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1

Chemical Contamination of California Drinking Water  

PubMed Central

Drinking water contamination by toxic chemicals has become widely recognized as a public health concern since the discovery of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane in California's Central Valley in 1979. Increased monitoring since then has shown that other pesticides and industrial chemicals are present in drinking water. Contaminants of drinking water also include naturally occurring substances such as asbestos and even the by-products of water chlorination. Public water systems, commercially bottled and vended water and mineral water are regulated, and California is also taking measures to prevent water pollution by chemicals through various new laws and programs.

Russell, Hanafi H.; Jackson, Richard J.; Spath, David P.; Book, Steven A.

1987-01-01

2

Health risk assessment of pentachlorophenol (pcp) in California drinking water. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the document is to review the toxicology of PCP and to estimate the exposure of California residents to PCP found in drinking water. The information provided will help the California Dept. of Health Services develop drinking water standards for PCP.

Reed, N.R.; Reed, W.A.; Encomienda, I.; Beltran, L.; Araba-Owoyele, L.

1990-03-08

3

MTBE in California's Drinking Water: A Comparison of Groundwater Versus Surface Water Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last decade, the fuel oxygenate methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) has received widespread attention as a potential threat to water quality, primarily due to leaking underground gasoline storage tanks and watercraft with two-stroke engines. In this article, we examine the annual detection frequency, number of new source detections, and concentration of MTBE detected in California's public drinking water

Pamela R. D. Williams; Laurie Benton; Patrick J. Sheehan

2003-01-01

4

MTBE in California Drinking Water: An Analysis of Patterns and Trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade, there has been much publicity surrounding the impact of Methyl tert -butyl ether (MTBE) on drinking water supplies in the United States. In California, the presence of MTBE in groundwater and drinking water has led to a ban on the future use of MTBE in gasoline. Other states, such as those in the northeast, are also

Pamela R. D. Williams

2001-01-01

5

MTBE in California's Public Drinking Water Wells: Have Past Predictions Come True?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive water quality monitoring data in California are now available for methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) that span the past 16 years. The statewide database includes most of the active (and some inactive) public drinking water wells in the state, most of which have been repeatedly sampled for MTBE during 1995 to 2010. The cumulative detection frequency of MTBE in

Pamela R. D. Williams

2011-01-01

6

Health risk assessment of 1,1,1-trichloroethane (MC) in California drinking water. [1,1,1-trichloroethane  

Microsoft Academic Search

This document presents an assessment of the potential health risks associated with exposure to 1,1,1-trichloroethane (methyl chloroform, or MC) dissolved in California drinking waters. This assessment is being provided to the California Department of Health Services (CDHS) for the development of drinking-water standards to manage the health risks of MC exposure. Other assessments required in the risk-management process include analyses

L. C. Hall; K. T. Bogen; T. E. McKone; B. Mallon; C. H. Hall

1988-01-01

7

Social Disparities in Nitrate-Contaminated Drinking Water in California's San Joaquin Valley  

PubMed Central

Background: Research on drinking water in the United States has rarely examined disproportionate exposures to contaminants faced by low-income and minority communities. This study analyzes the relationship between nitrate concentrations in community water systems (CWSs) and the racial/ethnic and socioeconomic characteristics of customers. Objectives: We hypothesized that CWSs in California’s San Joaquin Valley that serve a higher proportion of minority or residents of lower socioeconomic status have higher nitrate levels and that these disparities are greater among smaller drinking water systems. Methods: We used water quality monitoring data sets (1999–2001) to estimate nitrate levels in CWSs, and source location and census block group data to estimate customer demographics. Our linear regression model included 327 CWSs and reported robust standard errors clustered at the CWS level. Our adjusted model controlled for demographics and water system characteristics and stratified by CWS size. Results: Percent Latino was associated with a 0.04-mg nitrate-ion (NO3)/L increase in a CWS’s estimated NO3 concentration [95% confidence interval (CI), –0.08 to 0.16], and rate of home ownership was associated with a 0.16-mg NO3/L decrease (95% CI, –0.32 to 0.002). Among smaller systems, the percentage of Latinos and of homeownership was associated with an estimated increase of 0.44 mg NO3/L (95% CI, 0.03–0.84) and a decrease of 0.15 mg NO3/L (95% CI, –0.64 to 0.33), respectively. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that in smaller water systems, CWSs serving larger percentages of Latinos and renters receive drinking water with higher nitrate levels. This suggests an environmental inequity in drinking water quality.

Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Hubbard, Alan; Ray, Isha

2011-01-01

8

Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

... safest water supplies in the world, but drinking water quality can vary from place to place. It depends on the condition of the source water and the treatment it receives. Treatment may include ...

9

Occurrence and concentrations of pharmaceutical compounds in groundwater used for public drinking-water supply in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pharmaceutical compounds were detected at low concentrations in 2.3% of 1231 samples of groundwater (median depth to top of screened interval in wells=61m) used for public drinking-water supply in California. Samples were collected statewide for the California State Water Resources Control Board's Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. Of 14 pharmaceutical compounds analyzed, 7 were detected at concentrations greater

Miranda S. Fram; Kenneth Belitz

2011-01-01

10

Availability of Drinking Water in California Public Schools. Testimony Presented before the California State Assembly Subcommittee on Education on April 2, 2008  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A senior researcher and hospital Chief of General Pediatrics, testifies about his work with a California school district to prevent obesity by developing a middle school program to promote healthy eating and physical activity. A two-year study has found that students have limited access to drinking water, especially at meals. In the schools…

Schuster, Mark A.

2008-01-01

11

Pregnancy outcomes in women potentially exposed to solvent-contaminated drinking water in San Jose, California.  

PubMed

During 1980-1981, solvents leaked from an underground storage tank of a semiconductor firm in southern Santa Clara County, California, contaminating local drinking water. The contaminated well was closed in December 1981. An epidemiologic study conducted in 1983 confirmed statistically significant excesses of adverse pregnancy outcomes in an exposed community compared with an unexposed community, but could not establish a causal connection between the leak and the adverse outcomes. This study expanded the first study; adverse pregnancy outcomes occurring in 1980-1985 were studied in two communities exposed to the contaminated drinking water and in two demographically comparable but unexposed communities. The period 1980-1981 was the time period in which the well was considered to have been contaminated and 1982-1985 was considered the postcontamination time period. Both exposed and unexposed communities were considered unexposed during the latter period (1982-1985). Out of 10,055 households surveyed, interviews were conducted with 1,105 women who reported one or more eligible pregnancies. Miscarriages and birth defects were validated by medical record review or physician reports. Although the authors again observed statistically significant excesses of spontaneous abortions and birth defects in the originally studied exposed area in 1980-1981, they observed deficits of these outcomes in the second exposed study area. Adjustment for potential confounders did not alter these findings. Analyses of pregnancy outcomes during 1981 in relation to exposure estimates based on hydrogeologic modeling of water and contaminant distribution within the exposed areas also indicated that the leak was not likely to have caused the observed excesses of adverse pregnancy outcomes in the originally studied area. PMID:2296981

Wrensch, M; Swan, S; Lipscomb, J; Epstein, D; Fenster, L; Claxton, K; Murphy, P J; Shusterman, D; Neutra, R

1990-02-01

12

Pregnancy outcomes in women potentially exposed to solvent-contaminated drinking water in San Jose, California  

SciTech Connect

During 1980-1981, solvents leaked from an underground storage tank of a semiconductor firm in southern Santa Clara County, California, contaminating local drinking water. The contaminated well was closed in December 1981. An epidemiologic study conducted in 1983 confirmed statistically significant excesses of adverse pregnancy outcomes in an exposed community compared with an unexposed community, but could not establish a causal connection between the leak and the adverse outcomes. This study expanded the first study; adverse pregnancy outcomes occurring in 1980-1985 were studied in two communities exposed to the contaminated drinking water and in two demographically comparable but unexposed communities. The period 1980-1981 was the time period in which the well was considered to have been contaminated and 1982-1985 was considered the postcontamination time period. Both exposed and unexposed communities were considered unexposed during the latter period (1982-1985). Out of 10,055 households surveyed, interviews were conducted with 1,105 women who reported one or more eligible pregnancies. Miscarriages and birth defects were validated by medical record review or physician reports. Although the authors again observed statistically significant excesses of spontaneous abortions and birth defects in the originally studied exposed area in 1980-1981, they observed deficits of these outcomes in the second exposed study area. Adjustment for potential confounders did not alter these findings. Analyses of pregnancy outcomes during 1981 in relation to exposure estimates based on hydrogeologic modeling of water and contaminant distribution within the exposed areas also indicated that the leak was not likely to have caused the observed excesses of adverse pregnancy outcomes in the originally studied area.

Wrensch, M.; Swan, S.; Lipscomb, J.; Epstein, D.; Fenster, L.; Claxton, K.; Murphy, P.J.; Shusterman, D.; Neutra, R. (California Department of Health Services, Berkeley (USA))

1990-02-01

13

Case-control study of arsenic in drinking water and lung cancer in California and Nevada.  

PubMed

Millions of people are exposed to arsenic in drinking water, which at high concentrations is known to cause lung cancer in humans. At lower concentrations, the risks are unknown. We enrolled 196 lung cancer cases and 359 controls matched on age and gender from western Nevada and Kings County, California in 2002-2005. After adjusting for age, sex, education, smoking and occupational exposures, odds ratios for arsenic concentrations ?85 µg/L (median = 110 µg/L, mean = 173 µg/L, maximum = 1,460 µg/L) more than 40 years before enrollment were 1.39 (95% CI = 0.55-3.53) in all subjects and 1.61 (95% CI = 0.59-4.38) in smokers. Although odds ratios were greater than 1.0, these increases may have been due to chance given the small number of subjects exposed more than 40 years before enrollment. This study, designed before research in Chile suggested arsenic-related cancer latencies of 40 years or more, illustrates the enormous sample sizes needed to identify arsenic-related health effects in low-exposure countries with mobile populations like the U.S. Nonetheless, our findings suggest that concentrations near 100 µg/L are not associated with markedly high relative risks. PMID:23917816

Dauphiné, David C; Smith, Allan H; Yuan, Yan; Balmes, John R; Bates, Michael N; Steinmaus, Craig

2013-08-02

14

Case-Control Study of Arsenic in Drinking Water and Lung Cancer in California and Nevada  

PubMed Central

Millions of people are exposed to arsenic in drinking water, which at high concentrations is known to cause lung cancer in humans. At lower concentrations, the risks are unknown. We enrolled 196 lung cancer cases and 359 controls matched on age and gender from western Nevada and Kings County, California in 2002–2005. After adjusting for age, sex, education, smoking and occupational exposures, odds ratios for arsenic concentrations ?85 µg/L (median = 110 µg/L, mean = 173 µg/L, maximum = 1,460 µg/L) more than 40 years before enrollment were 1.39 (95% CI = 0.55–3.53) in all subjects and 1.61 (95% CI = 0.59–4.38) in smokers. Although odds ratios were greater than 1.0, these increases may have been due to chance given the small number of subjects exposed more than 40 years before enrollment. This study, designed before research in Chile suggested arsenic-related cancer latencies of 40 years or more, illustrates the enormous sample sizes needed to identify arsenic-related health effects in low-exposure countries with mobile populations like the U.S. Nonetheless, our findings suggest that concentrations near 100 µg/L are not associated with markedly high relative risks.

Dauphine, David C.; Smith, Allan H.; Yuan, Yan; Balmes, John R.; Bates, Michael N.; Steinmaus, Craig

2013-01-01

15

Observations of Drinking Water Access in School Food Service Areas Before Implementation of Federal and State School Water Policy, California, 2011  

PubMed Central

Introduction Recent legislation requires schools to provide free drinking water in food service areas (FSAs). Our objective was to describe access to water at baseline and student water intake in school FSAs and to examine barriers to and strategies for implementation of drinking water requirements. Methods We randomly sampled 24 California Bay Area public schools. We interviewed 1 administrator per school to assess knowledge of water legislation and barriers to and ideas for policy implementation. We observed water access and students’ intake of free water in school FSAs. Wellness policies were examined for language about water in FSAs. Results Fourteen of 24 schools offered free water in FSAs; 10 offered water via fountains, and 4 provided water through a nonfountain source. Four percent of students drank free water at lunch; intake at elementary schools (11%) was higher than at middle or junior high schools (6%) and high schools (1%). In secondary schools when water was provided by a nonfountain source, the percentage of students who drank free water doubled. Barriers to implementation of water requirements included lack of knowledge of legislation, cost, and other pressing academic concerns. No wellness policies included language about water in FSAs. Conclusion Approximately half of schools offered free water in FSAs before implementation of drinking water requirements, and most met requirements through a fountain. Only 1 in 25 students drank free water in FSAs. Although schools can meet regulations through installation of fountains, more appealing water delivery systems may be necessary to increase students’ water intake at mealtimes.

Chandran, Kumar; Hampton, Karla E.; Hecht, Kenneth; Grumbach, Jacob M.; Kimura, Amanda T.; Braff-Guajardo, Ellen; Brindis, Claire D.

2012-01-01

16

Radon in Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

... for reducing radon health risks in both drinking water and indoor air quality, a unique multimedia framework authorized in the 1996 Amendments to the Safewater Drinking Water Act (SDWA). Information about the proposed rule and ...

17

AIRCRAFT DRINKING WATER RULE  

EPA Science Inventory

Under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), any interstate carrier conveyance (ICC) that regularly serves drinking water to an average of at least 25 individuals daily, at least 60 days per year, is subject to the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWR). An ICC is a car...

18

California Teens Drinking More Sugary Drinks  

MedlinePLUS

... the fact that manufactures of these drinks are marketing to teens may play a role, suggested Dr. ... companies that spend hundreds of millions of dollars marketing sugary drinks to them, including deceptively healthy-sounding ...

19

Quality of Drinking Water  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

Roman, Harry T.

2009-01-01

20

Drinking-water standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discussed the revising of the primary and secondary drinking-water regulations by EPA in accordance with the Safe Drinking Water Act. Since consideration of risk is playing an increasing role in setting environmental standards, questions were raised regarding the adequacy of human health protection afforded by some of the existing and proposed standards. 1 table.

Nancy B. Munro; Curtis C. Travis

1986-01-01

21

Safe drinking water act  

SciTech Connect

This book covers drinking water regulations such as disinfectant by-products, synthetic organics, inorganic chemicals, microbiological contaminants, volatile organic chemicals, radionuclides, fluoride, toxicological approaches to setting new national drinking water regulations, and trihalomethanes. Gives organic and inorganic compounds scheduled to be regulated in 1989 and candidates for the 1990s regulations.

Calabrese, E.J.; Gilbert, C.E. (Northeast Regional Environmental Public Health Center, Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (US))

1989-01-01

22

It's Your Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

... sources: Consumer Confidence Report: Starting in 1999, these water quality reports will be prepared annually by each community ... first consumer confidence report (also called a drinking water quality report) available to the public. Beginning in 2000, ...

23

Drinking water and cancer.  

PubMed Central

Any and all chemicals generated by human activity can and will find their way into water supplies. The types and quantities of carcinogens present in drinking water at the point of consumption will differ depending on whether they result from contamination of the source water, arise as a consequence of treatment processes, or enter as the water is conveyed to the user. Source-water contaminants of concern include arsenic, asbestos, radon, agricultural chemicals, and hazardous waste. Of these, the strongest evidence for a cancer risk involves arsenic, which is linked to cancers of the liver, lung, bladder, and kidney. The use of chlorine for water treatment to reduce the risk of infectious disease may account for a substantial portion of the cancer risk associated with drinking water. The by-products of chlorination are associated with increased risk of bladder and rectal cancer, possibly accounting for 5000 cases of bladder cancer and 8000 cases of rectal cancer per year in the United States. Fluoridation of water has received great scrutiny but appears to pose little or no cancer risk. Further research is needed to identify and quantify risks posed by contaminants from drinking-water distribution pipes, linings, joints, and fixtures and by biologically active micropollutants, such as microbial agents. We need more cost-effective methods for monitoring drinking-water quality and further research on interventions to minimize cancer risks from drinking water.

Morris, R D

1995-01-01

24

Sodium in Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

Sodium is included on the Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List (CCL). The CCL is a list of ... are priorities for consideration for rulemaking. Why was sodium included on the Contaminant Candidate List? Will EPA ...

25

Inspecting for Quality. California's Lowest-Achieving Schools are Routinely Visited by Inspectors on the Lookout for, among Other things, Inadequate Textbook Supplies, Dirty Drinking Water, and Evidence of Vermin  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author describes how the California's lowest-achieving schools are routinely visited by inspectors on the lookout for, among other things, inadequate textbook supplies, dirty drinking water, and evidence of vermin. Following the settlement from the case "Williams v. California," the laws known as the "Williams legislation"…

Jacobson, Linda

2006-01-01

26

Ensuring safer drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today's regulatory environment has led to the proliferation of voluntary consensus standards and certification programs that are important to ensuring safety and health in a number of areas. One such area -- the treatment and delivery of potable water -- is addressed by the Drinking Water Additives Program.'' At the request of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), this program was

J. Christensen; P. Higgins

1994-01-01

27

Environmental justice implications of arsenic contamination in California's San Joaquin Valley: a cross-sectional, cluster-design examining exposure and compliance in community drinking water systems  

PubMed Central

Background Few studies of environmental justice examine inequities in drinking water contamination. Those studies that have done so usually analyze either disparities in exposure/harm or inequitable implementation of environmental policies. The US EPA’s 2001 Revised Arsenic Rule, which tightened the drinking water standard for arsenic from 50 ?g/L to 10 ?g/L, offers an opportunity to analyze both aspects of environmental justice. Methods We hypothesized that Community Water Systems (CWSs) serving a higher proportion of minority residents or residents of lower socioeconomic status (SES) have higher drinking water arsenic levels and higher odds of non-compliance with the revised standard. Using water quality sampling data for arsenic and maximum contaminant level (MCL) violation data for 464 CWSs actively operating from 2005–2007 in California’s San Joaquin Valley we ran bivariate tests and linear regression models. Results Higher home ownership rate was associated with lower arsenic levels (ß-coefficient= ?0.27 ?g As/L, 95% (CI), -0.5, -0.05). This relationship was stronger in smaller systems (ß-coefficient= ?0.43, CI, -0.84, -0.03). CWSs with higher rates of homeownership had lower odds of receiving an MCL violation (OR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.16, 0.67); those serving higher percentages of minorities had higher odds (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.2, 5.4) of an MCL violation. Conclusions We found that higher arsenic levels and higher odds of receiving an MCL violation were most common in CWSs serving predominantly socio-economically disadvantaged communities. Our findings suggest that communities with greater proportions of low SES residents not only face disproportionate arsenic exposures, but unequal MCL compliance challenges.

2012-01-01

28

Radionuclides in Drinking Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impending new maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for radionuclides, plus increased concern for radon in the air inside homes, have sparked new interest in these substances. An assessment of research needs,* which also provided background information on completed and ongoing research projects, showed that Rn-222 represents the most serious threat to health of all the radionuclides in drinking water, leading to

Jerry D. Lowry; Sylvia B. Lowry

1988-01-01

29

Drinking water and cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic evidence on the relation between contaminants in drinking water and cancer is reviewed. The reviewed studies cover exposure to: disinfection byproducts; nitrate; arsenic and other metals; volatiles and contaminants from hazardous waste sites; asbestiform fibers; radionuclides; and fluoride. Most investigations are ecologic, with some confirmation of elevated risk from individual-based studies. In the case of waterborne arsenic, and possibly

Kenneth P. Cantor

1997-01-01

30

Drinking Water Treatment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides an introduction to the treatment of drinking water to remove harmful or distasteful substances. Topics include the history of treatment and a brief listing of treatment processes. Students can examine a selection of online resources for more detailed information on modern treatment methods and potential contaminants. The lesson includes an activity in which they construct a model treatment plant and treat water that they have 'contaminated' themselves in order to observe firsthand the steps involved in purifying water for human consumption.

Laposata, Matt

31

Drinking Water Glossary  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Cryptosporidium:  A microorganism commonly found in lakes and rivers which is highly resistant to disinfection. Cryptosporidium has caused several large outbreaks of gastrointestinal illness, with symptoms that include diarrhea, nausea, and/or stomach cramps. People with severely weakened immune systems (that is, severely immuno-compromised) are likely to have more severe and more persistent symptoms than healthy individuals.   From Drinking Water Glossary  -  Search all glossaries for terms containing "cryptosporidium"

2011-04-21

32

Monitoring lead in drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the latest round of monitoring completed at the end of 1992, more than 10 percent of all large and medium-sized public water systems in the United States provide drinking water that contains lead levels exceeding the action level'' of 15 parts per billion established by EPA under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Those systems that exceed the action

Urbinato

2009-01-01

33

Drinking Water Standards and Regulations. Volume 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following 11 important documents are compiled for Drinking Water Standards and Regulations: (1) U.S. Environmental Agency Water Programs, National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations; (2) New Jersey Safe Drinking Water Act; (3) Summary of New J...

L. K. Wang M. H. S. Wang

1988-01-01

34

Drinking Water Standards and Regulations. Volume 3.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following 12 important documents are compiled for a manual entitled 'Drinking Water Standards and Regulations': (1) Rules and Regulations for Public Water Systems; (2) Drinking Water Standards Governing Drinking Water Quality and Reporting Requirement...

L. K. Wang M. H. S. Wang

1988-01-01

35

Lead in School Drinking Water.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Lead levels in school drinking water merit special concern because children are more at risk than adults from exposure to lead. This manual provides ways in which school officials can minimize this risk. It assists administrators by providing: (1) general information on the significance of lead in school drinking water and its effects on…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

36

Drinking Water Treatability Database (Database)  

EPA Science Inventory

The drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) will provide data taken from the literature on the control of contaminants in drinking water, and will be housed on an interactive, publicly-available USEPA web site. It can be used for identifying effective treatment processes, rec...

37

30 CFR 75.1718 - Drinking water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-07-01 false Drinking water. 75.1718 Section 75...Miscellaneous § 75.1718 Drinking water. [Statutory Provisions] An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided for drinking purposes in the active...

2013-07-01

38

Aesthetic issues for drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Andrea,M. Dietrich Civil and Environmental Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA,24061-0246, USA Tel: 540-231-5773 Fax: 540-231-7916 E-mail: andread@vt.edu Although many people expect their drinking water to be “flavorless”, natural and processed drinking waters have flavors due to minerals and organics in the natural water, inputs from any step of water processing or transport, and interaction of

M. Dietrich

39

Mutagenicity of drinking well water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Residents in the southwest coast of Taiwan sui'fer from high levels of skin, liver, lung and bladder cancers. The high content of arsenic in the drinking well water may be associated with the high incidence of cancers in the area (Chen et al. 1985). This paper reports that mutagens (or carcinogens) other than arsenic are present in the drinking well

Fung-Jou Lu; Ching-Lin Hong; Ming-Fen Lu; Hidesuke Shimizu

1993-01-01

40

DRINKING WATER AND CANCER MORTALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The problem of understanding the possible adverse health effects of organic chemical contaminants in drinking water is not new, but national concern has intensified in recent years. Despite this concern and regulatory efforts, no definitive relationship has been established betwe...

41

The risks of drinking water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three researchers from the Energy and Environmental Policy Center at Harvard University have come up with a new method of calculating the risk from contaminants in drinking water, one that they believe takes into account some of the uncertainties in pronouncing water safe or dangerous to drink. The new method concentrates on the risk of cancer, which authors Edmund Crouch, Richard Wilson, and Lauren Zeise believe has not been properly considered in establishing drinking water standards.Writing in the December 1983 issue of Water Resources Research, the authors state that “current [drinking water] standards for a given chemical or class of chemicals do not account for the presence of other pollutants” that could combine to create dangerous substances. According to Wilson, “Over a hundred industrial pollutants and chlorination byproducts have been found in various samples of drinking water, some of which are known carcinogens, others suspected carcinogens.” The same chlorine that solves one major health problem—the threat of bacterial disease—can thus contribute to another, according to the authors, by increasing the long-term risk of cancer. The largest risks are due to halomethanes such as chloroform and bromoform, produced as chlorine reacts with organic matter in drinking water.

Reichhardt, Tony

1984-04-01

42

Drinking water for the future.  

PubMed Central

The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 represents an important step in improving the quality of public water supply in the United States. However, it fails to address two important problems: (1) The 1970 Public Health Service Community Water Supply Survey revealed that small public water supply systems often deliver poor quality water. The Act does not assure that these supplies will now receive appropriate attention; furthermore, the Act does not address the needs of the 50 million people not now served by public water systems; (2) About one-third of our population draws its drinking waters from polluted sources. The decisions to use these low cost sources were made generations ago when consumers could be protected from water-borne infectious disease. A new problem has now arisen--the presence of numerous synthetic organic chemicals of uncertain health consequence, not removed by conventional water treatment. The Act does not address this problem. Regionalization and the integration of water resource and water pollution control authorities are proposed as a reasonable solution to these problems. The development of dual water supply systems in order to conserve scarce pure water sources for human consumption appears to be a feasible way to avoid using polluted waters for drinking. The development of dual supplies would be enhanced by regionalization and integration of water authorities.

Okun, D A

1976-01-01

43

Household disinfection of drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lack of safe drinking water is one of the major causes of diarrhoea epidemics. This problem becomes acute after disasters when existing systems further deteriorate. Disasters, including floods, cyclones and tornadoes, are almost annual events in Bangladesh. This paper presents data collected following the cyclone of 1991. After the cyclone, people were supplied with water purifying tablets (WPTs). We

BILQIS AMIN HOQUE; M. J. ALAM; R. B. SACK

44

Private Drinking Water Wells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, created by the Environmental Protection Agency, contains information from the on testing and protecting private water sources. The site can be helpful for persons having a private well or simply those interested in water science.

2008-10-06

45

Acid deposition and drinking water  

SciTech Connect

This paper reviews studies which describe the potential damage to human health caused by increased levels of contaminants in drinking water mobilized by acid deposition. The contaminants of concern include mercury, aluminum, copper, cadmium, lead and asbestos. The need for research to provide a better estimate of the at-risk population is discussed. 45 references.

McDonald, M.E.

1985-01-01

46

DRINKING WATER ARSENIC AND PERINATAL OUTCOMES  

EPA Science Inventory

Drinking Water Arsenic and Perinatal Outcomes DT Lobdell, Z Ning, RK Kwok, JL Mumford, ZY Liu, P Mendola Many studies have documented an association between drinking water arsenic (DWA) and cancer, vascular diseases, and dermatological outcomes, but few have investigate...

47

Chlorine Dioxide for Drinking Water Disinfection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper presents the methods of generation, biocidal effectiveness, field applications, and problems with using chlorine dioxide for disinfecting drinking water brought about by the need to comply with the trihalomethane regulation. Many drinking water ...

B. W. Lykins J. A. Goodrich J. C. Hoff N. Kothari

1989-01-01

48

Drinking Water Criteria Document for Fluoride.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on Fluoride. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of fluoride; Toxi...

1985-01-01

49

Ground Water and Drinking Water: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, from the Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, presents a list of most frequently asked questions (with answers). Question topics include: drinking water standards, getting information about your tap water and questions about bottled water.

50

Drinking Water Standards and Regulations. Volume 4.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report covers eight important documents: (1) 'The U.S. Safe Drinking Water Act Title XIV, as amended by the Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1986,' by U.S. EPA; (2) 'Summary of the Safe Drinking Water Act Regulations,' by CDM, June 1988; (3) 'Sam...

L. K. Wang M. H. S. Wang

1988-01-01

51

A Stepped Wedge, Cluster-Randomized Trial of a Household UV-Disinfection and Safe Storage Drinking Water Intervention in Rural Baja California Sur, Mexico  

PubMed Central

In collaboration with a local non-profit organization, this study evaluated the expansion of a program that promoted and installed Mesita Azul, an ultraviolet-disinfection system designed to treat household drinking water in rural Mexico. We conducted a 15-month, cluster-randomized stepped wedge trial by randomizing the order in which 24 communities (444 households) received the intervention. We measured primary outcomes (water contamination and diarrhea) during seven household visits. The intervention increased the percentage of households with access to treated and safely stored drinking water (23–62%), and reduced the percentage of households with Escherichia coli contaminated drinking water (risk difference (RD): ?19% [95% CI: ?27%, ?14%]). No significant reduction in diarrhea was observed (RD: ?0.1% [95% CI: ?1.1%, 0.9%]). We conclude that household water quality improvements measured in this study justify future promotion of the Mesita Azul, and that future studies to measure its health impact would be valuable if conducted in populations with higher diarrhea prevalence.

Gruber, Joshua S.; Reygadas, Fermin; Arnold, Benjamin F.; Ray, Isha; Nelson, Kara; Colford, John M.

2013-01-01

52

Safe Drinking Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Directive reissues DoD Directive 6230.1, August 10, 1977, to add policy guidance on the fluoride content of DoD public water systems and assign responsibility for its execution. It implements the provisions of The Public Health Service Act (as amended...

P. Janssen

1978-01-01

53

Bottled Water & Carbonated Soft Drinks Guidance Documents ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Bottled Water & Carbonated Soft Drinks Guidance Documents & Regulatory Information. ... Small Entity Compliance Guides for Bottled Water. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/guidancedocumentsregulatoryinformation

54

Cleaning Up Our Drinking Water  

SciTech Connect

Imagine drinking water that you wring out of the sponge you’ve just used to wash your car. This is what is happening around the world. Rain and snow pass through soil polluted with pesticides, poisonous metals and radionuclides into the underground lakes and streams that supply our drinking water. “We need to understand this natural system better to protect our groundwater and, by extension, our drinking water,” said Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s Applied Geology and Geochemistry Group Manager, Wayne Martin. Biologists, statisticians, hydrologists, geochemists, geologists and computer scientists at PNNL work together to clean up contaminated soils and groundwater. The teams begin by looking at the complexities of the whole environment, not just the soil or just the groundwater. PNNL researchers also perform work for private industries under a unique use agreement between the Department of Energy and Battelle, which operates the laboratory for DOE. This research leads to new remediation methods and technologies to tackle problems ranging from arsenic at old fertilizer plants to uranium at former nuclear sites. Our results help regulators, policy makers and the public make critical decisions on complex environmental issues.

Manke, Kristin L.

2007-08-01

55

Naphthalene: Drinking water health advisory  

SciTech Connect

The Drinking Water Health Advisory, Office of Water, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, has issued its report on the chemical, naphthalene. Naphthalene is used in the manufacture of phthalic and anthranilic acids and other derivatives, and in making dyes; in the manufacture of resins, celluloid, lampblack and smokeless gunpowder; and as moth repellant, insecticide, anthelmintic, vermicide, and intestinal antiseptic. The report covers the following areas: the occurrence of the chemical in the environment; its environmental fate; the chemical's absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in the human body; and its health effects on humans and animals, including its mutagenicity and carcinogenicity characteristics. Also included is the quantification of its toxicological effects.

Not Available

1990-03-01

56

California's Water Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This packet of instructional materials is designed to give social science students in grades 6-9 a first-hand experience in working out solutions to real-life problems involving the management of California's water. Students work in groups on one of three problems presented in the packet: (1) the management of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta…

Wheatley, Judy; Sudman, Rita Schmidt, Ed.

57

Water Treatment: Can You Purify Water for Drinking?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a three-day mini unit on purification of drinking water that uses the learning cycle approach. Demonstrates the typical technology that water companies use to provide high-quality drinking water. (JRH)

Harris, Mary E.

1996-01-01

58

Water Treatment: Can You Purify Water for Drinking?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a three-day mini unit on purification of drinking water that uses the learning cycle approach. Demonstrates the typical technology that water companies use to provide high-quality drinking water. (JRH)|

Harris, Mary E.

