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1

Chemical contamination of California drinking water.  

PubMed

Drinking water contamination by toxic chemicals has become widely recognized as a public health concern since the discovery of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane in California's Central Valley in 1979. Increased monitoring since then has shown that other pesticides and industrial chemicals are present in drinking water. Contaminants of drinking water also include naturally occurring substances such as asbestos and even the by-products of water chlorination. Public water systems, commercially bottled and vended water and mineral water are regulated, and California is also taking measures to prevent water pollution by chemicals through various new laws and programs. PMID:3321714

Russell, H H; Jackson, R J; Spath, D P; Book, S A

1987-11-01

2

Chemical Contamination of California Drinking Water  

PubMed Central

Drinking water contamination by toxic chemicals has become widely recognized as a public health concern since the discovery of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane in California's Central Valley in 1979. Increased monitoring since then has shown that other pesticides and industrial chemicals are present in drinking water. Contaminants of drinking water also include naturally occurring substances such as asbestos and even the by-products of water chlorination. Public water systems, commercially bottled and vended water and mineral water are regulated, and California is also taking measures to prevent water pollution by chemicals through various new laws and programs.

Russell, Hanafi H.; Jackson, Richard J.; Spath, David P.; Book, Steven A.

1987-01-01

3

Health-risk assessment of trichlorofluoromethane in California drinking water  

SciTech Connect

Existing literature is reviewed that is pertinent to the health risk posed by the use of Freon-11 contaminated drinking water, an estimation of the Freon-11 exposure for California residents based on the most recent data on Freon-11 concentrations in California drinking-water supplies, and a delineation of the level of Freon-11 that may cause a noncarcinogenic health effect.

Reed, N.R.; Reed, W.; Weir, K.; Beltran, K.; Babapour, R.

1988-12-22

4

Development of a drinking water regulation for perchlorate in California.  

PubMed

Perchlorate is an environmental contaminant often associated with military installations and rocket propellant manufacture and testing facilities across the U.S. Highly water soluble, perchlorate has been found by federal and state agencies at almost 400 sites within the U.S. in groundwater, surface water, soil or public drinking water. There is no federal drinking water standard for perchlorate, but it is on the drinking water Contaminant Candidate List, and falls under the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Rule (UCMR) for which monitoring is required. The recent National Academy of Science (NAS) report on the potential health effects of perchlorate recommended a perchlorate reference dose of 0.0007 mg/kg of body weight which would be equivalent to a drinking water concentration of 24.5 microg/L. In California, approximately 395 wells in 96 water systems have been shown to contain perchlorate, and about 90% of these are located in Southern California. Water taken from the Colorado River, a major surface water supply to Southern California, has had reported detections of perchlorate ranging from non-detect to 9 microg/L. California has established a Public Health Goal (PHG) of 6 microg/L for perchlorate, and a proposed drinking water regulation is imminent. This review details the regulatory process involved with particular attention given to the occurrence of perchlorate in California drinking water sources and analytical methodology utilized. PMID:17723374

Tikkanen, Maria W

2006-05-10

5

Health risk assessment of trichloroethylene (TCE) in California drinking water  

SciTech Connect

This document presents an assessment of the potential health risks associated with exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) dissolved in California drinking waters. This assessment is being provided to the California Department of Health Services (CDHS) for the development of drinking-water standards to manage the health risks of TCE exposures. Other assessments required in the risk-management process include analyses of the technical and economic feasibility of treating water supplies contaminated with TCE. A primary goal of this health-risk assessment is to evaluate dose-response relationships for observed and potential toxic end points of TCE in order to define dose rates that can be used to establish standards that will protect members of the general public from adverse health effects resulting solely from water-based exposures to TCE. We also analyze the extent of human exposures attributable to TCE-contaminated groundwater in California. 363 refs., 8 figs., 22 tabs.

Bogen, K.T.; Hall, L.C.; Perry, L.; Fish, R.; McKone, T.E.; Dowd, P.; Patton, S.E.; Mallon, B.

1988-01-28

6

Health risk assessment of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) in California drinking water  

SciTech Connect

This document presents an assessment of the potential health risks associated with exposure to tetrachloroethylene (also known as perchloroethylene or PCE) dissolved in California drinking waters. A primary goal of this health-risk assessment is to evaluate dose-response relationships for observed and potential toxic end points of PCE in order to define dose rates that can be used to establish standards that will protect members of the general public from adverse health effects resulting solely from water-based exposures to PCE. We also analyze the extent of human exposures attributable to PCE-contaminated ground water in California.

Bogen, K.T.; Hall, L.C.; McKone, T.E.; Layton, D.W.; Patton, S.E.

1987-04-10

7

Health risk assessment of pentachlorophenol (pcp) in California drinking water. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the document is to review the toxicology of PCP and to estimate the exposure of California residents to PCP found in drinking water. The information provided will help the California Dept. of Health Services develop drinking water standards for PCP.

Reed, N.R.; Reed, W.A.; Encomienda, I.; Beltran, L.; Araba-Owoyele, L.

1990-03-08

8

MTBE in California's Drinking Water: A Comparison of Groundwater Versus Surface Water Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last decade, the fuel oxygenate methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) has received widespread attention as a potential threat to water quality, primarily due to leaking underground gasoline storage tanks and watercraft with two-stroke engines. In this article, we examine the annual detection frequency, number of new source detections, and concentration of MTBE detected in California's public drinking water

Pamela R. D. Williams; Laurie Benton; Patrick J. Sheehan

2003-01-01

9

MTBE in California Drinking Water: An Analysis of Patterns and Trends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past decade, there has been much publicity surrounding the impact of Methyl tert -butyl ether (MTBE) on drinking water supplies in the United States. In California, the presence of MTBE in groundwater and drinking water has led to a ban on the future use of MTBE in gasoline. Other states, such as those in the northeast, are also

Pamela R. D. Williams

2001-01-01

10

Health Risk Assessment of trans-1,2-dichloroethylene in California Drinking Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document presents an assessment of the potential health risks associated with exposure to trans-1,2-dichloroethylene (trans-1,2-DCE) dissolved in California drinking waters. This assessment is being provided to the California Department of Health Ser...

L. C. Hall B. Mallon P. Hsieh T. E. McKone

1989-01-01

11

MTBE in California's Public Drinking Water Wells: Have Past Predictions Come True?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive water quality monitoring data in California are now available for methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) that span the past 16 years. The statewide database includes most of the active (and some inactive) public drinking water wells in the state, most of which have been repeatedly sampled for MTBE during 1995 to 2010. The cumulative detection frequency of MTBE in

Pamela R. D. Williams

2011-01-01

12

Thyroid function and perchlorate in drinking water: an evaluation among California newborns, 1998.  

PubMed

Perchlorate (ClO4-) has been detected in groundwater sources in numerous communities in California and other parts of the United States, raising concerns about potential impacts on health. For California communities where ClO4- was tested in 1997 and 1998, we evaluated the prevalence of primary congenital hypothyroidism (PCH) and high thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels among the 342,257 California newborns screened in 1998. We compared thyroid function results among newborns from 24 communities with average ClO4- concentrations in drinking water>5 microg/L (n=50,326) to newborns from 287 communities with average concentrationsCalifornia Drinking Water Program provided source-specific data for estimating weighted average concentrations in community water. Fifteen cases of PCH from communities with average concentration>5 microg/L were observed, with 20.4 expected [adjusted prevalence odds ratio (POR)=0.71; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.40-1.19]. Although only 36% of all California newborns were screened before 24 hr of age in 1998, nearly 80% of newborns with high TSH were screened before 24 hr of age. Because of the physiologic postnatal surge of TSH, the results for newborns screened before 24 hr were uninformative for assessing an environmental impact. For newborns screened>or=24 hr, the adjusted POR for high TSH was 0.73 (95% CI, 0.40-1.23). All adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were controlled for sex, ethnicity, birth weight, and multiple birth status. Using an assessment of ClO4- in drinking water based on available data, we did not observe an association between estimated average ClO4- concentrations>5 microg/L in drinking water supplies and the prevalence of clinically diagnosed PCH or high TSH concentrations. PMID:16675440

Buffler, Patricia A; Kelsh, Michael A; Lau, Edmund C; Edinboro, Charlotte H; Barnard, Julie C; Rutherford, George W; Daaboul, Jorge J; Palmer, Lynn; Lorey, Fred W

2006-05-01

13

Thyroid Function and Perchlorate in Drinking Water: An Evaluation among California Newborns, 1998  

PubMed Central

Perchlorate (ClO4?) has been detected in groundwater sources in numerous communities in California and other parts of the United States, raising concerns about potential impacts on health. For California communities where ClO4? was tested in 1997 and 1998, we evaluated the prevalence of primary congenital hypothyroidism (PCH) and high thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels among the 342,257 California newborns screened in 1998. We compared thyroid function results among newborns from 24 communities with average ClO4? concentrations in drinking water > 5 ?g/L (n = 50,326) to newborns from 287 communities with average concentrations ?5 ?g/L (n = 291,931). ClO4? concentrations obtained from the California Drinking Water Program provided source-specific data for estimating weighted average concentrations in community water. Fifteen cases of PCH from communities with average concentration > 5 ?g/L were observed, with 20.4 expected [adjusted prevalence odds ratio (POR) = 0.71; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.40–1.19]. Although only 36% of all California newborns were screened before 24 hr of age in 1998, nearly 80% of newborns with high TSH were screened before 24 hr of age. Because of the physiologic postnatal surge of TSH, the results for newborns screened before 24 hr were uninformative for assessing an environmental impact. For newborns screened ?24 hr, the adjusted POR for high TSH was 0.73 (95% CI, 0.40–1.23). All adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were controlled for sex, ethnicity, birth weight, and multiple birth status. Using an assessment of ClO4? in drinking water based on available data, we did not observe an association between estimated average ClO4? concentrations > 5 ?g/L in drinking water supplies and the prevalence of clinically diagnosed PCH or high TSH concentrations.

Buffler, Patricia A.; Kelsh, Michael A.; Lau, Edmund C.; Edinboro, Charlotte H.; Barnard, Julie C.; Rutherford, George W.; Daaboul, Jorge J.; Palmer, Lynn; Lorey, Fred W.

2006-01-01

14

Health risk assessment of trans-1,2-dichloroethylene in California drinking water  

SciTech Connect

This document presents an assessment of the potential health risks associated with exposure to trans-1,2-dichloroethylene (trans-1,2-DCE) dissolved in California drinking waters. This assessment is being provided to the California Department of Health Services (CDHS) for the development of drinking-water standards to manage the health risks of trans-1,2-DCE exposure. Other assessments required in the risk-assessment process include analyses of the technical and economic feasibilities of treating water supplies contaminated with trans-1,2-DCE. A primary goal of this health-risk assessment is to evaluate dose-response relationships for observed and potential toxic end points of trans-1,2-DCE in order to define dose rates that can be used to establish standards that will protect members of the general public from adverse health effects resulting solely from water-based exposures to trans-1,2-DCE. We also analyze the extent of human exposures attributable to trans-1,2-DCE-contaminated groundwater in California. The document consists of seven sections, plus an appendix. Our assessment begins in Section 2 with a review of the uses of trans-1,2-DCE, its environmental chemistry, and concentrations measured in different environmental media. The next section provides an overview of published studies on the absorption and metabolism of trans-1,2-DCE. In Section 4, we review studies of the acute and subchronic toxicity of trans-1,2-DCE to animals and humans.

Hall, L.C.; Mallon, B.; Hsieh, P.; McKone, T.E.

1989-01-24

15

Health risk assessment of cis-1,2-dichloroethylene in California drinking water  

SciTech Connect

This document presents an assessment of the potential health risks associated with exposure to cis-1,2-dichloroethylene (cis-1,2-DCE) dissolved in California drinking waters. This assessment is being provided to the California Department of Health Services (CDHS) for the development of drinking-water standards to manage the health risks of cis-1,2-DCE exposure. Other assessments required in the risk-assessment process include analyses of the technical and economic feasibilities of treating water supplies contaminated with cis-1,2-DCE. A primary goal of this health-risk assessment is to evaluate dose-response relationships for observed and potential toxic end points of cis-1,2-DCE in order to define dose rates that can be used to establish standards that will protect members of the general public from adverse health effects resulting solely from water-based exposures to cis-1,2-DCE. We also analyze the extent of human exposures attributable to cis-1,2-DCE-contaminated groundwater in California.

Mallon, B.; Hall, L.C.; Hsieh, P.; McKone, T.E.

1989-01-24

16

Water Quality of "Tritium-Dead" Drinking Water Wells in California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding ambient levels of regulated constituents with predominantly natural sources, such as arsenic and uranium, or with both natural and anthropogenic sources, such as nitrate, salinity and perchlorate, is important for attributing source, assessing susceptibility, and for groundwater basin management. For California, the large database of tritium-helium, noble gas and stable isotope measurements acquired at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in support of the State of California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program provides a unique opportunity to assess pre-development groundwater quality. GAMA is administered by the State Water Resources Control Board with USGS and LLNL as technical leads. These data were acquired for the GAMA California Aquifer Susceptibility and Priority Basin projects (http://www.swrcb.ca.gov/gama/; Belitz, 2003, USGS WRIR 03-4166). Groundwater pumped from long-screened wells will have a mixed distribution of travel times since recharge. Model calculations of mixing between tritium-dead recharge water and younger recharge water assuming simple binary, exponential or dispersive age distributions show that, given the historical levels of tritium in precipitation in the pacific coastal region, a threshold of less than 1 pCi/L of tritium is required to ensure that less than 25% of the pumped groundwater recharged after 1950. The low detection limit is necessary because water recharged between 1980 and 1995 contains only 3-4 pCi/L of tritium at present. The use of groundwater for irrigation in agricultural areas can result in recent recharge of tritium-dead water and complicates the identification of pre-development groundwater. Additional parameters including radiogenic helium, stable isotopes, and recharge temperature were studied to confirm the absence of a modern component. Initial results show that pre-development groundwater reflects the various hydrogeochemical settings found in California, providing natural sources of contaminants in drinking water. For example, arsenic is predominantly found in pre- development groundwater, whereas pre-modern groundwater generally contains lower concentrations of uranium than modern groundwater (Jurgens, 2010, GW 6:913). While perchlorate is more often detected (above 0.5 ?g/L) in modern groundwater, it is also detected in pre- development groundwater in several aquifers (Fram, 2011, EST 45:1271). Nitrate in pre-modern groundwater is found at concentrations significantly above the typical background concentrations of 2 mg/L as N (Nolan, 2002, EST 36:2138) in many of the aquifers studied. We conclude that the uncertainties in contaminant source attribution studies of contaminant compounds with both natural and anthropogenic sources can be reduced through a detailed aquifer-scale study of ambient levels in tritium-dead drinking water wells. LLNL-ABS-491732. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

Visser, A.; Moran, J. E.; Singleton, M. J.; Hillegonds, D. J.; Kulongoski, J. T.; Belitz, K.; Fram, M. S.; Esser, B. K.

2011-12-01

17

Observations of drinking water access in school food service areas before implementation of federal and state school water policy, California, 2011. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Patel AI, Chandran K, Hampton KE, Hecht K, Grumbach JM, Kimura AT, Braff-Guajardo E, Brindis CD. Observations of drinking water access in school food service areas before implementation of federal and state school water policy, California, 2011.

18

DRINKING WATER ISSUES  

EPA Science Inventory

According to recent reports by the California Department of Health Services, the State of Maine, and the United State Geological Survey (USGS); the fuel oxygenate methyl teri-butyl ether (MTBE) is present in 5 to 20 percent of the drinking water sources in California and the nort...

19

Social Disparities in Drinking Water Quality in California's San Joaquin Valley  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Social Disparities in Drinking Water Quality in California's San Joaquin Valley Carolina Balazs, Rachel Morello-Frosch, Alan Hubbard and Isha Ray Little attention has been given to research on social disparities and environmental justice in access to safe drinking water in the USA. We examine the relationship between nitrate and arsenic concentrations in community water systems (CWS) and the ethnic and socioeconomic characteristics of their customers. We hypothesized that systems in the San Joaquin Valley that serve a higher proportion of minority (especially Latino) residents, and/or lower socioeconomic status (proxied by rates of home ownership) residents, have higher nitrate levels and higher arsenic levels. We used water quality monitoring datasets (1999-2001) to estimate nitrate as well as arsenic levels in CWS, and source location and Census block group data to estimate customer demographics. We found that percent Latino was associated with a .04 mg NO3/L increase in a CWS' estimated nitrate ion concentration (95% CI, -.08, .16) and rate of home ownership was associated with a .16 mg NO3/L decrease (95% CI, -.32, .002). We also found that each percent increase in home ownership rate was associated with a .30 ug As/L decrease in arsenic concentrations (p<.05), but our data showed no significant correlation between arsenic concentration and percent Latino. These results show that exposure disparities and compliance burdens in accordance with EPA standards fell most heavily on socio-economically disadvantaged communities. Selected References Cory DC, Rahman T. 2009. Environmental justice and enforcement of the safe drinking water act: The arizona arsenic experience. Ecological Economics 68: 1825-1837. Krieger N, Williams DR, Moss NE. 1997. Measuring social class in us public health research: Concepts, methodologies, and guidelines. Annual Review of Public Health 18(341-378). Moore E, Matalon E, Balazs C, Clary J, Firestone L, De Anda S, Guzman, M. 2011. The human costs of nitrate-contaminated drinking water in the San Joaquin Valley. Oakland, CA: Pacific Institute. Morello-Frosch R, Pastor M, Sadd J. 2001. Environmental justice and southern california's 'riskscape': The distribution of air toxics exposures and health risks among diverse communities. Urban Affairs Review 36(4): 551-578. National Research Council. 2001. Arsenic in drinking water 2001 update. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. U.S. Census Bureau. 2000. Census of population and housing, 2000 [united states]: Summary tape file 3. Washington D.C.: U.S. Census Bureau. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2011a. Arsenic rule. Available: http://water.epa.gov/lawsregs/rulesregs/sdwa/arsenic/regulations.cfm [accessed June 23 2011].

