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1

Addressing Nitrate in California's Drinking Water  

E-print Network

Addressing Nitrate in California's Drinking Water Report for the State Water Resources Control #12;Addressing Nitrate in California's Drinking Water With a Focus on Tulare Lake Basin and Salinas status, age, sexual orientation, citizenship, or service in the uniformed services (as defined

Pasternack, Gregory B.

2

Chemical Contamination of California Drinking Water  

PubMed Central

Drinking water contamination by toxic chemicals has become widely recognized as a public health concern since the discovery of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane in California's Central Valley in 1979. Increased monitoring since then has shown that other pesticides and industrial chemicals are present in drinking water. Contaminants of drinking water also include naturally occurring substances such as asbestos and even the by-products of water chlorination. Public water systems, commercially bottled and vended water and mineral water are regulated, and California is also taking measures to prevent water pollution by chemicals through various new laws and programs. PMID:3321714

Russell, Hanafi H.; Jackson, Richard J.; Spath, David P.; Book, Steven A.

1987-01-01

3

Development of a drinking water regulation for perchlorate in California.  

PubMed

Perchlorate is an environmental contaminant often associated with military installations and rocket propellant manufacture and testing facilities across the U.S. Highly water soluble, perchlorate has been found by federal and state agencies at almost 400 sites within the U.S. in groundwater, surface water, soil or public drinking water. There is no federal drinking water standard for perchlorate, but it is on the drinking water Contaminant Candidate List, and falls under the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR) for which monitoring is required. The recent National Academy of Science (NAS) report on the potential health effects of perchlorate recommended a perchlorate reference dose of 0.0007 mg/kg of body weight which would be equivalent to a drinking water concentration of 24.5 microg/L. In California, approximately 395 wells in 96 water systems have been shown to contain perchlorate, and about 90% of these are located in Southern California. Water taken from the Colorado River, a major surface water supply to Southern California, has had reported detections of perchlorate ranging from non-detect to 9 microg/L. California has established a Public Health Goal (PHG) of 6 microg/L for perchlorate, and a proposed drinking water regulation is imminent. This review details the regulatory process involved with particular attention given to the occurrence of perchlorate in California drinking water sources and analytical methodology utilized. PMID:17723374

Tikkanen, Maria W

2006-05-10

4

Development of a drinking water regulation for perchlorate in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perchlorate is an environmental contaminant often associated with military installations and rocket propellant manufacture and testing facilities across the U.S. Highly water soluble, perchlorate has been found by federal and state agencies at almost 400 sites within the U.S. in groundwater, surface water, soil or public drinking water. There is no federal drinking water standard for perchlorate, but it is

Maria W. Tikkanen

2006-01-01

5

Addressing Nitrate in California's Drinking Water Report for the State Water Resources Control Board Report to the Legislature  

E-print Network

Groundwater Regulatory and Funding Options for Nitrate Groundwater Contamination TECHNICAL REPORT 8: #12;Regulatory and Funding Options for Nitrate Groundwater Contamination Technical Report 8 Addressing Nitrate for Nitrate Groundwater Contamination. Technical Report 8 in Addressing Nitrate in California's Drinking Water

Pasternack, Gregory B.

6

Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

... safest water supplies in the world, but drinking water quality can vary from place to place. It depends on the condition of the source water and the treatment it receives. Treatment may include ...

7

Drinking Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This publication, authored by Thodore B. Shelton of Rutgers University, summarizes the information necessary for interpreting drinking water quality analyses performed by water testing laboratories. It focuses on testing results obtained from drinking water supplies from public water systems and non-public water systems (home wells). It is intended primarily for homeowners, but environmental organizations, health departments, and commercial water testing laboratories and others should find this material of interest and value.

Shelton, Thodore B.

8

Drinking Water  

EPA Science Inventory

This encyclopedic entry deals with various aspects of microbiology as it relates to drinking water treatment. The use of microbial indicators for assessing fecal contamination is discussed as well as current national drinking water regulations (U.S. EPA) and guidelines proposed ...

9

Thyroid Function and Perchlorate in Drinking Water: An Evaluation among California Newborns, 1998  

PubMed Central

Perchlorate (ClO4?) has been detected in groundwater sources in numerous communities in California and other parts of the United States, raising concerns about potential impacts on health. For California communities where ClO4? was tested in 1997 and 1998, we evaluated the prevalence of primary congenital hypothyroidism (PCH) and high thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels among the 342,257 California newborns screened in 1998. We compared thyroid function results among newborns from 24 communities with average ClO4? concentrations in drinking water > 5 ?g/L (n = 50,326) to newborns from 287 communities with average concentrations ?5 ?g/L (n = 291,931). ClO4? concentrations obtained from the California Drinking Water Program provided source-specific data for estimating weighted average concentrations in community water. Fifteen cases of PCH from communities with average concentration > 5 ?g/L were observed, with 20.4 expected [adjusted prevalence odds ratio (POR) = 0.71; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.40–1.19]. Although only 36% of all California newborns were screened before 24 hr of age in 1998, nearly 80% of newborns with high TSH were screened before 24 hr of age. Because of the physiologic postnatal surge of TSH, the results for newborns screened before 24 hr were uninformative for assessing an environmental impact. For newborns screened ?24 hr, the adjusted POR for high TSH was 0.73 (95% CI, 0.40–1.23). All adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were controlled for sex, ethnicity, birth weight, and multiple birth status. Using an assessment of ClO4? in drinking water based on available data, we did not observe an association between estimated average ClO4? concentrations > 5 ?g/L in drinking water supplies and the prevalence of clinically diagnosed PCH or high TSH concentrations. PMID:16675440

Buffler, Patricia A.; Kelsh, Michael A.; Lau, Edmund C.; Edinboro, Charlotte H.; Barnard, Julie C.; Rutherford, George W.; Daaboul, Jorge J.; Palmer, Lynn; Lorey, Fred W.

2006-01-01

10

Epidemiologic investigation of the relationship between DBCP contamination in drinking water and birth rates in Fresno County, California  

SciTech Connect

This report describes an epidemiologic investigation of the relationship between DBCP (dibromochloropropane) contamination in drinking water and birth rates between 1978 and 1982 in Fresno County, California. Census tracts in the county were categorized according to DBCP level in their drinking water. Standardized birth ratios and relative birth ratios (adjusted for age, race, per cent Hispanic, and parity) were calculated for these census tracts. No relation between birth ratios and DBCP contamination in drinking water was found.

Wong, O.; Whorton, M.D.; Gordon, N.; Morgan, R.W.

1988-01-01

11

An epidemiologic investigation of the relationship between DBCP contamination in drinking water and birth rates in Fresno County, California.  

PubMed Central

This report describes an epidemiologic investigation of the relationship between DBCP (dibromochloropropane) contamination in drinking water and birth rates between 1978 and 1982 in Fresno County, California. Census tracts in the county were categorized according to DBCP level in their drinking water. Standardized birth ratios and relative birth ratios (adjusted for age, race, per cent Hispanic, and parity) were calculated for these census tracts. No relation between birth ratios and DBCP contamination in drinking water was found. PMID:3337304

Wong, O; Whorton, M D; Gordon, N; Morgan, R W

1988-01-01

12

Development of California Public Health Goals (PHGs) for chemicals in drinking water.  

PubMed

As part of a program for evaluation of environmental contaminants in drinking water, risk assessments are being conducted to develop Public Health Goals (PHGs) for chemicals in drinking water, based solely on public health considerations. California's Safe Drinking Water Act of 1996 mandated the development of PHGs for over 80 chemicals by 31 December 1999. The law allowed these levels to be set higher or lower than federal maximum contaminant levels (MCLs), including a level of zero if data are insufficient to determine a specific level. The estimated safe levels and toxicological rationale for the first 26 of these chemicals are described here. The chemicals include alachlor, antimony, benzo[a]pyrene, chlordane, copper, cyanide, dalapon, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, 2,4-D, diethylhexylphthalate, dinoseb, endothall, ethylbenzene, fluoride, glyphosate, lead, nitrate, nitrite, oxamyl, pentachlorophenol, picloram, trichlorofluoromethane, trichlorotrifluoroethane, uranium and xylene(s). These risk assessments are to be considered by the State of California in revising and developing state MCLs for chemicals in drinking water (which must not exceed federal MCLs). The estimates are also notable for incorporation or consideration of newer guidelines and principles for risk assessment extrapolations. PMID:11139167

Howd, R A; Brown, J P; Morry, D W; Wang, Y Y; Bankowska, J; Budroe, J D; Campbell, M; DiBartolomeis, M J; Faust, J; Jowa, L; Lewis, D; Parker, T; Polakoff, J; Rice, D W; Salmon, A G; Tomar, R S; Fan, A M

2000-01-01

13

DRINKING WATER ISSUES  

EPA Science Inventory

According to recent reports by the California Department of Health Services, the State of Maine, and the United State Geological Survey (USGS); the fuel oxygenate methyl teri-butyl ether (MTBE) is present in 5 to 20 percent of the drinking water sources in California and the nort...

14

Water Quality of "Tritium-Dead" Drinking Water Wells in California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding ambient levels of regulated constituents with predominantly natural sources, such as arsenic and uranium, or with both natural and anthropogenic sources, such as nitrate, salinity and perchlorate, is important for attributing source, assessing susceptibility, and for groundwater basin management. For California, the large database of tritium-helium, noble gas and stable isotope measurements acquired at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in support of the State of California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program provides a unique opportunity to assess pre-development groundwater quality. GAMA is administered by the State Water Resources Control Board with USGS and LLNL as technical leads. These data were acquired for the GAMA California Aquifer Susceptibility and Priority Basin projects (http://www.swrcb.ca.gov/gama/; Belitz, 2003, USGS WRIR 03-4166). Groundwater pumped from long-screened wells will have a mixed distribution of travel times since recharge. Model calculations of mixing between tritium-dead recharge water and younger recharge water assuming simple binary, exponential or dispersive age distributions show that, given the historical levels of tritium in precipitation in the pacific coastal region, a threshold of less than 1 pCi/L of tritium is required to ensure that less than 25% of the pumped groundwater recharged after 1950. The low detection limit is necessary because water recharged between 1980 and 1995 contains only 3-4 pCi/L of tritium at present. The use of groundwater for irrigation in agricultural areas can result in recent recharge of tritium-dead water and complicates the identification of pre-development groundwater. Additional parameters including radiogenic helium, stable isotopes, and recharge temperature were studied to confirm the absence of a modern component. Initial results show that pre-development groundwater reflects the various hydrogeochemical settings found in California, providing natural sources of contaminants in drinking water. For example, arsenic is predominantly found in pre- development groundwater, whereas pre-modern groundwater generally contains lower concentrations of uranium than modern groundwater (Jurgens, 2010, GW 6:913). While perchlorate is more often detected (above 0.5 ?g/L) in modern groundwater, it is also detected in pre- development groundwater in several aquifers (Fram, 2011, EST 45:1271). Nitrate in pre-modern groundwater is found at concentrations significantly above the typical background concentrations of 2 mg/L as N (Nolan, 2002, EST 36:2138) in many of the aquifers studied. We conclude that the uncertainties in contaminant source attribution studies of contaminant compounds with both natural and anthropogenic sources can be reduced through a detailed aquifer-scale study of ambient levels in tritium-dead drinking water wells. LLNL-ABS-491732. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

Visser, A.; Moran, J. E.; Singleton, M. J.; Hillegonds, D. J.; Kulongoski, J. T.; Belitz, K.; Fram, M. S.; Esser, B. K.

2011-12-01

15

Observations of drinking water access in school food service areas before implementation of federal and state school water policy, California, 2011. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Patel AI, Chandran K, Hampton KE, Hecht K, Grumbach JM, Kimura AT, Braff-Guajardo E, Brindis CD. Observations of drinking water access in school food service areas before implementation of federal and state school water policy, California, 2011.

16

Social Disparities in Drinking Water Quality in California's San Joaquin Valley  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Social Disparities in Drinking Water Quality in California's San Joaquin Valley Carolina Balazs, Rachel Morello-Frosch, Alan Hubbard and Isha Ray Little attention has been given to research on social disparities and environmental justice in access to safe drinking water in the USA. We examine the relationship between nitrate and arsenic concentrations in community water systems (CWS) and the ethnic and socioeconomic characteristics of their customers. We hypothesized that systems in the San Joaquin Valley that serve a higher proportion of minority (especially Latino) residents, and/or lower socioeconomic status (proxied by rates of home ownership) residents, have higher nitrate levels and higher arsenic levels. We used water quality monitoring datasets (1999-2001) to estimate nitrate as well as arsenic levels in CWS, and source location and Census block group data to estimate customer demographics. We found that percent Latino was associated with a .04 mg NO3/L increase in a CWS' estimated nitrate ion concentration (95% CI, -.08, .16) and rate of home ownership was associated with a .16 mg NO3/L decrease (95% CI, -.32, .002). We also found that each percent increase in home ownership rate was associated with a .30 ug As/L decrease in arsenic concentrations (p<.05), but our data showed no significant correlation between arsenic concentration and percent Latino. These results show that exposure disparities and compliance burdens in accordance with EPA standards fell most heavily on socio-economically disadvantaged communities. Selected References Cory DC, Rahman T. 2009. Environmental justice and enforcement of the safe drinking water act: The arizona arsenic experience. Ecological Economics 68: 1825-1837. Krieger N, Williams DR, Moss NE. 1997. Measuring social class in us public health research: Concepts, methodologies, and guidelines. Annual Review of Public Health 18(341-378). Moore E, Matalon E, Balazs C, Clary J, Firestone L, De Anda S, Guzman, M. 2011. The human costs of nitrate-contaminated drinking water in the San Joaquin Valley. Oakland, CA: Pacific Institute. Morello-Frosch R, Pastor M, Sadd J. 2001. Environmental justice and southern california's 'riskscape': The distribution of air toxics exposures and health risks among diverse communities. Urban Affairs Review 36(4): 551-578. National Research Council. 2001. Arsenic in drinking water 2001 update. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. U.S. Census Bureau. 2000. Census of population and housing, 2000 [united states]: Summary tape file 3. Washington D.C.: U.S. Census Bureau. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2011a. Arsenic rule. Available: http://water.epa.gov/lawsregs/rulesregs/sdwa/arsenic/regulations.cfm [accessed June 23 2011].

Ray, I.; Balazs, C.; Hubbard, A.; Morello-Frosch, R.

2011-12-01

17

Arsenic in Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

... Safe Drinking Water Act Arsenic in Drinking Water Arsenic in Drinking Water Arsenic iHome Basic Information Arsenic Rule Compliance Help State Guidance Training Funding Publications Arsenic Rule at a Glance Maximum Contaminant Level in ...

18

Pregnancy outcomes in women potentially exposed to solvent-contaminated drinking water in San Jose, California  

SciTech Connect

During 1980-1981, solvents leaked from an underground storage tank of a semiconductor firm in southern Santa Clara County, California, contaminating local drinking water. The contaminated well was closed in December 1981. An epidemiologic study conducted in 1983 confirmed statistically significant excesses of adverse pregnancy outcomes in an exposed community compared with an unexposed community, but could not establish a causal connection between the leak and the adverse outcomes. This study expanded the first study; adverse pregnancy outcomes occurring in 1980-1985 were studied in two communities exposed to the contaminated drinking water and in two demographically comparable but unexposed communities. The period 1980-1981 was the time period in which the well was considered to have been contaminated and 1982-1985 was considered the postcontamination time period. Both exposed and unexposed communities were considered unexposed during the latter period (1982-1985). Out of 10,055 households surveyed, interviews were conducted with 1,105 women who reported one or more eligible pregnancies. Miscarriages and birth defects were validated by medical record review or physician reports. Although the authors again observed statistically significant excesses of spontaneous abortions and birth defects in the originally studied exposed area in 1980-1981, they observed deficits of these outcomes in the second exposed study area. Adjustment for potential confounders did not alter these findings. Analyses of pregnancy outcomes during 1981 in relation to exposure estimates based on hydrogeologic modeling of water and contaminant distribution within the exposed areas also indicated that the leak was not likely to have caused the observed excesses of adverse pregnancy outcomes in the originally studied area.

Wrensch, M.; Swan, S.; Lipscomb, J.; Epstein, D.; Fenster, L.; Claxton, K.; Murphy, P.J.; Shusterman, D.; Neutra, R. (California Department of Health Services, Berkeley (USA))

1990-02-01

19

Availability of Drinking Water in California Public Schools. Testimony Presented before the California State Assembly Subcommittee on Education on April 2, 2008  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A senior researcher and hospital Chief of General Pediatrics, testifies about his work with a California school district to prevent obesity by developing a middle school program to promote healthy eating and physical activity. A two-year study has found that students have limited access to drinking water, especially at meals. In the schools being…

Schuster, Mark A.

2008-01-01

20

Case-Control Study of Arsenic in Drinking Water and Lung Cancer in California and Nevada  

PubMed Central

Millions of people are exposed to arsenic in drinking water, which at high concentrations is known to cause lung cancer in humans. At lower concentrations, the risks are unknown. We enrolled 196 lung cancer cases and 359 controls matched on age and gender from western Nevada and Kings County, California in 2002–2005. After adjusting for age, sex, education, smoking and occupational exposures, odds ratios for arsenic concentrations ?85 µg/L (median = 110 µg/L, mean = 173 µg/L, maximum = 1,460 µg/L) more than 40 years before enrollment were 1.39 (95% CI = 0.55–3.53) in all subjects and 1.61 (95% CI = 0.59–4.38) in smokers. Although odds ratios were greater than 1.0, these increases may have been due to chance given the small number of subjects exposed more than 40 years before enrollment. This study, designed before research in Chile suggested arsenic-related cancer latencies of 40 years or more, illustrates the enormous sample sizes needed to identify arsenic-related health effects in low-exposure countries with mobile populations like the U.S. Nonetheless, our findings suggest that concentrations near 100 µg/L are not associated with markedly high relative risks. PMID:23917816

Dauphiné, David C.; Smith, Allan H.; Yuan, Yan; Balmes, John R.; Bates, Michael N.; Steinmaus, Craig

2013-01-01

21

Drinking Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial introduces students to the importance of water to living organisms, including humans. The discussion points out that all organisms contain water, and decribes how water is accumulated and stored. There is also an examination of the water supplies of Winnipeg, Ontario, and Vancouver, British Columbia, and a discussion of the importance of purifying driking water supplies to remove harmful bacteria and microbes.

22

AIRCRAFT DRINKING WATER RULE  

EPA Science Inventory

Under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), any interstate carrier conveyance (ICC) that regularly serves drinking water to an average of at least 25 individuals daily, at least 60 days per year, is subject to the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWR). An ICC is a car...

23

Drinking Water FAQ  

MedlinePLUS

... or ground water. Surface water collects in streams, rivers, lakes, and reservoirs. Ground water is water located ... protect drinking water and its sources, which include rivers, lakes, reservoirs, springs, and ground water wells. Top ...

24

Observations of Drinking Water Access in School Food Service Areas Before Implementation of Federal and State School Water Policy, California, 2011  

PubMed Central

Introduction Recent legislation requires schools to provide free drinking water in food service areas (FSAs). Our objective was to describe access to water at baseline and student water intake in school FSAs and to examine barriers to and strategies for implementation of drinking water requirements. Methods We randomly sampled 24 California Bay Area public schools. We interviewed 1 administrator per school to assess knowledge of water legislation and barriers to and ideas for policy implementation. We observed water access and students’ intake of free water in school FSAs. Wellness policies were examined for language about water in FSAs. Results Fourteen of 24 schools offered free water in FSAs; 10 offered water via fountains, and 4 provided water through a nonfountain source. Four percent of students drank free water at lunch; intake at elementary schools (11%) was higher than at middle or junior high schools (6%) and high schools (1%). In secondary schools when water was provided by a nonfountain source, the percentage of students who drank free water doubled. Barriers to implementation of water requirements included lack of knowledge of legislation, cost, and other pressing academic concerns. No wellness policies included language about water in FSAs. Conclusion Approximately half of schools offered free water in FSAs before implementation of drinking water requirements, and most met requirements through a fountain. Only 1 in 25 students drank free water in FSAs. Although schools can meet regulations through installation of fountains, more appealing water delivery systems may be necessary to increase students’ water intake at mealtimes. PMID:22765930

Chandran, Kumar; Hampton, Karla E.; Hecht, Kenneth; Grumbach, Jacob M.; Kimura, Amanda T.; Braff-Guajardo, Ellen; Brindis, Claire D.

2012-01-01

25

Addressing Nitrate in California's Drinking Water Report for the State Water Resources Control Board Report to the Legislature  

E-print Network

Groundwater Alternative Water Supply Options for Nitrate Contamination TECHNICAL REPORT 7: #12;Alternative Water Supply Options for Nitrate Contamination Technical Report 7 Addressing Nitrate in California Project, Implementation of Senate Bill X2 1 Prepared for: California State Water Resources Control Board

Pasternack, Gregory B.

26

Drinking Water Standards  

E-print Network

This publication explains the federal safety standards for drinking water provided by public water supply systems. It discusses the legal requirements for public water supplies, the maximum level allowed for contaminants in the water...

Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.

2006-04-26

27

Quality of Drinking Water  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

Roman, Harry T.

2009-01-01

28

It's Your Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

... the nation's drinking water sources (the rivers, lakes, groundwater, etc. from which water systems derive their water) ... web site [ www.ostgauthor.rtpnc.epa.gov/type/groundwater/index.cfm ] provides information on EPA's implementation of ...

29

Drinking Water Problems: Radionuclides  

E-print Network

Radionuclides in drinking water can cause serious health problems for people. This publication explains what the sources of radionuclides in water are, where high levels have been found in Texas, how they affect health and how to treat water...

Lesikar, Bruce J.; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Dozier, Monty

2006-08-04

30

Nanoparticles in drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic nanoparticles are increasingly being used in everyday products, but little is known about environmental releases of these materials. Our knowledge of how many natural nanoparticles occur in drinking water is also inadequate. An initial assessment is presented here. Drinking water is clear, and yet it contains millions of particles. Substances are described as particulate - as opposed to dissolved

Ralf Kaegi

31

Drinking Water and Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to a provision of the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 which called for a study that would serve as a scientific basis for revising the primary drinking water regulations that were promulgated under the Act, a study of the scientific literature was undertaken in order to assess the implications for human health of the constituents of…

National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

32

Drinking Water Problems: Nitrates  

E-print Network

High levels of nitrates in drinking water can be harmful for very young infants and susceptible adults. This publication explains how people are exposed to nitrates, what health effects are caused by them in drinking water and how to remove them....

Dozier, Monty; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Lesikar, Bruce J.

2008-03-28

33

Drinking Water Problems: Arsenic  

E-print Network

High levels of arsenic in drinking water can poison and even kill people. This publication explains the symptoms of arsenic poisoning and common treatment methods for removing arsenic from your water supply....

Lesikar, Bruce J.; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Dozier, Monty

2005-12-02

34

Problems associated with collecting drinking water quality data for community studies: a case example, Fresno County, California.  

PubMed Central

This paper discusses methodology in developing exposure data for the water supply contaminant dibromochloropropane (DBCP) in Fresno County, California. There are 532 drinking water systems (49 large and 483 small) within Fresno County plus 14,000 private wells. We determined the number of wells per system, the output per well, and the population served by each system. The task of deriving water quality estimates for each census tract was complicated by the fact that a single census tract can be served by more than one system; each system usually has more than one well; and a single well can have several episodes of testing for various contaminants. We calculated a series of weighted averages for concentrations of DBCP, arsenic, and nitrates for each census tract, using water production figures for each well as the weighting factor. Water quality data were derived from a total of 14,861 laboratory reports, although the majority did not report on all contaminants. Mean DBCP levels ranged from 0.0041 ppb to 5.7543 ppb among the census tracts. We found no correlation between DBCP levels per census tract compared to either arsenic or nitrates. We believe that we made as complete an exposure assessment as practically feasible. PMID:3337305

Whorton, M D; Morgan, R W; Wong, O; Larson, S; Gordon, N

1988-01-01

35

Ground Water And Drinking Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the official website for the Office of Groundwater and Safe Drinking Water (OGWDW) at the Environmental Protection Aagency (EPA). The OGWDW works to ensure safe drinking water and to protect the quality of our nation's drinking water supply. This mission is accomplished using five guiding principles: prevention, risk-based priority setting for new and existing regulations, public and private partnerships, flexibility and effectiveness in implementation while maintaining a national public health baseline, accountability of all parties through public participation and accessible information, and clear documentation and presentation of results. This site is a major clearinghouse for safe water guidelines, programs, data, publications, and news relevant to the OGWDW's operations.

36

Drinking Water and Ground Water: Kids' Stuff  

MedlinePLUS

... Kids Drinking Water & Ground Water Kids' Stuff Drinking Water & Ground Water Kids' Stuff Kids' Home Games & Activities Other Kids' ... to you. Submit Your Artwork from Thirstin's Wacky Water Adventure Activity Book Here Area Navigation Water Home ...

37

Occurrence and concentrations of pharmaceutical compounds in deep groundwater used for public drinking-water supply in California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pharmaceutical compounds were detected at low concentrations in 2.3% of 1231 samples of groundwater (median depth to top of screened interval in wells = 61 m) used for public drinking-water supply in California. Samples were collected statewide for the California State Water Resources Control Board's Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. Of 14 pharmaceutical compounds analyzed, 7 were detected at concentrations greater than or equal to method detection limits: acetaminophen (used as an analgesic, detection frequency 0.32%, maximum concentration 1.89 ?g/L), caffeine (stimulant, 0.24%, 0.29 ?g/L), carbamazepine (mood stabilizer, 1.5%, 0.42 ?g/L), codeine (opioid analgesic, 0.16%, 0.214 ?g/L), p-xanthine (caffeine metabolite, 0.08%, 0.12 ?g/L), sulfamethoxazole (antibiotic, 0.41%, 0.17 ?g/L), and trimethoprim (antibiotic, 0.08%, 0.018 ?g/L). Detection frequencies of pesticides (33%), volatile organic compounds not including trihalomethanes (23%), and trihalomethanes (28%) in the same 1231 samples were significantly higher. Median detected concentration of pharmaceutical compounds was similar to those of volatile organic compounds, and higher than that of pesticides. Pharmaceutical compounds were detected in 3.3% of the 855 samples containing modern groundwater (tritium activity > 0.2 TU). Pharmaceutical detections were significantly positively correlated with detections of urban-use herbicides and insecticides, detections of volatile organic compounds, and percentage of urban land use around wells. Groundwater from the Los Angeles metropolitan area had higher detection frequencies of pharmaceuticals and other anthropogenic compounds than groundwater from other areas of the state with similar proportions of urban land use. The higher detection frequencies may reflect that groundwater flow systems in Los Angeles area basins are dominated by engineered recharge and intensive groundwater pumping.

Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

2011-01-01

38

Occurrence and concentrations of pharmaceutical compounds in groundwater used for public drinking-water supply in California.  

PubMed

Pharmaceutical compounds were detected at low concentrations in 2.3% of 1231 samples of groundwater (median depth to top of screened interval in wells=61 m) used for public drinking-water supply in California. Samples were collected statewide for the California State Water Resources Control Board's Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. Of 14 pharmaceutical compounds analyzed, 7 were detected at concentrations greater than or equal to method detection limits: acetaminophen (used as an analgesic, detection frequency 0.32%, maximum concentration 1.89 ?g/L), caffeine (stimulant, 0.24%, 0.29 ?g/L), carbamazepine (mood stabilizer, 1.5%, 0.42 ?g/L), codeine (opioid analgesic, 0.16%, 0.214 ?g/L), p-xanthine (caffeine metabolite, 0.08%, 0.12 ?g/L), sulfamethoxazole (antibiotic, 0.41%, 0.17 ?g/L), and trimethoprim (antibiotic, 0.08%, 0.018 ?g/L). Detection frequencies of pesticides (33%), volatile organic compounds not including trihalomethanes (23%), and trihalomethanes (28%) in the same 1231 samples were significantly higher. Median detected concentration of pharmaceutical compounds was similar to those of volatile organic compounds, and higher than that of pesticides. Pharmaceutical compounds were detected in 3.3% of the 855 samples containing modern groundwater (tritium activity>0.2 TU). Pharmaceutical detections were significantly positively correlated with detections of urban-use herbicides and insecticides, detections of volatile organic compounds, and percentage of urban land use around wells. Groundwater from the Los Angeles metropolitan area had higher detection frequencies of pharmaceuticals and other anthropogenic compounds than groundwater from other areas of the state with similar proportions of urban land use. The higher detection frequencies may reflect that groundwater flow systems in Los Angeles area basins are dominated by engineered recharge and intensive groundwater pumping. PMID:21684580

Fram, Miranda S; Belitz, Kenneth

2011-08-15

39

Safe Drinking Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides an overview of types of drinking water contaminants, where they come from, and their effects on human health. Special topics include chemical and microbial contamination, health effects of microbes, pesticides, metals and various other contaminants, and causes of source water contamination. The site also features links to current news and other related resources and organizations.

