_Government/Inventories_and_Reports/Mesquite_Texas_EcoStudy2012.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Mesquite Urban Forest <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Mesquite Urban Forest <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Analysis November 2012 #12;Table of Contents Summary........................................................................................................................................................................ 7 I. Tree Characteristics of the Urban Forest................................................................................................................ 7 II. Urban Forest Cover and Leaf Area</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70048814','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70048814"><span id="translatedtitle">Great Lakes rivermouth <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>: scientific synthesis and management implications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Larson, James H.; Trebitz, Anett S.; Steinman, Alan D.; Wiley, Michael J.; Carlson Mazur, Martha; Pebbles, Victoria; Braun, Heather A.; Seelbach, Paul W.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>At the interface of the Great Lakes and their tributary rivers lies the rivermouths, a class of aquatic <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> where lake and lotic processes mix and distinct features emerge. Many rivermouths are the focal point of both human interaction with the Great Lakes and human impacts to the lakes; many cities, ports, and beaches are located in rivermouth <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, and these human pressures often degrade key ecological functions that rivermouths provide. Despite their ecological uniqueness and apparent economic importance, there has been relatively little research on these <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> as a class relative to studies on upstream rivers or the open-lake waters. Here we present a synthesis of <span class="hlt">current</span> knowledge about <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> structure and function in Great Lakes rivermouths based on studies in both Laurentian rivermouths, coastal wetlands, and marine estuarine systems. A conceptual model is presented that establishes a common semantic framework for discussing the characteristic spatial features of rivermouths. This model then is used to conceptually link <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> structure and function to ecological services provided by rivermouths. This synthesis helps identify the critical gaps in understanding rivermouth ecology. Specifically, additional information is needed on how rivermouths collectively influence the Great Lakes <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>, how human alterations influence rivermouth functions, and how <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services provided by rivermouths can be managed to benefit the surrounding socioeconomic networks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PrOce..78..193H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PrOce..78..193H"><span id="translatedtitle">Pteropods in Southern Ocean <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hunt, B. P. V.; Pakhomov, E. A.; Hosie, G. W.; Siegel, V.; Ward, P.; Bernard, K.</p> <p>2008-09-01</p> <p>To date, little research has been carried out on pelagic gastropod molluscs (pteropods) in Southern Ocean <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. However, recent predictions are that, due to acidification resulting from a business as usual approach to CO 2 emissions (IS92a), Southern Ocean surface waters may begin to become uninhabitable for aragonite shelled thecosome pteropods by 2050. To gain insight into the potential impact that this would have on Southern Ocean <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, we have here synthesized available data on pteropod distributions and densities, assessed <span class="hlt">current</span> knowledge of pteropod ecology, and highlighted knowledge gaps and directions for future research on this zooplankton group. Six species of pteropod are typical of the Southern Ocean south of the Sub-Tropical Convergence, including the four Thecosomes Limacina helicina antarctica, Limacina retroversa australis, Clio pyramidata, and Clio piatkowskii, and two Gymnosomes Clione limacina antarctica and Spongiobranchaea australis. Limacina retroversa australis dominated pteropod densities north of the Polar Front (PF), averaging 60 ind m -3 (max = 800 ind m -3) and 11% of total zooplankton at the Prince Edward Islands. South of the PF L. helicina antarctica predominated, averaging 165 ind m -3 (max = 2681 ind m -3) and up to >35% of total zooplankton at South Georgia, and up to 1397 ind m -3 and 63% of total zooplankton in the Ross Sea. Combined pteropods contributed <5% to total zooplankton in the Lazarev Sea, but 15% (max = 93%) to macrozooplankton in the East Antarctic. In addition to regional density distributions we have synthesized data on vertical distributions, seasonal cycles, and inter-annual density variation. Trophically, gymnosome are specialist predators on thecosomes, while thecosomes are considered predominantly herbivorous, capturing food with a mucous web. The ingestion rates of L. retroversa australis are in the upper range for sub-Antarctic mesozooplankton (31.2-4196.9 ng pig ind -1 d -1), while those of L. helicina antarctica and C. pyramidata are in the upper range for all Southern Ocean zooplankton, in the latter species reaching 27,757 ng pig ind -1 d -1 and >40% of community grazing impact. Further research is required to quantify diet selectivity, the effect of phytoplankton composition on growth and reproductive success, and the role of carnivory in thecosomes. Life histories are a significant knowledge gap for Southern Ocean pteropods, a single study having been completed for L. retroversa australis, making population studies a priority for this group. Pteropods appear to be important in biogeochemical cycling, thecosome shells contributing >50% to carbonate flux in the deep ocean south of the PF. Pteropods may also contribute significantly to organic carbon flux through the production of fast sinking faecal pellets and mucous flocs, and rapid sinking of dead animals ballasted by their aragonite shells. Quantification of these contributions requires data on mucous web production rates, egestion rates, assimilation efficiencies, metabolic rates, and faecal pellet morphology for application to sediment trap studies. Based on the available data, pteropods are regionally significant components of the Southern Ocean pelagic <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>. However, there is an urgent need for focused research on this group in order to quantify how a decline in pteropod densities may impact on Southern Ocean <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730017606','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730017606"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">California</span> coast nearshore processes study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pirie, D. M.; Steller, D. D. (principal investigators)</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>The author has identified the following significant results. During the period 1 May to 30 June 1973 material was processed and interpreted for use in analyzing the three ocean seasons along the <span class="hlt">California</span> coast. ERTS imagery from the first season of the year, called the Davidson <span class="hlt">Current</span> period, was mosaiced and analyzed. The second season of the year, the Upwelling period, was mosaiced and interpretation was initiated. Imagery for the third ocean season, the Oceanic period, is being collected for future study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3520025','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3520025"><span id="translatedtitle">Organic carbon hidden in urban <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Edmondson, Jill L.; Davies, Zoe G.; McHugh, Nicola; Gaston, Kevin J.; Leake, Jonathan R.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Urbanization is widely presumed to degrade <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services, but empirical evidence is now challenging these assumptions. We report the first city-wide organic carbon (OC) budget for vegetation and soils, including under impervious surfaces. Urban soil OC storage was significantly greater than in regional agricultural land at equivalent soil depths, however there was no significant difference in storage between soils sampled beneath urban greenspaces and impervious surfaces, at equivalent depths. For a typical U.K. city, total OC storage was 17.6?kg m?2 across the entire urban area (assuming 0?kg m?2 under 15% of land covered by buildings). The majority of OC (82%) was held in soils, with 13% found under impervious surfaces, and 18% stored in vegetation. We reveal that assumptions underpinning <span class="hlt">current</span> national estimates of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> OC stocks, as required by Kyoto Protocol signatories, are not robust and are likely to have seriously underestimated the contributions of urban areas. PMID:23236585</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17167485','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17167485"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamical evolution of <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Azaele, Sandro; Pigolotti, Simone; Banavar, Jayanth R; Maritan, Amos</p> <p>2006-12-14</p> <p>The assembly of an <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> such as a tropical forest depends crucially on the species interaction network, and the deduction of its rules is a formidably complex problem. In spite of this, many recent studies using Hubbell's neutral theory of biodiversity and biogeography have demonstrated that the resulting emergent macroscopic behaviour of the <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> at or near a stationary state shows a surprising simplicity reminiscent of many physical systems. Indeed the symmetry postulate, that the effective birth and death rates are species-independent within a single trophic level, allows one to make analytical predictions for various static distributions such as the relative species abundance, beta-diversity and the species-area relationship. In contrast, there have only been a few studies of the dynamics and stability of tropical rain forests. Here we consider the dynamical behaviour of a community, and benchmark it against the exact predictions of a neutral model near or at stationarity. In addition to providing a description of the relative species abundance, our analysis leads to a quantitative understanding of the species turnover distribution and extinction times, and a measure of the temporal scales of neutral evolution. Our model gives a very good description of the large quantity of data collected in Barro Colorado Island in Panama in the period 1990-2000 with just three ecologically relevant parameters and predicts the dynamics of extinction of the existing species. PMID:17167485</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=208283&keyword=social+AND+interactions&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=44329423&CFTOKEN=96850316','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=208283&keyword=social+AND+interactions&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=44329423&CFTOKEN=96850316"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Services Research Program: LTG 4: <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> specific studies: wetlands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Includes review of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services derived from marine coastal, Great Lakes coastal, and isolated wetlands. Of particular interest is the development of guidelines to implement the 2008 EPA and ACE rules which require, for the first time, that specific <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services be c...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=81152&keyword=overfishing&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=53432982&CFTOKEN=92094721','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=81152&keyword=overfishing&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=53432982&CFTOKEN=92094721"><span id="translatedtitle">POLLUTION AND <span class="hlt">ECOSYSTEM</span> HEALTH - ASSESSING ECOLOGICAL CONDITION OF COASTAL <span class="hlt">ECOSYSTEMS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Summers, Kevin. 2004. Pollution and <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Health - Assessing Ecological Condition of Coastal <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span>. Presented at the White Water to Blue Water (WW2BW) Miami Conference, 21-26 March 2004, Miami, FL. 1 p. (ERL,GB R973). <br><br>Throughout the coastal regions and Large Mari...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22291572','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22291572"><span id="translatedtitle">Structural and functional loss in restored wetland <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moreno-Mateos, David; Power, Mary E; Comín, Francisco A; Yockteng, Roxana</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Wetlands are among the most productive and economically valuable <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> in the world. However, because of human activities, over half of the wetland <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> existing in North America, Europe, Australia, and China in the early 20th century have been lost. Ecological restoration to recover critical <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services has been widely attempted, but the degree of actual recovery of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> functioning and structure from these efforts remains uncertain. Our results from a meta-analysis of 621 wetland sites from throughout the world show that even a century after restoration efforts, biological structure (driven mostly by plant assemblages), and biogeochemical functioning (driven primarily by the storage of carbon in wetland soils), remained on average 26% and 23% lower, respectively, than in reference sites. Either recovery has been very slow, or postdisturbance systems have moved towards alternative states that differ from reference conditions. We also found significant effects of environmental settings on the rate and degree of recovery. Large wetland areas (>100 ha) and wetlands restored in warm (temperate and tropical) climates recovered more rapidly than smaller wetlands and wetlands restored in cold climates. Also, wetlands experiencing more (riverine and tidal) hydrologic exchange recovered more rapidly than depressional wetlands. Restoration performance is limited: <span class="hlt">current</span> restoration practice fails to recover original levels of wetland <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> functions, even after many decades. If restoration as <span class="hlt">currently</span> practiced is used to justify further degradation, global loss of wetland <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> function and structure will spread. PMID:22291572</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3265451','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3265451"><span id="translatedtitle">Structural and Functional Loss in Restored Wetland <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Moreno-Mateos, David; Power, Mary E.; Comín, Francisco A.; Yockteng, Roxana</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Wetlands are among the most productive and economically valuable <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> in the world. However, because of human activities, over half of the wetland <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> existing in North America, Europe, Australia, and China in the early 20th century have been lost. Ecological restoration to recover critical <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services has been widely attempted, but the degree of actual recovery of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> functioning and structure from these efforts remains uncertain. Our results from a meta-analysis of 621 wetland sites from throughout the world show that even a century after restoration efforts, biological structure (driven mostly by plant assemblages), and biogeochemical functioning (driven primarily by the storage of carbon in wetland soils), remained on average 26% and 23% lower, respectively, than in reference sites. Either recovery has been very slow, or postdisturbance systems have moved towards alternative states that differ from reference conditions. We also found significant effects of environmental settings on the rate and degree of recovery. Large wetland areas (>100 ha) and wetlands restored in warm (temperate and tropical) climates recovered more rapidly than smaller wetlands and wetlands restored in cold climates. Also, wetlands experiencing more (riverine and tidal) hydrologic exchange recovered more rapidly than depressional wetlands. Restoration performance is limited: <span class="hlt">current</span> restoration practice fails to recover original levels of wetland <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> functions, even after many decades. If restoration as <span class="hlt">currently</span> practiced is used to justify further degradation, global loss of wetland <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> function and structure will spread. PMID:22291572</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16640322','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16640322"><span id="translatedtitle">European environmental management: moving to an <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> approach.