Ray, I.; Balazs, C.; Hubbard, A.; Morello-Frosch, R.

2011-12-01

20

[Drinking water].  

PubMed

Water is essential for life. Thirst is a pressing need which always has to be satisfied. Infants need 3 times more water than adults if the requirements is calculated according to body weight. A correct balance in the sensory, physical, chemical and bacteriological qualities of water make it drinkable. Two laws have been passed recently concerning drinking water in France: one deals with water for human consumption (January 3 1989 decree), and the other deals with drinkable bottled mineral water (June 3 1989 decree). Tap water and bottled water are under strict vigilance. For babies under 4 months of age, it is better to use bottled water with a low mineral content (nitrates less than 15 mg/l). Hard water is safe; water softeners are useful only for hot water. Fluorination supplies of water is good for dental health at a concentration of 1 mg/l. Plastic bottles are as safe as glass ones. PMID:1662352

Dartois, A M; Casamitjana, F

1991-01-01

21

Dissolved Organic Carbon as a Drinking Water Constituent of Concern in California Agricultural Watersheds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from the breakdown of plant and animal material is a concern for drinking water quality in California due to the potential formation of carcinogenic byproducts during disinfection. Agricultural DOC loading to surface water is a significant concern, but the sources and reactivity in agricultural runoff remains poorly understood. Here we present data on DOC dynamics in surface water from the Willow Slough watershed, a 425\\- km2 agricultural catchment in the Sacramento Valley, California. Samples collected weekly during 2006 and 2007 were analyzed for DOC concentration, optical properties (UV absorbance and fluorescence), 13C\\- DOC isotopes, and trihalomethane formation potential (a regulated disinfection byproduct formed during chlorination). DOC concentrations at the watershed mouth ranged from 2 to 4 mg/L during winter and spring, with a clear increase in DOC concentrations to more than 7 mg L following the onset of summer irrigation. The 13C\\- DOC values revealed a large range (-19 to -27 ‰), with lowest values during winter baseflow and higher values during summer and winter storms. Spectral slopes also varied seasonally (0.012 to 0.020), with steeper slopes during winter baseflow. Both isotopic and optical data provide evidence for algal\\- derived DOC during the winter baseflow and terrestrial sources during winter storms and summer irrigation. Total THM formation potential was higher in winter than summer, and is strongly correlated to DOC concentrations in surface waters (r2 = 0.87). In contrast to the total THM formation potential, the specific THM formation potential (e.g., total THM normalized to DOC) decreased during the summer irrigation season, suggesting a change in reactivity related to DOC source or degradation. Additional data from plant leachates and ground water will be discussed, as well as the implications of watershed management on DOC dynamics and reactivity in agriculturally-dominated landscapes.

Pellerin, B. A.; Bergamaschi, B. A.; Downing, B. D.; Bachand, P. A.; Deverel, S.; Kendall, C.

2007-12-01

22

Availability of Drinking Water in California Public Schools. Testimony Presented before the California State Assembly Subcommittee on Education on April 2, 2008  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A senior researcher and hospital Chief of General Pediatrics, testifies about his work with a California school district to prevent obesity by developing a middle school program to promote healthy eating and physical activity. A two-year study has found that students have limited access to drinking water, especially at meals. In the schools being…

Schuster, Mark A.

2008-01-01

23

Radon in Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

... are here: EPA Home Air Indoor Air Radon Health Risks Drinking Water Radon in Drinking Water Public Health ... States and community water systems for reducing radon health risks in both drinking water and indoor air quality, ...

24

Hypolimnetic Anoxia and Sediment Oxygen Demand in California Drinking Water Reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summertime hypolimnetic anoxia can occur in productive drinking water reservoirs as a result of the decay of phytoplankton. Anoxic conditions promote ecological processes that degrade water quality through the release of problem-causing compounds from anoxic sediments including phosphates, ammonia, sulfides, methyl-mercury, iron and manganese. Hypolimnetic aeration systems are commonly installed in reservoirs to prevent hypolimnetic anoxia, but these systems have

Marc W. Beutel

2003-01-01

25

Observations of Drinking Water Access in School Food Service Areas Before Implementation of Federal and State School Water Policy, California, 2011  

PubMed Central

Introduction Recent legislation requires schools to provide free drinking water in food service areas (FSAs). Our objective was to describe access to water at baseline and student water intake in school FSAs and to examine barriers to and strategies for implementation of drinking water requirements. Methods We randomly sampled 24 California Bay Area public schools. We interviewed 1 administrator per school to assess knowledge of water legislation and barriers to and ideas for policy implementation. We observed water access and students’ intake of free water in school FSAs. Wellness policies were examined for language about water in FSAs. Results Fourteen of 24 schools offered free water in FSAs; 10 offered water via fountains, and 4 provided water through a nonfountain source. Four percent of students drank free water at lunch; intake at elementary schools (11%) was higher than at middle or junior high schools (6%) and high schools (1%). In secondary schools when water was provided by a nonfountain source, the percentage of students who drank free water doubled. Barriers to implementation of water requirements included lack of knowledge of legislation, cost, and other pressing academic concerns. No wellness policies included language about water in FSAs. Conclusion Approximately half of schools offered free water in FSAs before implementation of drinking water requirements, and most met requirements through a fountain. Only 1 in 25 students drank free water in FSAs. Although schools can meet regulations through installation of fountains, more appealing water delivery systems may be necessary to increase students’ water intake at mealtimes.

Chandran, Kumar; Hampton, Karla E.; Hecht, Kenneth; Grumbach, Jacob M.; Kimura, Amanda T.; Braff-Guajardo, Ellen; Brindis, Claire D.

2012-01-01

26

Health risk assessment of 1,1,1-trichloroethane (MC) in California drinking water. [1,1,1-trichloroethane  

SciTech Connect

This document presents an assessment of the potential health risks associated with exposure to 1,1,1-trichloroethane (methyl chloroform, or MC) dissolved in California drinking waters. This assessment is being provided to the California Department of Health Services (CDHS) for the development of drinking-water standards to manage the health risks of MC exposure. Other assessments required in the risk-management process include analyses of the technical and economic feasibilities of treating water supplies contaminated with MC. A primary goal of this health-risk assessment is to evaluate dose-response relationships for observed and potential toxic end points of MC in order to define dose rates that can be used to establish standards that will protect members of the general public from adverse health effects resulting solely from water-based exposures to MC. We also analyze the extent of human exposures attributable to MC-contaminated groundwater in California. The document consists of seven sections, plus supporting appendices. Our assessment begins in Section 2 with a review of the uses of MC, its environmental chemistry, and concentrations measured in different environmental media. The next section provides an overview of published studies on the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination of MC. Also included in Section 3 is a review and analysis of physiologically based pharmacokinetic models for predicting MC metabolism in animals and humans. In Section 4, we review studies of the acute, subchronic, and chronic toxicity of MC to animals, including a summary of data from bioassays conducted to evaluate its potential carcinogenicity. We also provide an overview of MC's health effects in humans and examine human data on MC's toxic effects on specific organs and systems. 305 refs., 7 figs., 18 tabs.

Hall, L.C.; Bogen, K.T.; McKone, T.E.; Mallon, B.; Hall, C.H.

1988-11-16

27

It's Your Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Requires that information be made available to the public so that you can learn how to help protect your drinking water and make personal health decisions about it. SDWA ...

28

Quality of Drinking Water  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

Roman, Harry T.

2009-01-01

29

Health Risk Assessment of 1,2-Dichloropropane (1,2-DCP) in California Drinking Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the document is to provide information on the toxicity of 1,2-dichloropropane (1,2-DCP) and to estimate the exposure of California residents to 1,2-DCP. The information provided will aid the California Department of Health Services (CDHS) i...

N. R. Reed W. Reed L. Beltran R. Babapour D. P. H. Hsieh

1988-01-01

30

Emergency Disinfection of Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

Use only water that has been properly disinfected for drinking, cooking, making any prepared drink, or for brushing teeth. Downloads & Translations ... for brushing teeth. 7 Steps to Emergency Drinking Water Disinfection Only use water that has been properly ...

31

Drinking Water FAQ  

MedlinePLUS

... your well Who should test your well Drinking Water FAQ Frequently Asked Questions General Where does my ... CDC's Private Wells page. Top of Page Public Water Systems What type of health issues can be ...

32

Drinking Water Contaminants  

MedlinePLUS

... risk of cancer Byproduct of drinking water disinfection Chlorite 0.8 1.0 Anemia; infants and young ... that when acrylamide and epichlorohydrin are used to treat water, the combination (or product) of dose and ...

33

Hispanic Drinking Practices in Northern California.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interviews with 634 Hispanics living in California's San Francisco Bay Area provided data on their drinking patterns by sex, age, income, education, marital status, occupation, and religion. Results confirmed previous findings that indicate that Hispanics have a higher rate of heavy drinking and alcohol problems than other ethnic groups. (NQA)

Caetano, Raul

1984-01-01

34

Sodium in Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

... sodium in my drinking water? How much does water contribute to sodium in my diet? To reduce my sodium intake, should I buy ... health effects. Top of page How much does water contribute to sodium in my diet? A Food and Drug Administration publication, " Scouting for ...

35

Safe Drinking Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides an overview of types of drinking water contaminants, where they come from, and their effects on human health. Special topics include chemical and microbial contamination, health effects of microbes, pesticides, metals and various other contaminants, and causes of source water contamination. The site also features links to current news and other related resources and organizations.

Responsibility, Physicians F.; Envirohealthaction

36

DRINKING WATER COST EQUATIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents capital, and operating and maintenance cost equations for 99 water treatment unit processes. The equations, derived from a cost data base developed for the Drinking Water Research Division can be used to provide preliminary cost estimates for individual unit ...

37

Drinking Water and Ground Water: Kids' Stuff  

MedlinePLUS

... Kids Drinking Water & Ground Water Kids' Stuff Drinking Water & Ground Water Kids' Stuff Kids' Home Games & Activities Other Kids' ... to you. Submit Your Artwork from Thirstin's Wacky Water Adventure Activity Book Here Area Navigation Water Home ...

38

REGULATED CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Safe drinking water is critical to protecting human health. More than 260 million Americans rely on the safety of tap water provided by water systems that comply with national drinking water standards. EPA's strategy for ensuring safe drinking water includes four key elements, ...

39

Water Fit to Drink.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The major objective of this module is to help students understand how water from a source such as a lake is treated to make it fit to drink. The module, consisting of five major activities and a test, is patterned after Individualized Science Instructional System (ISIS) modules. The first activity (Planning) consists of a brief introduction and a…

Donovan, Edward P.

40

Arsenic in Your Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

... swimming pool. FOR MORE INFORMATION Arsenic in drinking water http://www.epa.gov/safewater/arsenic Arsenic health ... http://www.epa.gov/safewater/privatewells Safe Drinking Water Hotline 1-800-426-4791 JUST THE FACTS ...

41

Dissolved organic carbon concentrations and compositions, and trihalomethane formation potentials in waters from agricultural peat soils, Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California; implications for drinking-water quality  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water exported from the Sacramento-San Joaquin River delta (Delta) is an important drinking-water source for more than 20 million people in California. At times, this water contains elevated concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and bromide, and exceeds the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant level for trihalomethanes of 0.100 milligrams per liter if chlorinated for drinking water. About 20 to 50 percent of the trihalomethane precursors to Delta waters originates from drainage water from peat soils on Delta islands. This report elucidates some of the factors and processes controlling and affecting the concentration and quality of dissolved organic carbon released from peat soils and relates the propensity of dissolved organic carbon to form trihalomethanes to its chemical composition.Soil water was sampled from near-surface, oxidized, well-decomposed peat soil (upper soil zone) and deeper, reduced, fibrous peat soil (lower soil zone) from one agricultural field in the west central Delta over 1 year. Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon in the upper soil zone were highly variable, with median concentrations ranging from 46.4 to 83.2 milligrams per liter. Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon in samples from the lower soil zone were much less variable and generally slightly higher than samples from the upper soil zone, with median concentrations ranging from 49.3 to 82.3 milligrams per liter. The dissolved organic carbon from the lower soil zone had significantly higher aromaticity (as measured by specific ultraviolet absorbance) and contained significantly greater amounts of aromatic humic substances (as measured by XAD resin fractionation and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of XAD isolates) than the dissolved organic carbon from the upper soil zone. These results support the conclusion that more aromatic forms of dissolved organic carbon are produced under anaerobic conditions compared to aerobic conditions. Dissolved organic carbon concentration, trihalomethane formation potential, and ultraviolet absorbance were all highly correlated, showing that trihalomethane precursors increased with increasing dissolved organic carbon and ultraviolet absorbance for whole water samples. Contrary to the generally accepted conceptual model for trihalomethane formation that assumes that aromatic forms of carbon are primary precursors to trihalomethanes, results from this study indicate that dissolved organic carbon aromaticity appears unrelated to trihalomethane formation on a carbon-normalized basis. Thus, dissolved organic carbon aromaticity alone cannot fully explain or predict trihalomethane precursor content, and further investigation of aromatic and nonaromatic forms of carbon will be needed to better identify trihalomethane precursors.

Fujii, Roger; Ranalli, Anthony J.; Aiken, George R.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.

1998-01-01

42

Drinking Water Treatment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides an introduction to the treatment of drinking water to remove harmful or distasteful substances. Topics include the history of treatment and a brief listing of treatment processes. Students can examine a selection of online resources for more detailed information on modern treatment methods and potential contaminants. The lesson includes an activity in which they construct a model treatment plant and treat water that they have 'contaminated' themselves in order to observe firsthand the steps involved in purifying water for human consumption.

Laposata, Matt

43

America's Drinking Water in 1997  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has provided online access to two reports, America's Drinking Water in 1997 and the 1996 National Public Water System Annual Compliance Report and Update on Implementation of the 1996 Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments. While both reports find that US drinking water is generally safe, the EPA also reviews initiatives to improve water quality. The brief summaries of these reports can be viewed in HTML format, while the full-text articles are available in .pdf format.

1997-01-01

44

Lead and Drinking Water from Private Wells  

MedlinePLUS

... lead from my drinking water? Lead and Drinking Water from Private Wells What is lead? Lead is ... Where and how does lead get into drinking water? Lead rarely occurs naturally in water; it usually ...

45

Drinking Water Treatability Database (Database)  

EPA Science Inventory

The drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) will provide data taken from the literature on the control of contaminants in drinking water, and will be housed on an interactive, publicly-available USEPA web site. It can be used for identifying effective treatment processes, rec...

46

TRENDS IN DRINKING WATER QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent changes in the Federal Register proposing a revision of the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations to include volatile synthetic organic chemicals (VOCs) may have a potential future impact on drinking water quality. This article briefly discusses some of the inputs....

47

Giardia and Drinking Water from Private Wells  

MedlinePLUS

... Giardia from my drinking water? Giardia and Drinking Water from Private Wells What is giardiasis? Giardiasis (GEE- ... Where and how does Giardia get into drinking water? Millions of Giardia parasites can be released in ...

48

Campylobacter and Drinking Water from Private Wells  

MedlinePLUS

... Campylobacter from my drinking water? Campylobacter and Drinking Water from Private Wells What is campylobacteriosis? Campylobacteriosis (CAMP- ... Where and how does Campylobacter get into drinking water? Campylobacter is found in every part of the ...

49

Dichlorodifluoromethane: Drinking Water Health Advisory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Drinking Water Health Advisory, Office of Water, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, has issued its report on the chemical, dichlorodifluoromethane. Dichlorodifluoromethane's applications include use primarily as a refrigerant and blowing agent, wit...

1989-01-01

50

SUBJECT: APPLICATION FOR GRANT FUNDS FOR THE CALIFORNIA RIVER PARKWAYS GRANT PROGRAM UNDER THE SAFE DRINKING WATER, WATER QUALITY AND SUPPLY, FLOOD CONTROL, RIVER AND COASTAL PROTECTION BOND ACT OF 2006 (Proposition 84) TO IMPROVE WATER QUALITY IN HANNS PARK, VALLEJO THROUGH  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The District, in partnership with the City of Vallejo and the Greater Vallejo Recreation District, is the lead agency to apply for grant funds from the California River Parkways grant program under the Safe Drinking Water, Water Quality and Supply, Flood Control, River and Coastal Protection Bond Act of 2006 (Proposition 84). Note: This grant application is a re-submission

RONALD J. MATHESON; DANIEL T. TAFOLLA; CREEK RESTORATION

51

Quality control of bottled and vended water in California: A review and comparison to tap water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current regulations and compliance for quality control of bottled and vended water in California are compared with that of the tap water industry in this research. Over 35% of the bottled water sold in the US is consumed in California where a third of the residents use such water as a primary source of drinking water. California is one of

J. L. Darby; L. Allen

1994-01-01

52

REMOVING ARSENIC FROM DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Pilot-plant tests of two treatment methods-activated alumina and ion exchange--for removing arsenic from drinking water were evaluated at the Fallon, Nev., Naval Air Station (NAS). The arsenic concentration was 0.080-0.116 mg/L, exceeding the 0.05-mg/L maximum contaminant level. ...

53

Drinking Water Bloopers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These six reminders to younger students are about bad practices that waste or pollute water. These include waiting to fix a leak, using water from the hot water tap when cooking, carelessly discarding motor oil, tossing toxic materials in the trash, watering the lawn in the middle of the day, and using the garbage disposal too much. There is also a link that leads to information about composting.