1996-01-01

59

Is It Safe to Drink the Water?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Throughout history, societies have been predicated on ready access to sources of drinking water, whether in the cisterns of Masada high above the Dead Sea, the graceful aqueducts carrying water into Rome, or the sacred Aboriginal water holes in Australia’s outback. But access is not enough. The water has to be safe to drink. And this presupposes a deceptively simple

James Salzman

2009-01-01

60

California Department of Water Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the California Legislature in 1956, the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) was designed "to plan and guide" the development of the State's water resources. The site serves as an information hub covering recent news, state water projects, a listing of water conditions and reports, and monthly activity reports for the very curious. In addition to supplying general information on California's water resources, this site provides access to the CALFED Bay-Delta Program (CALFED), the California Data Exchange Center hydrologic data (CDEC), and the California Environmental Resources Evaluation System (CERES).

61

Review of the Evidence Regarding the Carcinogenicity of Hexavalent Chromium in Drinking Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent analyses have revealed that 38% of municipal sources of drinking water in California have detectable levels of hexavalent chromium. This observation provided new impetus to characterize the carcinogenic risk associated with oral exposure to hexavalent chromium in drinking water. Notwithstanding the well-characterized increases in cancer associated with inhalation exposure to this chemical, the marked reduction of hexavalent chromium to

RICHARD M. SEDMAN; JAY BEAUMONT; THOMAS A. MCDONALD; STEPHEN REYNOLDS; GAIL KROWECH; ROBERT HOWD

2006-01-01

62

Asbestos in drinking water: a Canadian view.  

PubMed Central

For several years now, public health professionals have been faced with evaluating the potential hazards associated with the ingestion of asbestos in food and drinking water. In Canada, this is a subject of particular concern, because of the widespread occurrence of chrysotile asbestos in drinking water supplies. The results of available Canadian monitoring and epidemiologic studies of asbestos in drinking water are reviewed and discussed in light of other published work. It is concluded that the risk to health associated with the ingestion of asbestos, at the levels found in municipal drinking water supplies, is so small that it cannot be detected by currently available epidemiologic techniques.

Toft, P; Meek, M E

1983-01-01

63

Drinking Water Monitoring Program data report for primary and secondary drinking water standards.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This annual report describes the 1990 annual sampling event for the primary and secondary parameters for drinking water. Sampling was performed under the Environmental Monitoring (EM) Unit Drinking Water Monitoring Program of EG&G Idaho, Inc. This program...

B. D. Andersen

1991-01-01

64

Analysis of Drinking Water for Trace Organics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protection of drinking water quality is one of the most important mandates of government environment departments. During the past 2 decades, more and more attention has been spent on the trace organic chemical pollutants that may be present in potable water. Consequently, the detection, identification, and quantitation of trace organics in drinking water has been the subject of considerable

C. J. Koester; R. E. Clement

1993-01-01

65

SAFETY ASSESSMENT IN DRINKING WATER CHLORINATION STATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlorine is widely used as a disinfectant in drinking water in many parts of the world. It is produced relatively easily, cheap and is more effective in low consumptions. Chlorination of water by liquid chlorine is a common practice in water treatment plants, while by chlorine gas is made just before reaching the consumer's premises at special stations. Tehran's drinking

J. ADL

66

DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PLANT ADVISOR - USER DOCUMENTATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The Drinking Water Treatment Plant (DWTP) Advisor is a software application which has been designed to provide assistance in the evaluation of drinking water treatment plants. Specifically, this program, which is based on the source document Interim Handbook Optimizing Water Trea...

67

California Water Teaching Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From Foothill College and the Using a Web-Based GIS to Teach Problem-Based Science in High School and College project, this document contains links to online resources on California's water issues and topographic maps. This document is intended to be used with the Introduction to Topographic Maps worksheet at: http://amser.org/index.php?P=FullRecord&ID=18138This is a helpful resource for the introductory GIS classroom.

2012-03-19

68

30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601 Mineral Resources...MINES Drinking Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the...

2013-07-01

69

30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603 Section...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water...

2010-07-01

70

30 CFR 71.602 - Drinking water; distribution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Drinking water; distribution. 71.602 Section 71.602...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.602 Drinking water; distribution. (a) Water shall be...

2009-07-01

71

30 CFR 71.602 - Drinking water; distribution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; distribution. 71.602 Section 71.602...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.602 Drinking water; distribution. (a) Water shall be...

2010-07-01

72

Within-day drinking water consumption patterns: Results from a drinking water consumption survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data currently available on drinking water intakes do not support dietary exposure estimates for contaminants that have acute effects lasting less than 24 h. Realistic exposure estimates for these types of contaminants in drinking water require detailed information on amounts and time of consumption for each drinking occasion during a day. A nationwide water consumption survey was conducted to address

Leila Barraj; Carolyn Scrafford; Jennifer Lantz; Carrie Daniels; Gary Mihlan

2009-01-01

73

USGS Water Resources of California  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Water Resources of California contains water data from the National Water Information System (NWIS) network, NWISWeb, such as daily streamflow conditions; reports from USGS projects in California; and an image archive. The water data from 1994 - 2001 are searchable by date, county, and keyword. There are also links to all of the current projects being run by the USGS in California.

74

Drinking Water: A Community Action Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|While much of the drinking water in the United States is safe for consumption, protecting its quality and assuring its availability are becoming increasingly difficult. This booklet is written for individuals and groups who are concerned about the drinking water in their communities. It provides a general introduction to the complex issues of…

Boyd, Susan, Ed.; And Others

75

Biological Drinking Water Treatment: Benefiting from Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

While the use of microbial biomass for the degradation of contaminants, nutrients, and organics has been commonly used in the wastewater field since the early 1900s, the biological treatment of drinking water has been limited, particularly in the United States. However, recent developments in the drinking water treatment field are beginning to broaden the applicability, feasibility, and favorability of biological

Jess C. Brown; Carollo Engineers

76

Risk Assessment of Virus in Drinking Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reevaluation of drinking water treatment practices in a desire to minimize the formation of disinfection byproducts while assuring minimum levels of public health protection against infectious organisms has caused it to become necessary to consider the problem of estimation of risks posed from exposure to low levels of microorganisms, such as virus or protozoans, found in treated drinking water.

Charles N. Haas; Joan B. Rose; Charles Gerba; Stig Regli

1993-01-01

77

Safe drinking water: the toxicologist's approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production of adequate and safe drinking water is a high priority issue for safeguarding the health and well-being of humans all over the world. Traditionally, microbiological quality of drinking water has been the main concern, but over the last decades the attention of the general public and health officials on the importance of chemical quality and the threat of

F. X. R van Leeuwen

2000-01-01

78

Detecting Contaminated Drinking Water: Harnessing Consumer Complaints.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Based on previous contamination incidents, civilian and military water supply personnel have improved their drinking water surveillance practices. One of the biggest challenges though is that no single device can detect all chemical, biological, and radio...

A. J. Whelton A. M. Dietrich G. A. Burlingame M. F. Cooney

2004-01-01

79

Oxidation of Trace Contaminants in Drinking Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contamination of drinking water by traces of organic chemicals is of special concern because of health effects of these materials. Louisiana waters are especially susceptible to this contamination because of industrial discharges stemming from large petro...

F. Groves

1985-01-01

80

21 CFR 520.2325a - Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-04-01 false Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water. 520.2325a Section 520...520.2325a Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water. (a) Sponsor . See...Conditions of use. It is used in drinking water as follows: (1)...

2009-04-01

81

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR LEGIONELLA (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, has prepared a drinking water criteria document on Legionella. The document includes an extensive review of the following topics: general information and properties, occurrence in drinking water, worldwide distri...

82

30 CFR 71.600 - Drinking water; general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Drinking water; general. 71.600 Section 71.600 ...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.600 Drinking water; general. An adequate supply of...

2009-07-01

83

30 CFR 71.600 - Drinking water; general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; general. 71.600 Section 71.600 ...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.600 Drinking water; general. An adequate supply of...

2010-07-01

84

THE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS OF DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

A number of chemical contaminants have been identified in drinking water. These contaminants reach drinking water supplies from various sources, including municipal and industrial discharges, urban and rural run-off, natural geological formations, drinking water distrib...

85

Drinking Water in Schools and Child Care Facilities  

MedlinePLUS

... Schools & Child Care Facilities Drinking Water in Schools & Child Care Facilities This one-stop EPA site provides information about drinking water quality in schools and child care facilities. Ensuring drinking water quality at these facilities ...

86

Injured coliforms in drinking water.  

PubMed Central

Coliforms were enumerated by using m-Endo agar LES and m-T7 agar in 102 routine samples of drinking water from three New England community water systems to investigate the occurrence and significance of injured coliforms. Samples included water collected immediately after conventional treatment, during the backwash cycle, at various points in the distribution system, and 1 week after the break and subsequent repair of a distribution main. Injured coliforms in these samples averaged greater than 95%. m-T7 agar yielded 8- to 38-fold more coliforms than did m-Endo agar LES. The geometric mean of coliforms recovered by m-Endo agar LES was less than 1 confirmed coliform per 100 ml, although m-T7 agar yielded 5.7 to 67.5 confirmed coliforms per 100 ml. In addition, the majority of these samples giving positive results on m-T7 agar produced no detectable counts on m-Endo agar LES. These findings indicated that coliforms were injured and largely undetected by use of accepted analytical media in the systems examined.

McFeters, G A; Kippin, J S; LeChevallier, M W

1986-01-01

87

Relationship of fluoride in drinking water to other drinking water parameters  

SciTech Connect

Fluoride in drinking water and 32 other drinking water variables were evaluated in an epidemiologic study of 158 municipalities in the State of Iowa. The study included three study groups: two for controlled fluoridation and one for natural fluoride. Previous epidemiologic studies of fluoride in drinking water have rarely addressed other drinking water parameters. The results indicated that controlled fluoridation municipalities were more likely to have initiated other treatment practices such as chlorination. Natural fluoride drinking water concentrations were positively correlated with water source depth, and thereby related to other depth-associated variables such as radium 226, strontium, and nitrogen. Future epidemiologic studies evaluating the safety of fluoride in drinking water should address the potential for confounding by other water variables and treatment processes.

Lynch, C.F.

1987-01-01

88

Accuracy of bottled drinking water label content  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to compare the accuracy of the concentration of fluoride (F), calcium (Ca), pH, and total dissolved\\u000a solids (TDS) levels mentioned on the labels of the various brands of bottled drinking water available in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.\\u000a Twenty-one different brands of locally produced non-carbonated (still water) bottled drinking water were collected from the\\u000a supermarkets of

Nazeer B. Khan; Arham N. Chohan

2010-01-01

89

Smart Water: Energy-Water Optimization in Drinking Water Systems  

EPA Science Inventory

This project aims to develop and commercialize a Smart Water Platform â?? Sensor-based Data-driven Energy-Water Optimization technology in drinking water systems. The key technological advances rely on cross-platform data acquisition and management system, model-based real-time sys...

90

Within-day drinking water consumption patterns: Results from a drinking water consumption survey  

PubMed Central

Data currently available on drinking water intakes do not support dietary exposure estimates for contaminants that have acute effects lasting less than 24 h. Realistic exposure estimates for these types of contaminants in drinking water require detailed information on amounts and time of consumption for each drinking occasion during a day. A nationwide water consumption survey was conducted to address how often, when, and how much water is consumed at specific times during the day. The survey was conducted in two waves, to represent two seasons, and the survey instrument consisted of 7-day water consumption diaries. Data on total daily amounts consumed, number of drinking occasions per day, amounts consumed per drinking occasion, and intervals between drinking occasions show larger between-subjects variation than within-subject variation. Statistically significant associations were also observed between drinking water consumption patterns and participants’ ages and sex and geographical regions in which these participants live. The number of drinking occasions on a given day varied from 0 to 19, with the majority of respondents reporting 6 or less drinking occasions per day. The average interval between drinking occasions varied from 1 to 17 h, with 57% of the person-days reporting average intervals at least 3 h apart. The mean amount consumed per drinking occasion showed little association with the number of drinking occasions and fluctuated between 8 and 10 oz. To our knowledge, this survey is the only source of information on within-day patterns (i.e., when and how much) of drinking water consumption for a nationally representative sample of the US population. The detailed water consumption data from this survey can be used to support less than 24-h dietary exposure estimates for contaminants in drinking water.

BARRAJ, LEILA; SCRAFFORD, CAROLYN; LANTZ, JENNIFER; DANIELS, CARRIE; MIHLAN, GARY

2010-01-01

91

ETV REPORT - PHYSICAL REMOVAL OF MICROBIOLOGICAL, PARTICULATE AND ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER - ZENON ENHANCED COAGULATION ZEEWEED ULTRAFILTRATION MEMBRANE SYSTEM AT ESCONDIDO, CALIFORNIA: NSF00/02/EPADW395  

EPA Science Inventory

NSF Int in cooperation with EPA operates the Package Drinking Water Treatment Systems program, one of 12 technology areas under ETV. The performance of an enhanced coagulation membrane filtration systems used in package drinking water treatment system applications was recently ev...

92

ENUMERATING INJURED COLIFORMS IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The article emphasizes the importance of enumerating injured coliforms in drinking water and reviews the sources of injury, factors influencing the extent of injury, problems in enumerating stressed coliforms, recent advances in enumeration techniques, and the health implications...

93

TRIHALOMETHANES IN DRINKING WATER AND SPONTANEOUS ABORTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

A limited number of epidemiological studies have evaluated the potential association between exposure to DBPs in drinking water and adverse reproductive outcomes. Reproductive effects that have been studied include, for example, spontaneous abortions, congenital defects, low birt...

94

FORMATION OF HALONITROMETHANES IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

In addition to many other halogenated disinfection by-products (DBPs), a number of halonitromethanes including chlorinated, brominated, and mixed bromochlorinated nitromethanes, have been identified in drinking water. These halonitromethanes, especially the brominated ones, are ...

95

Removal of Excess Fluoride From Drinking Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

COMMENCING JUNE 24, 1977, COMMUNITIES THROUGHOUT THE UNITED STATES ARE REQUIRED TO COMPLY WITH THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY NATIONAL INTERIM PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATION DATED 24 DECEMBER 1975. THIS REPORT IS BASED UPON PILOT PLANT EXPERIMENTS...

1978-01-01

96

National Primary Drinking Water Regulations Implementation: Definitions  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

National Primary Drinking Water Regulations Implementation: DefinitionsNational Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) GlossaryImproving Air Quality in Your Community GlossaryAmerica's Children and the Environment TermsAmerica's Children and the Environment Terms

2013-09-30

97

THE FATE OF FLUOROSILICATE DRINKING WATER ADDITIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

Periodically, the EPA reexamines its information on regulated drinking water contaminants to deterime if further study is required. Fluoride is one such contaminant undergoing review. The chemical literature indicates that some deficiencies exist in our understanding of the spe...

98

Consolidation as a Regulatory Compliance Strategy: Small Drinking Water Systems and the Safe Drinking Water Act  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite extensive research and policy initiatives to increase the technical, financial, and managerial capacity of small drinking water systems, there has been little research focusing on understanding how consolidation can increase the overall capacity of the drinking water industry. Consolidation of water systems may be a mechanism that increases regulatory compliance by removing poorly performing systems from the industry and

Min-Yang A. Lee; John B. Braden

2007-01-01

99

Locating U.S. national standards for drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents historical background on the U.S. Safe Drinking Water Act, the regulatory development process for the drinking water standards in the United States, new initiatives currently being discussed in the U.S. Congress to rewrite the Safe Drinking Water Act, and a detailed list of the drinking water standards currently promulgated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Major sources

Lily Wai

1995-01-01

100

Sustaining Waters: From Hydrology to Drinking Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Around the world, disastrous effects of floods and droughts are painful evidence of our continuing struggle between human resource demands and the sustainability of our hydrologic systems. Too much or too little rainfall is often deemed the culprit in these water crises, focussing on water "lacks and needs" instead of exploring the mechanisms of the hydrologic functions and processes that sustain us. Applicable to regions around the world, this unified approach is about our human and environmental qualities with user friendly concepts and how-to guides backed up by real life experiences. From the poorest parts of Africa to Urban France to the wealthest state in the USA, examples from surface to groundwater to marine environments demonstrate how the links between vulerable natural areas, and the basins that they support are integral to the availability, adequacy and accessibility of our drinking water. Watershed management can be an effective means for crisis intervention and pollution control. This project is geared as a reference for groups, individuals and agencies concerned with watershed management, a supplement for interdisciplinary high school through university curriculam, for professional development in technical and field assistance, and for community awareness in the trade-offs and consequences of resource decisions that affect hydrologic systems. This community-based project demonstrates how our human resource demands can be managed within ecological constraints. An inter-disciplinary process is developed that specifically assesses risk to human health from resource use practices, and explores the similarities and interations between our human needs and those of the ecosystems in which we all must live together. Disastrous conditions worldwide have triggered reactions in crisis relief rather than crisis prevention. Through a unified management approach to the preservation of water quality, the flows of water that connect all water users can serve as a basis for the maintenance and protection of our valuable watersheds.

Toch, S.

2003-04-01

101

INVESTIGATION OF 'LEGIONELLA PNEUMOPHILA' IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

An investigation of Legionella pneumophila in drinking water systems and home plumbing appurtenances was done. In Phase 1, 68 water samples were collected from kitchen sink faucets in homes on 17 community water systems. No. L. pneumophila organisms were isolated. In Phase 1A, th...

102

Drinking water quality standards and controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intended as a handy reference guides for sanitary engineers, public health administrators, or water treatment professionals, Drinking Water Quality Standards is designed as a one-stop' evaluation of water quality controls issues - both from the source to the treatment plant and from the distribution system to the consumer. Because of the concern generated by recent discoveries of contaminants in potable

Zuane; J. De

1990-01-01

103

Renal effects of uranium in drinking water.  

PubMed Central

Animal studies and small studies in humans have shown that uranium is nephrotoxic. However, more information about its renal effects in humans following chronic exposure through drinking water is required. We measured uranium concentrations in drinking water and urine in 325 persons who had used drilled wells for drinking water. We measured urine and serum concentrations of calcium, phosphate, glucose, albumin, creatinine, and beta-2-microglobulin to evaluate possible renal effects. The median uranium concentration in drinking water was 28 microg/L (interquartile range 6-135, max. 1,920 microg/L) and in urine 13 ng/mmol creatinine (2-75), resulting in the median daily uranium intake of 39 microg (7-224). Uranium concentration in urine was statistically significantly associated with increased fractional excretion of calcium and phosphate. Increase of uranium in urine by 1 microg/mmol creatinine increased fractional excretion of calcium by 1.5% [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.6-2.3], phosphate by 13% (1.4-25), and glucose excretion by 0.7 micromol/min (-0.4-1.8). Uranium concentrations in drinking water and daily intake of uranium were statistically significantly associated with calcium fractional excretion, but not with phosphate or glucose excretion. Uranium exposure was not associated with creatinine clearance or urinary albumin, which reflect glomerular function. In conclusion, uranium exposure is weakly associated with altered proximal tubulus function without a clear threshold, which suggests that even low uranium concentrations in drinking water can cause nephrotoxic effects. Despite chronic intake of water with high uranium concentration, we observed no effect on glomerular function. The clinical and public health relevance of the findings are not easily established, but our results suggest that the safe concentration of uranium in drinking water may be within the range of the proposed guideline values of 2-30 microg/L.

Kurttio, Paivi; Auvinen, Anssi; Salonen, Laina; Saha, Heikki; Pekkanen, Juha; Makelainen, Ilona; Vaisanen, Sari B; Penttila, Ilkka M; Komulainen, Hannu

2002-01-01

104

Low pressure production of drinking water  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An apparatus and methods for producing purified drinking water are disclosed. A hand pump is used in a closed system to generate pressure sufficient to pass the untreated water through a system of filters and a reverse osmosis membrane. The system preferably includes an ultrafiltration filter. The resulting water is substantially pure, being free of bacteria and having a significant amount of minerals and salts removed to make it safe for drinking. The system can produce enough potable water to supply the daily needs for a small village.

2012-03-27

105

Evaluating Nanoparticle Breakthrough during Drinking Water Treatment  

PubMed Central

Background: Use of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in consumer products is resulting in NPs in drinking water sources. Subsequent NP breakthrough into treated drinking water is a potential exposure route and human health threat. Objectives: In this study we investigated the breakthrough of common NPs—silver (Ag), titanium dioxide (TiO2), and zinc oxide (ZnO)—into finished drinking water following conventional and advanced treatment. Methods: NPs were spiked into five experimental waters: groundwater, surface water, synthetic freshwater, synthetic freshwater containing natural organic matter, and tertiary wastewater effluent. Bench-scale coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation simulated conventional treatment, and microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) simulated advanced treatment. We monitored breakthrough of NPs into treated water by turbidity removal and inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results: Conventional treatment resulted in 2–20%, 3–8%, and 48–99% of Ag, TiO2, and ZnO NPs, respectively, or their dissolved ions remaining in finished water. Breakthrough following MF was 1–45% for Ag, 0–44% for TiO2, and 36–83% for ZnO. With UF, NP breakthrough was 0–2%, 0–4%, and 2–96% for Ag, TiO2, and ZnO, respectively. Variability was dependent on NP stability, with less breakthrough of aggregated NPs compared with stable NPs and dissolved NP ions. Conclusions: Although a majority of aggregated or stable NPs were removed by simulated conventional and advanced treatment, NP metals were detectable in finished water. As environmental NP concentrations increase, we need to consider NPs as emerging drinking water contaminants and determine appropriate drinking water treatment processes to fully remove NPs in order to reduce their potential harmful health outcomes. Citation: Abbott Chalew TE, Ajmani GS, Huang H, Schwab KJ. 2013. Evaluating nanoparticle breakthrough during drinking water treatment. Environ Health Perspect 121:1161–1166;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306574

Chalew, Talia E. Abbott; Ajmani, Gaurav S.; Huang, Haiou

2013-01-01

106

Drinking water saving potential of dual networks in Kuwait  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to present a case study on how drinking water consumption could be potentially reduced by the introduction of dual water distribution networks. Since water of this quality is required only for drinking, cooking, bathing, and washing, delivering such water for uses that require non-drinking water quality represents a tremendous waste of water

Vincent Kotwicki; Meshan Al-Otaibi

2011-01-01

107

FACTOIDS: Drinking Water and Ground Water Statistics for 2004.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There are approximately 160,000 public drinking water systems in the United States. Each of these systems regularly supplies drinking water to at least 25 people or 15 service connections. Beyond their common purpose, the 160,000 systems vary widely. The ...

2005-01-01

108

FACTOIDS: Drinking Water and Ground Water Statistics for 2003.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There are approximately 160,000 public drinking water systems in the United States. Each of these systems regularly supplies drinking water to at least 25 people or 15 service connections. Beyond their common purpose, the 160,000 systems vary widely. The ...

2004-01-01

109

DETERMINING THE NUTRIENT STATUS OF DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The presence of biodegradable organic matter in drinking water can result in biologically unstable water that has been linked to various taste, odor and color problems. hen the implicated bacteria are members of the total coliform group, those occurrences can result if major comp...

110

Drinking water health advisory for boron  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Health Advisory Program, sponsored by the Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Water, has issued its report on the element boron: included are the compounds boric acid and borax(sodium tetraborate). It provides information on the health effects, analytical methodology, and treatment technology that would be useful in dealing with the contamination of drinking water. Health Advisories (HAs) describe nonregulatory concentrations

Cantilli

1991-01-01

111

EMERGENCY RADIATION MONITORING OF DRINKING WATER  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple method using standard radiation survey meters is proposed for ; monitoring drinking water against bomb fall-out. The gamma field associated with ; a suitable volume of water is measured and compared with the fields expected from ; permitted concentrations of fission products of known age. The fields produced ; by these permitted concentrations have been tabulated, and the

G. W. C. Tait; W. F. Merritt

1957-01-01

112

REMOVAL OF ALACHLOR FROM DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Alachlor (Lasso) is a pre-emergent herbicide used in the production of corn and soybeans. U.S. EPA has studied control of alachlor in drinking water treatment processes to define treatability before setting maximum contaminant levels and to assist water utilities in selecting con...

113

SAFE DRINKING WATER INFORMATION SYSTEM (STATE)  

EPA Science Inventory

Resource Purpose: The Safe Drinking Water Information System (STATE) (SDWIS/STATE) is an information system OGWDW is developing for states and EPA regions to manage their water industry. SDWIS/STATE is not an information system for which EPA HQ is using to store or retrie...

114

30 CFR 75.1718-1 - Drinking water; quality.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 75.1718-1 Section...HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES...75.1718-1 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance...

2013-07-01

115

Water: How Much Should You Drink Every Day?  

MedlinePLUS

... only. Water: How much should you drink every day? By Mayo Clinic staff Original Article: http://www. ... up Water: How much should you drink every day? Water is essential to good health, yet needs ...

116

Drinking water standards and regulations. Manual for 1977-1986  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following eight important documents are compiled for Drinking Water Standards and Regulations: (1) EPA Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards; (2) EPA Guidelines establishing Test Procedures for the Analysis of Pollutants Under the Clean Water Act; (3) Massachusetts Dept. of Environmental Quality Engineering, Interpretation of Results of Water Supply Analysis; (4) Thompson, J.C., Updating the Safe Drinking Water Act and

L. K. Wang; M. H. S. Wang

1987-01-01

117

A Drop to Drink. . .A Report on the Quality of Our Drinking Water.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Basic information about the quality of our nation's drinking water is contained in this brochure. Written for the general public to familiarize them with the situation, it will also help them evaluate the state of the nation's drinking water as well as that of their own communities. The need to assure reliable sources of healthful drinking water

Tait, Jack

118

ALCOHOL CONTENT VARIATION OF BAR AND RESTAURANT DRINKS IN NORTHERN CALIFORNIA  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate the average of, and sources of variation in, the alcohol content of drinks served on-premise in 10 Northern California counties. Methods Focus groups of bartenders were conducted to evaluate potential sources of drink alcohol content variation. In the main study, 80 establishments were visited by a team of research personnel who purchased and measured the volume of particular beer, wine and spirits drinks. Brand or analysis of a sample of the drink was used to determine the alcohol concentration by volume. Results The average wine drink was found to be 43% larger than a standard drink with no difference between red and white wine. The average draught beer was 22% larger than the standard. Spirits drinks differed by type with the average shot being equal to one standard drink while mixed drinks were 42% larger. Variation in alcohol content was particularly wide for wine and mixed spirits drinks. No significant differences in mean drink alcohol content were seen by county for beer or spirits but one county was lower than two others for wine. Conclusions On premise drinks typically contained more alcohol than the standard drink with the exception of shots and bottled beers. Wine and mixed spirits drinks were the largest with nearly 1.5 times the alcohol of a standard drink on average. Consumers should be made aware of these substantial differences and key sources of variation in drink alcohol content and research studies should utilize this information in the interpretation of reported numbers of drinks.

Kerr, William C.; Patterson, Deidre; Koenen, Mary Albert; Greenfield, Thomas K.

2008-01-01

119

OCCURRENCE AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY TESTING OF PARTICULATES IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The analyses of over 2000 drinking water samples from many parts of the United States suggest that most water consumers do not drink water containing large numbers of elongated mineral particles which have lengths three times the diameter. Some drinking waters do contain high amo...

120

GEOSPATIAL ANALYSIS APPROACHES FOR DRINKING WATER SOURCE PROTECTION AREAS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Drinking Water Mapping Application (DWMA) provides EPA with Web-based tools to generate reports and maps vital to managing drinking water programs under the Safe Drinking Water Act. The DWMA is an application within EPA's Watershed Assessment, Tracking & Environmental Results (WATERS) architecture that uses ESRI ArcIMS, the Oracle database, GIS mapping layers using ESRI's SDE, and external image and

William Cooter; Jay Rineer; Brandon Bergenroth; A. Roger Anzzolin

121

Decision support system for drinking water management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problems in drinking water management are complex and often solutions must be reached under strict time constrains. This is especially distinct in case of environmental accidents in the catchment areas of the wells that are used for drinking water supply. The beneficial tools that can help decision makers and make program of activities more efficient are decision support systems (DSS). In general they are defined as computer-based support systems that help decision makers utilize data and models to solve unstructured problems. The presented DSS was developed in the frame of INCOME project which is focused on the long-term stable and safe drinking water supply in Ljubljana. The two main water resources Ljubljana polje and Barje alluvial aquifers are characterized by a strong interconnection of surface and groundwater, high vulnerability, high velocities of groundwater flow and pollutant transport. In case of sudden pollution, reactions should be very fast to avoid serious impact to the water supply. In the area high pressures arising from urbanization, industry, traffic, agriculture and old environmental burdens. The aim of the developed DSS is to optimize the activities in cases of emergency water management and to optimize the administrative work regarding the activities that can improve groundwater quality status. The DSS is an interactive computer system that utilizes data base, hydrological modelling, and experts' and stakeholders' knowledge. It consists of three components, tackling the different abovementioned issues in water management. The first one utilizes the work on identification, cleaning up and restoration of illegal dumpsites that are a serious threat to the qualitative status of groundwater. The other two components utilize the predictive capability of the hydrological model and scenario analysis. The user interacts with the system by a graphical interface that guides the user step-by-step to the recommended remedial measures. Consequently, the acquisition of information to support the water management's decisions is simplified and faster, thus contributing to more efficient water management and a safer supply of drinking water.

Janža, M.

2012-04-01

122

Evaluating Nanoparticle Breakthrough during Drinking Water Treatment.  

PubMed

Background: Use of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in consumer products is resulting in NPs in drinking water sources. Subsequent NP breakthrough into treated drinking water is a potential exposure route and human health threat.Objectives: In this study we investigated the breakthrough of common NPs-silver (Ag), titanium dioxide (TiO2), and zinc oxide (ZnO)-into finished drinking water following conventional and advanced treatment.Methods: NPs were spiked into five experimental waters: groundwater, surface water, synthetic freshwater, synthetic freshwater containing natural organic matter, and tertiary wastewater effluent. Bench-scale coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation simulated conventional treatment, and microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) simulated advanced treatment. We monitored breakthrough of NPs into treated water by turbidity removal and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).Results: Conventional treatment resulted in 2-20%, 3-8%, and 48-99% of Ag, TiO2, and ZnO NPs, respectively, or their dissolved ions remaining in finished water. Breakthrough following MF was 1-45% for Ag, 0-44% for TiO2, and 36-83% for ZnO. With UF, NP breakthrough was 0-2%, 0-4%, and 2-96% for Ag, TiO2, and ZnO, respectively. Variability was dependent on NP stability, with less breakthrough of aggregated NPs compared with stable NPs and dissolved NP ions.Conclusions: Although a majority of aggregated or stable NPs were removed by simulated conventional and advanced treatment, NP metals were detectable in finished water. As environmental NP concentrations increase, we need to consider NPs as emerging drinking water contaminants and determine appropriate drinking water treatment processes to fully remove NPs in order to reduce their potential harmful health outcomes.Citation: Abbott Chalew TE, Ajmani GS, Huang H, Schwab KJ. 2013. Evaluating nanoparticle breakthrough during drinking water treatment. Environ Health Perspect 121:1161-1166;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306574. PMID:23933526

Chalew, Talia E Abbott; Ajmani, Gaurav S; Huang, Haiou; Schwab, Kellogg J

2013-07-22

123

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY MANAGEMENT: AN INTERACTIVE APPROACH  

EPA Science Inventory

In February 1977, a massive discharge of carbon tetrachloride into the Kanawha River in West Virginia threatened much of the Ohio River Valley with contaminated drinking water potentially affecting over one million consumers. The episode heightened the awareness of consumers and ...

124

Emerging Contaminants in the Drinking Water Cycle  

EPA Science Inventory

In the past decade, the scientific community and general public have become increasingly aware of the potential for the presence of unregulated, and generally unmonitored contaminants, found at low concentrations (sub-µg/L) in surface, ground and drinking water. The most common...

125

Emerging Contaminants in the Drinking Water Cycle.  