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Apitz, Sabine E; Elliott, Michael; Fountain, Michelle; Galloway, Tamara S</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The European Union has adopted several environmental directives, strategies, recommendations, and agreements that require a shift from local- or regional-based regulations to more <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>-based, holistic environmental management. Over the next decade, environmental management in Europe is likely to focus more on biological and ecological conditions rather than physical and chemical conditions, with <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> health at the center of regulation and management decision making. Successful implementation of this new <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> management and strategic assessment process in Europe will require the integration of regulatory and technical information and extensive collaboration from among European Union member countries, between agencies, and across disciplines to an unprecedented degree. It will also require extensive efforts to adapt <span class="hlt">current</span> systems of environmental assessment and management to the basin and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> level, across media and habitats, and considering a much broader set of impacts on <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> status than is <span class="hlt">currently</span> addressed in most risk assessments. This will require the understanding, integration, and communication of economic, ecological, hydrological, and other processes across many spatial and temporal scales. This article discusses these challenges and describes some of the research initiatives that will help achieve integrated <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> management in Europe. PMID:16640322</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B41D0100B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B41D0100B"><span id="translatedtitle">Long term (>100 years) Carbon Sequestration in <span class="hlt">California</span> Coastal Salt Marshes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brown, L. N.; MacDonald, G. M.; Holmquist, J. R.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Coastal salt marsh <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> rank as one of the <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> which sequester the most carbon (C) in the world (Chmura, 2003; Mcleod et al., 2011). <span class="hlt">California</span> hosts multiple small marsh <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> outside of the San Francisco Bay that are limited in geographic extent but still contribute significantly to global soil C. This study evaluates 11 marsh sites along the <span class="hlt">California</span> coast for annual soil C sequestration rates using 14C, 137Cs, and 210Pb chronologies. Estimates of carbon sequestration for <span class="hlt">California</span> over the past 100 years from this study average at 49 g C m-2 yr-1. Long term estimates of soil C generally are lower because of natural decomposition of organic C, but this study indicates a persistence of high C storage capacity for coastal marsh systems. These estimates provide valuable insight into the long term capacity for coastal salt marshes to mitigate climate change through sequestration of C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.registrar.ucla.edu/archive/catalog/27-28catalog.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.registrar.ucla.edu/archive/catalog/27-28catalog.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">UNIVERSITY OF <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> ANNOUNCEMENT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>FOR THE ACADEMIC YEAR, 1927-28 SEPTEMBER, 1927 UNIVERSITY OF <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> PRESS BERKELEY , <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> For Sale , AS SECOND -CLASS MATTER , UNDER TIIE ACT OF CONGRESS OF JULY 16 , 1894 . ISSUED MONTHLY FROM JULY TO MARCR</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25331027','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25331027"><span id="translatedtitle">A framework for the social valuation of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Felipe-Lucia, María R; Comín, Francisco A; Escalera-Reyes, Javier</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Methods to assess <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services using ecological or economic approaches are considerably better defined than methods for the social approach. To identify why the social approach remains unclear, we reviewed <span class="hlt">current</span> trends in the literature. We found two main reasons: (i) the cultural <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services are usually used to represent the whole social approach, and (ii) the economic valuation based on social preferences is typically included in the social approach. Next, we proposed a framework for the social valuation of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services that provides alternatives to economics methods, enables comparison across studies, and supports decision-making in land planning and management. The framework includes the agreements emerged from the review, such as considering spatial-temporal flows, including stakeholders from all social ranges, and using two complementary methods to value <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services. Finally, we provided practical recommendations learned from the application of the proposed framework in a case study. PMID:25331027</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26308928','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26308928"><span id="translatedtitle">Monitoring Spawning Activity in a Southern <span class="hlt">California</span> Marine Protected Area Using Molecular Identification of Fish Eggs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Harada, Alice E; Lindgren, Elise A; Hermsmeier, Maiko C; Rogowski, Peter A; Terrill, Eric; Burton, Ronald S</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In order to protect the diverse <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> of coastal <span class="hlt">California</span>, a series of marine protected areas (MPAs) have been established. The ability of these MPAs to preserve and potentially enhance marine resources can only be assessed if these habitats are monitored through time. This study establishes a baseline for monitoring the spawning activity of fish in the MPAs adjacent to Scripps Institution of Oceanography (La Jolla, CA, USA) by sampling fish eggs from the plankton. Using vertical plankton net tows, 266 collections were made from the Scripps Pier between 23 August 2012 and 28 August 2014; a total of 21,269 eggs were obtained. Eggs were identified using DNA barcoding: the COI or 16S rRNA gene was amplified from individual eggs and sequenced. All eggs that were successfully sequenced could be identified from a database of molecular barcodes of <span class="hlt">California</span> fish species, resulting in species-level identification of 13,249 eggs. Additionally, a surface transport model of coastal circulation driven by <span class="hlt">current</span> maps from high frequency radar was used to construct probability maps that estimate spawning locations that gave rise to the collected eggs. These maps indicated that <span class="hlt">currents</span> usually come from the north but water parcels tend to be retained within the MPA; eggs sampled at the Scripps Pier have a high probability of having been spawned within the MPA. The surface transport model also suggests that although larvae have a high probability of being retained within the MPA, there is also significant spillover into nearby areas outside the MPA. This study provides an important baseline for addressing the extent to which spawning patterns of coastal <span class="hlt">California</span> species may be affected by future changes in the ocean environment. PMID:26308928</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMS...146...26R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMS...146...26R"><span id="translatedtitle">Long-term variation in a central <span class="hlt">California</span> pelagic forage assemblage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ralston, Stephen; Field, John C.; Sakuma, Keith M.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>A continuous 23 year midwater trawl survey (1990-2012) of the epipelagic forage assemblage off the coast of central <span class="hlt">California</span> (lat. 36°30?-38°20? N) is described and analyzed. Twenty taxa occurred in ? 10% of the 2037 trawls that were completed at 40 distinct station locations. The dominant taxa sampled by the 9.5 mm mesh net included a suite of young-of-the-year (YOY) groundfish, including rockfish (Sebastes spp.) and Pacific hake (Merluccius productus), two clupeoids (Engraulis mordax and Sardinops sagax), krill (Euphausiacea), cephalopods (Doryteuthis opalescens and Octopus sp.), and a variety of mesopelagic species, i.e., Diaphus theta, Tarltonbeania crenularis, "other" lanternfish (Myctophidae), deep-sea smelts (Bathylagidae), and sergestid shrimp. Annual abundance estimates of the 20 taxa were obtained from analysis of variance models, which included year and station as main effects. Principal components analysis of the abundance estimates revealed that 61% of assemblage variance was explained by the first three components. The first component revealed a strong contrast in the abundance of: (a) YOY groundfish, market squid (D. opalescens), and krill with (b) mesopelagics and clupeoids; the second component was associated with long-term trends in abundance. An evaluation of 10 different published oceanographic data sets and CTD data collected during the survey indicated that seawater properties encountered each year were significantly correlated with abundance patterns, as were annual sea-level anomalies obtained from an analysis of AVISO satellite information. A comparison of our findings with several other recent studies of biological communities occurring in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> revealed a consistent structuring of forage assemblages, which we conjecture is primarily attributable to large-scale advection patterns in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4550277','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4550277"><span id="translatedtitle">Monitoring Spawning Activity in a Southern <span class="hlt">California</span> Marine Protected Area Using Molecular Identification of Fish Eggs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Harada, Alice E.; Lindgren, Elise A.; Hermsmeier, Maiko C.; Rogowski, Peter A.; Terrill, Eric; Burton, Ronald S.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In order to protect the diverse <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> of coastal <span class="hlt">California</span>, a series of marine protected areas (MPAs) have been established. The ability of these MPAs to preserve and potentially enhance marine resources can only be assessed if these habitats are monitored through time. This study establishes a baseline for monitoring the spawning activity of fish in the MPAs adjacent to Scripps Institution of Oceanography (La Jolla, CA, USA) by sampling fish eggs from the plankton. Using vertical plankton net tows, 266 collections were made from the Scripps Pier between 23 August 2012 and 28 August 2014; a total of 21,269 eggs were obtained. Eggs were identified using DNA barcoding: the COI or 16S rRNA gene was amplified from individual eggs and sequenced. All eggs that were successfully sequenced could be identified from a database of molecular barcodes of <span class="hlt">California</span> fish species, resulting in species-level identification of 13,249 eggs. Additionally, a surface transport model of coastal circulation driven by <span class="hlt">current</span> maps from high frequency radar was used to construct probability maps that estimate spawning locations that gave rise to the collected eggs. These maps indicated that <span class="hlt">currents</span> usually come from the north but water parcels tend to be retained within the MPA; eggs sampled at the Scripps Pier have a high probability of having been spawned within the MPA. The surface transport model also suggests that although larvae have a high probability of being retained within the MPA, there is also significant spillover into nearby areas outside the MPA. This study provides an important baseline for addressing the extent to which spawning patterns of coastal <span class="hlt">California</span> species may be affected by future changes in the ocean environment. PMID:26308928</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ECSS..150...67H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ECSS..150...67H"><span id="translatedtitle">Local extirpations and regional declines of endemic upper beach invertebrates in southern <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hubbard, D. M.; Dugan, J. E.; Schooler, N. K.; Viola, S. M.</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Along the world's highly valued and populous coastlines, the upper intertidal zones of sandy beach <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> and the biodiversity that these zones support are increasingly threatened by impacts of human activities, coastal development, erosion, and climate change. The upper zones of beaches typically support invertebrates with restricted distributions and dispersal, making them particularly vulnerable to habitat loss and fragmentation. We hypothesized that disproportionate loss or degradation of these zones in the last century has resulted in declines of upper shore macroinvertebrates in southern <span class="hlt">California</span>. We identified a suite of potentially vulnerable endemic upper beach invertebrates with direct development, low dispersal and late reproduction. Based on the availability of printed sources and museum specimens, we investigated historical changes in distribution and abundance of two intertidal isopod species (Tylos punctatus, Alloniscus perconvexus) in southern <span class="hlt">California</span>. Populations of these isopods have been extirpated at numerous historically occupied sites: T. punctatus from 16 sites (57% decrease), and A. perconvexus from 14 sites (64% decrease). During the same period, we found evidence of only five colonization events. In addition, the northern range limit of the southern species, T. punctatus, moved south by 31 km (8% of range on <span class="hlt">California</span> mainland) since 1971. Abundances of T. punctatus have declined on the mainland coast; only three recently sampled populations had abundances >7000 individuals m-1. For A. perconvexus populations, abundances >100 individuals m-1 now appear to be limited to the northern part of the study area. Our results show that numerous local extirpations of isopod populations have resulted in regional declines and in greatly reduced population connectivity in several major littoral cells of southern <span class="hlt">California</span>. Two of the six major littoral cells (Santa Barbara and Zuma) in the area <span class="hlt">currently</span> support 74% of the remaining isopod populations. These isopods persist primarily on relatively remote, ungroomed, unarmored beaches with restricted vehicle access and minimal management activity. These predominantly narrow, bluff-backed beaches also support species-rich upper beach assemblages, suggesting these isopods can be useful indicators of biodiversity. The high extirpation rates of isopod populations on the southern <span class="hlt">California</span> mainland over the last century provide a compelling example of the vulnerability of upper beach invertebrates to coastal urbanization. Climate change and sea level rise will exert further pressures on upper beach zones and biota in southern <span class="hlt">California</span> and globally. In the absence of rapid implementation of effective conservation strategies, our results suggest many upper intertidal invertebrate species are at risk.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ecology.ucdavis.edu/funding/Sample5.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://ecology.ucdavis.edu/funding/Sample5.