54

Safe Water Drinking Act Basic Information  

MedlinePLUS

... PDF (250 K PDF FILE, 3 pgs) Drinking Water Monitoring, Compliance, and Enforcement EPA 816-F-04-031 June 2004 PDF (150 K PDF FILE, 3 pgs) Protecting Drinking Water Sources EPA 816-F-04-032 June 2004 ...

55

DRINKING WATER MULTI-YEAR PLAN  

EPA Science Inventory

The Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1996 direct EPA to conduct research to strengthen the scientific foundation for standards that limit public exposure to drinking water contaminants. The Amendments contain specific requirements for research on waterborne pathogens, such a...

56

INACTIVATION OF MS2 VIRUS IN DRINKING WATER: ATLANTIC ULTRAVIOLET CORPORATION MEGATRON UNIT, MODEL M250 AT CHULA VISTA, CALIFORNIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Verification testing of the Atlantic Ultraviolet Megatron M250 system was conducted over a 48-day period from 11/01/01 to 12/18/01. The feedwater to the ultraviolet (UV) unit during the testing was effluent from the Otay Water Treatment Plant (OWTP), a conventional plant with fl...

57

THE DRINKING WATER TREATABILITY DATABASE (Conference Paper)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) assembles referenced data on the control of contaminants in drinking water, housed on an interactive, publicly-available, USEPA web site (www.epa.gov/tdb). The TDB is of use to drinking water utilities, treatment process design engin...

58

THE DRINKING WATER TREATABILITY DATABASE (Slides)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) assembles referenced data on the control of contaminants in drinking water, housed on an interactive, publicly-available, USEPA web site (www.epa.gov/tdb). The TDB is of use to drinking water utilities, treatment process design engin...

59

DETERMINATION OF NEWLY IDENTIFIED DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The Metropolitan Water District of Southern California (MWDSC) is investigating the occurrence of 39 newly identified disinfection by-products (DBPs)-which were not included in the Information Collection Rule (ICR)-in drinking waters. Halomethanes (HMs), haloacetonitriles (HANs),...

60

DRINKING WATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of water treatment is threefold: 1. To improve the aethetic quality ofwater, 2. to remove toxic or health-hazardous chemicals, 3. to remove and/or inactivate any disease causing microorganisms. These objectives should be accomplished using a reasonable safety factor...

61

A stepped wedge, cluster-randomized trial of a household UV-disinfection and safe storage drinking water intervention in rural Baja California Sur, Mexico.  

PubMed

In collaboration with a local non-profit organization, this study evaluated the expansion of a program that promoted and installed Mesita Azul, an ultraviolet-disinfection system designed to treat household drinking water in rural Mexico. We conducted a 15-month, cluster-randomized stepped wedge trial by randomizing the order in which 24 communities (444 households) received the intervention. We measured primary outcomes (water contamination and diarrhea) during seven household visits. The intervention increased the percentage of households with access to treated and safely stored drinking water (23-62%), and reduced the percentage of households with Escherichia coli contaminated drinking water (risk difference (RD): -19% [95% CI: -27%, -14%]). No significant reduction in diarrhea was observed (RD: -0.1% [95% CI: -1.1%, 0.9%]). We conclude that household water quality improvements measured in this study justify future promotion of the Mesita Azul, and that future studies to measure its health impact would be valuable if conducted in populations with higher diarrhea prevalence. PMID:23732255

Gruber, Joshua S; Reygadas, Fermin; Arnold, Benjamin F; Ray, Isha; Nelson, Kara; Colford, John M

2013-08-01

62

Cleaning Up Our Drinking Water  

SciTech Connect

Imagine drinking water that you wring out of the sponge you’ve just used to wash your car. This is what is happening around the world. Rain and snow pass through soil polluted with pesticides, poisonous metals and radionuclides into the underground lakes and streams that supply our drinking water. “We need to understand this natural system better to protect our groundwater and, by extension, our drinking water,” said Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s Applied Geology and Geochemistry Group Manager, Wayne Martin. Biologists, statisticians, hydrologists, geochemists, geologists and computer scientists at PNNL work together to clean up contaminated soils and groundwater. The teams begin by looking at the complexities of the whole environment, not just the soil or just the groundwater. PNNL researchers also perform work for private industries under a unique use agreement between the Department of Energy and Battelle, which operates the laboratory for DOE. This research leads to new remediation methods and technologies to tackle problems ranging from arsenic at old fertilizer plants to uranium at former nuclear sites. Our results help regulators, policy makers and the public make critical decisions on complex environmental issues.

Manke, Kristin L.

2007-08-01

63

ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT - PHYSICAL REMOVAL OF MICROBIOLOGICAL & PARTICULATE CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER: US FILTER 3M10C MICROFILTRATION MEMBRANE SYSTEM AT CHULA VISTA, CALIFORNIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Verification testing of the US Filter 3M10C membrane system was conducted over a 44-day test period at the Aqua 2000 Research Center in Chula Vista, California. The test period extended from July 24, 2002 to September 5, 2002. The source water was a blend of Colorado River and ...

64

Fungi contamination of drinking water.  

PubMed

Aquatic fungi commonly infest various aqueous environments and play potentially crucial roles in nutrient and carbon cycling. Aquatic fungi also interact with other organisms to influence food web dynamics. In recent decades, numerous studies have been conducted to address the problem of microorganism contamination of water. The major concern has been potential effects on human health from exposure to certain bacteria, viruses, and protozoa that inhabit water and the microbial metabolites,pigments, and odors which are produced in the water, and their effects on human health and animals. Fungi are potentially important contaminants because they produce certain toxic metabolites that can cause severe health hazards to humans and animals. Despite the potential hazard posed by fungi, relatively few studies on them as contaminants have been reported for some countries.A wide variety of fungi species have been isolated from drinking water, and some of them are known to be strongly allergenic and to cause skin irritation, or immunosuppression in immunocompromised individuals (e.g., AIDS, cancer, or organ transplant patients). Mycotoxins are naturally produced as secondary metabolites by some fungi species, and exposure of humans or animals to them can cause health problems. Such exposure is likely to occur from dietary intake of either food,water or beverages made with water. However, mycotoxins, as residues in water,may be aerosolized when showering or when being sprayed for various purposes and then be subject to inhalation. Mycotoxins, or at least some of them, are regarded to be carcinogenic. There is also some concern that toxic mycotoxins or other secondary metabolites of fungi could be used by terrorists as a biochemical weapon by adding amounts of them to drinking water or non drinking water. Therefore, actions to prevent mycotoxin contaminated water from affecting either humans or animals are important and are needed. Water treatment plants may serve to partially accomplish this, by first filtering the water and finally by adding disinfection treatments adequate to remove or mitigate fungi or their toxic metabolites. PMID:24162095

Al-Gabr, Hamid Mohammad; Zheng, Tianling; Yu, Xin

2014-01-01

65

Water Treatment: Can You Purify Water for Drinking?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a three-day mini unit on purification of drinking water that uses the learning cycle approach. Demonstrates the typical technology that water companies use to provide high-quality drinking water. (JRH)

Harris, Mary E.

1996-01-01

66

Bacterial nutrients in drinking water.  

PubMed Central

Regrowth of coliform bacteria in distribution systems has been a problem for a number of water utilities. Efforts to solve the regrowth problem have not been totally successful. The current project, which was conducted at the New Jersey American Water Co.-Swimming River Treatment Plant, showed that the occurrence of coliform bacteria in the distribution system could be associated with rainfall, water temperatures greater than 15 degrees C, total organic carbon levels greater than 2.4 mg/liter, and assimilable organic carbon levels greater than 50 micrograms of acetate carbon equivalents per liter. A multiple linear regression model based on free chlorine residuals present in dead-end sections of the distribution system and temperature predicted 83.8% of the heterotrophic plate count bacterial variation. To limit the growth of coliform bacteria in drinking water, the study concludes that assimilable organic carbon levels should be reduced to less than 50 micrograms/liter.

LeChevallier, M W; Schulz, W; Lee, R G

1991-01-01

67

MINI PILOT PLANT FOR DRINKING WATER RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

The Water Supply & Water Resources Division (WSWRD) has constructed 2 mini-pilot plant systems used to conduct drinking water research. These two systems each have 2 parallel trains for comparative research. The mini-pilot plants are small conventional drinking water treatment ...

68

NOM increase in drinking water reservoirs - relevance for drinking water production  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last 10-15 years in some German drinking water reservoirs an increase in the NOM (natural organic matter) content has occurred. The impact of such a change on the drinking water quality was almost unknown. A research project was carried out at several drinking water reservoirs and water works concerning the change in the NOM quality and the nutrient

A. Korth; C. Fiebiger; K. Bornmann; W. Schmidt

69

Prioritization of pesticide environmental transformation products in drinking water supplies.  

PubMed

Receiving waters within catchments may be exposed to many different transformation products following the application of pesticides. As environmental waters are abstracted for drinking water treatment these compounds may pose a risk to human health. This paper describes a prioritization approach for identifying the most important transformation products in drinking water sources. The approach can be applied to different geographical areas that have suitable pesticide usage data. The risk based approach incorporates data on pesticide usage and toxicity as well as transformation product formation, mobility, and persistence. The application of the approach is illustrated for two geographical areas that have good quality pesticide usage data: Great Britain and California. The transformation products with the highest risk index and a complete experimentally derived data set for Great Britain were 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol, thifensulfuron acid, and kresoxim-methyl acid and for California were carbendazim, aldicarb sulfoxide, and RP30228. PMID:17180979

Sinclair, Chris J; Boxall, Alistair B A; Parsons, Simon A; Thomas, Miles R

2006-12-01

70

Assessment of the Santa Margarita Sandstone as a source of drinking water for the Scotts Valley area, Santa Cruz County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Scotts Valley, Calif., is a rural residential area with a rapidly expanding population. Its mediterranean-type climate yields an average annual rainfall of 40 inches. The Santa Margarita Sandstone is the principal aquifer in the area, supplying about 90 percent of all water for domestic purposes. Sources of recharge for the Santa Margarita Sandstone are natural recharge, subsurface inflow from adjacent areas, artificial recharge, and deep penetration of excess irrigation water. Total domestic water use in 1979 was about 2,600 acre-feet. The quantity of ground water pumped for domestic use is expected to increase at a rate of 7 percent per year. Evapotranspiration, estimated to be about 29 inches per year, is the largest form of ground-water discharge. Ground water from the Santa Margarita Sandstone is generally suitable for domestic use. Potential for water-quality degradation exists from urban runoff, leachates from a solid-waste disposal site, and liquid wastes. Several agencies and individuals monitor surface-water and ground-water quality in the Scotts Valley area. Water from streams and the city of Santa Cruz are potential alternate sources of drinking water for the Scotts Valley area. (USGS)

Muir, K. S.

1981-01-01

71

EPA?s Drinking Water Treatability Database: A Tool for All Drinking Water Professionals  

EPA Science Inventory

The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) is being developed by the USEPA Office of Research and Development to allow drinking water professionals and others to access referenced information gathered from thousands of literature sources and assembled on one site. Currently, ...

72

DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PLANT ADVISOR - USER DOCUMENTATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The Drinking Water Treatment Plant (DWTP) Advisor is a software application which has been designed to provide assistance in the evaluation of drinking water treatment plants. Specifically, this program, which is based on the source document Interim Handbook Optimizing Water Trea...

73

Investigation of 'Legionella pneumophila' in Drinking Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An investigation of Legionella pneumophila in drinking water systems and home plumbing appurtenances was done. In Phase 1, 68 water samples were collected from kitchen sink faucets in homes on 17 community water systems. No. L. pneumophila organisms were ...

L. E. Witherell R. W. Duncan K. M. Stone L. J. Stratton L. Orciari

1988-01-01

74

9 CFR 3.115 - Food and drinking water requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Food and drinking water requirements. 3.115 Section 3...Standards § 3.115 Food and drinking water requirements. (a) Those marine mammals that require drinking water must be offered potable water...

2014-01-01

75

30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603 Section...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water...

2013-07-01

76

30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603 Section...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water...

2012-07-01

77

30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603 Section...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water...

2011-07-01

78

75 FR 48329 - Tribal Drinking Water Operator Certification Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AGENCY [FRL-9186-8] Tribal Drinking Water Operator Certification Program AGENCY...details of EPA's voluntary Tribal Drinking Water Operator Certification Program, effective...The program enables qualified drinking water operators at public water systems in...

2010-08-10

79

California's Water Problems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This packet of instructional materials is designed to give social science students in grades 6-9 a first-hand experience in working out solutions to real-life problems involving the management of California's water. Students work in groups on one of three problems presented in the packet: (1) the management of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta that…

Wheatley, Judy; Sudman, Rita Schmidt, Ed.

80

Monitoring of Microbes in Drinking Water  

EPA Science Inventory

Internationally there is a move towards managing the provision of safe drinking water by direct assessment of the performance of key pathogen barriers (critical control points), rather than end point testing (i.e. in drinking water). For fecal pathogens that breakthrough the vari...

81

GENOTOXICITY STUDIES OF DRINKING WATER MIXTURES  

EPA Science Inventory

Investigations into the mutagenicity and mutational mechanisms of single chemicals within drinking water as well as of organic extracts of drinking water are being pursued using the Salmonella (Ames) mutagenicity assay as well as in human samples. For example, the semi-volatile ...

82

The Drinking Water Treatability Database (Poster)  

EPA Science Inventory

Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) will provide data taken from the literature on the control of contaminants in drinking water, and will be housed on an interactive, publicly-available USEPA web site. It can be used for identifying effective treatment processes, recogni...

83

ARSENIC COMPLIANCE DATABASE FOR DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Resource Purpose: Section 1412(b)(12)(A) of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) (42 U.S.C. ? 300f-300j), as amended in 1996, required EPA to propose a National Primary Drinking Water Regulation for arsenic by January 1, 2000, and to issue a final regulation by January 1, 20...

84

Radon in private drinking water wells.  

PubMed

At least 10 % of inhabitants in the Czech Republic are supplied with water from private sources (private wells, boreholes). With the increasing cost of water, the number of people using their own sources of drinking water will be likely to increase. According to the Decree of the State Office for Nuclear Safety about the Radiation Protection 307/2002 as amended by Decree 499/2005, the guideline limit for the supplied drinking water ('drinking water for public supply') for radon concentration is 50 Bq·l(-1). This guideline does not apply to private sources of drinking water. Radon in water influences human health by ingestion and also by inhalation when radon is released from water during showering and cooking. This paper presents results of measurements of radon concentrations in water from private wells in more than 300 cases. The gross concentration of alpha-emitting radionuclides and the concentrations of radium and uranium were also determined. PMID:24714110

Otahal, P; Merta, J; Burian, I

2014-07-01

85

Drinking Water in Schools and Child Care Facilities  

MedlinePLUS

... Drinking Water in Schools & Child Care Facilities Drinking Water in Schools & Child Care Facilities This one-stop EPA site provides information about drinking water quality in schools and child care facilities. Ensuring ...

86

EPA List of Drinking Water Contaminants and MCLs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains listings of drinking water contaminants and the EPA regulatory limit for each contaminant. Tables include the national primary drinking water regulations, the national secondary drinking water regulations, and unregulated contaminants.

Agency, Us E.

87

Determining the Nutrient Status of Drinking Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The presence of biodegradable organic matter in drinking water can result in biologically unstable water that has been linked to various taste, odor and color problems. When the implicated bacteria are members of the total coliform group, those occurrence...

E. W. Rice

1989-01-01

88

Injured coliforms in drinking water.  

PubMed Central

Coliforms were enumerated by using m-Endo agar LES and m-T7 agar in 102 routine samples of drinking water from three New England community water systems to investigate the occurrence and significance of injured coliforms. Samples included water collected immediately after conventional treatment, during the backwash cycle, at various points in the distribution system, and 1 week after the break and subsequent repair of a distribution main. Injured coliforms in these samples averaged greater than 95%. m-T7 agar yielded 8- to 38-fold more coliforms than did m-Endo agar LES. The geometric mean of coliforms recovered by m-Endo agar LES was less than 1 confirmed coliform per 100 ml, although m-T7 agar yielded 5.7 to 67.5 confirmed coliforms per 100 ml. In addition, the majority of these samples giving positive results on m-T7 agar produced no detectable counts on m-Endo agar LES. These findings indicated that coliforms were injured and largely undetected by use of accepted analytical media in the systems examined.

McFeters, G A; Kippin, J S; LeChevallier, M W

1986-01-01

89

California Department of Water Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created by the California Legislature in 1956, the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) was designed "to plan and guide" the development of the State's water resources. The site serves as an information hub covering recent news, state water projects, a listing of water conditions and reports, and monthly activity reports for the very curious. In addition to supplying general information on California's water resources, this site provides access to the CALFED Bay-Delta Program (CALFED), the California Data Exchange Center hydrologic data (CDEC), and the California Environmental Resources Evaluation System (CERES).

90

The Drinking Water Disparities Framework: On the Origins and Persistence of Inequities in Exposure  

PubMed Central

With this article, we develop the Drinking Water Disparities Framework to explain environmental injustice in the context of drinking water in the United States. The framework builds on the social epidemiology and environmental justice literatures, and is populated with 5 years of field data (2005–2010) from California’s San Joaquin Valley. We trace the mechanisms through which natural, built, and sociopolitical factors work through state, county, community, and household actors to constrain access to safe water and to financial resources for communities. These constraints and regulatory failures produce social disparities in exposure to drinking water contaminants. Water system and household coping capacities lead, at best, to partial protection against exposure. This composite burden explains the origins and persistence of social disparities in exposure to drinking water contaminants.