Physicians for Social Responsibility

40

Drinking water and cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic evidence on the relation between contaminants in drinking water and cancer is reviewed. The reviewed studies cover exposure to: disinfection byproducts; nitrate; arsenic and other metals; volatiles and contaminants from hazardous waste sites; asbestiform fibers; radionuclides; and fluoride. Most investigations are ecologic, with some confirmation of elevated risk from individual-based studies. In the case of waterborne arsenic, and possibly

Kenneth P. Cantor

1997-01-01

41

Water Fit to Drink.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The major objective of this module is to help students understand how water from a source such as a lake is treated to make it fit to drink. The module, consisting of five major activities and a test, is patterned after Individualized Science Instructional System (ISIS) modules. The first activity (Planning) consists of a brief introduction and a…

Donovan, Edward P.

42

DRINKING WATER INFRASTRUCTURE NEEDS SURVEY  

EPA Science Inventory

Conducted every 4 years, the Drinking Water Infrastructure Needs Survey (DWINS) is an EPA-conducted statistically-based survey of the infrastructure investment needs of the Nation's drinking water systems for the next 20 years....

43

Arsenic in Your Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

... swimming pool. FOR MORE INFORMATION Arsenic in drinking water http://www.epa.gov/safewater/arsenic Arsenic health ... http://www.epa.gov/safewater/privatewells Safe Drinking Water Hotline 1-800-426-4791 JUST THE FACTS ...

44

Drinking Water Treatment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides an introduction to the treatment of drinking water to remove harmful or distasteful substances. Topics include the history of treatment and a brief listing of treatment processes. Students can examine a selection of online resources for more detailed information on modern treatment methods and potential contaminants. The lesson includes an activity in which they construct a model treatment plant and treat water that they have 'contaminated' themselves in order to observe firsthand the steps involved in purifying water for human consumption.

Matt Laposata

45

Inspecting for Quality. California's Lowest-Achieving Schools are Routinely Visited by Inspectors on the Lookout for, among Other things, Inadequate Textbook Supplies, Dirty Drinking Water, and Evidence of Vermin  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes how the California's lowest-achieving schools are routinely visited by inspectors on the lookout for, among other things, inadequate textbook supplies, dirty drinking water, and evidence of vermin. Following the settlement from the case "Williams v. California," the laws known as the "Williams legislation"…

Jacobson, Linda

2006-01-01

46

America's Drinking Water in 1997  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has provided online access to two reports, America's Drinking Water in 1997 and the 1996 National Public Water System Annual Compliance Report and Update on Implementation of the 1996 Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments. While both reports find that US drinking water is generally safe, the EPA also reviews initiatives to improve water quality. The brief summaries of these reports can be viewed in HTML format, while the full-text articles are available in .pdf format.

1997-01-01

47

Drinking Water Problems: Lead  

E-print Network

A lmost everyone knows that lead-based paint caused serious health problems (especially in children) before it was banned. But not everyone is aware that people can ingest lead from other sources such as contaminat- ed food and drinking water... sources of lead con- tamination. But if your water comes from a private well, it might contain enough lead to warrant action. How does lead affect health? Lead can be absorbed through the digestive tract, the lungs and the skin. It accumulates in the body...

Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.

2004-02-20

48

Dissolved organic carbon concentrations and compositions, and trihalomethane formation potentials in waters from agricultural peat soils, Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California; implications for drinking-water quality  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water exported from the Sacramento-San Joaquin River delta (Delta) is an important drinking-water source for more than 20 million people in California. At times, this water contains elevated concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and bromide, and exceeds the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant level for trihalomethanes of 0.100 milligrams per liter if chlorinated for drinking water. About 20 to 50 percent of the trihalomethane precursors to Delta waters originates from drainage water from peat soils on Delta islands. This report elucidates some of the factors and processes controlling and affecting the concentration and quality of dissolved organic carbon released from peat soils and relates the propensity of dissolved organic carbon to form trihalomethanes to its chemical composition.Soil water was sampled from near-surface, oxidized, well-decomposed peat soil (upper soil zone) and deeper, reduced, fibrous peat soil (lower soil zone) from one agricultural field in the west central Delta over 1 year. Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon in the upper soil zone were highly variable, with median concentrations ranging from 46.4 to 83.2 milligrams per liter. Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon in samples from the lower soil zone were much less variable and generally slightly higher than samples from the upper soil zone, with median concentrations ranging from 49.3 to 82.3 milligrams per liter. The dissolved organic carbon from the lower soil zone had significantly higher aromaticity (as measured by specific ultraviolet absorbance) and contained significantly greater amounts of aromatic humic substances (as measured by XAD resin fractionation and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of XAD isolates) than the dissolved organic carbon from the upper soil zone. These results support the conclusion that more aromatic forms of dissolved organic carbon are produced under anaerobic conditions compared to aerobic conditions. Dissolved organic carbon concentration, trihalomethane formation potential, and ultraviolet absorbance were all highly correlated, showing that trihalomethane precursors increased with increasing dissolved organic carbon and ultraviolet absorbance for whole water samples. Contrary to the generally accepted conceptual model for trihalomethane formation that assumes that aromatic forms of carbon are primary precursors to trihalomethanes, results from this study indicate that dissolved organic carbon aromaticity appears unrelated to trihalomethane formation on a carbon-normalized basis. Thus, dissolved organic carbon aromaticity alone cannot fully explain or predict trihalomethane precursor content, and further investigation of aromatic and nonaromatic forms of carbon will be needed to better identify trihalomethane precursors.

Fujii, Roger; Ranalli, Anthony J.; Aiken, George R.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.

1998-01-01

49

Increased Childhood Liver Cancer Mortality and Arsenic in Drinking Water in Northern Chile  

E-print Network

of arsenic in drinking water. In this article, we compare cancer mortality rates under the age of 20Increased Childhood Liver Cancer Mortality and Arsenic in Drinking Water in Northern Chile Jane, California Environmental Protection Agency, Oakland, California Abstract Arsenic in drinking water

California at Berkeley, University of

50

Lead and Drinking Water from Private Wells  

MedlinePLUS

... lead from my drinking water? Lead and Drinking Water from Private Wells What is lead? Lead is ... Where and how does lead get into drinking water? Lead rarely occurs naturally in water; it usually ...

51

Arsenic in drinking water Increases mortality from cardiovascular disease  

E-print Network

Arsenic in drinking water Increases mortality from cardiovascular disease Allan H Smith professor, Oakland, California, USA Arsenic has more effects on health than any other toxicant, and the list of inorganic arsenic in drinking water causes cancer of the skin, bladder, lung, liver, and kidney.1 2 Mounting

California at Berkeley, University of

52

Drinking Water Treatability Database (Database)  

EPA Science Inventory

The drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) will provide data taken from the literature on the control of contaminants in drinking water, and will be housed on an interactive, publicly-available USEPA web site. It can be used for identifying effective treatment processes, rec...

53

30 CFR 75.1718 - Drinking water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 false Drinking water. 75.1718 Section 75...Miscellaneous § 75.1718 Drinking water. [Statutory Provisions] An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided for drinking purposes in the active...

2014-07-01

54

30 CFR 75.1718 - Drinking water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Drinking water. 75.1718 Section 75...Miscellaneous § 75.1718 Drinking water. [Statutory Provisions] An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided for drinking purposes in the active...

2013-07-01

55

30 CFR 75.1718 - Drinking water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 false Drinking water. 75.1718 Section 75...Miscellaneous § 75.1718 Drinking water. [Statutory Provisions] An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided for drinking purposes in the active...

2011-07-01

56

30 CFR 75.1718 - Drinking water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Drinking water. 75.1718 Section 75...Miscellaneous § 75.1718 Drinking water. [Statutory Provisions] An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided for drinking purposes in the active...

2010-07-01

57

30 CFR 75.1718 - Drinking water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 false Drinking water. 75.1718 Section 75...Miscellaneous § 75.1718 Drinking water. [Statutory Provisions] An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided for drinking purposes in the active...

2012-07-01

58

Giardia and Drinking Water from Private Wells  

MedlinePLUS

... Giardia from my drinking water? Giardia and Drinking Water from Private Wells What is giardiasis? Giardiasis (GEE- ... Where and how does Giardia get into drinking water? Millions of Giardia parasites can be released in ...

59

Campylobacter and Drinking Water from Private Wells  

MedlinePLUS

... Campylobacter from my drinking water? Campylobacter and Drinking Water from Private Wells What is campylobacteriosis? Campylobacteriosis (CAMP- ... Where and how does Campylobacter get into drinking water? Campylobacter is found in every part of the ...

60

Emergency Disinfection of Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

... drinking water. If it is not available and river or lake water must be used, avoid sources ... lamblia and Cryptosporidium , which are frequently found in rivers and lakes. These disease-causing organisms are less ...

61

Drinking Water Problems: Arsenic (Spanish)  

E-print Network

High levels of arsenic in drinking water can poison and even kill people. This publication explains the symptoms of arsenic poisoning and common treatment methods for removing arsenic from your water supply....

Lesikar, Bruce J.; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Hopkins, Janie; Dozier, Monty

2006-06-19

62

Drinking Water Database  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This summer I had the opportunity to work in the Environmental Management Office (EMO) under the Chemical Sampling and Analysis Team or CS&AT. This team s mission is to support Glenn Research Center (GRC) and EM0 by providing chemical sampling and analysis services and expert consulting. Services include sampling and chemical analysis of water, soil, fbels, oils, paint, insulation materials, etc. One of this team s major projects is the Drinking Water Project. This is a project that is done on Glenn s water coolers and ten percent of its sink every two years. For the past two summers an intern had been putting together a database for this team to record the test they had perform. She had successfully created a database but hadn't worked out all the quirks. So this summer William Wilder (an intern from Cleveland State University) and I worked together to perfect her database. We began be finding out exactly what every member of the team thought about the database and what they would change if any. After collecting this data we both had to take some courses in Microsoft Access in order to fix the problems. Next we began looking at what exactly how the database worked from the outside inward. Then we began trying to change the database but we quickly found out that this would be virtually impossible.

Murray, ShaTerea R.

2004-01-01

63

EPA's Drinking Water Treatment Research  

EPA Science Inventory

Research conducted since EPA inception Research conducted by several EPA organizations in Cincinnati ORD NRMRL NERL NCEA NHSRC OGWDW TSC WSD USEPA drinking water research facilities in Cincinnati Andrew W. Breidenbach Environmental Research Center (AWBERC) Test and E...

64

DRINKING WATER AND CANCER MORTALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The problem of understanding the possible adverse health effects of organic chemical contaminants in drinking water is not new, but national concern has intensified in recent years. Despite this concern and regulatory efforts, no definitive relationship has been established betwe...

65

INJURED COLIFORMS IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Coliforms were enumerated by using m-Endo agar LES and m-T7 agar in 102 routine samples of drinking water from three New England community water systems to investigate the occurrence and significance of injured coliforms. Samples included water collected immediately after convent...

66

Drinking water for the future.  

PubMed Central

The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 represents an important step in improving the quality of public water supply in the United States. However, it fails to address two important problems: (1) The 1970 Public Health Service Community Water Supply Survey revealed that small public water supply systems often deliver poor quality water. The Act does not assure that these supplies will now receive appropriate attention; furthermore, the Act does not address the needs of the 50 million people not now served by public water systems; (2) About one-third of our population draws its drinking waters from polluted sources. The decisions to use these low cost sources were made generations ago when consumers could be protected from water-borne infectious disease. A new problem has now arisen--the presence of numerous synthetic organic chemicals of uncertain health consequence, not removed by conventional water treatment. The Act does not address this problem. Regionalization and the integration of water resource and water pollution control authorities are proposed as a reasonable solution to these problems. The development of dual water supply systems in order to conserve scarce pure water sources for human consumption appears to be a feasible way to avoid using polluted waters for drinking. The development of dual supplies would be enhanced by regionalization and integration of water authorities. PMID:937609

Okun, D A

1976-01-01

67

Sodium in Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

... To reduce my sodium intake, should I buy bottled water instead of using tap water? For more information. ... To reduce my sodium intake, should I buy bottled water instead of using tap water? It is not ...

68

Safe Water Drinking Act Basic Information  

MedlinePLUS

... actions to protect drinking water and its sources: rivers, lakes, reservoirs, springs, and ground water wells. (SDWA ... 250 K PDF FILE, 3 pgs) Drinking Water Monitoring, Compliance, and Enforcement EPA 816-F-04-031 ...

69

Drinking Water Problems: Perchlorate  

E-print Network

Perchlorate is a potential contaminate of well water that can have harmful effects on human health. Methods of removing perchlorate from water are described and illustrated. There is information to help well owners select and maintain treatment...

Dozier, Monty; Melton, Rebecca; Hare, Michael; Porter, Dana; Lesikar, Bruce J.

2005-11-18

70

Drinking Water Bloopers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These six reminders to younger students are about bad practices that waste or pollute water. These include waiting to fix a leak, using water from the hot water tap when cooking, carelessly discarding motor oil, tossing toxic materials in the trash, watering the lawn in the middle of the day, and using the garbage disposal too much. There is also a link that leads to information about composting.

71

Uranium in Kosovo's drinking water.  

PubMed

The results of this paper are an initiation to capture the drinking water and/or groundwater elemental situation in the youngest European country, Kosovo. We aim to present a clear picture of the natural uranium concentration in drinking water and/or groundwater as it is distributed to the population of Kosovo. Nine hundred and fifty-one (951) drinking water samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The results are the first countrywide interpretation of the uranium concentration in drinking water and/or groundwater, directly following the Kosovo war of 1999. More than 98% of the samples had uranium concentrations above 0.01 ?g L(-1), which was also our limit of quantification. Concentrations up to 166 ?g L(-1) were found with a mean of 5 ?g L(-1) and median 1.6 ?g L(-1) were found. Two point six percent (2.6%) of the analyzed samples exceeded the World Health Organization maximum acceptable concentration of 30 ?g L(-1), and 44.2% of the samples exceeded the 2 ?g L(-1) German maximum acceptable concentrations recommended for infant food preparations. PMID:24070912

Berisha, Fatlume; Goessler, Walter

2013-11-01

72

[Virus transmission in drinking water].  

PubMed

Several epidemiological data confirm the presence of enteric viruses in drinking water. The present paper deals with several problems tied to the virological analysis, such as the concentration of the samples, the isolation and the identification of enteric viruses. PMID:14677255

Divizia, M; Gabrieli, R; Macaluso, A; el Ouardi, A

2003-01-01

73

REMOVING ARSENIC FROM DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Pilot-plant tests of two treatment methods-activated alumina and ion exchange--for removing arsenic from drinking water were evaluated at the Fallon, Nev., Naval Air Station (NAS). The arsenic concentration was 0.080-0.116 mg/L, exceeding the 0.05-mg/L maximum contaminant level. ...

74

DRINKING WATER ARSENIC AND PERINATAL OUTCOMES  

EPA Science Inventory

Drinking Water Arsenic and Perinatal Outcomes DT Lobdell, Z Ning, RK Kwok, JL Mumford, ZY Liu, P Mendola Many studies have documented an association between drinking water arsenic (DWA) and cancer, vascular diseases, and dermatological outcomes, but few have investigate...

75

Drinking water safely during cancer treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... Disease Control and Prevention. A guide to drinking water treatment technologies for household use. http://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/drinking/travel/household_water_treatment.html. Accessed May 7, 2014.

76

DRINKING WATER MULTI-YEAR PLAN  

EPA Science Inventory

The Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1996 direct EPA to conduct research to strengthen the scientific foundation for standards that limit public exposure to drinking water contaminants. The Amendments contain specific requirements for research on waterborne pathogens, such a...

77

Drinking Water Helps Prevent Kidney Stones  

MedlinePLUS

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Drinking Water Helps Prevent Kidney Stones Researchers find eight or ... Friday, March 27, 2015 Related MedlinePlus Pages Drinking Water Fluid and Electrolyte Balance Kidney Stones FRIDAY, March ...

78

Ground Water and Drinking Water: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, from the Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, presents a list of most frequently asked questions (with answers). Question topics include: drinking water standards, getting information about your tap water and questions about bottled water.

79

Drinking Water Problems: MTBE  

E-print Network

Methyl tertiary-butyl ether, a gasoline additive commonly known as MTBE, can contaminate ground water and cause health problems for those exposed to it for a long time. However, filtering devices can remove this and other additives from well water...

Dozier, Monty; Lesikar, Bruce J.

2008-08-28

80

THE DRINKING WATER TREATABILITY DATABASE (Conference Paper)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) assembles referenced data on the control of contaminants in drinking water, housed on an interactive, publicly-available, USEPA web site (www.epa.gov/tdb). The TDB is of use to drinking water utilities, treatment process design engin...

81

THE DRINKING WATER TREATABILITY DATABASE (Slides)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) assembles referenced data on the control of contaminants in drinking water, housed on an interactive, publicly-available, USEPA web site (www.epa.gov/tdb). The TDB is of use to drinking water utilities, treatment process design engin...

82

Public Health Issues Associated with Small Drinking Water Systems  

E-print Network

Public Health Issues Associated with Small Drinking Water Systems Not Regulated by the Safe Drinking Water Act From: Nonfederally Regulated Drinking Water Systems: State and Local Public Health ...........................................................................................5 Priority Environmental Public Health Challenges for Small Drinking Water Systems

83

Drinking Water Problems: Copper  

E-print Network

Monty C. Dozier, Assistant Professor and Extension Specialist, Mark McFarland, Professor and Extension Soil Fertlity Specialist, Bruce J. Lesikar, Professor and Extension Agricultural Engineer, Texas Cooperative Extension, The Texas A&M University... of electrical currents. Proper testing of the water and diagnosis of the cause of elevated copper concentrations in the water are essential to identify a treatment system that will control or correct the problem. What are the indications of copper present...

Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.; Lesikar, Bruce J.

2006-01-25

84

DRINKING WATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of water treatment is threefold: 1. To improve the aethetic quality ofwater, 2. to remove toxic or health-hazardous chemicals, 3. to remove and/or inactivate any disease causing microorganisms. These objectives should be accomplished using a reasonable safety factor...

85

Radon in Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

... pages, 1999.) The listed hardcover price for the book is $37.46 U.S. The NAS Executive Summary of the report and initial EPA perspectives are available online at http://water.epa.gov/lawsregs/rulesregs/sdwa/radon/nas.cfm Test Your Home for Radon — It's Easy and Inexpensive ...

86

Cleaning Up Our Drinking Water  

SciTech Connect

Imagine drinking water that you wring out of the sponge you’ve just used to wash your car. This is what is happening around the world. Rain and snow pass through soil polluted with pesticides, poisonous metals and radionuclides into the underground lakes and streams that supply our drinking water. “We need to understand this natural system better to protect our groundwater and, by extension, our drinking water,” said Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s Applied Geology and Geochemistry Group Manager, Wayne Martin. Biologists, statisticians, hydrologists, geochemists, geologists and computer scientists at PNNL work together to clean up contaminated soils and groundwater. The teams begin by looking at the complexities of the whole environment, not just the soil or just the groundwater. PNNL researchers also perform work for private industries under a unique use agreement between the Department of Energy and Battelle, which operates the laboratory for DOE. This research leads to new remediation methods and technologies to tackle problems ranging from arsenic at old fertilizer plants to uranium at former nuclear sites. Our results help regulators, policy makers and the public make critical decisions on complex environmental issues.

Manke, Kristin L.

2007-08-01

87

Brookhaven National Laboratory Source Water Assessment for Drinking Water  

E-print Network

BNL 52608 Brookhaven National Laboratory Source Water Assessment for Drinking Water Supply Wells Brookhaven National Laboratory Source Water Assessment for Drinking Water Supply Wells December 27, 2000 Assessment for Drinking Water Supply Wells Executive Summary The water supply for Brookhaven National

88

SHORTER MENSTRUAL CYCLES ASSOCIATED WITH CHLORINATION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Shorter Menstrual Cycles Associated with Chlorination by-Products in Drinking Water. Gayle Windham, Kirsten Waller, Meredith Anderson, Laura Fenster, Pauline Mendola, Shanna Swan. California Department of Health Services. In previous studies of tap water consumption we...

89

DETERMINATION OF NEWLY IDENTIFIED DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The Metropolitan Water District of Southern California (MWDSC) is investigating the occurrence of 39 newly identified disinfection by-products (DBPs)-which were not included in the Information Collection Rule (ICR)-in drinking waters. Halomethanes (HMs), haloacetonitriles (HANs),...

90

Naphthalene: Drinking water health advisory  

SciTech Connect

The Drinking Water Health Advisory, Office of Water, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, has issued its report on the chemical, naphthalene. Naphthalene is used in the manufacture of phthalic and anthranilic acids and other derivatives, and in making dyes; in the manufacture of resins, celluloid, lampblack and smokeless gunpowder; and as moth repellant, insecticide, anthelmintic, vermicide, and intestinal antiseptic. The report covers the following areas: the occurrence of the chemical in the environment; its environmental fate; the chemical's absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in the human body; and its health effects on humans and animals, including its mutagenicity and carcinogenicity characteristics. Also included is the quantification of its toxicological effects.

Not Available

1990-03-01

91

Water Treatment: Can You Purify Water for Drinking?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a three-day mini unit on purification of drinking water that uses the learning cycle approach. Demonstrates the typical technology that water companies use to provide high-quality drinking water. (JRH)

Harris, Mary E.

1996-01-01

92

Bacterial nutrients in drinking water.  

PubMed Central

Regrowth of coliform bacteria in distribution systems has been a problem for a number of water utilities. Efforts to solve the regrowth problem have not been totally successful. The current project, which was conducted at the New Jersey American Water Co.-Swimming River Treatment Plant, showed that the occurrence of coliform bacteria in the distribution system could be associated with rainfall, water temperatures greater than 15 degrees C, total organic carbon levels greater than 2.4 mg/liter, and assimilable organic carbon levels greater than 50 micrograms of acetate carbon equivalents per liter. A multiple linear regression model based on free chlorine residuals present in dead-end sections of the distribution system and temperature predicted 83.8% of the heterotrophic plate count bacterial variation. To limit the growth of coliform bacteria in drinking water, the study concludes that assimilable organic carbon levels should be reduced to less than 50 micrograms/liter. PMID:2039235

LeChevallier, M W; Schulz, W; Lee, R G

1991-01-01

93

EPA?s Drinking Water Treatability Database: A Tool for All Drinking Water Professionals  

EPA Science Inventory

The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) is being developed by the USEPA Office of Research and Development to allow drinking water professionals and others to access referenced information gathered from thousands of literature sources and assembled on one site. Currently, ...

94

Ensuring the Public's Drinking-Water Welfare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some questions are answered concerning the justification, intent, and purpose of the Safe Drinking Water Act's regulations. Some points, previously misinterpreted, are placed in clear perspective. (BB)

McDermott, James H.

1978-01-01

95

POLYPROPYLENE PIPES FOR DRINKING WATER SUPPLY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within this study, the influence of the migration of phenolic antioxidants, which are typically used for the stabilization of PP pipes, on the quality of drinking water has been tested. In particular, it had to be shown if the high requirements for materials in contact with drinking water can also be assured in the case of warm water and more

Ch. Hametner

1999-01-01

96

Delta Drinking Water Quality and Treatment Costs  

E-print Network

Delta Drinking Water Quality and Treatment Costs Technical Appendix H Wei-Hsiang Chen Kristine-San Joaquin Delta, prepared by a team of researchers from the Center for Watershed Sciences (University Acknowledgments v Acronyms vi Introduction 1 1. WATER QUALITY IN AND NEAR DELTA 2 Delta Drinking Water Intakes 2

Pasternack, Gregory B.

97

A Stepped Wedge, Cluster-Randomized Trial of a Household UV-Disinfection and Safe Storage Drinking Water Intervention in Rural Baja California Sur, Mexico  

PubMed Central

In collaboration with a local non-profit organization, this study evaluated the expansion of a program that promoted and installed Mesita Azul, an ultraviolet-disinfection system designed to treat household drinking water in rural Mexico. We conducted a 15-month, cluster-randomized stepped wedge trial by randomizing the order in which 24 communities (444 households) received the intervention. We measured primary outcomes (water contamination and diarrhea) during seven household visits. The intervention increased the percentage of households with access to treated and safely stored drinking water (23–62%), and reduced the percentage of households with Escherichia coli contaminated drinking water (risk difference (RD): ?19% [95% CI: ?27%, ?14%]). No significant reduction in diarrhea was observed (RD: ?0.1% [95% CI: ?1.1%, 0.9%]). We conclude that household water quality improvements measured in this study justify future promotion of the Mesita Azul, and that future studies to measure its health impact would be valuable if conducted in populations with higher diarrhea prevalence. PMID:23732255

Gruber, Joshua S.; Reygadas, Fermin; Arnold, Benjamin F.; Ray, Isha; Nelson, Kara; Colford, John M.

2013-01-01

98

30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601 Mineral Resources...MINES Drinking Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the...

2010-07-01

99

30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603 Section...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water...

2011-07-01

100

30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603 Section...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water...

2010-07-01

101

30 CFR 75.1718-1 - Drinking water; quality.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 75.1718-1 ...Miscellaneous § 75.1718-1 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water...minimum health requirements for drinking water established by the State or...

2014-07-01

102

30 CFR 75.1718-1 - Drinking water; quality.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 75.1718-1 ...Miscellaneous § 75.1718-1 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water...minimum health requirements for drinking water established by the State or...

2013-07-01

103

30 CFR 71.602 - Drinking water; distribution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drinking water; distribution. 71.602 Section 71.602...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.602 Drinking water; distribution. (a) Water shall be...

2012-07-01

104

30 CFR 75.1718-1 - Drinking water; quality.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 75.1718-1 ...Miscellaneous § 75.1718-1 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water...minimum health requirements for drinking water established by the State or...

2010-07-01

105

30 CFR 71.602 - Drinking water; distribution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drinking water; distribution. 71.602 Section 71.602...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.602 Drinking water; distribution. (a) Water shall be...

2013-07-01

106

30 CFR 71.602 - Drinking water; distribution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drinking water; distribution. 71.602 Section 71.602...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.602 Drinking water; distribution. (a) Water shall be...

2014-07-01

107

30 CFR 75.1718-1 - Drinking water; quality.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 75.1718-1 ...Miscellaneous § 75.1718-1 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water...minimum health requirements for drinking water established by the State or...

2011-07-01

108

30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603 Section...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water...

2012-07-01

109

30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603 Section...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water...

2014-07-01

110

30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603 Section...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water...

2013-07-01

111

DISINFECTION OF WATER: DRINKING WATER, RECREATIONAL WATER, AND WASTEWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

This chapter describes and categorizes the methodology used for disinfection of drinking water, recreational water and wastewater including wastewater sludges. It largely is a literature summary and references articles covering the years of 1939 through 1999, with a few reference...

112

The Drinking Water Treatability Database (Poster)  

EPA Science Inventory

Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) will provide data taken from the literature on the control of contaminants in drinking water, and will be housed on an interactive, publicly-available USEPA web site. It can be used for identifying effective treatment processes, recogni...

113

Biological Drinking Water Treatment: Benefiting from Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the use of microbial biomass for the degradation of contaminants, nutrients, and organics has been commonly used in the wastewater field since the early 1900s, the biological treatment of drinking water has been limited, particularly in the United States. However, recent developments in the drinking water treatment field are beginning to broaden the applicability, feasibility, and favorability of biological

Jess C. Brown; Carollo Engineers

114

Drinking Water: A Community Action Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While much of the drinking water in the United States is safe for consumption, protecting its quality and assuring its availability are becoming increasingly difficult. This booklet is written for individuals and groups who are concerned about the drinking water in their communities. It provides a general introduction to the complex issues of…

Boyd, Susan, Ed.; And Others

115

MANAGING THE MICROBIOLOGICAL RISKS OF DRINKING WATER  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microbiological contamination of drinking water supplies can have serious health consequences for consumers, and this has been dramatically illustrated in recent years by two disease outbreaks in Canada. In this paper, some factors that can influence the microbiological quality of drinking water and its management are examined. Frameworks have been proposed that help to clarify the main elements of

Daniel Krewski; John Balbus; David Butler-Jones; Charles N. Haas; Judith Isaac-Renton; Kenneth J. Roberts; Martha Sinclair

2004-01-01

116

Risk Assessment of Virus in Drinking Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reevaluation of drinking water treatment practices in a desire to minimize the formation of disinfection byproducts while assuring minimum levels of public health protection against infectious organisms has caused it to become necessary to consider the problem of estimation of risks posed from exposure to low levels of microorganisms, such as virus or protozoans, found in treated drinking water.