EPA Science Inventory

In the past decade, the scientific community and general public have become increasingly aware of the potential for the presence of unregulated, and generally unmonitored contaminants, found at low concentrations (sub-¿g/L) in surface, ground and drinking water. The most common...

126

Lead in the School's Drinking Water.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this manual is to assist school officials by providing information on the effects of lead in school drinking water on children, how to detect the presence of lead, how to reduce the lead, and how to provide training for sampling and remedial programs. A protocol is provided for procedures to determine the location and source of…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

127

Compliance Monitoring of Drinking Water Supplies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The most frequent testing required under the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 is for turbidity and coliform. Free chlorine residual testing can be substituted for part of the coliform requirement. Described are chemical procedures for performing this test. References are given. (Author/MA)|

Haukebo, Thomas; Bernius, Jean

1977-01-01

128

DEFLUORIDATION OF DRINKING WATER IN SMALL COMMUNITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses the results of a study of defluoridation of drinking water in small communities using either central or point-of-use treatment. The ten sites used for project data collection had natural fluoride in their groundwater supplies in excess of the Maximum Contamin...

129

Aeromonas sobria in chlorinated drinking water supplies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aeromonas species were recovered from over 27% of 183 chlorinated drinking water samples collected during an 18-month period. Sixteen of 20 isolates tested elicited a cytotoxic response by Y-1 mouse adrenal cells. None of the strains was either enterotoxigenic by the rabbit ligated ileal loop assay, exhibited piliation, or showed significant mannose resistant adherence to human buccal cells. TheAeromonas isolates

M. W. LeChevallier; T. M. Evans; R. J. Seidler; O. P. Daily; B. R. Merrell; D. M. Rollins; S. W. Joseph

1982-01-01

130

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR CHLORAMINES  

EPA Science Inventory

Critical to establishing a regulatory strategy for drinking water is identifying those contaminants which pose the greatest risk to human health and consequently, what treatments could be developed to address those risks and at what cost. The National Center for Environmental Ass...

131

New Approaches in Setting Drinking Water Standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1986 required that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) establish standards for 83 contaminants by June 1989, and at least 25 added standards by January 1991, then 25 more every three years hence. Conceptually, the regulatory process employed by EPA consists of two steps. First, a detailed health risk assessment of a contaminant

Edward V. Ohanian

1992-01-01

132

Treatment Strategies for Lead in Drinking Water  

EPA Science Inventory

Lead pipes are capable of lasting hundreds of years. Conservatively, there are over 12 million, still serving drinking water in the US. Probably, this is a substantial underestimate. Leaded solder joining copper pipe abounds. Leaded brasses have dominated the materials used for...

133

RESPONDING TO THREATS AND INCIDENTS OF INTENTIONAL DRINKING WATER CONTAMINATION  

EPA Science Inventory

All drinking water systems have some degree of vulnerability to contamination, and analysis shows that it is possible to contaminate drinking water at levels causing varying degrees of harm. Furthermore, experience indicates that the threat of contamination, overt or circumstant...

134

Drinking Water Criteria Document for Xylene (Final), June 1987,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on Xylene. The Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical chemical properties of Xylene, Toxicokinetics and...

J. M. Becker D. A. Gray M. W. Neal

1987-01-01

135

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR PENTACHLOROPHENOL (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on pentachlorophenol. The Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of pentachlorophenol, Toxicokineti...

136

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR EPICHLOROHYDRIN (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on epichlorohydrin. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of epichlorohydrin; Toxicokinetics ...

137

ENDOTOXINS, ALGAE AND 'LIMULUS' AMOEBOCYTE LYSATE TEST IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Field and laboratory studies were conducted to determine the distribution of algae and bacteria, and investigate sources of endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides) in drinking water. The field survey was performed on five drinking water systems located in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania ...

138

Drinking Water Criteria Document for Mercury (Final Draft).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on mercury. The Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of mercury, toxicok...

W. E. Pepelko

1985-01-01

139

Drinking Water Criteria Document for Carbon Tetrachloride (Final Draft).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on carbon tetrachloride. The Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of car...

1985-01-01

140

Drinking Water Criteria Document for Vinyl Chloride (Final Draft).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on vinyl chloride. The Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of vinyl chl...

1985-01-01

141

Selenium Removal from Drinking Water by Ion Exchange.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Strong-base anion exchangers were shown to remove selenate and selenite ions from drinking water. Because selenium species are usually present at low concentrations, the efficiency of removal is controlled by the concentration of the common drinking water...

J. E. Maneval G. Klein J. Sinkovic

1985-01-01

142

Regulatory Considerations to Ensure Clean and Safe Drinking Water  

EPA Science Inventory

Federal drinking water regulations are based on risk assessment of human health effects and research conducted on source water, treatment technologies, residuals, and distribution systems. The book chapter summarizes the role that EPA research plays in ensuring pure drinking wat...

143

An Environmental Assessment of United States Drinking Water Watersheds  

EPA Science Inventory

There is an emerging recognition that natural lands and their conservation are important elements of a sustainable drinking water infrastructure. We conducted a national, watershed-level environmental assessment of drinking water watersheds using data on land cover, hydrography a...

144

Toxicity of Chlorine Dioxide in Drinking Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlorine dioxide (CIO2) is currently being considered as an alternate to chlorine as a disinfectant for public water supplies. Studies were conducted to determine the toxicity of CIO2 (0, 1, 10, 100, 1000 mg/L) and its metabolites, CIO-2 and CIO-3 (10, 100 mg/L) in drinking water in rats. After 9 months treatment the osmotic fragility of the red blood cells

M. S. Abdel-Rahman; D. Couri; R. J. Bull

1984-01-01

145

An environmental assessment of United States drinking water watersheds  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an emerging recognition that natural lands and their conservation are important elements of a sustainable drinking\\u000a water infrastructure. We conducted a national, watershed-level environmental assessment of 5,265 drinking water watersheds\\u000a using data on land cover, hydrography and conservation status. Approximately 78% of the conterminous United States lies within\\u000a a drinking water watershed. The typical drinking water watershed had

James D. WickhamTimothy; Timothy G. Wade; Kurt H. Riitters

2011-01-01

146

Organic Micropollutants in Drinking Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report relates to work carried out in order to identify organic contaminants in raw and treated water. A further objective was to determine the frequency of occurrence of such contaminants in a variety of treated waters, and to make a preliminary ass...

M. Fielding T. M. Gibson H. A. James K. McLoughlin C. P. Steel

1981-01-01

147

Bromide affecting drinking water mutagenicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of bromide on the mutagenicity of artificially recharged groundwater and purified artificially recharged groundwater after chlorine, ozone, hydrogen peroxide, permanganate, and UV treatments alone and in various combinations was studied. The highest mutagenicity was observed after chlorination, while hydrogen peroxide–ozone–chlorine treatment produced the lowest value for both waters. Chlorinated waters, which were spiked with bromide, had up to

T Myllykangas; T. K Nissinen; J Mäki-Paakkanen; A Hirvonen; T Vartiainen

2003-01-01

148

Behavior of organic polymers in drinking water purification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic organic polymers used to purify drinking water are severely limited in that their impurities and by-products harm human health. In this study, the undesired effects resulted from chlorination and the enhanced attenuation of toxic organic compounds in drinking water from using synthetic organic polymer cogulants were investigated.In the simulated drinking water purification processes, synthetic organic polymers were used as

Jiunn-Fwu Lee; Pao-Mei Liao; Dyi-Hwa seng; Pi-Tsui Wen

1998-01-01

149

Halogenated Hydrocarbons in New Orleans Drinking Water and Blood Plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volatile organics from New Orleans drinking water and pooled plasma were collected on a solid phenyl ether polymer and analyzed by gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric techniques. Thirteen halogenated hydrocarbons were identified in the drinking water. Five halogenated compounds were found in the plasma. Tetrachloroethylene and carbon tetrachloride were found in both the plasma and the drinking water. Considerable variation

Betty Dowty; Douglas Carlisle; John L. Laseter; James Storer

1975-01-01

150

SAFE DRINKING WATER INFORMATION SYSTEM/FEDERAL COMPONENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Resource Purpose: The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) gives EPA the authority to regulate public drinking water supplies. Using its authority under law, EPA has set health-based standards for contaminants that may be found in drinking water. EPA regulates over 80 contaminant...

151

Toxicological relevance of emerging contaminants for drinking water quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection of many new compounds in surface water, groundwater and drinking water raises considerable public concern, especially when human health based guideline values are not available it is questioned if detected concentrations affect human health. In an attempt to address this question, we derived provisional drinking water guideline values for a selection of 50 emerging contaminants relevant for drinking

Merijn Schriks; Minne B. Heringa; Margaretha M. E. van der Kooi; Pim de Voogt; Annemarie P. van Wezel

2010-01-01

152

DRINKING WATER AND LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE  

EPA Science Inventory

Pneumonia outbreaks caused by Legionella species recently have been epidemiologically linked to potable water distribution systems in hospitals and hotels. Showerheads were confirmed as the immediate source of the Legionella in many of the outbreaks, however, the organism also wa...

153

CHLORINE DIOXIDE: DRINKING WATER ISSUES  

EPA Science Inventory

Evansville has working in conjunction with Olin Corporation in evaluating two alternative chlorine dioxide generation and application techniques. s a result of these investigations, combined methodologies have been developed that significantly reduce finished water oxychlorine re...

154

Drinking water health advisory for boron  

SciTech Connect

The Health Advisory Program, sponsored by the Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Water, has issued its report on the element boron: included are the compounds boric acid and borax(sodium tetraborate). It provides information on the health effects, analytical methodology, and treatment technology that would be useful in dealing with the contamination of drinking water. Health Advisories (HAs) describe nonregulatory concentrations of drinking water contaminants at which adverse health effects would not be anticipated to occur over specific exposure durations. HAs serve as informal technical guidance to assist Federal, State, and local officials responsible for protecting public health when emergency spills or contamination situations occur. They are not legally enforceable Federal Standards and are subject to change as new information becomes available.

Cantilli, R.

1991-04-01

155

25 Years of the Safe Drinking Water Act: History and Trends.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Introduction; Drinking Water Prior to 1974; Overview of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) and the National Drinking Water Program; The Original Safe Drinking Water Act; The 1986 SDWA Amendments; The 1996 SDWA Amendments; The 1996 Amendments: Im...

1999-01-01

156

Mutagenic activity of concentrated drinking water samples.  

PubMed Central

Concentrated drinking water extracts prepared by adsorption onto XAD-2 resin have been tested for their ability to induce chromosome damage in mammalian cells. Extracts prepared from drinking waters derived from upland and lowland sources have been found to induce chromosome aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and human lymphocytes in vitro. Although the identity of the compounds responsible for this activity is unknown, they are generated when the water is chlorinated and appear to bind readily to exogenous protein. When groups of mice were dosed orally with a concentrated water extract, however, no evidence of clastogenic activity in bone marrow cells was apparent. The absence of an in vivo effect may indicate that the mutagenic compounds failed to reach the bone marrow. The possibility that genetic damage could be induced in the cells first encountered in the body after ingestion (i.e., cells in the esophagus, stomach, and intestinal tract) is not precluded by this result. The relevance of these findings in evaluating the potential health hazard of mutagenic compounds in drinking water is discussed. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3.

Wilcox, P; Williamson, S

1986-01-01

157

Norovirus Outbreaks from Drinking Water  

PubMed Central

As part of an intensified monitoring program for foodborne disease outbreaks in Finland, waterborne outbreaks were investigated for viruses. The diagnostic procedure included analysis of patients' stool samples by electron microscopy and reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for noroviruses and astroviruses. When these test results were positive for a virus, the water sample was analyzed. Virus concentration was based on positively charged filters from 1-L samples. Of the total 41 waterborne outbreaks reported during the observation period (1998–2003), samples from 28 outbreaks were available for analysis. As judged by RT-PCR results from patient samples, noroviruses caused 18 outbreaks. In 10 outbreaks, the water sample also yielded a norovirus. In all but 1 instance, the amplicon sequence was identical to that recovered from the patients. The ubiquity of waterborne norovirus outbreaks calls for measures to monitor water for viruses.

Miettinen, Ilkka T.; von Bonsdorff, Carl-Henrik

2005-01-01

158

Nanofiltration of highly colored raw water for drinking water production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water purification with membrane technology was investigated as one of the alternatives for the future drinking water production (6,000 m3\\/d) in Nynäshamn community. The selected raw water source was surface water from Lake Muskan rather than brackish water from the Baltic Sea. The lake water, without need for desalination, has a high color number (up to 100 mg\\/l Pt) due

Bernt Ericsson; Magnus Hallberg; Jan Wachenfeldt

1997-01-01

159

SMALL DRINKING WATER SYSTEMS RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

There are 159,796 Community Water Systems (CWSs) in the United States. Ninety-three percent of CWSs are considered very small to medium-sized systems that serve roughly 19% of the CWS population. In contrast, large to very large systems comprise just 7% of CWSs, but serve 81% of ...

160

GLYPHOSATE REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Activated-carbon, oxidation, conventional-treatment, filtration, and membrane studies are conducted to determine which process is best suited to remove the herbicide glyphosate from potable water. Both bench-scale and pilot-scale studies are completed. Computer models are used ...

161

Fluoride concentrations in drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The US Public Health Service sets optimal fluoride concentrations for community water supplies. The agency's recommendations were used to create a fluoridation map of the United States depicting optimal concentrations. This study determined how closely reported state optimal fluoride concentrations followed those on the map. The most recent fluoridation census statistics were used to determine the reported state optimal fluoride

James A. Lalumandier; Jackie L. Jones

1999-01-01

162

Impact of the Regulating Drinking Water on Water Resources Management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Costs of compliance with minimum standards for water quality in Connecticut mandated by the Safe Drinking Water Act have led some investor-owned water utility companies to attempt to dispose of what they argue are surplus land holdings. There is presently...

M. M. Huffmire

1979-01-01

163

Safe Drinking Water Act Cost Impacts on Selected Water Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Detailed site visits were made to eight U.S. water utilities to assess the capital and O and M costs of meeting the requirements of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). New treatment facilities were constructed at each of the utilities to correct water qua...

B. E. Burris R. C. Gumerman

1987-01-01

164

Trihalomethane in drinking water supplies and reused water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potable water for drinking purposes and other domestic needs in Muscat Area (Capital area of Sultanate of Oman) is obtained from desalination plant and wells. The desalination plant supplies water to 90% of the population based in the area. The water quality is generally maintained in accordance with the specification laid down in \\

Mohamed I. Badawy

1992-01-01

165

Uptake of uranium from drinking water  

SciTech Connect

The gastrointestinal absorption (G.I.) of uranium in man from drinking water was determined by measuring urinary and fecal excretion of /sup 234/U and /sup 238/U in eight subjects. In order to establish their normal backgrounds of uranium intake and excretion, the subjects collected 24 hour total output of both urine and feces for seven days prior to drinking water. During the next day they drank, at their normal rate of drinking water intake, 900 ml of water containing approximately 90 pCi /sup 238/U and 90 pCi /sup 234/U (273 meg U) and continued to collect their urine and feces for seven additional days. The G.I. absorption of /sup 234/U ranged from -0.07% to 1.88% and G.I. absorption of /sup 238/U ranged from -0.07% to 1.79%. Employing another technique for analyzing the data, the G.I. absorption ranged from -0.04 to 1.46% for /sup 234/U and from 0.03% to 1.43% for /sup 238/U. The dietary intake of U was also estimated from measurements of urinary and fecal excretion of U in eight subjects prior to drinking water containing U. The estimated average dietary intake of U for these subjects is 3.30 + or - 0.65 or 4.22 + or - 0.65 mcg/day. These averages are two to four times higher than the values reported in the literature for dietary intake.

Singh, N.P.; Wrenn, M.E.

1987-09-01

166

Accuracy of bottled drinking water label content.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to compare the accuracy of the concentration of fluoride (F), calcium (Ca), pH, and total dissolved solids (TDS) levels mentioned on the labels of the various brands of bottled drinking water available in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Twenty-one different brands of locally produced non-carbonated (still water) bottled drinking water were collected from the supermarkets of Riyadh. The concentration of F, Ca, TDS, and pH values were noted from the labels of the bottles. The samples were analyzed for concentrations in the laboratory using the atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The mean level of F, Ca, and pH were found as 0.86 ppm, 38.47 ppm, and 7.5, respectively, which were significantly higher than the mean concentration of these elements reported in the labels. Whereas, the mean TDS concentration was found 118.87 ppm, which was significantly lower than the mean reported on the labels. In tropical countries like Saudi Arabia, the appropriate level of F concentration in drinking water as recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) should be 0.6-0.7 ppm. Since the level of F was found to be significantly higher than the WHO recommended level, the children exposed to this level could develop objectionable fluorosis. The other findings, like pH value, concentrations of Ca, and TDS, were in the range recommended by the WHO and Saudi standard limits and therefore should have no obvious significant health implications. PMID:19475483

Khan, Nazeer B; Chohan, Arham N

2009-05-28

167

LOW-LEVEL EMERGING CONTAMINANTS IN LAKE HAVASU, ARIZONA AND CALIFORNIA AND THEIR ACCESS TO LAKE HAVASU CITY'S DRINKING WATER SUPPLY  

EPA Science Inventory

In preparation of a wastewater effluent re-charge and recovery program, involving alluvial fan sediments, the City of Lake Havasu initiated a survey to evaluate possible waterborne sources of emerging contaminants in the water/wastewater distribution cycle. This distribution cyc...

168

Determination of 228 Ra in drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A procedure for the analysis of228Ra in drinking water has been developed. The procedure involves separation of radium by an initial coprecipitation with lead sulfate. The isolated Pb(Ra)SO4 is then dissolved in sodium diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (DTPA). Radium-228 is co-precipitated from this solution with barium sulfate while the DTPA supernate which contains pre-existing228Ac is discarded. The purified Ba(Ra)SO4 precipitate is then

B. Parsa; A. Hoffman

1992-01-01

169

TOXICITY OF CHLORINE DIOXIDE IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is currently being considered as an alternate to chlorine as a disinfectant for public water supplies. Studies were conducted to determine the toxicity of ClO2 (0, 1, 10, 100, 1000 mg/L) and its metabolites, ClO2(-1) and ClO3(-1) (10, 100 mg/L) in drinking...

170

Acidic deposition and cistern drinking water supplies  

SciTech Connect

The water quality characteristics, including the trace elements Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn, in rainwater cistern supplies representing an area receiving acidic deposition were compared to cistern water chemistry in a control area that does not receive a significant input of acidic deposition. Mean volume-weighted pH for bulk deposition was two pH units higher and SO/sub 4/ was 50% lower in the control region. Rainwater was neutralized upon contact with cistern masonry in both regions, as indicated by a 1.5-unit increase in pH and an increase in calcium and alkalinity. While there seemed to be a clear difference in water quality for the two study region, any difference in trace metals was marginal. Metal concentrations were below current drinking water limits in all but a few samples. Cistern water that remained in the home plumbing system overnight exceeded the proposed drinking water standard of 5 ..mu..g/L for lead in 18 homes in the region receiving acidic deposition and 10 homes in the control region. No relation between metal concentrations and roofing material, plumbing materials, or water stability indices could be found.

Olem, H.; Berthouex, P.M.

1989-03-01

171

Exploring Religious Mechanisms for Healthy Alcohol Use: Religious Messages and Drinking Among Korean Women in California*  

PubMed Central

Objective: This research identifies social reinforcers within religious institutions associated with alcohol consumption among Korean women in California. Method: Data were drawn from telephone interviews with female adults (N = 591) selected from a random sampling of persons in California with Korean surnames during 2007. Approximately 70% of attempted interviews were completed, with 92% conducted in Korean. Respondents were asked about any lifetime drinking (yes/no), drinking rate (typical number of drinks consumed on drinking days among current drinkers), and messages discouraging “excessive drinking” from religious leaders or congregants. Bivariable and multivariable regressions were used for analysis. Results: Approximately 70.4% of women reported any lifetime drinking, and drinkers drank a mean (SD) of 1.10 (1.22) drinks on drinking days. About 30.8%reported about 30.8% reported any exposure to religious leaders' messages discouraging excessive drinking, and 28.2% reported any exposure to similar messages from congregants. Each congregant's message was statistically significantly associated with a 5.1% lower probability (odds ratio = 0.775, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.626, 0.959) of any lifetime drinking. Also, each congregant's message was associated with a 13.8% (B = -0.138; 95% CI: -0.306, 0.029) lower drinking rate, which was statistically significant after adjusting for covariates using a one-tailed test. Exposure to leaders' messages was not statistically significantly associated with any lifetime drinking or drinking rate. Conclusions: Social reinforcement in the form of religious messages may be one mechanism by which religious institutions influence drinking behaviors. For Korean women, messages from congregants had a unique impact beyond the traditional religiosity indicators. These social mechanisms provide public health interventionists with religious pathways to improve drinking behaviors.

Ayers, John W.; Hofstetter, C. Richard; Hughes, Suzanne C.; Irvin, Veronica L.; Kang Sim, D. Eastern; Hovell, Melbourne F.

2009-01-01

172

Diarrhoea following contamination of drinking water with copper.  

PubMed

Three cases of children with suspected copper intoxication from the drinking water are described. The children presented with protracted diarrhoea, which promptly disappeared, when they were given drinking water of low copper concentration but reappeared when given their domestic water. It is concluded that the use of copper tubing in the water pipes may under certain circumstances result in the presence of copper in the drinking water and the risk of intoxication, especially in small children. PMID:10383874

Stenhammar, L

1999-06-28

173

Toxicological Basis for Drinking Water: Unreasonable Risk to Health Values  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) administers the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) to ensure that the water obtained from a public water supply is safe to drink. Under the SDWA, EPA establishes enforceable maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for contaminants that may have an adverse health effect and are known or anticipated to occur in water. Occasionally, public water supplies

Jennifer Orme Zavaleta

1992-01-01

174

To drink or not to drink (tap water) ? The impact of environmental quality on consumer's choices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bottled water consumption has been steadily growing in the world for the past 30 years, in spite of its excessively high price compared to tap water. The Italian drink more bottled water than anybody else in the world, followed by the French who drink about 130 liters per year per inhabitant. In this country, despite an access to safe public

C. Bontemps; C. Nauges

2006-01-01

175

Sustaining Waters: From Hydrology to Drinking Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Around the world, disastrous effects of floods and droughts are painful evidence of our continuing struggle between human resource demands and the sustainability of our hydrologic systems. Too much or too little rainfall is often deemed the culprit in these water crises, focussing on water \\

S. Toch

2003-01-01

176

ATRAZOME CHLORINATION TRANSFORMATION PRODUCTS UNDER DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONDITIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Chlorination is a commonly-used disinfectant step in drinking water treatment. Should free chlorine be added to water used as a drinking water source, it is widely understood that many biological species in the water, along with dissolved organic and inorganic chemicals, will rea...

177

30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

(a) Water shall be dispensed through a drinking fountain or from a water storage container with an adequate supply of single service cups stored in a clean, sanitary manner. Water shall not be dipped from inside water storage containers. Use of a common drinking cup is...

2009-07-01

178

EXPOSURE TO LEAD IN U.S. DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

In the U.S., lead occurs primarily as a corrosion by-product in public drinking water supplies. hat is, its source is the corrosive action of the water upon the materials used in the water distribution system and private plumbing. istorically, drinking water has not been a major ...

179

Drinking water quality: Comparing inorganic components in bottled water and Italian tap water  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports an evaluation on the quality of drinking waters: 37 bottled water samples available in the market and 15 tap water samples supplied by municipal pipelines. Water samples were analyzed for 57 dissolved inorganic components. Considering the Italian and WHO guidelines for drinking water, results show an ample compliance with respect to the toxic elements Cr, Cd, Hg

Rosa Cidu; Franco Frau; Paolo Tore

2011-01-01

180

Genotoxicity of drinking water from Chao Lake  

SciTech Connect

Genotoxic activity appears to originate primarily from reactions of chlorine with humic substances in the source waters. Comparisons of extracts of settled versus chlorinated water have confirmed that chlorinating during water treatment produces mutagenic activity in the mutagenicity tests. Present work on XAD-2 extracts of raw, chlorinated (treated), and settled water from the Chao Lake region of China has involved a battery of mutagenicity assays for various genetic endpoints: the Salmonella test, the sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) induction in Chinese hamster lung (CHL) cells, and the micronucleus (MN) induction in the peripheral blood erythrocytes of silver carp. Extracts of raw and treated water but not the settled water are mutagenic in the Salmonella assay. On the other hand, extracts of three water samples show activity in the SCE and MN assays, especially the raw and treated water. These data show that contamination and chlorinating contribute mutagens to drinking water and suggest that the mammalian assays may be more sensitive for detecting mutagenicity in aquatic environment than the Salmonella test.

Liu, Q.; Jiao, Q.C. [Nanjing Univ. (China). Dept. of Biological Science and Technology; Huang, X.M.; Jiang, J.P.; Cui, S.Q.; Yao, G.H.; Jiang, Z.R.; Zhao, H.K.; Wang, N.Y. [Anhui Antiepidemic Station, Hefei (China)

1999-02-01

181

Cancer risks from arsenic in drinking water.  

PubMed Central

Ingestion of arsenic, both from water supplies and medicinal preparations, is known to cause skin cancer. The evidence assessed here indicates that arsenic can also cause liver, lung, kidney, and bladder cancer and that the population cancer risks due to arsenic in U.S. water supplies may be comparable to those from environmental tobacco smoke and radon in homes. Large population studies in an area of Taiwan with high arsenic levels in well water (170-800 micrograms/L) were used to establish dose-response relationships between cancer risks and the concentration of inorganic arsenic naturally present in water supplies. It was estimated that at the current EPA standard of 50 micrograms/L, the lifetime risk of dying from cancer of the liver, lung, kidney, or bladder from drinking 1 L/day of water could be as high as 13 per 1000 persons. It has been estimated that more than 350,000 people in the United States may be supplied with water containing more than 50 micrograms/L arsenic, and more than 2.5 million people may be supplied with water with levels above 25 micrograms/L. For average arsenic levels and water consumption patterns in the United States, the risk estimate was around 1/1000. Although further research is needed to validate these findings, measures to reduce arsenic levels in water supplies should be considered.

Smith, A H; Hopenhayn-Rich, C; Bates, M N; Goeden, H M; Hertz-Picciotto, I; Duggan, H M; Wood, R; Kosnett, M J; Smith, M T

1992-01-01

182

Mycobacterium lentiflavum in Drinking Water Supplies, Australia  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium lentiflavum, a slow-growing nontuberculous mycobacterium, is a rare cause of human disease. It has been isolated from environmental samples worldwide. To assess the clinical significance of M. lentiflavum isolates reported to the Queensland Tuberculosis Control Centre, Australia, during 2001–2008, we explored the genotypic similarity and geographic relationship between isolates from humans and potable water in the Brisbane metropolitan area. A total of 47 isolates from 36 patients were reported; 4 patients had clinically significant disease. M. lentiflavum was cultured from 13 of 206 drinking water sites. These sites overlapped geographically with home addresses of the patients who had clinically significant disease. Automated repetitive sequence–based PCR genotyping showed a dominant environmental clone closely related to clinical strains. This finding suggests potable water as a possible source of M. lentiflavum infection in humans.

Carter, Robyn; Torbey, Matthew J.; Minion, Sharri; Tolson, Carla; Sidjabat, Hanna E.; Huygens, Flavia; Hargreaves, Megan; Thomson, Rachel M.

2011-01-01

183

Effects of botulism on ducks drinking saline water.  

PubMed

Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) ducklings (2 wk old) were given water from natural saline wetlands or fresh water as drinking water for 1 or 2 wk prior to, and after, receiving material containing Clostridium botulinum type C toxin. Water with conductivity ranging from 3,460 to 6,690 mu mhos/cm had no detectable effect on the occurrence or severity of clinical signs of botulism. Ducks drinking water with conductivity of 7,130 mu mhos/cm for 1 wk prior to receiving toxin had more severe clinical signs and greater mortality than did birds drinking fresh water. Ducks given the same water for 2 wk prior to receiving toxin did not differ from the controls in response to toxin. Fewer ducks in groups drinking the most saline water tested (conductivity = 13,500 mu mhos/cm) had clinical signs of botulism than in groups drinking fresh water. PMID:3373631

Wobeser, G

1988-04-01

184

Assessment of Drinking Water Quality of Nanchang in 2009  

Microsoft Academic Search

?Mn?, 34.19 % for total coliform, 8.44 % for bacteria count, 28.76 % for thermotolerant coliform. Failure rate in pH, manganese, total coliform, bacterial count, thermotolerant coliform of rural drinking water is higher than urban areas(p<0.05). The drinking water quality in Nanchang is still poor, the improvement is desiderated. The main reason of substandard quality of drinking water is that

Ying Zhang; Xiangrong Sun; Wenyan Xiong; Yingping Chen

2011-01-01

185

DISINFECTANT CHEMISTRY IN DRINKING WATER: OVERVIEW OF IMPACTS ON DRINKING WATER QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Chemicals commonly considered for use as disinfectants in municipal drinking water treatment are chlorine, chloramines, chlorine dioxide, and ozone. Considerations such as disinfection power, ease of application, and low cost have led in the past to the use of free chlorine as th...

186

DRINKING WATER AND CANCER INCIDENCE IN IOWA. 2. RADIOACTIVITY IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper presents a logical epidemiologic exploration into possible associations between exposures to radium-226 in drinking water and incidence rates for cancers of the bladder, breast, colon, lung, prostate, and rectum. The most striking finding is the increasing gradient of ...

187

Guide to California Water Right Appropriations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The California Constitution says the state's water resources belong to all Californians. Any citizen may use water for beneficial purposes by possessing a water right. Some ri ghts come with ownership of land adjacent to streams, lakes, or ponds. Similarl...

2000-01-01

188

Genotoxicity of Swimming Pool Water and Carcinogenicity of Drinking Water**  

EPA Science Inventory

Among the 11 disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water that are regulated by the U.S. EPA, (a) 2 DBPs (chloroaceticacid and chlorite) are not carcinogenic-in either of2 species; (b) chlorite is not carcinogenic in 3 rodent assays and has never been tested for genotoxicity...

189

Genotoxicity of Swimming Pool Water and Carcinogenicity of Drinking Water  

EPA Science Inventory

Among the 11 disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water that are regulated by the U.S. EPA, (a) 2 DBPs (chloroaceticacid and chlorite) are not carcinogenic-in either of2 species; (b) chlorite is not carcinogenic in 3 rodent assays and has never been tested for genotoxicity...

190

Water Quality of Drinking Water Supplies in Socorro, New Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Socorro, a small town with a population of about 8,000, is located in central New Mexico along the Rio Grande within the Rio Grande rift, at the edge of an extensive volcanic field. Socorro has six sources of supply for drinking water. Two of these sources are thermal springs and four are wells ranging in depth from 97-500 ft. The

L. A. Brandvold

2002-01-01

191

Southern California Water Markets: Potential and Limitations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the potential and limitations for Southern California water marketsusing an economic-engineering network flow optimization model, CALVIN. CALVIN is usedto estimate how a market would affect overall Southern California water use, to preliminarilyassess the economic benefit of more flexible water allocation policies, and to explore thecharacteristics of an ideal market. Results from CALVIN suggest substantial economic andreliability benefits

Brad D. Newlin; Marion W. Jenkins; Jay R. Lund; Richard E. Howitt

2002-01-01

192

RESEARCH ACTIVITIES IN DRINKING WATER TECHNOLOGY: A PROGRESS REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The Safe Drinking Water Act and its Amendments (SDWAA) have given EPA an aggressive standard setting agenda. The agenda, if carried out fully, will impact on water utilities in the U.S. EPA's Drinking Water Research Division (DWRD) is responsible for evaluating technologies for m...

193

30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...contact with the water to be cooled, unless it has been handled in a sanitary manner and unless the ice is made from the same source as the drinking water or from water of a quality equal to the source of the drinking...