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> services in tropical agriculture: evaluating biodiversity and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> function Understanding the relationship between biodiversity, <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> function, and service</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Todd, Brian</p> <p></p> <p>;2 biodiversity hotspots in Mesoamerica2 . In addition to their economic value, agricultural lands now host much1 <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> services in tropical agriculture: evaluating biodiversity and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> function Overview: Understanding the relationship between biodiversity, <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> function, and service provision</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26311581','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26311581"><span id="translatedtitle">Review on environmental alterations propagating from aquatic to terrestrial <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schulz, Ralf; Bundschuh, Mirco; Gergs, René; Brühl, Carsten A; Diehl, Dörte; Entling, Martin H; Fahse, Lorenz; Frör, Oliver; Jungkunst, Hermann F; Lorke, Andreas; Schäfer, Ralf B; Schaumann, Gabriele E; Schwenk, Klaus</p> <p>2015-12-15</p> <p>Terrestrial inputs into freshwater <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> are a classical field of environmental science. Resource fluxes (subsidy) from aquatic to terrestrial systems have been less studied, although they are of high ecological relevance particularly for the receiving <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>. These fluxes may, however, be impacted by anthropogenically driven alterations modifying structure and functioning of aquatic <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. In this context, we reviewed the peer-reviewed literature for studies addressing the subsidy of terrestrial by aquatic <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> with special emphasis on the role that anthropogenic alterations play in this water-land coupling. Our analysis revealed a continuously increasing interest in the coupling of aquatic to terrestrial <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> between 1990 and 2014 (total: 661 studies), while the research domains focusing on abiotic (502 studies) and biotic (159 studies) processes are strongly separated. Approximately 35% (abiotic) and 25% (biotic) of the studies focused on the propagation of anthropogenic alterations from the aquatic to the terrestrial system. Among these studies, hydromorphological and hydrological alterations were predominantly assessed, whereas water pollution and invasive species were less frequently investigated. Less than 5% of these studies considered indirect effects in the terrestrial system e.g. via food web responses, as a result of anthropogenic alterations in aquatic <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. Nonetheless, these very few publications indicate far-reaching consequences in the receiving terrestrial <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>. For example, bottom-up mediated responses via soil quality can cascade over plant communities up to the level of herbivorous arthropods, while top-down mediated responses via predatory spiders can cascade down to herbivorous arthropods and even plants. Overall, the <span class="hlt">current</span> state of knowledge calls for an integrated assessment on how these interactions within terrestrial <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> are affected by propagation of aquatic <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> alterations. To fill these gaps, we propose a scientific framework, which considers abiotic and biotic aspects based on an interdisciplinary approach. PMID:26311581</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://gallery.usgs.gov/photos/12_16_2015_sWn0QEc55K_12_16_2015_16','SCIGOVIMAGE-USGS'); return false;" href="http://gallery.usgs.gov/photos/12_16_2015_sWn0QEc55K_12_16_2015_16"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">California</span> Coast Seafloor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://gallery.usgs.gov/">USGS Multimedia Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This photograph is of the seafloor off the <span class="hlt">California</span> coast and shows rock outcrop, encrusting sponge, cup corals, red sea star and a female kelp greenling. This photograph supports the <span class="hlt">California</span> Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), which was initiated in 2007 by the <span class="hlt">California</span> Ocean Protection Council...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://gallery.usgs.gov/photos/12_16_2015_sWn0QEc55K_12_16_2015_18','SCIGOVIMAGE-USGS'); return false;" href="http://gallery.usgs.gov/photos/12_16_2015_sWn0QEc55K_12_16_2015_18"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">California</span> Coast Seafloor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://gallery.usgs.gov/">USGS Multimedia Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This photograph is of the seafloor off the <span class="hlt">California</span> coast and shows coarse sand, shells and a sunflower sea star. This photograph supports the <span class="hlt">California</span> Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), which was initiated in 2007 by the <span class="hlt">California</span> Ocean Protection Council. Data collected during this project reve...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://gallery.usgs.gov/photos/12_16_2015_sWn0QEc55K_12_16_2015_17','SCIGOVIMAGE-USGS'); return false;" href="http://gallery.usgs.gov/photos/12_16_2015_sWn0QEc55K_12_16_2015_17"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">California</span> Coast Seafloor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://gallery.usgs.gov/">USGS Multimedia Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This photograph is of the seafloor off the <span class="hlt">California</span> coast and shows jellyfish in a water column. This photograph supports the <span class="hlt">California</span> Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), which was initiated in 2007 by the <span class="hlt">California</span> Ocean Protection Council. Data collected during this project reveal the seafloor o...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70121263','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70121263"><span id="translatedtitle">Water use in <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Brandt, Justin; Sneed, Michelle; Rogers, Laurel Lynn; Metzger, Loren F.; Rewis, Diane; House, Sally F.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>For <span class="hlt">California</span>, population data used to estimate public water-supply use comes from Urban Water Management Plans, <span class="hlt">California</span> Department of Water Resources, <span class="hlt">California</span> Department of Public Health, and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency data. Population data used to estimate domestic, self-supplied water use came from the difference between the Census population and the public-supply population.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://gallery.usgs.gov/photos/05_31_2012_mRIt48Wkj1_05_31_2012_0','SCIGOVIMAGE-USGS'); return false;" href="http://gallery.usgs.gov/photos/05_31_2012_mRIt48Wkj1_05_31_2012_0"><span id="translatedtitle">Endangered <span class="hlt">California</span> Condor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://gallery.usgs.gov/">USGS Multimedia Gallery</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>An endangered <span class="hlt">California</span> condor flies over the Bitter Creek National Wildlife Refuge, <span class="hlt">California</span>. USGS scientists are helping managers understand how <span class="hlt">California</span> condors use their habitat, gaining valuable information that will help inform not only which potential energy development sites are likely ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://spo.berkeley.edu/annual/14annual.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://spo.berkeley.edu/annual/14annual.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">University of <span class="hlt">California</span>, Berkeley</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Budker, Dmitry</p> <p></p> <p>University of <span class="hlt">California</span>, Berkeley Sponsored Projects Annual Report Fiscal Year 2014 #12;Sponsored Projects Annual Report 2014 Page 2 University of <span class="hlt">California</span>, Berkeley Chancellor Nicholas B. Dirks by the Research Administration and Compliance Office University of <span class="hlt">California</span>, Berkeley Berkeley, CA 94704</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.spo.berkeley.edu/annual/13annual.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.spo.berkeley.edu/annual/13annual.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">University of <span class="hlt">California</span>, Berkeley</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Korpela, Eric J.</p> <p></p> <p>University of <span class="hlt">California</span>, Berkeley Sponsored Projects Annual Report Fiscal Year 2013 #12;Sponsored Projects Annual Report 2013 Page 2 University of <span class="hlt">California</span>, Berkeley Chancellor Nicholas B. Dirks by the Research Administration and Compliance Office University of <span class="hlt">California</span>, Berkeley Berkeley, CA 94704</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.spo.berkeley.edu/annual/15annual.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.spo.berkeley.edu/annual/15annual.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">University of <span class="hlt">California</span>, Berkeley</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Carlson, Charles W.</p> <p></p> <p>University of <span class="hlt">California</span>, Berkeley Sponsored Projects Annual Report Fiscal Year 2015 #12;Sponsored Projects Annual Report 2015 Page 2 University of <span class="hlt">California</span>, Berkeley Chancellor Nicholas B. Dirks by the Research Administration and Compliance Office University of <span class="hlt">California</span>, Berkeley Berkeley, CA 94704</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://policyinstitute.ucdavis.edu/files/general/pdf/2012-06-15_Session-Two-ZEV-Presentation-Tom-Turrentine.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://policyinstitute.ucdavis.edu/files/general/pdf/2012-06-15_Session-Two-ZEV-Presentation-Tom-Turrentine.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">UCDavis University of <span class="hlt">California</span> A <span class="hlt">California</span> Energy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>California at Davis, University of</p> <p></p> <p>and Plug in hybrids #12;New Car Buyers in <span class="hlt">California</span> (last 5 years) (NHTS 2009) 5 2.4% of the households% of USA, <span class="hlt">California</span> new car buyers have a stable parking spot 25 feet from electricity each night 0% 10 Agency, Clean Energy Ministerial Electric Vehicle Initiative,(16 Energy Ministries), Clinton 40, Rocky</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.registrar.ucla.edu/archive/catalog/38-39catalog.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.registrar.ucla.edu/archive/catalog/38-39catalog.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">..NIVERSITY OF <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> PUBLISHED AT BERKELEY , <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>,1938 Number 9 GENERAL CATALOGUE · 193&39 DEPARTMENTS AT LOS ANGELES For sale by the STUDENTS' COOPERATIVEBOOK. The Schedule of Classes , University of <span class="hlt">California</span> at Los Angeles: containing the time -schedule of exercises, <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span> , AS SECOND-CLASS MATTER, UNDER THE AOT OF CONGRESS OF JULY 16, 1894 . ISSUED MONTHLY FROM OCTOBER</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=flow+AND+accumulation&id=EJ032582','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=flow+AND+accumulation&id=EJ032582"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Studies and Geographic Education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Renner, John M.</p> <p>1970-01-01</p> <p>In shifting emphasis from accumulation of facts to methods of investigation and cognitive skills, the concept of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> is a powerful organizing principle for geography. The connectivity of all things in an environment, the flow of energy through the system are stressed. The use of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> as a framework for inquiry in the classroom is…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://wwwpaztcn.wr.usgs.gov/julio_pdf/Olsson-et-al-2011.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://wwwpaztcn.wr.usgs.gov/julio_pdf/Olsson-et-al-2011.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">BIODIVERSITY Sonoran Desert <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> transformation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>@gmail.com ABSTRACT Aim Biological invasions facilitate <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> transformation by altering the structure-level impacts on <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> processes in advance of a grass­fire cycle. Keywords Biological invasions Invasive species have been implicated in reduced species richness (Elton, 1958; Sanders et al., 2003</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://rem-main.rem.sfu.ca/theses/WolfeLarry_2001_PhD.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://rem-main.rem.sfu.ca/theses/WolfeLarry_2001_PhD.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">RESOLVING EQUIVOCALITY IN <span class="hlt">ECOSYSTEM</span> MANAGEMENT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>RESOLVING EQUIVOCALITY IN <span class="hlt">ECOSYSTEM</span> MANAGEMENT by LARRY DENNIS STURM WOLFE Bachelor of Science OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in the School of Resource and Environmental Management of Philosophy Title of Dissertation: Resolving Equivocality in <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Management Examining Committee: Chair</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=230145&keyword=food+AND+service&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=46992260&CFTOKEN=36026339','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=230145&keyword=food+AND+service&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=46992260&CFTOKEN=36026339"><span id="translatedtitle">National Atlas of <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Services</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The nation’s <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> provide a vast array of services to humans from clean and abundant water to recreational opportunities. The benefits of nature or “<span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services” are often taken for granted and not considered in environmental decision-making. In some cases, decis...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMGC33E..04K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMGC33E..04K"><span id="translatedtitle">Mining <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> and Climate Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kumar, V.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Climate related observations from multiple sources of information, such as satellite remote sensors, or from in-situ sensors and sensor networks, provide terabytes of temporal, spatial and spatio-temporal data. These massive and information rich datasets offer huge potential for advancing the science of climate change and understanding the influences of climatic drivers on the not-so-well predicted climate extremes (or naturally occurring disturbance events), which may cause extreme stresses on a broad range of socio-economic activities (e.g., forest fires, heat waves, large storms and droughts). <span class="hlt">Current</span> analysis techniques do not fully harness the potential benefits of these climate and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> datasets and systematic efforts in exploring climatic influences on highly variable (unpredictable) extreme events are lacking, which could help in reducing our uncertainty in their prediction (understanding). Climate scientists often need to develop qualitative inferences about extreme events based on insights from observations (e.g., increase in hurricane intensity) or conceptual understanding (e.g., relation of wildfires to regional warming or drying and hurricanes to sea surface temperature). As an example, climate teleconnections, which are long-range spatio-temporal dependencies, such as climate dipoles, are among the most consistent attributes of the climate system, linking oceanic dynamics with inter-annual variability in the extremes of temperature and intensity or frequency of tropical cyclones and forest fires. These urgent societal priorities offer fertile grounds for knowledge discovery approaches using a combination of hypothesis-driven data analysis and data-guided discovery processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22677798','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22677798"><span id="translatedtitle">Glyphosate in northern <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Helander, Marjo; Saloniemi, Irma; Saikkonen, Kari</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>Glyphosate is the main nonselective, systemic herbicide used against a wide range of weeds. Its worldwide use has expanded because of extensive use of certain agricultural practices such as no-till cropping, and widespread application of glyphosate-resistant genetically modified crops. Glyphosate has a reputation of being nontoxic to animals and rapidly inactivated in soils. However, recent evidence has cast doubts on its safety. Glyphosate may be retained and transported in soils, and there may be cascading effects on nontarget organisms. These processes may be especially detrimental in northern <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> because they are characterized by long biologically inactive winters and short growing seasons. In this opinion article, we discuss the potential ecological, environmental and agricultural risks of intensive glyphosate use in boreal regions. PMID:22677798</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020076120','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020076120"><span id="translatedtitle">Monitoring Earth's <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Partnered with Goddard Space Flight Center, Sensit Technologies Inc. developed a third-generation Portable Apparatus for Rapid Acquisitions of Bidirectional Observations of Land and Atmosphere, or PARABOLA III for short. Now commercially available, PARABOLA III is designed to measure the reflected signature of a variety of Earth surface types, from rangeland vegetation to ice and snow. It can rapidly acquire data for almost the complete sky and ground-looking hemispheres, with no missing data and sufficient dynamic range to measure direct solar radiance. The instrument was actively used in the Boreal <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span>- Atmosphere Study which provided useful information in designing a Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer, a small satellite being built by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory that will measure sunlight reflected by the Earth into space.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25358301','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25358301"><span id="translatedtitle">Marine protected area networks in <span class="hlt">California</span>, USA.