Charles N. Haas; Joan B. Rose; Charles Gerba; Stig Regli

1993-01-01

117

ARSENIC COMPLIANCE DATABASE FOR DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Resource Purpose: Section 1412(b)(12)(A) of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) (42 U.S.C. ? 300f-300j), as amended in 1996, required EPA to propose a National Primary Drinking Water Regulation for arsenic by January 1, 2000, and to issue a final regulation by January 1, 20...

118

Monitoring of Microbes in Drinking Water  

EPA Science Inventory

Internationally there is a move towards managing the provision of safe drinking water by direct assessment of the performance of key pathogen barriers (critical control points), rather than end point testing (i.e. in drinking water). For fecal pathogens that breakthrough the vari...

119

Radioactive isotopes in Danish drinking water  

E-print Network

Radioactive isotopes in Danish drinking water Sven P. Nielsen Risø National Laboratory Working OF INVESTIGATION 11 3 DESCRIPTION OF INVESTIGATION 12 4 RADIOACTIVITY IN DRINKING WATER 13 5 SAMPLING 15 6 ANALYTICAL METHODS 16 6.1 TOTAL ALPHA AND BETA RADIOACTIVITY 16 6.2 URANIUM 17 6.3 RADIUM 17 6.4 RADON 18 7

120

Radon in private drinking water wells.  

PubMed

At least 10% of inhabitants in the Czech Republic are supplied with water from private sources (private wells, boreholes). With the increasing cost of water, the number of people using their own sources of drinking water will be likely to increase. According to the Decree of the State Office for Nuclear Safety about the Radiation Protection 307/2002 as amended by Decree 499/2005, the guideline limit for the supplied drinking water ('drinking water for public supply') for radon concentration is 50 Bq·l(-1). This guideline does not apply to private sources of drinking water. Radon in water influences human health by ingestion and also by inhalation when radon is released from water during showering and cooking. This paper presents results of measurements of radon concentrations in water from private wells in more than 300 cases. The gross concentration of alpha-emitting radionuclides and the concentrations of radium and uranium were also determined. PMID:24714110

Otahal, P; Merta, J; Burian, I

2014-07-01

121

THE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS OF DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

A number of chemical contaminants have been identified in drinking water. These contaminants reach drinking water supplies from various sources, including municipal and industrial discharges, urban and rural run-off, natural geological formations, drinking water distrib...

122

EPA List of Drinking Water Contaminants and MCLs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains listings of drinking water contaminants and the EPA regulatory limit for each contaminant. Tables include the national primary drinking water regulations, the national secondary drinking water regulations, and unregulated contaminants.

US Environmental Protection Agency

123

30 CFR 71.600 - Drinking water; general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drinking water; general. 71.600 Section 71.600 ...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.600 Drinking water; general. An adequate supply of...

2012-07-01

124

9 CFR 3.115 - Food and drinking water requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Food and drinking water requirements. 3.115 Section...Standards § 3.115 Food and drinking water requirements. (a) Those marine mammals that require drinking water must be offered potable...

2013-01-01

125

9 CFR 3.115 - Food and drinking water requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Food and drinking water requirements. 3.115 Section...Standards § 3.115 Food and drinking water requirements. (a) Those marine mammals that require drinking water must be offered potable...

2014-01-01

126

30 CFR 71.600 - Drinking water; general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drinking water; general. 71.600 Section 71.600 ...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.600 Drinking water; general. An adequate supply of...

2013-07-01

127

30 CFR 71.600 - Drinking water; general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drinking water; general. 71.600 Section 71.600 ...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.600 Drinking water; general. An adequate supply of...

2014-07-01

128

30 CFR 71.600 - Drinking water; general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; general. 71.600 Section 71.600 ...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.600 Drinking water; general. An adequate supply of...

2010-07-01

129

9 CFR 3.115 - Food and drinking water requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Food and drinking water requirements. 3.115 Section...Standards § 3.115 Food and drinking water requirements. (a) Those marine mammals that require drinking water must be offered potable...

2010-01-01

130

9 CFR 3.115 - Food and drinking water requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Food and drinking water requirements. 3.115 Section...Standards § 3.115 Food and drinking water requirements. (a) Those marine mammals that require drinking water must be offered potable...

2012-01-01

131

30 CFR 71.600 - Drinking water; general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drinking water; general. 71.600 Section 71.600 ...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.600 Drinking water; general. An adequate supply of...

2011-07-01

132

9 CFR 3.115 - Food and drinking water requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Food and drinking water requirements. 3.115 Section...Standards § 3.115 Food and drinking water requirements. (a) Those marine mammals that require drinking water must be offered potable...

2011-01-01

133

Drinking Water in Schools and Child Care Facilities  

MedlinePLUS

... Drinking Water in Schools & Child Care Facilities Drinking Water in Schools & Child Care Facilities This one-stop EPA site provides information about drinking water quality in schools and child care facilities. Ensuring ...

134

OVERVIEW OF RADIONUCLIDES IN DRINKING WATER SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Invited presentation at the 2007 National Rural Water Association National Conference, Philadelphia, PA, September 23-26, 2007. The presentation reviews the chemistry of radium and uranium in drinking water sources, treatment options, and guidelines for disposal. Presentation giv...

135

Assessment of the Santa Margarita Sandstone as a source of drinking water for the Scotts Valley area, Santa Cruz County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Scotts Valley, Calif., is a rural residential area with a rapidly expanding population. Its mediterranean-type climate yields an average annual rainfall of 40 inches. The Santa Margarita Sandstone is the principal aquifer in the area, supplying about 90 percent of all water for domestic purposes. Sources of recharge for the Santa Margarita Sandstone are natural recharge, subsurface inflow from adjacent areas, artificial recharge, and deep penetration of excess irrigation water. Total domestic water use in 1979 was about 2,600 acre-feet. The quantity of ground water pumped for domestic use is expected to increase at a rate of 7 percent per year. Evapotranspiration, estimated to be about 29 inches per year, is the largest form of ground-water discharge. Ground water from the Santa Margarita Sandstone is generally suitable for domestic use. Potential for water-quality degradation exists from urban runoff, leachates from a solid-waste disposal site, and liquid wastes. Several agencies and individuals monitor surface-water and ground-water quality in the Scotts Valley area. Water from streams and the city of Santa Cruz are potential alternate sources of drinking water for the Scotts Valley area. (USGS)

Muir, K.S.

1981-01-01

136

Should California Reconsider Its Legal Drinking Age?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent call by 120 American college presidents for reassessment of the legal drinking age of 21 occurs as earlier studies prove to be increasingly limited and outdated. This study tests drinking age effects during the 1975-2005 period using Incidence Rate Ratio analysis of fatal traffic accident and violent death trends among persons ages 16-17, 18-20, and 21-24, as states

Mike Males

137

Drinking Water Program 1992 annual report  

SciTech Connect

EG&G Idaho, Inc., initiated a monitoring program for drinking water in 1988 for the US Department of Energy at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. EG&G Idaho structured this monitoring program to ensure that they exceeded the minimum regulatory requirements for monitoring drinking water. This program involves tracking the bacteriological, chemical, and radiological parameters that are required for a {open_quotes}community water system{close_quotes} (maximum requirements). This annual report describes the drinking water monitoring activities conducted at the 17 EG&G Idaho operated production wells and 11 distribution systems. It also contains all of the drinking water parameters that were detected and the regulatory limits that were exceeded during 1992. In addition, ground water quality is discussed as it relates to contaminants identified at the wellhead for EG&G Idaho production wells.

Andersen, B.D.; Peterson-Wright, L.J.

1993-08-01

138

Investigation of Drinking Water Quality in Kosovo  

PubMed Central

In the recent years, not much environmental monitoring has been conducted in the territory of Kosovo. This study represents the first comprehensive monitoring of the drinking water situation throughout most of the territory of Kosovo. We present the distribution of major and minor trace elements in drinking water samples from Kosovo. During our study we collected 951 samples from four different sources: private-bored wells; naturally flowing artesian water; pumped-drilled wells; and public water sources (tap water). The randomly selected drinking water samples were investigated by routine water analyses using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) for 32 elements (Li, Be, B, Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Te, Ba, Tl, Pb, Bi, Th, U). Even though there are set guidelines for elemental exposure in drinking water worldwide, in developing countries, such as Kosovo, the lack of monitoring drinking water continues to be an important health concern. This study reports the concentrations of major and minor elements in the drinking water in Kosovo. Additionally, we show the variation of the metal concentration within different sources. Of the 15 regulated elements, the following five elements: Mn, Fe, Al, Ni, As, and U were the elements which most often exceeded the guidelines set by the EU and/or WHO. PMID:23509472

Berisha, Fatlume; Goessler, Walter

2013-01-01

139

Environmental justice implications of arsenic contamination in California¿s San Joaquin Valley: a cross-sectional, cluster-design examining exposure and compliance in community drinking water systems  

E-print Network

California [5-8]. Here, arsenic in groundwater is generallytrate arsenic in surface water and shallow groundwater Inarsenic levels are primarily derived from sedimentary deposits that can be mobilized by groundwater

Balazs, Carolina L; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Hubbard, Alan E; Ray, Isha

2012-01-01

140

Arsenic Occurrence in New Hampshire Drinking Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Chemical Society (ACS) provides online access to the article, Arsenic Occurrence in New Hampshire Drinking Water. The article reports that domestic wells rather than municipal wells in New Hampshire are more likely to contain ten times the recommended federal levels of arsenic for drinking water. This is a relevant finding since "arsenic in drinking water is linked to certain types of cancer in humans." The abstract can be viewed in HTML format, while the full-text article is available in both HTML and .pdf format.

141

DRINKING WATER ON EMPTY RINK WATER ON EMPTY STOMACHD  

E-print Network

DRINKING WATER ON EMPTY STOMACH RINK WATER ON EMPTY STOMACHD It is popular in Japan today to drink water immediately after waking up every morning. Furthermore, scientific tests have proven its value.. We publish below a description of use of water for our readers. For old and serious diseases as well

Srivastava, Kumar Vaibhav

142

Smart Water: Energy-Water Optimization in Drinking Water Systems  

EPA Science Inventory

This project aims to develop and commercialize a Smart Water Platform ? Sensor-based Data-driven Energy-Water Optimization technology in drinking water systems. The key technological advances rely on cross-platform data acquisition and management system, model-based real-time sys...

143

Geochemical conditions and the occurrence of selected trace elements in groundwater basins used for public drinking-water supply, Desert and Basin and Range hydrogeologic provinces, 2006-11: California GAMA Priority Basin Project  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Arsenic (As), boron (B), fluoride (F), molybdenum (Mo), strontium (Sr), uranium (U), and vanadium (V) were selected for assessment in this study because they occurred at concentrations greater than California Department of Public Health or U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulatory or non-regulatory drinking-water-quality benchmarks in more than 2 percent of the 223 samples collected in the DBR study unit. As and F were detected most commonly (18 and 13 percent, respectively) at concentrations above associated water-quality benchmarks and Sr and V least frequently (both at 3 percent). Given that 14C groundwater ages are predominantly >100 years BP, land use in the study unit is primarily undeveloped, and chemicals derived from anthropogenic sources,

Wright, Michael T.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

2015-01-01

144

TRIHALOMETHANES IN DRINKING WATER AND SPONTANEOUS ABORTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

A limited number of epidemiological studies have evaluated the potential association between exposure to DBPs in drinking water and adverse reproductive outcomes. Reproductive effects that have been studied include, for example, spontaneous abortions, congenital defects, low birt...

145

THE FATE OF FLUOROSILICATE DRINKING WATER ADDITIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

Periodically, the EPA reexamines its information on regulated drinking water contaminants to deterime if further study is required. Fluoride is one such contaminant undergoing review. The chemical literature indicates that some deficiencies exist in our understanding of the spe...

146

Drinking Water and Cancer Mortality in Louisiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multivariant regression analysis indicates a statistically significant relation between cancer mortality rates in Louisiana and drinking water obtained from the Mississippi River. This is true for total cancer, cancer of the urinary organs, and cancer of the gastrointestinal tract.

Talbot Page; Robert H. Harris; Samuel S. Epstein

1976-01-01

147

Condition Assessment for Drinking Water Systems  

EPA Science Inventory

This project will enable a systematic approach to characterizing the value of condition assessment of drinking water mains that will provide the basis for better communication among, and decisions by, stakeholders regarding goals and priorities for research, development, and tech...

148

Drinking Water Plant Lecture-Demonstration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a simple way to demonstrate the principles involved in a drinking water plant. This demonstration developed for a general public lecture can be used in chemistry and biology courses for an ecological and environmental emphasis. (HM)

Vestling, Martha M.

1977-01-01

149

Drinking Water: Health Hazards Still Not Resolved  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the suggested link between cancer deaths and drinking obtained from the Mississippi River, New Orleans still treats its water supply in the same manner as before the Environmental Defense Fund's epidemiological study. (BT)

Wade, Nicholas

1977-01-01

150

ALTERNATIVE DISINFECTANTS FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

During a one-year study at Jefferson Parish, Louisiana the chemical, microbiological, and mutagenic effects of using the major drinking water disinfectants (chlorine, chlorine dioxide, chloramine, ozone) were evaluated. ests were performed on samples collected from various treatm...

151

A WATERSHED APPROACH TO DRINKING WATER QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this presentation is to describe emerging technologies and strategies managing watersheds with the goal of protecting drinking water sources. Included are discussions on decentralized wastewater treatment, whole organism biomonitor detection systems, treatment of...

152

Pollution of drinking water with nitrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main sources of nitrate in man are food and drinking water. The legislature in West Germany intends to lower the permitted level of nitrate in drinking water from the present 90 mg\\/l to 50 mg\\/l in 1982. The European Community has issued a directive that recommends a level of only 25 mg\\/l, and for babies 10 mg\\/l nitrate should

B. Cabel; R. Kozicki; U. Lahl; A. Podbielshi; B. Stachel; S. Struss

1982-01-01

153

The epidemiology of chemical contaminants of drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of chemical contaminants have been identified in drinking water. These contaminants reach drinking water supplies from various sources, including municipal and industrial discharges, urban and rural run-off, natural geological formations, drinking water distribution materials and the drinking water treatment process. Chemical contaminants for which epidemiologic studies have reported associations include the following: aluminium, arsenic, disinfection by-products, fluoride, lead,

R. L. Calderon

2000-01-01

154

Regional Drinking Water Security District Level Pilot Project  

E-print Network

Regional Drinking Water Security District Level Pilot Project Concept Note Milind Sohoni Head. The central objective of the project will be to ensure regional drinking water security for a district for drinking water. · Supply and Logistics: To assist the rural drinking water department in various logistical

Sohoni, Milind

155

Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE): Drinking Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

MTBE, a gasoline oxygenater additive, has been detected in ground water sources throughout different parts of the country. These ground water sources are often the source of drinking water, and the presence of methyl tertiary butyl ether in even minute quantities can make the water undrinkable. Research to date has not conclusively identified any quantitative level at which serious health risks may occur. This site provides information on behalf of the Environmental Protection Agency on the concerns and occurence of MTBE in drinking water.

156

The Drinking Water Disparities Framework: On the Origins and Persistence of Inequities in Exposure  

PubMed Central

With this article, we develop the Drinking Water Disparities Framework to explain environmental injustice in the context of drinking water in the United States. The framework builds on the social epidemiology and environmental justice literatures, and is populated with 5 years of field data (2005–2010) from California’s San Joaquin Valley. We trace the mechanisms through which natural, built, and sociopolitical factors work through state, county, community, and household actors to constrain access to safe water and to financial resources for communities. These constraints and regulatory failures produce social disparities in exposure to drinking water contaminants. Water system and household coping capacities lead, at best, to partial protection against exposure. This composite burden explains the origins and persistence of social disparities in exposure to drinking water contaminants. PMID:24524500

Balazs, Carolina L.; Ray, Isha

2014-01-01

157

INVESTIGATION OF 'LEGIONELLA PNEUMOPHILA' IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

An investigation of Legionella pneumophila in drinking water systems and home plumbing appurtenances was done. In Phase 1, 68 water samples were collected from kitchen sink faucets in homes on 17 community water systems. No. L. pneumophila organisms were isolated. In Phase 1A, th...

158

REMOVAL OF RADIUM FROM DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes processes for removal of radium from drinking water. Ion exchange, including strong acid and weak acid resin, is discussed. Both processes remove better than 95 percent of the radium from the water. Weak acid ion exchange does not add sodium to the water...

159

DETERIORATION OF DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

A frequently overlooked fact, but one that is becoming of increasing concern, is the effect that the drinking water delivery system can have on the quality of water received at the tap. Deterioration of aging water supply systems can result in pipeline failures, pressure losses, ...

160

Most terrestrial vertebrates are able to replace water lost to the environment by drinking water. In amniotes, drinking is  

E-print Network

Most terrestrial vertebrates are able to replace water lost to the environment by drinking water, not drinking, because water, unlike food, is physically uniform (at least between 1 and 99 °C). Modifications the frequent need to regain lost water, drinking is secondary to feeding. Furthermore, if drinking is achieved

Behe, Michael J.

161

Evaluating Nanoparticle Breakthrough during Drinking Water Treatment  

PubMed Central

Background: Use of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in consumer products is resulting in NPs in drinking water sources. Subsequent NP breakthrough into treated drinking water is a potential exposure route and human health threat. Objectives: In this study we investigated the breakthrough of common NPs—silver (Ag), titanium dioxide (TiO2), and zinc oxide (ZnO)—into finished drinking water following conventional and advanced treatment. Methods: NPs were spiked into five experimental waters: groundwater, surface water, synthetic freshwater, synthetic freshwater containing natural organic matter, and tertiary wastewater effluent. Bench-scale coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation simulated conventional treatment, and microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) simulated advanced treatment. We monitored breakthrough of NPs into treated water by turbidity removal and inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results: Conventional treatment resulted in 2–20%, 3–8%, and 48–99% of Ag, TiO2, and ZnO NPs, respectively, or their dissolved ions remaining in finished water. Breakthrough following MF was 1–45% for Ag, 0–44% for TiO2, and 36–83% for ZnO. With UF, NP breakthrough was 0–2%, 0–4%, and 2–96% for Ag, TiO2, and ZnO, respectively. Variability was dependent on NP stability, with less breakthrough of aggregated NPs compared with stable NPs and dissolved NP ions. Conclusions: Although a majority of aggregated or stable NPs were removed by simulated conventional and advanced treatment, NP metals were detectable in finished water. As environmental NP concentrations increase, we need to consider NPs as emerging drinking water contaminants and determine appropriate drinking water treatment processes to fully remove NPs in order to reduce their potential harmful health outcomes. Citation: Abbott Chalew TE, Ajmani GS, Huang H, Schwab KJ. 2013. Evaluating nanoparticle breakthrough during drinking water treatment. Environ Health Perspect 121:1161–1166;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306574 PMID:23933526

Chalew, Talia E. Abbott; Ajmani, Gaurav S.; Huang, Haiou

2013-01-01

162

Acid precipitation and drinking water supplies  

SciTech Connect

Three areas of concern about the effect of acid precipitation on drinking water supplies are evaluated - the increased levels of heavy metals in raw water, biological imbalances in water supplies, and increased corrosivity of delivered water. Although two thirds of the US water supplies are corrosive, the extent to which this corrosivity is related to acid precipitation is unknown. Shallow wells in the Adirondack Mountains that are directly recharged by rainfall are exceptionally corrosive. Potential management practices are suggested.

Reed, J.S.; Henningson, J.C.

1984-03-01

163

Acid precipitation and drinking water supplies  

SciTech Connect

Three areas of concern about the effect of acid precipitation on drinking water supplies are evaluated--the increased levels of heavy metals in raw water, biological imbalances in water supplies, and increased corrosivity of delivered water. Although two thirds of the US water supplies are corrosive, the extent to which this corrosivity is related to acid precipitation is unknown. Shallow wells in the Adirondack Mountains that are directly recharged by rainfall are exceptionally corrosive. Potential management practices are suggested.

Reed, J.S.; Henningson, J.C.

1984-03-01

164

Drinking water health advisory for boron  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Health Advisory Program, sponsored by the Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Water, has issued its report on the element boron: included are the compounds boric acid and borax(sodium tetraborate). It provides information on the health effects, analytical methodology, and treatment technology that would be useful in dealing with the contamination of drinking water. Health Advisories (HAs) describe nonregulatory concentrations

Cantilli

1991-01-01

165

DETERMINING THE NUTRIENT STATUS OF DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The presence of biodegradable organic matter in drinking water can result in biologically unstable water that has been linked to various taste, odor and color problems. hen the implicated bacteria are members of the total coliform group, those occurrences can result if major comp...

166

SAFE DRINKING WATER INFORMATION SYSTEM (STATE)  

EPA Science Inventory

Resource Purpose: The Safe Drinking Water Information System (STATE) (SDWIS/STATE) is an information system OGWDW is developing for states and EPA regions to manage their water industry. SDWIS/STATE is not an information system for which EPA HQ is using to store or retrie...

167

ASBESTOS IN DRINKING WATER PERFORMANCE EVALUATION STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Performance evaluations of laboratories testing for asbestos in drinking water according to USEPA Test Method 100.1 or 100.2 are complicated by the difficulty of providing stable sample dispersions of asbestos in water. Reference samples of a graduated series of chrysotile asbest...

168

ASBESTOS IN DRINKING WATER PERFORMANCE EVALUATION STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Performance evaluations of laboratories testing for asbestos in drinking water according to USEPA Test Method 100.1 or 100.2 are complicated by the difficulty of providing stable sample dispersions of asbestos in water. Reference samples of a graduated series of chrysotile asbes...

169

Biofilm accumulation in drinking water distribution systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to classify the relative importance of the parameters governing the accumulation of biofilm in drinking water distribution systems, a study has been carried out, using an industrial pilot plant fed with finished waters, with three main objectives, viz. (i) determination of biofilm density on pipe surfaces (PVC or cement lined cast iron) as a function of the distance

J. C. Block; K. Haudidier; J. L. Paquin; J. Miazga; Y. Levi

1993-01-01

170

Uses of ozone in drinking water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ozone has been used continuously for the treatment of drinking water since 1906, when it was first installed in the city of Nice, France, for disinfection purposes. Although many water treatment plants throughout the world still utilize ozone primarily for disinfection, most modern plants rely on ozone to perform one or more oxidation functions. Applications for ozonation now include oxidation

Rip G. Rice; C. Michael Robson; G. Wade Miller; Archibald G. Hill

1981-01-01

171

REMOVAL OF ALACHLOR FROM DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Alachlor (Lasso) is a pre-emergent herbicide used in the production of corn and soybeans. U.S. EPA has studied control of alachlor in drinking water treatment processes to define treatability before setting maximum contaminant levels and to assist water utilities in selecting con...

172

California's Water Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This packet of instructional materials is designed to give social science students in grades 6-9 a first-hand experience in working out solutions to real-life problems involving the management of California's water. Students work in groups on one of three problems presented in the packet: (1) the management of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta that…

Wheatley, Judy; Sudman, Rita Schmidt, Ed.

173

California's Water Issues  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From Foothill College and the Using a Web-Based GIS to Teach Problem-Based Science in High School and College project, this powerpoint discusses California's water issues. These include population growth, the mismatch between where precipitation falls and where people are located, drought, pollution, and climate change. Each issue is discussed in detail along with potential solutions.

174

Drinking water standards and regulations. Manual for 1977-1986  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following eight important documents are compiled for Drinking Water Standards and Regulations: (1) EPA Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards; (2) EPA Guidelines establishing Test Procedures for the Analysis of Pollutants Under the Clean Water Act; (3) Massachusetts Dept. of Environmental Quality Engineering, Interpretation of Results of Water Supply Analysis; (4) Thompson, J.C., Updating the Safe Drinking Water Act and

L. K. Wang; M. H. S. Wang

1987-01-01

175

Mutagens and carcinogens in drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water is the basic constituent of all living beings; it is, therefore, an essential dietary element and a primary resource.\\u000a The D. Lgs. 31\\/2001 is the Italian standard reference concerning drinking-water issues. The purpose of this article is, firstly,\\u000a to highlight that chlorination, as a water purifying treatment, does not guarantee an absolute absence of risk. On the contrary,\\u000a it

Salvatore Sciacca; Gea Oliveri Conti

2009-01-01

176

An Economic Impact Analysis of DC Drinking Water Quality  

E-print Network

An Economic Impact Analysis of DC Drinking Water Quality Annual Progress Report for FY 2005 In January 2004, District of Columbia residents learned the drinking water supplied by the D.C. Water immediately responded by forming the Interagency Task Force on Lead in Drinking Water (The Task Force

District of Columbia, University of the

177

Drinking Water Gary S. Silverman, Bowling Green State University  

E-print Network

Drinking Water Gary S. Silverman, Bowling Green State University Key Concepts Preventing water, the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 has resulted in a comprehensive system of federal and state controls officials. Recent events suggest that although our drinking water usually is safe, serious problems may

178

Drinking Water Distribution Systems Hydraulics, Leakage, and Water Quality Issues  

E-print Network

#12; Drinking Water Distribution Systems Hydraulics, Leakage, and Water Quality Issues Life Cycle water pipes!! #12; It is demonstrated that hydraulic transients in water mains have high potential contaminants. Physical integrity of service line and hydraulic integrity at water main should be maintained

Su, Xiao

179

Climate change influence on drinking water quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although it are quite well known the possible effects of climate changes on surface waters availability and their hydrological risks, their consequences on drinking water quality is not well defined yet. Disinfection agents (as Cl2, O3, etc.) or multiple combinations of them for water treatment and disinfection purposes are applied by water treatment plants at worldwide level. Unfortunately, besides the benefits of these processes were also highlighted some undesirable effects such as formation of several disinfection by-products (DBPs) after reaction of disinfection agent with natural organic matter (NOM) from water body. DBPs formation in drinking water, suspected to posses adverse health effects to humans are strongly regulated in our days. Thus, throughout this study kinetics experiments both the main physicochemical factors that influencing the quality of drinking waters were evaluated as well how they act through possible warming or the consequences of extreme events. Increasing water temperatures with 1 - 5 °C above its normal value has showed that NOMs are presented in higher amount which led to the need for greater amount of disinfectant agent (5 - 15 %). Increasing the amount of disinfecting agent resulted in the formation of DBPs in significantly higher concentrations (between 5 - 30 %).

Kovacs, Melinda Haydee; Ristoiu, Dumitru; Voica, Cezara; Moldovan, Zaharie

2013-11-01

180

CHLORINE DIOXIDE FOR DRINKING WATER RESEARCH DIVISION  

EPA Science Inventory

In order to comply with the trihalomethane regulation, many drinking water utilities have had to alter their treatment methods. ne option available to these utilities is to use a disinfectant other than chlorine such as chlorine dioxide. ith chlorine dioxide disinfection, trihalo...

181

TREATABILITY DATABASE FOR DRINKING WATER CHEMICALS (CCL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Treatability Data Base will assemble referenced data on the control of contaminants in drinking water. It will be an interactive data base, housed in an EPA, web-accessible site. It may be used for many purposes, including: identifying an effective treatment process or a se...

182

Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration Membranes for Drinking Water  

EPA Science Inventory

This article provides a concise and abbreviated summary of AWWA Manual of Practice M53, Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration Membranes for Drinking Water, to serve as a quick point of reference. For convenience, the article?s organization matches that of M53, as follows: ? wate...

183

DEFLUORIDATION OF DRINKING WATER IN SMALL COMMUNITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses the results of a study of defluoridation of drinking water in small communities using either central or point-of-use treatment. The ten sites used for project data collection had natural fluoride in their groundwater supplies in excess of the Maximum Contamin...

184

DRINKING WATER FROM AGRICULTURALLY CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Sharp increases in fertilizer and pesticide use throughout the 1960s and 1970s along with generally less attachment to soil particles may result in more widespread contamination of drinking water supplies. he purpose of this study was to highlight the use of agricultural chemical...

185

Emerging Contaminants in the Drinking Water Cycle  

EPA Science Inventory

In the past decade, the scientific community and general public have become increasingly aware of the potential for the presence of unregulated, and generally unmonitored contaminants, found at low concentrations (sub-µg/L) in surface, ground and drinking water. The most common...

186

Renal Effects of Uranium in Drinking Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

statistically significantly associated with calcium fractional excretion, but not with phosphate or glucose excretion. Uranium exposure was not associated with creatinine clearance or urinary albu- min, which reflect glomerular function. In conclusion, uranium exposure is weakly associated with altered proximal tubulus function without a clear threshold, which suggests that even low uranium concentrations in drinking water can cause nephrotoxic effects.