Balazs, Carolina L.; Ray, Isha

2014-01-01

91

Drinking Water: Health Hazards Still Not Resolved  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the suggested link between cancer deaths and drinking obtained from the Mississippi River, New Orleans still treats its water supply in the same manner as before the Environmental Defense Fund's epidemiological study. (BT)

Wade, Nicholas

1977-01-01

92

Condition Assessment for Drinking Water Systems  

EPA Science Inventory

This project will enable a systematic approach to characterizing the value of condition assessment of drinking water mains that will provide the basis for better communication among, and decisions by, stakeholders regarding goals and priorities for research, development, and tech...

93

Scoping the Chemicals in Your Drinking Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Chlorine, the most common drinking water disinfectant in the United States, is effective for killing harmful microorganisms, but it produces a few disinfection byproducts (DBPs) about which health concerns have been raised. Among the more predominant chlo...

S. D. Richardson

1994-01-01

94

ALTERNATIVE DISINFECTANTS FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

During a one-year study at Jefferson Parish, Louisiana the chemical, microbiological, and mutagenic effects of using the major drinking water disinfectants (chlorine, chlorine dioxide, chloramine, ozone) were evaluated. ests were performed on samples collected from various treatm...

95

SCOPING THE CHEMICALS IN YOUR DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Chlorine, the most common drinking water disinfectant in the United States, is effective for killing harmful microorganisms, but it produces a few disinfection byproducts (DBPS) about which health concerns have been raised. mong the more predominant chlorination DBPs are trihalom...

96

The Reclamation of Drinking Water from Sewage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Indirect reuse of wastewaters in drinking water supplies is common practice in industrialized states today. The investigations reported upon have been directed towards improvements upon existing techniques more applicable to the tropical and savanna devel...

M. G. McGarry

1975-01-01

97

ETV REPORT - PHYSICAL REMOVAL OF MICROBIOLOGICAL, PARTICULATE AND ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER - ZENON ENHANCED COAGULATION ZEEWEED ULTRAFILTRATION MEMBRANE SYSTEM AT ESCONDIDO, CALIFORNIA: NSF00/02/EPADW395  

EPA Science Inventory

NSF Int in cooperation with EPA operates the Package Drinking Water Treatment Systems program, one of 12 technology areas under ETV. The performance of an enhanced coagulation membrane filtration systems used in package drinking water treatment system applications was recently ev...

98

Distribution of Perchlorate in Aquifers Used for Public Water Supply in California, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perchlorate has been detected in public-supply wells that tap aquifers in many parts of California. Two data sets are available, one collected by the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) for compliance of drinking water with health-based standards, and one by the California State Water Resources Control Board Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment Program (GAMA) for statewide assessment of the

M. S. Fram; K. Belitz; C. Burton; J. N. Densmore; R. H. Kent; J. T. Kulongoski; M. T. Land; M. K. Landon; J. Montrella; J. L. Shelton; M. T. Wright

2007-01-01

99

REMOVAL OF RADIUM FROM DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

This report summarizes processes for removal of radium from drinking water. Ion exchange, including strong acid and weak acid resin, is discussed. Both processes remove better than 95 percent of the radium from the water. Weak acid ion exchange does not add sodium to the water...

100

Removal of radium from drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report summarizes processes for removal of radium from drinking water. Ion exchange, including strong acid and weak acid resin, is discussed. Both processes remove better than 95 percent of the radium from the water. Weak acid ion exchange does not add sodium to the water. Calcium cation exchange removes radium and can be used when hardness removal is not

Lauch

1992-01-01

101

Renal effects of uranium in drinking water.  

PubMed Central

Animal studies and small studies in humans have shown that uranium is nephrotoxic. However, more information about its renal effects in humans following chronic exposure through drinking water is required. We measured uranium concentrations in drinking water and urine in 325 persons who had used drilled wells for drinking water. We measured urine and serum concentrations of calcium, phosphate, glucose, albumin, creatinine, and beta-2-microglobulin to evaluate possible renal effects. The median uranium concentration in drinking water was 28 microg/L (interquartile range 6-135, max. 1,920 microg/L) and in urine 13 ng/mmol creatinine (2-75), resulting in the median daily uranium intake of 39 microg (7-224). Uranium concentration in urine was statistically significantly associated with increased fractional excretion of calcium and phosphate. Increase of uranium in urine by 1 microg/mmol creatinine increased fractional excretion of calcium by 1.5% [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.6-2.3], phosphate by 13% (1.4-25), and glucose excretion by 0.7 micromol/min (-0.4-1.8). Uranium concentrations in drinking water and daily intake of uranium were statistically significantly associated with calcium fractional excretion, but not with phosphate or glucose excretion. Uranium exposure was not associated with creatinine clearance or urinary albumin, which reflect glomerular function. In conclusion, uranium exposure is weakly associated with altered proximal tubulus function without a clear threshold, which suggests that even low uranium concentrations in drinking water can cause nephrotoxic effects. Despite chronic intake of water with high uranium concentration, we observed no effect on glomerular function. The clinical and public health relevance of the findings are not easily established, but our results suggest that the safe concentration of uranium in drinking water may be within the range of the proposed guideline values of 2-30 microg/L.

Kurttio, Paivi; Auvinen, Anssi; Salonen, Laina; Saha, Heikki; Pekkanen, Juha; Makelainen, Ilona; Vaisanen, Sari B; Penttila, Ilkka M; Komulainen, Hannu

2002-01-01

102

California2100: Assessing California's Future Water Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a preliminary step in providing high resolution estimates of California's water budget out to the year 2100 (Cal21), several different climate change scenarios were analyzed based on results obtained with the widely used regional model MM5. The results of the primary experiment, in which all present day irrigated and urban areas are replaced by scrub land, indicate that the

Bryan C. Weare

103

Tapping into water: key considerations for achieving excellence in school drinking water access.  

PubMed

Objectives. We examined free drinking water access in schools. Methods. We conducted cross-sectional interviews with administrators from 240 California public schools from May to November 2011 to examine the proportion of schools that met excellent water access criteria (i.e., location, density, type, maintenance, and appeal of water sources), school-level characteristics associated with excellent water access, and barriers to improvements. Results. No schools met all criteria for excellent water access. High schools and middle schools had lower fountain:student ratios than elementary schools (odds ratio [OR]?=?0.06; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?0.02, 0.20; OR?=?0.30, 95% CI?=?0.12, 0.70). Rural schools were more likely to offer a nonfountain water source than city schools (OR?=?5.0; 95% CI?=?1.74, 14.70). Newer schools were more likely to maintain water sources than older schools (OR?=?0.98; 95% CI?=?0.97, 1.00). Schools that offered free water in food service areas increased from pre- to postimplementation of California's school water policy (72%-83%; P?water included cost of programs and other pressing concerns. Conclusions. Awareness of the benefits related to school drinking water provision and funding may help communities achieve excellence in drinking water access. PMID:24832141

Patel, Anisha I; Hecht, Kenneth; Hampton, Karla E; Grumbach, Jacob M; Braff-Guajardo, Ellen; Brindis, Claire D

2014-07-01

104

REMOVAL OF ALACHLOR FROM DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Alachlor (Lasso) is a pre-emergent herbicide used in the production of corn and soybeans. U.S. EPA has studied control of alachlor in drinking water treatment processes to define treatability before setting maximum contaminant levels and to assist water utilities in selecting con...

105

DETERMINING THE NUTRIENT STATUS OF DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The presence of biodegradable organic matter in drinking water can result in biologically unstable water that has been linked to various taste, odor and color problems. hen the implicated bacteria are members of the total coliform group, those occurrences can result if major comp...

106

ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY ELECTROCOAGULATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure to arsenic through drinking water poses a threat to human health. Electrocoagulation is an emerging water treatment technology that involves electrolytic oxidation of anode materials and in-situ generation of coagulant. Electrocoagulation is an alternative to using chemical coagulants for arsenic removal and thus is beneficial for communities with better access to electricity than to chemicals.

Wei Wan

2010-01-01

107

MEMBRANES FOR REMOVING ORGANICS FROM DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Membranes have historically been used to remove salts and other inorganic compounds from water but recently both bench-scale and field studies have shown their effectiveness for removing organic compounds from drinking water. wo different membrane types have been evaluated by the...

108

ASBESTOS IN DRINKING WATER PERFORMANCE EVALUATION STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Performance evaluations of laboratories testing for asbestos in drinking water according to USEPA Test Method 100.1 or 100.2 are complicated by the difficulty of providing stable sample dispersions of asbestos in water. Reference samples of a graduated series of chrysotile asbest...

109

ASBESTOS IN DRINKING WATER PERFORMANCE EVALUATION STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Performance evaluations of laboratories testing for asbestos in drinking water according to USEPA Test Method 100.1 or 100.2 are complicated by the difficulty of providing stable sample dispersions of asbestos in water. Reference samples of a graduated series of chrysotile asbes...

110

DRINKING WATER HEALTH EFFECTS RESEARCH AT EPA: AN OVERVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract: The Environmental Protection Agency is required under the Safe Drinking Water Act to promulgate National Primary Drinking Water Regulations for contaminants in public water systems when certain regulatory criteria are met. Once a contaminant is regu...

111

Stability of florfenicol in drinking water.  

PubMed

Florfenicol, a broad-spectrum antibiotic, is being developed for veterinary application as an oral concentrate intended for dilution with drinking water. When a drug product is dosed via drinking water in a farm setting, a number of variables, including pH, chlorine content, hardness of the water used for dilution, and container material, may affect its stability, leading to a decrease in drug potency. The stability of florfenicol after dilution of Florfenicol Drinking Water Concentrate Oral Solution, 23 mg/mL, with drinking water was studied. A stability-indicating, validated liquid chromatographic method was used to evaluate florfenicol stability at 25 degrees C at 5, 10, and 24 h after dilution. The results indicate that florfenicol is stable under a range of simulated field conditions, including various pipe materials and conditions of hard or soft and chlorinated or nonchlorinated water at low or high pH. Significant degradation (> 10%) was observed only for isolated combinations in galvanized pipes. Analysis indicated that the florfenicol concentration in 8 of the 12 water samples stored in galvanized pipes remained above 90% of the initial concentration (100 mg/L) for 24 h after dilution. PMID:12607736

Hayes, John M; Eichman, Jonathan; Katz, Terry; Gilewicz, Rosalia

2003-01-01

112

Microbial Risk Assessment for Drinking Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infectious microbes can be transmitted through the drinking water supply. Recent research indicates that infection transmission\\u000a dynamics influence the public health benefit of water treatment interventions, although some risk assessments currently in\\u000a use do not fully account for those dynamics. This chapter models the public health benefit of two interventions: improvements\\u000a to centralized water treatment facilities, and localized point-of-use treatments

Stephen E. Chick; Sada Soorapanth; James S. Koopman

113

Climate change influence on drinking water quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although it are quite well known the possible effects of climate changes on surface waters availability and their hydrological risks, their consequences on drinking water quality is not well defined yet. Disinfection agents (as Cl, O, etc.) or multiple combinations of them for water treatment and disinfection purposes are applied by water treatment plants at worldwide level. Unfortunately, besides the benefits of these processes were also highlighted some undesirable effects such as formation of several disinfection by-products (DBPs) after reaction of disinfection agent with natural organic matter (NOM) from water body. DBPs formation in drinking water, suspected to posses adverse health effects to humans are strongly regulated in our days. Thus, throughout this study kinetics experiments both the main physicochemical factors that influencing the quality of drinking waters were evaluated as well how they act through possible warming or the consequences of extreme events. Increasing water temperatures with 1 - 5 °C above its normal value has showed that NOMs are presented in higher amount which led to the need for greater amount of disinfectant agent (5 - 15 %). Increasing the amount of disinfecting agent resulted in the formation of DBPs in significantly higher concentrations (between 5 - 30 %).

Kovacs, Melinda Haydee; Ristoiu, Dumitru; Voica, Cezara; Moldovan, Zaharie

2013-11-01

114

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR CHLORAMINES  

EPA Science Inventory

Critical to establishing a regulatory strategy for drinking water is identifying those contaminants which pose the greatest risk to human health and consequently, what treatments could be developed to address those risks and at what cost. The National Center for Environmental Ass...

115

DRINKING WATER FROM AGRICULTURALLY CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Sharp increases in fertilizer and pesticide use throughout the 1960s and 1970s along with generally less attachment to soil particles may result in more widespread contamination of drinking water supplies. he purpose of this study was to highlight the use of agricultural chemical...

116

TREATABILITY DATABASE FOR DRINKING WATER CHEMICALS (CCL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Treatability Data Base will assemble referenced data on the control of contaminants in drinking water. It will be an interactive data base, housed in an EPA, web-accessible site. It may be used for many purposes, including: identifying an effective treatment process or a se...

117

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY MANAGEMENT: AN INTERACTIVE APPROACH  

EPA Science Inventory

In February 1977, a massive discharge of carbon tetrachloride into the Kanawha River in West Virginia threatened much of the Ohio River Valley with contaminated drinking water potentially affecting over one million consumers. The episode heightened the awareness of consumers and ...

118

Emerging Contaminants in the Drinking Water Cycle.  

EPA Science Inventory

In the past decade, the scientific community and general public have become increasingly aware of the potential for the presence of unregulated, and generally unmonitored contaminants, found at low concentrations (sub-¿g/L) in surface, ground and drinking water. The most common...

119

Defluoridation of Drinking Water in Small Communities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report discusses the results of a study of defluoridation of drinking water in small communities using either central or point-of-use treatment. The ten sites used for project data collection had natural fluoride in their groundwater supplies in exces...

G. Bellen, M. Anderson

1985-01-01

120

REMOVAL OF ORGANICS FROM DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Organic contamination of drinking water is basically caused by two general classes of organics; man-made synthetic organics and disinfection of naturally occurring organics (disinfection by-products). Many volatile and non-volatile synthetic organics at trace concentrations are b...

121

Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration Membranes for Drinking Water  

EPA Science Inventory

This article provides a concise and abbreviated summary of AWWA Manual of Practice M53, Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration Membranes for Drinking Water, to serve as a quick point of reference. For convenience, the article?s organization matches that of M53, as follows: ? wate...

122

Compliance Monitoring of Drinking Water Supplies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The most frequent testing required under the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 is for turbidity and coliform. Free chlorine residual testing can be substituted for part of the coliform requirement. Described are chemical procedures for performing this test. References are given. (Author/MA)

Haukebo, Thomas; Bernius, Jean

1977-01-01

123

COST EQUATIONS FOR SMALL DRINKING WATER SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents capital and operation/maintenance cost equations for 33 drinking water treatment processes as applied to small flows (2,500 gpd to 1 mgd). The equations are based on previous cost data development work performed under contract to EPA. These equations provide ...

124

Drinking Water. The Food Guide Pyramid.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet for young children is part of a series that supports national science standards related to physical health and nutrition, describing and illustrating the importance of drinking water. Colorful photographs support early readers in understanding the text. The repetition of words and phrases helps early readers learn new words. The book…

Frost, Helen

125

Treatment Strategies for Lead in Drinking Water  

EPA Science Inventory

Lead pipes are capable of lasting hundreds of years. Conservatively, there are over 12 million, still serving drinking water in the US. Probably, this is a substantial underestimate. Leaded solder joining copper pipe abounds. Leaded brasses have dominated the materials used for...

126

Health risk assessment of dichloromethane (methylene chloride) in California ground water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document presents an assessment of potential health risks associated with exposure to dichloromethane (DCM) dissolved in California drinking water, focusing primarily on information relevant to a determination of potential cancer risk that may be ass...

K. T. Bogen L. C. Hall K. Wright T. E. McKone

1992-01-01

127

Nitrification in Drinking Water Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrification is increasingly a concern in United States potable water distribution systems. This paper reviews research on nitrification as it relates to the ammonia levels and unique environments present in potable water distribution systems. Factors affecting nitrification occurrence, nitrification impacts on water quality and corrosion, and nitrification monitoring and control methods are emphasized. The potential role of nitrogen cycling via

Yan Zhang; Nancy Love; Marc Edwards

2009-01-01

128

Drinking Water Criteria Document for Carbon Tetrachloride (Final Draft).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on carbon tetrachloride. The Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of car...

1985-01-01

129

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR EPICHLOROHYDRIN (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on epichlorohydrin. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of epichlorohydrin; Toxicokinetics ...

130

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR PENTACHLOROPHENOL (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on pentachlorophenol. The Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of pentachlorophenol, Toxicokineti...

131

Drinking Water Criteria Document for Pentachlorophenol (Final), February 1987.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Office of Drinking Water, Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on Pentachlorophenol. The Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of Pentachlorophenol...

D. L. Tullis D. A. Gray P. R. Durkin D. Sing R. McGaughy

1987-01-01

132

Drinking Water Criteria Document for Pentachlorophenol (Final Draft).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on pentachlorophenol. The Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of pentac...

D. L. Tullis D. A. Gray P. R. Durkin

1985-01-01

133

Drinking Water Criteria Document for Acrylamide (Final Draft).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on acrylamide. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of acrylamide; ...

1985-01-01

134

Drinking Water Criteria Document for Acrylamide (Final Draft), July 1987.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Office of Drinking Water, Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on Acrylamide. The Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of Acrylamide; Toxicokineti...

1987-01-01

135

Drinking Water Criteria Document for Toluene (Final Draft).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a drinking water criteria document on toluene. The criteria document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of toluene toxicoki...

J. M. Becker M. W. Neal

1985-01-01

136

Drinking Water Criteria Document for Toluene (Final), March 1987,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on Toluene. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical chemical properties of Toluene; Toxicokinetics ...