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Botsford, Louis W; White, J Wilson; Carr, Mark H; Caselle, Jennifer E</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">California</span> responded to concerns about overfishing in the 1990s by implementing a network of marine protected areas (MPAs) through two science-based decision-making processes. The first process focused on the Channel Islands, and the second addressed <span class="hlt">California</span>'s entire coastline, pursuant to the state's Marine Life Protection Act (MLPA). We review the interaction between science and policy in both processes, and lessons learned. For the Channel Islands, scientists controversially recommended setting aside 30-50% of coastline to protect marine <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. For the MLPA, MPAs were intended to be ecologically connected in a network, so design guidelines included minimum size and maximum spacing of MPAs (based roughly on fish movement rates), an approach that also implicitly specified a minimum fraction of the coastline to be protected. As MPA science developed during the <span class="hlt">California</span> processes, spatial population models were constructed to quantify how MPAs were affected by adult fish movement and larval dispersal, i.e., how population persistence within MPA networks depended on fishing outside the MPAs, and how fishery yields could either increase or decrease with MPA implementation, depending on fishery management. These newer quantitative methods added to, but did not supplant, the initial rule-of-thumb guidelines. In the future, similar spatial population models will allow more comprehensive evaluation of the integrated effects of MPAs and conventional fisheries management. By 2011, <span class="hlt">California</span> had implemented 132 MPAs covering more than 15% of its coastline, and now stands on the threshold of the most challenging step in this effort: monitoring and adaptive management to ensure <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> sustainability. PMID:25358301</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=239612','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=239612"><span id="translatedtitle">Mechanisms maintaining grassland biodiversity and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> stability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Ecologists need to know how particular processes influence biodiversity and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> stability. We demonstrate how data from biodiversity-<span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> functioning experiments can be used to identify and quantify the classes of mechanisms maintaining biodiversity and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> stability. We predicted...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/sites/default/files/atoms/files/marine_eco_intro.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/sites/default/files/atoms/files/marine_eco_intro.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Marine <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> Ocean Environment Research Division</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Marine <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> Ocean Environment Research Division Dr. Jeremy T. Mathis #12;Context for Marine <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> 2014 PMEL Lab Review 2 OVER 1 BILLION;Context for the Marine <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> 2014 PMEL Lab Review 3 Source: U.S. Census</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.C23E..07K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.C23E..07K"><span id="translatedtitle">Glacier <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> of Himalaya</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kohshima, S.; Yoshimura, Y.; Takeuchi, N.; Segawa, T.; Uetake, J.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>Biological activity on glaciers has been believed to be extremely limited. However, we found various biotic communities specialized to the glacier environment in various part of the world, such as Himalaya, Patagonia and Alaska. Some of these glacier hosted biotic communities including various cold-tolerant insects, annelids and copepods that were living in the glacier by feeding on algae and bacteria growing in the snow and ice. Thus, the glaciers are simple and relatively closed <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> sustained by the primary production in the snow and ice. In this presentation, we will briefly introduce glacier <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> in Himalaya; ecology and behavior of glacier animals, altitudinal zonation of snow algal communities, and the structure of their habitats in the glacier. Since the microorganisms growing on the glacier surface are stored in the glacial strata every year, ice-core samples contain many layers with these microorganisms. We showed that the snow algae in the ice-core are useful for ice core dating and could be new environmental signals for the studies on past environment using ice cores. These microorganisms in the ice core will be important especially in the studies of ice core from the glaciers of warmer regions, in which chemical and isotopic contents are often heavily disturbed by melt water percolation. Blooms of algae and bacteria on the glacier can reduce the surface albedo and significantly affect the glacier melting. For example, the surface albedo of some Himalayan glaciers was significantly reduced by a large amount of dark-colored biogenic material (cryoconite) derived from snow algae and bacteria. It increased the melting rates of the surfaces by as much as three-fold. Thus, it was suggested that the microbial activity on the glacier could affect the mass balance and fluctuation of the glaciers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=drop+AND+test&id=ED561216','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=drop+AND+test&id=ED561216"><span id="translatedtitle">Implementing the Common Core State Standards in <span class="hlt">California</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Warren, Paul; Murphy, Patrick</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The Common Core State Standards (CCSS)--adopted in 2010--are similar to <span class="hlt">California</span>'s <span class="hlt">current</span> K-12 standards, but their emphasis on conceptual understanding and problem solving will require changes in classroom instruction. <span class="hlt">California</span>'s transition to the CCSS has gotten off to a slow start. Survey data suggest that many teachers will deliver the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=59579&keyword=trade+AND+union&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=42195182&CFTOKEN=31689933','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=59579&keyword=trade+AND+union&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=42195182&CFTOKEN=31689933"><span id="translatedtitle">EXPOSURES AND HEALTH OF FARM WORKER CHILDREN IN <span class="hlt">CALIFORNIA</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The EPA STAR Program Center of Excellence in Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research at the University of <span class="hlt">California</span> at Berkeley is <span class="hlt">currently</span> conducting exposure and health studies for children of farm workers in the Salinas Valley of <span class="hlt">California</span>. The Exp...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED419370.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED419370.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">What Has Created <span class="hlt">California</span>'s School Facilities Predicament? EdFact.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>EdSource, Inc., Palo Alto, CA.</p> <p></p> <p>The growth in <span class="hlt">California</span>'s student population <span class="hlt">currently</span> exceeds the peak years of the baby boom generation by more than one million students. This increase, combined with deferred maintenance, has created a strain on the state's educational facilities. An analysis of this predicament is presented in this bulletin. It describes why <span class="hlt">California</span> needs…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Bus+AND+transport&pg=2&id=ED145851','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Bus+AND+transport&pg=2&id=ED145851"><span id="translatedtitle">Cooperative Activities of the University of <span class="hlt">California</span> Libraries.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Beaupre, Linda</p> <p></p> <p>The report documents <span class="hlt">current</span> cooperation activities between University of <span class="hlt">California</span> (UC) libraries and others. Information about programs, procedures, and agreements was gathered in the fall of 1976 from staff members at the nine UC campuses and from librarians at other <span class="hlt">California</span> institutions. Information sharing between on-campus and off-campus…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.B53C..01L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.B53C..01L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> adaptation to scarce nutrient resources: Do forest <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> shift from acquisition to recycling of phosphorus?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lang, F.; Kaupenjohann, M.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Friederike Lang(1, Nicole Wellbrock(2, Martin Kaupenjohann(1 (1) Department of Soil Science, TU Berlin, 10587 Berlin, Germany; (2) vTI Eberswalde Agricultural food production is essential to our existence, yet we are using up the Earths stocks of phosphorus (P) for the fertilizer production (Cordell, 2009). Forest <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> that developed on marginal soil have developed highly efficient strategies for the uptake, usage and recycling of P, which might inspire solutions for the problem of P scarcity in agriculture. However, these efficient forest strategies are hardly investigated yet. <span class="hlt">Current</span> literature concepts on the adaptation to low soil-P supply are mainly refined to individual organisms (e.g. the concept of uptake efficiency, Sattelmacher et al., 1994, and utilisation efficiency of plants, Compton and Cole, 1998). At the <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> level, however, low mineral-P supply requires an evolution of the system towards closed biogeochemical cycling (the concept of cycling efficiency). At the <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> level nutrient efficiency becomes rather a matter of transfer and distribution of resources among species, generations and soil components than of the capability of single organisms to acquire P sources. We plead for introducing the term <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> nutrition to cover this topic. Our general hypothesis is that P depletion of soils drives the development of forest <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> from geochemical P acquiring systems (mobilisation of P from the mineral phase) to biogeochemical P recycling systems (recycling of P from soil organic matter). We conclude that fundamental knowledge in the area of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> nutrition is essential for forestry to mitigate the consequences of increasing N deposition, climate change and intensification of forest usage, which most likely interfere with essential nutrition strategies of forest <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. Transfer of the knowledge on nutrition strategies and resource management of near-natural <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> to/in agricultural systems may finally contribute to counteract one of the most severe shortages of a natural resource humanity has ever faced in history. Compton, J.E., Cole, D.W. (1998). Forest Ecology and Management 110 (1-3) 101-112. Cordell et al. 2009, Global Env. Change, 19:292-305. Sattelmacher, B. , Horst, Becker (1994): Zeitschrift für Pflanzenernährung und Bodenkunde 157, 215-224.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4311437','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4311437"><span id="translatedtitle">Linking <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> characteristics to final <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services for public policy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wong, Christina P; Jiang, Bo; Kinzig, Ann P; Lee, Kai N; Ouyang, Zhiyun</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Governments worldwide are recognising <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services as an approach to address sustainability challenges. Decision-makers need credible and legitimate measurements of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services to evaluate decisions for trade-offs to make wise choices. Managers lack these measurements because of a data gap linking <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> characteristics to final <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services. The dominant method to address the data gap is benefit transfer using ecological data from one location to estimate <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services at other locations with similar land cover. However, benefit transfer is only valid once the data gap is adequately resolved. Disciplinary frames separating ecology from economics and policy have resulted in confusion on concepts and methods preventing progress on the data gap. In this study, we present a 10-step approach to unify concepts, methods and data from the disparate disciplines to offer guidance on overcoming the data gap. We suggest: (1) estimate <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> characteristics using biophysical models, (2) identify final <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services using endpoints and (3) connect them using ecological production functions to quantify biophysical trade-offs. The guidance is strategic for public policy because analysts need to be: (1) realistic when setting priorities, (2) attentive to timelines to acquire relevant data, given resources and (3) responsive to the needs of decision-makers. PMID:25394857</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25394857','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25394857"><span id="translatedtitle">Linking <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> characteristics to final <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services for public policy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wong, Christina P; Jiang, Bo; Kinzig, Ann P; Lee, Kai N; Ouyang, Zhiyun</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Governments worldwide are recognising <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services as an approach to address sustainability challenges. Decision-makers need credible and legitimate measurements of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services to evaluate decisions for trade-offs to make wise choices. Managers lack these measurements because of a data gap linking <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> characteristics to final <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services. The dominant method to address the data gap is benefit transfer using ecological data from one location to estimate <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services at other locations with similar land cover. However, benefit transfer is only valid once the data gap is adequately resolved. Disciplinary frames separating ecology from economics and policy have resulted in confusion on concepts and methods preventing progress on the data gap. In this study, we present a 10-step approach to unify concepts, methods and data from the disparate disciplines to offer guidance on overcoming the data gap. We suggest: (1) estimate <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> characteristics using biophysical models, (2) identify final <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services using endpoints and (3) connect them using ecological production functions to quantify biophysical trade-offs. The guidance is strategic for public policy because analysts need to be: (1) realistic when setting priorities, (2) attentive to timelines to acquire relevant data, given resources and (3) responsive to the needs of decision-makers. PMID:25394857</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.B23A0374S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.B23A0374S"><span id="translatedtitle">Long term flux <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> exchange over a Mediterranean shrubland <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Spano, D.; Sirca, C.; Marras, S.; Carta, M.; Zara, P.; Arca, A.; Duce, P.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Only a few long-term studies on inter-annual variability in energy and mass exchanges of Mediterranean shrubland <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> have been recently published. Since maquis <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> experience a wide variation in inter-annual rainfall and temperature, inter-annual differences in CO2 fluxes are expected. Mediterranean-type <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> normally show two main peaks of growth (in spring and fall) and experience sometimes pronounced summer drought periods. Consequently, Mediterranean-type <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> behavior is even more complex and responds more dramatically to perturbations in water conditions. In this paper, six years of energy and mass fluxes measured using eddy covariance (EC) technique over a secondary succession shrubland <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> (maquis) located in Sardinia, Italy are reported. The main objectives are to understand dynamics of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> carbon cycling and to identify the driving factors affecting <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> exchanges. Eddy flux and meteorological data are presented along with soil respiration information. Footprint analysis, friction velocity method, and other turbulent parameters were calculated to verify the accuracy of the eddy covariance CO2 measurements. The energy partitioning exhibited clear seasonal patterns with increasing Bowen ratio values during the drought season. Peak CO2 uptake occurred during spring and autumn showing an evident decrease in summer. The estimate of NEE showed differences among years depending on drought and temperature conditions. The surface conductance was clearly depressed during long-term drought period. In general, NEE was relatively low compared to other forest <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. A good relationship was found between GPP and LE. Our data show that the inter-annual differences in NEE of the maquis <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> depend mainly on seasonal climate rather than on mean annual air temperature or precipitation. In addition, extreme weather events can also contribute to NEE inter-annual variability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/68469','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/68469"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">California</span> rides the tiger</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Garner, W.L.