Päivi Kurttio; Anssi Auvinen; Laina Salonen; Heikki Saha; Juha Pekkanen; Ilona Mäkeläinen; Sari B. Väisänen; Ilkka M. Penttilä; Hannu Komulainen

2002-01-01

187

Aeromonas sobria in chlorinated drinking water supplies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aeromonas species were recovered from over 27% of 183 chlorinated drinking water samples collected during an 18-month period. Sixteen of 20 isolates tested elicited a cytotoxic response by Y-1 mouse adrenal cells. None of the strains was either enterotoxigenic by the rabbit ligated ileal loop assay, exhibited piliation, or showed significant mannose resistant adherence to human buccal cells. TheAeromonas isolates

M. W. LeChevallier; T. M. Evans; R. J. Seidler; O. P. Daily; B. R. Merrell; D. M. Rollins; S. W. Joseph

1982-01-01

188

Drinking Water. The Food Guide Pyramid.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet for young children is part of a series that supports national science standards related to physical health and nutrition, describing and illustrating the importance of drinking water. Colorful photographs support early readers in understanding the text. The repetition of words and phrases helps early readers learn new words. The book…

Frost, Helen

189

Lead in the School's Drinking Water.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this manual is to assist school officials by providing information on the effects of lead in school drinking water on children, how to detect the presence of lead, how to reduce the lead, and how to provide training for sampling and remedial programs. A protocol is provided for procedures to determine the location and source of lead…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

190

CONTROL OF ZOONOTIC DISEASES IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

For over a century, the process of providing hygienically safe drinking water has focused on utilizing treatment processes to provide barriers to the passage of infectious disease-causing organisms to humans. This concept is often considered the cornerstone of sanitary engineerin...

191

Emerging Contaminants in the Drinking Water Cycle.  

EPA Science Inventory

In the past decade, the scientific community and general public have become increasingly aware of the potential for the presence of unregulated, and generally unmonitored contaminants, found at low concentrations (sub-¿g/L) in surface, ground and drinking water. The most common...

192

Compliance Monitoring of Drinking Water Supplies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The most frequent testing required under the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 is for turbidity and coliform. Free chlorine residual testing can be substituted for part of the coliform requirement. Described are chemical procedures for performing this test. References are given. (Author/MA)

Haukebo, Thomas; Bernius, Jean

1977-01-01

193

REMOVAL OF ORGANICS FROM DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Organic contamination of drinking water is basically caused by two general classes of organics; man-made synthetic organics and disinfection of naturally occurring organics (disinfection by-products). Many volatile and non-volatile synthetic organics at trace concentrations are b...

194

Nitrification in Drinking Water Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrification is increasingly a concern in United States potable water distribution systems. This paper reviews research on nitrification as it relates to the ammonia levels and unique environments present in potable water distribution systems. Factors affecting nitrification occurrence, nitrification impacts on water quality and corrosion, and nitrification monitoring and control methods are emphasized. The potential role of nitrogen cycling via

Yan Zhang; Nancy Love; Marc Edwards

2009-01-01

195

ENDOTOXINS, ALGAE AND 'LIMULUS' AMOEBOCYTE LYSATE TEST IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Field and laboratory studies were conducted to determine the distribution of algae and bacteria, and investigate sources of endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides) in drinking water. The field survey was performed on five drinking water systems located in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania ...

196

An Environmental Assessment of United States Drinking Water Watersheds  

EPA Science Inventory

There is an emerging recognition that natural lands and their conservation are important elements of a sustainable drinking water infrastructure. We conducted a national, watershed-level environmental assessment of drinking water watersheds using data on land cover, hydrography a...

197

RESPONDING TO THREATS AND INCIDENTS OF INTENTIONAL DRINKING WATER CONTAMINATION  

EPA Science Inventory

All drinking water systems have some degree of vulnerability to contamination, and analysis shows that it is possible to contaminate drinking water at levels causing varying degrees of harm. Furthermore, experience indicates that the threat of contamination, overt or circumstant...

198

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR EPICHLOROHYDRIN (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on epichlorohydrin. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of epichlorohydrin; Toxicokinetics ...

199

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR PENTACHLOROPHENOL (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on pentachlorophenol. The Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of pentachlorophenol, Toxicokineti...

200

California Water Teaching Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From Foothill College and the Using a Web-Based GIS to Teach Problem-Based Science in High School and College project, this document contains links to online resources on California's water issues and topographic maps. This document is intended to be used with the Introduction to Topographic Maps worksheet at: http://amser.org/index.php?P=FullRecord&ID=18138This is a helpful resource for the introductory GIS classroom.

201

California Water Precipitation Maps  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From Foothill College and the Using a Web-Based GIS to Teach Problem-Based Science in High School and College project, this document contains two maps of the location of water resources in California. This document is intended to be used with the Introduction to Topographic Maps worksheet at: http://amser.org/index.php?P=FullRecord&ID=18138This is a helpful resource for the introductory GIS classroom.

202

An environmental assessment of United States drinking water watersheds  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an emerging recognition that natural lands and their conservation are important elements of a sustainable drinking\\u000a water infrastructure. We conducted a national, watershed-level environmental assessment of 5,265 drinking water watersheds\\u000a using data on land cover, hydrography and conservation status. Approximately 78% of the conterminous United States lies within\\u000a a drinking water watershed. The typical drinking water watershed had

James D. WickhamTimothy; Timothy G. Wade; Kurt H. Riitters

2011-01-01

203

CASE FOR DRINKING WATER SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the study was to present a tool useful to water utilities that not only could analyze historical distribution system reliability data, but also provide a flexible and expandable mechanism for record-keeping enabling overall management of water work's facilities and...

204

SAFE DRINKING WATER INFORMATION SYSTEM/FEDERAL COMPONENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Resource Purpose: The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) gives EPA the authority to regulate public drinking water supplies. Using its authority under law, EPA has set health-based standards for contaminants that may be found in drinking water. EPA regulates over 80 contaminant...

205

CARD No. 53 Consideration of Underground Sources of Drinking Water  

E-print Network

CARD No. 53 Consideration of Underground Sources of Drinking Water 53.A.1 BACKGROUND The Compliance resulting from exposure to radioactive contaminants in underground sources of drinking water (USDWs of drinking water in the accessible environment that are expected to be affected by the disposal system over

206

Combating An Odorless, Tasteless, Unseen Problem in Nebraska Drinking Water  

E-print Network

Combating An Odorless, Tasteless, Unseen Problem in Nebraska Drinking Water By Steve Ress You can with the specter of arsenic contamination in their drinking water. For more than 60 years, the maximum allowable limit for arsenic in public drinking water supplies has been 50 parts per billion (ppb) and most public

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

207

Looking For Traces of Pharmaceuticals in Drinking Water  

E-print Network

Looking For Traces of Pharmaceuticals in Drinking Water By Daniel D. Snow, Ph.D. Director traces of drugs in the public drinking water supplies of 24 major U.S. metropolitan areas. This has in drinking water supplies is not new, but the classes of contaminants being tested for are. Pharmaceuticals

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

208

The Karjat Drinking Water Project GISE (CSE)-CTARA  

E-print Network

The Karjat Drinking Water Project GISE (CSE)-CTARA Milind Sohoni www.cse.iitb.ac.in/sohoni () May% literacy. 175 hamlets, 49 gram-panchayats, 3 towns. () May 24, 2010 2 / 11 #12;Drinking water Though about 2000-3000mm rainfall, frequent and severe drinking water shortage in many wadis. This year, about 25

Sohoni, Milind

209

Behavior of organic polymers in drinking water purification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic organic polymers used to purify drinking water are severely limited in that their impurities and by-products harm human health. In this study, the undesired effects resulted from chlorination and the enhanced attenuation of toxic organic compounds in drinking water from using synthetic organic polymer cogulants were investigated.In the simulated drinking water purification processes, synthetic organic polymers were used as

Jiunn-Fwu Lee; Pao-Mei Liao; Dyi-Hwa seng; Pi-Tsui Wen

1998-01-01

210

21 CFR 520.2325a - Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...015-percent level for 3 to 5 days in drinking water medicated with sulfaquinoxaline...body weight for 3 to 5 days in drinking water. (d) Limitations...and calves depending on the age, class of animal, ambient...human consumption. Make fresh drinking water daily. [48 FR...

2010-04-01

211

21 CFR 520.2325a - Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...015-percent level for 3 to 5 days in drinking water medicated with sulfaquinoxaline...body weight for 3 to 5 days in drinking water. (d) Limitations...and calves depending on the age, class of animal, ambient...human consumption. Make fresh drinking water daily. [48 FR...

2014-04-01

212

21 CFR 520.2325a - Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...015-percent level for 3 to 5 days in drinking water medicated with sulfaquinoxaline...body weight for 3 to 5 days in drinking water. (d) Limitations...and calves depending on the age, class of animal, ambient...human consumption. Make fresh drinking water daily. [48 FR...

2013-04-01

213

DRINKING WATER AND LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE  

EPA Science Inventory

Pneumonia outbreaks caused by Legionella species recently have been epidemiologically linked to potable water distribution systems in hospitals and hotels. Showerheads were confirmed as the immediate source of the Legionella in many of the outbreaks, however, the organism also wa...

214

Drinking water health advisory for boron  

SciTech Connect

The Health Advisory Program, sponsored by the Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Water, has issued its report on the element boron: included are the compounds boric acid and borax(sodium tetraborate). It provides information on the health effects, analytical methodology, and treatment technology that would be useful in dealing with the contamination of drinking water. Health Advisories (HAs) describe nonregulatory concentrations of drinking water contaminants at which adverse health effects would not be anticipated to occur over specific exposure durations. HAs serve as informal technical guidance to assist Federal, State, and local officials responsible for protecting public health when emergency spills or contamination situations occur. They are not legally enforceable Federal Standards and are subject to change as new information becomes available.

Cantilli, R.

1991-04-01

215

Drinking Water Standards Drinking water from a local public supply must  

E-print Network

through laboratory tests. The list includes: l chemical contaminants such as petroleum products from fuel water- establish Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCLs) for a variety of contaminants. If the water sup- ply exceeds MCLs for primary drinking water standards, it must be treated to elimi- nate the contaminant

Dyer, Bill

216

Arsenic in Drinking Water and Pregnancy Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied a group of women of reproductive age (15-49 years) who were chronically exposed to arsenic through drinking water to identify the pregnancy outcomes in terms of live birth, still- birth, spontaneous abortion, and preterm birth. We compared pregnancy outcomes of exposed respondents with pregnancy outcomes of women of reproductive age (15-49 years) who were not exposed to arsenic-contaminated

S. Akhtar Ahmad; M. H. Salim; Ullah Sayed; Shampa Barua; Manzurul Haque Khan; M. H. Faruquee; Abdul Jalil; S. Abdul Hadi; Humayun Kabir Talukder

217

What Water Would You Drink?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a hands-on activity that fosters decision-making skills and emphasizes scientific principles such as objectivity and replication. It is designed to show that pollutants are not always obvious and not all contaminants pose a health risk. Students will learn that some contaminants can be detected by sight, smell, or taste and that others are not detectable except with sophisticated analytical equipment. They will also understand the difference between pollutants that make water unappealing and those that make it unhealthy or unsafe. This activity works well in an informal outdoor setting or in a classroom.

Barbara Liukkonen

218

Storing A Safe Emergency Drinking Water By Sharon Skipton,  

E-print Network

and other property, loss of power, and in some cases an interruption in water supplies. Having a safeStoring A Safe Emergency Drinking Water Supply By Sharon Skipton, UNL Extension Water Quality emergency drinking water supply on hand is a good idea. If you do not have an emergency water supply

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

219

CHLORINATION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER AND MENSTRUAL CYCLE FUNCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Chlorination by-Products in Drinking Water and Menstrual Cycle Function Gayle C. Windham1, Kirsten Waller2, Meredith Anderson2, Laura Fenster1, Pauline Mendola3, Shanna Swan4 1California Department of Health Services, Division of Environmental and Occupational Disea...

220

Water, Water Everywhere, But is it Safe to Drink?  

EPA Science Inventory

Drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs) have been associated with adverse human health effects, including bladder cancer, early term miscarriage, and birth defects. While it is vitally important to kill harmful pathogens in water, it is also important to minimize harmful ...

221

Ground water provides drinking water, irrigation for  

E-print Network

- tion of those along Lake Michigan, most communi- ties, farms and industries still rely on ground water. · A watershed or basin is an area from which all surface waters (rivers, streams and runoff) flow to- ward two important watersheds. East of the divide surface waters flow to Lake Michigan; west of the divide

Saldin, Dilano

222

Protection of drinking water resources in the GDR and the effective utilization of drinking water protection areas and drinking water reserve areas  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protection of drinking water resources is ensured in the German Democratic Republic (GDR) by the Constitu­ tion, laws and by national standards. For the optimization of land-use in drinking water protection areas, especially those with a high portion of agricultural land \\

D. KRAMER; F. SCHULZ

223

Drinking Water Treatment For Reducing Risks in Albanian Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sanitation presents even more problems than drinking water. Sanitation coverage in urban areas is almost the same as drinking water coverage. Urban areas have mostly combined sewage and storm water collection networks that discharge into near bay surface water-bodies. About 40% of the urban population has a sewer connection. In rural areas, only a small portion of the areas with

Alba Dumi

2011-01-01

224

Contaminants in the Glacial Aquifer Drinking Water System  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Approximately one-sixth of the United States population, or 41 million people, relied on the glacial aquifer system for drinking water in 2005. However, untreated water from one in five drinking water wells in this aquifer, sampled as part of the USGS National Water Quality Assessment Program, excee...

225

Tracking persistent pharmaceutical residues from municipal sewage to drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

In urban areas such as Berlin (Germany) with high municipal sewage water discharges and low surface water flows there is a potential risk of drinking water contamination by polar organic compounds when groundwater recharge is used in drinking water production. Thus, some pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) are not eliminated completely in the municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs) and they are

Thomas Heberer

2002-01-01

226

Planning Drinking Water for Airplanes Marco Bijvank, Menno Dobber,  

E-print Network

Planning Drinking Water for Airplanes Marco Bijvank, Menno Dobber, Maarten Soomer, Vrije estimation, cubic spline, maximum likelihood 1 Introduction During flights people use drinking water of water on board of all flights to fulfill customer's demand. On the other hand, the surplus of water

Hofstad, Remco van der

227

EXPOSURE TO LEAD IN U.S. DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

In the U.S., lead occurs primarily as a corrosion by-product in public drinking water supplies. hat is, its source is the corrosive action of the water upon the materials used in the water distribution system and private plumbing. istorically, drinking water has not been a major ...

228

Portable Nanomesh Creates Safer Drinking Water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Providing astronauts with clean water is essential to space exploration to ensure the health and well-being of crewmembers away from Earth. For the sake of efficient and safe long-term space travel, NASA constantly seeks to improve the process of filtering and re-using wastewater in closed-loop systems. Because it would be impractical for astronauts to bring months (or years) worth of water with them, reducing the weight and space taken by water storage through recycling and filtering as much water as possible is crucial. Closed-loop systems using nanotechnology allow wastewater to be cleaned and reused while keeping to a minimum the amount of drinking water carried on missions. Current high-speed filtration methods usually require electricity, and methods without electricity usually prove impractical or slow. Known for their superior strength and electrical conductivity, carbon nanotubes measure only a few nanometers in diameter; a nanometer is one billionth of a meter, or roughly one hundred-thousandth the width of a human hair. Nanotubes have improved water filtration by eliminating the need for chemical treatments, significant pressure, and heavy water tanks, which makes the new technology especially appealing for applications where small, efficient, lightweight materials are required, whether on Earth or in space. "NASA will need small volume, effective water purification systems for future long-duration space flight," said Johnson Space Center s Karen Pickering. NASA advances in water filtration with nanotechnology are now also protecting human health in the most remote areas of Earth.

2008-01-01

229

Controlling nitrite level in drinking water by chlorination and chloramination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrite in drinking water is a significant health concern. Oxidation of nitrite to nitrate in drinking water chlorination and chloramination was studied by jar tests. Results indicate that chlorination could cause oxidation of nitrite but not ammonia under the typical drinking water treatment conditions (i.e., >0.3mgCl2\\/L residual chlorine and near neutral pH). In chloramination, nitrite oxidation increased with the decreases

Hongwei Yang; Hefa Cheng

2007-01-01

230

Nitrate in sources of drinking water? Dutch drinking water companies aim at prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Netherlands 65% of the drinking water is extracted from groundwater. A quarter of the groundwater wells, in particular those on the sandy soils in the east and the south of the country, face rising levels of nitrate, mainly of agricultural origin. In 1998 the Dutch Government launched a policy (MINAS) which aims at a drastic reduction in nitrate

L. T. A. Joosten; S. T. Buijze; D. M. Jansen

1998-01-01

231

DISINFECTANT CHEMISTRY IN DRINKING WATER: OVERVIEW OF IMPACTS ON DRINKING WATER QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Chemicals commonly considered for use as disinfectants in municipal drinking water treatment are chlorine, chloramines, chlorine dioxide, and ozone. Considerations such as disinfection power, ease of application, and low cost have led in the past to the use of free chlorine as th...

232

DRINKING WATER AND CANCER INCIDENCE IN IOWA. 2. RADIOACTIVITY IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper presents a logical epidemiologic exploration into possible associations between exposures to radium-226 in drinking water and incidence rates for cancers of the bladder, breast, colon, lung, prostate, and rectum. The most striking finding is the increasing gradient of ...

233

ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDE DEGRADATION UNDER DRINKING WATER TREATMENT CONDITIONS: MODELING PERSPECTIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

The objectives of this work were to develop experimental approaches and a modeling philosophy to study degradation of organophosphate pesticides as a class under drinking water treatment conditions....

234

Water drinking as a treatment for orthostatic syndromes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PURPOSE: Water drinking increases blood pressure in a substantial proportion of patients who have severe orthostatic hypotension due to autonomic failure. We tested the hypothesis that water drinking can be used as a practical treatment for patients with orthostatic and postprandial hypotension, as well as those with orthostatic tachycardia. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We studied the effect of drinking water on seated and standing blood pressure and heart rate in 11 patients who had severe orthostatic hypotension due to autonomic failure and in 9 patients who had orthostatic tachycardia due to idiopathic orthostatic intolerance. We also tested the effect of water drinking on postprandial hypotension in 7 patients who had autonomic failure. Patients drank 480 mL of tap water at room temperature in less than 5 minutes. RESULTS: In patients with autonomic failure, mean (+/- SD) blood pressure after 1 minute of standing was 83 +/- 6/53 +/- 3.4 mm Hg at baseline, which increased to 114 +/- 30/66 +/- 18 mm Hg (P <0.01) 35 minutes after drinking. After a meal, blood pressure decreased by 43 +/- 36/20 +/- 13 mm Hg without water drinking, compared with 22 +/- 10/12 +/- 5 mm Hg with drinking (P <0.001). In patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance, water drinking attenuated orthostatic tachycardia (123 +/- 23 beats per minute) at baseline to 108 +/- 21 beats per minute after water drinking ( P <0.001). CONCLUSION: Water drinking elicits a rapid pressor response in patients with autonomic failure and can be used to treat orthostatic and postprandial hypotension. Water drinking moderately reduces orthostatic tachycardia in patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance. Thus, water drinking may serve as an adjunctive treatment in patients with impaired orthostatic tolerance.

Shannon, John R.; Diedrich, Andre; Biaggioni, Italo; Tank, Jens; Robertson, Rose Marie; Robertson, David; Jordan, Jens

2002-01-01

235

ADVANCES IN DRINKING WATER TREATMENT IN THE UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

The United States drinking water public health protection goal is to provide water that meets all health-based standards to ninety-five percent of the population served by public drinking water supplies by 2005. In 2002, the level of compliance with some eighty-five health-based ...

236

The Next Generation of Drinking Water Disinfection By-Products  

EPA Science Inventory

The disinfection of drinking water has been rightly hailed as a public health triumph of the 20th century. Millions of people worldwide receive quality drinking water every day from their public water systems. However, chemical disinfection has also produced an unintended healt...

237

Visions of the Future in Drinking Water Microbiology.  

EPA Science Inventory

Drinking water microbiology will have a tremendous impact on defining a safe drinking water in the future. There will be breakthroughs in realtime testing of process waters for pathogen surrogates with results made available within 1 hour for application to treatment adjustments ...

238

DETERMINATION OF NINE HALOACETIC ACIDS IN FINISHED DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Whenever natural water or humic substances are chlorinated significant concentrations of haloacetic acids (HAAS) are produced. he presence of HAAs in drinking water are suspected to have an adverse health effect on humans. o control HAAs in drinking water, analytical techniques s...

239

RESEARCH ACTIVITIES IN DRINKING WATER TECHNOLOGY: A PROGRESS REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The Safe Drinking Water Act and its Amendments (SDWAA) have given EPA an aggressive standard setting agenda. The agenda, if carried out fully, will impact on water utilities in the U.S. EPA's Drinking Water Research Division (DWRD) is responsible for evaluating technologies for m...

240

76 FR 7762 - Drinking Water: Regulatory Determination on Perchlorate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...FRL-9262-8] RIN 2040-AF08 Drinking Water: Regulatory Determination on Perchlorate...perchlorate in accordance with the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). Specifically, EPA has determined...likelihood that perchlorate will occur in public water systems with a frequency and at...

2011-02-11

241

The Safe Drinking Water Act First 180 Days  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Safe Drinking Water Act protects our drinking and ground water resources. The Water Advisory Council interprets and implements the law. Implementation principles include high priorities for public health, cost considerations, state and local participation, environmental impact, decentralized decision making, and use of federal and state…

Lehr, Jay H.

1975-01-01

242

From: "Cheryl Beecroft" Subject: Drinking Water Results-ITB  

E-print Network

From: "Cheryl Beecroft" Subject: Drinking Water Results-ITB Date: Fri, 1 Oct samples collected at ITB. The results were below the allowable level of 10ug/L for lead in drinking water 2010 15:54:56 -0400 To: Please see the table below for lead content in water

Thompson, Michael

243

Helicobacter pylori in the drinking water in Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND & AIMS: An association between water sources and the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Peruvian children was shown previously. The aim of this study was to confirm the presence of H. pylori in drinking water in the same community. METHODS: Forty-eight drinking water samples from different locations in pueblo jovenes (new towns) near Lima were collected. Samples were

K Hulten; SW Han; H Enroth; PD Klein; AR Opekun; RH Gilman; DG Evans; L Engstrand; DY Graham; FA El-Zaatari

1996-01-01

244

TREATMENT OF DRINKING WATER CONTAINING TRICHLOROETHYLENE AND RELATED INDUSTRIAL SOLVENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Volatile chlorinated and non-chlorinated compounds occur in both untreated and treated drinking water. Because volatilization is restricted, ground waters rather than surface waters are more likely to have high concentrations of these compounds. This document reviews properties, ...

245

TREATMENT OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Volatile chlorinated and non-chlorinated compounds occur in both untreated and treated drinking water. Because volatilization is restricted, ground waters rather than surface waters are more likely to have high concentrations of these compounds. This document reviews properties, ...

246

[Hydraulic fracturing - a hazard for drinking water?].  

PubMed

Hydraulic fracturing (fracking) is a technique used to release and promote the extraction of natural gas (including shale gas, tight gas, and coal bed methane) from deep natural gas deposits. Among the German public there is great concern with regard to the potential environmental impacts of fracking including the contamination of ground water, the most important source of drinking water in Germany. In the present article the risks of ground water contamination through fracking are discussed. Due to the present safety requirements and the obligatory geological and hydrogeological scrutiny of the underground, which has to be performed prior to fracking, the risk of ground water contamination by fracking can be regarded as very low. The toxicity of chemical additives of fracking fluids is discussed. It is recommended that in the future environmental impact assessment and approval of fracs should be performed by the mining authorities in close cooperation with the water authorities. Furthermore, it is recommended that hydraulic fracturing in the future should be accompanied by obligatory ground water monitoring. PMID:24285158

Ewers, U; Gordalla, B; Frimmel, F

2013-11-01

247

Arsenic occurrence in New Hampshire drinking water  

SciTech Connect

Arsenic concentrations were measured in 992 drinking water samples collected from New Hampshire households using online hydride generation ICP-MS. These randomly selected household water samples contain much less arsenic than those voluntarily submitted for analysis to the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES). Extrapolation of the voluntarily submitted sample set to all New Hampshire residents significantly overestimates arsenic exposure. In randomly selected households, concentrations ranged from <0.0003 to 180 {micro}g/L, with water from domestic wells containing significantly more arsenic than water from municipal sources. Water samples from drilled bedrock wells had the highest arsenic concentrations, while samples from surficial wells had the lowest arsenic concentrations. The authors suggest that much of the groundwater arsenic in New Hampshire is derived from weathering of bedrock materials and not from anthropogenic contamination. The spatial distribution of elevated arsenic concentrations correlates with Late-Devonian Concord-type granitic bedrock. Field observations in the region exhibiting the highest groundwater arsenic concentrations revealed abundant pegmatite dikes associated with nearby granites. Analysis of rock digests indicates arsenic concentrations up to 60 mg/kg in pegmatites, with much lower values in surrounding schists and granites. Weak acid leaches show that approximately half of the total arsenic in the pegmatites is labile and therefore can be mobilized during rock-water interaction.

Peters, S.C.; Blum, J.D.; Klaue, B. [Dartmouth Coll., Hanover, NH (United States). Dept. of Earth Sciences] [Dartmouth Coll., Hanover, NH (United States). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Karagas, M.R. [Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH (United States). Dept. of Community and Family Medicine] [Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH (United States). Dept. of Community and Family Medicine

1999-05-01

248

WATER QUALITY IN GEORGIA'S PRIVATE DRINKING WATER WELLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The University of Georgia's Agricultural and Environmental Services Laboratories (AESL) conduct a water-testing program for private drinking water wells. In a review of over 27,000 tests done during the ten years from 1993 through 2004, the most common problems were low pH (data not shown), and high levels of manganese and iron. Approximately 15 and 18% of the household wells

Leticia Sonon; Paul Vendrell; Rick Hitchcock

249

INACTIVATION OF MS2 VIRUS IN DRINKING WATER: TROJAN TECHNOLOGIES, INC., UVSWIFT ULTRAVIOLET SYSTEM MODEL 4L12, AT CHULA VISTA, CALIFORNIA.  

EPA Science Inventory

Verification testing of the Trojan Technologies UVSwift 4L12 system was conducted over a 45 day period from 9/1/01 to 10/15/01. The feedwater to the ultraviolet (UV) unit during the testing was the effluent from the Otay Water Treatment Plant (OWTP), a conventional plant with fl...

250

CALIFORNIA DROUGHT State of California The Resources Agency California Department of Water Resources  

E-print Network

CALIFORNIA DROUGHT AN UPDATE 2008 State of California · The Resources Agency · California Department of Water Resources #12;CALIFORNIA DROUGHT, AN UPDATE April 2008 DEPARTME NT OF WATER R ESOURCES ST for Resources The Resources Agency Lester A. Snow Director Department of Water Resources #12;CALIFORNIA DROUGHT

251

DRINKING WATER ARSENIC IN UTAH: A COHORT MORTALITY STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The association of drinking water arsenic and mortality outcome was investigated in a cohort of residents from Millard County, Utah. Median drinking water arsenic concentrations for selected study towns ranged from 14 to 166 ppb and were from public and private samples collected ...

252

Integrated modeling of ozonation for optimization of drinking water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drinking water treatment plants automation becomes more sophisticated, more on-line monitoring systems become available and integration of modeling environments with control systems becomes easier. This gives possibilities for model-based optimization. In operation of drinking water treatment plants, the processes are usually optimized individually on the basis of \\

2007-01-01

253

GENOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The information summarized in this review provides substantial evidence for the widespread presence of genotoxins in drinking water. In many, if not most cases, the genotoxic activity can be directly attributed to the chlorination stage of drinking water treatment. The genotoxic ...

254

ACCESS TO DRINKING WATER: CASE OF TANKERFED VILLAGES IN THANE  

E-print Network

ACCESS TO DRINKING WATER: CASE OF TANKERFED VILLAGES IN THANE DISTRICT, MAHARASHTRA MTech that the dissertation titled "Access To Drinking Water: Case Of Tankerfed Villages in Thane District, Maharashtra in my own words and where other,,s ideas or words have been included, I have adequately cited

Sohoni, Milind

255

TREATMENT OF ARSENIC RESIDUALS FROM DRINKING WATER REMOVAL PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The drinking water MCL was recently lowered from 0.05 mg/L to 0.01 mg/L. One concern was that reduction in the TCLP arsenic limit in response to the drinking water MCL could be problematic with regard to disposal of solid residuals generated at arsenic removal facilities. This pr...

256

Disinfection By-Products and Drinking Water Treatment  

EPA Science Inventory

The disinfection of drinking water has been rightly hailed as a public health triumph of the 20th century. Before its widespread use, millions of people died from waterborne diseases. Now, people in developed nations receive quality drinking water every day from their public wa...

257

NEUROXOTOXICITY PRODUCED BY DIBROMOACETIC ACID IN DRINKING WATER OF RATS.  