2013-07-01

194

MODELING CONTAMINANT PROPAGATION IN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Safe Drinking Water Act and its Amendments (SDWAA) will pose a massive challenge for the drinking-water industry in the United States. As the SDWAA regulations reach implementation, increasing effort will be devoted to understanding the factors causing deterioration of water ...

195

Modeling contaminant propagation in drinking-water distribution systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Safe Drinking Water Act and its Amendments (SDWAA) will pose a massive challenge for the drinking-water industry in the United States. As the SDWAA regulations reach implementation, increasing effort will be devoted to understanding the factors causing deterioration of water quality between treatment and consumption. A cooperative study involving the U.S. EPA, the University of Michigan, and the South

Robert M. Clark; Walter M. Grayman; Richard M. Males; Alan F. Hess

1993-01-01

196

Chlorination of Drinking Water and Cancer Mortality in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlorination has been the major strategy for disinfection of drinking water in Taiwan. An ecologic epidemiological study design was used to examine whether chlorination of drinking water was associated with cancer risks. A “chlorinating municipality” (CHM) was defined as one in which more than 90% of the municipality population was served by the chlorinated water while an “nonchlorinating municipality” (NCHM)

Chun-Yuh Yang; Hui-Fen Chiu; Ming-Fen Cheng; Shang-Shyue Tsai

1998-01-01

197

Visions of the Future in Drinking Water Microbiology.  

EPA Science Inventory

Drinking water microbiology will have a tremendous impact on defining a safe drinking water in the future. There will be breakthroughs in realtime testing of process waters for pathogen surrogates with results made available within 1 hour for application to treatment adjustments ...

198

9 CFR 3.115 - Food and drinking water requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...drinking water must be offered potable water within 4 hours of being placed in the primary transport enclosure for transport in commerce. Marine mammals must be provided water as often as necessary and...

2013-01-01

199

National Drinking Water Advisory Council, Final Report, Decembern 9, 2010.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC) established the Climate Ready Water Utilities (CRWU) Working Group to evaluate the concept of climate ready water utilities. The evaluation was to provide findings and recommendations relating to the de...

2010-01-01

200

Chlorinous flavor perception in drinking water.  

PubMed

Chlorinous flavors at the tap are the leading cause of customers' complaints and dissatisfaction with drinking water. To characterize consumer perception and acceptance to chlorinous tastes, extensive taste testing was performed with both trained panelists and average consumers. Taste testing with trained panelists showed that chlorine perception is underestimated by disinfectant flavor thresholds reported in the literature. However, trained panelists significantly overestimate the average consumer's ability to perceive chlorine. In addition, consumer perception seems to be influenced by the chlorination practices of the country they live in. Among water quality characteristics that may influence chlorine perception, temperature was not found to induce any significant change. The influence of total dissolved solids (TDS) on chlorine perception remains unclear and, as reported elsewhere, background tastes such as musty, may significantly impact chlorine threshold. PMID:15237641

Piriou, P; Mackey, E D; Suffet, I H; Bruchet, A

2004-01-01

201

Arsenic occurrence in New Hampshire drinking water  

SciTech Connect

Arsenic concentrations were measured in 992 drinking water samples collected from New Hampshire households using online hydride generation ICP-MS. These randomly selected household water samples contain much less arsenic than those voluntarily submitted for analysis to the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES). Extrapolation of the voluntarily submitted sample set to all New Hampshire residents significantly overestimates arsenic exposure. In randomly selected households, concentrations ranged from <0.0003 to 180 {micro}g/L, with water from domestic wells containing significantly more arsenic than water from municipal sources. Water samples from drilled bedrock wells had the highest arsenic concentrations, while samples from surficial wells had the lowest arsenic concentrations. The authors suggest that much of the groundwater arsenic in New Hampshire is derived from weathering of bedrock materials and not from anthropogenic contamination. The spatial distribution of elevated arsenic concentrations correlates with Late-Devonian Concord-type granitic bedrock. Field observations in the region exhibiting the highest groundwater arsenic concentrations revealed abundant pegmatite dikes associated with nearby granites. Analysis of rock digests indicates arsenic concentrations up to 60 mg/kg in pegmatites, with much lower values in surrounding schists and granites. Weak acid leaches show that approximately half of the total arsenic in the pegmatites is labile and therefore can be mobilized during rock-water interaction.

Peters, S.C.; Blum, J.D.; Klaue, B. [Dartmouth Coll., Hanover, NH (United States). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Karagas, M.R. [Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH (United States). Dept. of Community and Family Medicine

1999-05-01

202

Practical Studies of the Electrolysis and Volatilization of the Bromide from Drinking Water to Minimize Bromate Production by Ozonation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In four recently published articles, a process for the oxidation of bromide to bromine and the volatilization of bromine from drinking water sources was presented. This process was shown to be able to remove up to 35% percent of the bromide found naturally in the California State Water Project. Although bromide itself is quite harmless, it has been shown to

David Eugene Kimbrough; Lina Boulos; Sirikarn Surawanvijit; Paul Westerhoff; Howard An; I. H. “Mel” Suffet; Nathan Dunahee

2012-01-01

203

Relationships Between Local Enforcement, Alcohol Availability, Drinking Norms, and Adolescent Alcohol Use in 50 California Cities  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study investigated relationships between local alcohol policies, enforcement, alcohol outlet density, adult alcohol use, and underage drinking in 50 California cities. Method: Eight local alcohol policies (e.g., conditional use permit, social host ordinance, window/billboard advertising) were rated for each city based on their comprehensiveness. Local alcohol enforcement was based on grants received from the California Alcoholic Beverage Control agency for enforcement of underage drinking laws. Outlet density was based on the number of on- and off-premise outlets per roadway mile. Level of adult alcohol use was ascertained from a survey of 8,553 adults and underage drinking (frequency of past-year alcohol use and heavy drinking) from surveys of 1,312 adolescents in 2009 and 2010. Multilevel regression analyses were conducted to examine the effects of policies, enforcement, and other community-level variables on adolescent drinking, controlling for youth demographic characteristics. Mediating effects of adolescents' perceived ease of obtaining alcohol, perceived enforcement, and perceived acceptability of alcohol use also were examined. Results: None of the eight local alcohol-policy ratings were associated with adolescent drinking. Funding for underage drinking enforcement activities was inversely related to frequency of past-year alcohol use, whereas outlet density and adult drinking were positively related to both past-year alcohol use and heavy drinking. These relationships were attenuated when controlling for perceived ease of obtaining alcohol, enforcement, and acceptability of alcohol use, providing evidence for mediation. Conclusions: Adolescent alcohol use and heavy drinking appear to be influenced by enforcement of underage drinking laws, alcohol outlet density, and adult alcohol use. These community-level influences may be at least partially mediated through adolescents' perceptions of alcohol availability, acceptability of alcohol use, and perceived likelihood of getting in trouble with local police.

Paschall, Mallie J.; Grube, Joel W.; Thomas, Sue; Cannon, Carol; Treffers, Ryan

2012-01-01

204

RECENT CALIFORNIA WATER TRANSFERS : IMPLICATIONS FOR WATER MANAGEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1991 and 1992 California Drought Emergency Water Banks were the first large water transfer programs in the nation in which the State served as the predominant broker for water trades. Although the State-sponsored Water Banks have drawn widespread attention, there have been a great number of water transfers and exchanges taking place in California independently of the State. These

Morris Israel; Jay R. Lund

1995-01-01

205

Women's childhood and adult adverse experiences, mental health, and binge drinking: The California Women's Health Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This study examined sociodemographic, physical and mental health, and adult and childhood adverse experiences associated with binge drinking in a representative sample of women in the State of California. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were from the 2003 to 2004 (response rates of 72% and 74%, respectively) California Women's Health Survey (CWHS), a population-based, random-digit-dial annual probability survey sponsored by

Christine Timko; Anne Sutkowi; Joanne Pavao; Rachel Kimerling

2008-01-01

206

[Risk of high copper content in drinking water].  

PubMed

Copper occurs in small amounts in certain food items, but toxic exposures in Northern Europe have occurred only in connection with contaminated drinking water. Chronic exposure of small children can result in development of Indian Childhood Cirrhosis. This disease has recently been documented in Germany as a result of drinking water contaminated from corrosion of water pipes made of copper. Continued diarrhoea in small children can also be due to high copper exposure. Copper is not routinely determined in drinking water in Denmark. Further, no central registration is available concerning water with low pH or the types of water pipes used in houses. PMID:2194331

Madsen, H; Poulsen, L; Grandjean, P

1990-06-18

207

Aeromonas detection and their toxins from drinking water from reservoirs and drinking fountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aeromonads are inhabitants of aquatic ecosystems and are described as being involved in intestinal disturbances and other infections. A total of 200 drinking water samples from domestic and public reservoirs and drinking fountains located in Sao Paulo (Brazil), were analyzed for the presence of Aeromonas. Samples were concentrated by membrane filtration and enriched in APW. ADA medium was used for

Maria Tereza Pepe Razzolini; Petra Sanchez Sanchez; Maria Ines Zanoli Sato; Marisa Di Bari

208

Alcohol Environments and Disparities in Exposure Associated With Adolescent Drinking in California  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We investigated sociodemographic disparities in alcohol environments and their relationship with adolescent drinking. Methods. We geocoded and mapped alcohol license data with ArcMap to construct circular buffers centered at 14 595 households with children that participated in the California Health Interview Survey. We calculated commercial sources of alcohol in each buffer. Multivariate logistic regression differentiated the effects of alcohol sales on adolescents' drinking from their individual, family, and neighborhood characteristics. Results. Alcohol availability, measured by mean and median number of licenses, was significantly higher around residences of minority and lower-income families. Binge drinking and driving after drinking among adolescents aged 12 to 17 years were significantly associated with the presence of alcohol retailers within 0.5 miles of home. Simulation of changes in the alcohol environment showed that if alcohol sales were reduced from the mean number of alcohol outlets around the lowest-income quartile of households to that of the highest quartile, prevalence of binge drinking would fall from 6.4% to 5.6% and driving after drinking from 7.9% to 5.9%. Conclusions. Alcohol outlets are concentrated in disadvantaged neighborhoods and can contribute to adolescent drinking. To reduce underage drinking, environmental interventions need to curb opportunities for youth to obtain alcohol from commercial sources by tightening licensure, enforcing minimum-age drinking laws, or other measures.

Sturm, Roland

2009-01-01

209

Correlations of Water Quality Parameters with Mutagenicity of Chlorinated Drinking Water Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adverse health effects that may result from chronic exposure to mixtures of disinfection by-products (DBPs) present in drinking waters may be linked to both the types and concentrations of DBPs present. Depending on the characteristics of the source water and treatment processes used, both types and concentrations of DBPs found in drinking waters vary substantially. The composition of a drinking-water

Kathleen M. Schenck; Mano Sivaganesan; Glenn E. Rice

2009-01-01

210

Gastric Cancer Mortality and Nitrate Levels in Wisconsin Drinking Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between nitrate levels in public and private sources of drinking water and gastric cancer mortality in Wisconsin was investigated in a case-control study. All gastric cancer deaths of Wisconsin residents from 1982 through 1985 were compared with deaths from other causes (controls), and nitrate levels in the home drinking water of these residents were determined. Nitrate measures for

John J. Rademacher; Theresa B. Young; Marty S. Kanarek

1992-01-01

211

RESEARCH AND GUIDANCE ON DRINKING WATER CONTAMINANT MIXTURES  

EPA Science Inventory

Accurate assessment of potential human health risk(s) from multiple-route exposures to multiple chemicals in drinking water is needed because of widespread daily exposure to this complex mixture. Hundreds of chemicals have been identified in drinking water with the mix of chemic...

212

Occurrence of nitrate in drinking water, food and air  

Microsoft Academic Search

The document addresses the occurrence of nitrate in drinking water, food and air. It is intended as a companion document to existing National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations. It analyzes sources of dietary and respiratory intake of nitrate and the related health risks. It also examines economic aspects of regulating this chemical.

K. Taylor; D. Borum; F. Letkiewicz

1985-01-01

213

NEUROXOTOXICITY PRODUCED BY DIBROMOACETIC ACID IN DRINKING WATER OF RATS.  

EPA Science Inventory

The Safe Drinking Water Act requires that EPA consider noncancer endpoints for the assessment of adverse human health effects of disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Dibromoacetic acid (DBA) is one of many DBPs produced by the chlorination of drinking water. Its chlorinated analog, ...

214

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR XYLENES (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking water Criteria Document on xylenes: This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics; Physical and chemical properties of xylenes; Toxicokinetics and human exposu...

215

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR ETHYLBENZENE (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on ethylbenzene. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of ethylbenzene; Toxicokinetics and hu...

216

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR TOLUENE (FINAL DRAFT) 1985  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a drinking water criteria document on toluene. The criteria document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of toluene toxicokinetics and human exposure...

217

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR METHOXYCHLOR (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on methoxychlor. The Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of methoxychlor, toxicokinetics and hum...

218

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on PCBs. The Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of PCBs, Toxicokinetics and human exposure to P...

219

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR ENDRIN (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on endrin. The Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of endrin, Toxicokinetics and human exposure ...

220

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR CYANIDES (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on cyanide. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of cyanides; Toxicokinetics and human expos...

221

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR ALDICARB (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on aldicarb. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of aldicarb; Toxicokinetics and human expo...

222

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR NICKEL (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on nickel. The Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of nickel, toxicokinetics and human exposure ...

223

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR TOXAPHENE (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on toxaphene. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of toxaphene; Toxicokinetics and human ex...

224

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR LINDANE (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on lindane. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of lindane, Toxicokinetics and human exposu...

225

IDENTIFICATION OF NEW BROMINATED ACIDS IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Since chloroform was identified as the first disinfection by-product (DBP) in drinking water, there has been more than 25 years of research on DBPs. Despite these efforts, more than 50% of the total organic halide (TOX) formed in chlorinated drinking water remains unknown. Ther...

226

U.S. DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS: TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES AND COST  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. EPA is responsible for implementing and enforcing the Safe Drinking Water Act, as amended in 1986. n carrying out its responsibility, the EPA promulgates regulations which are designed to control the quality of public drinking water. he 1986 Amendments have imposed a lar...

227

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR MERCURY (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on mercury. The Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of mercury, toxicokinetics and human exposur...

228

Reducing Lead in Drinking Water: A Manual for Minnesota's Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual was designed to assist Minnesota's schools in minimizing the consumption of lead in drinking water by students and staff. It offers step-by-step instructions for testing and reducing lead in drinking water. The manual answers: Why is lead a health concern? How are children exposed to lead? Why is lead a special concern for schools? How…

Minnesota State Dept. of Health, St. Paul.

229

Integrated modeling of ozonation for optimization of drinking water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drinking water treatment plants automation becomes more sophisticated, more on-line monitoring systems become available and integration of modeling environments with control systems becomes easier. This gives possibilities for model-based optimization. In operation of drinking water treatment plants, the processes are usually optimized individually on the basis of \\

2007-01-01

230

SELENIUM REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY ION EXCHANGE  

EPA Science Inventory

Strong-base anion exchangers were shown to remove selenate and selenite ions from drinking water. Because selenium species are usually present at low concentrations, the efficiency of removal is controlled by the concentration of the common drinking water anions, the most importa...

231

Reducing Lead in Drinking Water: A Manual for Minnesota's Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual was designed to assist Minnesota's schools in minimizing the consumption of lead in drinking water by students and staff. It offers step-by-step instructions for testing and reducing lead in drinking water. The manual answers: Why is lead a health concern? How are children exposed to lead? Why is lead a special concern for schools?…

Minnesota State Dept. of Health, St. Paul.

232

Health risks due to radon in drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following more than a decade of scientific debate about the setting of a standard for ²²²Rn in drinking water, Congress established a timetable for the promulgation of a standard in the 1996 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act. As a result of those Amendments, the EPA contracted with the National Academy of Sciences to undertake a risk assessment for

P. K. Hopke; T. B. P. K. Borak; J. Doull; J. E. Cleaver; K. F. Eckerman; L. C. S. Gundersen; N. H. Harley; C. T. Hess; N. E. Kinner; K. J. Kopecky; T. E. McKone; R. G. Sextro; S. L. Simon

2000-01-01

233

Certification of local laboratories analyzing drinking water in nonprimacy states  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certification procedures for certifying local laboratories analyzing drinking water for compliance with the Safe Drinking Water Act. A local laboratory is defined as a nonprincipal state laboratory and may include state, county, municipal, federal, or commercial laboratories. The EPA certification program has recently been updated and clarified in the 1983 edition

1985-01-01

234

SEMINAR PUBLICATION: CONTROL OF LEAD AND COPPER IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

This publication presents subjects relating to the control of lead and copper in drinking water systems. t is of interest to system owners, operators, managers, and local decision makers, such as town officials, regarding drinking water treatment requirements and the treatment te...

235

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR STYRENE (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on styrene. The Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of styrene, Toxicokinetics and human exposur...

236

Natural organic matter removal from drinking water by membrane technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquatic natural organic matter (NOM) is a heterogeneous mixture of biopolymers and their degradation products that cause harmful by-products during drinking water production. The great variability in NOM composition makes it difficult to completely remove from drinking water by any single technique. The current paper reviews the NOM removal by micro-, ultra- and nanofiltration and by hybrid processes combining membrane

Sari Metsämuuronen; Mika Sillanpää; Amit Bhatnagar; Mika Mänttäri

2012-01-01

237

????????????????????????????????????? ???????????? ?????????????????????? Chemical Evaluation of Bottled Drinking Water Product in Kanchanaburi *????? ???????, ?????????? ??????????, ?????? ?????????, ????????? ????????2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium, Magnesium, Total Hardness as CaCO3 , Total Dissolved Solid, pH and Fluoride were analyzed in 26 products of commercial bottled drinking water. This study concentrated on different local brands of bottled drinking water, chemical characteristics from manufacturers in Kanchanaburi province and to find a relationship between their chemical characteristics. The sample were collected for three times during March -

Sasipa Ajhan; Ungsumalin Prongwong; Prin Kirdsiri

238

Pesticides in drinking water—A case study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pesticides occupy a unique position among chemicals found in drinking water, since they are deliberately used to control pests in agriculture and public health. They comprise a variety of compounds of various chemical properties (many of which being persistent in the environment), toxic potential, and mechanism of action. Safety assessment for drinking water is conducted by allocating health-based guidelines for

M Younes; H Galal-Gorchev

2000-01-01

239

Cancer epidemiology as related to chemicals in drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concern for the cancer risk posed by chemicals in drinking water stems in large part from advances in measurement techniques for environmental carcinogens. Recent recognition of the widespread occurrence in drinking water of chlorinated by?products of disinfection, as well as of organic solvents and other industrial chemicals, has stimulated many epidemiologic studies. Most have used population statistics to explore associations

Kenneth P. Cantor; Frederick C. Kopfler; Robert N. Hoover; Patricia H. Strasser

1981-01-01

240

TREATMENT OF ARSENIC RESIDUALS FROM DRINKING WATER REMOVAL PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The drinking water MCL was recently lowered from 0.05 mg/L to 0.01 mg/L. One concern was that reduction in the TCLP arsenic limit in response to the drinking water MCL could be problematic with regard to disposal of solid residuals generated at arsenic removal facilities. This pr...

241

Drinking water quality and fluoride concentration.  

PubMed

This paper aimed to analyze the fluoride concentration in drinking water, taking into account the balance between the benefits and risks to health, in order to produce scientific backing for the updating of the Brazilian legislation. Systematic reviews studies, official documents and meteorological data were examined. The temperatures in Brazilian state capitals indicate that fluoride levels should be between 0.6 and 0.9 mg F/l in order to prevent dental caries. Natural fluoride concentration of 1.5 mg F/l is tolerated for consumption in Brazil if there is no technology with an acceptable cost-benefit ratio for adjusting/removing the excess. Daily intake of water with a fluoride concentration > 0.9 mg F/l presents a risk to the dentition among children under the age of eight years, and consumers should be explicitly informed of this risk. In view of the expansion of the Brazilian water fluoridation program to regions with a typically tropical climate, Ordinance 635/75 relating to fluoride added to the public water supply should be revised. PMID:21789449

Frazão, Paulo; Peres, Marco A; Cury, Jaime A

2011-07-22

242

Providing Safe Drinking Water in America: 1997 National Public Water Systems Compliance Report and Update on Implementation of the 1996 Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The compliance document analyzes violations of drinking water regulations reported by Public Water Systems (PWSs) to States during the 1997 calendar year. This information is based on State and Tribal data submitted to EPA's Safe Drinking Information Syst...

1999-01-01

243

In Brief: Web site addresses global drinking water crisis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new Web resource provides the public with peer-reviewed scientific and technical information about the need for safe drinking water and strategies to enhance the safety and availability of water supplies around the world. Developed by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences (NAS) and the Global Health and Education Foundation, the ``Safe Drinking Water is Essential'' Web site (http://www.drinking-water.org) presents data and case studies written for a lay audience and aims to provide international decision-makers with tools to solve local water quality problems.

Kumar, Mohi

2007-09-01

244

Chemical water quality in Thailand and its impacts on the drinking water production in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Thailand, surface water and groundwater are the main water sources for tap water and drinking water production. Thirty-six different samples from surface waters from Chao Praya and Mae Klong rivers, tap waters, bottled drinking waters, groundwaters and commercial ice cubes from around the Bangkok area were collected. Water samples were also taken from two waterworks in the Chonburi province.

Kornprabha Kruawal; Frank Sacher; Andreas Werner; Jutta Müller; Thomas P. Knepper

2005-01-01

245

Effects of Forest and Grassland Management On Drinking Water ...  

Treesearch

Although most United States citizens take safe drinking water for granted, assuring its ... Large investments are made by all levels of government to maintain and ... be provided for the 240 million Americans served by public water supplies.

246

IMPACT OF DRINKING WATER TREATMENT ON ASSIMILABLE ORGANIC CARBON  

EPA Science Inventory

Regrowth in the drinking water distribution system is a primary concern for water utilities. he disinfection process, although normally efficient for primary inactivation, is not always enough to discourage microbial regrowth if sufficient substrate is available. Previously, the,...

247

OVERVIEW OF USEPA MICROBIOLOGICAL RESEARCH IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The Microbial Contaminants Control Branch (MCCB) conducts research on microbiological problems related to drinking water treatment, distribution and storage, and has recently become involved in watershed and source water quality issues such as fecal indicator bacteria and fecal p...

248

Arsenic in Drinking Water-A Global Environmental Problem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Information on the worldwide occurrence of groundwater pollution by arsenic, the ensuing health hazards, and the debatable government regulations of arsenic in drinking water, is presented. Diagnostic identification of arsenic, and methods to eliminate it from water are also discussed.|

Wang, Joanna Shaofen; Wai, Chien M.

2004-01-01

249

Drinking water systems, hydrology, and childhood gastrointestinal illness  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: Current United States drinking water regulations create areas with different levels of water quality. Municipalities accessing untreated groundwater and households with unmonitored private wells may be at increased risk for acquiring waterborne disease. Objectives: The study investigat...

250

APPLICATION OF USEPA'S DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS TOWARDS RAINWATER CATCHMENT SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Rainwater harvesting is receiving increased attention worldwide as an alternative source of drinking water. Although federal agencies such as the USEPA acknowledge the existence of rainwater collection systems, the monitoring of this water source is still typically carried out b...

251

40 CFR 144.12 - Prohibition of movement of fluid into underground sources of drinking water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...fluid into underground sources of drinking water. 144.12 Section 144.12...fluid into underground sources of drinking water. (a) No owner or operator...contaminant into underground sources of drinking water, if the presence of that...

2010-07-01

252

40 CFR 144.12 - Prohibition of movement of fluid into underground sources of drinking water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...fluid into underground sources of drinking water. 144.12 Section 144.12...fluid into underground sources of drinking water. (a) No owner or operator...contaminant into underground sources of drinking water, if the presence of that...

2013-07-01

253

40 CFR 144.82 - What must I do to protect underground sources of drinking water?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...protect underground sources of drinking water? 144.82 Section 144.82...protect underground sources of drinking water? If you own or operate...cause a violation of the primary drinking water standards under 40 CFR...

2013-07-01

254

21 CFR 1240.80 - General requirements for water for drinking and culinary purposes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... General requirements for water for drinking and culinary purposes... General requirements for water for drinking and culinary purposes. Only potable water shall be provided for drinking and culinary purposes...

2013-04-01

255

Methods for the Determination of Organic Compounds in Drinking Water, Supplement 1.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nine analytical methods covering 54 organic contaminants which may be present in drinking water or drinking water sources are described in detail. Seven of these methods cover compounds designated for regulation under the Safe Drinking Water Act Amendment...

1990-01-01

256

Health risk assessment of chloroform in California ground water  

SciTech Connect

This document presents an assessment of potential health risks associated with exposure to chloroform dissolved in California ground waters used for domestic consumption, focusing primarily on information relevant to a determination of potential increased cancer risk that may be associated with such exposures to chloroform. This assessment is being provided to the California Department of Health Services (CDHS) for the development of drinking-water standards to manage the health risks of chloroform exposures. Other assessments required in the risk-management process include analyses of the technical and economic feasibilities of treating water supplies contaminated with chloroform. The primary goal of this health-risk assessment is to describe scientifically plausible dose-response relationships for chloroform-induced cancer observed experimentally in animal bioassays that are relevant to the estimation of potential cancer risk in humans. This document is intended to provide a scientific basis for regulatory selection of chloroform concentrations in California groundwater predicted to protect the general public from potential health risk, focusing on potential cancer risk in particular. To this end, we also analyze the extent of human exposures attributable to chloroform-contaminated groundwater in California. A separate health-risk assessment for potential toxic endpoints other than cancer that may be associated with water-based exposure to chloroform has been prepared by CDHS (1989).

Bogen, K.T.; Hall, L.C.; McKone, T.E.

1992-01-20

257

Investigations on boron levels in drinking water sources in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate boron contamination of public drinking water in China, both dissolved and total boron contents in 98 public drinking\\u000a water sources from 49 cities, 42 brands of bottled water samples from supermarkets in several cities, and 58 water samples\\u000a from boron industrial area were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Our experimental results\\u000a showed that boron existed in

Ren-ji Xu; Xiao-ru Xing; Qun-fang Zhou; Gui-bin Jiang; Fu-sheng Wei

2010-01-01

258

64 FR 59246 - National Primary Drinking Water Regulations; Radon-222  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...systems in U.S., and the...drinking water supplies...125 3.38 Great Lakes...drinking water for NTNCWSs...effect on the economy of $100...review. Changes made in the...RFA), 5 U.S.C. 601...i.e., greater than 20 percent...following changes to the radon...radon in water levels because...water in the......

1999-11-02

259

Drinking-Water Standards and Regulations. Volume 2. Manual for 1982-88  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following 11 important documents are compiled for Drinking Water Standards and Regulations: (1) U.S. Environmental Agency Water Programs, National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations; (2) New Jersey Safe Drinking Water Act; (3) Summary of New Jersey Drinking Water Standards; (4) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Safe Drinking Water Act of 1986 Amendments; (5) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Primary Drinking

L. K. Wang; M. H. S. Wang

1988-01-01

260

An emergency monitoring about sudden water pollution accident in drinking water sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses some possible roles for emergency pollution accident in drinking water sources. Different procedures have been developed to measure the pollutants content of drinking water both in normal and in emergency situations, such as those arising from accidental and terrorist events. The authors analyze the primary factor of emergency pollution incident in drinking water sources and give general

Zhu Yi-Chun; Tang Min-Kang; Du Mao-an

2010-01-01

261

Statistical Analysis of Drinking Water Treatment Plant Costs, Source Water Quality, and Land Cover Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Revisiting an earlier study conducted by The Trust for Public Land in 2004, this research brings new data and methodologies to offer insight on the impact of the decline of forest cover and the increase of agriculture or urban land cover in a drinking water source drainage area on the water quality for that drinking water source and the drinking

Jade Freeman; Rebecca Madsen; Kelley Hart; Paul Barten; Paul Gregory; David Reckhow; Woody Duncan

262

Quality control of bottled and vended water in California: A review and comparison to tap water  

SciTech Connect

Current regulations and compliance for quality control of bottled and vended water in California are compared with that of the tap water industry in this research. Over 35% of the bottled water sold in the US is consumed in California where a third of the residents use such water as a primary source of drinking water. California is one of several states that regulates bottled water more rigorously than the federal government. In California, water quality standards for the two industries are comparable except that many of the organic standards for bottled water are applicable only to the source water, a concern due to potential organic contamination during processing. Reporting requirements, significantly less stringent for bottled water, allow considerable latitude in assessing risks and make assessment of compliance difficult. Based on available statistics, compliance for the two industries is comparable; the majority of violations posed no health risks. For both industries, small systems comprised the majority of violations whereas large systems had excellent compliance rates.

Darby, J.L. (Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering); Allen, L.

1994-04-01

263

Analysis of uranium concentration in drinking water samples using ICPMS.  

PubMed

Uranium concentration in drinking water samples collected from some areas of Northern Rajasthan has been measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The water samples were taken from hand pumps. The uranium concentration in water samples varies from 2.54-133.0 ?g L with a mean value of 38.48 ?g L. The uranium concentration in most of the drinking water samples exceeds the safe limit (30 ?g L) recommended by the World Health Organization. The annual effective dose associated with drinking water due to uranium concentration is estimated from its annual intake using dosimetric information based on ICRP 72. The resulting value of the annual effective dose from drinking water sources is in the range of 2.11-110.45 ?Sv. The annual effective dose in one of the samples was found to be greater than WHO-recommended level of 100 ?Sv y. PMID:23361419

Rani, Asha; Mehra, Rohit; Duggal, Vikas; Balaram, V

2013-03-01

264

Investigation on optimization of conventional drinking water treatment plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional drinking water treatment plant consists of coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, and filtration and disinfection units. Depending on water quality influent, each unit can be optimized to achieve the desired water quality effluent, both in design and operation stages. A typical water treatment plant has the combination of processes needed to treat the contaminants in the source water treated by the

I. Piri; I. Homayoonnezhad; P. Amirian

2010-01-01

265

Deficiencies in drinking water distribution systems in developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapidly growing populations and migration to urban areas in developing countries has resulted in a vital need for the establishment of centralized water systems to disseminate potable water to residents. Protected source water and modern, well-maintained drinking water treatment plants can provide water adequate for human consumption. However, ageing, stressed or poorly maintained distribution systems can cause the quality of

Ellen J. Lee; Kellogg J. Schwab

2005-01-01

266

Microbiological quality of drinking water at eight water treatment plants.  

PubMed

Eight drinking water treatment plants were sampled monthly during one year to evaluate the removal of bacterial indicators, new indicators and some pathogenic bacteria. Six plants are allocated along the Nile River at Cairo segment and the two others on Ismailia Canal. In this study many parameters were determined; the classical bacterial indicators (total bacterial counts at 22 and 37 degrees C, total coliforms, faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci) show the same trend in all plant intakes except faecal streptococci parameter. The numbers of faecal streptococci in plant intakes on the main stream of Nile River ranged from 8 to 250 MPN/100 ml, but the others ranged from 80 to 2700 MPN/100 ml. With regard to new indicators; total yeasts, Candida albicans, Aeromonas hydrophlia and total staphylococci ranged from 10(1) to 10(5), 10(2) to 10(5), 10(2) to 10(5) and 10(2) to 10(3) cfu/100 ml, respectively. In case of pathogens, salmonellae ranged between 10(2) and 10(3) cfu/100 ml, total vibrios varied between 10(2) and 10(4) and the Listeria group ranged from 10(2) to 10(5) cfu/100 ml from the intake samples. All tested samples from the outlet of water treatment plants, which produce drinking water, were free of classical bacterial indicators. So the produced water has a good quality from the bacteriological point, according to national and international regulations. On the other hand, the drinking water from some tested plants had one or more positive parameters of new indicators and pathogenic bacteria. PMID:11798415

El-Taweel, G E; Shaban, A M

2001-11-01

267

RAPID METHOD FOR DETERMINING NATURAL RADIONUCLIDES IN DRINKING WATER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radionuclides from the natural decay series are ubiquitous in Earth's crust, and because of direct recoil, diffusion, migration, and dissolution, these radionuclides infiltrate drinking water through the water cycle. Extensive data exists on 222Rn and 226Ra in drinking water in Austria; however, little is known about the 232Th decay products like 228Ra, the 222Rn progenies 210Pb and 210Po, and uranium.