J. M. Becker M. W. Neal

1987-01-01

137

Drinking Water Criteria Document for Toxaphene (Final), February 1987,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on Toxaphene. The Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical chemical properties of Toxaphene; Toxicokineti...

S. Q. Hee M. Radicke

1987-01-01

138

Drinking Water Criteria Document for Toxaphene (Final Draft).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on toxaphene. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of toxaphene; To...

S. Q. Hee M. Radicke

1985-01-01

139

Drinking Water Criteria Document for Barium (Final Draft), December 1987.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Office of Drinking Water, Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on barium. The Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical chemical properties of Barium; Toxicokinetics and human...

1987-01-01

140

Drinking Water Criteria Document for Barium (Final Draft).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on barium. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of barium; Toxicoki...

1985-01-01

141

ENDOTOXINS, ALGAE AND 'LIMULUS' AMOEBOCYTE LYSATE TEST IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Field and laboratory studies were conducted to determine the distribution of algae and bacteria, and investigate sources of endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides) in drinking water. The field survey was performed on five drinking water systems located in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania ...

142

Drinking Water Criteria Document for Aldicarb (Final), January 1988,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on Aldicarb. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of Aldicarb; Toxicokin...

J. F. Rishner

1988-01-01

143

Drinking Water Criteria Document for Aldicarb (Final Draft).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on aldicarb. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of aldicarb; Toxi...

J. F. Risher

1985-01-01

144

Drinking Water Criteria Document for Hexachlorobenzene (Final Draft).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on hexachlorobenzene. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of hexac...

W. B. Peirano

1985-01-01

145

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR HEXACHLOROBENZENE (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on hexachlorobenzene. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of hexachlorobenzene ; Toxicokine...

146

CASE FOR DRINKING WATER SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the study was to present a tool useful to water utilities that not only could analyze historical distribution system reliability data, but also provide a flexible and expandable mechanism for record-keeping enabling overall management of water work's facilities and...

147

Behavior of organic polymers in drinking water purification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synthetic organic polymers used to purify drinking water are severely limited in that their impurities and by-products harm human health. In this study, the undesired effects resulted from chlorination and the enhanced attenuation of toxic organic compounds in drinking water from using synthetic organic polymer cogulants were investigated.In the simulated drinking water purification processes, synthetic organic polymers were used as

Jiunn-Fwu Lee; Pao-Mei Liao; Dyi-Hwa seng; Pi-Tsui Wen

1998-01-01

148

SAFE DRINKING WATER INFORMATION SYSTEM/FEDERAL COMPONENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Resource Purpose: The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) gives EPA the authority to regulate public drinking water supplies. Using its authority under law, EPA has set health-based standards for contaminants that may be found in drinking water. EPA regulates over 80 contaminant...

149

Drinking water quality concerns and water vending machines  

SciTech Connect

Drinking water quality is a vital public health concern to consumers and regulators alike. This article describes some of the current microbiological, chemical, and radiological concerns about drinking water and the evolution of water vending machines. Also addressed are the typical treatment processes used in water vending machines and their effectiveness, as well as a brief examination of a certification program sponsored by the National Automatic Merchandising Association (NAMA), which provides a uniform standard for the design and construction of food and beverage vending machines. For some consumers, the water dispensed from vending machines is an attractive alternative to residential tap water which may be objectionable for aesthetic or other reasons.

McSwane, D.Z. (Indiana Univ., Indianapolis, IN (United States). School of Public and Environmental Affairs); Oleckno, W.A.; Eils, L.M.

1994-06-01

150

DRINKING WATER AND LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE  

EPA Science Inventory

Pneumonia outbreaks caused by Legionella species recently have been epidemiologically linked to potable water distribution systems in hospitals and hotels. Showerheads were confirmed as the immediate source of the Legionella in many of the outbreaks, however, the organism also wa...

151

Drinking Water and Legionnaires' Disease.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pneumonia outbreaks caused by Legionella species recently have been epidemiologically linked to potable water distribution systems in hospitals and hotels. Showerheads were confirmed as the immediate source of the Legionella in many of the outbreaks, howe...

A. P. Dufour W. Jakubowski

1982-01-01

152

Drinking water health advisory for boron  

SciTech Connect

The Health Advisory Program, sponsored by the Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Water, has issued its report on the element boron: included are the compounds boric acid and borax(sodium tetraborate). It provides information on the health effects, analytical methodology, and treatment technology that would be useful in dealing with the contamination of drinking water. Health Advisories (HAs) describe nonregulatory concentrations of drinking water contaminants at which adverse health effects would not be anticipated to occur over specific exposure durations. HAs serve as informal technical guidance to assist Federal, State, and local officials responsible for protecting public health when emergency spills or contamination situations occur. They are not legally enforceable Federal Standards and are subject to change as new information becomes available.

Cantilli, R.

1991-04-01

153

The osmopressor response to water drinking.  

PubMed

Water drinking elicits profound pressor responses in patients with impaired baroreflex function and in sinoaortic-denervated mice. Healthy subjects show more subtle changes in heart rate and blood pressure with water drinking. The water-induced pressor response appears to be mediated through sympathetic nervous system activation at the spinal level. Indeed, water drinking raises resting energy expenditure in normal weight and obese subjects. The stimulus setting off the response is hypoosmolarity rather than water temperature or gastrointestinal stretch. Studies in mice suggest that this osmopressor response may involve transient receptor potential vanniloid 4 (Trpv4) receptors. However, the (nerve) cell population serving as peripheral osmosensors and the exact transduction mechanisms are still unknown. The osmopressor response can be exploited in the treatment of orthostatic and postprandial hypotension in patients with severe autonomic failure. Furthermore, the osmopressor response acutely improves orthostatic tolerance in healthy subjects and in patients with neurally mediated syncope. The phenomenon should be recognized as an important confounder in cardiovascular and metabolic studies. PMID:21048076

May, Marcus; Jordan, Jens

2011-01-01

154

Toxicological relevance of pharmaceuticals in drinking water.  

PubMed

Interest in the public health significance of trace levels of pharmaceuticals in potable water is increasing, particularly with regard to the effects of long-term, low-dose exposures. To assess health risks and establish target concentrations for water treatment, human health risk-based screening levels for 15 pharmaceutically active ingredients and four metabolites were compared to concentrations detected at 19 drinking water treatment plants across the United States. Compounds were selected based on rate of use, likelihood of occurrence, and potential for toxicity. Screening levels were established based on animal toxicity data and adverse effects at therapeutic doses, focusing largely on reproductive and developmental toxicity and carcinogenicity. Calculated drinking water equivalent levels (DWELs) ranged from 0.49 microg/L (risperidone) to 20,000 microg/L (naproxen). None of the 10 detected compounds exceeded their DWEL. Ratios of DWELs to maximum detected concentrations ranged from 110 (phenytoin) to 6,000,000 (sulfamethoxazole). Based on this evaluation, adverse health effects from targeted pharmaceuticals occurring in U.S. drinking water are not expected. PMID:20575537

Bruce, Gretchen M; Pleus, Richard C; Snyder, Shane A

2010-07-15

155

GLYPHOSATE REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Activated-carbon, oxidation, conventional-treatment, filtration, and membrane studies are conducted to determine which process is best suited to remove the herbicide glyphosate from potable water. Both bench-scale and pilot-scale studies are completed. Computer models are used ...

156

Arsenic in drinking water and pregnancy outcomes.  

PubMed Central

We studied a group of women of reproductive age (15-49 years) who were chronically exposed to arsenic through drinking water to identify the pregnancy outcomes in terms of live birth, stillbirth, spontaneous abortion, and preterm birth. We compared pregnancy outcomes of exposed respondents with pregnancy outcomes of women of reproductive age (15-49 years) who were not exposed to arsenic-contaminated water. In a cross-sectional study, we matched the women in both exposed and nonexposed groups for age, socioeconomic status, education, and age at marriage. The total sample size was 192, with 96 women in each group (i.e., exposed and nonexposed). Of the respondents in the exposed group, 98% had been drinking water containing [Greater and equal to] 0.10 mg/L arsenic and 43.8% had been drinking arsenic-contaminated water for 5-10 years. Skin manifestation due to chronic arsenic exposure was present in 22.9% of the respondents. Adverse pregnancy outcomes in terms of spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, and preterm birth rates were significantly higher in the exposed group than those in the nonexposed group (p = 0.008, p = 0.046, and p = 0.018, respectively).

Ahmad, S A; Sayed, M H; Barua, S; Khan, M H; Faruquee, M H; Jalil, A; Hadi, S A; Talukder, H K

2001-01-01

157

Accuracy of bottled drinking water label content.  

PubMed

The purpose of the study was to compare the accuracy of the concentration of fluoride (F), calcium (Ca), pH, and total dissolved solids (TDS) levels mentioned on the labels of the various brands of bottled drinking water available in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Twenty-one different brands of locally produced non-carbonated (still water) bottled drinking water were collected from the supermarkets of Riyadh. The concentration of F, Ca, TDS, and pH values were noted from the labels of the bottles. The samples were analyzed for concentrations in the laboratory using the atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The mean level of F, Ca, and pH were found as 0.86 ppm, 38.47 ppm, and 7.5, respectively, which were significantly higher than the mean concentration of these elements reported in the labels. Whereas, the mean TDS concentration was found 118.87 ppm, which was significantly lower than the mean reported on the labels. In tropical countries like Saudi Arabia, the appropriate level of F concentration in drinking water as recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) should be 0.6-0.7 ppm. Since the level of F was found to be significantly higher than the WHO recommended level, the children exposed to this level could develop objectionable fluorosis. The other findings, like pH value, concentrations of Ca, and TDS, were in the range recommended by the WHO and Saudi standard limits and therefore should have no obvious significant health implications. PMID:19475483

Khan, Nazeer B; Chohan, Arham N

2010-07-01

158

CHLORINATION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER AND MENSTRUAL CYCLE FUNCTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Chlorination by-Products in Drinking Water and Menstrual Cycle Function Gayle C. Windham1, Kirsten Waller2, Meredith Anderson2, Laura Fenster1, Pauline Mendola3, Shanna Swan4 1California Department of Health Services, Division of Environmental and Occupational Disea...

159

Exploring Religious Mechanisms for Healthy Alcohol Use: Religious Messages and Drinking Among Korean Women in California*  

PubMed Central

Objective: This research identifies social reinforcers within religious institutions associated with alcohol consumption among Korean women in California. Method: Data were drawn from telephone interviews with female adults (N = 591) selected from a random sampling of persons in California with Korean surnames during 2007. Approximately 70% of attempted interviews were completed, with 92% conducted in Korean. Respondents were asked about any lifetime drinking (yes/no), drinking rate (typical number of drinks consumed on drinking days among current drinkers), and messages discouraging “excessive drinking” from religious leaders or congregants. Bivariable and multivariable regressions were used for analysis. Results: Approximately 70.4% of women reported any lifetime drinking, and drinkers drank a mean (SD) of 1.10 (1.22) drinks on drinking days. About 30.8%reported about 30.8% reported any exposure to religious leaders' messages discouraging excessive drinking, and 28.2% reported any exposure to similar messages from congregants. Each congregant's message was statistically significantly associated with a 5.1% lower probability (odds ratio = 0.775, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.626, 0.959) of any lifetime drinking. Also, each congregant's message was associated with a 13.8% (B = -0.138; 95% CI: -0.306, 0.029) lower drinking rate, which was statistically significant after adjusting for covariates using a one-tailed test. Exposure to leaders' messages was not statistically significantly associated with any lifetime drinking or drinking rate. Conclusions: Social reinforcement in the form of religious messages may be one mechanism by which religious institutions influence drinking behaviors. For Korean women, messages from congregants had a unique impact beyond the traditional religiosity indicators. These social mechanisms provide public health interventionists with religious pathways to improve drinking behaviors.

Ayers, John W.; Hofstetter, C. Richard; Hughes, Suzanne C.; Irvin, Veronica L.; Kang Sim, D. Eastern; Hovell, Melbourne F.

2009-01-01

160

USGS: California Water Science Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The California Water Science Center (CAWSC) is one of 48 water science centers in the water resources discipline of the United States Geological Survey. Their mission is to collect, analyze, and disseminate the impartial hydrologic data and information needed to wisely manage water resources for the people of the United States and the State of California. On their website, visitors can look over sections that include Projects, Publications, Water Data, Webcams, and Information Requests. The Projects area is a great resource and it contains direct links to water availability studies in the Cuyama Valley, mercury studies across the state, and reconnaissance analysis works. The Water Data area contains links to real time streamflow conditions, water quality updates, and the USGS data mapper, which has dynamic real time displays of spring sites and more across the state. Also, the site includes eight webcams that document conditions at places like Mission Creek in Santa Barbara and the Ventura River.

161

INACTIVATION OF MS2 VIRUS IN DRINKING WATER: TROJAN TECHNOLOGIES, INC., UVSWIFT ULTRAVIOLET SYSTEM MODEL 4L12, AT CHULA VISTA, CALIFORNIA.  

EPA Science Inventory

Verification testing of the Trojan Technologies UVSwift 4L12 system was conducted over a 45 day period from 9/1/01 to 10/15/01. The feedwater to the ultraviolet (UV) unit during the testing was the effluent from the Otay Water Treatment Plant (OWTP), a conventional plant with fl...

162

Removal of organics from drinking water  

SciTech Connect

Organic contamination of drinking water is basically caused by two general classes of organics; man-made synthetic organics and disinfection of naturally occurring organics (disinfection by-products). Many volatile and non-volatile synthetic organics at trace concentrations are being detected in surface and ground waters. Contaminated ground water usually contains two or more predominant organic compounds and several other identifiable ones at lesser concentrations. Surface waters, such as rivers, generally contain many organic compounds in low concentrations. The document summarizes the treatment technologies that EPA's Drinking Water Research Division (DWRD) is evaluating for removal of VOCs, SOCs, and disinfection by-products from water supplies. Carbon adsorption is effective for removing both VOCs and SOCs. Packed-tower and diffused aeration are best suited for removing VOCs. Of the technologies that show promise and are being tested at the bench and pilot scales, conventional treatment with powdered activated carbon (PAC) is effective for removing a few of the SOCs, ozone oxidation is effective for removing certain classes of VOCs and SOCs, and certain reverse osmosis membranes and ultraviolet treatment are also potentially effective against VOCs and SOCs.

Lykins, B.W.

1988-01-01

163

Drinking Water and Health. Part II, Chapters 6 and 7. A Report of the Safe Drinking Water Committee.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial of contents: Herbicides; Insecticides; Fungicides; Fumigant; Other organic constituents; Background radiation; Abundance of radionuclides in water; Radiation dose calculations; Estimation of risk; Risks from radioactive drinking water.

1977-01-01

164

Ammonia pollution characteristics of centralized drinking water sources in China.  

PubMed

The characteristics of ammonia in drinking water sources in China were evaluated during 2005-2009. The spatial distribution and seasonal changes of ammonia in different types of drinking water sources of 22 provinces, 5 autonomous regions and 4 municipalities were investigated. The levels of ammonia in drinking water sources follow the order of river > lake/reservoir > groundwater. The levels of ammonia concentration in river sources gradually decreased from 2005 to 2008, while no obvious change was observed in the lakes/reservoirs and groundwater drinking water sources. The proportion of the type of drinking water sources is different in different regions. In river drinking water sources, the ammonia level was varied in different regions and changed seasonally. The highest value and wide range of annual ammonia was found in South East region, while the lowest value was found in Southwest region. In lake/reservoir drinking water sources, the ammonia levels were not varied obviously in different regions. In underground drinking water sources, the ammonia levels were varied obviously in different regions due to the geological permeability and the natural features of regions. In the drinking water sources with higher ammonia levels, there are enterprises and wastewater drainages in the protected areas of the drinking water sources. PMID:23520842

Fu, Qing; Zheng, Binghui; Zhao, Xingru; Wang, Lijing; Liu, Changming

2012-01-01

165

Water, Water Everywhere, But is it Safe to Drink?  

EPA Science Inventory

Drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs) have been associated with adverse human health effects, including bladder cancer, early term miscarriage, and birth defects. While it is vitally important to kill harmful pathogens in water, it is also important to minimize harmful ...

166

WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN A DRINKING WATER RESERVOIR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake Rockwell provides drinking water to Akron, Ohio. Algae and macrophytes cause increased treatment costs, user complaints, and concerns about water quality standards. The reservoir is very eutrophic. A diagnostic study performed in the laboratory with intact cores taken from littoral and anoxic sediments determined that oxic and anoxic sediments have a very high potential for phosphorus release. Only 19

G. Dennis Cooke; Robert E. Carlson

1986-01-01

167

Drinking water quality from the aspect of element concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Drinking water in developed countries is usually treated by the water-purification system, while in developing countries untreated\\u000a natural water such as well water, river water, rain water, or pond water are used. On the other hand, many kinds of mineral\\u000a water bottled in plastic containers are sold as drinking water with or without gas in urban areas in many countries.

M. Chiba; A. Shinohara; M. Sekine; S. Hiraishi

2006-01-01

168

Why Drinking Water Is the Way to Go  

MedlinePLUS

Why Drinking Water Is the Way to Go KidsHealth > Kids > Staying Healthy > Fabulous Food > Why Drinking Water Is the Way to Go Print A A ... have in common? Give up? You all need water. All living things must have water to survive, ...

169

ATRAZOME CHLORINATION TRANSFORMATION PRODUCTS UNDER DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONDITIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Chlorination is a commonly-used disinfectant step in drinking water treatment. Should free chlorine be added to water used as a drinking water source, it is widely understood that many biological species in the water, along with dissolved organic and inorganic chemicals, will rea...