EPA Science Inventory

The Safe Drinking Water Act requires that EPA consider noncancer endpoints for the assessment of adverse human health effects of disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Dibromoacetic acid (DBA) is one of many DBPs produced by the chlorination of drinking water. Its chlorinated analog, ...

258

Hydraulic modelling of drinking water treatment plant operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flow through a unit of a drinking water treatment plant is one of the most important parameters in terms of a unit's effectiveness. In the present paper, a new EPAnet library is presented with the typical hydraulic elements for drinking water treatment processes well abstraction, rapid sand filtration and cascade and tower aeration. Using this treatment step library, a

G. I. M. Worm; G. A. M. Mesman; K. M. Van Schagen; K. J. Borger; L. C. Rietveld

2009-01-01

259

Nitrate Levels in Drinking Water in Rural New York State  

Microsoft Academic Search

To obtain an indication of the nitrate–nitrogen levels in drinking water in rural areas of upstate New York and the number of infants at risk for methemoglobinemia, 419 wells supplying drinking water to farms were tested. Farmers were identified through two programs run by the New York State Department of Health. The farmers were asked to complete a short questionnaire

Kitty H. Gelberg; Lou Church; Gabrielle Casey; Matthew London; D. Sue Roerig; Jane Boyd; Marylee Hill

1999-01-01

260

EJ SMALL GRANT: SAFE DRINKING WATER FOR LOW INCOME COMMUNITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Legal Aid Services of Oregon (LASO) has determined that both EPA Region 10 and the Oregon Health Division have identified regulatory defects in the Safe Drinking Water Act with respect to migrant farmworker drinking water sources. Lack of mandatory testing, lack of enforcement a...

261

Reducing Lead in Drinking Water: A Manual for Minnesota's Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual was designed to assist Minnesota's schools in minimizing the consumption of lead in drinking water by students and staff. It offers step-by-step instructions for testing and reducing lead in drinking water. The manual answers: Why is lead a health concern? How are children exposed to lead? Why is lead a special concern for schools? How…

Minnesota State Dept. of Health, St. Paul.

262

Studies on Disinfection By-Products and Drinking Water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Drinking water is disinfected with chemicals to remove pathogens, such as Giardia and Cryptosproridium, and prevent waterborne diseases such as cholera and typhoid. During disinfection, by-products are formed at trace concentrations. Because some of these by-products are suspected carcinogens, drinking water utilities must maintain the effectiveness of the disinfection process while minimizing the formation of by-products.

Rostad, Colleen E.

2007-01-01

263

Safety on Tap: A Citizen's Drinking Water Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This citizen's guide to ensuring a safe supply of drinking water for all provides the information and analysis that individuals need to understand the issues and to participate in local decision making. The sources of drinking water, the types of human activities that results in contamination, and the contaminants that are of most concern are…

Loveland, David Gray; Reichheld, Beth

264

Reducing Lead in School Drinking Water: A Case Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Seattle School District began a program in 1990 to identify lead levels in the district's drinking water and to implement measures to lower any high lead levels. Recounts each of the seven steps of the program, discusses what the district found, and explains how it lowered lead levels in the drinking water. (MLF)

Odell, Lee

1991-01-01

265

U.S. DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS: TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES AND COST  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. EPA is responsible for implementing and enforcing the Safe Drinking Water Act, as amended in 1986. n carrying out its responsibility, the EPA promulgates regulations which are designed to control the quality of public drinking water. he 1986 Amendments have imposed a lar...

266

IDENTIFICATION OF NEW BROMINATED ACIDS IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Since chloroform was identified as the first disinfection by-product (DBP) in drinking water, there has been more than 25 years of research on DBPs. Despite these efforts, more than 50% of the total organic halide (TOX) formed in chlorinated drinking water remains unknown. Ther...

267

Availability of drinking water in US public school cafeterias.  

PubMed

This study examined the availability of free drinking water during lunchtime in US public schools, as required by federal legislation beginning in the 2011-2012 school year. Data were collected by mail-back surveys in nationally representative samples of US public elementary, middle, and high schools from 2009-2010 to 2011-2012. Overall, 86.4%, 87.4%, and 89.4% of students attended elementary, middle, and high schools, respectively, that met the drinking water requirement. Most students attended schools with existing cafeteria drinking fountains and about one fourth attended schools with water dispensers. In middle and high schools, respondents were asked to indicate whether drinking fountains were clean, and whether they were aware of any water-quality problems at the school. The vast majority of middle and high school students (92.6% and 90.4%, respectively) attended schools where the respondent perceived drinking fountains to be clean or very clean. Approximately one in four middle and high school students attended a school where the survey respondent indicated that there were water-quality issues affecting drinking fountains. Although most schools have implemented the requirement to provide free drinking water at lunchtime, additional work is needed to promote implementation at all schools. School nutrition staff at the district and school levels can play an important role in ensuring that schools implement the drinking water requirement, as well as promote education and behavior-change strategies to increase student consumption of water at school. PMID:24726348

Hood, Nancy E; Turner, Lindsey; Colabianchi, Natalie; Chaloupka, Frank J; Johnston, Lloyd D

2014-09-01

268

ACCUMULATION OF ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The tendency for iron solid surfaces to adsorb arsenic is well known and has become the basis for several drinking water treatment approaches that remove arsenic. It is reasonable to assume that iron-based solids, such as corrosion deposits present in drinking water distribution ...

269

Bilogical Treatment for Ammonia Oxidation in Drinking Water Facilities  

EPA Science Inventory

Ammonia is an unregulated compound, but is naturally occurring in many drinking water sources. It is also used by some treatment facilities to produce chloramines for disinfection purposes. Because ammonia is non-toxic, its presence in drinking water is often disregarded. Thro...

270

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Perchlorate in Drinking Water During Pregnancy and Neonatal  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Perchlorate in Drinking Water During Pregnancy and Neonatal Thyroid Hormone Levels associations between maternal drinking water per- chlorate exposure during pregnancy and newborn thyroid. Results were stratified by age at TSH collection because of the normal post- birth TSH surge, and because

California at Berkeley, University of

271

ARSENIC IN WATER USED FOR DRINKING - AN ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

In October 2001, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced a new federal standard for concentrations of arsenic found in drinking water. The new standard was to be 10 parts-per-million (ppm). This new standard will be required by the Safe Drinking Water Act in...

272

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR LINDANE (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on lindane. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of lindane, Toxicokinetics and human exposu...

273

Augmentation of Rural Piped Water Schemes for Supply of drinking water to tanker fed villages.  

E-print Network

Augmentation of Rural Piped Water Schemes for Supply of drinking water to tanker fed villages-3000mm and biggest reservoirs like Tansa, Vaitarana and Bhatsa for supplying drinking water to Mumbai city. Many solutions have been explored in the past to provide drinking water security to people

Sohoni, Milind

274

Drinking water treatment and distribution systems must comply with US EPA water quality regula-  

E-print Network

Drinking water treatment and distribution systems must comply with US EPA water quality regula trihalomethanes (THMs). Drinking water providers do frequent, costly testing for THMs. Field real-time sensors PROJECT GOALS The goal of this project was to bring a team of experts in drinking water, polymers

Fay, Noah

275

In Brief: Web site addresses global drinking water crisis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new Web resource provides the public with peer-reviewed scientific and technical information about the need for safe drinking water and strategies to enhance the safety and availability of water supplies around the world. Developed by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences (NAS) and the Global Health and Education Foundation, the ``Safe Drinking Water is Essential'' Web site (http://www.drinking-water.org) presents data and case studies written for a lay audience and aims to provide international decision-makers with tools to solve local water quality problems.

Kumar, Mohi

2007-09-01

276

40 CFR 144.7 - Identification of underground sources of drinking water and exempted aquifers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...as an underground source of drinking water...an “underground source of drinking water...is an underground source of drinking water...1) to furnish the data necessary to demonstrate...Information contained in the mining plan for the...

2010-07-01

277

76 FR 2383 - Proposed HHS Recommendation for Fluoride Concentration in Drinking Water for Prevention of Dental...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...for Fluoride Concentration in Drinking Water for Prevention of Dental Caries AGENCY...U.S. Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards related to recommendations for fluoride concentrations in drinking water. The U.S. Public Health Service...

2011-01-13

278

SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF Fe IN DRINKING WATER Background Reading: Harris, 7th  

E-print Network

SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF Fe IN DRINKING WATER Background Reading: Harris, 7th ed., Chap contaminants in drinking water can be determined spectrophotometrically, including iron. Although iron the iron content of drinking water to

Weston, Ken

279

21 CFR 1240.80 - General requirements for water for drinking and culinary purposes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... General requirements for water for drinking and culinary purposes... General requirements for water for drinking and culinary purposes. Only potable water shall be provided for drinking and culinary purposes...

2014-04-01

280

21 CFR 1240.80 - General requirements for water for drinking and culinary purposes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... General requirements for water for drinking and culinary purposes... General requirements for water for drinking and culinary purposes. Only potable water shall be provided for drinking and culinary purposes...

2012-04-01

281

40 CFR 194.53 - Consideration of underground sources of drinking water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Consideration of underground sources of drinking water. 194.53 Section 194.53...Consideration of underground sources of drinking water. In compliance assessments...chapter, all underground sources of drinking water in the accessible...

2011-07-01

282

77 FR 52023 - Meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...FRL-9721-1] Meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council AGENCY: Environmental...announcing a meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC or Council), established under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). This meeting...

2012-08-28

283

40 CFR 194.53 - Consideration of underground sources of drinking water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Consideration of underground sources of drinking water. 194.53 Section 194.53...Consideration of underground sources of drinking water. In compliance assessments...chapter, all underground sources of drinking water in the accessible...

2013-07-01

284

40 CFR 194.53 - Consideration of underground sources of drinking water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Consideration of underground sources of drinking water. 194.53 Section 194.53...Consideration of underground sources of drinking water. In compliance assessments...chapter, all underground sources of drinking water in the accessible...

2010-07-01

285

21 CFR 1240.80 - General requirements for water for drinking and culinary purposes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... General requirements for water for drinking and culinary purposes... General requirements for water for drinking and culinary purposes. Only potable water shall be provided for drinking and culinary purposes...

2011-04-01

286

75 FR 12569 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act Pursuant to 28 CFR 50.7...Section 1414(b) of the Safe Drinking Water Act (``SDWA''), 42 U...requirements of the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations...

2010-03-16

287

78 FR 73206 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act On November 23, 2013 the Department...reporting, and other requirements of the Safe Drinking Water Act and the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (``NPDWRs''), two...

2013-12-05

288

40 CFR 144.82 - What must I do to protect underground sources of drinking water?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...protect underground sources of drinking water? 144.82 Section 144.82...protect underground sources of drinking water? If you own or operate...cause a violation of the primary drinking water standards under 40 CFR...

2012-07-01

289

78 FR 65981 - Meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...FRL-9902-32-OW] Meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council AGENCY: Environmental...announcing a meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (Council), established under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). The meeting...

2013-11-04

290

40 CFR 194.53 - Consideration of underground sources of drinking water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Consideration of underground sources of drinking water. 194.53 Section 194.53...Consideration of underground sources of drinking water. In compliance assessments...chapter, all underground sources of drinking water in the accessible...

2012-07-01

291

21 CFR 1240.80 - General requirements for water for drinking and culinary purposes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... General requirements for water for drinking and culinary purposes... General requirements for water for drinking and culinary purposes. Only potable water shall be provided for drinking and culinary purposes...

2013-04-01

292

21 CFR 1240.80 - General requirements for water for drinking and culinary purposes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... General requirements for water for drinking and culinary purposes... General requirements for water for drinking and culinary purposes. Only potable water shall be provided for drinking and culinary purposes...

2010-04-01

293

40 CFR 144.82 - What must I do to protect underground sources of drinking water?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...protect underground sources of drinking water? 144.82 Section 144.82...protect underground sources of drinking water? If you own or operate...cause a violation of the primary drinking water standards under 40 CFR...

2011-07-01

294

77 FR 40382 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act Notice is hereby given that...alleged violations of the Safe Drinking Water Act (``SDWA''), 42 U...violations of the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations...

2012-07-09

295

78 FR 48158 - Meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...FRL-9843-4] Meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council AGENCY: Environmental...announcing a meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (Council), established under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). This meeting...

2013-08-07

296

78 FR 61867 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act On September 26, 2013, the...300g-3,300i of the Safe Drinking Water Act (``SDWA'') for violations...ensure proper operation of the drinking water systems on the Reservation....

2013-10-04

297

77 FR 14425 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act Notice is hereby given that...civil penalties under the Safe Drinking Water Act (``SDWA''), 42 U...violations of the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations...

2012-03-09

298

75 FR 35801 - Meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council-Notice of Public Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...FRL-9166-9] Meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council--Notice of...given of a meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC), established under the Safe Drinking Water Act, as amended (42...

2010-06-23

299

40 CFR 144.82 - What must I do to protect underground sources of drinking water?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...protect underground sources of drinking water? 144.82 Section 144.82...protect underground sources of drinking water? If you own or operate...cause a violation of the primary drinking water standards under 40 CFR...

2013-07-01

300

Drinking water standards and regulations. Volume 3. Manual for 1978-1988  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following 12 important documents are compiled for a manual entitled Drinking Water Standards and Regulations: (1) Rules and Regulations for Public Water Systems; (2) Drinking Water Standards Governing Drinking Water Quality and Reporting Requirements for Public Water Supply Systems; (3) Questions and Answers About Water Operator Certification; (4) Application for Certification of Drinking Water Testing Laboratories; (5) Application for

L. K. Wang; M. H. S. Wang

1988-01-01

301

Arsenic in Drinking Water-A Global Environmental Problem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information on the worldwide occurrence of groundwater pollution by arsenic, the ensuing health hazards, and the debatable government regulations of arsenic in drinking water, is presented. Diagnostic identification of arsenic, and methods to eliminate it from water are also discussed.

Wang, Joanna Shaofen; Wai, Chien M.

2004-01-01

302

OVERVIEW OF USEPA MICROBIOLOGICAL RESEARCH IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The Microbial Contaminants Control Branch (MCCB) conducts research on microbiological problems related to drinking water treatment, distribution and storage, and has recently become involved in watershed and source water quality issues such as fecal indicator bacteria and fecal p...

303

PROTOZOAN SOURCES OF SPONTANEOUS COLIFORM OCCURRENCE IN CHLORINATED DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The spontaneous occurrence of coliforms in chlorinated drinking waters has resulted in concern over their potential source and mechanism(s) of introduction into water delivery systems. Previous observations related to protozoal resistance to chlorine coupled with the ingestion of...

304

30 CFR 71.602 - Drinking water; distribution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...requirements are applicable, water systems and appurtenances...71.402(b).) (b) Water transported to the site shall...impervious, heavy gauge, corrosion resistant materials. The containers shall...with the words “Drinking...

2011-07-01

305

30 CFR 71.602 - Drinking water; distribution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirements are applicable, water systems and appurtenances...71.402(b).) (b) Water transported to the site shall...constructed of smooth, impervious, heavy gauge, corrosion resistant materials...with the words “Drinking...

2010-07-01

306

APPLICATION OF USEPA'S DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS TOWARDS RAINWATER CATCHMENT SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Rainwater harvesting is receiving increased attention worldwide as an alternative source of drinking water. Although federal agencies such as the USEPA acknowledge the existence of rainwater collection systems, the monitoring of this water source is still typically carried out b...

307

IMPACT OF DRINKING WATER TREATMENT ON ASSIMILABLE ORGANIC CARBON  

EPA Science Inventory

Regrowth in the drinking water distribution system is a primary concern for water utilities. he disinfection process, although normally efficient for primary inactivation, is not always enough to discourage microbial regrowth if sufficient substrate is available. Previously, the,...

308

Water Dispensers at School May Encourage Kids to Drink More  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Water Dispensers at School May Encourage Kids to Drink More Researchers found students drank three times more water after dispensers were installed (*this news item will ...

309

30 CFR 75.1718-1 - Drinking water; quality.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

(a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions of § 75.1718 shall meet the applicable minimum health requirements for drinking water established by the State or community in which the mine is...

2012-07-01

310

THE PRESENCE OF ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SOLIDS  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this presentation was to determine whether solids found in drinking water distribution systems contain arsenic. Distribution system pipes and solids removed during hydrant flushing were collected from the distribution system of eight water utilities that had mea...

311

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, DAVIS Water Supply and Prospects in Baja California  

E-print Network

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, DAVIS Water Supply and Prospects in Baja California THESIS Submitted ................................... 11 Baja California Human Geography .......................... 11 Baja California Physical Geography ................................................................ 45 #12;3 Water Supply and Prospects in Baja California ABSTRACT The water supply infrastructure

Lund, Jay R.

312

Investigations on boron levels in drinking water sources in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate boron contamination of public drinking water in China, both dissolved and total boron contents in 98 public drinking\\u000a water sources from 49 cities, 42 brands of bottled water samples from supermarkets in several cities, and 58 water samples\\u000a from boron industrial area were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Our experimental results\\u000a showed that boron existed in

Ren-ji Xu; Xiao-ru Xing; Qun-fang Zhou; Gui-bin Jiang; Fu-sheng Wei

2010-01-01

313

California's Water Energy Relationship  

E-print Network

?........................................................6 THE WATER USE CYCLE .........................................................................................................................7 THE ENERGY INTENSITY OF THE WATER USE CYCLE ................................................................................................................................................16 Energy Recovery from the Water Use Cycle...............................................................................................

314

Drinking water from private wells and risks to children.  

PubMed

Drinking water for approximately one sixth of US households is obtained from private wells. These wells can become contaminated by pollutant chemicals or pathogenic organisms and cause illness. Although the US Environmental Protection Agency and all states offer guidance for construction, maintenance, and testing of private wells, there is little regulation. With few exceptions, well owners are responsible for their own wells. Children may also drink well water at child care or when traveling. Illness resulting from children's ingestion of contaminated water can be severe. This policy statement provides recommendations for inspection, testing, and remediation for wells providing drinking water for children. PMID:19482772

Rogan, Walter J; Brady, Michael T

2009-06-01

315

40 CFR Appendix III to Part 265 - EPA Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards III Appendix...CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) INTERIM...OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL...Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards...

2010-07-01

316

77 FR 61027 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act and Safe Drinking Water Act  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...treat sewage and provide drinking water at a number of its mobile home parks...facilities, exceeded federal drinking water standards for certain pollutants...to notify residents about drinking water problems. The Consent Decree requires...

2012-10-05

317

76 FR 72703 - Meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council-Notice of Public Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

Notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC or Council), established under the Safe Drinking Water Act. The Council will consider various issues associated with drinking water protection and public water systems including actions to assist small water systems and efforts underway to address nutrient pollution of drinking water supplies. The Council......

2011-11-25

318

Reproductive risks from contaminants in drinking water.  

PubMed

Reproductive toxicity is a complex subject which, besides birth defects or sterility, includes adverse effects which may be less readily observed but more relevant to chronic low-level exposures (e.g., impaired functional development of target organs or systems, secretion of toxic chemicals in maternal milk). Sodium chlorite, when present at high concentration, may be related to impaired reproduction; among water chlorination by-products, further research is required on the developmental toxicity of chloroacetic acid and dichloro- and trichloro acetonitrile. Among the water pollutants which may pose significant developmental hazards, risk assessments have been performed for nitrates/nitrites, fluorides and lead. Molinate (a herbicide), dibromochloropropane (a nematocide) and the halogenated contaminants ethylene dibromide and epichlorohydrin show an almost selective male reproductive toxicity, although they are likely to pose a risk mainly at occupational exposure conditions. Ethylene thiourea, an environmental metabolite of some fungicides is markedly teratogenic in the rat: however, other toxic effects are induced at levels of exposure significantly lower than the teratogenic ones. Such poorly water-soluble compounds as TCDD or hexachlorobenzene also need to be considered, because of their remarkable potentials for reproductive toxicity. Finally, it should be noted that the data on reproductive toxicity for a number of chemicals do not allow a risk assessment at present: this holds true also for some substances which might pose concerns on the basis of their levels in drinking water (e.g. tetrachloroethylene, nickel). Another area which deserves more attention is the investigation of the possible interactions of several contaminants present together at low levels. PMID:8279723

Mantovani, A

1993-01-01

319

Diversity and Significance of Mold Species in Norwegian Drinking Water?  

PubMed Central

In order to determine the occurrence, distribution, and significance of mold species in groundwater- and surface water-derived drinking water in Norway, molds isolated from 273 water samples were identified. Samples of raw water, treated water, and water from private homes and hospital installations were analyzed by incubation of 100-ml membrane-filtered samples on dichloran-18% glycerol agar. The total count (number of CFU per 100 ml) of fungal species and the species diversity within each sample were determined. The identification of mold species was based on morphological and molecular methods. In total, 94 mold species belonging to 30 genera were identified. The mycobiota was dominated by species of Penicillium, Trichoderma, and Aspergillus, with some of them occurring throughout the drinking water system. Several of the same species as isolated from water may have the potential to cause allergic reactions or disease in humans. Other species are common contaminants of food and beverages, and some may cause unwanted changes in the taste or smell of water. The present results indicate that the mycobiota of water should be considered when the microbiological safety and quality of drinking water are assessed. In fact, molds in drinking water should possibly be included in the Norwegian water supply and drinking water regulations. PMID:17028226

Hageskal, Gunhild; Knutsen, Ann Kristin; Gaustad, Peter; de Hoog, G. Sybren; Skaar, Ida

2006-01-01

320

NITRATE TOXICITY AND DRINKING WATER STANDARDS - A REVIEW  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current US EPA maximum contaminant level (MCL) for public drinking water supplies and the health advisory level (HAL) for other private water supplies is 10 mg\\/L, expressed as NO3-N. Unlike other drinking water standards, the nitrate standard has no safety factor, which typically is about a 10-fold safety factor to account for differences in human susceptibility. Guidance, action, or

B. C. Kross

321

Infantile methemoglobinemia: reexamining the role of drinking water nitrates.  

PubMed Central

Ingestion of nitrates in drinking water has long been thought to be a primary cause of acquired infantile methemoglobinemia, often called blue baby syndrome. However, recent research and a review of historical cases offer a more complex picture of the causes of infantile methemoglobinemia. Gastrointestinal infection and inflammation and the ensuing overproduction of nitric oxide may be the cause of many cases of infantile methemoglobinemia previously attributed to drinking water nitrates. If so, current limits on allowable levels of nitrates in drinking water, which are based solely on the health threat of infantile methemoglobinemia, may be unnecessarily strict. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10379005

Avery, A A

1999-01-01

322

USE ONLY WATER THAT HAS BEEN PROPERLY DISINFECTED FOR DRINKING, COOKING, MAKING ANY PREPARED DRINK, OR FOR BRUSHING TEETH  

E-print Network

, OR FOR BRUSHING TEETH 1. Use bottled water that has not been exposed to flood waters if it is available. 2. If you don't have bottled water, you should boil water to make it safe. Boiling water will kill most typesUSE ONLY WATER THAT HAS BEEN PROPERLY DISINFECTED FOR DRINKING, COOKING, MAKING ANY PREPARED DRINK

Tullos, Desiree

323

Time to revisit arsenic regulations: comparing drinking water and rice  

PubMed Central

Background Current arsenic regulations focus on drinking water without due consideration for dietary uptake and thus seem incoherent with respect to the risks arising from rice consumption. Existing arsenic guidelines are a cost-benefit compromise and, as such, they should be periodically re-evaluated. Discussion Literature data was used to compare arsenic exposure from rice consumption relative to exposure arising from drinking water. Standard risk assessment paradigms show that arsenic regulations for drinking water should target a maximum concentration of nearly zero to prevent excessive lung and bladder cancer risks (among others). A feasibility threshold of 3 ?g As l-1 was determined, but a cost-benefit analysis concluded that it would be too expensive to target a threshold below 10 ?g As l-1. Data from the literature was used to compare exposure to arsenic from rice and rice product consumption relative to drinking water consumption. The exposure to arsenic from rice consumption can easily be equivalent to or greater than drinking water exposure that already exceeds standard risks and is based on feasibility and cost-benefit compromises. It must also be emphasized that many may disagree with the implications for their own health given the abnormally high cancer odds expected at the cost-benefit arsenic threshold. Summary Tighter drinking water quality criteria should be implemented to properly protect people from excessive cancer risks. Food safety regulations must be put in place to prevent higher concentrations of arsenic in various drinks than those allowed in drinking water. Arsenic concentrations in rice should be regulated so as to roughly equate the risks and exposure levels observed from drinking water. PMID:24884827

2014-01-01

324

Organochlorine pesticides residues in bottled drinking water from Mexico City.  

PubMed

This work describes concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in bottled drinking water (BDW) in Mexico City. The results of 36 samples (1.5 and 19 L presentations, 18 samples, respectively) showed the presence of seven pesticides (HCH isomers, heptachlor, aldrin, and p,p'-DDE) in bottled water compared with the drinking water standards set by NOM-127-SSA1-1994, EPA, and World Health Organization. The concentrations of the majority of organochlorine pesticides were within drinking water standards (0.01 ng/mL) except for beta-HCH of BW 3, 5, and 6 samples with values of 0.121, 0.136, and 0.192 ng/mL, respectively. It is important monitoring drinking bottled water for protecting human health. PMID:19294327

Díaz, Gilberto; Ortiz, Rutilio; Schettino, Beatriz; Vega, Salvador; Gutiérrez, Rey

2009-06-01

325

77 FR 67361 - Request for Information To Inform Hydraulic Fracturing Research Related to Drinking Water Resources  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...for Information To Inform Hydraulic Fracturing Research Related to Drinking...the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources...the relationship between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water...

2012-11-09

326

78 FR 25267 - Request for Information To Inform Hydraulic Fracturing Research Related to Drinking Water Resources  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...for Information To Inform Hydraulic Fracturing Research Related to Drinking...the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources...the relationship between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water...

2013-04-30

327

The U.S. Geological Survey Drinking Water Initiative  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Safe drinking-water supplies are critical to maintaining and preserving public health. Although the Nation's drinking water is generally safe, natural and introduced contaminants in water supplies throughout the country have adversely affected human health. This new U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) initiative will provide information on the vulnerability of water supplies to be used by water-supply and regulatory agencies who must balance water-supply protection with the wise use of public funds. Using the results of the initiative, they will be better able to focus on the supplies most at risk and the variability of contaminants of most concern, and so address the mandates of the Safe Drinking Water Act. With its store of geologic, hydrologic, and land use and land cover data and its network of information in every State, the USGS can help to identify potential sources of contamination, delineate source areas, determine the vulnerability of waters to potential contamination, and evaluate strategies being used to protect source waters in light of the scientific information available. Many recent and ongoing studies by the USGS concern drinking-water issues. This fact sheet highlights four particular studies begun under the Drinking Water Initiative.

U.S. Geological Survey

1997-01-01

328

Drinking Spring Water and Lithium Absorption: A Preliminary Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In Japan, there are several resorts with cold springs that have mineral water containing relatively high levels of lithium compared to tap water. Visitors to such cold-spring resorts traditionally drink 2 to 4 L of mineral water for several hours in the early morning in the belief that the water has properties which maintain physical health. The present study

Ippei Shiotsuki; Takeshi Terao; Hirochika Ogami; Nobuyoshi Ishii; Reiji Yoshimura; Jun Nakamura

329

DRINKING WATER AS A SOURCE OF MINERAL NUTRITION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The contributions of drinking water to the mineral nutrition of individuals are functions of the mineral contents of that water and the rate of water consumption of those individuals. The mineral contents of water supplies vary considerably, and many are processed to remove minerals. In fact, the pr...

330

INEXPENSIVE DRINKING WATER CHLORINATION UNIT FOR SMALL COMMUNITIES - PHASE I  

EPA Science Inventory

More than 250 drinking water systems exist for small communities in Puerto Rico that serve between 25 and 500 individuals. These water systems fall outside of the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority and, thus, have insufficient water treatment systems or no water treatmen...

331

INEXPENSIVE DRINKING WATER CHLORINATION UNIT FOR SMALL COMMUNITIES - PHASE II  

EPA Science Inventory

Over 250 drinking water systems exist for small communities in Puerto Rico that serve 25-500 individuals. These water systems fall outside of Puerto Rico Aquaduct and Sewer Authority and, thus, have no or insufficient water treatment systems. Water sources for these communit...

332

Drinking water disinfection by-products: an Australian perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disinfection of water supplies is of paramount importance for the prevention of waterborne diseases. Unfortunately, an unwanted side effect is the formation of by-products. Currently, chlorine and monochloramine are the only agents used to disinfect major drinking water supplies in Australia. Historically, some Australian waters have produced high concentrations of disinfection by-products (DBPs) upon chlorination. However, most water authorities in

Karen L Simpson; Keith P Hayes

1998-01-01

333

ADVANCED CONTAMINANT INACTIVATION SYSTEM FOR DRINKING WATER - PHASE I  

EPA Science Inventory

The Environmental Protection Agency is soliciting innovations for the development of small unit drinking water systems that will inactivate contaminants, including pesticides, organic pollutants, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and pathogens. In the U.S., 85% ...