</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Revolutions rarely succeed without a struggle. At the <span class="hlt">California</span> Public Utilities Commission (CPUC), the move to restructure the state`s electric utility industry is no exception. The stakes are enormous. For starters, annual revenues at the state`s investor-owned electric utilities (IOUs) exceed $18 billion, making up 2 percent of <span class="hlt">California`s</span> gross state product. Competitively priced electricity is vital to <span class="hlt">California`s</span> $800-billion-a-year economy, one would think. And with its sweeping restructing plan, the CPUC has found itself riding a tiger, hoping it won`t get swallowed whole in the process.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1764834','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1764834"><span id="translatedtitle">Marine pelagic <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>: the West Antarctic Peninsula</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ducklow, Hugh W; Baker, Karen; Martinson, Douglas G; Quetin, Langdon B; Ross, Robin M; Smith, Raymond C; Stammerjohn, Sharon E; Vernet, Maria; Fraser, William</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The marine <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> of the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) extends from the Bellingshausen Sea to the northern tip of the peninsula and from the mostly glaciated coast across the continental shelf to the shelf break in the west. The glacially sculpted coastline along the peninsula is highly convoluted and characterized by deep embayments that are often interconnected by channels that facilitate transport of heat and nutrients into the shelf domain. The <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> is divided into three subregions, the continental slope, shelf and coastal regions, each with unique ocean dynamics, water mass and biological distributions. The WAP shelf lies within the Antarctic Sea Ice Zone (SIZ) and like other SIZs, the WAP system is very productive, supporting large stocks of marine mammals, birds and the Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba. <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> dynamics is dominated by the seasonal and interannual variation in sea ice extent and retreat. The Antarctic Peninsula is one among the most rapidly warming regions on Earth, having experienced a 2°C increase in the annual mean temperature and a 6°C rise in the mean winter temperature since 1950. Delivery of heat from the Antarctic Circumpolar <span class="hlt">Current</span> has increased significantly in the past decade, sufficient to drive to a 0.6°C warming of the upper 300?m of shelf water. In the past 50 years and continuing in the twenty-first century, the warm, moist maritime climate of the northern WAP has been migrating south, displacing the once dominant cold, dry continental Antarctic climate and causing multi-level responses in the marine <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>. <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> responses to the regional warming include increased heat transport, decreased sea ice extent and duration, local declines in ice-dependent Adélie penguins, increase in ice-tolerant gentoo and chinstrap penguins, alterations in phytoplankton and zooplankton community composition and changes in krill recruitment, abundance and availability to predators. The climate/ecological gradients extending along the WAP and the presence of monitoring systems, field stations and long-term research programmes make the region an invaluable observatory of climate change and marine <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> response. PMID:17405208</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMOS44A..05G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMOS44A..05G"><span id="translatedtitle">NASA COAST and OCEANIA Airborne Missions Support <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> and Water Quality Research in the Coastal Zone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Guild, L. S.; Kudela, R. M.; Hooker, S. B.; Morrow, J. H.; Russell, P. B.; Palacios, S. L.; Livingston, J. M.; Negrey, K.; Torres-Perez, J. L.; Broughton, J.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>NASA has a continuing requirement to collect high-quality in situ data for the vicarious calibration of <span class="hlt">current</span> and next generation ocean color satellite sensors and to validate the algorithms that use the remotely sensed observations. Recent NASA airborne missions over Monterey Bay, CA, have demonstrated novel above- and in-water measurement capabilities supporting a combined airborne sensor approach (imaging spectrometer, microradiometers, and a sun photometer). The results characterize coastal atmospheric and aquatic properties through an end-to-end assessment of image acquisition, atmospheric correction, algorithm application, plus sea-truth observations from state-of-the-art instrument systems. The primary goal is to demonstrate the following in support of calibration and validation exercises for satellite coastal ocean color products: 1) the utility of a multi-sensor airborne instrument suite to assess the bio-optical properties of coastal <span class="hlt">California</span>, including water quality; and 2) the importance of contemporaneous atmospheric measurements to improve atmospheric correction in the coastal zone. The imaging spectrometer (Headwall) is optimized in the blue spectral domain to emphasize remote sensing of marine and freshwater <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. The novel airborne instrument, Coastal Airborne In-situ Radiometers (C-AIR) provides measurements of apparent optical properties with high dynamic range and fidelity for deriving exact water leaving radiances at the land-ocean boundary, including radiometrically shallow aquatic <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. Simultaneous measurements supporting empirical atmospheric correction of image data are accomplished using the Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14). Flight operations are presented for the instrument payloads using the CIRPAS Twin Otter flown over Monterey Bay during the seasonal fall algal bloom in 2011 (COAST) and 2013 (OCEANIA) to support bio-optical measurements of phytoplankton for coastal zone research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993EnMan..17..289S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993EnMan..17..289S"><span id="translatedtitle">Environmental planning, <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> science, and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> approaches for integrating environment and development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Slocombe, D. Scott</p> <p>1993-05-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Currently</span> popular concepts such as sustainable development and sustainability seek the integration of environment and development planning. However, there is little evidence that this integration is occurring in either mainstream development planning or environmental planning. This is a function of the history, philosophies, and evolved roles of both. A brief review of the experience and results of mainstream planning, environmental planning, and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> science suggests there is much in past scientific and professional practice that is relevant to the goal of integrated planning for environment and development, but still such commonly recommended reforms as systems and multidisciplinary approaches, institutional integration, and participatory, goal-oriented processes are rarely achieved. “<span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> approaches,” as developed and applied in ecology, human ecology, environmental planning, anthropology, psychology, and other disciplines, may provide a more transdisciplinary route to successful integration of environment and development. Experience with <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> approaches is reviewed, their advantages and disadvantages are discussed, and they are compared to traditional urban and regional planning, environmental planning, and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> science approaches. Ultimately a synthesis of desirable characteristics for a framework to integrate environment and development planning is presented as a guide for future work and a criterion for evaluating existing programs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1711775K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1711775K"><span id="translatedtitle">Using plant traits to evaluate the resistance and resilience of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> service provision</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kohler, Marina; Devaux, Caroline; Fontana, Veronika; Grigulis, Karl; Lavorel, Sandra; Leitinger, Georg; Schirpke, Uta; Tasser, Erich; Tappeiner, Ulrike</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Mountain grassland <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> are a hotspot of biodiversity and deliver a multiplicity of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services. Due to a long history of well adapted agricultural use and specific environmental conditions (e.g. slope, altitude, or climate), various types of grassland <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> have developed. Each of them shows specific attributes in forms of plant communities and abiotic characteristics, which lead to particular ranges of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> service provision. However, ongoing climate and societal changes thread plant community composition and may lead to changes in plant traits, and therefore, the provision of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services. <span class="hlt">Currently</span> it is not clear how vulnerable these <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> are to disturbances, or whether they have developed a high resilience over time. Thus, it is essential to know the ranges of resistance and resilience of an <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> service. We, therefore, developed a static approach based on community weighted mean plant traits and abiotic parameters to measure the boundaries of resistance and resilience of each <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> service separately. By calculating actual minimum and maximum amounts of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services, we define the range of resistance of an <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> service. We then calculate the potential amount of an <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services (via simulated plant communities) by assuming that no species is lost or added to the system. By comparing actual and potential values, we can estimate whether an <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> service is in danger to lose its resilience. We selected different <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services related to mountain grassland <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, e.g. carbon storage, forage quality, forage quantity, and soil fertility. We analysed each <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> service for different grassland management types, covering meadows and pastures of very low land-use intensity through to grasslands of high land-use intensity. Results indicate that certain <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services have a higher resilience than others (e.g. carbon storage) for all management types. The <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> may provide steady amounts of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services also in future when facing environmental or societal disturbances. In contrary, other services are very depending on actual conditions and are, therefore, less stable (e.g. forage quantity). When comparing ranges of resistance and resilience, the actual amount lies very close to the boundaries of the potential provision. This gives us a hint that the <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> service is in danger to lose its resilience and amount of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> service provision when facing disturbances in future.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.H33H..03J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.H33H..03J"><span id="translatedtitle">Shallow groundwater subsidies to terrestrial <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jackson, R. B.; Jayawickreme, D.; Nosetto, M.; Jobbagy, E. G.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Throughout the world, shallow groundwater systems subsidize much higher net primary productivity (NPP) than would be expected based solely on local rainfall. Such subsidies are far more prevalent and less recognized in upland systems than in more commonly studied riparian ones. We present a quantitative framework for examining and quantifying groundwater subsidies globally, illustrating subsidies to NPP across rainfall gradients in Argentina and the southern United States, including Texas and <span class="hlt">California</span>. In the Argentine Pampas, we determined that the presence of relatively shallow ground water increased the transpiration of forest plantations by 300 to 400 mm. Farther west, the presence of well developed Prosopis flexuosa woodlands in the Monte desert region east of the Andes has puzzled scientists for decades. We explored the vulnerability and importance of phreatic ground water for the productivity of the region, comparing the contributions of local rainfall to that of remote mountain recharge that is increasingly being diverted for irrigated agriculture before it reaches the desert. The isotopic composition of phreatic ground waters (?2H; -137±5 ‰) closely matched the signature of water brought to the region by the Mendoza River (-137±6 ‰), suggesting that mountain river infiltration rather than in-situ rainfall deep drainage (-39±19 ‰) was the dominant mechanism of recharge. Vegetation in woodland <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> there relied on regionally derived ground water from Andean snowmelt located from 6.5 to 9.5 m underground. Understanding the ecohydrological coupling of surface and ground waters is vital for estimating net primary productivity and for balancing the demands of managed <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> with the conservation of unique natural systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21265169','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21265169"><span id="translatedtitle">[Heavy metals cycling and its regulation in China cropland <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zeng, Xi-bai; Su, Shi-ming; Ma, Shi-ming; Bai, Ling-yu; Li, Shu-hui; Li, Lian-fang</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>This paper analyzed the <span class="hlt">current</span> situation of heavy metal contamination in cropland soils in China, and discussed the input, output, and balance of heavy metals in cropland <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. It was considered that heavy metals had definite accumulation in cropland <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, but overall speaking, this accumulation had relatively small environmental risk, and only some plants, especially vegetables, accumulated heavy metals over the standards. In mining areas, adjacent areas of smelting plants, and the farming areas using larger amounts of related wastes, the heavy metals content in plants and soils was at least ten times higher than that in normal croplands, existing larger environmental risk. Aiming at the <span class="hlt">current</span> situation of heavy metal contamination of farmland soils in China, some effective regulation measures for the heavy metal cycling in the cropland <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> were proposed, and the further research prospects in related fields were discussed. PMID:21265169</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1710185P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1710185P"><span id="translatedtitle">Ash in fire affected <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pereira, Paulo; Jordan, Antonio; Cerda, Artemi; Martin, Deborah</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Ash in fire affected <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> Ash lefts an important footprint in the <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> and has a key role in the immediate period after the fire (Bodi et al., 2014; Pereira et al., 2015). It is an important source of nutrients for plant recover (Pereira et al., 2014a), protects soil from erosion and controls soil hydrological process as runoff, infiltration and water repellency (Cerda and Doerr, 2008; Bodi et al., 2012, Pereira et al., 2014b). Despite the recognition of ash impact and contribution to <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> recuperation, it is assumed that we still have little knowledge about the implications of ash in fire affected areas. Regarding this situation we wanted to improve our knowledge in this field and understand the state of the research about fire ash around world. The special issue about "The role of ash in fire affected <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>" <span class="hlt">currently</span> in publication in CATENA born from the necessity of joint efforts, identify research gaps, and discuss future cooperation in this interdisciplinary field. This is the first special issue about fire ash in the international literature. In total it will be published 10 papers focused in different aspects of the impacts of ash in fire affected <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> from several parts of the world: • Fire reconstruction using charcoal particles (Burjachs and Espositio, in press) • Ash slurries impact on rheological properties of Runoff (Burns and Gabet, in press) • Methods to analyse ash conductivity and sorbtivity in the laboratory and in the field (Balfour et al., in press) • Termogravimetric and hydrological properties of ash (Dlapa et al. in press) • Effects of ash cover in water infiltration (Leon et al., in press) • Impact of ash in volcanic soils (Dorta Almenar et al., in press; Escuday et al., in press) • Ash PAH and Chemical extracts (Silva et al., in press) • Microbiology (Barreiro et al., in press; Lombao et al., in press) We believe that this special issue will contribute importantly to the better understanding of the role of ash in fire affected areas. Acknowledgments The 'Litfire' Project (MIP-048/2011; 181 Pereira) funded by the Lithuanian Research Council, Soil quality, erosion control and plant cover recovery under different post-firemanagement scenarios (POSTFIRE), funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (CGL2013-47862-C2-1-R), Preventing and Remediating Degradation of Soils in Europe Through Land Care (RECARE) funded by the European Commission (FP7-ENV-2013-TWO STAGE) and European Research Project LEDDRA (243857) and COST action ES1306 (Connecting European connectivity research). References Balfour, V.N., Determining wildfire ash saturated hydraulic conductivity and sorptivity with laboratory and field methods. Catena. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2014.01.009 Barreiro, A., Fontúrbel, M.T., Lombao, A., Martín, C., Vega, J.A., Fernández, C., Carballas, T., Díaz-Raviña, M., Using phospholipid fatty acid and community level physiological profiling techniques to characterize soil microbial communities following an experimental fire and different stabilization treatments. Catena. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2014.07.011 Bodi, M., Martin, D.A., Santin, C., Balfour, V., Doerr, S.H., Pereira, P., Cerda, A., Mataix-Solera, J. (2014) Wildland fire ash: production, composition and eco-hydro-geomorphic effects. Earth-Science Reviews, 130, 103-127. Bodí, M.B., Doerr, S.H., Cerdà, A. and Mataix-Solera, J. (2012) Hydrological effects of a layer of vegetation ash on underlying wettable and water repellent soils. Geoderma, 191, 14-23. Burjachs, F., Expósito, I., Charcoal and pollen analysis: examples of Holocene fire dynamics in Mediterranean Iberian Peninsula. Catena. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2014.10.006 Burns, K., Gabet, E., The effective viscosity of slurries laden with vegetative ash. Catena. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2014.06.008 Cerdà, A. Doerr, S.H. (2008). The effect of ash and needle cover on surface runoff and erosion in the immediate post-fire period. Catena, 74 , 256-263. Dlapa, P., Bodí, M.B., Mataix-Solera, J., Cerdà, A., Doerr, S.H., Organic matter </p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://mypage.iu.edu/~evans/manuscripts/Mincey%20et%20al.Urban%20Ecosystems.2013.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://mypage.iu.edu/~evans/manuscripts/Mincey%20et%20al.Urban%20Ecosystems.2013.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Structuring institutional analysis for urban <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>: A key to sustainable urban forest management</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Evans, Tom</p> <p></p> <p>and function in the United States jeopardizes the <span class="hlt">current</span> focus on developing sustainable cities. A numberStructuring institutional analysis for urban <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>: A key to sustainable urban forest of social dilemmas--for example, free-rider problems--restrict the sustainable production of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/195675','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/195675"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">California</span> Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations: Reports. Volume 36, January 1 to December 31, 1994</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Olfe, J.</p> <p>1995-10-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">California</span> Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations (CalCOFI) performs research in the area of sampling physical, chemical, and biological variables in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span>. The information received is stored in databases and gives a better understanding of the physics and chemistry of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span>. Their effect on the food chain make it possible to view <span class="hlt">current</span> oceanographic and biological conditions in the context of the long term. Measurements taken during 1994 and early 1995 on CalCOFI cruises have indicated a return to normal conditions after anomalous conditions that dominated the two preceding years. The data have permitted an increasingly prompt assessment of the state of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> system off southern <span class="hlt">California</span>. This report also contains papers presented at the CalCOFI conference in 1994 regarding the 1991--92 El Nino and its impact on fisheries. In addition, individual scientific contributions are included which provide an additional understanding of the processes involved in the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24464329','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24464329"><span id="translatedtitle">Impacts of pesticides in a Central <span class="hlt">California</span> estuary.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Anderson, Brian; Phillips, Bryn; Hunt, John; Siegler, Katie; Voorhees, Jennifer; Smalling, Kelly; Kuivila, Kathy; Hamilton, Mary; Ranasinghe, J Ananda; Tjeerdema, Ron</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>Recent and past studies have documented the prevalence of pyrethroid and organophosphate pesticides in urban and agricultural watersheds in <span class="hlt">California</span>. While toxic concentrations of these pesticides have been found in freshwater systems, there has been little research into their impacts in marine receiving waters. Our study investigated pesticide impacts in the Santa Maria River estuary, which provides critical habitat to numerous aquatic, terrestrial, and avian species on the central <span class="hlt">California</span> coast. Runoff from irrigated agriculture constitutes a significant portion of Santa Maria River flow during most of the year, and a number of studies have documented pesticide occurrence and biological impacts in this watershed. Our study extended into the Santa Maria watershed coastal zone and measured pesticide concentrations throughout the estuary, including the water column and sediments. Biological effects were measured at the organism and community levels. Results of this study suggest the Santa Maria River estuary is impacted by <span class="hlt">current</span>-use pesticides. The majority of water samples were highly toxic to invertebrates (Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca), and chemistry evidence suggests toxicity was associated with the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos, pyrethroid pesticides, or mixtures of both classes of pesticides. A high percentage of sediment samples were also toxic in this estuary, and sediment toxicity occurred when mixtures of chlorpyrifos and pyrethroid pesticides exceeded established toxicity thresholds. Based on a Relative Benthic Index, Santa Maria estuary stations where benthic macroinvertebrate communities were assessed were degraded. Impacts in the Santa Maria River estuary were likely due to the proximity of this system to Orcutt Creek, the tributary which accounts for most of the flow to the lower Santa Maria River. Water and sediment samples from Orcutt Creek were highly toxic to invertebrates due to mixtures of the same pesticides measured in the estuary. This study suggests that the same pyrethroid and organophosphate pesticides that have been shown to cause water and sediment toxicity in urban and agriculture water bodies throughout <span class="hlt">California</span>, have the potential to affect estuarine habitats. The results establish baseline data in the Santa Maria River estuary to allow evaluation of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> improvement as management initiatives to reduce pesticide runoff are implemented in this watershed. PMID:24464329</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012BGD.....9.4099F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012BGD.....9.4099F"><span id="translatedtitle">High temporal and spatial variability of dissolved oxygen and pH in a nearshore <span class="hlt">California</span> kelp forest</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Frieder, C. A.; Nam, S. H.; Martz, T. R.; Levin, L. A.</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Predicting consequences of ocean deoxygenation and ocean acidification for nearshore marine <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> requires baseline dissolved oxygen (DO) and carbonate chemistry data that are both high-frequency and high-quality. Such data allow accurate assessment of environmental variability and present-day organism exposure regimes. In this study, scales of DO and pH variability were characterized over one year in a nearshore, kelp forest <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> in the Southern <span class="hlt">California</span> Bight. DO and pH were strongly, positively correlated revealing that organisms on this upwelling shelf are not only exposed to low pH but also low DO. The dominant temporal scale of DO and pH variability occurred on semidiurnal, diurnal and event (days-weeks) time scales. Daily ranges in DO and pH at 7 m water depth (13 mab) could be as large as 220 ?mol kg-1 and 0.36 units, respectively. This range is much greater than the expected decreases in pH in the open ocean by the year 2100. Sources of pH and DO variation include photosynthesis within the kelp forest <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>, which can elevate DO and pH by up to 60 ?mol kg-1 and 0.1 units over one week following the intrusion of high-density, nutrient-rich water. Accordingly, highly productive macrophyte-based <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> could serve as deoxygenation and acidification refugia by acting to elevate DO and pH relative to surrounding waters. DO and pH exhibited greater spatial variation over a 10 m increase in water depth (from 7 to 17 m) than along a 5-km stretch of shelf in a cross-shore or alongshore direction. Over a three-month time period mean DO and pH at 17-m water depth were 168 ?mol kg-1 and 7.87, respectively. These values represent a 35% decrease in mean DO and 37% increase in [H+] relative to surface waters. High-frequency variation was also reduced at depth. The mean daily range in DO and pH was 39% and 37% less, respectively, at 17-m water depth relative to the surface. As a consequence, the exposure history of an organism is largely a function of its depth of occurrence within the kelp forest. These findings raise the possibility that the benthic communities along eastern boundary <span class="hlt">current</span> systems are <span class="hlt">currently</span> acclimatized and adapted to natural, variable, and low DO and pH. Future exposure of coastal <span class="hlt">California</span> populations to low DO and pH may increase as upwelling intensifies and hypoxic boundaries shoal, compressing habitats and challenging the physiological capacity of intolerant species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://oaktrust.library.tamu.edu//handle/1969.1/ETD-TAMU-2011-12-10473','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://oaktrust.library.tamu.edu//handle/1969.1/ETD-TAMU-2011-12-10473"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of <span class="hlt">Current</span> Almond Pasteurization Methods and Electron Beam Irradiation as an Alternative </span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Cuervo Pliego, Mary</p> <p>2012-02-14</p> <p>Two outbreaks of salmonellosis were linked to the consumption of raw <span class="hlt">California</span> almonds in 2001 and 2004. <span class="hlt">Current</span> federal regulations mandate that all almonds grown in <span class="hlt">California</span> are to be treated with a process that results ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5909085','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5909085"><span id="translatedtitle">Mercury in the <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mitra, S.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>This treatise on the environmental dispersion of mercury emphasizes the importance of ''mercury-consciousness'' in the present-day world, where rapidly expanding metallurgical, chemical, and other industrial developments are causing widespread contamination of the atmosphere, soil, and water by this metal and its toxic organic derivatives. Concepts concerning the mechanism of mercury dispersion and methyl-mercury formation in the physico-biological <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> are discussed in detail and a substantial body of data on the degree and nature of the mercury contamination of various plants, fish, and land animals by industrial and urban effluents is presented. Various analytical methods for the estimation of mercury in inorganic and organic samples are presented. These serve as a ready guide to the selection of the correct method for analyzing environmental samples. This book is reference work in mercury-related studies. It is written to influence industrial policies of governments in their formulation of control measures to avoid the recurrence of human tragedies such as the well-known Minamata case in Japan, and the lesser known cases in Iraq, Pakistan, and Guatamala.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013esm..book...77Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013esm..book...77Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Coral Reef <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yap, Helen T.</p> <p></p> <p>Coral reefs are geological structures of significant dimensions, constructed over millions of years by calcifying organisms. The present day reef-builders are hard corals belonging to the order Scleractinia, phylum Cnidaria. The greatest concentrations of coral reefs are in the tropics, with highest levels of biodiversity situated in reefs of the Indo-West Pacific region. These <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> have provided coastal protection and livelihood to human populations over the millennia. Human activities have caused destruction of these habitats, the intensity of which has increased alarmingly since the latter decades of the twentieth century. The severity of this impact is directly related to exponential growth rates of human populations especially in the coastal areas of the developing world. However, a more recently recognized phenomenon concerns disturbances brought about by the changing climate, manifested mainly as rising sea surface temperatures, and increasing acidification of ocean waters due to greater drawdown of higher concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Management efforts have so far not kept pace with the rates of degradation, so that the spatial extent of damaged reefs and the incidences of localized extinction of reef species are increasing year after year. The major management efforts to date consist of establishing marine protected areas and promoting the active restoration of coral habitats.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3689659','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3689659"><span id="translatedtitle">Complex Effects of <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Engineer Loss on Benthic <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Response to Detrital Macroalgae</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rossi, Francesca; Gribsholt, Britta; Gazeau, Frederic; Di Santo, Valentina; Middelburg, Jack J.