170

DRINKING IN SNAKES: KINEMATIC CYCLING AND WATER TRANSPORT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Snakes are purported to drink by sucking water into their mouths and then compressing the oral cavity to force water into the oesophagus. Video recordings of drinking behaviour in 23 snakes representing 14 species from three families, combined with simultaneous recordings of water volumes consumed, show that all the snakes vary widely in the amount of water taken in when

DAVID CUNDALL

171

EXPOSURE TO LEAD IN U.S. DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

In the U.S., lead occurs primarily as a corrosion by-product in public drinking water supplies. hat is, its source is the corrosive action of the water upon the materials used in the water distribution system and private plumbing. istorically, drinking water has not been a major ...

172

Tracking persistent pharmaceutical residues from municipal sewage to drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

In urban areas such as Berlin (Germany) with high municipal sewage water discharges and low surface water flows there is a potential risk of drinking water contamination by polar organic compounds when groundwater recharge is used in drinking water production. Thus, some pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) are not eliminated completely in the municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs) and they are

Thomas Heberer

2002-01-01

173

Aluminium content of drinking waters, fruit juices and soft drinks: contribution to dietary intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of aluminium in drinking waters (tap water, still mineral water and sparkling mineral water), fruit juices and soft drinks were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) of samples processed with a HNO3–V2O5 acid digestion pre-treatment. In water samples, aluminium was determined directly. We verified the sensitivity, accuracy and precision of the method and ruled out matrix interferences.

Francisco F. López; Carmen Cabrera; M. Luisa Lorenzo; M. Carmen López

2002-01-01

174

Fluoride in drinking water and dental fluorosis.  

PubMed

In this study we determined the fluoride content in drinking water and hair of 12-year-old schoolchildren from different Serbian municipalities, i.e. Valjevo, Veliko Gradiste, Kacarevo and Vranjska Banja. The analyses were performed using composite fluoride ion-selective electrode. Average fluoride levels were 0.10, 0.15, 0.79 and 11 ppm in well water, 0.07, 0.10, 0.17 and 0.15 ppm in tap water, 19.3, 21.5, 25.4, and 32.5 ppm in hair samples, in Valjevo, Veliko Gradiste, Kacarevo and Vranjska Banja, respectively. Correlation analysis indicated statistically significant positive relationship between fluoride in wells water and fluoride in hair, for all municipalities: correlation coefficients were 0.54 (p < 0.05), 0.89, 0.97 and 0.99 (p < 0.001), in Vranjska Banja, Valjevo, Veliko Gradiste, and Kacarevo, respectively. Positive correlation was obtained also between fluoride in tap water and hair samples in all regions under the study, with statistical significance only in Valjevo municipality, p < 0.05. Dental examination of schoolchildren confirmed dental fluorosis only in the region of Vranjska Banja. Moreover, in endemic fluorotic region of Vranjska Banja, positive and statistically significant correlations were confirmed between fluoride in well water and dental fluorosis level (r = 0.61; p < 0.01) and additionally between fluoride in hair and dental fluorosis level (0.62; p < 0.01). The primary findings from this study have shown that fluoride content in hair is highly correlated with fluoride content in drinking water and dental fluorosis level, indicating that hair may be regarded as biomaterial of high informative potential in evaluating prolonged exposure to fluorides and to individuate children at risk of fluorosis regardless of the phase of teeth eruption. PMID:20580811

Mandinic, Zoran; Curcic, Marijana; Antonijevic, Biljana; Carevic, Momir; Mandic, Jelena; Djukic-Cosic, Danijela; Lekic, Charles P

2010-08-01

175

Lithium in Drinking Water and Thyroid Function  

PubMed Central

Background High concentrations of lithium in drinking water were previously discovered in the Argentinean Andes Mountains. Lithium is used worldwide for treatment of bipolar disorder and treatment-resistant depression. One known side effect is altered thyroid function. Objectives We assessed associations between exposure to lithium from drinking water and other environmental sources and thyroid function. Methods Women (n = 202) were recruited in four Andean villages in northern Argentina. Lithium exposure was assessed based on concentrations in spot urine samples, measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Thyroid function was evaluated by plasma free thyroxine (T4) and pituitary gland thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), analyzed by routine immunometric methods. Results The median urinary lithium concentration was 3,910 ?g/L (5th, 95th percentiles, 270 ?g/L, 10,400 ?g/L). Median plasma concentrations (5th, 95th percentiles) of T4 and TSH were 17 pmol/L (13 pmol/L, 21 pmol/L) and 1.9 mIU/L, (0.68 mIU/L, 4.9 mIU/L), respectively. Urine lithium was inversely associated with T4 [? for a 1,000-?g/L increase = ?0.19; 95% confidence interval (CI), ?0.31 to ?0.068; p = 0.002] and positively associated with TSH (? = 0.096; 95% CI, 0.033 to 0.16; p = 0.003). Both associations persisted after adjustment (for T4, ? = ?0.17; 95% CI, ?0.32 to ?0.015; p = 0.032; for TSH: ? = 0.089; 95% CI, 0.024 to 0.15; p = 0.007). Urine selenium was positively associated with T4 (adjusted T4 for a 1 ?g/L increase: ? = 0.041; 95% CI, 0.012 to 0.071; p = 0.006). Conclusions Exposure to lithium via drinking water and other environmental sources may affect thyroid function, consistent with known side effects of medical treatment with lithium. This stresses the need to screen for lithium in all drinking water sources.

Broberg, Karin; Concha, Gabriela; Engstrom, Karin; Lindvall, Magnus; Grander, Margareta; Vahter, Marie

2011-01-01

176

Cancer risks from arsenic in drinking water.  

PubMed Central

Ingestion of arsenic, both from water supplies and medicinal preparations, is known to cause skin cancer. The evidence assessed here indicates that arsenic can also cause liver, lung, kidney, and bladder cancer and that the population cancer risks due to arsenic in U.S. water supplies may be comparable to those from environmental tobacco smoke and radon in homes. Large population studies in an area of Taiwan with high arsenic levels in well water (170-800 micrograms/L) were used to establish dose-response relationships between cancer risks and the concentration of inorganic arsenic naturally present in water supplies. It was estimated that at the current EPA standard of 50 micrograms/L, the lifetime risk of dying from cancer of the liver, lung, kidney, or bladder from drinking 1 L/day of water could be as high as 13 per 1000 persons. It has been estimated that more than 350,000 people in the United States may be supplied with water containing more than 50 micrograms/L arsenic, and more than 2.5 million people may be supplied with water with levels above 25 micrograms/L. For average arsenic levels and water consumption patterns in the United States, the risk estimate was around 1/1000. Although further research is needed to validate these findings, measures to reduce arsenic levels in water supplies should be considered.

Smith, A H; Hopenhayn-Rich, C; Bates, M N; Goeden, H M; Hertz-Picciotto, I; Duggan, H M; Wood, R; Kosnett, M J; Smith, M T

1992-01-01

177

Portable Nanomesh Creates Safer Drinking Water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Providing astronauts with clean water is essential to space exploration to ensure the health and well-being of crewmembers away from Earth. For the sake of efficient and safe long-term space travel, NASA constantly seeks to improve the process of filtering and re-using wastewater in closed-loop systems. Because it would be impractical for astronauts to bring months (or years) worth of water with them, reducing the weight and space taken by water storage through recycling and filtering as much water as possible is crucial. Closed-loop systems using nanotechnology allow wastewater to be cleaned and reused while keeping to a minimum the amount of drinking water carried on missions. Current high-speed filtration methods usually require electricity, and methods without electricity usually prove impractical or slow. Known for their superior strength and electrical conductivity, carbon nanotubes measure only a few nanometers in diameter; a nanometer is one billionth of a meter, or roughly one hundred-thousandth the width of a human hair. Nanotubes have improved water filtration by eliminating the need for chemical treatments, significant pressure, and heavy water tanks, which makes the new technology especially appealing for applications where small, efficient, lightweight materials are required, whether on Earth or in space. "NASA will need small volume, effective water purification systems for future long-duration space flight," said Johnson Space Center s Karen Pickering. NASA advances in water filtration with nanotechnology are now also protecting human health in the most remote areas of Earth.

2008-01-01

178

DRINKING WATER AND CANCER INCIDENCE IN IOWA. 2. RADIOACTIVITY IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper presents a logical epidemiologic exploration into possible associations between exposures to radium-226 in drinking water and incidence rates for cancers of the bladder, breast, colon, lung, prostate, and rectum. The most striking finding is the increasing gradient of ...

179

Design of a drinking-water-quality monitoring program  

SciTech Connect

The report reviews literature on the impacts of acid deposition and the effect of acidic water on drinking-water quality: it reveals that the majority of surface water supplies in Massachusetts are vulnerable to acidification, that surface-water supplies have experienced historical losses of acid-neutralizing capacity, and that the primary potential cause of acidification-related water-quality degradation of household drinking water is the corrosion of water supply distribution pipes.

Godfrey, P.J.; Ruby, A.; Zajicek, O.T.; DeFrancesco, S.J.; Sutherland, M.

1986-08-01

180

Water drinking as a treatment for orthostatic syndromes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PURPOSE: Water drinking increases blood pressure in a substantial proportion of patients who have severe orthostatic hypotension due to autonomic failure. We tested the hypothesis that water drinking can be used as a practical treatment for patients with orthostatic and postprandial hypotension, as well as those with orthostatic tachycardia. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We studied the effect of drinking water on seated and standing blood pressure and heart rate in 11 patients who had severe orthostatic hypotension due to autonomic failure and in 9 patients who had orthostatic tachycardia due to idiopathic orthostatic intolerance. We also tested the effect of water drinking on postprandial hypotension in 7 patients who had autonomic failure. Patients drank 480 mL of tap water at room temperature in less than 5 minutes. RESULTS: In patients with autonomic failure, mean (+/- SD) blood pressure after 1 minute of standing was 83 +/- 6/53 +/- 3.4 mm Hg at baseline, which increased to 114 +/- 30/66 +/- 18 mm Hg (P <0.01) 35 minutes after drinking. After a meal, blood pressure decreased by 43 +/- 36/20 +/- 13 mm Hg without water drinking, compared with 22 +/- 10/12 +/- 5 mm Hg with drinking (P <0.001). In patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance, water drinking attenuated orthostatic tachycardia (123 +/- 23 beats per minute) at baseline to 108 +/- 21 beats per minute after water drinking ( P <0.001). CONCLUSION: Water drinking elicits a rapid pressor response in patients with autonomic failure and can be used to treat orthostatic and postprandial hypotension. Water drinking moderately reduces orthostatic tachycardia in patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance. Thus, water drinking may serve as an adjunctive treatment in patients with impaired orthostatic tolerance.

Shannon, John R.; Diedrich, Andre; Biaggioni, Italo; Tank, Jens; Robertson, Rose Marie; Robertson, David; Jordan, Jens

2002-01-01

181

76 FR 7762 - Drinking Water: Regulatory Determination on Perchlorate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRL-9262-8] RIN 2040-AF08 Drinking Water: Regulatory Determination on Perchlorate...perchlorate in accordance with the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). Specifically, EPA has determined...likelihood that perchlorate will occur in public water systems with a frequency and at...

2011-02-11

182

ADVANCES IN DRINKING WATER TREATMENT IN THE UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

The United States drinking water public health protection goal is to provide water that meets all health-based standards to ninety-five percent of the population served by public drinking water supplies by 2005. In 2002, the level of compliance with some eighty-five health-based ...

183

Disinfection By-Products: Formation and Occurrence in Drinking Water  

EPA Science Inventory

The disinfection of drinking water has been rightly hailed as a public health triumph of the twentieth century. Millions of people worldwide receive quality drinking water every day from their public water systems. However, chemical disinfection has also produced an unintended he...

184

The Safe Drinking Water Act First 180 Days  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Safe Drinking Water Act protects our drinking and ground water resources. The Water Advisory Council interprets and implements the law. Implementation principles include high priorities for public health, cost considerations, state and local participation, environmental impact, decentralized decision making, and use of federal and state…

Lehr, Jay H.

1975-01-01

185

Fate of Perfluorooctanesulfonate and perfluorooctanoate in drinking water treatment processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) have been recognized as global environmental pollutants. Although PFOS and PFOA have been detected in tap water from Japan and several other countries, very few studies have examined the fate, especially removal, of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in drinking water treatment processes. In this study, we analyzed PFOS and PFOA at every stages of drinking water

Sokichi Takagi; Fumie Adachi; Keiichi Miyano; Yoshihiko Koizumi; Hidetsugu Tanaka; Isao Watanabe; Shinsuke Tanabe; Kurunthachalam Kannan

2011-01-01

186

RESEARCH ACTIVITIES IN DRINKING WATER TECHNOLOGY: A PROGRESS REPORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The Safe Drinking Water Act and its Amendments (SDWAA) have given EPA an aggressive standard setting agenda. The agenda, if carried out fully, will impact on water utilities in the U.S. EPA's Drinking Water Research Division (DWRD) is responsible for evaluating technologies for m...

187

Probing young drinking water biofilms with hard and soft particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of our study was to investigate, through the use of soft (Escherichia coli) and hard (polystyrene microspheres) particles, the distribution and persistence of allochthonous particles inoculated in drinking water flow chambers. Biofilms were allowed to grow for 7–10 months in tap water from Nancy's drinking water network and were composed of bacterial aggregates and filamentous fungi. Both model

Tony Paris; Salaheddine Skali-Lami; Jean-Claude Block

2009-01-01

188

Helicobacter pylori in the drinking water in Peru  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND & AIMS: An association between water sources and the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Peruvian children was shown previously. The aim of this study was to confirm the presence of H. pylori in drinking water in the same community. METHODS: Forty-eight drinking water samples from different locations in pueblo jovenes (new towns) near Lima were collected. Samples were

K Hulten; SW Han; H Enroth; PD Klein; AR Opekun; RH Gilman; DG Evans; L Engstrand; DY Graham; FA El-Zaatari

1996-01-01

189

Melioidosis Caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei in Drinking Water, Thailand, 2012  

PubMed Central

We identified 10 patients in Thailand with culture-confirmed melioidosis who had Burkholderia pseudomallei isolated from their drinking water. The multilocus sequence type of B. pseudomallei from clinical specimens and water samples were identical for 2 patients. This finding suggests that drinking water is a preventable source of B. pseudomallei infection.

Wongsuvan, Gumphol; Aanensen, David; Ngamwilai, Sujittra; Saiprom, Natnaree; Rongkard, Patpong; Thaipadungpanit, Janjira; Kanoksil, Manas; Chantratita, Narisara; Day, Nicholas P.J.; Peacock, Sharon J.

2014-01-01

190

Defluoridation of drinking water using adsorption processes.  

PubMed

Excessive intake of fluoride (F), mainly through drinking water, is a serious health hazard affecting humans worldwide. There are several methods used for the defluoridation of drinking water, of which adsorption processes are generally considered attractive because of their effectiveness, convenience, ease of operation, simplicity of design, and for economic and environmental reasons. In this paper, we present a comprehensive and a critical literature review on various adsorbents used for defluoridation, their relative effectiveness, mechanisms and thermodynamics of adsorption, and suggestions are made on choice of adsorbents for various circumstances. Effects of pH, temperature, kinetics and co-existing anions on F adsorption are also reviewed. Because the adsorption is very weak in extremely low or high pHs, depending on the adsorbent, acids or alkalis are used to desorb F and regenerate the adsorbents. However, adsorption capacity generally decreases with repeated use of the regenerated adsorbent. Future research needs to explore highly efficient, low cost adsorbents that can be easily regenerated for reuse over several cycles of operations without significant loss of adsorptive capacity and which have good hydraulic conductivity to prevent filter clogging during the fixed-bed treatment process. PMID:23352905

Loganathan, Paripurnanda; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu; Kandasamy, Jaya; Naidu, Ravi

2013-03-15

191

Genotoxicity of Swimming Pool Water and Carcinogenicity of Drinking Water**  

EPA Science Inventory

Among the 11 disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water that are regulated by the U.S. EPA, (a) 2 DBPs (chloroaceticacid and chlorite) are not carcinogenic-in either of2 species; (b) chlorite is not carcinogenic in 3 rodent assays and has never been tested for genotoxicity...

192

Genotoxicity of Swimming Pool Water and Carcinogenicity of Drinking Water  

EPA Science Inventory

Among the 11 disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water that are regulated by the U.S. EPA, (a) 2 DBPs (chloroaceticacid and chlorite) are not carcinogenic-in either of2 species; (b) chlorite is not carcinogenic in 3 rodent assays and has never been tested for genotoxicity...

193

[Hydraulic fracturing - a hazard for drinking water?].  