334

REMOVING TRIHALOMETHANES FROM DRINKING WATER - AN OVERVIEW OF TREATMENT TECHNIQUES  

EPA Science Inventory

In 1974 trihalomethanes (chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform) were discovered to be formed during the disinfection step of drinking water if free chlorine was the disinfectant. This, coupled with the perceived hazard to the consumer's health, led...

335

REMOVAL OF URANIUM FROM DRINKING WATER BY CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT METHODS  

EPA Science Inventory

The USEPA currently does not regulate uranium in drinking water but will be revising the radionuclide regulations during 1989 and will propose a maximum contaminant level for uranium. The paper presents treatment technology information on the effectiveness of conventional method...

336

APPLICATION OF MULTIMEDIA EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT TO DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

A potentially important exposure route for humans is the ingestion of chemicals via drinking water. If comprehensive exposure assessments are to be completed for either existing or proposed new chemicals and cost effective control strategies develop, then a quantitative understan...

337

Biological Treatment of Drinking Water: Applications, Advantages and Disadvantages  

EPA Science Inventory

The fundamentals of biological treatment are presented to an audience of state drinking water regulators. The presentation covers definitions, applications, the basics of bacterial metabolism, a discussion of treatment options, and the impact that implementation of these options...

338

PATHOGENS IN DRINKING WATER - ARE THERE ANY NEW ONES?  

EPA Science Inventory

Since 1976 three newly recognized human pathogens have become familiar to the drinking water industry as waterborne disease agents. hese are: the legionnaires disease agent, Legionella pneumophila and related species; and two protozoan pathogens, Giardia lamblia and Cryfltosoprid...

339

Unsealed tubewells lead to increased fecal contamination of drinking water  

E-print Network

, Larry D. McKay, Alice Layton, Daniel E. Williams, Md. J. Alam, Brian J. Mailloux, Andrew S. Ferguson improvements in microbial drinking water quality. Peter S. K. Knappett (corresponding author) Larry D. Mc

van Geen, Alexander

340

Communicating Research to Small Drinking Water Systems: Dissemination by Researchers  

EPA Science Inventory

This talk discusses the challenges of disseminating research relevant to small systems. The presentation discusses efforts by the U.S. EPA’s Office of Research and Development to effectively communicating drinking water information. In particular, communication approaches ...

341

Basic Information about Mercury (inorganic) in Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

Mercury (Inorganic) at a Glance Maximum Contaminant Level ( MCL ) = 0.002 milligrams per Liter (mg/L) or ... Health Effects Some people who drink water containing mercury well in excess of the MCL over many ...

342

Monochloramine Cometabolism by Nitrosomonas europaea under Drinking Water Conditions  

EPA Science Inventory

Chloramine use is widespread in United States drinking water systems as a secondary disinfectant. While beneficial from the perspective of controlling disinfectant by-product formation, chloramination may promote the growth of nitrifying bacteria because ammonia is present. At ...

343

Radium and Other Radiological Chemicals: Drinking Water Treatment Strategies  

EPA Science Inventory

Radium and Other Radiological Chemicals: Drinking Water Treatment Technologies Topics include: Introduction to Rad Chemistry, Summary of the Rad, Regulations Treatment Technology, and Disposal. The introductions cover atoms, ions, radium and uranium and the removal of radioac...

344

EPIDEMIOLOGICAL EVIDENCE OF CARCINOGENICITY OF CHLORINATED ORGANICS IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Concern has recently been voiced over possible chronic toxicity associated with chlorination of public drinking water supplies in the United States. This paper reviews the available evidence and the studies underway to further evaluate hypothesized associations between cancer ris...

345

MOLECULAR DIVERSITY OF DRINKING WATER MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES: A PHYLOGENETIC APPROACH  

EPA Science Inventory

Culture-based methods are traditionally used to determine microbiological quality of drinking water even though these methods are highly selective and tend to underestimate the densities and diversity bacterial populations inhabiting distribution systems. In order to better under...

346

EPA Study of Hydraulic Fracturing and Drinking Water Resources  

EPA Science Inventory

In its FY2010 Appropriations Committee Conference Report, Congress directed EPA to study the relationship between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water, using: ? Best available science ? Independent sources of information ? Transparent, peer-reviewed process ? Consultatio...

347

IDENTIFICATION OF NEW DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Due to concern over the potential adverse health effects of trihalomethanes (THMs) and other chlorinated by-products in chlorinated drinking water, alternative disinfectants are being explored. Ozone, chlorine dioxide, and chloramine are popular alternatives, as they produce low...

348

DEVELOPING APPROACHES TO ESTIMATE CUMULATIVE RISKS OF DRINKING WATER CONTAMINANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Humans are exposed daily to complex mixtures of drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs) via oral, dermal, and inhalation routes. Some positive epidemiological studies suggest reproductive and developmental effects and cancer are associated with consumption of chlorinated d...

349

Impact of Plumbing Age on Copper Levels in Drinking Water  

EPA Science Inventory

Theory and limited practical experiences suggest that higher copper levels in drinking water tap samples are typically associated with newer plumbing systems, and levels decrease with increasing plumbing age. Past researchers have developed a conceptual model to explain the ?agin...

350

IDENTIFICATION OF TI02/UV DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Due to concern over the presence of trihalomethanes (THMs) and other chlorinated byproducts in chlorinated drinking water, alternative disinfection methods are being explored. One of the alternative treatment methods currently being evaluated for potential use with small systems ...

351

REDUCING ARSENIC LEVELS IN DRINKING WATER DURING IRON REMOVAL PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The presentation provides an overview of iron removal technology for the removal of arsenic from drinking water. The presentation is divided into several topic topics: Arsenic Chemistry, Treatment Selection, Treatment Options, Case Studies and Iron Removal Processes. Each topic i...

352

Safe Drinking Water Act - Protecting America's Public Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This poster can assist students in understanding how everyday occurrences can affect their drinking water. It highlights risks to drinking water that come in many forms, such as municipal and industrial discharges, recreational activities or simply natural conditions and events. It provides a detailed graphic description of these risks and the barriers in place to help ensure the safety of our drinking water. The full-color poster can be downloaded or ordered in a 24 by 36 inch version in English or Spanish or an 11 by 17 inch version, by mail and at no cost to the classroom teacher. This site also contains ordering information for a free CD-ROM, Consider the Source: An Interactive Guide to Protecting America's Drinking Water.

353

Relationships Between Local Enforcement, Alcohol Availability, Drinking Norms, and Adolescent Alcohol Use in 50 California Cities  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study investigated relationships between local alcohol policies, enforcement, alcohol outlet density, adult alcohol use, and underage drinking in 50 California cities. Method: Eight local alcohol policies (e.g., conditional use permit, social host ordinance, window/billboard advertising) were rated for each city based on their comprehensiveness. Local alcohol enforcement was based on grants received from the California Alcoholic Beverage Control agency for enforcement of underage drinking laws. Outlet density was based on the number of on- and off-premise outlets per roadway mile. Level of adult alcohol use was ascertained from a survey of 8,553 adults and underage drinking (frequency of past-year alcohol use and heavy drinking) from surveys of 1,312 adolescents in 2009 and 2010. Multilevel regression analyses were conducted to examine the effects of policies, enforcement, and other community-level variables on adolescent drinking, controlling for youth demographic characteristics. Mediating effects of adolescents' perceived ease of obtaining alcohol, perceived enforcement, and perceived acceptability of alcohol use also were examined. Results: None of the eight local alcohol-policy ratings were associated with adolescent drinking. Funding for underage drinking enforcement activities was inversely related to frequency of past-year alcohol use, whereas outlet density and adult drinking were positively related to both past-year alcohol use and heavy drinking. These relationships were attenuated when controlling for perceived ease of obtaining alcohol, enforcement, and acceptability of alcohol use, providing evidence for mediation. Conclusions: Adolescent alcohol use and heavy drinking appear to be influenced by enforcement of underage drinking laws, alcohol outlet density, and adult alcohol use. These community-level influences may be at least partially mediated through adolescents' perceptions of alcohol availability, acceptability of alcohol use, and perceived likelihood of getting in trouble with local police. PMID:22630804

Paschall, Mallie J.; Grube, Joel W.; Thomas, Sue; Cannon, Carol; Treffers, Ryan

2012-01-01

354

Livestock drinking water microbiology and the factors influencing the quality of drinking water offered to cattle.  

PubMed

The microbial quality of livestock drinking water was evaluated in 473 cattle water troughs located at 99 different cattle operations. The mean log10-transformed coliform and Escherichia coli concentrations per milliliter of trough water were 1.76 +/- 1.25 (SD) and 0.98 +/- 1.06 (SD), respectively. The degree of E. coli contamination was positively associated with the proximity of the water trough to the feedbunk, protection of the trough from direct sunlight, lower concentrations of protozoa in the water, and warmer weather. Salmonella sp. were isolated from 2/235 (0.8%) troughs and shigatoxigenic-E. coli O157 was recovered from 6/473 (1.3%) troughs. Four experimental microcosms simulating cattle water troughs were used to further evaluate the effects of protozoal populations on the survival of E. coli O157 in cattle water troughs. Escherichia coli O157 of bovine fecal origin proliferated in all microcosms. Reduction of protozoal populations by treatment with cycloheximide was associated with increased persistence of E. coli O157 concentrations in the microcosms. Water troughs are a major source of exposure of cattle to enteric bacteria, including a number of foodborne pathogens, and this degree of bacterial contamination appeared to be associated with potentially controllable factors. PMID:11518311

LeJeune, J T; Besser, T E; Merrill, N L; Rice, D H; Hancock, D D

2001-08-01

355

Assessment of the school drinking water supply and the water quality in Pingtung County, Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a questionnaire survey of school drinking water quality of 42 schools in Pingtung County was conducted according\\u000a to the water sources, treatment facilities, location of school as well as different grade levels. Among them, 45% of schools\\u000a used tap water as the main source of drinking water, and the schools using groundwater and surface water as drinking

Pei-Ling Chung; Chung-Yi Chung; Shao-Wei Liao; Chang-Ling Miaw

2009-01-01

356

Rationales for Multiple Stage Ozonation in Drinking Water Treatment Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Starting in the early 1970s, the application of ozone for drinking water treatment began to evolve from primarily single-purpose, single-stage use for disinfection, taste and odor control or iron and manganese oxidation, to multipurpose uses of ozone. As a result, most of the newer drinking water treatment plants have installed two- and even three-stages of ozonation. in order to maximize

Rip G. Rice

1987-01-01

357

Lung Cancer and Arsenic Concentrations in Drinking Water in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cities in northern Chile had arsenic concentrations of 860 mg\\/liter in drinking water in the period 1958 -1970. Concen- trations have since been reduced to 40 mg\\/liter. We investi- gated the relation between lung cancer and arsenic in drinking water in northern Chile in a case-control study involving patients diagnosed with lung cancer between 1994 and 1996 and frequency-matched hospital

Catterina Ferreccio; Vivian Milosavjlevic; Guillermo Marshall; Ana Maria Sancha; Allan H. Smith

2000-01-01

358

Iodine in Drinking Waters, Vegetables, Cottonseed Meal, and Roughages.  

E-print Network

LIBRARY, A & M COLLEGE, G. S. FRAPS and J. F. FUDGE Division of Chemistry TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR, College Station, Texas BULLETIN NO. 595 NOVEMBER 1940 -- IODINE IN DRINKING WATERS, VEGETABLES..., COTTONSEED MEAL, AND ROUGEIAGES ! .I rq?,\\?Y - AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS T. 0. WALTON, President A96-1140-7M-LJ.80 5 [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] Iodine was determined in nearly 500 samples of city and rural drinking waters...

Fudge, J. F. (Joseph Franklin); Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1940-01-01

359

Public perception of drinking water from private water supplies: focus group analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Over four million Canadians receive their drinking water from private water supplies, and numerous studies report that these supplies often exceed the minimal acceptable standards for contamination. Canadians in rural areas test their water intermittently, if at all, and treatment of water from private supplies is not common. Understanding the perceptions of drinking water among residents served by private

Andria Q Jones; Catherine E Dewey; Kathryn Doré; Shannon E Majowicz; Scott A McEwen; David Waltner-Toews; Spencer J Henson; Eric Mathews

2005-01-01

360

75 FR 39935 - Drinking Water Strategy Contaminants as Group(s)-Notice of Web Dialogue  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

On March 22, 2010, Administrator Lisa P. Jackson announced the Drinking Water Strategy, a new vision to expand public health protection for drinking water by going beyond the traditional framework. The Drinking Water Strategy includes the following four principles: Addressing some contaminants as group(s) rather than one at a time so that enhancement of drinking water protection can be achieved......

2010-07-13

361

INTERGRATING SOURCE WATER PROTECTION AND DRINKING WATER TREATMENT: U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) is an internationally recognized water research organization established to assist in responding to public health concerns related to drinking water supplies. WSWRD has evolved from...

362

INTEGRATING SOURCE WATER PROTECTION AND DRINKING WATER TREATMENT: U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) is an internationally recognized water research organization established to assist in responding to public health concerns related to drinking water supplies. WSWRD has evolved from...

363

ETV REPORT: REMOVAL OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER ? PALL/KINETICO PUREFECTA DRINKING WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The Pall/Kinetico Purefecta? POU drinking water treatment system was tested for removal of aldicarb, benzene, cadmium, carbofuran, cesium, chloroform, dichlorvos, dicrotophos, fenamiphos, mercury, mevinphos, oxamyl, strontium, and strychnine. The Purefecta? employs several compon...

364

Biological instability in a chlorinated drinking water distribution network.  

PubMed

The purpose of a drinking water distribution system is to deliver drinking water to the consumer, preferably with the same quality as when it left the treatment plant. In this context, the maintenance of good microbiological quality is often referred to as biological stability, and the addition of sufficient chlorine residuals is regarded as one way to achieve this. The full-scale drinking water distribution system of Riga (Latvia) was investigated with respect to biological stability in chlorinated drinking water. Flow cytometric (FCM) intact cell concentrations, intracellular adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP), heterotrophic plate counts and residual chlorine measurements were performed to evaluate the drinking water quality and stability at 49 sampling points throughout the distribution network. Cell viability methods were compared and the importance of extracellular ATP measurements was examined as well. FCM intact cell concentrations varied from 5×10(3) cells mL(-1) to 4.66×10(5) cells mL(-1) in the network. While this parameter did not exceed 2.1×10(4) cells mL(-1) in the effluent from any water treatment plant, 50% of all the network samples contained more than 1.06×10(5) cells mL(-1). This indisputably demonstrates biological instability in this particular drinking water distribution system, which was ascribed to a loss of disinfectant residuals and concomitant bacterial growth. The study highlights the potential of using cultivation-independent methods for the assessment of chlorinated water samples. In addition, it underlines the complexity of full-scale drinking water distribution systems, and the resulting challenges to establish the causes of biological instability. PMID:24796923

Nescerecka, Alina; Rubulis, Janis; Vital, Marius; Juhna, Talis; Hammes, Frederik

2014-01-01

365

Biological Instability in a Chlorinated Drinking Water Distribution Network  

PubMed Central

The purpose of a drinking water distribution system is to deliver drinking water to the consumer, preferably with the same quality as when it left the treatment plant. In this context, the maintenance of good microbiological quality is often referred to as biological stability, and the addition of sufficient chlorine residuals is regarded as one way to achieve this. The full-scale drinking water distribution system of Riga (Latvia) was investigated with respect to biological stability in chlorinated drinking water. Flow cytometric (FCM) intact cell concentrations, intracellular adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP), heterotrophic plate counts and residual chlorine measurements were performed to evaluate the drinking water quality and stability at 49 sampling points throughout the distribution network. Cell viability methods were compared and the importance of extracellular ATP measurements was examined as well. FCM intact cell concentrations varied from 5×103 cells mL?1 to 4.66×105 cells mL?1 in the network. While this parameter did not exceed 2.1×104 cells mL?1 in the effluent from any water treatment plant, 50% of all the network samples contained more than 1.06×105 cells mL?1. This indisputably demonstrates biological instability in this particular drinking water distribution system, which was ascribed to a loss of disinfectant residuals and concomitant bacterial growth. The study highlights the potential of using cultivation-independent methods for the assessment of chlorinated water samples. In addition, it underlines the complexity of full-scale drinking water distribution systems, and the resulting challenges to establish the causes of biological instability. PMID:24796923

Nescerecka, Alina; Rubulis, Janis; Vital, Marius; Juhna, Talis; Hammes, Frederik

2014-01-01

366

A review of arsenic presence in China drinking water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chronic endemic arsenicosis areas have been discovered in China since 1960s. Up to 2012, 19 provinces had been found to have As concentration in drinking water exceeding the standard level (0.05 mg/L). Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang and Shanxi Province are historical well-known “hotspots” of geogenic As-contaminated drinking water. The goal of this review is to examine, summarize and discuss the information of As in drinking water for all provinces and territories in China. Possible natural As sources for elevating As level in drinking water, were documented. Geogenic As-contaminated drinking water examples were taken to introduce typical environmental conditions where the problems occurred: closed basins in arid or semi-arid areas and reducing aquifers under high pH conditions. Geothermal water or mineral water in mountains areas can be high-As water as well. For undiscovered areas, prediction of potential As-affected groundwater has been carried out by some research groups by use of logistic regression. Modeled maps of probability of geogenic As contamination in groundwater are promising to be used as references to discover unknown areas. Furthermore, anthropogenic As contaminations were summarized and mining, smelters and chemical industries were found to be major sources for As pollution in China.

He, Jing; Charlet, Laurent

2013-06-01

367

Bacterial Dynamics in the drinking water distribution system of Brussels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water samples and pipe coupons were collected from the Brussels's drinking water distribution system (DS). A treated surface water and various groundwaters feed this DS. Parameters related to bacterial regrowth have been measured on these samples: temperature, concentrations of free residual chlorine, concentration of biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC), abundance of suspended bacteria, densities of fixed bacteria and levels of

Patrick Niquette; Pierre Servais; Raoul Savoir

2001-01-01

368

Drinking water treatment options for taste and odor control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of drinking water treatment options for eliminating seasonal taste and odor events caused by phytoplankton blooms in the source water were evaluated. Dissolved air flotation (DAF), conventional gravity sedimentation (CGS), ozonation and granulated activated carbon (GAC) filtration processes were studied in pilot plant-scale experiments. Clarification by DAF consistently produced water with lower turbidity and particle counts (NP >

Erika E. Hargesheimer; Susan B. Watson

1996-01-01

369

Drinking water treatment residuals: A Review of recent uses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Coagulants such as alum [Al2(SO4)3•14H2O], FeCl3, or Fe2(SO4)3 are commonly used to remove particulate and dissolved constituents from water supplies in the production of drinking water. The resulting waste product, called water-treatment residuals (WTR), contains precipitated Al and Fe oxyhydroxide...

370

Condition Assessment for Drinking Water Transmission and Distribution Mains  

EPA Science Inventory

This project seeks to improve the capability to characterize the condition of water infrastructure. The integrity of buried drinking water mains is critical, as it influences water quality, losses, pressure and cost. This research complements the U.S. Environmental Protection A...

371

EXPOSURE TO ASBESTOS FROM DRINKING WATER IN THE UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

Over 1500 asbestos analyses of water supplies in 43 states, Puerto Rico and the District of Columbia were evaluated in order to assess the exposure of the United States population to asbestos in drinking water. It was cocluded that the large majority of U.S. water consumers are n...

372

Filtration plant for drinking water James Tarchala [1  

E-print Network

Filtration plant for drinking water James Tarchala [1] Alexandre Selhorst [2] Cheny Thao [3] 1 2 3 Riley, Wang, Aaron Nolan (Not Pictured) 12/1/2014 #12;Reclaiming waste HEAT TO PRE- HEAT WATER IN a FACTORY HOT WATER SYSTEM Group 5: Joseph Von Arx(1) Aaron McKeown(2) Kyle Swanson(3) Ian Klecka(4) 1 2 3 4

Kostic, Milivoje M.

373

Cleaning Membranes with Focused Ultrasound Beams for Drinking Water Treatment  

E-print Network

Cleaning Membranes with Focused Ultrasound Beams for Drinking Water Treatment Jian-yu Lu1 , Xi Du2: jilu@eng.utoledo.edu Abstract ­ Traditional methods for water treatment are not effective to remove to clean a large membrane area needed for a typical water treatment plant. In this paper, a focused

Lu, Jian-yu

374

A Review of Chlorine Dioxide in Drinking Water Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increased interest in using chlorine dioxide to treat drinking water for trihalomethane control, taste and odor control, oxidation of iron and manganese, and oxidant-enhanced coagulation-sedimentation. This article reviews the physical, chemical, and biological properties of chlorine dioxide as they relate to water treatment. The generation reactions as well as the reactions likely to occur in treated water are

E. Marco Aieta; James D. Berg

1986-01-01

375

DETECTION OF ENTERIC VIRUSES IN TREATED DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The occurrence of viruses in conventionally treated drinking water derived from a heavily polluted source was evaluated by collecting and analyzing 38 large volume (65 to 756 liter) samples of water from a 9m3/sec (205 mgd) water treatment plant. Samples of raw, clarified, filter...

376

REDUCING ARSENIC LEVELS IN DRINKING WATER: APPROACHES AND CONSIDERATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The recently promulgated Arsenic Rule will require that many new drinking water systems treat their water to remove arsenic. It has been projected that the State of Ohio will have nearly 140 community and non-community non-transient water systems in violation of the Rule. This ...

377

BIOASSAY PROCEDURE FOR PREDICTING COLIFORM BACTERIAL GROWTH IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Water quality degradation due to the growth of microorganisms Is an area of concern for many water utilities. urrently the nutrient status of drinking water is difficult to measure and can only be defined in relative terms. o date, the procedures developed for determining the amo...

378

Women's childhood and adult adverse experiences, mental health, and binge drinking: The California Women's Health Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This study examined sociodemographic, physical and mental health, and adult and childhood adverse experiences associated with binge drinking in a representative sample of women in the State of California. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were from the 2003 to 2004 (response rates of 72% and 74%, respectively) California Women's Health Survey (CWHS), a population-based, random-digit-dial annual probability survey sponsored by

Christine Timko; Anne Sutkowi; Joanne Pavao; Rachel Kimerling

2008-01-01

379

DRINKING WATER QUALITY DETERIORATION IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS: COLORED WATER FORMATION AND ITS CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

The release of iron from drinking water distribution systems is a common source of drinking water distribution system consumer complaints. Suspended iron particles result in colored (red) water and metallic tasting water. Iron release results from both physical and chemical mec...

380

Protecting Sources of Drinking Water: Case Studies in Watershed Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Water has released a publication concerning the quality of drinking water in America that supplements the recent 1997 National Public Water System Annual Compliance Report (discussed in the April 28, 1999 Scout Report for Science & Engineering). This report documents the experiences of seventeen drinking water suppliers who draw from lakes, reservoirs, and rivers in their efforts to manage and protect their sources. The report covers topics such as creating partnerships, watershed assessment, land use in watersheds, and wastewater management.

United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Water.

1999-01-01

381

Water-drinking as ictal behavior in complex partial seizures.  

PubMed

The urge to demand, pour, and drink water at the time of an attack was encountered in 20 patients who had seizures with complex partial symptomatology. Two patients were studied with bitemporal stereotaxically implanted depth electrodes. Drinking was associated with electrographic and clinical seizures starting in the amygdala, hippocampus, and parahippocampal gyrus. Sometimes, this was the only clinical manifestation of an attack, and its significance would not have been recognized without depth recording. Ictal drinking was never encountered in patients without electroencephalographic evidence of temporal epileptic abnormality, and therefore seems to have localizing significance. PMID:7193295

Rémillard, G M; Andermann, F; Gloor, P; Olivier, A; Martin, J B

1981-02-01

382

COST AND BENEFITS OF DRINKING WATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The article develops a framework for evaluating the costs and benefits of environmental control and preventive public health practices and asks the policy question: How do the authors achieve the best mix of protection against infectious disease and toxic chemicals in drinking wa...

383

A role for human reliability analysis (HRA) in preventing drinking water incidents and securing safe drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of water quality incidents and disease outbreaks suggests an imperative to analyse and understand the roles of operators and organisations in the water supply system. One means considered in this paper is through human reliability analysis (HRA). We classify the human errors contributing to 62 drinking water accidents occurring in affluent countries from 1974 to 2001; define the

Shaomin Wu; Steve Hrudey; Simon French; Tim Bedford; Emma Soane; Simon Pollard

2009-01-01

384

Chlorine stress mediates microbial surface attachment in drinking water systems.  

PubMed

Microbial attachment to drinking water pipe surfaces facilitates pathogen survival and deteriorates disinfection performance, directly threatening the safety of drinking water. Notwithstanding that the formation of biofilm has been studied for decades, the underlying mechanisms for the origins of microbial surface attachment in biofilm development in drinking water pipelines remain largely elusive. We combined experimental and mathematical methods to investigate the role of environmental stress-mediated cell motility on microbial surface attachment in chlorination-stressed drinking water distribution systems. Results show that at low levels of disinfectant (0.0-1.0 mg/L), the presence of chlorine promotes initiation of microbial surface attachment, while higher amounts of disinfectant (>1.0 mg/L) inhibit microbial attachment. The proposed mathematical model further demonstrates that chlorination stress (0.0-5.0 mg/L)-mediated microbial cell motility regulates the frequency of cell-wall collision and thereby controls initial microbial surface attachment. The results reveal that transport processes and decay patterns of chlorine in drinking water pipelines regulate microbial cell motility and, thus, control initial surface cell attachment. It provides a mechanistic understanding of microbial attachment shaped by environmental disinfection stress and leads to new insights into microbial safety protocols in water distribution systems. PMID:25359474

Liu, Li; Le, Yang; Jin, Juliang; Zhou, Yuliang; Chen, Guowei

2015-03-01

385

Occurrence of organophosphate flame retardants in drinking water from China.  

PubMed

Several organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) have been identified as known or suspected carcinogens or neurotoxic substances. Given the potential health risks of these compounds, we conducted a comprehensive survey of nine OPFRs in drinking water in China. We found total concentrations of OPFRs in tap water ranging from 85.1 ng/L to 325 ng/L, and tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBEP), triphenyl phosphate (TPP), and tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCPP) were the most common components. Similar OPFR concentrations and profiles were observed in water samples processed through six different waterworks in Nanjing, China. However, boiling affected OPFR levels in drinking water by either increasing (e.g., TBEP) or decreasing (e.g., tributyl phosphate, TBP) concentrations depending on the particular compound and the state of the indoor environment. We also found that bottled water contained many of the same major OPFR compounds with concentrations 10-25% lower than those in tap water, although TBEP contamination in bottled water remained a concern. Finally, we concluded that the risk of ingesting OPFRs through drinking water was not a major health concern for either adults or children in China. Nevertheless, drinking water ingestion represents an important exposure pathway for OPFRs. PMID:24556230

Li, Jun; Yu, Nanyang; Zhang, Beibei; Jin, Ling; Li, Meiying; Hu, Mengyang; Zhang, Xiaowei; Wei, Si; Yu, Hongxia

2014-05-01

386

Occurrence and hygienic relevance of fungi in drinking water.  

PubMed

Fungi, above all filamentous fungi, can occur almost everywhere, even in water. They can grow in such a quantity in water that they can affect the health of the population or have negative effects on food production. There are several reports of fungal growth in water from different countries, but to our knowledge none from Austria so far. The aim of this study was to gain an overview of the spectrum of filamentous fungi and yeasts in drinking water systems. Thirty-eight water samples from drinking water and groundwater were analysed. Fungi were isolated by using membrane filtration and plating method with subsequent cultivation on agar plates. The different taxa of fungi were identified using routine techniques as well as molecular methods. Fungi were isolated in all water samples examined. The mean value for drinking water was 9.1 CFU per 100 ml and for groundwater 5400 CFU per 100 ml. Altogether 32 different taxa of fungi were found. The taxa which occurred most frequently were Cladosporium spp., Basidiomycetes and Penicillium spp. (74.6%, 56.4% and 48.7%, respectively). This study shows that drinking water can be a reservoir for fungi, among them opportunists, which can cause infections in immunosuppressed patients. PMID:18254755

Kanzler, D; Buzina, W; Paulitsch, A; Haas, D; Platzer, S; Marth, E; Mascher, F

2008-03-01

387

Disinfection Procedure for Water Distribution Pipelines Drinking water contamination can be prevented by hydrostatic testing and disinfection of  

E-print Network

Disinfection Procedure for Water Distribution Pipelines Drinking water contamination can be prevented by hydrostatic testing and disinfection of potable water distribution pipelines before connecting pipeline connections to the system, and respond to requests for drinking water assessments. And, any

de Lijser, Peter

388

Assessment of environmental health risk for drinking water sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exposure to drinking water is one of the important ways to influence human health. This study calculated the health risk of adults and children for drinking water sources in the Fuyang city. The results showed that the total health risk of adults and children caused by water quality was 6.75 × 10-5 and 8.15 × 10-5, which exceeded the highest acceptable risk of 5.0 × 10-5 from the International Radiation Committee, but was still lower than the maximum risk level of 1.0 × 10-4 from US EPA. The health risk of children is 20% higher than that of adults, so we should pay more attention to children for drinking water health issues.