Claudia Landstetter; Christian Katzlberger

268

Biological drinking water treatment of anaerobic groundwater in trickling filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drinking water production from anaerobic groundwater is usually achieved by so called conventional techniques such as aeration and sand filtration. The notion conventional implies a long history and general acceptation of the application, but doesn’t necessarily mean a thorough understanding of the processes involved. This is certainly the case for groundwater filtration, with groundwater being the major source for drinking

W. W. J. M. De Vet

2011-01-01

269

Gastric factors controlling water- and salt-solution-drinking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirsty rats presented with salt solutions of various concentrations increase their intake as a function of concentration up to an isotonic solution strength, with a decreased acceptance of hypertonic solutions. Hypertonic pre-drink loads elevate the drinking of water or hypotonic solutions but decrease the intake of hypertonic solutions. The volume of preload, irrespective of concentration, is inversely related to subsequent

Eliot Stellar; Ray Hyman; Sherwood Samet

1954-01-01

270

Arsenic in Drinking Water—A Global Environmental Problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Arsenic contamination of groundwater is a global environmental problem affecting a large number of populations, especially in developing countries. The "blackfoot disease"that occurred in Taiwan more than half of a century ago was attributed to drinking arsenic-contaminated water from deep wells containing high concentrations of the trivalent arsenite species. Similar arsenic poisoning cases were reported later in Chinese Inner Mongolia, Bangladesh, and India—all related to drinking groundwater contaminated with arsenic. The maximum contaminant level (MCL) of arsenic in drinking water has been changed recently by the U.S. EPA from 50 ppb to 10 ppb; the compliance date is January 2006. This article summarizes documented global arsenic contamination problems, the regulatory controversy regarding MCL of arsenic in drinking water, and available technologies for removing arsenic from contaminated waters. Methods for analyzing total arsenic and arsenic species in water are also described.

Shaofen Wang, Joanna; Wai, Chien M.

2004-02-01

271

78 FR 25267 - Request for Information To Inform Hydraulic Fracturing Research Related to Drinking Water Resources  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for Information To Inform Hydraulic Fracturing Research Related to Drinking...the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources...the relationship between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water...

2013-04-30

272

77 FR 67361 - Request for Information To Inform Hydraulic Fracturing Research Related to Drinking Water Resources  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for Information To Inform Hydraulic Fracturing Research Related to Drinking...the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources...the relationship between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water...

2012-11-09

273

Safe and Affordable Drinking Water for Developing Countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Safe drinking water remains inaccessible for about 1.2 billion people in the world, and the hourly toll from biological contamination of drinking water is 200 deaths mostly among children under five years of age. This chapter summarizes the need for safe drinking water, the scale of the global problem, and various methods tried to address it. Then it gives the history and current status of an innovation (``UV Waterworks™'') developed to address this major public health challenge. It reviews water disinfection technologies applicable to achieve the desired quality of drinking water in developing countries, and specifically, the limitations overcome by one particular invention: UV Waterworks. It then briefly describes the business model and financing option than is accelerating its implementation for affordable access to safe drinking water to the unserved populations in these countries. Thus this chapter describes not only the innovation in design of a UV water disinfection system, but also innovation in the delivery model for safe drinking water, with potential for long term growth and sustainability.

Gadgil, Ashok

2008-09-01

274

Drinking water infrastructure and environmental disparities: evidence and methodological considerations.  

PubMed

Potable drinking water is essential to public health; however, few studies have investigated income or racial disparities in water infrastructure or drinking water quality. There were many case reports documenting a lack of piped water or serious water quality problems in low income and minority communities, including tribal lands, Alaskan Native villages, colonias along the United States-Mexico border, and small communities in agricultural areas. Only 3 studies compared the demographic characteristics of communities by the quality of their drinking water, and the results were mixed in these studies. Further assessments were hampered by difficulties linking specific water systems to the sociodemographic characteristics of communities, as well as little information about how well water systems operated and the effectiveness of governmental oversight. PMID:21836110

VanDerslice, James

2011-08-11

275

TOXIC SCREENING MODELS FOR DRINKING WATER UTILITY MANAGEMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The 1986 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act begin a new period of water quality management for water utilities. Of particular concern to water utilities depending upon surface sources are amendments that regulate more contaminants, define treatment techniques for each cont...

276

DRINKING WATER AS A SOURCE OF MINERAL NUTRITION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The contributions of drinking water to the mineral nutrition of individuals are functions of the mineral contents of that water and the rate of water consumption of those individuals. The mineral contents of water supplies vary considerably, and many are processed to remove minerals. In fact, the pr...

277

Fluoride occurrence in publicly supplied drinking water in Estonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was undertaken to examine the content and spatial distribution of fluoride in drinking water. Water samples (735) from public water systems covering all Estonian territory were analysed using SPADNS method. In order to specify the natural source of fluoride, the chemistry data from five aquifer systems utilised for water supply were included into the study. Fluoride concentrations in

Enn Karro; Ene Indermitte; Astrid Saava; Kadri Haamer; Andres Marandi

2006-01-01

278

Microbiological quality of drinking water from dispensers in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Water coolers are popular in office buildings and commercial stores and the quality of this source of drinking water has the potential to cause waterborne outbreaks, especially in sensitive and immunocompromised subjects. The aim of this study was to determine the quality of water plumbed in coolers from commercial stores in comparison with tap water in Italy. METHODS: For

Giorgio Liguori; Ivan Cavallotti; Antonio Arnese; Ciro Amiranda; Daniela Anastasi; Italo F Angelillo

2010-01-01

279

Implementation Status of Oregon's Safe Drinking Water Act  

Microsoft Academic Search

Implementation of amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act is proceeding on schedule in Oregon and is having major effects on public water systems. For the first time, water systems are monitoring for many organic chemicals and other toxic substances. Some systems are discovering contamination and are taking corrective action. Water system managers are taking notification of the public more

David E. Leland

1993-01-01

280

ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION CONTROL ALTERNATIVES: DRINKING WATER TREATMENT FOR SMALL COMMUNITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

This document provides information for small system owners, operators, managers, and local decision makers, such as town officials, regarding drinking water treatment requirements and the treatment technologies suitable for small systems. t is not intended to be a comprehensive m...

281

Enumeration and Identification of Heterotrophic Bacteria from Drinking Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Various spread-plating enumeration media and procedures have been tested to determine the method of choice for the enumeration of the highest numbers of heterotrophic bacteria from chlorinated drinking waters. Dilute media, including a caseinate peptone s...

J. T. Staley

1985-01-01

282

Fate of High Priority Pesticides During Drinking Water Treatment  

EPA Science Inventory

The fate of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides in the presence of chlorinated oxidants was investigated under drinking water treatment conditions. In the presence of aqueous chlorine, intrinsic rate coefficients were found for the reaction of hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite ion ...

283

EPA Study of Hydraulic Fracturing and Drinking Water Resources  

EPA Science Inventory

In its FY2010 Appropriations Committee Conference Report, Congress directed EPA to study the relationship between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water, using: ? Best available science ? Independent sources of information ? Transparent, peer-reviewed process ? Consultatio...

284

An environmental assessment of United States drinking water ...  

Treesearch

Research & Development ... We conducted a national, watershed-level environmental assessment of 5,265 drinking water watersheds using data on land cover, ... Keywords: Conservation, Land-cover change, Land use, Sustainability.

285

Sampling Guidance for Unknown Contaminants in Drinking Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Sampling Guidance for Unknown Contaminants in Drinking Water provides comprehensive guidance that integrates recommendations for pathogen, toxin, chemical, and radiochemical sample collection, preservation, and transport procedures to support multiple...

2008-01-01

286

FORMATION OF HALONITROMETHANES IN DRINKING WATER DURING CHLORINATION  

EPA Science Inventory

In addition to many other halogenated disinfection by-products (DBPs), a number of halonitromethanes including chlorinated, brominated, and mixed bromochlorinated nitromethanes, have been identified in drinking water. These halonitromethanes, especially the brominated ones, are m...

287

DEVELOPING APPROACHES TO ESTIMATE CUMULATIVE RISKS OF DRINKING WATER CONTAMINANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Humans are exposed daily to complex mixtures of drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs) via oral, dermal, and inhalation routes. Some positive epidemiological studies suggest reproductive and developmental effects and cancer are associated with consumption of chlorinated d...

288

DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS: WHAT IS KNOWN  

EPA Science Inventory

Chlorine, ozone, chlorine dioxide, and chloramine are currently the major disinfectants being used to disinfect drinking water. Although the alternative disinfectants (ozone, chlorine dioxide, and chloramine) are increasing in popularity in the United States, chlorine is still us...

289

Treatment Alternatives for Controlling Chlorinated Organic Contaminants in Drinking Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A pilot plant study was conducted by the City of Thornton, Colorado, to evaluate techniques for controlling chlorinated organic compounds formed in drinking water as a result of breakpoint, or free, chlorination. The pilot plant was operated for 46 months...

M. A. Speed A. Barnard R. P. Arber G. C. Budd F. J. Johns

1987-01-01

290

Field-testing UV disinfection of drinking water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A recently invented device, 'UV Waterworks,' uses ultraviolet (UV) light to disinfect drinking water. Its novel features are: low cost, robust design, rapid disinfection, low electricity use, low maintenance, high flow rate and ability to work with unpres...

A. Gadgil A. Drescher D. Greene P. Miller C. Motau

1997-01-01

291

EPIDEMIOLOGICAL EVIDENCE OF CARCINOGENICITY OF CHLORINATED ORGANICS IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Concern has recently been voiced over possible chronic toxicity associated with chlorination of public drinking water supplies in the United States. This paper reviews the available evidence and the studies underway to further evaluate hypothesized associations between cancer ris...

292

APPLICATION OF MULTIMEDIA EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT TO DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

A potentially important exposure route for humans is the ingestion of chemicals via drinking water. If comprehensive exposure assessments are to be completed for either existing or proposed new chemicals and cost effective control strategies develop, then a quantitative understan...

293

White Sands Missile Range 2011 Drinking Water Quality Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The table below lists the results of the most recent drinking water tests. During calendar year 2011, WSMR conducted tests for volatile organic chemicals (VOCs), synthetic organic chemicals (SOCs), inorganic chemicals (IOCs), disinfection by-products, and...

2012-01-01

294

Overview of EPA Research on Drinking Water Distribution System Nitrification  

EPA Science Inventory

Results from USEPA research investigating drinking water distribution system nitrification will be presented. The two research areas include: (1) monochloramine disinfection kinetics of Nitrosomonas europaea using Propidium Monoazide Quantitative Real-time PCR (PMA-qPCR) and (2...

295

Impact of Plumbing Age on Copper Levels in Drinking Water  

EPA Science Inventory

Theory and limited practical experiences suggest that higher copper levels in drinking water tap samples are typically associated with newer plumbing systems, and levels decrease with increasing plumbing age. Past researchers have developed a conceptual model to explain the ?agin...

296

Chloramination of Organophosphorus Pesticides Found in Drinking Water Sources  

EPA Science Inventory

The degradation of commonly detected organophosphorus (OP) pesticides, in drinking water sources, was investigated under simulated chloramination conditions. Due to monochloramine autodecomposition, it is difficult to observe the direct reaction of monochloramine with each OP pe...

297

IDENTIFICATION OF NEW DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Due to concern over the potential adverse health effects of trihalomethanes (THMs) and other chlorinated by-products in chlorinated drinking water, alternative disinfectants are being explored. Ozone, chlorine dioxide, and chloramine are popular alternatives, as they produce low...

298

REMOVAL OF URANIUM FROM DRINKING WATER BY CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT METHODS  

EPA Science Inventory

The USEPA currently does not regulate uranium in drinking water but will be revising the radionuclide regulations during 1989 and will propose a maximum contaminant level for uranium. The paper presents treatment technology information on the effectiveness of conventional method...

299

PERSISTENCE AND DETECTION OF COLIFORMS IN TURBID FINISHED DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

To define interrelationships between elevated turbidities and the efficiency of chlorination in drinking water, experiments were conducted to measure bacterial survival, chlorine demand, and interference with microbiological determinations. Results indicated that disinfection eff...

300

Public perception of drinking water from private water supplies: focus group analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Over four million Canadians receive their drinking water from private water supplies, and numerous studies report that these supplies often exceed the minimal acceptable standards for contamination. Canadians in rural areas test their water intermittently, if at all, and treatment of water from private supplies is not common. Understanding the perceptions of drinking water among residents served by private

Andria Q Jones; Catherine E Dewey; Kathryn Doré; Shannon E Majowicz; Scott A McEwen; David Waltner-Toews; Spencer J Henson; Eric Mathews

2005-01-01

301

INTERGRATING SOURCE WATER PROTECTION AND DRINKING WATER TREATMENT: U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) is an internationally recognized water research organization established to assist in responding to public health concerns related to drinking water supplies. WSWRD has evolved from...

302

INTEGRATING SOURCE WATER PROTECTION AND DRINKING WATER TREATMENT: U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) is an internationally recognized water research organization established to assist in responding to public health concerns related to drinking water supplies. WSWRD has evolved from...

303

Lung Cancer and Arsenic Concentrations in Drinking Water in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cities in northern Chile had arsenic concentrations of 860 mg\\/liter in drinking water in the period 1958 -1970. Concen- trations have since been reduced to 40 mg\\/liter. We investi- gated the relation between lung cancer and arsenic in drinking water in northern Chile in a case-control study involving patients diagnosed with lung cancer between 1994 and 1996 and frequency-matched hospital

Catterina Ferreccio; Vivian Milosavjlevic; Guillermo Marshall; Ana Maria Sancha; Allan H. Smith

2000-01-01

304

TAPWAT: Definition structure and applications for modelling drinking water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 'Tool for the Analysis of the Production of drinking WATer' (TAPWAT)\\u000amodel has been developed for describing drinking-water quality in\\u000aintegral studies in the context of the Environmental Policy Assessment of\\u000athe RIVM. The model consists of modules that represent individual steps\\u000ain a treatment process, so that different treatment processes can be\\u000aconstructed. The treatment steps included in

Versteegh JFM; Gaalen FW van; Rietveld LC; Evers EG; Aldenberg TA; Cleij P

2007-01-01

305

Arsenic drinking water regulations in developing countries with extensive exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States Public Health Service set an interim standard of 50?g\\/l in 1942, but as early as 1962 the US Public Health Service had identified 10?g\\/l as a goal which later became the World Health Organization Guideline for drinking water in 1992. Epidemiological studies have shown that about one in 10 people drinking water containing 500?g\\/l of arsenic over

Allan H. Smith; Meera M. Hira Smith

2004-01-01

306

Determination of trace level perchlorate in drinking water and ground water by ion chromatography.  

PubMed

Ammonium perchlorate, a key ingredient in solid rocket propellants, has recently been found in ground and surface waters in the USA in a number of states, including California, Nevada, Utah, and West Virginia. Perchlorate poses a health risk and preliminary data from the US Environmental Protection Agency reports that exposure to less than 4-18 micrograms/l provides adequate human health protection. An ion chromatographic method was developed for the determination of low microgram/l levels of perchlorate in drinking and ground waters based on a Dionex IonPac AS11 column, a 100 mM hydroxide eluent, large loop (1000 microliters) injection, and suppressed conductivity detection. The method is free of interferences from common anions, linear in the range of 2.5-100 micrograms/l, and quantitative recoveries were obtained for low microgram/l levels of perchlorate in spiked drinking and ground water samples. The method detection limit of 0.3 microgram/l permits quantification of perchlorate below the levels which ensure adequate health protection. A new polarizable anion analysis column, the IonPac AS16, and its potential applicability for this analysis is also discussed. PMID:10457473

Jackson, P E; Laikhtman, M; Rohrer, J S

1999-07-30

307

The California State Water Project: A Reassessment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a California State water project intended to transport water from the northern half of the state to the southern half. Assesses major features of the project, explains agricultural uses of the water, identifies other project activities, and surveys problems affecting the project. Explains the stances of various environmental groups,…

Cantor, Leonard M.

1980-01-01

308

Socioeconomic Factors and Water Quality in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the relationships between water quality and socioeconomic factors in California at the county level for the years 1993 to 2006 using 24 water quality indicators coming from seven different types of water bodies. We estimate these relationships using three classes of models: the traditional per capita income-pollution level - Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) - specifications, a more inclusive

Y. Hossein Farzin; Kelly A. Grogan

2011-01-01

309

Toxicological Guidelines for Monocyclic Nitro, Amino and Aminonitroaromatics, Nitramines, and Nitrate Esters in Drinking Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to secure a safe drinking water supply, the setting of tolerable\\/acceptable ceilings of drinking water hygiene is required with regard to xenobiotics resulting from several anthropogenic impacts. This is done in practice by using drinking water guidelines or standards as quantitative objectives. The list of the new EU Directive or the German drinking-water standards is limited to those

K.-M. Wollin; H. H. Dieter

2005-01-01

310

Diversity and Significance of Mold Species in Norwegian Drinking Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine the occurrence, distribution, and significance of mold species in groundwater- and surface water-derived drinking water in Norway, molds isolated from 273 water samples were identified. Samples of raw water, treated water, and water from private homes and hospital installations were analyzed by incubation of 100-ml membrane-filtered samples on dichloran-18% glycerol agar. The total count (number of

Gunhild Hageskal; Ann Kristin Knutsen; Peter Gaustad; G. Sybren de Hoog; Ida Skaar

2006-01-01

311

Water Quality of Drinking Water Supplies in Socorro, New Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Socorro, a small town with a population of about 8,000, is located in central New Mexico along the Rio Grande within the Rio Grande rift, at the edge of an extensive volcanic field. Socorro has six sources of supply for drinking water. Two of these sources are thermal springs and four are wells ranging in depth from 97-500 ft. The water is not blended into one source for distribution, but rather each source serves as drinking water for those in the immediate area surrounding the well or spring. Each source was sampled and analyzed monthly over a 2-year period. The following parameters were determined and compared; temperature, pH, conductivity, TDS, hardness, alkalinity, Cl, SO4, F, Br, NO3, Na, K, Ca, Mg, SiO2 As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Pb, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Se, Sr, Ag, Th, U, and Zn. The monthly water usage from each source was also determined. High levels of arsenic (up to 42 ppb) and uranium (up to 55 ppb) occur naturally in the water sources, but not together in the same sources. Based on water quality parameters, the water may be grouped into three types with two sources in each type. Type 1. Low hardness (~70 ppm), low TDS (~240 ppm), no Fe (<5 ppb), no Mn (<5 ppb), very low U (3 ppb), and high As (~40 ppb). Type 2. High TDS (~700 ppm), high hardness (~260 ppm), high Fe (~100 ppb), high Mn (~650 ppb), low U (~6 ppb), and mid-level As (~24 ppb). Type 3. High TDS (~430 ppm), high hardness (~200 ppm), mid-level Fe (~50 ppb), mid-level Mn (~10 ppb), high U (25-55 ppb), and low As (~8 ppb). Considering the arsenic and uranium values, type 2 water appears to be a dilution of type 1 and type 3. This does not appear to be the case when comparing Fe, Mn, hardness, and TDS. Type 2 contains the highest Fe, Mn, TDS, and hardness. One possible explanation is that as type 1 and type 3 groundwater mixes and flows toward the river, some of it flows through areas higher in calcium carbonate and Fe and Mn mineralization producing the type 2 water which results in higher Fe, Mn, TDS, and hardness. Interestingly, the sources with the lowest TDS or the best quality water contain the highest arsenic levels. Four of the six sources contain arsenic above the USEPA's new MCL of 10 ppb.

Brandvold, L. A.

2002-12-01

312

Review of Campylobacter spp. in drinking and environmental waters.  

PubMed

Consumption of contaminated drinking water is a significant cause of Campylobacter infections. Drinking water contamination is known to result from septic seepage and wastewater intrusion into non-disinfected sources of groundwater and occasionally from cross-connection into drinking water distribution systems. Wastewater effluents, farm animals and wild birds are the primary sources contributing human-infectious Campylobacters in environmental waters, impacting on recreational activities and drinking water sources. Culturing of Campylobacter entails time-consuming steps that often provide qualitative or semi-quantitative results. Viable but non-culturable forms due to environmental stress are not detected, and thus may result in false-negative assessments of Campylobacter risks from drinking and environmental waters. Molecular methods, especially quantitative PCR applications, are therefore important to use in the detection of environmental Campylobacter spp. Processing large volumes of water may be required to reach the desired sensitivity for either culture or molecular detection methods. In the future, applications of novel molecular techniques such as isothermal amplification and high-throughput sequencing applications are awaited to develop and become more affordable and practical in environmental Campylobacter research. The new technologies may change the knowledge on the prevalence and pathogenicity of the different Campylobacter species in the water environment. PMID:23810971

Pitkänen, Tarja

2013-06-26

313

Drinking water treatment residuals: A Review of recent uses  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Coagulants such as alum [Al2(SO4)3•14H2O], FeCl3, or Fe2(SO4)3 are commonly used to remove particulate and dissolved constituents from water supplies in the production of drinking water. The resulting waste product, called water-treatment residuals (WTR), contains precipitated Al and Fe oxyhydroxide...

314

MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM AND DRINKING WATER WHAT ARE THE CONNECTIONS?  

EPA Science Inventory

Background: Human Mycobacterium avium infections are only known to be acquired from environmental sources such as water and soil. We compared M. avium isolates from clinical and drinking water sources using molecular tools. Methods: M. avium was isolated from water samples colle...

315

Condition Assessment for Drinking Water Transmission and Distribution Mains  

EPA Science Inventory

This project seeks to improve the capability to characterize the condition of water infrastructure. The integrity of buried drinking water mains is critical, as it influences water quality, losses, pressure and cost. This research complements the U.S. Environmental Protection A...

316

Effect of the distribution system on drinking-water quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Safe Drinking Water Act and its Amendments has focused interest on the factors that cause the deterioration of water between the treatment plant and the consumer. The distribution system itself can contribute to this deterioration. Numerous examples of waterborne disease outbreaks have demonstrated the importance of the distribution system in preventing disease. Water-quality propagation models can be used to

R. M. Clark; J. A. Goodrich; L. J. Wymer

1993-01-01

317

Bioavailability of Fluoride in Drinking Water: a Human Experimental Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that systemic fluoride absorption from drinking water may be influenced by the type of fluoride compound in the water and by water hardness. Using a human double-blind cross-over trial, we conducted this study to measure cmax, Tmax, and Area Under the Curve (AUC) for plasma F concentration against time, following the ingestion of naturally fluoridated hard

Anne Maguire; F. V. Zohouri; J. C. Mathers; I. N. Steen; P. N. Hindmarch; P. J. Moynihan

2005-01-01

318

Analysis of drinking water for the detection of trihalomethanes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drinking water samples were collected from several locations from most of the major cities of the Eastern Province in Saudi Arabia. The geographic distribution of sampling locations in each city was designed to represent the water quality in various places in the distribution system. Water samples were collected in duplicate from each location. Glass vials (40 ml capacity) capped with

Nabil M. Fayad; Shahid Iqbal

1985-01-01

319

Supplying high quality drinking water to remote communities in Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The supply of high-quality drinking water from small treatment works can be problematical and expensive. As the location of communities supplied becomes increasingly remote and isolated, the problems of water supply increase, become more costly and difficult to solve. In Scotland there are large numbers of these very small sites. Historically many received water piped straight from the hill with

A. B. F. Grose; A. J. Smith; A. Donn; J. O'Donnell; D. Welch

1998-01-01

320

Public health medicine and drinking water in Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevention of the spread of disease by drinking water relies on a tripartate arrangement among the supplier, the regulator and their medical advisers. This paper describes the role of Public Health Medicine in Scotland in preventing a ‘significant risk to health’ from potable water. The legislative framework is highlighted. The rationale of water monitoring is examined and the role

Donald M. Campbell; Gerald I. Forbes

1994-01-01

321

Particulate Arsenic Release in a Drinking Water Distribution System  

EPA Science Inventory

Trace contaminants, such as arsenic, have been shown to accumulate in solids found in drinking water distribution systems. The obvious concern is that the contaminants in these solids could be released back into the water resulting in elevated levels in a consumerâ??s tap water. Th...

322

Pyrosequencing Analysis of Bacterial Biofilm Communities in Water Meters of a Drinking Water Distribution System? †  

PubMed Central

The applicability of 454 pyrosequencing to characterize bacterial biofilm communities from two water meters of a drinking water distribution system was assessed. Differences in bacterial diversity and composition were observed. A better understanding of the bacterial ecology of drinking water biofilms will allow for effective management of water quality in distribution systems.

Hong, Pei-Ying; Hwang, Chiachi; Ling, Fangqiong; Andersen, Gary L.; LeChevallier, Mark W.; Liu, Wen-Tso

2010-01-01

323

Emerging contaminants in surface waters and their relevance for the production of drinking water in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing part of drinking water in Europe is prepared from surface water. At the same time, a growing number of emerging contaminants is being discovered in surface water. This review provides an overview of classes of emerging contaminants nowadays detected in the aquatic environment that are of relevance for drinking water production. These comprise e.g. endocrine disrupting compounds, such

Corine J. Houtman

2010-01-01

324

Radionuclides in Drinking Water and Four Draft Criteria Documents: Man-Made Radionuclide Occurrence, Uranium, Radium, Radon. Review of the Office of Drinking Water's Assessment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Radiation Advisory Committee of the Science Advisory Board has completed its review of the Office of Drinking Water's evaluation of radionuclides in drinking water and four draft criteria documents that support the evaluation, including Man-Made Radio...

1987-01-01

325

Corrosiveness of drinking water and cardiovascular disease mortality  

SciTech Connect

Hard drinking water is statistically correlated with low mortality from cardiovascular diseases. Possible explanations for this association are: (1)calcium and/or magnesium intake by consumption of hard water diminishes a deficiency of these essential elements in the total diet and suppresses the toxic effect of some heavy metals/ or (2)heavy metals in soft drinking water, released from the piping as a result of a supposedly higher corrosiveness of the softer waters during distribution, have toxic effects. Further investigation is recommended to determine the actual cause(s) of this statistical association. (10 references, 4 tables)

Haring, B.J.A.; Zoeteman, B.C.J.

1980-10-01

326

Guidance for Applicants for State Wellhead Protection Program Assistance Funds under the Safe Drinking Water Act.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 1986 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) establish a new Wellhead Protection (WHP) Program to protect ground waters that supply wells and wellfields contributing drinking water to public water supply systems. The Guidance outlines procedu...

1987-01-01

327

Drinking-Water Standards and Regulations. Volume 2. Manual for 1982-88  

SciTech Connect

The following 11 important documents are compiled for Drinking Water Standards and Regulations: (1) U.S. Environmental Agency Water Programs, National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations; (2) New Jersey Safe Drinking Water Act; (3) Summary of New Jersey Drinking Water Standards; (4) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Safe Drinking Water Act of 1986 Amendments; (5) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Primary Drinking Water Standards; (6) Canadian National Health and Welfare Drinking Water Quality Guidelines--Maximum Acceptable Concentrations; (7) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Primary Drinking Water Regulations, Filtration and Disinfection Turbidity, Giardia Lamblia, Viruses, Legionella, and Heterotrophic Bacteria; (8) Public Water Supply Manual--Guide to the Safe Drinking Water Program; (9) Public Water Supply Manual--Emergency Response; (10) U.S. EPA Approved Krofta Chemicals; (11) NY-DOH Approved Krofta Chemicals.

Wang, L.K.; Wang, M.H.S.

1988-04-10

328

ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM HOUSEHOLD DRINKING WATER BY ADSORPTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geogenic inorganic arsenic contamination in drinking water has been raising public health concern especially in developing countries. Cost-effective and stopgap arsenic removal method for household use (cooking and drinking) is very urgent. Several iron treated natural materials such as Fe-treated activated carbon (FeAC), Fe-treated gel beads (FeGB) and iron oxide-coated sand (IOCS), were investigated in this study for arsenic removal

Tao Yuan; Jiang Yong Hu; Say Leong Ong; Qi Fang Luo; Wern Jun Ng

2002-01-01

329

Are endocrine disrupting compounds a health risk in drinking water?  

PubMed

There has been a great deal of international discussion on the nature and relevance of endocrine disrupting compounds in the environment. Changes in reproductive organs of fish and mollusks have been demonstrated in rivers downstream of sewage discharges in Europe and in North America, which have been attributed to estrogenic compounds in the effluent. The anatomical and physiological changes in the fauna are illustrated by feminization of male gonads. The compounds of greatest hormonal activity in sewage effluent are the natural estrogens 17Beta-estradiol, estrone, estriol and the synthetic estrogen ethinylestradiol. Androgens are also widely present in wastewaters. Investigations of anthropogenic chemical contaminants in freshwaters and wastewaters have shown a wide variety of organic compounds, many of which have low levels of estrogenic activity. In many highly populated countries the drinking water is sourced from the same rivers and lakes that are the recipients of sewage and industrial discharge. The River Thames which flows through London, England, has overall passed through drinking water and sewage discharge 5 times from source to mouth of the river. Under these types of circumstance, any accumulation of endocrine disrupting compounds from sewage or industry potentially affects the quality of drinking water. Neither basic wastewater treatment nor basic drinking water treatment will eliminate the estrogens, androgens or detergent breakdown products from water, due to the chemical stability of the structures. Hence a potential risk to health exists; however present data indicate that estrogenic contamination of drinking water is very unlikely to result in physiologically detectable effects in consumers. Pesticide, detergent and industrial contamination remain issues of concern. As a result of this concern, increased attention is being given to enhanced wastewater treatment in locations where the effluent is directly or indirectly in use for drinking water. In some places at which heavy anthropogenic contamination of drinking water sources occurs, advanced drinking water treatment is increasingly being implemented. This treatment employs particle removal, ozone oxidation of organic material and activated charcoal adsorption of the oxidation products. Such processes will remove industrial organic chemicals, pesticides, detergents, pharmaceutical products and hormones. Populations for which only basic wastewater and drinking water treatment are available remain vulnerable. PMID:16823090

Falconer, Ian R

2006-06-01

330

The 1991 Lead\\/Copper Drinking Water Rule and the 1995 Decision Not to Revise the Arsenic Drinking Water Rule: Two Case Studies in EPA's Use of Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses EPA's acquisition and use of science in two decisions under the Safe Drinking Water Act: the 1991 revision of the lead drinking water regulations and the 1995 decision to pursue additional research instead of revising the arsenic in drinking water standard. In the first case, a committed band of policy entrepreneurs within EPA mobilized and supplemented scientific

Mark R. Powell

1996-01-01

331

INFLUENCE OF CATION LEACHING ON WATER RETENTIVITY OF DRINKING WATER SLUDGE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is important for waste management and sound material-cycle society to clarify the change of the physico-chemical properties of reusable material. In this study, the influence of cation leaching on water retentivity of drinking water sludge was investigated. The column leaching test was executed using drinking water sludge to simulate rainwater percolation, and the water retentivity test of the degraded sludge was executed. As a result, the water retentivity of drinking water sludge decreased after cation leaching. The cation exchangeable capacity of drinking water sludge and its microscopic structure were almost stable during the leaching test. The results indicate a possibility that Al leaching decreases the hydrophilic part of flocculating agent which relates to water retention of drinking water sludge.