PubMed

Hydraulic fracturing (fracking) is a technique used to release and promote the extraction of natural gas (including shale gas, tight gas, and coal bed methane) from deep natural gas deposits. Among the German public there is great concern with regard to the potential environmental impacts of fracking including the contamination of ground water, the most important source of drinking water in Germany. In the present article the risks of ground water contamination through fracking are discussed. Due to the present safety requirements and the obligatory geological and hydrogeological scrutiny of the underground, which has to be performed prior to fracking, the risk of ground water contamination by fracking can be regarded as very low. The toxicity of chemical additives of fracking fluids is discussed. It is recommended that in the future environmental impact assessment and approval of fracs should be performed by the mining authorities in close cooperation with the water authorities. Furthermore, it is recommended that hydraulic fracturing in the future should be accompanied by obligatory ground water monitoring. PMID:24285158

Ewers, U; Gordalla, B; Frimmel, F

2013-11-01

194

Arsenic occurrence in New Hampshire drinking water  

SciTech Connect

Arsenic concentrations were measured in 992 drinking water samples collected from New Hampshire households using online hydride generation ICP-MS. These randomly selected household water samples contain much less arsenic than those voluntarily submitted for analysis to the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES). Extrapolation of the voluntarily submitted sample set to all New Hampshire residents significantly overestimates arsenic exposure. In randomly selected households, concentrations ranged from <0.0003 to 180 {micro}g/L, with water from domestic wells containing significantly more arsenic than water from municipal sources. Water samples from drilled bedrock wells had the highest arsenic concentrations, while samples from surficial wells had the lowest arsenic concentrations. The authors suggest that much of the groundwater arsenic in New Hampshire is derived from weathering of bedrock materials and not from anthropogenic contamination. The spatial distribution of elevated arsenic concentrations correlates with Late-Devonian Concord-type granitic bedrock. Field observations in the region exhibiting the highest groundwater arsenic concentrations revealed abundant pegmatite dikes associated with nearby granites. Analysis of rock digests indicates arsenic concentrations up to 60 mg/kg in pegmatites, with much lower values in surrounding schists and granites. Weak acid leaches show that approximately half of the total arsenic in the pegmatites is labile and therefore can be mobilized during rock-water interaction.

Peters, S.C.; Blum, J.D.; Klaue, B. [Dartmouth Coll., Hanover, NH (United States). Dept. of Earth Sciences] [Dartmouth Coll., Hanover, NH (United States). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Karagas, M.R. [Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH (United States). Dept. of Community and Family Medicine] [Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH (United States). Dept. of Community and Family Medicine

1999-05-01

195

Safe drinking water act: Amendments, regulations and standards  

SciTech Connect

This book approaches the topic of safe drinking water by communicating how the EPA has responded to the mandates of Congress. Chapter 1 summarizes what is and will be involved in achieving safe drinking water. Chapter 2 describes the historical development of drinking water regulations. Chapter 3 summarizes the directives of the Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1986. Chapters 4 through 9 discuss each phase of the regulatory program in turn. Specific problems associated with volatile organic chemicals, synthetic organics, inorganic chemicals, and microbiological contaminants are assessed in Chapter 4 and 5. The unique characteristics of radionuclides and their regulation are treated in Chapter 6. The disinfection process and its resultant disinfection by-products are presented in Chapter 7. The contaminant selection process and the additional contaminants to be regulated by 1989 and 1991 and in future years are discussed in Chapters 8 and 9. EPA's Office of Drinking Water's Health Advisory Program is explained in Chapter 10. The record of public water system compliance with the primary drinking water regulations is detailed in Chapter 11. Chapter 12 offers a nongovernmental perspective on the general quality of drinking water and how this is affected by a wide range of drinking water treatment technologies. Separate abstracts are processed for 5 chapters in this book for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

Calabrese, E.J.; Gilbert, C.E.; Pastides, H. (eds.)

1989-01-01

196

Women's childhood and adult adverse experiences, mental health, and binge drinking: The California Women's Health Survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: This study examined sociodemographic, physical and mental health, and adult and childhood adverse experiences associated with binge drinking in a representative sample of women in the State of California. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were from the 2003 to 2004 (response rates of 72% and 74%, respectively) California Women's Health Survey (CWHS), a population-based, random-digit-dial annual probability survey sponsored by

Christine Timko; Anne Sutkowi; Joanne Pavao; Rachel Kimerling

2008-01-01

197

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR LINDANE (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on lindane. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of lindane, Toxicokinetics and human exposu...

198

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR COPPER (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on copper. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of copper; Toxicokinetics and human exposure...

199

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR ETHYLBENZENE (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on ethylbenzene. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of ethylbenzene; Toxicokinetics and hu...

200

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR ENDRIN (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on endrin. The Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of endrin, Toxicokinetics and human exposure ...

201

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR NICKEL (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on nickel. The Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of nickel, toxicokinetics and human exposure ...

202

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR STYRENE (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on styrene. The Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of styrene, Toxicokinetics and human exposur...

203

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR METHOXYCHLOR (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on methoxychlor. The Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of methoxychlor, toxicokinetics and hum...

204

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR TOLUENE (FINAL DRAFT) 1985  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a drinking water criteria document on toluene. The criteria document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of toluene toxicokinetics and human exposure...

205

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR CYANIDES (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on cyanide. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of cyanides; Toxicokinetics and human expos...

206

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR XYLENES (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking water Criteria Document on xylenes: This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics; Physical and chemical properties of xylenes; Toxicokinetics and human exposu...

207

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on PCBs. The Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of PCBs, Toxicokinetics and human exposure to P...

208

IDENTIFICATION OF NEW BROMINATED ACIDS IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Since chloroform was identified as the first disinfection by-product (DBP) in drinking water, there has been more than 25 years of research on DBPs. Despite these efforts, more than 50% of the total organic halide (TOX) formed in chlorinated drinking water remains unknown. Ther...

209

Water drinking as a treatment for orthostatic syndromes  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeWater drinking increases blood pressure in a substantial proportion of patients who have severe orthostatic hypotension due to autonomic failure. We tested the hypothesis that water drinking can be used as a practical treatment for patients with orthostatic and postprandial hypotension, as well as those with orthostatic tachycardia.

John R Shannon; Andre Diedrich; Italo Biaggioni; Jens Tank; Rose Marie Robertson; David Robertson; Jens Jordan

2002-01-01

210

Studies on Disinfection By-Products and Drinking Water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Drinking water is disinfected with chemicals to remove pathogens, such as Giardia and Cryptosproridium, and prevent waterborne diseases such as cholera and typhoid. During disinfection, by-products are formed at trace concentrations. Because some of these by-products are suspected carcinogens, drinking water utilities must maintain the effectiveness of the disinfection process while minimizing the formation of by-products.

Rostad, Colleen E.

2007-01-01

211

HEALTH EFFECTS OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO BARIUM IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The overall objective of this study was to examine by epidemiologic and supportive laboratory studies, the human health effects associated with ingestion of barium in drinking water exceeding the U.S. drinking water standard of 1.0 mg/l. The incidence of cardiovascular mortality ...

212

Disinfection By-Products and Drinking Water Treatment  

EPA Science Inventory

The disinfection of drinking water has been rightly hailed as a public health triumph of the 20th century. Before its widespread use, millions of people died from waterborne diseases. Now, people in developed nations receive quality drinking water every day from their public wa...

213

Natural organic matter removal from drinking water by membrane technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquatic natural organic matter (NOM) is a heterogeneous mixture of biopolymers and their degradation products that cause harmful by-products during drinking water production. The great variability in NOM composition makes it difficult to completely remove from drinking water by any single technique. The current paper reviews the NOM removal by micro-, ultra- and nanofiltration and by hybrid processes combining membrane

Sari Metsämuuronen; Mika Sillanpää; Amit Bhatnagar; Mika Mänttäri

2012-01-01

214

RESEARCH AND GUIDANCE ON DRINKING WATER CONTAMINANT MIXTURES  

EPA Science Inventory

Accurate assessment of potential human health risk(s) from multiple-route exposures to multiple chemicals in drinking water is needed because of widespread daily exposure to this complex mixture. Hundreds of chemicals have been identified in drinking water with the mix of chemic...

215

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR TOXAPHENE (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on toxaphene. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of toxaphene; Toxicokinetics and human ex...

216

TREATMENT OF ARSENIC RESIDUALS FROM DRINKING WATER REMOVAL PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The drinking water MCL was recently lowered from 0.05 mg/L to 0.01 mg/L. One concern was that reduction in the TCLP arsenic limit in response to the drinking water MCL could be problematic with regard to disposal of solid residuals generated at arsenic removal facilities. This pr...

217

DRINKING WATER ARSENIC IN UTAH: A COHORT MORTALITY STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The association of drinking water arsenic and mortality outcome was investigated in a cohort of residents from Millard County, Utah. Median drinking water arsenic concentrations for selected study towns ranged from 14 to 166 ppb and were from public and private samples collected ...

218

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR ALDICARB (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on aldicarb. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of aldicarb; Toxicokinetics and human expo...

219

GENOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The information summarized in this review provides substantial evidence for the widespread presence of genotoxins in drinking water. In many, if not most cases, the genotoxic activity can be directly attributed to the chlorination stage of drinking water treatment. The genotoxic ...

220

ARSENIC IN WATER USED FOR DRINKING - AN ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION  

EPA Science Inventory

In October 2001, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced a new federal standard for concentrations of arsenic found in drinking water. The new standard was to be 10 parts-per-million (ppm). This new standard will be required by the Safe Drinking Water Act in...

221

75 FR 15499 - National Primary Drinking Water Regulations; Announcement of the Results of EPA's Review of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Primary Drinking Water Regulations; Announcement of the Results of EPA's Review of Existing Drinking Water Standards and Request for Public Comment...RIN 2040-AE90 National Primary Drinking Water Regulations; Announcement of the...

2010-03-29

222

76 FR 2383 - Proposed HHS Recommendation for Fluoride Concentration in Drinking Water for Prevention of Dental...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for Fluoride Concentration in Drinking Water for Prevention of Dental Caries AGENCY...U.S. Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards related to recommendations for fluoride concentrations in drinking water. The U.S. Public Health Service...

2011-01-13

223

75 FR 30401 - National Primary Drinking Water Regulations; Announcement of the Results of EPA's Review of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRL-9156-6] RIN 2040-AE90 National Primary Drinking Water Regulations; Announcement...public comment period for the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations; Announcement...a periodic review of existing National Primary Drinking Water Regulations...

2010-06-01

224

21 CFR 1240.80 - General requirements for water for drinking and culinary purposes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirements for water for drinking and culinary purposes. 1240.80 Section 1240...requirements for water for drinking and culinary purposes. Only potable water shall be provided for drinking and culinary purposes by any operator of...

2010-04-01

225

21 CFR 1240.80 - General requirements for water for drinking and culinary purposes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirements for water for drinking and culinary purposes. 1240.80 Section 1240...requirements for water for drinking and culinary purposes. Only potable water shall be provided for drinking and culinary purposes by any operator of...

2009-04-01

226

30 CFR 71.602 - Drinking water; distribution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirements are applicable, water systems and appurtenances...71.402(b).) (b) Water transported to the site shall...constructed of smooth, impervious, heavy gauge, corrosion resistant materials...with the words âDrinking...

2009-07-01

227

30 CFR 71.602 - Drinking water; distribution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...requirements are applicable, water systems and appurtenances...71.402(b).) (b) Water transported to the site shall...constructed of smooth, impervious, heavy gauge, corrosion resistant materials...with the words âDrinking...

2013-07-01

228

30 CFR 71.602 - Drinking water; distribution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...requirements are applicable, water systems and appurtenances...71.402(b).) (b) Water transported to the site shall...constructed of smooth, impervious, heavy gauge, corrosion resistant materials...with the words âDrinking...

2010-07-01

229

Impact of Drinking Water Treatment on Assimilable Organic Carbon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Regrowth in the drinking water distribution system is a primary concern for water utilities. The disinfection process, although normally efficient for primary inactivation, is not always enough to discourage microbial regrowth if sufficient substrate is a...

E. M. Mogren P. V. Scarpino R. S. Summers

1990-01-01

230

IMPACT OF DRINKING WATER TREATMENT ON ASSIMILABLE ORGANIC CARBON  

EPA Science Inventory

Regrowth in the drinking water distribution system is a primary concern for water utilities. he disinfection process, although normally efficient for primary inactivation, is not always enough to discourage microbial regrowth if sufficient substrate is available. Previously, the,...

231

OVERVIEW OF USEPA MICROBIOLOGICAL RESEARCH IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The Microbial Contaminants Control Branch (MCCB) conducts research on microbiological problems related to drinking water treatment, distribution and storage, and has recently become involved in watershed and source water quality issues such as fecal indicator bacteria and fecal p...

232

California State Water Resources Control Board  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From this website one can link to laws and regulations related to water and water issues in California, as well as to the state's nine regional control boards. Topics covered include water education, water quality and water rights, as well as various programs such as blue-green algae, environmental justice, irrigated agriculture, septic, and storm water, among others. This website is a good source of California-based policy on water resource issues.

Board, State W.; California, State O.

233

Investigations on boron levels in drinking water sources in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate boron contamination of public drinking water in China, both dissolved and total boron contents in 98 public drinking\\u000a water sources from 49 cities, 42 brands of bottled water samples from supermarkets in several cities, and 58 water samples\\u000a from boron industrial area were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Our experimental results\\u000a showed that boron existed in

Ren-ji Xu; Xiao-ru Xing; Qun-fang Zhou; Gui-bin Jiang; Fu-sheng Wei

2010-01-01

234

Gross alpha radioactivity of drinking water in Venezuela  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bottled mineral water is consumed by a large population in Venezuela. The alpha emitters concentration was measured in samples of bottled water and water springs collected near the surface. Approximately 30% of the total mineral water suppliers was monitored. A database on natural and artificial radioactivity in drinking water was produced. Results indicate that 54% of the waters sampled contain

L. Sajo-Bohus; J. Gómez; T. Capote; E. D. Greaves; O. Herrera; V. Salazar; A. Smith

1997-01-01

235

Women's childhood and adult adverse experiences, mental health, and binge drinking: The California Women's Health Survey  

PubMed Central

Background This study examined sociodemographic, physical and mental health, and adult and childhood adverse experiences associated with binge drinking in a representative sample of women in the State of California. Materials and methods Data were from the 2003 to 2004 (response rates of 72% and 74%, respectively) California Women's Health Survey (CWHS), a population-based, random-digit-dial annual probability survey sponsored by the California Department of Health Services. The sample was 6,942 women aged 18 years or older. Results The prevalence of binge drinking was 9.3%. Poor physical health, and poorer mental health (i.e., symptoms of PTSD, anxiety, and depression, feeling overwhelmed by stress), were associated with binge drinking when demographics were controlled, as were adverse experiences in adulthood (intimate partner violence, having been physically or sexually assaulted, or having experienced the death of someone close) and in childhood (living with someone abusing substances or mentally ill, or with a mother vicimized by violence, or having been physically or sexually assaulted). When adult mental health and adverse experiences were also controlled, having lived as a child with someone who abused substances or was mentally ill was associated with binge drinking. Associations between childhood adverse experiences and binge drinking could not be explained by women's poorer mental health status in adulthood. Conclusion Identifying characteristics of women who engage in binge drinking is a key step in prevention and intervention efforts. Binge drinking programs should consider comprehensive approaches that address women's mental health symptoms as well as circumstances in the childhood home.

Timko, Christine; Sutkowi, Anne; Pavao, Joanne; Kimerling, Rachel

2008-01-01

236

76 FR 72703 - Meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council-Notice of Public Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

Notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC or Council), established under the Safe Drinking Water Act. The Council will consider various issues associated with drinking water protection and public water systems including actions to assist small water systems and efforts underway to address nutrient pollution of drinking water supplies. The Council......

2011-11-25

237

Biological drinking water treatment of anaerobic groundwater in trickling filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drinking water production from anaerobic groundwater is usually achieved by so called conventional techniques such as aeration and sand filtration. The notion conventional implies a long history and general acceptation of the application, but doesn’t necessarily mean a thorough understanding of the processes involved. This is certainly the case for groundwater filtration, with groundwater being the major source for drinking

W. W. J. M. De Vet

2011-01-01

238

Organochlorine Pesticides Residues in Bottled Drinking Water from Mexico City  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work describes concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in bottled drinking water (BDW) in Mexico City. The results\\u000a of 36 samples (1.5 and 19 L presentations, 18 samples, respectively) showed the presence of seven pesticides (HCH isomers,\\u000a heptachlor, aldrin, and p,p?-DDE) in bottled water compared with the drinking water standards set by NOM-127-SSA1-1994, EPA, and World Health Organization.\\u000a The concentrations of the

Gilberto Díaz; Rutilio Ortiz; Beatriz Schettino; Salvador Vega; Rey Gutiérrez

2009-01-01

239

[Methods of drinking water conservation in autonomous objects (review)].  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to analyse literature on the use of different methods for conserving the quality of drinking water in autonomous objects. The analysis showed that the use of silver ions, impulsive electric discharges and their combinations are the best methods for conservation of water. It is necessary to make further research to develop new methods for drinking-water conservation. PMID:8675065

Avchinnikov, A V; Rakhmanin, Iu A; Zhuk, E G; Ryzhova, I N

1996-01-01

240

Deficiencies in drinking water distribution systems in developing countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapidly growing populations and migration to urban areas in developing countries has resulted in a vital need for the establishment of centralized water systems to disseminate potable water to residents. Protected source water and modern, well-maintained drinking water treatment plants can provide water adequate for human consumption. However, ageing, stressed or poorly maintained distribution systems can cause the quality of

Ellen J. Lee; Kellogg J. Schwab

2005-01-01

241

The psychology of drinking water quality: An exploratory study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Perceptions of drinking water quality were measured for residents at four locations in Western Australia. The total dissolved solid levels for the locations varied. Four scales of drinking water satisfaction were measured: acceptability of water quality; water quality risk judgment; perception of neighborhood water quality; and attitudes toward fluoride as an additive. Responses to each of these scales did not appear to be highly related to total dissolved solids. The relationship between attitudes toward water quality and a variety of psychological, attitudinal, experiential, and demographic variables was investigated. It was found that responses to the acceptability of water quality and water quality risk judgment scales related to perceived credibility of societal institutions and feelings of control over water quality and environmental problems. For the remaining two scales few significant correlations were found. The results support those who advocate localized information and involvement campaigns on drinking water quality issues.

Syme, Geoffrey J.; Williams, Katrina D.