Hu, Xibang; Xu, Zhencheng; Wang, Junneng; Zeng, Dong; Han, Qiuping

389

German drinking water regulations, pesticides, and axiom of concern  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The limit value of 0.1 µg/liter for “substances used in plant treatment and pest control including their main toxic degradation products” (PBSM) established in the German Drinking Water Regulations (Trinkwasserverordnung) serves comprehensively to protect drinking water from unexpected toxicological risks and thus corresponds to the axiom of concern (Besorgnisgrundsatz) contained in §11,2 of the Federal Communicable Disease Control Act (Bundesseuchengesetz), which is an essential cornerstone of the Drinking Water Regulations. Furthermore, precautionary values that are specific to the particular substance and near the valid limit can be found for about 10% of all registered active substances. The goal of the PBSM Recommendations of the Federal Health Office (BGA) issued in July 1989 is to preserve and restore groundwater and drinking water through measures to be taken by the causal party, while reducing consumer health risks to the greatest extent possible. The EC commission's drawbacks on these recommendations and the imminent EC-wide directive for the uniform registration of pesticides being based solely on Article 43 of the European Treaty would seriously endanger this goal. Therefore, a situation threatens in Europe similar to that in the United States, where at least 18 active ingredients have been detected in groundwater in concentrations of up to 1000 times the toxicologically established limits for drinking water.

Dieter, Hermann H.

1992-01-01

390

Health risks due to radon in drinking water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Following more than a decade of scientific debate about the setting of a standard for 222Rn in drinking water, Congress established a timetable for the promulgation of a standard in the 1996 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act. As a result of those Amendments, the EPA contracted with the National Academy of Sciences to undertake a risk assessment for exposure to radon in drinking water. In addition, the resulting committee was asked to address several other scientific issues including the national average ambient 222Rn concentration and the increment of 222Rn to the indoor- air concentration arising from the use of drinking water in a home. A new dosimetric analysis of the cancer risk to the stomach from ingestion was performed. The recently reported risk estimates developed by the BEIR VI Committee for inhalation of radon decay products were adopted. Because the 1996 Amendments permit states to develop programs in which mitigation of air- producing health-risk reductions equivalent to that which would be achieved by treating the drinking water, the scientific issues involved in such 'multimedia mitigation programs' were explored.

Hopke, P.K.; Borak, T.B.; Doull, J.; Cleaver, J.E.; Eckerman, K.F.; Gundersen, L.C.S.; Harley, N.H.; Hess, C.T.; Kinner, N.E.; Kopecky, K.J.; Mckone, T.E.; Sextro, R.G.; Simon, S.L.

2000-01-01

391

California State Water Resources Control Board  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From this website one can link to laws and regulations related to water and water issues in California, as well as to the state's nine regional control boards. Topics covered include water education, water quality and water rights, as well as various programs such as blue-green algae, environmental justice, irrigated agriculture, septic, and storm water, among others. This website is a good source of California-based policy on water resource issues.

State Water Resources Control Board

392

DEVELOPING WATER: THE SOCIOP OLITICAL CONSTRAINTS TO PROVIDING CLEAN DRINKING WATER IN RURAL INDIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Providing access to safe drinking water is one of the preeminent issues faced by the developing world today. Globally, 1.1 billion people do not have access to safe drinking water, with 669 of those people residing in Asia (Asian Water Watch, 2006). Despite repeated efforts by private and governmental organizations to address this serious worldwide problem, populations in developing countries

WHITMAN DIRECT ACTION; Daniel Bachhuber; Jessica Conrad; Timothy Shadix

393

SMALL DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR COMPLIANCE WITH THE ENHANCED SURFACE WATER TREATMENT RULES  

EPA Science Inventory

According to FY2003 statistics compiled by the Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, the U.S. regulates about 160,000 small drinking water systems that impact close to 70 million people. Small systems (serving transient and non-transient populations of 10,000 people or less...

394

EVALUATION OF DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNIQUES FOR EDC REMOVAL  

EPA Science Inventory

Many of the chemicals identified as potential endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may be present in surface or ground waters used as drinking water sources, due to their disposal via domestic and industrial sewage treatment systems and wet-weather runoff. In order to decrease t...

395

SAFE DRINKING WATER FROM SMALL SYSTEMS: TREATMENT OPTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Bringing small water systems into compliance with the ever-increasing number of regulations will require flexibility in terms of technology application and institional procedures. his article looks at the means by which small systems can provide safe drinking water, focusing on t...

396

GASTROINTESTINAL ABSORPTION OF SOLUBLE URANIUM FROM DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The manuscript describes results of an experiment to determine the gastrointestinal absorption of uranium from drinking water in 12 health adults. Most of the uranium ingested was excreted in feces in the first 2 days following ingestion of the water. The absorption was the same ...

397

Drinking Water Security and Public Health Disease Outbreak Surveillance  

Microsoft Academic Search

he U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) strives to develop tech- nologies and protocols to assist drinking water utilities in reducing the risks of potential terrorist attacks on our nation's infrastructure. Of par- ticular interest are the development and feasibility testing of contamination warning systems that integrate existing public health surveillance and water quality mea- surements. In collaboration with the EPA,

Steven M. Babin; Howard S. Burkom; Zaruhi R. Mnatsakanyan; Liane C. Ramac-Thomas; Michael W. Thompson; Richard A. Wojcik; Sheri Happel Lewis; Cynthia Yund

398

ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY IRON REMOVAL PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report documents a long term performance study of two iron removal water treatment plants to remove arsenic from drinking water sources. Performance information was collected from one system located in midwest for one full year and at the second system located in the farwest...

399

USEPA'S RESEARCH EFFORTS IN SMALL DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Currently, in the United States there are approximately 50,000 small community and 130,000 non-community systems providing water to over 25 million people. The drinking water treatment systems at these locations are not always adequate to comply with current and pending regulati...

400

TREATMENT ALTERNATIVES FOR CONTROLLING CHLORINATED ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

A pilot plant study was conducted by the City of Thornton, Colorado, to evaluate techniques for controlling chlorinated organic compounds formed in drinking water as a result of breakpoint, or free, chlorination. The pilot plant was operated for 46 months using the raw water sour...

401

GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON FOR REMOVING NONTRIHALOMETHANE ORGANICS FROM DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Several large field scale research projects were initiated by the U.S. EPA Drinking Water Research Division, MERL, Cincinnati, OH to evaluate the performance of GAC under varying operating conditions and different source water. Most of this research has been completed at nine loc...

402

The Accumulation of Radioactive Contaminants in Drinking Water Distribution Systems  

EPA Science Inventory

The accumulation of trace contaminants in drinking water distribution systems has been documented and the subsequent release of the contaminants back to the water is a potential exposure pathway. Radioactive contaminants are of particular concern because of their known health eff...

403

INTERACTIVE WORKSHOP ON ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

In 2005, EPA's Office of Water and Office of Research and Development collaborated to present eleven arsenic training events. The workshops provided in-depth treatment technology training to help those affected; state drinking water staff, design engineers, system owners and cert...

404

LABORATORY ANALYSIS FOR ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER SAMPLES  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has established maximum contaminant levels ( MCLs ), for many inorganic contaminants found in drinking water, to protect the health of consumers. Some of these chemicals occur naturally in source waters while some are the result o...

405

NUTRIENTS FOR BACTERIAL GROWTH IN DRINKING WATER: BIOASSAY EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The regrowth of bacteria in drinking water distribution systems can lead to the deterioration of water quality. Pathogenic bacteria are heterotrophs, and heterotrophs are probably the dominant bacteria associated with the regrowth phenomenon. Only a portion of the total organic c...

406

Risk of Internal Cancers from Arsenic in Drinking Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is under a congressional mandate to revise its current standard for arsenic in drinking water. We present a risk assessment for cancers of the bladder, liver, and lung from exposure to arsenic in water, based on data from 42 villages in an arseniasis- endemic region of Taiwan. We calculate excess lifetime risk estimates for several

Knashawn H. Morales; Louise Ryan; Tsung-Li Kuo; Meei-Maan Wu; Chien-Jen Chen

407

Wastewater to Drinking Water: Are Emerging Contaminants Making it Through?  

EPA Science Inventory

Lake Mead serves as the primary drinking water source for Las Vegas, Nevada and surrounding communities. Besides snow-melt from the Rockies water levels in the lake are supplemented by the inflow of treated wastewater from communities along the Colorado River, including Las Vegas...

408

EFFECT OF THE DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM ON DRINKING WATER QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The Safe Drinking Water Act and its Amendments has focused interest on the factors that cause the deterioration of water between the treatment plant and the consumer. The distribution system itself can contribute to this deterioration. Numerous examples of waterborne disease outb...

409

SAFE DRINKING WATER FOR THE LITTLE GUY: OPTIONS AND ALTERNATIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) and its Amendments sets regulations applicable to all community water systems that have 15 or more service connections and/or serve at least 25 people. t first glance, this may appear most inclusive, but in reality there are numerous private hom...

410

Photocatalytic Coats in Glass Drinking-Water Bottles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

According to a proposal, the insides of glass bottles used to store drinking water would be coated with films consisting of or containing TiO2. In the presence of ultraviolet light, these films would help to remove bacteria, viruses, and trace organic contaminants from the water.

Andren, Anders W.; Armstrong, David E.; Anderson, Marc A.

2005-01-01

411

Drinking water treatment processes for removal of Cryptosporidium and Giardia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major waterborne cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis outbreaks associated with contaminated drinking water have been linked to evidence of suboptimal treatment. Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts are particularly more resistant than Giardia lamblia cysts to removal and inactivation by conventional water treatment (coagulation, sedimentation, filtration and chlorine disinfection); therefore, extensive research has been focused on the optimization of treatment processes and application of new

Walter Q. Betancourt; Joan B. Rose

2004-01-01

412

UNREGULATED DRINKING WATER CONTAMINANTS AND INNOVATIVE APPROACHES FOR DETERMINING NEUROTOXICITY  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA's Office of Water (OW) is concerned about potential neurotoxicity of monomethyl, dimethyl, monobutyl, and dibutyl organotins that can leach into drinking water from PVC pipe. NTD?s evaluation of these organotins indicated that they were not likely to be a significant risk at ...

413

A Study on Arsenic Removal from Household Drinking Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic removal from household drinking water has been receiving considerable attention in the field of water supply engineering. To develop the optimal coagulation protocol, the effectiveness of several operation options such as coagulants, coagulant aids and additives, as well as flocs separation systems were investigated in this study through the use of orthogonal array experiment based on Taguchi method. Arsenic

Tao Yuan; Qi-Fang Luo; Jiang-Yong Hu; Say-Leong Ong; Wun-Jern Ng

2003-01-01

414

Coliform culturability in over- versus undersaturated drinking waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The culturability of Escherichia coli in undersaturated drinking water with respect to CaCO3 (corrosive water) or in oversaturated water (non-corrosive water) was tested in different reactors: glass flasks (batch, “non-reactive” wall); glass reactors (chemostat, “non-reactive” wall) versus a corroded cast iron Propella™ reactor (chemostat, “reactive” wall) and a 15-year-old distribution system pilot (chemostat, “reactive” wall with 1% corroded cast iron

D. Grandjean; S. Fass; D. Tozza; J. Cavard; V. Lahoussine; S. Saby; H. Guilloteau; J.-C. Block

2005-01-01

415

Water, Water Everywhere, But Not a Drop to Drink: Pani Politics (Water Politics) in Rural Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article looks at the nature of water politics (pani politics) in the context of arsenic contamination of drinking water in rural Bangladesh. Pani politics is found to be a product of intersecting similarities and differences among women and men, where water comes to have material and symbolic power that people can exercise, which can lead to conflicts, marginalization and

Farhana Sultana

2007-01-01

416

77 FR 27057 - Request for Nominations of Drinking Water Contaminants for the Fourth Contaminant Candidate List  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...National Academy of Science's (NAS) National Research Council (NRC...National Drinking Water Advisory Council...is http://water.epa.gov...National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council. 2001...Classifying Drinking Water...

2012-05-08

417

PREDICTING CHLORINE RESIDUAL DECAY IN DRINKING WATER: A SECOND ORDER MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

A major objective of drinking water treatment is to provide water that is both microbiologically and chemically safe for human consumption. Drinking water chlorination, therefore, poses a dilemma. Chemical disinfection reduces the risk of infectious disease but the interaction be...

418

78 FR 28242 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act On May 7, 2013, the Department of Justice lodged...Carmen Aurea Fernandez Ramos for violations of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) and the Surface Water Treatment...

2013-05-14

419

Development of EPA Method 525.3 for the Analysis of Semivolatiles in Drinking Water  

EPA Science Inventory

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water (OGWDW) collects nationwide occurrence data on contaminants in drinking water using the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Regulations (UCMRs). The unregulated contaminants, which ar...

420

CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF NEWLY DISCOVERED IODOACID DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Iodoacid drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBPs) were recently uncovered in drinking water samples from source water with a high bromide/iodide concentration that was disinfected with chloramines. The purpose of this paper is to report the analytical chemical identification...

421

Pathogens in drinking water: Are there any new ones  

SciTech Connect

Since 1976 three newly recognized human pathogens have become familiar to the drinking water industry as waterborne disease agents. These are: the legionnaires disease agent, Legionella pneumophila and related species; and two protozoan pathogens, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum, both of which form highly disinfectant resistant cysts that are shed in the feces of infected individuals. The question frequently arises - are there other emerging waterborne pathogens that may pose a human health problem that the drinking water industry will have to deal with. The paper will review the current state of knowledge of the occurrence and incidence of pathogens and opportunistic pathogens other than Legionella, Giardia and Cryptosporidium in treated and untreated drinking water. Bacterial agents that will be reviewed include Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Campylobacter, Mycobacterium, Yersinia and Plesiomonas. Aspects of detection of these agents including detection methods and feasibility of monitoring will be addressed.

Reasoner, D.J.

1993-01-01

422

Natural organic matter removal by coagulation during drinking water treatment: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural organic matter (NOM) is found in all surface, ground and soil waters. An increase in the amount of NOM has been observed over the past 10–20years in raw water supplies in several areas, which has a significant effect on drinking water treatment. The presence of NOM causes many problems in drinking water and drinking water treatment processes, including (i)

Anu Matilainen; Mikko Vepsäläinen; Mika Sillanpää

2010-01-01

423

Postexercise rehydration: potassium-rich drinks versus water and a sports drink.  

PubMed

Fluid retention, thirst quenching, tolerance, and palatability of different drinks were assessed. On 4 different days, 12 healthy, physically active volunteers (24.4 ± 3.2 years old, 74.75 ± 11.36 kg body mass (mean ± S.D)), were dehydrated to 2.10% ± 0.24% body mass by exercising in an environmental chamber (32.0 ± 0.4 °C dry bulb, 53.8 ± 5.2% relative humidity). Each day they drank 1 of 4 beverages in random order: fresh coconut water (FCW), bottled water (W), sports drink (SD), or potassium-rich drink (NEW); volume was 120% of weight loss. Urine was collected and perceptions self-reported for 3 h. Urine output was higher (p < 0.05) for W (894 ± 178 mL) than SD (605 ± 297 mL) and NEW (599 ± 254 mL). FCW (686 ± 250 mL) was not different from any other drink (p > 0.05). Fluid retention was higher for SD than W (68.2% ± 13.0% vs. 51.3% ± 12.6%, p = 0.013), but not for FCW and NEW (62.5% ± 15.4% and 65.9% ± 15.4%, p > 0.05). All beverages were palatable and well tolerated; none maintained a positive net fluid balance after 3 h, but deficit was greater in W versus SD (p = 0.001). FCW scored higher for sweetness (p = 0.03). Thirst increased immediately after exercise but returned to baseline after drinking a small volume (p < 0.0005). In conclusion, additional potassium in FCW and NEW did not result in additional rehydration benefits over those already found in a conventional sports drink with sodium. PMID:25017113

Pérez-Idárraga, Alexandra; Aragón-Vargas, Luis Fernando

2014-10-01

424

40 CFR 142.19 - EPA review of State implementation of national primary drinking water regulations for lead and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...implementation of national primary drinking water regulations for lead and copper. 142...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION Primary...

2011-07-01

425

40 CFR 142.19 - EPA review of State implementation of national primary drinking water regulations for lead and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...implementation of national primary drinking water regulations for lead and copper. 142...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION Primary...

2010-07-01

426

40 CFR 142.19 - EPA review of State implementation of national primary drinking water regulations for lead and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...implementation of national primary drinking water regulations for lead and copper. 142...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION Primary...

2012-07-01

427

Lung cancer and arsenic concentrations in drinking water in Chile.  

PubMed

Cities in northern Chile had arsenic concentrations of 860 microg/liter in drinking water in the period 1958-1970. Concentrations have since been reduced to 40 microg/liter. We investigated the relation between lung cancer and arsenic in drinking water in northern Chile in a case-control study involving patients diagnosed with lung cancer between 1994 and 1996 and frequency-matched hospital controls. The study identified 152 lung cancer cases and 419 controls. Participants were interviewed regarding drinking water sources, cigarette smoking, and other variables. Logistic regression analysis revealed a clear trend in lung cancer odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) with increasing concentration of arsenic in drinking water, as follows: 1, 1.6 (95% CI = 0.5-5.3), 3.9 (95% CI = 1.2-12.3), 5.2 (95% CI = 2.3-11.7), and 8.9 (95% CI = 4.0-19.6), for arsenic concentrations ranging from less than 10 microg/liter to a 65-year average concentration of 200-400 microg/liter. There was evidence of synergy between cigarette smoking and ingestion of arsenic in drinking water; the odds ratio for lung cancer was 32.0 (95% CI = 7.2-198.0) among smokers exposed to more than 200 microg/liter of arsenic in drinking water (lifetime average) compared with nonsmokers exposed to less than 50 microg/liter. This study provides strong evidence that ingestion of inorganic arsenic is associated with human lung cancer. PMID:11055628

Ferreccio, C; González, C; Milosavjlevic, V; Marshall, G; Sancha, A M; Smith, A H

2000-11-01

428

Nitrates in Drinking Water and the Risk of Death from Rectal Cancer: Does Hardness in Drinking Water Matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to (1) examine the relationship between nitrate levels in public water supplies and increased risk of death from rectal cancer and (2) determine whether calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) levels in drinking water might modify the effects of nitrate on development of rectal cancer. A matched case-control study was used to investigate the relationship

Chih-Ching Chang; Chih-Cheng Chen; Deng-Chuang Wu; Chun-Yuh Yang

2010-01-01

429

Nitrates in Drinking Water and The Risk of Death from Brain Cancer: Does Hardness in Drinking Water Matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to (1) examine the relationship between nitrate levels in public water supplies and risk of death from brain cancer and (2) determine whether calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) levels in drinking water might modify the influence of nitrates on development of brain cancer. A matched cancer case-control study was used to investigate the relationship

Chi-Kung Ho; Ya-Hui Yang; Chun-Yuh Yang

2011-01-01

430

Introduction Global demand for drinking water  

E-print Network

perceptions and an important coping strategy, bottled water consumption, of Phoenix Downtown Market vendors assess how socio-demographic factors influence respondent's water quality index and bottled water% use bottled water Demographics, Immigration, and Tap Water Quality Perceptions in the Phoenix

Hall, Sharon J.

431

New Perspectives in Monitoring Drinking Water Microbial Quality  

PubMed Central

The safety of drinking water is evaluated by the results obtained from faecal indicators during the stipulated controls fixed by the legislation. However, drinking-water related illness outbreaks are still occurring worldwide. The failures that lead to these outbreaks are relatively common and typically involve preceding heavy rain and inadequate disinfection processes. The role that classical faecal indicators have played in the protection of public health is reviewed and the turning points expected for the future explored. The legislation for protecting the quality of drinking water in Europe is under revision, and the planned modifications include an update of current indicators and methods as well as the introduction of Water Safety Plans (WSPs), in line with WHO recommendations. The principles of the WSP approach and the advances signified by the introduction of these preventive measures in the future improvement of dinking water quality are presented. The expected impact that climate change will have in the quality of drinking water is also critically evaluated. PMID:21318002

Figueras, Ma José; Borrego, Juan J.

2010-01-01

432

Recent advances in drinking water disinfection: successes and challenges.  

PubMed

Drinking water is the most important single source of human exposure to gastroenteric diseases, mainly as a result of the ingestion of microbial contaminated water. Waterborne microbial agents that pose a health risk to humans include enteropathogenic bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. Therefore, properly assessing whether these hazardous agents enter drinking water supplies, and if they do, whether they are disinfected adequately, are undoubtedly aspects critical to protecting public health. As new pathogens emerge, monitoring for relevant indicator microorganisms (e.g., process microbial indicators, fecal indicators, and index and model organisms) is crucial to ensuring drinking water safety. Another crucially important step to maintaining public health is implementing Water Safety Plans (WSPs), as is recommended by the current WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. Good WSPs include creating health-based targets that aim to reduce microbial risks and adverse health effects to which a population is exposed through drinking water. The use of disinfectants to inactivate microbial pathogens in drinking water has played a central role in reducing the incidence of waterborne diseases and is considered to be among the most successful interventions for preserving and promoting public health. Chlorine-based disinfectants are the most commonly used disinfectants and are cheap and easy to use. Free chlorine is an effective disinfectant for bacteria and viruses; however, it is not always effective against C. parvum and G. lamblia. Another limitation of using chlorination is that it produces disinfection by-products (DBPs), which pose potential health risks of their own. Currently, most drinking water regulations aggressively address DBP problems in public water distribution systems. The DBPs of most concern include the trihalomethanes (THMs), the haloacetic acids (HAAs), bromate, and chlorite. However, in the latest edition of the WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality, it is recommended that water disinfection should never be compromised by attempting to control DBPs. The reason for this is that the risks of human illness and death from pathogens in drinking water are much greater than the risks from exposure to disinfectants and disinfection by-products. Nevertheless, if DBP levels exceed regulatory limits, strategies should focus on eliminating organic impurities that foster their formation, without compromising disinfection. As alternatives to chlorine, disinfectants such as chloramines, ozone, chlorine dioxide, and UV disinfection are gaining popularity. Chlorine and each of these disinfectants have individual advantage and disadvantage in terms of cost, efficacy-stability, ease of application, and nature of disinfectant by-products (DBPs). Based on efficiency, ozone is the most efficient disinfectant for inactivating bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. In contrast, chloramines are the least efficient and are not recommended for use as primary disinfectants. Chloramines are favored for secondary water disinfection, because they react more slowly than chlorine and are more persistent in distribution systems. In addition, chloramines produce lower DBP levels than does chlorine, although microbial activity in the distribution system may produce nitrate from monochloramine, when it is used as a residual disinfectant, Achieving the required levels of water quality, particularly microbial inactivation levels, while minimizing DBP formation requires the application of proper risk and disinfection management protocols. In addition, the failure of conventional treatment processes to eliminate critical waterborne pathogens in drinking water demand that improved and/or new disinfection technologies be developed. Recent research has disclosed that nanotechnology may offer solutions in this area, through the use of nanosorbents, nanocatalysts, bioactive nanoparticles, nanostructured catalytic membranes, and nanoparticle-enhanced filtration. PMID:22990947

Ngwenya, Nonhlanhla; Ncube, Esper J; Parsons, James

2013-01-01

433

EMERGING CONTAMINANTS IN THE DRINKING WATER CYCLE  

EPA Science Inventory

PRESENTATION OUTLINE: I. General overview of the water cycle; II. USEPA and USGS Research; a. Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents and downstream surface waters; b. Groundwater down gradient from WW lagoon; c. Source and finished water fro...

434

Is There Lead in My Drinking Water?  

MedlinePLUS

... Additional Information How Does Lead Get Into My Water? Lead enters the water (“leaches”) through contact with ... should I do if I suspect that my water contains high lead levels? If you want to ...

435

Nitrate removal from a drinking water supply with large free-surface constructed wetlands prior to groundwater recharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

A constructed wetland was used to remove nitrate from the municipal drinking water supply of two million people in Orange County, southern California, USA. Nitrate removal is needed to protect human health and to reduce eutrophication and algal clogging in deep groundwater recharge ponds. The source water was the effluent-dominated Santa Ana River and up to 1.5 m3 s?1 (33×106

James F. Reilly; Alex J. Horne; Craig D. Miller

1999-01-01

436

Burden of Cancer from Chemicals in North Carolina Drinking Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring programs required by the U.S. Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) currently do not consider potential differences in chemical exposure patterns and human health risks. Rather, U.S. agencies establish monitoring requirements based on the type of water system and the number of people the system serves; within categories of systems, all potentially carcinogenic chemicals must be monitored with equal frequency, regardless of the potential level of risk these chemicals pose. To inform future policies concerning contaminant monitoring under the SDWA, we examined the potential health threats in North Carolina from the 34 carcinogenic chemicals covered under the SDWA. We analyzed reported contaminant concentration data for all community water systems (CWSs) for the years 1998-2011. We employed an attributable fraction approach that uses probabilistic inputs to evaluate the percent of cancer cases that may be attributable to chemical exposure in drinking water. We found that cancer risks are dominated by 3 of the 34 chemicals and chemical classes (total trihalomethanes (TTHMs), arsenic and gross alpha particles); all other chemicals contribute to less than one cancer case per year in the state. We showed that around 840 cases of cancer annually (2% of annual cancer cases) are attributable to contaminated drinking water. The majority cases are due to TTHMs, arsenic and gross alpha particles, which contributed 810 (95% CI 560-1,280), 14 (95% CI 3 -32), and 13 (95% CI 2-48) cases, respectively. Sixty-seven counties had annual cancer rates higher than 1 in 10,000 attributable to community water systems. Annual cancer rate attributable to chemicals found in drinking water that are regulated under the safe drinking water act.

DeFelice, N.

2013-12-01

437

Addressing Nitrate in California's Drinking Water California Nitrate Project,  

E-print Network

by the Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Rights Act of 1994: service in the uniformed services status, age, sexual orientation, citizenship, or service in the uniformed services (as defined, or obligation for service in the uniformed services) in any of its programs or activities. University policy

Pasternack, Gregory B.

438

Addressing Nitrate in California's Drinking Water California Nitrate Project,  

E-print Network

defined by the Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Rights Act of 1994: service in the uniformed), ancestry, marital status, age, sexual orientation, citizenship, or service in the uniformed services (as, or obligation for service in the uniformed services) in any of its programs or activities. University policy

Pasternack, Gregory B.

439

Selective enumeration strategies for Brevundimonas diminuta from drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brevundimonas diminuta is used as a control organism for validating the efficiency of water filtration systems. Since these protocols use nonselective\\u000a growth media, heterotrophic plate count bacteria (HPCs) indigenous to the water distribution system may interfere with B. diminuta enumeration, thus leading to inaccurate assessment of the filter’s microbial reduction capability. This could negatively\\u000a impact public health as unsafe drinking water

Robert Scott Donofrio; Lorelle L. Bestervelt; Ratul Saha; Susan T. Bagley

2010-01-01

440

Discolouration in drinking water systems: a particular approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of drinking water in the Netherlands meets high standards as is annually reported by the Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM)(Versteegh and Dik, 2006). Also the water companies themselves report in the voluntary Benchmark that water quality is one of the least discriminating factors as all the companies ‘comply generously’(VEWIN, 2004).\\u000aDespite this reported high

J. H. G. Vreeburg

2007-01-01

441

BIOFILM IN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Throughout the world there are millions of miles of water distribution pipe lines which provide potable water for use by individuals and industry. Some of these water distribution systems have been in service well over one hundred years. Treated water moving through a distributio...

442

Residential exposure to drinking water arsenic in Inner Mongolia, China.  

PubMed

In the Ba Men region of Inner Mongolia, China, a high prevalence of chronic arsenism has been reported in earlier studies. A survey of the arsenic contamination among wells from groundwater was conducted to better understand the occurrence of arsenic (As) in drinking water. A total of 14,866 wells (30% of all wells in the region) were analyzed for their arsenic-content. Methods used to detect arsenic were Spectrophotometric methods with DCC-Ag (detection limit, 0.5 microg of As/L); Spot method (detection limit, 10 microg of As/L); and air assisted Colorimetry method (detection limit, 20 microg of As/L). Arsenic-concentrations ranged from below limit of detection to 1200 microg of As/L. Elevated concentrations were related to well depth (10 to 29 m), the date the well was built (peaks from 1980-1990), and geographic location (near mountain range). Over 25,900 individuals utilized wells with drinking water arsenic concentrations above 20 microg of As/L (14,500 above 50 microg of As/L-the current China national standard in drinking water and 2198 above 300 microg of As/L). The presented database of arsenic in wells of the Ba Men region provides a useful tool for planning future water explorations when combined with geological information as well as support for designing upcoming epidemiological studies on the effects of arsenic in drinking water for this region. PMID:17448512

Ning, Zhixiong; Lobdell, Danelle T; Kwok, Richard K; Liu, Zhiyi; Zhang, Shiying; Ma, Chenglong; Riediker, Michael; Mumford, Judy L

2007-08-01

443

Giardia and Cryptosporidium spp. in filtered drinking water supplies.  