Watanabe, Yasutaka; Komine, Hideo; Yasuhara, Kazuya; Murakami, Satoshi; Toyoda, Kazuhiro

332

Metal contamination of drinking water from corrosion of distribution pipes.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to evaluate metal contamination of drinking water resulting from the corrosion of distribution pipes and its significance to human health. A community in Dhahran, which is served from its own desalination facilities, was chosen for this study. About 150 drinking water samples were collected and analyzed for metal concentrations using an inductively coupled argon plasma analyzer. It was found that copper, iron and zinc in the drinking water increased during its transportation from the desalination plant to the consumers. This increase was related to the length and material of distribution pipes. Concentrations of copper and zinc were increased during overnight storage of water in the appliances. Metal concentrations found in this study are discussed with reference to human health. PMID:15092461

Alam, I A; Sadiq, M

1989-01-01

333

Great Western water swindle. [California  

Microsoft Academic Search

New regulations covering the Reclamation Act of 1902 have resulted in large California land owners having to compete with small farmers and tenant farmers who will benefit from a redistribution of the land in compliance with the new 160-acre limit and residency requirement. The author outlines the history of the Federal irrigation program and points out some of the implications

1978-01-01

334

Removal of uranium from drinking water by conventional treatment methods  

SciTech Connect

The USEPA currently does not regulate uranium in drinking water but will be revising the radionuclide regulations during 1989 and will propose a maximum contaminant level for uranium. This paper presents treatment technology information on the effectiveness of conventional methods to removal uranium from drinking water. Treatment information based primarily on laboratory and pilot plant studies is presented on conventional coagulation/filtration, ion exchange, lime softening, and reverse osmosis. Ion-exchange treatment has been applied successfully on ground waters by small systems.

Sorg, T.J.

1989-01-01

335

Health risks due to radon in drinking water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Following more than a decade of scientific debate about the setting of a standard for 222Rn in drinking water, Congress established a timetable for the promulgation of a standard in the 1996 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act. As a result of those Amendments, the EPA contracted with the National Academy of Sciences to undertake a risk assessment for exposure to radon in drinking water. In addition, the resulting committee was asked to address several other scientific issues including the national average ambient 222Rn concentration and the increment of 222Rn to the indoor- air concentration arising from the use of drinking water in a home. A new dosimetric analysis of the cancer risk to the stomach from ingestion was performed. The recently reported risk estimates developed by the BEIR VI Committee for inhalation of radon decay products were adopted. Because the 1996 Amendments permit states to develop programs in which mitigation of air- producing health-risk reductions equivalent to that which would be achieved by treating the drinking water, the scientific issues involved in such 'multimedia mitigation programs' were explored.

Hopke, P. K.; Borak, T. B.; Doull, J.; Cleaver, J. E.; Eckerman, K. F.; Gundersen, L. C. S.; Harley, N. H.; Hess, C. T.; Kinner, N. E.; Kopecky, K. J.; Mckone, T. E.; Sextro, R. G.; Simon, S. L.

2000-01-01

336

Health risks due to radon in drinking water  

SciTech Connect

Following more than a decade of scientific debate about the setting of a standard for {sup 222}Rn in drinking water, Congress established a timetable for the promulgation of a standard in the 1996 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act. As a result of those Amendments, the EPA contracted with the National Academy of Sciences to undertake a risk assessment for exposure to radon in drinking water. In addition, the resulting committee was asked to address several other scientific issues including the national average ambient {sup 222}Rn concentration and the increment of {sup 222}Rn to the indoor-air concentration arising from the use of drinking water in a home. A new dosimetric analysis of the cancer risk to the stomach from ingestion was performed. The recently reported risk estimates developed by the BEIR VI Committee for inhalation of radon decay products were adopted. Because the 1996 Amendments permit states to develop programs in which mitigation of air-producing health-risk reductions equivalent to that which would be achieved by treating the drinking water, the scientific issues involved in such multimedia mitigation programs were explored.

Hopke, P.K. Borak, T.B.; Doull, J. [and others

2000-03-15

337

German drinking water regulations, pesticides, and axiom of concern  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The limit value of 0.1 µg/liter for “substances used in plant treatment and pest control including their main toxic degradation products” (PBSM) established in the German Drinking Water Regulations (Trinkwasserverordnung) serves comprehensively to protect drinking water from unexpected toxicological risks and thus corresponds to the axiom of concern (Besorgnisgrundsatz) contained in §11,2 of the Federal Communicable Disease Control Act (Bundesseuchengesetz), which is an essential cornerstone of the Drinking Water Regulations. Furthermore, precautionary values that are specific to the particular substance and near the valid limit can be found for about 10% of all registered active substances. The goal of the PBSM Recommendations of the Federal Health Office (BGA) issued in July 1989 is to preserve and restore groundwater and drinking water through measures to be taken by the causal party, while reducing consumer health risks to the greatest extent possible. The EC commission's drawbacks on these recommendations and the imminent EC-wide directive for the uniform registration of pesticides being based solely on Article 43 of the European Treaty would seriously endanger this goal. Therefore, a situation threatens in Europe similar to that in the United States, where at least 18 active ingredients have been detected in groundwater in concentrations of up to 1000 times the toxicologically established limits for drinking water.

Dieter, Hermann H.

1992-01-01

338

SMALL DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR COMPLIANCE WITH THE ENHANCED SURFACE WATER TREATMENT RULES  

EPA Science Inventory

According to FY2003 statistics compiled by the Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, the U.S. regulates about 160,000 small drinking water systems that impact close to 70 million people. Small systems (serving transient and non-transient populations of 10,000 people or less...

339

Perfluorinated Surfactants in Surface and Drinking Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goal, Scope and Background. Perfluorinated surfactants (e.g. PFOS and PFOA) have shown different potentials for reproductory interfer- ence and carcinogenity in animal experiments as well as partly long half-lives in humans. They possess compound-dependent extreme re- calcitrance against microbiological and chemical degradation and, in addition, they show variable potentials for bioaccumulation in ani- mals and humans. Methods. Surface and drinking

Martin JW; Smithwick MM; Hoekstra PF; Muir DCG

340

Integrated Scenarios Analysis for the California Water Plan Update  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Sierra Nevada Mountain Range is the water tower of California - providing drinking water for the state's large urban areas and irrigation for much of the state's vast agricultural land. Presently, Sierra snowpack accounts for approximately half of the surface water storage in the state. Current projections forecast that this snowpack may decline by 70 to 90 percent over the next century, threatening California's water supply. At the same time, by the year 2050 changes in water demands due to trends in population and land use are projected to range from a 3 percent decrease to a 7 percent increase over average 1998-2005 demands (80.1 million acre-feet). Choosing appropriate management policies and/or interventions in the face of this uncertainty is challenging to say the least. As such, we have developed an integrated water basin analysis tool, using the Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) system, that allows for the evaluation of different combinations of proposed adaptation strategies (response packages) across the range of uncertainties (climate, population, and land use). The tool focuses on two hydrologic regions (Sacramento and San Joaquin River Basins) that encompass the bulk of the Sierra Nevada runoff. The tool integrates hydrologic processes into a water resources modeling framework such that climatic inputs can be used to drive the model. We have used this feature to evaluate the impacts on water supplies (through changes in snow melt and runoff patterns) and water demands (through changes in crop evapotranspiration) under twelve climate change projections (2 GHG emission scenarios x 6 GCM's). These scenarios were combined with three demographic and land use projections to produce 36 scenarios, which were the basis for evaluating the effectiveness of different response packages. This study demonstrated that the use of an integrated tool to conduct scenarios analysis is an effective means of identifying robust strategies for water resources planning and management in the face of uncertainty.

Joyce, B. A.; Yates, D.; Groves, D.; Draper, A.; Juricich, R.; Purkey, D.

2010-12-01

341

Indirect human exposure to pharmaceuticals via drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are numerous observations of pharmaceuticals (or their metabolites) as contaminants in wastewater, surface water and groundwater. This implies a potential for indirect human exposure to pharmaceuticals via drinking water supplies. Various effect benchmarks may be employed in an evaluation of the significance of such indirect exposure. In this study a comparison was made between reported concentrations of pharmaceuticals in

Simon Webb; Thomas Ternes; Michel Gibert; Klaus Olejniczak

2003-01-01

342

Monitoring of drinking water treatment plants using ICP?MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

More than sixty inorganic parameters were monitored in the Ter and Llobregat Drinking Water Treatment Plants (DWTPs) using ICP?MS. Both DWTPs supply approximately four million inhabitants with water in Barcelona and neighbouring areas (NE Spain). The profile of inorganic parameters throughout the treatment process is similar in the Ter and Llobregat DWTPs. Sodium, K, Mg, Ca, Si, Cl, SO4 ,

J. F. Llorens; A. Roig; M. Carnicero; F. Valero

2000-01-01

343

Wastewater to Drinking Water: Are Emerging Contaminants Making it Through?  

EPA Science Inventory

Lake Mead serves as the primary drinking water source for Las Vegas, Nevada and surrounding communities. Besides snow-melt from the Rockies water levels in the lake are supplemented by the inflow of treated wastewater from communities along the Colorado River, including Las Vegas...

344

Nitrate Removal from Drinking Water in Glendale, Arizona.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A 15-month pilot-scale study of nitrate removal from drinking water by ion exchange (IX), reverse osmosis (RO), and electrodialysis (ED) was carried out in Glendale, Arizona, where the raw water contained 18 to 25 mg/L NO3-N. The experiments were carried ...

D. Clifford C. C. Lin L. L. Horng J. Boegel

1986-01-01

345

NITRATE REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER IN GLENDALE, ARIZONA  

EPA Science Inventory

A 15-month pilot-scale study of nitrate removal from drinking water by ion exchange (IX), reverse osmosis (RO), and electrodialysis (ED) was carried out in Glendale, Arizona, where the raw water contained 18 to 25 mg/L NO3-N. The experiments were carried out using the University ...

346

NUTRIENTS FOR BACTERIAL GROWTH IN DRINKING WATER: BIOASSAY EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The regrowth of bacteria in drinking water distribution systems can lead to the deterioration of water quality. Pathogenic bacteria are heterotrophs, and heterotrophs are probably the dominant bacteria associated with the regrowth phenomenon. Only a portion of the total organic c...

347

SAFE DRINKING WATER FOR THE LITTLE GUY: OPTIONS AND ALTERNATIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) and its Amendments sets regulations applicable to all community water systems that have 15 or more service connections and/or serve at least 25 people. t first glance, this may appear most inclusive, but in reality there are numerous private hom...

348

Remediation Technologies for Arsenic Contaminated Drinking Waters (9 pp)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic is a toxic metalloid element that is now recognised to be an important contaminant of drinking water – particularly, but not exclusively, in poor regions of southern Asia. In effected regions, many millions are at risk of arsenic-induced disease and strategies are required to provide safe water for consumption. The main strategies available are mitigation (the provision of alternative

Hemda Garelick; Agnieszka Dybowska; Eugenia Valsami-Jones; Nicholas D. Priest

2005-01-01

349

Endotoxin inactivation by selected drinking water treatment oxidants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to endotoxins in treated drinking water can occur through ingestion, dermal abrasions, inhalation of water vapor, intravenous injection or during dialysis. While the risks associated with endotoxin ingestion and entry through dermal abrasions are not well quantified, adverse effects of intravenous injection and dialysis are well known and some studies indicate that inhalation of moisture-laden air may impact human

William B Anderson; Colin I Mayfield; D. George Dixon; Peter M Huck

2003-01-01

350

GASTROINTESTINAL ABSORPTION OF SOLUBLE URANIUM FROM DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The manuscript describes results of an experiment to determine the gastrointestinal absorption of uranium from drinking water in 12 health adults. Most of the uranium ingested was excreted in feces in the first 2 days following ingestion of the water. The absorption was the same ...

351

Fluoride in drinking water: A survey of expert opinions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, public debate over the standard setting process related to fluoride in drinking water and the fiuoridation of water supplies has been steeped in much controversy. Discussion of such issues has been con strained by the limited consideration of options relevant to particular problems. To examine the responses to specific issues, we presented an analysis of the problem

R. Rajagopal; Graham Tobin

1991-01-01

352

Some effects of ozonation of humic substances in drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ozonation is employed as a method for removal of colour due to humic substances in drinking water. We have examined some effects of ozonation of humic water in the laboratory. Ozonation reduced colour by 80% but had little influence on the DOC concentration and only moderate effect on the UV absorbance at 254 nm. High-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) showed that

Dag Hongve; Vidar Lund; Gunvor Åkesson; Georg Becher

1991-01-01

353

Some effects of ozonation of humic substances in drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ozonation is employed as a method for removal of colour due to humic substances in drinking water. We have examined some effects of ozonation of humic water in the laboratory. Ozonation reduced colour by 80% but had little influence on the DOC concentration and only moderate effect on the UV absorbance at 254 nm. High-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) showed that

Dag Hongve; Vidar Lund; Gunvor Åkesson; Georg Becher

354

Chlorination byproducts, their toxicodynamics and removal from drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

No doubt that chlorination has been successfully used for the control of water borne infections diseases for more than a century. However identification of chlorination byproducts (CBPs) and incidences of potential health hazards created a major issue on the balancing of the toxicodynamics of the chemical species and risk from pathogenic microbes in the supply of drinking water. There have

Krishna Gopal; Sushree Swarupa Tripathy; Jean Luc Bersillon; Shashi Prabha Dubey

2007-01-01

355

Oxidative decomposition of vitamin C in drinking water.  

PubMed

We have previously shown that vitamin C (ascorbic acid) can initiate hydroxyl radical formation in copper contaminated household drinking water. In the present study, we have examined the stability of vitamin C in copper and bicarbonate containing household drinking water. In drinking water samples, contaminated with copper from the pipes and buffered with bicarbonate, 35% of the added vitamin C was oxidized to dehydroascorbic acid within 15 min. After 3h incubation at room temperature, 93% of the added (2 mM) ascorbic acid had been oxidized. The dehydroascorbic acid formed was further decomposed to oxalic acid and threonic acid by the hydrogen peroxide generated from the copper (I) autooxidation in the presence of oxygen. A very modest oxidation of vitamin C occurred in Milli-Q water and in household water samples not contaminated by copper ions. Moreover, addition of vitamin C to commercially sold domestic bottled water samples did not result in vitamin C oxidation. Our results demonstrate that ascorbic acid is rapidly oxidized to dehydroascorbic acid and further decomposed to oxalic- and threonic acid in copper contaminated household tap water that is buffered with bicarbonate. The impact of consuming ascorbic acid together with copper and bicarbonate containing drinking water on human health is discussed. PMID:15493459

Jansson, Patric J; Jung, Hye R; Lindqvist, Christer; Nordström, Tommy

2004-08-01

356

Providing Safe Drinking Water In America. 2003 National Public Water Systems Compliance Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Public Water Systems Compliance Report for 2003 describes how the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and its state and tribal partners are meeting the goal of ensuring that Americans receive safe drinking water from public water systems. S...

2005-01-01

357

Bacteriological quality of drinking water in Nyala, South Darfur, Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the bacterial contaminations in drinking water in Nyala city, South Darfur, Sudan\\u000a with special reference to the internally displaced people camps (IDPs). Two hundred and forty water samples from different\\u000a sites and sources including bore holes, hand pumps, dug wells, water points, water reservoir and household storage containers\\u000a were collected in 2009.

Amira Ahmed Abdelrahman; Yassir Mohammed Eltahir

2011-01-01

358

EFFECTS OF BOTULISM ON DUCKS DRINKING SALINE WATER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mallard (Anas p\\/at yrhynchos) ducklings (2 wk old) were given water from natural saline wetlands or fresh water as drinking water for 1 or 2 wk prior to, and after, receiving material containing Clostridium botulinum type C toxin. Water with conductivity ranging from 3,460 to 6,690 ?imhos\\/cm had no detectable effect on the occurrence or severity of clinical signs of

G. Wobeser

359

Fungal flora in groundwater-derived public drinking water.  

PubMed

In order to assess the dissemination of hygienically relevant fungi via the public drinking water distribution system, a 12-month survey was performed on groundwater-derived drinking water from 29 water supplies in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Frequencies of contaminated water samples, and the prevalent species and patterns of occurrence in raw water, waterworks, the network and house installations were studied on the basis of 2657 water samples. Results were obtained by long-term incubation of 1 ml aliquots of water samples on agar-based culture media, following bacteriological procedures documented in the German drinking water regulations (Anon, 1990). No correlation with standard hygiene indicators, such as E. coli or other coliform bacteria was observed. Common opportunistic and allergenic Aspergillus species were encountered only rarely. The fungal flora was dominated by a limited number of species of Acremonium, Exophiala, Penicillium and particularly Phialophora; some of them occurred throughout the entire drinking water system and are thought to constitute a resident fungal flora. Phialophora sp. nov., to be described as a new species elsewhere, was ubiquitous; it was found in 26.6% of the samples positive for fungi (7.5% of 2657). Fungal diversity in the network itself was significantly lower than in raw water and house installations, indicating that not all fungi gaining access to the system are capable of surviving for longer periods. For species such as Verticillium lecanii, found exclusively after the introduction of newly buried pipes and remaining localized at those sites, introduction via arthropod vectors is likely. The resident species of Phialophora, Exophiala and Acremonium are particularly significant as they are shown to be disseminated efficiently by public drinking water. PMID:12068746

Göttlich, Elke; van der Lubbe, Wendy; Lange, Bernd; Fiedler, Steffi; Melchert, Ines; Reifenrath, Michael; Flemming, Hans-Curt; de Hoog, Sybren

2002-05-01

360

PREDICTING CHLORINE RESIDUAL DECAY IN DRINKING WATER: A SECOND ORDER MODEL  

EPA Science Inventory

A major objective of drinking water treatment is to provide water that is both microbiologically and chemically safe for human consumption. Drinking water chlorination, therefore, poses a dilemma. Chemical disinfection reduces the risk of infectious disease but the interaction be...

361

CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF NEWLY DISCOVERED IODOACID DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Iodoacid drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBPs) were recently uncovered in drinking water samples from source water with a high bromide/iodide concentration that was disinfected with chloramines. The purpose of this paper is to report the analytical chemical identification...

362

40 CFR 194.53 - Consideration of underground sources of drinking water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...underground sources of drinking water. 194.53 Section 194...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS CRITERIA...Re-certification Individual and Ground-Water Protection Requirements ...underground sources of drinking water. In compliance...

2010-07-01

363

40 CFR 194.53 - Consideration of underground sources of drinking water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...underground sources of drinking water. 194.53 Section 194...PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS CRITERIA...Re-certification Individual and Ground-Water Protection Requirements ...underground sources of drinking water. In compliance...

2009-07-01

364

Pathogens in drinking water: Are there any new ones  

SciTech Connect

Since 1976 three newly recognized human pathogens have become familiar to the drinking water industry as waterborne disease agents. These are: the legionnaires disease agent, Legionella pneumophila and related species; and two protozoan pathogens, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum, both of which form highly disinfectant resistant cysts that are shed in the feces of infected individuals. The question frequently arises - are there other emerging waterborne pathogens that may pose a human health problem that the drinking water industry will have to deal with. The paper will review the current state of knowledge of the occurrence and incidence of pathogens and opportunistic pathogens other than Legionella, Giardia and Cryptosporidium in treated and untreated drinking water. Bacterial agents that will be reviewed include Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Campylobacter, Mycobacterium, Yersinia and Plesiomonas. Aspects of detection of these agents including detection methods and feasibility of monitoring will be addressed.

Reasoner, D.J.

1993-01-01

365

40 CFR 142.19 - EPA review of State implementation of national primary drinking water regulations for lead and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...implementation of national primary drinking water regulations for lead and copper. 142...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION Primary...

2013-07-01

366

Nitrates in Drinking Water and the Risk of Death from Rectal Cancer: Does Hardness in Drinking Water Matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to (1) examine the relationship between nitrate levels in public water supplies and increased risk of death from rectal cancer and (2) determine whether calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) levels in drinking water might modify the effects of nitrate on development of rectal cancer. A matched case-control study was used to investigate the relationship

Chih-Ching Chang; Chih-Cheng Chen; Deng-Chuang Wu; Chun-Yuh Yang

2010-01-01

367

Nitrates in Drinking Water and The Risk of Death from Brain Cancer: Does Hardness in Drinking Water Matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to (1) examine the relationship between nitrate levels in public water supplies and risk of death from brain cancer and (2) determine whether calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) levels in drinking water might modify the influence of nitrates on development of brain cancer. A matched cancer case-control study was used to investigate the relationship

Chi-Kung Ho; Ya-Hui Yang; Chun-Yuh Yang

2011-01-01

368

Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water and the Risk of Death from Kidney Cancer: Does Hardness in Drinking Water Matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to (1) examine the relationship between total trihalomethanes (TTHM) levels in public water supplies and risk of development of kidney cancer and (2) determine whether hardness levels in drinking water modify the effects of TTHM on risk of kidney cancer induction. A matched case-control study was used to investigate the relationship between the risk

Yen-Hsiung Liao; Chih-Cheng Chen; Chih-Ching Chang; Chiung-Yu Peng; Hui-Fen Chiu; Trong-Neng Wu; Chun-Yuh Yang

2012-01-01

369

Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water and the Risk of Death From Rectal Cancer: Does Hardness in Drinking Water Matter?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were (1) to examine the relationship between total trihalomethanes (TTHM) levels in public water supplies and risk of rectal cancer development and (2) to determine whether calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) levels in drinking water might modify the effects of TTHM on risk of developing rectal cancer. A matched cancer case-control study was used to

Hsin-Wei Kuo; Pei-Shih Chen; Shu-Chen Ho; Li-Yu Wang; Chun-Yuh Yang

2010-01-01

370

EMERGING CONTAMINANTS IN THE DRINKING WATER CYCLE  

EPA Science Inventory

PRESENTATION OUTLINE: I. General overview of the water cycle; II. USEPA and USGS Research; a. Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents and downstream surface waters; b. Groundwater down gradient from WW lagoon; c. Source and finished water fro...

371

Drinking Context and Intimate Partner Violence: Evidence From the California Community Health Study of Couples  

PubMed Central

Objective: Couples in which one or both partners is a heavy or problem drinker are at elevated risk for intimate partner violence (IPV), yet little is known about the extent to which each partner’s drinking in different contexts (volume consumed per setting in bars, parties, at home, or in public places) increases the likelihood that partner aggression will occur. This study examined associations between the volume consumed in different settings by each partner and the occurrence and frequency of IPV. Method: We obtained a geographic sample of married or cohabiting couples residing in 50 medium to large California cities. Cross-sectional survey data were collected via confidential telephone interviews (60% response rate). Logistic and negative binomial regression analyses were based on 1,585 couples who provided information about past-12-month IPV, drinking contexts (number of times attended, proportion of drinking occasions when attended, average number of drinks), frequency of intoxication, and psychosocial and demographic factors. Drinking context–IPV associations for each partner were adjusted for the other partner’s volume for that context and other covariates. Results: Male partner’s volume per setting for bars and parks or public places was associated with the occurrence and frequency of male-to-female IPV and female-to-male IPV. Male’s volume per setting for quiet evening at home was associated with the occurrence of female-to-male IPV; female partner’s volume for this setting was associated with the frequency of male-to-female IPV and female-to-male IPV. Conclusions: Among couples in the general population, each partner’s drinking in certain contexts is an independent risk factor for the occurrence and frequency of partner aggression.

Cunradi, Carol B.; Mair, Christina; Todd, Michael; Remer, Lillian

2012-01-01

372

New Perspectives in Monitoring Drinking Water Microbial Quality  

PubMed Central

The safety of drinking water is evaluated by the results obtained from faecal indicators during the stipulated controls fixed by the legislation. However, drinking-water related illness outbreaks are still occurring worldwide. The failures that lead to these outbreaks are relatively common and typically involve preceding heavy rain and inadequate disinfection processes. The role that classical faecal indicators have played in the protection of public health is reviewed and the turning points expected for the future explored. The legislation for protecting the quality of drinking water in Europe is under revision, and the planned modifications include an update of current indicators and methods as well as the introduction of Water Safety Plans (WSPs), in line with WHO recommendations. The principles of the WSP approach and the advances signified by the introduction of these preventive measures in the future improvement of dinking water quality are presented. The expected impact that climate change will have in the quality of drinking water is also critically evaluated.

Figueras, Ma Jose; Borrego, Juan J.

2010-01-01

373

Recent advances in drinking water disinfection: successes and challenges.  

PubMed

Drinking water is the most important single source of human exposure to gastroenteric diseases, mainly as a result of the ingestion of microbial contaminated water. Waterborne microbial agents that pose a health risk to humans include enteropathogenic bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. Therefore, properly assessing whether these hazardous agents enter drinking water supplies, and if they do, whether they are disinfected adequately, are undoubtedly aspects critical to protecting public health. As new pathogens emerge, monitoring for relevant indicator microorganisms (e.g., process microbial indicators, fecal indicators, and index and model organisms) is crucial to ensuring drinking water safety. Another crucially important step to maintaining public health is implementing Water Safety Plans (WSPs), as is recommended by the current WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. Good WSPs include creating health-based targets that aim to reduce microbial risks and adverse health effects to which a population is exposed through drinking water. The use of disinfectants to inactivate microbial pathogens in drinking water has played a central role in reducing the incidence of waterborne diseases and is considered to be among the most successful interventions for preserving and promoting public health. Chlorine-based disinfectants are the most commonly used disinfectants and are cheap and easy to use. Free chlorine is an effective disinfectant for bacteria and viruses; however, it is not always effective against C. parvum and G. lamblia. Another limitation of using chlorination is that it produces disinfection by-products (DBPs), which pose potential health risks of their own. Currently, most drinking water regulations aggressively address DBP problems in public water distribution systems. The DBPs of most concern include the trihalomethanes (THMs), the haloacetic acids (HAAs), bromate, and chlorite. However, in the latest edition of the WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality, it is recommended that water disinfection should never be compromised by attempting to control DBPs. The reason for this is that the risks of human illness and death from pathogens in drinking water are much greater than the risks from exposure to disinfectants and disinfection by-products. Nevertheless, if DBP levels exceed regulatory limits, strategies should focus on eliminating organic impurities that foster their formation, without compromising disinfection. As alternatives to chlorine, disinfectants such as chloramines, ozone, chlorine dioxide, and UV disinfection are gaining popularity. Chlorine and each of these disinfectants have individual advantage and disadvantage in terms of cost, efficacy-stability, ease of application, and nature of disinfectant by-products (DBPs). Based on efficiency, ozone is the most efficient disinfectant for inactivating bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. In contrast, chloramines are the least efficient and are not recommended for use as primary disinfectants. Chloramines are favored for secondary water disinfection, because they react more slowly than chlorine and are more persistent in distribution systems. In addition, chloramines produce lower DBP levels than does chlorine, although microbial activity in the distribution system may produce nitrate from monochloramine, when it is used as a residual disinfectant, Achieving the required levels of water quality, particularly microbial inactivation levels, while minimizing DBP formation requires the application of proper risk and disinfection management protocols. In addition, the failure of conventional treatment processes to eliminate critical waterborne pathogens in drinking water demand that improved and/or new disinfection technologies be developed. Recent research has disclosed that nanotechnology may offer solutions in this area, through the use of nanosorbents, nanocatalysts, bioactive nanoparticles, nanostructured catalytic membranes, and nanoparticle-enhanced filtration. PMID:22990947

Ngwenya, Nonhlanhla; Ncube, Esper J; Parsons, James

2013-01-01

374

Evaluation of the Drinking Water and Clean Water Infrastructure Tribal Set-Aside Grant Programs: Final Report-Appendices.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Clean Water Indian Set-Aside (CWISA) Grant Program and the Drinking Water Infrastructure Grant Tribal Set-Aside (DWIG-TSA) Program provide funding for wastewater infrastructure and drinking water infrastructure to...

2011-01-01

375

The Water Quality Emergency Monitoring System Based on GIS and RS for Urban Drinking Water Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

With more and more serious problem on water pollution, it is significant to monitor the water quality and get to know the trend of the water quality change for water source management and water environment protection. Urban drinking water source quality monitoring system is based on GIS and remote sensing technology. This relatively integrated system comprises water source quality information

Mu Fengyun; Wu Xiaochun

2010-01-01

376

BIOFILM IN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Throughout the world there are millions of miles of water distribution pipe lines which provide potable water for use by individuals and industry. Some of these water distribution systems have been in service well over one hundred years. Treated water moving through a distributio...

377

Determination of iodide in drinking water by isotope dilution analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most suitable way of determination iodine-deficiency is to measure iodine concentrations in water and urine. For this\\u000a reason, a method that can determine iodide concentrations in drinking water and suitable for routine analysis, is developed.\\u000a Water samples have been collected from four Aegean localities: Izmir, Salihli, Ödemis and Tire situated in the western Turkey.\\u000a The method is based on

H. Ozakay; P. Ünak; Z. Biber; F. Yurt

1998-01-01

378

CLIMATIC SENSITIVITY OF CALIFORNIA WATER RESOURCES  

EPA Science Inventory

The possible effects of climate change on the combined Central Valley Project-California State Water Project (CVP/SWP) were evaluated using a three-stage approach. n the first stage, runoff from four headwater "study catchments" was simulated using rainfall/snowmelt-runoff models...

379

Heterosigma akashiwo in central California waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heterosigma akashiwo (Hada) gives rise to red tides along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts and is known to produce brevetoxins. This investigation establishes baseline information showing the presence of H. akashiwo along the central California coast based on water samples collected from the Santa Cruz pier in Monterey Bay (on the open coast) and the Berkeley pier in San Francisco

Chris O’Halloran; Mary W. Silver; Theodore R. Holman; Christopher A. Scholin

2006-01-01

380

Residential exposure to drinking water arsenic in Inner Mongolia, China.  

PubMed

In the Ba Men region of Inner Mongolia, China, a high prevalence of chronic arsenism has been reported in earlier studies. A survey of the arsenic contamination among wells from groundwater was conducted to better understand the occurrence of arsenic (As) in drinking water. A total of 14,866 wells (30% of all wells in the region) were analyzed for their arsenic-content. Methods used to detect arsenic were Spectrophotometric methods with DCC-Ag (detection limit, 0.5 microg of As/L); Spot method (detection limit, 10 microg of As/L); and air assisted Colorimetry method (detection limit, 20 microg of As/L). Arsenic-concentrations ranged from below limit of detection to 1200 microg of As/L. Elevated concentrations were related to well depth (10 to 29 m), the date the well was built (peaks from 1980-1990), and geographic location (near mountain range). Over 25,900 individuals utilized wells with drinking water arsenic concentrations above 20 microg of As/L (14,500 above 50 microg of As/L-the current China national standard in drinking water and 2198 above 300 microg of As/L). The presented database of arsenic in wells of the Ba Men region provides a useful tool for planning future water explorations when combined with geological information as well as support for designing upcoming epidemiological studies on the effects of arsenic in drinking water for this region. PMID:17448512

Ning, Zhixiong; Lobdell, Danelle T; Kwok, Richard K; Liu, Zhiyi; Zhang, Shiying; Ma, Chenglong; Riediker, Michael; Mumford, Judy L

2007-02-24

381

WHO drinking water quality guidelines for selected herbicides.  