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> engineers change abiotic conditions, community assembly and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> functioning. Consequently, their loss may modify thresholds of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> response to disturbance and undermine <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> stability. This study investigates how loss of the bioturbating lugworm Arenicola marina modifies the response to macroalgal detrital enrichment of sediment biogeochemical properties, microphytobenthos and macrofauna assemblages. A field manipulative experiment was done on an intertidal sandflat (Oosterschelde estuary, The Netherlands). Lugworms were deliberately excluded from 1× m sediment plots and different amounts of detrital Ulva (0, 200 or 600 g Wet Weight) were added twice. Sediment biogeochemistry changes were evaluated through benthic respiration, sediment organic carbon content and porewater inorganic carbon as well as detrital macroalgae remaining in the sediment one month after enrichment. Microalgal biomass and macrofauna composition were measured at the same time. Macroalgal carbon mineralization and transfer to the benthic consumers were also investigated during decomposition at low enrichment level (200 g WW). The interaction between lugworm exclusion and detrital enrichment did not modify sediment organic carbon or benthic respiration. Weak but significant changes were instead found for porewater inorganic carbon and microalgal biomass. Lugworm exclusion caused an increase of porewater carbon and a decrease of microalgal biomass, while detrital enrichment drove these values back to values typical of lugworm-dominated sediments. Lugworm exclusion also decreased the amount of macroalgae remaining into the sediment and accelerated detrital carbon mineralization and CO2 release to the water column. Eventually, the interaction between lugworm exclusion and detrital enrichment affected macrofauna abundance and diversity, which collapsed at high level of enrichment only when the lugworms were present. This study reveals that in nature the role of this <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> engineer may be variable and sometimes have no or even negative effects on stability, conversely to what it should be expected based on <span class="hlt">current</span> research knowledge. PMID:23805256</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMED41A3406S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMED41A3406S"><span id="translatedtitle">Identifying Phytoplankton Classes In <span class="hlt">California</span> Reservoirs Using HPLC Pigment Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Siddiqui, S.; Peacock, M. B.; Kudela, R. M.; Negrey, K.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Few bodies of water are routinely monitored for phytoplankton composition due to monetary and time constraints, especially the less accessible bodies of water in central and southern <span class="hlt">California</span>. These lakes and estuaries are important for economic reasons such as tourism and fishing. This project investigated the composition of phytoplankton present using pigment analysis to identify dominant phytoplankton groups. A total of 28 different sites with a wide range of salinity (0 - 60) in central and southern <span class="hlt">California</span> were examined. These included 13 different bodies of water in central <span class="hlt">California</span>: 6 in the Sierras, 7 in the San Francisco Bay Estuary, and 15 from southern <span class="hlt">California</span>. The samples were analyzed using high-performance liquid-chromatography (HPLC) to quantify the pigments present (using retention time and the spectral thumbprint). Diagnostic pigments were used to indicate the phytoplankton class composition, focusing on diatoms, dinoflagellates, cryptophytes, and cyanobacteria - all key phytoplankton groups indicative of the health of the sampled reservoir. Our results indicated that cyanobacteria dominated four of the seven bodies of central <span class="hlt">California</span> water (Mono Lake, Bridgeport Reservoir, Steamboat Slough, and Pinto Lake); cryptophytes and nannoflagellates dominated two of the central <span class="hlt">California</span> bodies of water (Mare Island Strait and Topaz Lake); and diatoms and dinoflagellates dominated one central <span class="hlt">California</span> body of water, Oakland Inner Harbor, comprising more than 70% of the phytoplankton present. We expect the bodies of water from Southern <span class="hlt">California</span> to be as disparate. Though this data is only a snapshot, it has significant implications in comparing different <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> across <span class="hlt">California</span>, and it has the potential to provide valuable insight into the composition of phytoplankton communities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70048492','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70048492"><span id="translatedtitle">Forest <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>: Vegetation, disturbance, and economics: Chapter 5</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Littell, Jeremy S.; Hicke, Jeffrey A.; Shafer, Sarah L.; Capalbo, Susan M.; Houston, Laurie L.; Glick, Patty</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Forests cover about 47% of the Northwest (NW–Washington, Oregon, and Idaho) (Smith et al. 2009, fig. 5.1, table 5.1). The impacts of <span class="hlt">current</span> and future climate change on NW forest <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> are a product of the sensitivities of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> processes to climate and the degree to which humans depend on and interact with those systems. Forest <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> structure and function, particularly in relatively unmanaged forests where timber harvest and other land use have smaller effects, is sensitive to climate change because climate has a strong influence on <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> processes. Climate can affect forest structure directly through its control of plan physiology and life history (establishment, individual growth, productivity, and morality) or indirectly through its control of disturbance (fire, insects, disease). As climate changes, many forest processes will be affected, altering <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services such as timber production and recreation. These changes have socioeconomic implications (e.g. for timber economies) and will require changes to <span class="hlt">current</span> management of forests. Climate and management will interact to determine the forests of the future, and the scientific basis for adaptation to climate change in forests thus depends significantly on how forests will be affected.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=8698&keyword=world+AND+wide+AND+web&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=52992291&CFTOKEN=68913430','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=8698&keyword=world+AND+wide+AND+web&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=52992291&CFTOKEN=68913430"><span id="translatedtitle">MARSH DATA FOR SOUTH FLORIDA <span class="hlt">ECOSYSTEM</span> ASSESSMENT PROJECT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The South Florida <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Assessment Project is an innovative, large-scale monitoring and assessment program designed to measure <span class="hlt">current</span> and changing conditions of ecological resources in South Florida using an integrated holistic approach. This data set contains results for f...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=304812','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=304812"><span id="translatedtitle">Sound management may sequester methane in grazed rangeland <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Considering their contribution to global warming, the sources and sinks of methane (CH4) should be accounted when undertaking a greenhouse gas inventory for grazed rangeland <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mitigation potential of <span class="hlt">current</span> ecological management programs implement...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=40883&keyword=Von&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=50915735&CFTOKEN=25842566','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=40883&keyword=Von&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=50915735&CFTOKEN=25842566"><span id="translatedtitle">AIR POLLUTION EFFECTS ON AQUATIC <span class="hlt">ECOSYSTEMS</span>: SUMMARY OF A SYMPOSIUM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Summarizing presentations at a symposium on air pollutant effects on aquatic <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>, this document includes an overview of U.S. research programs, atmospheric emissions and deposition, cycling processes, and effects on plants and animals. <span class="hlt">Current</span> U.S. research addresses ecosy...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=227017&keyword=proof&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=41930879&CFTOKEN=11861773','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=227017&keyword=proof&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=41930879&CFTOKEN=11861773"><span id="translatedtitle">Geospatial tools for <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Services</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Northeastern lakes provide valuable <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services that benefit residents and visitors and are increasingly important for provisioning of recreational opportunities and amenities. Concurrently, population growth threatens lakes by, for instance, increasing nutrient loads. ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2680978','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2680978"><span id="translatedtitle">Rapid Recovery of Damaged <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Jones, Holly P.; Schmitz, Oswald J.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Background Recent reports on the state of the global environment provide evidence that humankind is inflicting great damage to the very <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> that support human livelihoods. The reports further predict that <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> will take centuries to recover from damages if they recover at all. Accordingly, there is despair that we are passing on a legacy of irreparable damage to future generations which is entirely inconsistent with principles of sustainability. Methodology/Principal Findings We tested the prediction of irreparable harm using a synthesis of recovery times compiled from 240 independent studies reported in the scientific literature. We provide startling evidence that most <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> globally can, given human will, recover from very major perturbations on timescales of decades to half-centuries. Significance/Conclusions Accordingly, we find much hope that humankind can transition to more sustainable use of <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. PMID:19471645</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ocean.mit.edu/~mick/download/Follows-ModelingMarineEcosys.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://ocean.mit.edu/~mick/download/Follows-ModelingMarineEcosys.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Modelling Marine <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> Mick Follows</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Follows, Mick</p> <p></p> <p>?What is the marine <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>? · Food webFood web · Focus onFocus on phytoplanktonphytoplankton Bacteria, archaea #12, aggregating. Efficient export of organic carbon Small, buoyant, locally recycled. Inefficient export</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=72343&keyword=Biomes&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=42285786&CFTOKEN=95987828','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=72343&keyword=Biomes&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=42285786&CFTOKEN=95987828"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">ECOSYSTEM</span> PROTECTION: DYNAMIC WATERSHED SIMULATOR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This research focuses on developing methods and models to determine how terrestrial <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>/habitats will respond to anthropogenic stress. The primary objective is to develop a comprehensive modeling framework for predicting the effects of multiple stressors on key hydrologic,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/81086','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/81086"><span id="translatedtitle">Entrepreneurial <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> around the world</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Kumar, Anand R</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Entrepreneurship is a vehicle of growth and job creation. America has understood it and benefitted most from following this philosophy. Governments around the world need to build and grow their entrepreneurial <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.lfpdc.lsu.edu/UneceFaoIufro/social_responsibility/documents/2013Mar/csr13_16.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.lfpdc.lsu.edu/UneceFaoIufro/social_responsibility/documents/2013Mar/csr13_16.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">UNEP Policy Series <span class="hlt">ECOSYSTEM</span> MANAGEMENT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>1 UNEP Policy Series <span class="hlt">ECOSYSTEM</span> MANAGEMENT Sustaining Forests: Sustaining forests: Investing in our as a source of livelihoods, health and poverty reduction and market solutions for sustainable forest management</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16502036','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16502036"><span id="translatedtitle">Policy characterization of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> management.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lamont, Averil</p> <p>2006-02-01</p> <p>This paper provides a comparison of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> management (EM) to the traditional regulatory management approach and outlines the characteristics of EM from a policy perspective, defining the conditions under which this management tool can be successfully implemented. <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> management is a collaborative and integrative tool focused on balancing societal needs, economic growth, and environmental protection to ensure the long-term ecological integrity of a particular <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>. The characteristics of this particular tool include: (1) its holistic approach to environmental problems; (2) its integration of values (economic, social, and environmental) through a collaborative, multi-partner, decision making structure; (3) its reliance on science to guide decisions and set boundaries; and (4) its ability to learn from the implementation of decisions (adaptive management). Examples are draw from Environment Canada's various regional <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> initiatives. PMID:16502036</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.B21E0309V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.B21E0309V"><span id="translatedtitle">Stable Carbon and Nitrogen isoscapes of the <span class="hlt">California</span> Coast: integrated ?15N and ?13C of suspended particulate organic matter inferred from tissues of the <span class="hlt">California</span> Mussel (mytilus californianus)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vokhshoori, N. L.; McCarthy, M. D.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Spatial maps of isotopic variability in a single species, or isoscapes, can characterize the natural variability in carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) isotope ratios across <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> on broad spatial scales, trace the signature of a source across a given area, as well as constrain animal migration patterns (Graham et al. 2002). In this study, isoscapes of stable carbon (13C) and nitrogen (15N) isotopes were constructed using intertidal mussels for northeast Pacific coastal waters of <span class="hlt">California</span>. In this region biogeochemical cycling is primarily controlled by upwelling intensity and large-scale transport of the <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span> System (CCS). We hypothesize that sampling specific tissues of filter-feeding organisms can provide an integrated measure of variation in 15N and 13C of the suspended particulate organic matter (POM) pool vs. latitude within the CCS, as well indicate main sources of both organic C and N to littoral food webs. <span class="hlt">California</span> mussels (mytilus californianus) were collected from 28 sites between Coos Bay, OR and La Jolla, CA in the winter of 2009-2010 and summer of 2011, and adductor tissue was analyzed for ?13C and ?15N. Mussel size classes were chosen to provide ~ 1 yr integrated signal. Spatial trends in ?15N from the winter sampling show a strong linear trend in increasing ?15N values with latitude north to south (?15N values range from 7 % to 12%) consistent with slowly attenuating northward transport of 15N-depleted nitrate via <span class="hlt">California</span> Undercurrent (Altabet et al. 1999). The ?13C values have no strong north to south correlation, but exhibit strong location-specific variability. The ?13C values range between -13 % and -18%. We propose the site-specific signature of ?13C indicates relative source of primary productin to POM at a given region (i.e. kelp, phytoplankton, zooplankton). Overall, these results suggest that isoscapes for filter-feeding organisms may offer a more accurate integrated picture of 15N and 13C values of POM than is possible from sediment traps or discrete time sampling of POM. The average latitudinal trends we observe may also be useful in interpreting stable isotopic values of higher trophic animals in the CA <span class="hlt">current</span> system. Keywords: isoscape, <span class="hlt">California</span> <span class="hlt">Current</span>, stable isotope, geographic variation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es102761c','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es102761c"><span id="translatedtitle">The need for simultaneous evaluation of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services and land use change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Euliss, Ned H.; Smith, Loren M.; Liu, Shu-Guang; Feng, Min; Mushet, David M.; Auch, Roger F.; Loveland, Thomas R.