PubMed Central

Giardia and Cryptosporidium levels were determined by using a combined immunofluorescence test for filtered drinking water samples collected from 66 surface water treatment plants in 14 states and 1 Canadian province. Giardia cysts were detected in 17% of the 83 filtered water effluents. Cryptosporidium oocysts, were observed in 27% of the drinking water samples. Overall, cysts or oocysts were found in 39% of the treated effluent samples. Despite the frequent detection of parasites in drinking water, microscopic observations of the cysts and oocysts suggested that most of the organisms were nonviable. Compliance with the filtration criteria outlined by the Surface Water Treatment Rule of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency did not ensure that treated water was free of cysts and oocysts. The average plant effluent turbidity for sites which were parasite positive was 0.19 nephelometric turbidity units. Of sites that were positive for Giardia or Cryptosporidium spp., 78% would have been able to meet the turbidity regulations of the Surface Water Temperature Rule. Evaluation of the data by using a risk assessment model developed for Giardia spp. showed that 24% of the utilities examined would not meet a 1/10,000 annual risk of Giardia infection. For cold water conditions (0.5 degree C), 46% of the plants would not achieve the 1/10,000 risk level. PMID:1768135

LeChevallier, M W; Norton, W D; Lee, R G

1991-01-01

444

Minerals leached into drinking water from rubber stoppers  

SciTech Connect

Drinking water and its delivery system are potential sources of variation in animal research. Concern arose that rubber stoppers used to cork water bottles might be a source of some nutritionally required minerals which could leach into drinking water. Six types of stoppers, each having different compositions, were cleaned with stainless-steel sipper tubes inserted into them and attached to polypropylene bottles filled with either deionized water (pH 4.5) or acidified-deionized water (pH 2.5). After six days of contact, water levels of copper, magnesium, iron, manganese, zinc, chromium, and selenium were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Additionally, three of the stopper types were analyzed for mineral content. Minerals were present in both stoppers and drinking water. Acidified-deionized water generally leached minerals from the stoppers than did deionized water. The black stopper which is commonly used in animal facilities contained and leached measurable levels of some minerals, but it still can be recommended for typical animal husbandry uses, although other types of stoppers would be more suitable for specific nutritional and toxicologic studies.

Kennedy, B.W.; Beal, T.S. (Carbohydrate Nutrition Laboratory, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, MD (United States))

1991-06-01

445

The real water consumption behind drinking water: The case of Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The real amount of drinking water available per capita is a topic of great interest for human health and the economic and political management of resources. The global market of bottled drinking water, for instance, has shown exponential growth in the last twenty years, mainly due to reductions in production costs and investment in promotion.This paper aims to evaluate how

V. Niccolucci; S. Botto; B. Rugani; V. Nicolardi; S. Bastianoni; C. Gaggi

2011-01-01

446

Arsenic exposure to drinking water in the Mekong Delta.  

PubMed

Arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater drinking sources was investigated in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam in order to assess the occurrence of As in the groundwater, and the magnitude of As exposure of local residents through measurements of As in toenails of residents consuming groundwater as their major drinking water source. Groundwater (n=68) and toenail (n=62) samples were collected in Dong Thap Province, adjacent to the Mekong River, in southern Vietnam. Fifty-three percent (n=36) of the wells tested had As content above the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommended limit of 10ppb. Samples were divided into Northern (mean As=4.0ppb) and Southern (329.0ppb) groups; wells from the Southern group were located closer to the Mekong River. Elevated As contents were associated with depth (<200m), salinity (low salinity), and redox state (reducing conditions) of the study groundwater. In 79% of the wells, As was primarily composed of the reduced As(III) species. Arsenic content in nails collected from local residents was significantly correlated to As in drinking water (r=0.49, p<0.001), and the relationship improved for pairs in which As in drinking water was higher than 1ppb (r=0.56, p<0.001). Survey data show that the ratio of As in nail to As in water varied among residents, reflecting differential As bioaccumulation in specific exposed sub-populations. The data show that water filtration and diet, particularly increased consumption of animal protein and dairy, and reduced consumption of seafood, were associated with lower ratios of As in nail to As in water and thus could play important roles in mitigating As exposure in areas where As-rich groundwater is the primary drinking water source. PMID:25585157

Merola, R B; Hien, T T; Quyen, D T T; Vengosh, A

2015-04-01

447

MICROBIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF DRINKING WATER FROM CENTRALIZED AND SMALL COMMUNITY SUPPLY SYSTEMS IN KAUNAS REGION, LITHUANIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. The aim of this study was to evaluate microbiological quality of drinking water from centralized and small community supply systems in Kaunas region, Lithuania. In total 1345 samples of drinking water were analyzed from both centralist and individual water supplies in 2004 - 2006. The results of our study showed that 94.4% of tested drinking water samples from centralized

Jonas Milius

2007-01-01

448

COPPER LEVELS IN DRINKING WATER FROM PRIVATE HOUSEHOLD WELLS IN MAJOR PROVINCES OF GEORGIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copper is an essential element in human diet. However, too much copper in drinking water can cause flavor changes and health hazards. Thus, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set drinking water standards to regulate copper levels in the drinking water supply. Water test results obtained by the Agricultural and Environmental Services Laboratories (AESL) indicated that about 5.6% of

L. Sonon; D. Kissel; P. Vendrell; R. Hitchcock

449

MEETING THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE U.S. SAFE DRINKING WATER ACT: THE ROLE OF TECHNOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The passage of the U.S. Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) in 1974 has had a major impact on the way water is treated and delivered in the United States. The Act established national drinking water regulations for more than 170,000 public drinking water systems serving over 250 mill...

450

Toenails as a Biomarker of Inorganic Arsenic Intake From Drinking Water and Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toenails were used recently in epidemiological and environmental health studies as a means of assessing exposure to arsenic from drinking water. While positive correlations between toenail and drinking-water arsenic concentrations were reported in the literature, a significant percentage of the variation in toenail arsenic concentration remains unexplained by drinking-water concentration alone. Here, the influence of water consumption at home and

Melissa J. Slotnick; Jaymie R. Meliker; Gillian A. AvRuskin; Debashis Ghosh; Jerome O. Nriagu

2007-01-01

451

ANNUAL DRINKING WATER REPORT FOR 2013 Texas A&M University  

E-print Network

ANNUAL DRINKING WATER REPORT FOR 2013 Texas A&M University (979-862-4606) The Texas Commission system and has determined that our water is safe to drink. As part of their ongoing monitoring of public water systems the TCEQ has requested us to provide you the following report. The Annual Drinking Water

452

Contamination levels of human pharmaceutical compounds in French surface and drinking water  

E-print Network

Contamination levels of human pharmaceutical compounds in French surface and drinking water S therapeutic classes was analysed from resource and drinking water in two catchment basins located in north-west France. 98 samples were analysed from 63 stations (surface water and drinking water produced from surface

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

453

PHYSIOLOGICAL ECOLOGY -ORIGINAL PAPER Drinking water boosts food intake rate, body mass increase  

E-print Network

in which we tested the hypotheses that drinking water increases food use by easing limitations on the birdsPHYSIOLOGICAL ECOLOGY - ORIGINAL PAPER Drinking water boosts food intake rate, body mass increase of drinking water. Birds stag- ing in a fruit-rich Pistacia atlantica plantation that had access to water

Nathan, Ran

454

Demineralization of drinking water: Is it prudent?  

PubMed

Water is the elixir of life. The requirement of water for very existence of life and preservation of health has driven man to devise methods for maintaining its purity and wholesomeness. The water can get contaminated, polluted and become a potential hazard to human health. Water in its purest form devoid of natural minerals can also be the other end of spectrum where health could be adversely affected. Limited availability of fresh water and increased requirements has led to an increased usage of personal, domestic and commercial methods of purification of water. Desalination of saline water where fresh water is in limited supply has led to development of the latest technology of reverse osmosis but is it going to be safe to use such demineralized water over a long duration needs to be debated and discussed. PMID:25382914

Verma, K C; Kushwaha, A S

2014-10-01

455

Arsenic in Drinking Water in Bangladesh: Factors Affecting Child Health  

PubMed Central

The focus of this paper is to present an empirical model of factors affecting child health by observing actions households take to avoid exposure to arsenic in drinking water. Millions of Bangladeshis face multiple health hazards from high levels of arsenic in drinking water. Safe water sources are either expensive or difficult to access, affecting people’s individuals’ time available for work and ultimately affecting the health of household members. Since children are particularly susceptible and live with parents who are primary decision makers for sustenance, parental actions linking child health outcomes is used in the empirical model. Empirical results suggest that child health is significantly affected by the age and gender of the household water procurer. Adults with a high degree of concern for children’s health risk from arsenic contamination, and who actively mitigate their arsenic contaminated water have a positive effect on child health. PMID:24982854

Aziz, Sonia N.; Aziz, Khwaja M. S.; Boyle, Kevin J.

2014-01-01

456

Basic Information about Asbestos in Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

... 21-4 Sources of Contamination Decay of asbestos cement in water mains; erosion of natural deposits List ... 000 products, including roofing materials, brake pads, and cement pipe often used in distributing water to communities. ...

457

Nephrotoxicity of uranium in drinking water from private drilled wells  

SciTech Connect

Objectives: To investigate the association between uranium in drinking water from drilled wells and aspects of kidney function measured by sensitive urine tests. Methods: Three hundred and one of 398 eligible subjects (75.6%) aged 18-74 years with daily drinking water supplies from private drilled wells located in uranium-rich bedrock (exposed group) volunteered to participate along with 153 of 271 local controls (56.4%) who used municipal water. Participants responded to a questionnaire on their water consumption and general health, and provided a morning urine sample and drinking water for analysis. Results: The uranium content of well water samples (n=153) varied considerably (range <0.20-470 {mu}g/l, median 6.7 {mu}g/l, 5% >100 {mu}g/l), while uranium levels in all samples of municipal water (n=14) were below the limit of quantification (0.2 {mu}g/l). Urinary levels of uranium were more than eight times higher in exposed subjects than in controls (geometric means 38 and 4.3 ng/l, respectively; p<0.001), but their mean urine lead levels were not significantly different. There was a strong curvilinear correlation between uranium in drinking water and in urine (r{sup 2}=0.66). Levels of albumin, {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin, protein HC as well as kappa and lambda immunoglobulin chains in urine from exposed and controls were similar. The N-acetyl-{beta}-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) activity was significantly lower in the exposed group vs. controls, possibly secondary to differential storage duration of samples from the two groups. Even in regression models adjusting for gender, age and smoking no association of uranium in water and the kidney function parameters was observed. Using uranium in urine in the entire study group as a marker of exposure, however, a tendency of exposure-related increases of {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin, protein HC and kappa chains were noted. This tendency was enhanced after exclusion of subjects with diabetes mellitus from the analysis. Conclusions: Uranium levels in urine were strongly correlated to levels in drinking water from drilled wells. There were no clear signs of nephrotoxicity from uranium in drinking water at levels recorded in this study, but some indications of an effect were observed using uranium in urine as a measure of overall uranium exposure. The clinical relevance of these findings remains unclear.

Selden, Anders I., E-mail: anders.selden@orebroll.se [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Orebro University Hospital, SE-701 85 Orebro (Sweden); Lundholm, Cecilia [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Orebro University Hospital, SE-701 85 Orebro (Sweden)] [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Orebro University Hospital, SE-701 85 Orebro (Sweden); Edlund, Bror [Department of Clinical Chemistry, Orebro University Hospital, SE-701 85 Orebro (Sweden)] [Department of Clinical Chemistry, Orebro University Hospital, SE-701 85 Orebro (Sweden); Hoegdahl, Camilla [Office of Environment and Health, Arjaengs kommun, PO Box 906, SE-672 29 Arjaeng (Sweden)] [Office of Environment and Health, Arjaengs kommun, PO Box 906, SE-672 29 Arjaeng (Sweden); Ek, Britt-Marie [Geological Survey of Sweden, PO Box 670, SE-751 28 Uppsala (Sweden)] [Geological Survey of Sweden, PO Box 670, SE-751 28 Uppsala (Sweden); Bergstroem, Bernt E.; Ohlson, Carl-Goeran [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Orebro University Hospital, SE-701 85 Orebro (Sweden)] [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Orebro University Hospital, SE-701 85 Orebro (Sweden)

2009-05-15

458

Procter & Gamble: Children's Safe Drinking Water (A)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1995, Procter & Gamble (P&G) scientists began researching methods of water treatment for use in communities facing water crises. P&G, one of the world’s largest consumer products companies, was interested in bringing industrial-quality water treatment to remote areas worldwide, because the lack of clean water, primarily in developing countries, was alarming. In the latter half of the 1990s, approximately

Patricia Werhane; Jenny Mead

459

MODELING DISINFECTANT RESIDUALS IN DRINKING-WATER STORAGE TANKS  

EPA Science Inventory

The factors leading to the loss of disinfectant residual in well-mixed drinking-water storage tanks are studied. quations relating disinfectant residual to the disinfectant's reaction rate, the tank volume, and the fill and drain rates are presented. n analytical solution for the...

460

PRESENCE-ABSENCE COLIFORM TEST IN MONITORING DRINKING WATER QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Data from four comparative studies were analyzed to compare the recovery of total coliform bacteria from drinking water using the presence-absence test, the multiple fermentation tube procedure and the membrane filter technique. ombined recoveries showed the presence-absence test...

461

FETOTOXIC EFFECTS OF NICKEL IN DRINKING WATER IN MICE  

EPA Science Inventory

Nickel chloride was administered in drinking water to pregnant mice from the 2nd through the 17th day of gestation at nickel doses of 0, 500, or 1000 ppm. Fetal or maternal toxicity was not seen after administration of 500 ppm of nickel. However, the higher dose caused spontaneou...

462

DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS AND DURATION OF GESTATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent studies of drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs) suggest high exposure decreases risk of preterm birth. We examined this association with total trihalomethane (TTHM) and five haloacetic acids (HAA5) among 2,041 women in a prospective pregnancy study conducted from...

463

Regional Drinking Water Security Action research, policy and analysis  

E-print Network

, research Companies in development sector, think-tanks and NGOs Current Research Drinking water, grid, MIT Educational institutes Karjat Govt. College of Engineering (KGCOE), RIT Sangli, IIT Mandi, Gandhinagar Elected representatives MLAs, Shri Jayant Patil, MoRD, Thane DPDC and so on NGOs Aroehan (Mokhada

Sohoni, Milind

464

Model-Based Control of Drinking-Water Treatment Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The drinking water in the Netherlands is of high quality and the production cost is low. This is the result of extensive research in the past decades to innovate and optimise the treatment processes. The processes are monitored and operated by motivated and skilled operators and process technologists, which leads to an operator-dependent, subjective, variable and possibly suboptimal operation of

K. M. Van Schagen

2009-01-01

465

Drinking Water Treatment Plant Design Incorporating Variability and Uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both inherent natural variability and model parameter uncertainty must be considered in the development of robust and reliable designs for drinking water treatment. This study presents an optimization framework for investigating the effects of five variable influent parameters and three uncertain model parameters on the least-cost treatment plant configuration contact, direct, or nonsweep conventional filtration that reliably satisfies an effluent

Dominic L. Boccelli; Mitchell J. Small; Urmila M. Diwekar

2007-01-01

466

Emerging Contaminants in the Drinking Water Cycle - MCEARD  

EPA Science Inventory

In the past decade, the scientific community and general public have become increasingly aware of the potential for the presence of unregulated, and generally unmonitored contaminants, found at low concentrations (sub-¿g/L) in surface, ground and drinking water. The most common...

467

REMOVAL OF ARSENIC FROM DRINKING WATER BY CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT METHODS  

EPA Science Inventory

The USEPA National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NIPDWR) established the maximum contaminant level (MCL) for arsenic at 0.05 mg/L in 1977. everal years ago the USEPA began to re-examine the arsenic health effects information and has indicated that the MCL could be s...

468

METHODS FOR REMOVING URANIUM FROM DRINKING WATER (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

The number of water supplies with high uranium levels and the possibility of a national uranium regulation has stimulated greater interest in uranium removal technology. The paper summarizes recent information on the effectiveness of various methods for uranium removal from drink...

469

Arsenic in Drinking Water--The Silent Killer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Natural arsenic salts are present in all waters, with natural concentrations of less than 10 parts per billion (ppb). Unfortunately, there is an increasing number of countries where toxic arsenic compounds in groundwater, which is used for drinking and irrigation, have been detected at concentrations above the World Health Organization's…

Wajrak, Magdalena

2011-01-01

470

Modeling the Risk From Giardia and Viruses in Drinking Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the assessment of risk from microorganisms in drinking water, the problems associated with such an analysis, the approach for specific organisms, the monitoring required to demonstrate that risk levels are met, and how risk assessment might be approached for determining whether a given level of risk from Giardia and viruses is avoided. Guidelines are suggested for determining

Stig Regli; Joan B. Rose; Charles N. Haas; Charles P. Gerba

1991-01-01

471

Infantile Methemoglobinemia: Reexamining the Role of Drinking Water Nitrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ingestion of nitrates in drinking water has long been thought to be a primary cause of acquired infantile methemoglobinemia, often called blue baby syndrome. However, recent research and a review of historical cases offer a more complex picture of the causes of infantile methemoglobinemia. Gastrointestinal infection and inflammation and the ensuing overproduction of nitric oxide may be the cause of

Alexander Austin Avery

472

NEUROTOXICITY PRODUCED BY DIBROMOACETIC ACID IN DRINKING WATER OF RATS.  

EPA Science Inventory

This manuscript examines the neurotoxic potential of a commonly found disinfection by-product (DBP), dibromoacetic acid (DBA). While the Safe Drinking Water Act requires evaluation of DBPs for noncancer health effects, surprisingly few have been tested for neurotoxicity. Rats e...

473

Residential exposure to drinking water arsenic in Inner Mongolia, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Ba Men region of Inner Mongolia, China, a high prevalence of chronic arsenism has been reported in earlier studies. A survey of the arsenic contamination among wells from groundwater was conducted to better understand the occurrence of arsenic (As) in drinking water. A total of 14,866 wells (30% of all wells in the region) were analyzed for their

Zhixiong Ning; Danelle T. Lobdell; Richard K. Kwok; Zhiyi Liu; Shiying Zhang; Chenglong Ma; Michael Riediker; Judy L. Mumford

2007-01-01

474

Three Drinking-Water–Associated Cryptosporidiosis Outbreaks, Northern Ireland  

PubMed Central

Three recent drinking-water–associated cryptosporidiosis outbreaks in Northern Ireland were investigated by using genotyping and subgenotyping tools. One Cryptosporidium parvum outbreak was caused by the bovine genotype, and two were caused by the human genotype. Subgenotyping analyses indicate that two predominant subgenotypes were associated with these outbreaks and had been circulating in the community. PMID:12023922

Glaberman, Scott; Moore, John E.; Lowery, Colm J.; Chalmers, Rachel M.; Sulaiman, Irshad; Elwin, Kristin; Rooney, Paul J.; Millar, Beverley C.; Dooley, James S.G.; Lal, Altaf A.

2002-01-01

475

ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDE DEGRADATION UNDER DRINKING WATER TREATMENT CONDITIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Chlorpyrifos (CP) was used as a model compound to develop experimental methods and prototype modeling tools to forecast the fate of organophosphate (OP) pesticides under drinking water treatment conditions. CP was found to rapidly oxidize to chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) in the presen...

476

FATE OF PESTICIDES AND TOXIC CHEMICALS DURING DRINKING WATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Regulations require that all relevant routes of human consumption be considered in risk assessments for anthropogenic chemicals. A large percentage of the U.S. population consumes drinking water (DW) that is treated. Limited studies show that some pesticides and toxics occurrin...

477

ELECTRO-REGENERATED ION-EXCHANGE DEIONIZATION OF DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents the development of a device for removal of inorganic salts from drinking water to facilitate the subsequent concentration of organic solutes for bioassay. Prior attempts to concentrate the organic solutes by reverse osmosis (RO) resulted in precipitation of t...

478

METHODS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Thirteen analytical methods for the identification and measurement of organic compounds in drinking water are described in detail. ix of the methods are for volatile organic compounds (VOC's) and certain disinfection byproducts and these methods were cited in the Federal Register...

479

RECOVERY AND DIVERSITY OF HETEROTROPHIC BACTERIA FROM CHLORINATED DRINKING WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Heterotrophic bacteria were enumerated from the Seattle drinking water catchment basins and distribution system. The highest bacterial recoveries were obtained by using a very dilute medium containing 0.01% peptone as the primary carbon source. Other factors favoring high recover...

480

Arsenite Sorption by Drinking-Water Treatment Residuals: Redox Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic (As) is a major human carcinogen and could pose a serious human health risk at concentrations as low as 50 ppb in drinking water. Elevated As concentrations in soils currently used for residential purposes (located on former agricultural lands amended with arsenical pesticides) have increased the possibility of human contact with soil-As. Studies have shown that As bioavailability in

K. C. Makris; D. Sarkar; R. Datta

2005-01-01

481

USING WATERSHED ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT FOR PROTECTING DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The first manuscript describes the application of watershed ERA principles to the development of a strategic watershed management plan for Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, where the primary focus was on the protection of drinking water quality, a concern typically addressed by...

482

Decontamination Methods For Drinking Water Treatment And Distribution Systems  

EPA Science Inventory

Once contamination has occurred in drinking water systems and the contaminated segment has been isolated from other parts of the system, there will be great urgency to decontaminate the areas as rapidly and cost effectively as possible. This article describes available and deve...

483

MODELING CHLORINE RESIDUALS IN DRINKING-WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

A mass transfer-based model is developed for predicting chlorine decay in drinking water distribution networks. he model considers first order reactions of chlorine to occur both in the bulk flow and at the pipe wall. he overall rate of the wall reaction is a function of the rate...

484

MODELING CHLORINE RESIDUALS IN DRINKING-WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

A mass-transfer-based model is developed for predicting chlorine decay in drinking-water distribution networks. The model considers first-order reactions of chlorine to occur both in the bulk flow and at the pipe wall. The overall rate of the wall reaction is a function of the ...

485

COST MODELING FOR DRINKING WATER UNIT TREATMENT PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

Current U.S. EPA research is underway to improve and expand upon a cost data base for use in estimating the economics of building and operating drinking water treatment facilities. his cost data is important to the EPA decision making process when formulating new regulations and ...

486

Partial Defluoridation of Drinking Water Using Fluorapatite Precipitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ion adsorption and ion exchange are two methods commonly used in small home units to treat drinking water to bring the fluoride concentration to within acceptable limits. However, the necessary flowthrough system is often difficult to arrange where there is no piped supply and gradual exhaustion of the active agent is not easily detected. In an attempt to overcome these

M. J. Larsen; E. I. F. Pearce

1992-01-01

487

Lung Cancer and Arsenic Concentrations in Drinking Water in Chile  

E-print Network

Lung Cancer and Arsenic Concentrations in Drinking Water in Chile Catterina Ferreccio,1,2 Claudia- trations have since been reduced to 40 g/liter. We investi- gated the relation between lung cancer cancer between 1994 and 1996 and frequency-matched hospital controls. The study identified 152 lung

California at Berkeley, University of

488

ESTIMATION OF RISK FROM CARCINOGENS IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study aimed at developing a means for estimating cancer mortality as a function of carcinogen concentration in drinking water. Cancer risk data for cigarette smokers was treated by the method of standard additions to provide an estimate of ambient ca...

489

RESIDENTIAL EXPOSURE TO DRINKING WATER ARSENIC IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA  

EPA Science Inventory

Residential exposure to drinking water arsenic in Inner Mongolia, China Zhixiong Ning1, Richard K. Kwok2, Zhiyi Liu1, Shiying Zhang1, Chenglong Ma1, Danelle T. Lobdell2, Michael Riediker3 and Judy L. Mumford2 1) Institute of Endemic Disease for Prevention and Treatment in I...

490

Disinfection by-products in Canadian drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Halogenated disinfection by-products were determined in Canadian drinking water supplies where chlorine was used at some stage in the treatment process. The effects of applied disinfectants (chlorine, chloramine and ozone), seasonal variation (winter and summer) and spatial variation (treatment plant and distribution system) were examined. Chloroform, dichloroacetic acid and trichloroacetic acid were the major disinfection by-products found in all treated

David T. Williams; Guy L. LeBel; Frank M. Benoit

1997-01-01

491

Potential hazards of hexavalent chromate in our drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A consideration of the consequences of human exposure to hexavalent Cr in the drinking water has been compiled. Since there is an absence of adequate human data on this subject the problem has been analyzed not only from human and animal studies but also from a mechanistic point of view. This treatise has been inspired by recent reviews and speculations

Max Costa

2003-01-01

492

Drinking Water Activities for Students, Teachers, and Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide provides teachers with materials, information, and classroom activities to enhance any drinking water curriculum. Students can use the activity sheets to further lessons and stimulate thought. Parents can use the guide to develop science projects that will provoke thought, encourage research, and provide a scientific approach to…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

493

EFFECT OF BROMIDE ON CHLORINATION BYPRODUCTS IN FINISHED DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

To investigate the role of bromide ion concentration on formation and speciation of non-THMs chlorination organic byproducts, a two block full factorial matrix was designed to statistically evaluate the influence of various parameters which are relevant to drinking water treatmen...

494

COMPARATIVE RISK DILEMNAS IN DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION [EDITORIAL  

EPA Science Inventory

Disinfection of drinking water supplies has been one of the most succesful public health interventions of the twentieth century. It has virtually eliminated outbreaks of serious waterborne infectious diseases, such as cholera and typhoid. there are still, however, an average of...

495

ABSORPTION OF LEAD FROM DRINKING WATER WITH VARYING MINERAL CONTENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Lead (Pb) (200 ppm) was administered via drinking water to rats for nine weeks. In addition, the rats were grouped so that they received 75, 100, 150 and 250% of the minimum daily requirements (MDR) of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), and magnesium (Mg) as required for normal growth. The...

496

ELEVATED LEVELS OF SODIUM IN COMMUNITY DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

A comparison study of students from towns with differing levels of sodium in drinking water revealed statistically significantly higher blood pressure distributions among the students from the town with high sodium levels. Differences were found in both systolic and diastolic rea...

497

COMPUTER ASSISTED PRELIMINARY DESIGN FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PROCESS SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the study was to develop an interactive computer program to aid the design engineer in evaluating the performance and cost for any proposed drinking water treatment system consisting of individual unit processes. The 25 unit process models currently in the program ...

498

Dimethylamine biodegradation by mixed culture enriched from drinking water biofilter.  

PubMed

Dimethylamine (DMA) is one of the important precursors of drinking water disinfection by-product N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). Reduction of DMA to minimize the formation of carcinogenic NDMA in drinking water is of practical importance. Biodegradation plays a major role in elimination of DMA pollution in the environment, yet information on DMA removal by drinking water biofilter is still lacking. In this study, microcosms with different treatments were constructed to investigate the potential of DMA removal by a mixed culture enriched from a drinking water biofilter and the effects of carbon and nitrogen sources. DMA could be quickly mineralized by the enrichment culture. Amendment of a carbon source, instead of a nitrogen source, had a profound impact on DMA removal. A shift in bacterial community structure was observed with DMA biodegradation, affected by carbon and nitrogen sources. Proteobacteria was the predominant phylum group in DMA-degrading microcosms. Microorganisms from a variety of bacterial genera might be responsible for the rapid DMA mineralization. PMID:25280176

Liao, Xiaobin; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Jingxu; Dai, Yu; Zhang, Xiaojian; Xie, Shuguang

2015-01-01

499

MOLECULAR DIVERSITY OF DRINKING WATER MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES: A PHYLOGENETIC APPROACH  

EPA Science Inventory

The microbiological quality of drinking water is assessed using culture-based methods that are highly selective and that tend to underestimate the densities and diversity of microbial populations inhabiting distribution systems. In order to better understand the effect of differe...

500

Potential Relationships Between Hydraulic Fracturing and Drinking Water Resources  

EPA Science Inventory

The conferees urge the Agency to carry out a study on the relationship between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water, using a credible approach that relies on the best available science, as well as independent sources of information. The conferees expect the study to be conduct...