PubMed

Following the successful introduction of its Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality in 1984, the WHO Regional Office for Europe was approached by the Government of Italy to develop, as a matter of urgency, recommendations for guidelines levels of certain herbicides found in drinking water supplies. Realizing the extent of the problem, the Regional Office for Europe organized two consultations to develop drinking water quality guidelines for the following 11 herbicides most commonly used in Italy: alachlor, metolachlor, pyridate, atrazine, molinate, simazine, bentazon, pendimethalin, trifluralin, MCPA and propanil. The presence of these and other herbicides in ground and surface water has been reported in several countries. Although the main purpose of these guidelines is to provide guidance to the Government of Italy in making risk management decisions, the information given was also intended to assist the other countries of the European Region in setting standards or in developing alternative control procedures where the implementation of standards is not feasible. The purpose of this paper is to review the process of health risk assessment used in the development of the WHO drinking water quality guidelines for selected herbicides. It will also reveal the major dilemmas and concerns expressed by the participating experts during the process of scientific deliberations, in the interests of understanding the complex issues involved in reaching the bare figures of the recommended guidelines. PMID:2599158

Kello, D

1989-01-01

382

Minerals leached into drinking water from rubber stoppers  

SciTech Connect

Drinking water and its delivery system are potential sources of variation in animal research. Concern arose that rubber stoppers used to cork water bottles might be a source of some nutritionally required minerals which could leach into drinking water. Six types of stoppers, each having different compositions, were cleaned with stainless-steel sipper tubes inserted into them and attached to polypropylene bottles filled with either deionized water (pH 4.5) or acidified-deionized water (pH 2.5). After six days of contact, water levels of copper, magnesium, iron, manganese, zinc, chromium, and selenium were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Additionally, three of the stopper types were analyzed for mineral content. Minerals were present in both stoppers and drinking water. Acidified-deionized water generally leached minerals from the stoppers than did deionized water. The black stopper which is commonly used in animal facilities contained and leached measurable levels of some minerals, but it still can be recommended for typical animal husbandry uses, although other types of stoppers would be more suitable for specific nutritional and toxicologic studies.

Kennedy, B.W.; Beal, T.S. (Carbohydrate Nutrition Laboratory, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, MD (United States))

1991-06-01

383

Drinking-water standards and regulations. Volume 4. Manual for 1979-1988  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report covers eight important documents: (1) The U.S. Safe Drinking Water Act Title XIV, as amended by the Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1986, by U.S. EPA; (2) Summary of the Safe Drinking Water Act Regulations, by CDM, June 1988; (3) Sampling Procedure for Analysis of Bacteria and Chemicals in Tap Water, by LIR, June 1988; (4) Discontinuing

L. K. Wang; M. H. S. Wang

1988-01-01

384

Toenails as a Biomarker of Inorganic Arsenic Intake From Drinking Water and Foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toenails were used recently in epidemiological and environmental health studies as a means of assessing exposure to arsenic from drinking water. While positive correlations between toenail and drinking-water arsenic concentrations were reported in the literature, a significant percentage of the variation in toenail arsenic concentration remains unexplained by drinking-water concentration alone. Here, the influence of water consumption at home and

Melissa J. Slotnick; Jaymie R. Meliker; Gillian A. AvRuskin; Debashis Ghosh; Jerome O. Nriagu

2007-01-01

385

Safe Drinking Water for Alaska: Curriculum for Grades 1-6.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented is a set of 10 lessons on safe drinking water in Alaska for use by elementary school teachers. The aim is to provide students with an understanding of the sources of the water they drink, how drinking water can be made safe, and the health threat that unsafe water represents. Although this curriculum relates primarily to science, health,…

South East Regional Resource Center, Juneau, AK.

386

On the Security Problems and Countermeasures of Drinking Water Supply in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drinking water is one of basic needs for human's survival. The safety of drinking water has always been the primary concern of the international public health problems. This paper analyzed the main contaminations of water in China recently, providing a discussion on drinking water pollution and some certain kinds of diseases relatively, whilst introducing some countermeasures to change this status.

Qing Xie; De Zhong Dan

2011-01-01

387

Chlorination Byproducts and Nitrate in Drinking Water and Risk for Congenital Cardiac Defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drinking water disinfection byproducts have been associated with an increased risk for congenital defects including cardiac defects. Using Swedish health registers linked to information on municipal drinking water composition, individual data on drinking water characteristics were obtained for 58,669 women. Among the infants born, 753 had a cardiac defect. The risk for a cardiac defect was determined for ground water

Marie I. Cedergren; Anders J. Selbing; Owe Löfman; Bengt A. J. Källen

2002-01-01

388

Procter & Gamble: Children's Safe Drinking Water (B)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1999, P&G purchased--through the acquisition of Recovery Engineering in a $265 million deal--PUR Water Filtration System, a point-of-use water filtration system. The PUR water filtration system used a combination of the flocculant iron sulfate, an agent that caused particles suspended in water to bind and form sediment, and calcium hypochlorite (chlorine), a disinfectant. After acquiring the product, P&G began

Patricia Werhane; Jenny Mead

389

Fluoride concentration in community water and bottled drinking water : a dilemma today.  

PubMed

Background Because of the potential for contamination of municipal water supplies, people appear to be turning to alternative sources for their pure drinking water. Objectives The present study analyzed the fluoride concentration in community water and bottled drinking water sold in Faridabad city. Methods A comparative evaluation of fluoride content in community water supply and bottled drinking water was done using ion-selective electrode method. The community water samples were collected from six different areas (i.e. north zone, south zone, east zone, west zone and central zone) in the city from public health water supply taps while bottled drinking water samples were randomly picked from grocery shops or supermarkets. Results The fluoride concentration in the community water supply in this study ranges from 0.11 to 0.26 mg/L with mean fluoride concentration of 0.17 mg/L. The mean concentration of fluoride in bottled drinking water was 0.06 mg/L. The differences observed between mean of two water samples was statistically significant. Conclusion The results obtained from the present study clearly state that the fluoride concentration was insufficient in community water supply from all the areas and also was deficient in bottled drinking water sold in Faridabad city. So, Alternative sources of fluorides should be supplemented for optimal dental benefits from the use of fluoride. PMID:24096217

Dhingra, S; Marya, C M; Jnaneswar, A; Kumar, H

390

Evaluation of Minerals Content of Drinking Water in Malaysia  

PubMed Central

The drinking and mineral water samples obtained from different geographical locations had concentrations of the selected minerals lower than the standard limits, except for manganese, arsenic, and fluoride. The concentrations of manganese and arsenic in two mineral water samples were slightly higher than the standard international recommended limits. One mineral water sample had a fluoride concentration higher than the standard limits, whereas manganese was not detected in nine drinking and mineral water samples. Most of the selected minerals found in the tap water samples were below the international standard limits, except for iron and manganese. The concentrations of iron and manganese in the tap water samples were higher than the standard limits, which were obtained from one and three of the studied locations, respectively. The potable water obtained from various manufacturers and locations in Peninsular Malaysia is safe for consumption, as the minerals concentrations were below the standard limits prescribed by the Malaysian Food Regulations of 1985. The data obtained may also provide important information related to daily intake of these minerals from drinking water.

Azlan, Azrina; Khoo, Hock Eng; Idris, Mohd Aizat; Ismail, Amin; Razman, Muhammad Rizal

2012-01-01

391

Fluoride occurrence in publicly supplied drinking water in Estonia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study was undertaken to examine the content and spatial distribution of fluoride in drinking water. Water samples (735) from public water systems covering all Estonian territory were analysed using SPADNS method. In order to specify the natural source of fluoride, the chemistry data from five aquifer systems utilised for water supply were included into the study. Fluoride concentrations in tap water, to a great extent, ranged from 0.01 to 6.95 mg/l. Drinking water in southern Estonia, where terrigenous Middle-Devonian aquifer system is exploited, has a fluoride concentration lower than recommended level (0.5 mg/l), thus promoting susceptibility to dental caries. The western part of the country is supplied by water with excess fluoride content (1.5-6.9 mg/l). Groundwater abstracted for drinking purposes originates from Ordovician and Silurian carbonate rocks. The content of fluoride in Silurian-Ordovician aquifer system is associated with the groundwater abstraction depth and the main controlling factors of dissolved fluoride are the pH value and the chemical type of water.

Karro, Enn; Indermitte, Ene; Saava, Astrid; Haamer, Kadri; Marandi, Andres

2006-06-01

392

Effects of slightly acidic electrolysed drinking water on mice.  

PubMed

Slightly acidic electrolysed (SAE) water is a sanitizer with strong bactericidal activity due to hypochlorous acid. We assessed the safety of SAE water as drinking water for mice at a 5 ppm total residual chlorine (TRC) concentration to examine the possibility of SAE water as a labour- and energy-saving alternative to sterile water. We provided SAE water or sterile water to mice for 12 weeks, during which time we recorded changes in body weight and weekly water and food intakes. At the end of the experiment, all of the subject animals were sacrificed to assess serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and creatinine levels and to examine the main organs histopathologically under a light microscope. In addition, we investigated the bacteria levels of both types of water. We found no difference in functional and morphological health condition indices between the groups. Compared with sterile water, SAE water had a relatively higher ability to suppress bacterial growth. We suggest that SAE water at 5 ppm TRC is a safe and useful alternative to sterile water for use as drinking water in laboratory animal facilities. PMID:21508118

Inagaki, Hideaki; Shibata, Yoshiko; Obata, Takahiro; Kawagoe, Masami; Ikeda, Katsuhisa; Sato, Masayoshi; Toida, Kazumi; Kushima, Hidemi; Matsuda, Yukihisa

2011-04-20

393

Nitrate removal from drinking water -- Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrate concentrations in surface water and especially in ground water have increased in Canada, the US, Europe, and other areas of the world. This trend has raised concern because nitrates cause methemoglobiinemia in infants. Several treatment processes including ion exchange, biological denitrification, chemical denitrification, reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, and catalytic denitrification can remove nitrates from water with varying degrees of efficiency,

Anoop Kapoor; T. Viraraghavan

1997-01-01

394

Water Everywhere: Is There Enough to Drink?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson focuses on water supply issues stemming from population growth and land use. Students can complete histograms on global water usage, create a water usage trivia game or campaign, write a "sinkhole" news article, examine an aquifer system, illustrate a desalination process and more!

Kim Burley (Lindsay Thurber Comprehensive High School;)

2002-05-01

395

OCCURRENCE OF ALUMINUM IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

A random selection of 186 water utilities was used for this study in which raw and finished water samples were collected from each facility five times throughout a year and analyzed for iron and aluminum by atomic absorption techniques. The water samples were categorized by the s...

396

EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES OF ORGANIC MICROPOLLUTANTS IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiologic studies have been conducted in order to make a quantitative statement about associations between drinking water contaminants and disease. The basic measures of the association are a rate ratio or relative risk and rate difference or attributable risk. The appropriat...

397

Fluoridation of drinking water: Effects on kidney stone formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of fluoride in drinking water on stone formation was studied in animals and in “in vitro” cristallization experiments. In male Wistar rats fluoride inhibits ethylenglycol induced calcification of the kidneys and stone formation. The in vitro results performed in synthetic urine exhibited a dose-dependent delay of cristal growth.

F. Hering; Th. Briellmann; H. Seiler; G. Rutishauser

1985-01-01

398

PRESENCE-ABSENCE COLIFORM TEST IN MONITORING DRINKING WATER QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Data from four comparative studies were analyzed to compare the recovery of total coliform bacteria from drinking water using the presence-absence test, the multiple fermentation tube procedure and the membrane filter technique. ombined recoveries showed the presence-absence test...

399

ELECTRO-REGENERATED ION-EXCHANGE DEIONIZATION OF DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents the development of a device for removal of inorganic salts from drinking water to facilitate the subsequent concentration of organic solutes for bioassay. Prior attempts to concentrate the organic solutes by reverse osmosis (RO) resulted in precipitation of t...

400

Arsenic in Drinking Water--The Silent Killer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Natural arsenic salts are present in all waters, with natural concentrations of less than 10 parts per billion (ppb). Unfortunately, there is an increasing number of countries where toxic arsenic compounds in groundwater, which is used for drinking and irrigation, have been detected at concentrations above the World Health Organization's…

Wajrak, Magdalena

2011-01-01

401

Recommended combat drinking water standards for organophosphorus nerve agents  

SciTech Connect

Organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents may be used on an integrated battlefield and US Army preventive medicine and quartermaster personnel are required to ensure the safety of drinking water supplies in such combat situations. We developed improved drinking water standards for OP nerve agents, recommending interim drinking water standards for OP nerve agents for consumption rates of 5 and 15 L/d and exposure periods lasting up to seven days. The relationship between pharmacokinetic parameters and toxic responses were established for OP nerve agents for the oral route of exposure only and soman (GD) and VX were identified as being the OP nerve agents of most concern in field-drinking-water supplies. Inhibition of red blood cell cholinesterase (RBC-ChE) was linked to the potential for performance degradation, however, actual toxicological interactions probably occur at cholinergic synapses (i.e., junctions between nerves or nerves and muscles), which cannot be monitored in vivo. In the absence of prophylactic pretreatment with substances such as carbamates, the recommended standards correspond to 50% inhibition of RBC-ChE and are 12 and 4 /mu/g/L for 5 and 15 L/d consumption rates, respectively. If prophylactic pretreatment with a carbamate is used, then RBC-ChE will be inhibited prior to exposure, and the recommended standards correspond to 20% inhibition of RBC-ChE, which correspond to 4.7 and 1.6 /mu/g/L for 5 and 15 L/d consumption rates, respectively. 12 refs.

Daniels, J.I.; Schaub, S.A.

1989-06-01

402

FETOTOXIC EFFECTS OF NICKEL IN DRINKING WATER IN MICE  

EPA Science Inventory

Nickel chloride was administered in drinking water to pregnant mice from the 2nd through the 17th day of gestation at nickel doses of 0, 500, or 1000 ppm. Fetal or maternal toxicity was not seen after administration of 500 ppm of nickel. However, the higher dose caused spontaneou...

403

ESTIMATION OF RISK FROM CARCINOGENS IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study aimed at developing a means for estimating cancer mortality as a function of carcinogen concentration in drinking water. Cancer risk data for cigarette smokers was treated by the method of standard additions to provide an estimate of ambient ca...

404

CONTROL OF MICROBES AND DBPS IN DRINKING WATER: AN OVERVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

Historically drinking water utilities in the United States (U.S.) have played a major role in protecting public health through the reduction of waterborne disease. These reductions in waterborne disease outbreaks were brought about by the use of sand filtration, disinfection and...

405

REAL-TIME REMOTE MONITORING OF DRINKING WATER QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Over the past eight years, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD) has funded the testing and evaluation of various online "real-time" technologies for monitoring drinking water quality. The events of 9/11 and subsequent threats t...

406

Drinking water quality of Gobi region of Mongolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper were shown results of drinking water study of 3 Gobi provinces of Mongolia. The study was conducted in the frame of joint project ldquoThe influence of global warning to Mongolian environmentrdquo, which realized by specialists of the MUST, Miyakonojo National College of Technology, Japan.

P. Munkbaatar; I. Sukhbaatar; E. Hamada; R. Morimo; O. Hirabaru

2008-01-01

407

COMPUTER ASSISTED PRELIMINARY DESIGN FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PROCESS SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the study was to develop an interactive computer program to aid the design engineer in evaluating the performance and cost for any proposed drinking water treatment system consisting of individual unit processes. The 25 unit process models currently in the program ...

408

Report to Congress: Radon in Drinking Water Regulations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

EPA proposed the Radon in Drinking Water Rule in the Federal Register on November 2, 1999 (64 FR 59246). The proposed rule was designed to promote a multimedia approach that would reduce radon risks in indoor air, where the problem is the greatest, while ...

2012-01-01

409

ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDE DEGRADATION UNDER DRINKING WATER TREATMENT CONDITIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996 requires that all tolerances for pesticide chemical residuals in or on food be considered for anticipated exposure. Drinking water is considered a potential pathway for dietary exposure and there is reliable monitoring data for the ...

410

EFFECT OF BROMIDE ON CHLORINATION BYPRODUCTS IN FINISHED DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

To investigate the role of bromide ion concentration on formation and speciation of non-THMs chlorination organic byproducts, a two block full factorial matrix was designed to statistically evaluate the influence of various parameters which are relevant to drinking water treatmen...

411

USING WATERSHED ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT FOR PROTECTING DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The first manuscript describes the application of watershed ERA principles to the development of a strategic watershed management plan for Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, where the primary focus was on the protection of drinking water quality, a concern typically addressed by...

412

REMOVAL OF ARSENIC FROM DRINKING WATER BY CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT METHODS  

EPA Science Inventory

The USEPA National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NIPDWR) established the maximum contaminant level (MCL) for arsenic at 0.05 mg/L in 1977. everal years ago the USEPA began to re-examine the arsenic health effects information and has indicated that the MCL could be s...

413

Drinking Water Activities for Students, Teachers, and Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide provides teachers with materials, information, and classroom activities to enhance any drinking water curriculum. Students can use the activity sheets to further lessons and stimulate thought. Parents can use the guide to develop science projects that will provoke thought, encourage research, and provide a scientific approach to…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

414

RESIDENTIAL EXPOSURE TO DRINKING WATER ARSENIC IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA  

EPA Science Inventory

Residential exposure to drinking water arsenic in Inner Mongolia, China Zhixiong Ning1, Richard K. Kwok2, Zhiyi Liu1, Shiying Zhang1, Chenglong Ma1, Danelle T. Lobdell2, Michael Riediker3 and Judy L. Mumford2 1) Institute of Endemic Disease for Prevention and Treatment in I...

415

EVALUATION OF 'BACTEROIDES' AS INDICATOR BACTERIA IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The research project is concerned with the development of more rapid and sensitive procedures to determine the quality of drinking water. The specific objective of the project was to evaluate the use of a new group of indicator bacteria for assessing fecal contamination of drinki...

416

REVERSE OSMOSIS TREATMENT TO REMOVE INORGANIC CONTAMINANTS FROM DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the research project was to determine the removal of inorganic contaminants from drinking water using several 'state-of-the-art' reverse osmosis membrane elements. A small 5 KGPD reverse osmosis system was utilized and five different membrane elements were studied ...

417

Removal of Arsenic from Drinking Water by Conventional Treatment Methods.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The USEPA National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NIPDWR) established the maximum contaminant level (MCL) for arsenic at 0.05 mg/L in 1977. Several years ago the USEPA begain to re-examine the arsenic health effects information and has indica...

T. J. Sorg

1993-01-01

418

Drinking Water From Private Wells and Risks to Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drinking water for approximately one sixth of US households is obtained from private wells. These wells can become contaminated by pollutant chemicals or pathogenic organisms, leading to significant illness. Although the US Environmen- tal Protection Agency and all states offer guidance for construction, maintenance, and testing of private wells, there is little regulation, and with few exceptions, well owners are

Walter J. Rogan; Michael T. Brady

419

Removal of chromate from drinking water using powder carbon steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the possible alternative removal options for the development of safe drinking water supplies in areas affected by hexavalent chromium. Chromate is a matter of great environmental concern due to its extensive contamination and carcinogenic toxicity. In this study, the conventional adsorption with various types of adsorbent method were used for chromate removal, but only powder carbon steel

V. Campos; P. M. Büchler

2005-01-01

420

TECHNIQUES FOR ANALYZING COMPLEX MIXTURES OF DRINKING WATER DBPS  

EPA Science Inventory

Although chlorine has been used to disinfect drinking water for approximately 100 years, there have been concerns raised over its use, due to the formation of potentially hazardous by-products. Trihalomethanes (THMs) were the first disinfection by-products (DBPs) identified and ...

421

The Safe Drinking Water Act and EPA's Role in Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under a previous, largely permissive authority, EPA's training programs evolved as spin-offs from research developments or as results of specific needs. Resources were meager, and EPA's efforts reached only a fraction of the total number of state, local and operator levels that needed assistance. The Safe Drinking Water Act Is expected to effect some positive changes in this area.

James H. McDermott

1975-01-01

422

METHODS FOR REMOVING URANIUM FROM DRINKING WATER (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

The number of water supplies with high uranium levels and the possibility of a national uranium regulation has stimulated greater interest in uranium removal technology. The paper summarizes recent information on the effectiveness of various methods for uranium removal from drink...

423

DRINKING WATER TREATMENT AND RISK OF CANCER DEATH IN WISCONSIN  

EPA Science Inventory

A case control study of drinking water treatment practices and female cancer mortality was conducted in Wisconsin. Cancer deaths for 1972-1977 from 28 Wisconsin counties and non-cancer deaths matched to cancer deaths on age, year of death and county of residence, were compared fo...

424

Arsenic in Drinking Water--The Silent Killer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Natural arsenic salts are present in all waters, with natural concentrations of less than 10 parts per billion (ppb). Unfortunately, there is an increasing number of countries where toxic arsenic compounds in groundwater, which is used for drinking and irrigation, have been detected at concentrations above the World Health Organization's…

Wajrak, Magdalena

2011-01-01

425

Potential Relationships Between Hydraulic Fracturing and Drinking Water Resources  

EPA Science Inventory

The conferees urge the Agency to carry out a study on the relationship between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water, using a credible approach that relies on the best available science, as well as independent sources of information. The conferees expect the study to be conduct...

426

Final Draft for the Drinking Water Criteria Document of Fluoride.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has prepared a Draft Criteria Document on Fluoride. This Document is a preliminary draft which has not, as yet, been formally released by the ODW, USEPA and should not be con...

1985-01-01

427

Can We Protect Everybody from Drinking Water Contaminants&quest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dozens of chemicals, both natural and manmade, are often found in drinking water. Some, such as the natural contaminants uranium and arsenic, are well-known toxicants with a large toxicology database. Other chemicals, such as methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) from leaking fuel tanks, we learn about as we go along. For still others, such as the alkyl benzenes, there are very

Robert A. Howd

2002-01-01

428

BACTERIA ASSOCIATED WITH GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON PARTICLES IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

A sampling protocol was developed to examine particles released from granular activated carbon filter beds. A gauze filter/Swinnex procedure was used to collect carbon fines from 201 granular activated carbon-treated drinking water samples over 12 months. Application of a homogen...

429

RESEARCH FOR THE TREATMENT OF ORGANICS IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-Drinking Water Research Division uses a three tiered approach to research. The first step is bench-scale, where the chemical behavior of the organic contaminant can be investigated in a closely controlled environment. The next level, pilot...

430

ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDE DEGRADATION UNDER DRINKING WATER TREATMENT CONDITIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Chlorpyrifos (CP) was used as a model compound to develop experimental methods and prototype modeling tools to forecast the fate of organophosphate (OP) pesticides under drinking water treatment conditions. CP was found to rapidly oxidize to chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) in the presen...

431

COST MODELING FOR DRINKING WATER UNIT TREATMENT PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

Current U.S. EPA research is underway to improve and expand upon a cost data base for use in estimating the economics of building and operating drinking water treatment facilities. his cost data is important to the EPA decision making process when formulating new regulations and ...

432

PRESCRIBED PROCEDURES FOR MEASUREMENT OF RADIOACTIVITY IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Appropriate radiochemical procedures have been complied in a laboratory manual for use in the analysis of gross alpha activity, gross beta activity, 134/137Cs, 131I, 226/228Ra, 89,90Sr, 3H, uranium, and the actinide elements, in drinking water. These methods possess the necessary...

433

Mineralogical Evidence of Galvanic Corrosion in Domestic, Drinking Water Pipes  

EPA Science Inventory

Drinking water distribution system (DWDS) piping contains numerous examples of galvanically-coupled metals (e.g., soldered copper pipe joints, copper-lead pipes joined during partial replacements of lead service lines). The possible role of galvanic corrosion in the release of l...

434

Combined bioelectrochemical and sulfur autotrophic denitrification for drinking water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combined bioelectrochemical and sulfur autotrophic denitrification process for drinking water treatment was put forward and investigated extensively in this paper. In this new process, the bioelectrochemical denitrification was carried out in the upper part of the reactor while sulfur denitrification in the lower part. The H+ produced in Sulfur Part could be consumed by hydrogen denitrification in Bioelectrochemical Part.

Haiyan Wang; Jiuhui Qu

2003-01-01

435

Relation between arsenic in drinking water and skin cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

From observations in the Republic of Argentina it is concluded that the regular intake of drinking water containing more than\\u000a 0.1 ppm of arsenic leads to clearly recognizable signs of intoxication and ultimately in some cases to skin cancer

E. Astolfi; A. Maccagno; J. C. García Fernández; R. Vaccaro; R. Stímola

1981-01-01

436

ABSORPTION OF LEAD FROM DRINKING WATER WITH VARYING MINERAL CONTENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Lead (Pb) (200 ppm) was administered via drinking water to rats for nine weeks. In addition, the rats were grouped so that they received 75, 100, 150 and 250% of the minimum daily requirements (MDR) of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), and magnesium (Mg) as required for normal growth. The...

437

40 CFR 2.304 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Safe Drinking Water Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...information obtained under the Safe Drinking Water Act. 2.304 Section 2...information obtained under the Safe Drinking Water Act. (a) Definitions. ...(1) Act means the Safe Drinking Water Act, 42 U.S.C. 300f et...

2010-07-01

438

40 CFR 142.19 - EPA review of State implementation of national primary drinking water regulations for lead and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...implementation of national primary drinking water regulations for lead and copper...CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION ...implementation of national primary drinking water regulations for lead and...

2010-07-01

439

40 CFR 2.304 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Safe Drinking Water Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...information obtained under the Safe Drinking Water Act. 2.304 Section 2...information obtained under the Safe Drinking Water Act. (a) Definitions. ...(1) Act means the Safe Drinking Water Act, 42 U.S.C. 300f et...

2013-07-01

440

Investigation of Copper Contamination and Corrosion Scale Mineralogy in Aging Drink Water Distributions Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research has shown higher levels of copper appear in drinking water conveyed through relatively new copper piping systems; older piping systems typically deliver lower copper levels in their drinking water. This research contributes field data from a real...

N. F. Turek

2006-01-01

441

Requirements for Locational Data in the Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document, designed for use by state drinking water administrators, provides technical guidance in what locational data needs to be sent to the Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS) and how this information should be reported. Appendices A an...

1998-01-01

442

Drinking Water Criteria Document for Atrazine (External Review Draft), August 1988.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Office of Drinking Water, Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on Atrazine. The Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical chemical properties of Atrazine; Toxicokinetics and h...

1988-01-01

443

PREDICTING TOXIC WASTE CONCENTRATIONS IN COMMUNITY DRINKING WATER SUPPLIES: ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY TO UPSTREAM INDUSTRIAL DISCHARGES  

EPA Science Inventory

In February, 1978 the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed amendments to the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations to deal with the control of chloroform and synthetic organics in drinking water. In November, 1979 the regulation regarding synthetic organic...

444

Treatment Technology to Meet the Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations for Inorganics: Part 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article is the third in a series summarizing existing treatment technology to meet the inorganic National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations. This report deals specifically with treatment methods for removing cadmium, lead, and silver from drinking water. (CS)|

Sorg, Thomas J.; And Others

1978-01-01

445

Environmental Health: Action Needed to Sustain Agencies' Collaboration on Pharmaceuticals in Drinking Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Drinking water in some metropolitan areas contains concentrations of pharmaceuticals, raising concerns about their potential impact on human health. The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) authorizes the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to regulate contam...

2011-01-01

446

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR 1,2-DIBROMO-3-CHLOROPROPANE (DBCP) (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on dibromochloropropane. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of dibromochloropropane; Toxic...

447

TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY TO MEET THE INTERIM PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS FOR INORGANICS: PART 5  

EPA Science Inventory

The fifth in a series summarizing existing treatment technology to meet the inorganic National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations, this report describes current methods for removing barium and radionuclides from drinking water....

448

Roadmap for Interdisciplinary Research on Drinking Water Disinfection By-Products  

EPA Science Inventory

Slide presentation on interdisciplinary research on drinking water disinfection by-products which summarized important issues with drinking water disinfection by-products and focused on emerging, unregulated DBPs....

449

Formation and Control of Trihalomethanes in Chlorinated Drinking Waters Containing Fulvic Acid.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The formation of halogenated organic compounds in drinking waters is a potentially serious environmental problem. This study examined the production of trihalomethanes by the chlorination of drinking waters containing fulvic acid and the effects of conven...

D. J. O'Brien R. L. Bixby M. A. Jewett K. M. Stewart

1980-01-01

450

REMOVAL OF BERYLLIUM FROM DRINKING WATER BY CHEMICAL COAGULATION AND LIME SOFTENING  

EPA Science Inventory

The effectiveness of conventional drinking water treatment and lime softening was evaluated for beryllium removal from two drinking water sources. ar test studies were conducted to determine how common coagulants (aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride and lime softening performed ...

451

Community Health Associated with Arsenic in Drinking Water in Millard County, Utah.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study evaluates the health effects of arsenic in drinking water at levels approximately four times the maximum allowed by the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations. Physical examinations of 250 people included evaluating dermatological ...

J. W. Southwick A. E. Western M. M. Beck T. Whitley R. Isaacs

1981-01-01

452

Treatment Technology to Meet the Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations for Inorganics: Part 5.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fifth in a series summarizing existing treatment technology to meet the inorganic National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations, this report describes current methods for removing barium and radionuclides from drinking water.

T. J. Sorg G. S. Logsdon

1980-01-01

453

40 CFR 23.7 - Timing of Administrator's action under Safe Drinking Water Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Timing of Administrator's action under Safe Drinking Water Act. 23.7 Section 23.7 Protection of Environment...7 Timing of Administrator's action under Safe Drinking Water Act. Unless the Administrator otherwise...

2013-07-01

454

Maternal drinking water arsenic exposure and perinatal outcomes in Inner Mongolia, China, Journal  

EPA Science Inventory

BACKGROUND: Bayingnormen is a region located in western Inner Mongolia China with a population that is exposed to a wide range of drinking water Arsenic concentrations. This study evaluated the relationship between maternal drinking water arsenic exposure and perinatal endpoints ...

455

Safe drinking water projects integrated information system for rural areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the water supply characteristics in rural areas, it designs a safe drinking water project in this paper. The whole system includes three parts. Those are communication part, automatic control and test part and video surveillance part. Communication part mainly realizes the data transfer between PLC controlled equipment, branch pipeline monitoring and control equipment in the water plant. Automatic control and test part adopts hierarchical, distributed, decentralized structure to remote control and dynamic detect the data on-site. Video Surveillance part can monitor the personnel and equipment condition to guarantee the safe of the whole system. The system takes Visual Studio .NET as the development platform and it entirely bases on the public network B/S structure. From the application, it can be seen that the whole system has the characters of using and maintaining easily, interface simple and friend and it can improve the drinking water condition in rural areas greatly.

Song, Xue-Ling; Zhao, Ying-Bao; Liu, Chao-Ying; Song, Zhe-Ying

2009-07-01

456

DEVELOPMENT OF WATER SUPPLY TECHNOLOGY TO MEET THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE SAFE DRINKING WATER ACT OF 1996: TRENDS AND PROSPECTS.  

EPA Science Inventory

The passage of the U.S. Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) in 1974 has had a major impact on the way water is treated and delivered in the U.S. The Act established national drinking water regulations for more than 170,000 public drinking water systems serving over 250 million people ...

457

75 FR 62517 - California Water Service Company; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal...13802-000] California Water Service Company...Applicant: California Water Service Company...Palos Verdes in Los Angeles County, California...Pursuant to: Federal Power Act, 16 U.S...Design, California Water Service...