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>We are living in a period of massive global change. This rate of change may be almost without precedent in geologic history (1). Even the most remote areas of the planet are influenced by human activities. Modern landscapes have been highly modified to accommodate a growing human population that the United Nations has forecast to peak at 9.1 billion by 2050. Over this past century, reliance on services from <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> has increased significantly and, over past decades, sustainability of our modern, intensively managed <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> has been a topic of serious international concern (1). Numerous papers addressing a particular land-use change effect on specific <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services have recently been published. For example, there is <span class="hlt">currently</span> great interest in increasing biofuel production to achieve energy inde- pendence goals and recent papers have independently focused attention on impacts of land-use change on single <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services such as carbon sequestration (2) and many others (e.g., water availability, biodiversity, pollination). However, land-use change clearly affects myriad <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services simultaneously. Hence, a broader perspective and context is needed to evaluate and understand interrelated affects on multiple <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services, especially as we strive for the goal of sustainably managing global <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. Similarly, land uses affect <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services synergistically; single land-use evaluations may be misleading because the overall impact on an <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> is not evaluated. A more holistic approach would provide a means and framework to characterize how land-use change affects provisioning of goods and services of complete <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3722155','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3722155"><span id="translatedtitle">Linking Water Quality and Quantity in Environmental Flow Assessment in Deteriorated <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span>: A Food Web View</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Chen, He; Ma, Lekuan; Guo, Wei; Yang, Ying; Guo, Tong; Feng, Cheng</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Most rivers worldwide are highly regulated by anthropogenic activities through flow regulation and water pollution. Environmental flow regulation is used to reduce the effects of anthropogenic activities on aquatic <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. Formulating flow alteration–ecological response relationships is a key factor in environmental flow assessment. Traditional environmental flow models are characterized by natural relationships between flow regimes and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> factors. However, food webs are often altered from natural states, which disturb environmental flow assessment in such <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. In <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> deteriorated by heavy anthropogenic activities, the effects of environmental flow regulation on species are difficult to assess with <span class="hlt">current</span> modeling approaches. Environmental flow management compels the development of tools that link flow regimes and food webs in an <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>. Food web approaches are more suitable for the task because they are more adaptive for disordered multiple species in a food web deteriorated by anthropogenic activities. This paper presents a global method of environmental flow assessment in deteriorated aquatic <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>. Linkages between flow regimes and food web dynamics are modeled by incorporating multiple species into an <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> to explore <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>-based environmental flow management. The approach allows scientists and water resources managers to analyze environmental flows in deteriorated <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> in an <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>-based way. PMID:23894669</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040086884','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20040086884"><span id="translatedtitle">Aerial Explorers and Robotic <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Young, Larry A.; Pisanich, Greg</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>A unique bio-inspired approach to autonomous aerial vehicle, a.k.a. aerial explorer technology is discussed. The work is focused on defining and studying aerial explorer mission concepts, both as an individual robotic system and as a member of a small robotic "<span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>." Members of this robotic <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> include the aerial explorer, air-deployed sensors and robotic symbiotes, and other assets such as rovers, landers, and orbiters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=281959','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=281959"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment and evaluation of soil <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> are defined by the complex relationships that exist between living resources and habitats of an area - and how they function as a unit. When <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> are described in the context of the benefits that people obtain from them, they are defined as <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services. An <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> service...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.uvm.edu/giee/pubpdfs/Beier_2008_Ecosystems.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.uvm.edu/giee/pubpdfs/Beier_2008_Ecosystems.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Services and Emergent Vulnerability in Managed</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Vermont, University of</p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Services and Emergent Vulnerability in Managed <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span>: A Geospatial Decision <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> experience vulnerabilities when ecological resilience declines and key flows of <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services at relevant scales and in locally meaningful ways to provide decision-support for adaptive management efforts</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ag.unr.edu/gbem/Publications/05Restoration%20Ecology%20Review.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.ag.unr.edu/gbem/Publications/05Restoration%20Ecology%20Review.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">BOOK REVIEW Great Basin Riparian <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>BOOK REVIEW Great Basin Riparian <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span>: Ecology, Management, and Restoration Jeanne C summarizes a decade of work by the U.S. Forest Service's Great Basin <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Management Project for how <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> science might inform restoration actions. Great Basin Riparian <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span> focuses</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.biol.wwu.edu/hooper/hooperetalCh17_2002.pdf','EPRINT'); return false;" href="http://www.biol.wwu.edu/hooper/hooperetalCh17_2002.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Biodiversity and <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Functioning Biodiversity and</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/eprints/">E-print Network</a></p> <p>Hooper, David</p> <p></p> <p>Biodiversity and <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Functioning #12;#12;Biodiversity and <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Functioning Synthesis Press, Avon #12;Preface The study of biodiversity and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> function- ing has followed a pattern). A conference, entitled Biodiversity and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> functioning: synthesis and perspectives, was held in Paris</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=decomposition&pg=6&id=EJ1004177','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=decomposition&pg=6&id=EJ1004177"><span id="translatedtitle">Process-Based Thinking in <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jordan, Rebecca C.; Gray, Steven A.; Brooks, Wesley R.; Honwad, Sameer; Hmelo-Silver, Cindy E.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Understanding complex systems such as <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> is difficult for young K-12 students, and students' representations of <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> are often limited to nebulously defined relationships between macro-level structural components inherent to the <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> in focus (rainforest, desert, pond, etc.) instead of generalizing processes across <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.nwrc.usgs.gov/factshts/2004-3126.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.nwrc.usgs.gov/factshts/2004-3126.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Belowground Dynamics in Mangrove <span class="hlt">Ecosystems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>McKee, Karen L.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>MANGROVE <span class="hlt">ECOSYSTEMS</span> Mangrove <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> are tropical/subtropical communities of primarily tree species that grow in the intertidal zone. These tidal communities are important coastal <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> that are valued for a variety of ecological and societal goods and services (fig. 1). Mangrove wetlands are important filters of materials moving between the land and sea, trapping sediment, nutrients, and pollutants in runoff from uplands and preventing their direct introduction into sensitive marine <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> such as seagrass beds and coral reefs. Mangroves serve as nursery grounds and refuge for a variety of organisms and are consequently vital to the biological productivity of coastal waters. Furthermore, because mangroves are highly resilient to disturbances such as hurricanes, they represent a self-sustaining, protective barrier for human populations living in the coastal zone. Mangrove <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> also contribute to shoreline stabilization through consolidation of unstable mineral sediments and peat formation. In order to help conserve mangrove ecoystems, scientists with the United States Geological Survey (USGS) at the National Wetlands Research Center are working to more fully understand the dynamics that impact these vital <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/49507','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/49507"><span id="translatedtitle">Ecological effects of mercury in aquatic <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Suchanek, T.H.; Richerson, P.J.</p> <p>1994-12-31</p> <p>As a result of former mining operations, roughly 100 tons of mercury were released into Clear Lake, <span class="hlt">California</span>. In 1992 the authors conducted a baseline survey designed to evaluate the levels and potential effects of mercury within this aquatic <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span>. Both surficial sediments and cores confirm a clear exponential decline in total mercury and methyl mercury as a function of distance from the mine site. The ratio of methyl/total mercury in surficial sediments, however, increases exponentially as a function of distance from the mine. Declines in total mercury in water were not as steep as for sediments. Plankton, oligochaetes and chironomids also exhibited exponential declines in total mercury but not methyl mercury as a function of distance from the mine. Patterns of invertebrate population and community level parameters will be discussed in relation to mercury and other potential pollutants. Fish showed increasing mercury levels with increasing body size and the following species specific differences: carp < silversides < channel catfish < largemouth bass. Some higher than expected levels of methyl mercury were found at sites distant from the mine. An hypothesis to explain these methyl mercury distributions as a function of bioavailability will be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9337H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9337H"><span id="translatedtitle">Modelling impacts of second generation bioenergy production on <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Services in Europe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Henner, Dagmar N.; Smith, Pete; Davies, Christian; McNamara, Niall P.</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Bioenergy crops are an important source of renewable energy and are a possible mechanism to mitigate global climate warming, by replacing fossil fuel energy with higher greenhouse gas emissions. There is, however, uncertainty about the impacts of the growth of bioenergy crops on <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services. This uncertainty is further enhanced by the unpredictable climate change <span class="hlt">currently</span> going on. The goal of this project is to develop a comprehensive model that covers as many <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services as possible at a Continental level including biodiversity, water, GHG emissions, soil, and cultural services. The distribution and production of second generation energy crops, such as Miscanthus, Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) and Short Rotation Forestry (SRF), is <span class="hlt">currently</span> being modelled, and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> models will be used to examine the impacts of these crops on <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services. The project builds on models of energy crop production, biodiversity, soil impacts, greenhouse gas emissions and other <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services, and on work undertaken in the UK on the ETI-funded ELUM project (www.elum.ac.uk). In addition, methods like water footprint tools, tourism value maps and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> valuation tools and models (e.g. InVest, TEEB database, GREET LCA Model, World Business Council for Sustainable Development corporate <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> valuation, Millennium <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Assessment and the <span class="hlt">Ecosystem</span> Services Framework) will be utilised. Research will focus on optimisation of land use change feedbacks on <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services and biodiversity, and weighting of the importance of the individual <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services. Energy crops will be modelled using low, medium and high climate change scenarios for the years between 2015 and 2050. We will present first results for GHG emissions and soil organic carbon change after different land use change scenarios (e.g. arable to Miscanthus, forest to SRF), and with different climate warming scenarios. All this will be complemented by the presentation of a matrix including all the factors and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> services influenced by land use change to bioenergy crop production under different climate change scenarios.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615945L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615945L"><span id="translatedtitle">Research infrastructure support to address <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Los, Wouter</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Predicting the evolution of <span class="hlt">ecosystems</span> to climate change or human pressures is a challenge. Even understanding past or <span class="hlt">current</span> processes is complicated as a result of the many interactions and feedbacks that occur within and between components of the system. This talk will present an example of <span class="hlt">current</span> research on changes in landscape evolution, hydrology, soil biogeochemical processes, zoological food webs, and plant community succession, and how these affect feedbacks to components of the systems, including the climate system. Multiple observations, experiments, and simulations provide a wealth of data, but not necessarily understanding. Model development on the coupled processes on different spatial and temporal scales is sensitive for variations in data and of parameter change. Fast high performance computing may help to visualize the effect of these changes and the potential stability (and reliability) of the models. This may than allow for iteration between data production and models towards stable models reducing uncertainty and improving the prediction of change. The role of research infrastructures becomes crucial is overcoming barriers for such research. Environmental infrastructures are covering physical site facilities, dedicated instrumentation and e-infrastructure. The LifeWatch infrastructure for biodiversity and <span class="hlt">ecosystem</span> research will provide services for data integration, analysis and modeling. But it has to cooperate intensively with the other kinds of infrastructures in order to support the iteration between data production and model computation. The cooperation in the ENVRI project (Common operations of environmental research infrastructures) is one of the initiatives to foster such multidisciplinary research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adams.dm.unipi.it/~mercury/MORE3/feb