2010-10-12

458

Drinking Water Security in Crisis Situations From a Medical Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper deals with the drinking water security problems in large rural areas of Romania during the 2005 floods in\\u000a the Timis, Bega and Mures River basins. It evaluates the intervention of public health authorities to prevent a major health\\u000a risk from an epidemic or endemic water-borne diseases, as well as the health promoting education in this regard. From

A. E. Gurzau; C. Borzan; I. R. Lupsa; L. O. Sfetcu; A. L. Ivan; S. Gurzau

459

Iodine content in drinking water and other beverages in Denmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the variation in iodine content in drinking water in Denmark and to determine the difference in iodine content between organic and non-organic milk. Further, to analyse the iodine content in other beverages.Design and setting: Tap water samples were collected from 41 evenly distributed localities in Denmark. Organic and non-organic milk was collected at the same time (twice

LB Rasmussen; EH Larsen; L Ovesen

2000-01-01

460

EFFECT OF FLUORIDE IN DRINKING WATER ON CHILDREN'S INTELLIGENCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY: The Intelligence Quotient (IQ) was measured in 512 children, aged 8-13 years, living in two villages in Sihong County, Jiangsu Province, China, differing in the level of fluoride in their drinking water. In the high- fluoride village of Wamiao (water fluoride: 2.47±0.79 mg\\/L; range: 0.57-4.50 mg\\/L), the mean IQ of 222 children was significantly lower (92.02±13.00; range: 54-126) than

Q Xiang; Y Liang; L Chen; C Wang; B Chen; X Chen; M Zhouc

461

Removal of Atrazine From Drinking Water by Ozonation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-e-isopropylamino-s-triazine) is a preemergent herbicide found frequently in Midwestern drinking water supplies at concentrations near or exceeding the recently promulgated maximum contaminant level of 3 ?g\\/L. In water treatment plants that use ozone, oxidation breaks atrazine down into several different ozonation by-products. In the research described in this article, the effects of aqueous ozone concentration, pH, total carbonate alkalinity,

Craig D. Adams; Stephen J. Randtke

1992-01-01

462

Solar photocatalysis—a possible step in drinking water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Possibility of the use of solar radiation for reduction of Natural Organic Matter (NOM) content in natural lake water, as a source for drinking water preparation, was the topic of this research. Solar radiation alone does not have enough energy for sufficient degradation of NOM, but in combination with heterogeneous photocatalyst-titanium dioxide (TiO2), with or without other chemicals, the degradation

Davor Ljubas

2005-01-01

463

Studies on urban drinking water quality in a tropical zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anthropogenic activities associated with industrialization, agriculture and urbanization have led to the deterioration in\\u000a water quality due to various contaminants. To assess the status of urban drinking water quality, samples were collected from\\u000a the piped supplies as well as groundwater sources from different localities of residential, commercial and industrial areas\\u000a of Lucknow City in a tropical zone of India during

Mohana Krishna Reddy Mudiam; S. P. Pathak; K. Gopal; R. C. Murthy

464

Toxicity of monochloramine in rat: An alternative drinking water disinfectant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monochloramine (NH2 CI) is under consideration as an alternative to chlorine as a disinfectant in public water supplies, to avoid trihalomethanes formation. This study was conducted to investigate the toxicity of NH2CI (0, 7, 10, 100 mg\\/l) in drinking water. Glutathione (GSH) content in rat blood was decreased significantly after 4 mo treatment, and the decreases were consistent throughout the

Duck H. Suh; Richard J. Bull

1984-01-01

465

Nitrate removal from drinking water -- Review  

SciTech Connect

Nitrate concentrations in surface water and especially in ground water have increased in Canada, the US, Europe, and other areas of the world. This trend has raised concern because nitrates cause methemoglobiinemia in infants. Several treatment processes including ion exchange, biological denitrification, chemical denitrification, reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, and catalytic denitrification can remove nitrates from water with varying degrees of efficiency, cost, and ease of operation. Available technical data, experience, and economics indicate that ion exchange and biological denitrification are more acceptable for nitrate removal than reverse osmosis. Ion exchange is more viable for ground water while biological denitrification is the preferred alternative for surface water. This paper reviews the developments in the field of nitrate removal processes.

Kapoor, A.; Viraraghavan, T. [Univ. of Regina, Saskatchewan (Canada)

1997-04-01

466

DRINKING WATER AND CANCER INCIDENCE IN IOWA. 1. TRENDS AND INCIDENCE BY SOURCE OF DRINKING WATER AND SIZE OF MUNICIPALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The available data resources in the State of Iowa were used to investigate the relationships of drinking water contaminants and cancer incidence rates for communities. Age-adjusted, sex-specific cancer incidence rates for the years 1969-1978 were determined for municipalities hav...

467

Risks and responses to universal drinking water security.  

PubMed

Risks to universal drinking water security are accelerating due to rapid demographic, climate and economic change. Policy responses are slow, uneven and largely inadequate to address the nature and scale of the global challenges. The challenges relate both to maintaining water security in increasingly fragile supply systems and to accelerating reliable access to the hundreds of millions who remain water-insecure. A conceptual framework illustrates the relationship between institutional, operational and financial risks and drinking water security outcomes. We apply the framework to nine case studies from rural and urban contexts in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Case studies are purposively selected based on established and emerging examples of political, technological or institutional reforms that address water security risks. We find broad evidence that improved information flows reduce institutional costs and promote stronger and more transparent operational performance to increase financial sustainability. However, political barriers need to be overcome in all cases through internal or external interventions that require often decadal time frames and catalytic investments. No single model exists, though there is sufficient evidence to demonstrate that risks to drinking water security can be reduced even in the most difficult and challenging contexts. PMID:24080626

Hope, Robert; Rouse, Michael

2013-09-30

468

Presence of Enteric Viruses in Source Waters for Drinking Water Production in the Netherlands?  

PubMed Central

The quality of drinking water in the Netherlands has to comply with the Dutch Drinking Water Directive: less than one infection in 10,000 persons per year may occur due to consumption of unboiled drinking water. Since virus concentrations in drinking waters may be below the detection limit but entail a public health risk, the infection risk from drinking water consumption requires the assessment of the virus concentrations in source waters and of the removal efficiency of treatment processes. In this study, samples of source waters were taken during 4 years of regular sampling (1999 to 2002), and enteroviruses, reoviruses, somatic phages, and F-specific phages were detected in 75% (range, 0.0033 to 5.2 PFU/liter), 83% (0.0030 to 5.9 PFU/liter), 100% (1.1 to 114,156 PFU/liter), and 97% (0.12 to 14,403 PFU/liter), respectively, of 75 tested source water samples originating from 10 locations for drinking water production. By endpoint dilution reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), 45% of the tested source water samples were positive for norovirus RNA (0.22 to 177 PCR-detectable units [PDU]/liter), and 48% were positive for rotavirus RNA (0.65 to 2,249 PDU/liter). Multiple viruses were regularly detected in the source water samples. A significant correlation between the concentrations of the two phages and those of the enteroviruses could be demonstrated. The virus concentrations varied greatly between 10 tested locations, and a seasonal effect was observed. Peak concentrations of pathogenic viruses occur in source waters used for drinking water production. If seasonal and short-term fluctuations coincide with less efficient or failing treatment, an unacceptable public health risk from exposure to this drinking water may occur.

Lodder, W. J.; van den Berg, H. H. J. L.; Rutjes, S. A.; de Roda Husman, A. M.

2010-01-01

469

Arsenic removal from drinking water during coagulation  

SciTech Connect

The efficiency of arsenic removal from source waters and artificial freshwaters during coagulation with ferric chloride and alum was examined in bench-scale studies. Arsenic(V) removal by either ferric chloride or alum was relatively insensitive to variations in source water composition below pH 8. At pH 8 and 9, the efficiency of arsenic(V) removal by ferric chloride was decreased in the presence of natural organic matter. The pH range for arsenic(V) removal with alum was more restricted than with ferric chloride. For source waters spiked with 20 {micro}g/L arsenic(V), final dissolved arsenic(V) concentrations in the product water of less than 2 {micro}g/L were achieved with both coagulants at neutral pH. Removal of arsenic(III) from source waters by ferric chloride was both less efficient and more strongly influenced by source water composition than removal of arsenic(V). The presence of sulfate (at pH 4 and 5) and natural organic matter (at pH 4 through 9) adversely affected the efficiency of arsenic(III) removal by ferric chloride. Arsenic(III) could not be removed from source waters by coagulation with alum.

Hering, J.G. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States); Chen, P.Y. [Industrial Technology Research Inst., Chutung Hsinchu (Taiwan, Province of China); Wilkie, J.A.; Elimelech, M. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

1997-08-01

470

Climate change adaptation potential for water in California  

Microsoft Academic Search

California has an extensive, diverse, and highly interconnected water management system which serves a wide variety of purposes. Climatic change can have many effects on this system and there are many means to manage California's water systems with climatic change. Many studies of climate change in California support several conclusions that will be the focus of the talk. But more

J. R. Lund

2008-01-01

471

Nitrate contamination of drinking water: Evaluation of genotoxic risk in human populations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrate contamination of drinking water implies a genotoxic risk to man due to endogenous formation of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds from nitrate-derived nitrite. Thus far, epidemiological studies have presented conflicting results on the relation of drinking water nitrate levels with gastric cancer incidence. This uncertainty becomes of relevance in view of the steadily increasing nitrate levels in regular drinking water supplies.

J. C. S. Kleinjans; H. J. Albering; A. Marx; J. M. S. van Maanen; B. van Agen; F. ten Hoor; G. M. H. Swaen; P. L. J. M. Mertens

1991-01-01

472

Decision Support System for Drinking Water Safety in Rural Area in Ya'an of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In consideration of the drinking water safety in rural areas in the western mountainous regions of Sichuan Province, the author adopts the module technique to integrate the GIS with the specialized application function to develop a drinking water safety spatial analysis system. The system provides the Ya'an's seven counties with each kind of function the daily management of drinking water

Ni Fu-quan; Liu Guodong; Ye Jian; Yang Shang-chuan; Zheng cai-xia

2009-01-01

473

Lead in Drinking Water in Schools and Non-Residential Buildings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This manual demonstrates how drinking water in schools and non-residential buildings can be tested for lead and how contamination problems can be corrected when found. The manual also provides background information concerning the sources and health effects of lead, how lead gets into drinking water, how lead in drinking water is regulated, and…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

474

A Review of Nitrates in Drinking Water: Maternal Exposure and Adverse Reproductive and Developmental Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this review we present an update on maternal exposure to nitrates in drinking water in relation to possible adverse reproductive and developmental effects, and also discuss nitrates in drinking water in the United States. The current standard for nitrates in drinking water is based on retrospective studies and approximates a level that protects infants from methemoglobinemia, but no safety

Deana M. Manassaram; Lorraine C. Backer; Deborah M. Moll

2005-01-01

475

Determining the optimal fluoride concentration in drinking water for fluoride endemic regions in South India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluoride ion in drinking water is known for both beneficial and detrimental effects on health. The prevalence of fluorosis is mainly due to the intake of large quantities of fluoride through drinking water owing to more than 90% bioavailability. The objective of this study is to predict optimal fluoride level in drinking water for fluoride endemic regions by comprising the

Gopalan Viswanathan; A. Jaswanth; S. Gopalakrishnan; S. Siva ilango; G. Aditya

2009-01-01

476

Regulation of Environmental Contaminants in Drinking Water: State Methods and Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk assessment methodologies form the basis for deriving guidelines for environmental contaminants in drinking water. A state may have to set, on an emergency basis, an interim guideline for a drinking water contaminant for which only limited data are available. Additional national drinking water standards will be useful for state regulatory agencies, because maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) are legally enforceable,

Kirpal S. Sidhu

1992-01-01

477

THE REMOVAL OF GLYPHOSATE FROM DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The effectiveness of granulated activated carbon (GAC), packed activated carbon (PAC), conventional treatment, membranes, and oxidation for removing glyphosate from natural waters is evaluated. Results indicate that GAC and PAC are not effective in removing glyphosate, while oxid...

478

Establishing a Proficiency Testing Scheme for Drinking Water Radiochemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of its international water proficiency testing (PT) scheme, `Aquacheck', the LGC Proficiency Testing Group has established a new water radiochemistry PT scheme. The PT scheme is aimed at laboratories who undertake radiochemical analysis on drinking water samples as part of an environmental monitoring programme. Following a scheme design and feasibility study, the new scheme was established to monitor the laboratory performance of participants undertaking the determination of gross alpha, gross beta and tritium activity. Three rounds of the new water radiochemistry PT scheme are now complete. This paper explains the process of establishing such a scheme, reviews the results so far, and addresses future development of the scheme.

Brookman, Brian

2008-08-01

479

Monitoring copper release in drinking water distribution systems.  

PubMed

A new procedure, recently proposed for on-line monitoring of copper released from metal pipes in household plumbing system for drinking water distribution during the development of corrosion processes, is tested experimentally. Experiments were carried out in laboratory controlled conditions, using synthetic water and varying the water alkalinity. The possibility of using the corrosion potential as a surrogate measure of copper concentration in stagnating water is shown, verifying, in the meantime, the effect of alkalinity on the development of passivation phenomena, which tend to protect the pipe from corrosion processes. Experimental data are discussed, highlighting the potentiality of the procedure, and recognizing its limitations. PMID:18441440

d'Antonio, L; Fabbricino, M; Panico, A

2008-01-01

480

Arsenic removal from drinking water during coagulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The efficiency of arsenic removal from source waters and artificial freshwaters during coagulation with ferric chloride and alum was examined in bench-scale studies. Arsenic(V) removal by either ferric chloride or alum was relatively insensitive to variations in source water composition below pH 8. At pH 8 and 9, the efficiency of arsenic(V) removal by ferric chloride was decreased in the

Janet G. Hering; Pen-Yuan Chen; Jennifer A. Wilkie; Menachem Elimelech

1997-01-01

481

Survey of All Water Treatment Plant Operators Who Fluoridate Drinking Water in Ohio1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ohio like several other states in the US is mandated by law to optimally fluoridate all public water systems serving over 5000 people. The purpose of this study was three-fold: 1) to determine if Ohioans on public water supplies are receiving optimally fluoridated water, 2) to determine the knowl- edge level of water treatment plant operators who fluoridate drinking water,

JAMES A. LALUMANOIER; LEONOR C. HERNANDEZ; ANA B. LOCCI

482

Multicomponent analysis of drinking water by a voltammetric electronic tongue.  

PubMed

A voltammetric electronic tongue is described that was used for multicomponent analysis of drinking water. Measurements were performed on drinking water from a tap and injections of the compounds NaCl, NaN(3), NaHSO(3), ascorbic acid, NaOCl and yeast suspensions could be identified by use of principal component analysis (PCA). A model based on partial least square (PLS) was developed for the simultaneously prediction of identification and concentration of the compounds NaCl, NaHSO(3) and NaOCl. By utilizing this type of non-selective sensor technique for water quality surveillance, it will be feasible to detect a plurality of events without the need of a specific sensor for each type of event. PMID:21167970

Winquist, Fredrik; Olsson, John; Eriksson, Mats

2010-11-03

483

Removing lead in drinking water with activated carbon  

SciTech Connect

A point-of-use (POU) granular activated carbon (GAC) fixed bed adsorber (FBA) was evaluated for reduction of soluble and insoluble lead from drinking water. Some of the factors which affect lead removal by GAC were evaluated, such as carbon type, solution pH, and a limited amount of work on competitive interactions. The design criteria for lead reduction by a POU device are also addressed. Minicolumns were used to evaluate the capacity of carbon for lead under a variety of conditions. The importance of surface chemistry of the carbon and the relationship with the pH of the water for lead reduction was demonstrated. Results indicate that a properly designed POU-GAC-FBA can reduce lead in drinking water to below the EPA action level of 15 ppb while being tested under a variety of conditions as specified under the National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) International Standard 53 test protocol. 37 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Taylor, R.M.; Kuennen, R.W. (Amway Corp., Ada, MI (United States))

1994-02-01

484

Understanding medicinal taste and odour formation in drinking waters.  

PubMed

The formation of bromophenols during chlorination of phenol- and bromide-containing waters can be critical for taste and odour problems in drinking waters. The work performed has confirmed that flavour threshold concentrations of some bromophenols are in the ng/L range. In addition, under typical drinking water conditions, kinetic experiments and model simulations performed have shown that (1) bromination is the predominant reaction pathway, (2) bromophenol reaction kinetics are rapid leading to taste-and-odour episodes that last for short periods of 10-20 min, (3) increasing phenol concentration and pH tends to increase taste and odour intensity, (4) increasing chlorine or bromide concentrations tends to shorten the duration of the taste-and-odour episode. PMID:17489397

Piriou, P; Soulet, C; Acero, J L; Bruchet, A; Von Gunten, U; Suffet, I H

2007-01-01

485

Bacteria associated with granular activated carbon particles in drinking water.  

PubMed Central

A sampling protocol was developed to examine particles released from granular activated carbon filter beds. A gauze filter/Swinnex procedure was used to collect carbon fines from 201 granular activated carbon-treated drinking water samples over 12 months. Application of a homogenization procedure (developed previously) indicated that 41.4% of the water samples had heterotrophic plate count bacteria attached to carbon particles. With the enumeration procedures described, heterotrophic plate count bacteria were recovered at an average rate of 8.6 times higher than by conventional analyses. Over 17% of the samples contained carbon particles colonized with coliform bacteria as enumerated with modified most-probable-number and membrane filter techniques. In some instances coliform recoveries were 122 to 1,194 times higher than by standard procedures. Nearly 28% of the coliforms attached to these particles in drinking water exhibited the fecal biotype. Scanning electron micrographs of carbon fines from treated drinking water showed microcolonies of bacteria on particle surfaces. These data indicate that bacteria attached to carbon fines may be an important mechanism by which microorganisms penetrate treatment barriers and enter potable water supplies.

Camper, A K; LeChevallier, M W; Broadaway, S C; McFeters, G A

1986-01-01

486

Enteropathogenic Bacteria Contamination of Unchlorinated Drinking Water in Korea, 2010  

PubMed Central

Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess the microbiological quality of unchlorinated drinking water in Korea, 2010. One hundred and eighty unchlorinated drinking water samples were collected from various sites in Seoul and Gyeonggi province. Methods To investigate bacterial presence, the pour plate method was used with cultures grown on selective media for total bacteria, total coliforms, and Staphylococcus spp., respectively. Results In the 180 total bacteria investigation, 72 samples from Seoul and 33 samples from Gyeonggi province were of an unacceptable quality (>102 CFU/mL). Of all the samples tested, total coliforms were detected in 28 samples (15.6%) and Staphylococcus spp. in 12 samples (6.7%). Most of the coliform isolates exhibited high-level resistance to cefazolin (88.2%), cefonicid (64.7%) and ceftazidime (20.6%). In addition, Staphylococcus spp. isolates exhibited high-level resistance to mupirocin (42%). Species of Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Cupriavidus, Hafnia, Rahnella, Serratia, and Yersinia were isolated from the water samples. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that consumption of unchlorinated drinking water could represent a notable risk to the health of consumers. As such, there is need for continuous monitoring of these water sources and to establish standards.

Lee, Si Won; Lee, Do Kyung; An, Hyang Mi; Cha, Min Kyeong; Kim, Kyung Jae

2011-01-01

487

Spontaneous abortions and birth defects related to tap and bottled water use, San Jose, California, 1980-1985  

Microsoft Academic Search

We recently studied pregnancies occurring during 1980-1985 in four study areas in Santa Clara County, California. Two of the areas were exposed to solvent-contaminated drinking water during 1980 and 1981, and two were unexposed. There was an overall excess of spontaneous abortions among women who reported any tapwater consumption during the first trimester of pregnancy compared with those who reported

Margaret Wrensch; Shanna H. Swan; Jane Lipscomb; David M. Epstein; Raymond R. Neutra; Laura Fenster

1992-01-01

488

Engineering and operating approaches for controlling asbestos fibers in drinking water.  

PubMed Central

Techniques are available to minimize the concentration of asbestos fibers in drinking water. Filtration research conducted at locations on Lake Superior and in the Cascade Mountains in Washington has shown that amphibole and chrysotile fibers can be removed by granular media filtration. Removal percentages can exceed 99% when the raw water is coagulated properly and the filtered water turbidity is 0.10 ntu (nephelometric turbidity units) or lower. Filtered water fiber counts below detectable limits of 0.1 to 0.01 X 10(6) fibers/L can be attained. A study by the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California showed that when raw water chrysotile counts ranged from 200 X 10(6) fibers/L to 2000 X 10(6) fibers/L, filtered water fiber counts frequently exceeded 1 X 10(6) fibers/L. Even so, striving to attain a filtered water turbidity of 0.1 ntu resulted in improved fiber removal. Pilot scale and distribution system research projects have shown that asbestos cement (AC) pipes can be protected from dissolution and leaching effects that can result in release of asbestos fibers into drinking water. Suggested techniques include modifying low pH, low alkalinity waters so they are not aggressive; coating the pipe wall with a chemical precipitate; and applying a cement mortar lining to the pipe wall. Operation and maintenance practices related to the distribution system, when AC water mains are in service, can influence the fiber count in tapwater. Main flushing can stir up sediment that accumulates in low-flow and dead-end areas, raising the fiber count. If mains are tapped and the cuttings are not flushed away through the tapping machine, but are instead permitted to fall into the water main, the fiber count can be raised.

Logsdon, G S

1983-01-01

489

Engineering and operating approaches for controlling asbestos fibers in drinking water.  

PubMed

Techniques are available to minimize the concentration of asbestos fibers in drinking water. Filtration research conducted at locations on Lake Superior and in the Cascade Mountains in Washington has shown that amphibole and chrysotile fibers can be removed by granular media filtration. Removal percentages can exceed 99% when the raw water is coagulated properly and the filtered water turbidity is 0.10 ntu (nephelometric turbidity units) or lower. Filtered water fiber counts below detectable limits of 0.1 to 0.01 X 10(6) fibers/L can be attained. A study by the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California showed that when raw water chrysotile counts ranged from 200 X 10(6) fibers/L to 2000 X 10(6) fibers/L, filtered water fiber counts frequently exceeded 1 X 10(6) fibers/L. Even so, striving to attain a filtered water turbidity of 0.1 ntu resulted in improved fiber removal. Pilot scale and distribution system research projects have shown that asbestos cement (AC) pipes can be protected from dissolution and leaching effects that can result in release of asbestos fibers into drinking water. Suggested techniques include modifying low pH, low alkalinity waters so they are not aggressive; coating the pipe wall with a chemical precipitate; and applying a cement mortar lining to the pipe wall. Operation and maintenance practices related to the distribution system, when AC water mains are in service, can influence the fiber count in tapwater. Main flushing can stir up sediment that accumulates in low-flow and dead-end areas, raising the fiber count. If mains are tapped and the cuttings are not flushed away through the tapping machine, but are instead permitted to fall into the water main, the fiber count can be raised. PMID:6559130

Logsdon, G S

1983-11-01

490

Health and aesthetic impacts of copper corrosion on drinking water.  

PubMed

Traditional research has focused on the visible effects of corrosion--failures, leaks, and financial debits--and often overlooked the more hidden health and aesthetic aspects. Clearly, corrosion of copper pipe can lead to levels of copper in the drinking water that exceed health guidelines and cause bitter or metallic tasting water. Because water will continue to be conveyed to consumers worldwide through metal pipes, the water industry has to consider both the effects of water quality on corrosion and the effects of corrosion on water quality. Integrating four key factors--chemical/biological causes, economics, health and aesthetics--is critical for managing the distribution system to produce safe water that consumers will use with confidence. As technological developments improve copper pipes to minimize scaling and corrosion, it is essential to consider the health and aesthetic effects on an equal plane with chemical/biological causes and economics to produce water that is acceptable for public consumption. PMID:14982164

Dietrich, A M; Glindemann, D; Pizarro, F; Gidi, V; Olivares, M; Araya, M; Camper, A; Duncan, S; Dwyer, S; Whelton, A J; Younos, T; Subramanian, S; Burlingame, G A; Khiari, D; Edwards, M

2004-01-01

491

Drinking Water Criteria Document for Sulfate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sulfate is a common divalent anion found in a number of minerals in the environment. Sulfate salts of sodium ion, potassium ion, or magnesium ion are soluble in water, whereas salts of calcium ion, barium ion and other heavy metals are poorly soluble or i...

1990-01-01

492

Federal regulation of lead in drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The decline of the Roman Empire has been attributed, in part, to lead poisoning. Scholars have reported that Roman food, water and wine all contained excessive amounts of lead. Although Americans ingest considerably less lead than did the ancient Romans, lead poisoning still poses a significant public health threat in this country, particularly to children. The Federal Centers for Disease

Reiss

1991-01-01

493

DRINKING WATER INFRASTRUCTURE NEEDS SURVEY (1999)  

EPA Science Inventory

Resource Purpose: EPA is conducting the 1999 Needs Survey to meet requirements of the SDWA. Section 1452(h) of the SDWA requires EPA to conduct an assessment every 4 years of capital investments that are needed by public water systems (PWSs). In addition, SDWS sec 1452(i)...

494

Effect of home-used water purifier on fluoride concentration of drinking water in southern Iran  

PubMed Central

Background: Fluoride in drinking water plays a key role in dental health. Due to the increasing use of water-purifier, the effect of these devices on fluoride concentration of drinking water was evaluated. Materials and Methods: Drinking water samples were collected before and after passing through a home water-purifier, from four different water sources. The fluoride, calcium and magnesium concentration of the samples were measured using the quantitative spectrophotometery technique. Data were analyzed by the Wilcoxon test. P value < 0.1 was considered as significant. Results: The result showed that the concentration of fluoride was 0.05-0.61 ppm before purification and was removed completely afterward. Furthermore, other ions reduced significantly after treatment by the water purifier. Conclusion: This study revealed that this device decreases the fluoride content of water, an issue which should be considered in low and high-fluoridated water sources.

Jaafari-Ashkavandi, Zohreh; Kheirmand, Mehdi

2013-01-01

495

Residential exposure to drinking water arsenic in Inner Mongolia, China  

SciTech Connect

In the Ba Men region of Inner Mongolia, China, a high prevalence of chronic arsenism has been reported in earlier studies. A survey of the arsenic contamination among wells from groundwater was conducted to better understand the occurrence of arsenic (As) in drinking water. A total of 14,866 wells (30% of all wells in the region) were analyzed for their arsenic-content. Methods used to detect arsenic were Spectrophotometric methods with DCC-Ag (detection limit, 0.5 {mu}g of As/L); Spot method (detection limit, 10 {mu}g of As/L); and air assisted Colorimetry method (detection limit, 20 {mu}g of As/L). Arsenic-concentrations ranged from below limit of detection to 1200 {mu}g of As/L. Elevated concentrations were related to well depth (10 to 29 m), the date the well was built (peaks from 1980-1990), and geographic location (near mountain range). Over 25,900 individuals utilized wells with drinking water arsenic concentrations above 20 {mu}g of As/L (14,500 above 50 {mu}g of As/L-the current China national standard in drinking water and 2198 above 300 {mu}g of As/L). The presented database of arsenic in wells of the Ba Men region provides a useful tool for planning future water explorations when combined with geological information as well as support for designing upcoming epidemiological studies on the effects of arsenic in drinking water for this region.

Ning Zhixiong [Ba Men Anti-Epidemic Station, Lin He, Inner Mongolia (China); Lobdell, Danelle T. [Epidemiology and Biomarkers Branch, Human Studies Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA, Chapel Hill (United States); Kwok, Richard K. [RTI International, P.O. Box 12194, 3040 Cornwallis Rd, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2194 (United States)], E-mail: rkwok@rti.org; Liu Zhiyi; Zhang Shiying; Ma Chenglong [Ba Men Anti-Epidemic Station, Lin He, Inner Mongolia (China); Riediker, Michael [Institut Universitaire Romand de Sante au Travail, Lausanne (Switzerland); Mumford, Judy L. [Epidemiology and Biomarkers Branch, Human Studies Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA, Chapel Hill (United States)

2007-08-01

496

Monochloramine cometabolism by Nitrosomonas europaea under drinking water conditions.  

PubMed

Chloramine is widely used in United States drinking water systems as a secondary disinfectant, which may promote the growth of nitrifying bacteria because ammonia is present. At the onset of nitrification, both nitrifying bacteria and their products exert a monochloramine demand, decreasing the residual disinfectant concentration in water distribution systems. This work investigated another potentially significant mechanism for residual disinfectant loss: monochloramine cometabolism by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). Monochloramine cometabolism was studied with the pure culture AOB Nitrosomonas europaea (ATCC 19718) in batch kinetic experiments under drinking water conditions. Three batch reactors were used in each experiment: a positive control to estimate the ammonia kinetic parameters, a negative control to account for abiotic reactions, and a cometabolism reactor to estimate the cometabolism kinetic constants. Kinetic parameters were estimated in AQUASIM with a simultaneous fit to all experimental data. The cometabolism reactors showed a more rapid monochloramine decay than in the negative controls, demonstrating that cometabolism occurs. Cometabolism kinetics were best described by a pseudo first order model with a reductant term to account for ammonia availability. Monochloramine cometabolism kinetics were similar to those of ammonia metabolism, and monochloramine cometabolism was a significant loss mechanism (30-60% of the observed monochloramine decay). These results suggest that monochloramine cometabolism should occur in practice and may be a significant contribution to monochloramine decay during nitrification episodes in drinking water distribution systems. PMID:23770484

Maestre, Juan P; Wahman, David G; Speitel, Gerald E

2013-05-23

497

Infiltration of pesticides in surface water into nearby drinking water supply wells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Drinking water wells are often placed near streams because streams often overly permeable sediments and the water table is near the surface in valleys, and so pumping costs are reduced. The lowering of the water table by pumping wells can reverse the natural flow from the groundwater to the stream, inducing infiltration of surface water to groundwater and consequently to the drinking water well. Many attenuation processes can take place in the riparian zone, mainly due to mixing, biodegradation and sorption. However, if the water travel time from the surface water to the pumping well is too short, or if the compounds are poorly degradable, contaminants can reach the drinking water well at high concentrations, jeopardizing drinking water quality. Here we developed a reactive transport model to evaluate the risk of contamination of drinking water wells by surface water pollution. The model was validated using data of a tracer experiment in a riparian zone. Three compounds were considered: an older pesticide MCPP (Mecoprop) which is mobile and persistent, glyphosate (Roundup), a new biodegradable and strongly sorbed pesticide, and its degradation product AMPA. Global sensitivity analysis using the method of Morris was employed to identify the dominant model parameters. Results showed that the presence of an aquitard and its characteristics (degree of fracturing and thickness), pollutant properties and well depth are the crucial factors affecting the risk of drinking water well contamination from surface water. Global sensitivity analysis results were compared with rank correlation statistics between pesticide concentrations and geological parameters derived from a comprehensive database of Danish drinking water wells. Aquitard thickness and well depth are the most critical parameters in both the model and observed data.

Malaguerra, F.; Albrechtsen, H.; Binning, P. J.

2010-12-01

498

Disease outbreaks caused by drinking water  

SciTech Connect

A literature review of waterborne disease outbreaks is presented. Legionellosis outbreaks associated with cooling towers, evaporative condensers, showerheads and tap water are discussed. Attempts to control L. pneumophila with 5 mg/L of free chlorine twice weekly were unsuccessful. Investigators suggested that finding L. pneumophila in the absence of Legionnaires' Disease should not be reason for attempts at eradication. Included are 24 references. (JMT)

Dufour, A.P.

1982-01-01

499

Federal regulation of lead in drinking water  

SciTech Connect

The decline of the Roman Empire has been attributed, in part, to lead poisoning. Scholars have reported that Roman food, water and wine all contained excessive amounts of lead. Although Americans ingest considerably less lead than did the ancient Romans, lead poisoning still poses a significant public health threat in this country, particularly to children. The Federal Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recently reported that more than four million children suffer from lead poisoning. The director of the CDC has stated that {open_quotes}lead poisoning is the No. 1 environmental problem facing America`s children.{close_quotes} In addition to threatening children, lead poisoning presents health dangers to adults and, ironically, to federal government officials themselves. For example, at the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) headquarters, water samples at nineteen sources were found to contain excessive amounts of lead. Additionally, a survey of twelve Capitol Hill buildings found that twenty-one percent of the water sources tested contained excessive lead levels.

Reiss, K.M.

1991-12-31

500

Childhood lead poisoning; Case study traces source to drinking water  

SciTech Connect

Lead poisoning as a result of drinking water carried through lead service lines has been well-documented in the literature. A case of childhood lead poisoning is presented in which the only identified source of lead was lead solder from newly installed water pipes. Partly as a result of this case, the Massachusetts Bourd of Plumbers and Gas Fitters banned the use of 50/50 lead-tin solder or potable water lines. It is anticipated that this ban will increase the cost of new housing by only $16 per unit but will significantly reduce one environmental source of lead.

Cosgrove, E.; Brown, M.J.; Madigan, P.; McNulty, P.; Okonski, L.; Schmidt, J.

1989-07-01