1993-12-01

242

Time to revisit arsenic regulations: comparing drinking water and rice  

PubMed Central

Background Current arsenic regulations focus on drinking water without due consideration for dietary uptake and thus seem incoherent with respect to the risks arising from rice consumption. Existing arsenic guidelines are a cost-benefit compromise and, as such, they should be periodically re-evaluated. Discussion Literature data was used to compare arsenic exposure from rice consumption relative to exposure arising from drinking water. Standard risk assessment paradigms show that arsenic regulations for drinking water should target a maximum concentration of nearly zero to prevent excessive lung and bladder cancer risks (among others). A feasibility threshold of 3 ?g As l-1 was determined, but a cost-benefit analysis concluded that it would be too expensive to target a threshold below 10 ?g As l-1. Data from the literature was used to compare exposure to arsenic from rice and rice product consumption relative to drinking water consumption. The exposure to arsenic from rice consumption can easily be equivalent to or greater than drinking water exposure that already exceeds standard risks and is based on feasibility and cost-benefit compromises. It must also be emphasized that many may disagree with the implications for their own health given the abnormally high cancer odds expected at the cost-benefit arsenic threshold. Summary Tighter drinking water quality criteria should be implemented to properly protect people from excessive cancer risks. Food safety regulations must be put in place to prevent higher concentrations of arsenic in various drinks than those allowed in drinking water. Arsenic concentrations in rice should be regulated so as to roughly equate the risks and exposure levels observed from drinking water.

2014-01-01

243

Microbiological quality of drinking water at eight water treatment plants.  

PubMed

Eight drinking water treatment plants were sampled monthly during one year to evaluate the removal of bacterial indicators, new indicators and some pathogenic bacteria. Six plants are allocated along the Nile River at Cairo segment and the two others on Ismailia Canal. In this study many parameters were determined; the classical bacterial indicators (total bacterial counts at 22 and 37 degrees C, total coliforms, faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci) show the same trend in all plant intakes except faecal streptococci parameter. The numbers of faecal streptococci in plant intakes on the main stream of Nile River ranged from 8 to 250 MPN/100 ml, but the others ranged from 80 to 2700 MPN/100 ml. With regard to new indicators; total yeasts, Candida albicans, Aeromonas hydrophlia and total staphylococci ranged from 10(1) to 10(5), 10(2) to 10(5), 10(2) to 10(5) and 10(2) to 10(3) cfu/100 ml, respectively. In case of pathogens, salmonellae ranged between 10(2) and 10(3) cfu/100 ml, total vibrios varied between 10(2) and 10(4) and the Listeria group ranged from 10(2) to 10(5) cfu/100 ml from the intake samples. All tested samples from the outlet of water treatment plants, which produce drinking water, were free of classical bacterial indicators. So the produced water has a good quality from the bacteriological point, according to national and international regulations. On the other hand, the drinking water from some tested plants had one or more positive parameters of new indicators and pathogenic bacteria. PMID:11798415

El-Taweel, G E; Shaban, A M

2001-11-01

244

77 FR 67361 - Request for Information To Inform Hydraulic Fracturing Research Related to Drinking Water Resources  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for Information To Inform Hydraulic Fracturing Research Related to Drinking...the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources...the relationship between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water...

2012-11-09

245

78 FR 25267 - Request for Information To Inform Hydraulic Fracturing Research Related to Drinking Water Resources  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for Information To Inform Hydraulic Fracturing Research Related to Drinking...the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources...the relationship between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water...

2013-04-30

246

Providing Safe Drinking Water in America: 1996 National Public Water System Annual Compliance Report and Update on Implementation of the 1996 Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has provided online access to the report, Providing Safe Drinking Water in America: 1996 National Public Water System Annual Compliance Report and Update on Implementation of the 1996 Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments. While the report finds that US drinking water is generally safe, the EPA also reviews initiatives to improve water quality. The full-text of the article is available in .pdf format.

1999-01-01

247

Drinking Water Infrastructure and Environmental Disparities: Evidence and Methodological Considerations  

PubMed Central

Potable drinking water is essential to public health; however, few studies have investigated income or racial disparities in water infrastructure or drinking water quality. There were many case reports documenting a lack of piped water or serious water quality problems in low income and minority communities, including tribal lands, Alaskan Native villages, colonias along the United States–Mexico border, and small communities in agricultural areas. Only 3 studies compared the demographic characteristics of communities by the quality of their drinking water, and the results were mixed in these studies. Further assessments were hampered by difficulties linking specific water systems to the sociodemographic characteristics of communities, as well as little information about how well water systems operated and the effectiveness of governmental oversight.

2011-01-01

248

APPLICATION OF MULTIMEDIA EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT TO DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

A potentially important exposure route for humans is the ingestion of chemicals via drinking water. If comprehensive exposure assessments are to be completed for either existing or proposed new chemicals and cost effective control strategies develop, then a quantitative understan...

249

MOLECULAR DIVERSITY OF DRINKING WATER MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES: A PHYLOGENETIC APPROACH  

EPA Science Inventory

Culture-based methods are traditionally used to determine microbiological quality of drinking water even though these methods are highly selective and tend to underestimate the densities and diversity bacterial populations inhabiting distribution systems. In order to better under...

250

IDENTIFICATION OF NEW DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Due to concern over the potential adverse health effects of trihalomethanes (THMs) and other chlorinated by-products in chlorinated drinking water, alternative disinfectants are being explored. Ozone, chlorine dioxide, and chloramine are popular alternatives, as they produce low...

251

DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS: WHAT IS KNOWN  

EPA Science Inventory

Chlorine, ozone, chlorine dioxide, and chloramine are currently the major disinfectants being used to disinfect drinking water. Although the alternative disinfectants (ozone, chlorine dioxide, and chloramine) are increasing in popularity in the United States, chlorine is still us...

252

Pathogens in Drinking Water: Are There Any New Ones.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since 1976 three newly recognized human pathogens have become familiar to the drinking water industry as waterborne disease agents. These are: the legionnaires disease agent, Legionella pneumophila and related species; and two protozoan pathogens, Giardia...

D. J. Reasoner

1993-01-01

253

INTERACTIONS OF SILICA PARTICLES IN DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA Identifier: U915331 Title: Interactions of Silica Particles in Drinking Water Treatment Processes Fellow (Principal Investigator): Christina L. Clarkson Institution: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University EPA GRANT R...

254

Treatment of Arsenic Residuals from Drinking Water Removal Processes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report presents the results of a laboratory study to evaluate several potential treatment options to treat residuals produced by five drinking water treatment processes; ion exchange (IE), reverse osmosis (RO), nanofiltration (NF), activated alumina ...

M. L. MacPhee, G. E. Charles, D. A. Cornwell

2002-01-01

255

Safe Drinking Water Act - Protecting America's Public Health  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This poster can assist students in understanding how everyday occurrences can affect their drinking water. It highlights risks to drinking water that come in many forms, such as municipal and industrial discharges, recreational activities or simply natural conditions and events. It provides a detailed graphic description of these risks and the barriers in place to help ensure the safety of our drinking water. The full-color poster can be downloaded or ordered in a 24 by 36 inch version in English or Spanish or an 11 by 17 inch version, by mail and at no cost to the classroom teacher. This site also contains ordering information for a free CD-ROM, Consider the Source: An Interactive Guide to Protecting America's Drinking Water.

256

Economic Analysis of Chloroform Removal from Drinking Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent research has demonstrated that organic contaminants of potential health significance are ubiquitous in America's drinking water. Among these many compounds, chloroform is rapidly becoming an object of state and federal regulatory interest because s...

J. H. Cumberland K. Choi

1978-01-01

257

Reducing Lead in Drinking Water: A Benefit Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An analysis estimates some of the benefits that could result from reducing exposure to lead in community drinking water supplies. There are two primary categories of benefits evaluated: The public health benefits of reduced lead exposure and reduced mater...

R. Levin

1986-01-01

258

Disinfection By-Products in Selected North Carolina Drinking Waters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of this project were to determine the extent of disinfection by-product (DBP) formation in selected municipal drinking water systems in North Carolina, to evaluate relationships among the DBPs analyzed, and to evaluate relationships between...

A. Obolensky P. C. Singer T. Greiner

1996-01-01

259

REDUCING ARSENIC LEVELS IN DRINKING WATER DURING IRON REMOVAL PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

The presentation provides an overview of iron removal technology for the removal of arsenic from drinking water. The presentation is divided into several topic topics: Arsenic Chemistry, Treatment Selection, Treatment Options, Case Studies and Iron Removal Processes. Each topic i...

260

PATHOGENS IN DRINKING WATER - ARE THERE ANY NEW ONES?  

EPA Science Inventory

Since 1976 three newly recognized human pathogens have become familiar to the drinking water industry as waterborne disease agents. hese are: the legionnaires disease agent, Legionella pneumophila and related species; and two protozoan pathogens, Giardia lamblia and Cryfltosoprid...

261

Treatment Alternatives for Controlling Chlorinated Organic Contaminants in Drinking Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A pilot plant study was conducted by the City of Thornton, Colorado, to evaluate techniques for controlling chlorinated organic compounds formed in drinking water as a result of breakpoint, or free, chlorination. The pilot plant was operated for 46 months...

M. A. Speed A. Barnard R. P. Arber G. C. Budd F. J. Johns

1987-01-01

262

Presence-Absence Coliform Test for Monitoring Drinking Water Quality.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Data from four comparative studies were analyzed to compare the recovery of total coliform bacteria from drinking water using the presence-absence test, the multiple fermentation tube procedure and the membrane filter technique. Combined recoveries showed...

E. W. Rice E. E. Geldreich E. J. Read

1989-01-01

263

DEVELOPING APPROACHES TO ESTIMATE CUMULATIVE RISKS OF DRINKING WATER CONTAMINANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Humans are exposed daily to complex mixtures of drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs) via oral, dermal, and inhalation routes. Some positive epidemiological studies suggest reproductive and developmental effects and cancer are associated with consumption of chlorinated d...

264

Impact of Plumbing Age on Copper Levels in Drinking Water  

EPA Science Inventory

Theory and limited practical experiences suggest that higher copper levels in drinking water tap samples are typically associated with newer plumbing systems, and levels decrease with increasing plumbing age. Past researchers have developed a conceptual model to explain the ?agin...

265

Radium and Other Radiological Chemicals: Drinking Water Treatment Strategies  

EPA Science Inventory

Radium and Other Radiological Chemicals: Drinking Water Treatment Technologies Topics include: Introduction to Rad Chemistry, Summary of the Rad, Regulations Treatment Technology, and Disposal. The introductions cover atoms, ions, radium and uranium and the removal of radioac...

266

ADVANCED CONTAMINANT INACTIVATION SYSTEM FOR DRINKING WATER - PHASE I  

EPA Science Inventory

The Environmental Protection Agency is soliciting innovations for the development of small unit drinking water systems that will inactivate contaminants, including pesticides, organic pollutants, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and pathogens. In the U.S., 85% ...

267

Drinking Water Criteria Document for Turbidity (Final Draft).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a criteria document on turbidity. This document discusses the turbidity occurrence and characteristics, direct health effects, indirect health effects, turbidity effects...

1984-01-01

268

EPA Study of Hydraulic Fracturing and Drinking Water Resources  

EPA Science Inventory

In its FY2010 Appropriations Committee Conference Report, Congress directed EPA to study the relationship between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water, using: ? Best available science ? Independent sources of information ? Transparent, peer-reviewed process ? Consultatio...

269

Monochloramine Cometabolism by Nitrosomonas europaea under Drinking Water Conditions  

EPA Science Inventory

Chloramine use is widespread in United States drinking water systems as a secondary disinfectant. While beneficial from the perspective of controlling disinfectant by-product formation, chloramination may promote the growth of nitrifying bacteria because ammonia is present. At ...

270

Aldicarb, Aldicarb Sulfoxide and Aldicarb Sulfone. Drinking Water Health Advisory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Aldicarb is used as a pesticide for nemotodes, mites, and ticks. The drinking water health advisory covers the following areas: the occurrence of the chemical in the enviroment; its environmental fate; the chemical's absorption, distribution and excretion...

1995-01-01

271

Fate of High Priority Pesticides During Drinking Water Treatment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The fate of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides in the presence of chlorinated oxidants was investigated under drinking water treatment conditions. In the presence of aqueous chlorine, intrinsic rate coefficients were found for the reaction of hypochlorous a...

G. M. Davis L. M. Desetto S. E. Duirk

2008-01-01

272

Health risk assessment of chloroform in California ground water  

SciTech Connect

This document presents an assessment of potential health risks associated with exposure to chloroform dissolved in California ground waters used for domestic consumption, focusing primarily on information relevant to a determination of potential increased cancer risk that may be associated with such exposures to chloroform. This assessment is being provided to the California Department of Health Services (CDHS) for the development of drinking-water standards to manage the health risks of chloroform exposures. Other assessments required in the risk-management process include analyses of the technical and economic feasibilities of treating water supplies contaminated with chloroform. The primary goal of this health-risk assessment is to describe scientifically plausible dose-response relationships for chloroform-induced cancer observed experimentally in animal bioassays that are relevant to the estimation of potential cancer risk in humans. This document is intended to provide a scientific basis for regulatory selection of chloroform concentrations in California groundwater predicted to protect the general public from potential health risk, focusing on potential cancer risk in particular. To this end, we also analyze the extent of human exposures attributable to chloroform-contaminated groundwater in California. A separate health-risk assessment for potential toxic endpoints other than cancer that may be associated with water-based exposure to chloroform has been prepared by CDHS (1989).

Bogen, K.T.; Hall, L.C.; McKone, T.E.

1992-01-20

273

Drinking Spring Water and Lithium Absorption: A Preliminary Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In Japan, there are several resorts with cold springs that have mineral water containing relatively high levels of lithium compared to tap water. Visitors to such cold-spring resorts traditionally drink 2 to 4 L of mineral water for several hours in the early morning in the belief that the water has properties which maintain physical health. The present study

Ippei Shiotsuki; Takeshi Terao; Hirochika Ogami; Nobuyoshi Ishii; Reiji Yoshimura; Jun Nakamura

274

INEXPENSIVE DRINKING WATER CHLORINATION UNIT FOR SMALL COMMUNITIES - PHASE II  

EPA Science Inventory

Over 250 drinking water systems exist for small communities in Puerto Rico that serve 25-500 individuals. These water systems fall outside of Puerto Rico Aquaduct and Sewer Authority and, thus, have no or insufficient water treatment systems. Water sources for these communit...

275

INEXPENSIVE DRINKING WATER CHLORINATION UNIT FOR SMALL COMMUNITIES - PHASE I  

EPA Science Inventory

More than 250 drinking water systems exist for small communities in Puerto Rico that serve between 25 and 500 individuals. These water systems fall outside of the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority and, thus, have insufficient water treatment systems or no water treatmen...

276

75 FR 39935 - Drinking Water Strategy Contaminants as Group(s)-Notice of Web Dialogue  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

On March 22, 2010, Administrator Lisa P. Jackson announced the Drinking Water Strategy, a new vision to expand public health protection for drinking water by going beyond the traditional framework. The Drinking Water Strategy includes the following four principles: Addressing some contaminants as group(s) rather than one at a time so that enhancement of drinking water protection can be achieved......

2010-07-13

277

Determination of fluoride in the bottled drinking waters in iran.  

PubMed

Fluoride is recognized as an effective agent for dental caries prevention. Generally, the main source of fluoride intake is drinking water. In this study, fluoride content in 18 commercial brands of bottled waters was investigated. Six samples from each batch of 18 Iranian commercial brands of bottled waters were supplied. The fluoride content of samples was analyzed by Fluoride Ion Selective Electrode. The mean ± SD fluoride content of the bottled waters was 0.202 ± 0.00152 mg/L with a range from 0.039 to 0.628 mg/L which was lower than the accepted limits for fluoride content of drinking water (1 mg/L). This finding suggested that in the region which water has high fluoride content, drinking bottled water is preferred to drinking tap water, as it could lower the risk of fluorosis. However, the risk of dental caries increases in people who mainly drink bottled waters; thus, they should use fluoride supplements. PMID:24363704

Amanlou, Massoud; Hosseinpour, Maedeh; Azizian, Homa; Khoshayand, Mohammad Reza; Navabpoor, Mojtaba; Souri, Effat

2010-01-01

278

ETV REPORT: REMOVAL OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER ? PALL/KINETICO PUREFECTA DRINKING WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The Pall/Kinetico Purefecta? POU drinking water treatment system was tested for removal of aldicarb, benzene, cadmium, carbofuran, cesium, chloroform, dichlorvos, dicrotophos, fenamiphos, mercury, mevinphos, oxamyl, strontium, and strychnine. The Purefecta? employs several compon...

279

Biological Instability in a Chlorinated Drinking Water Distribution Network  

PubMed Central

The purpose of a drinking water distribution system is to deliver drinking water to the consumer, preferably with the same quality as when it left the treatment plant. In this context, the maintenance of good microbiological quality is often referred to as biological stability, and the addition of sufficient chlorine residuals is regarded as one way to achieve this. The full-scale drinking water distribution system of Riga (Latvia) was investigated with respect to biological stability in chlorinated drinking water. Flow cytometric (FCM) intact cell concentrations, intracellular adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP), heterotrophic plate counts and residual chlorine measurements were performed to evaluate the drinking water quality and stability at 49 sampling points throughout the distribution network. Cell viability methods were compared and the importance of extracellular ATP measurements was examined as well. FCM intact cell concentrations varied from 5×103 cells mL?1 to 4.66×105 cells mL?1 in the network. While this parameter did not exceed 2.1×104 cells mL?1 in the effluent from any water treatment plant, 50% of all the network samples contained more than 1.06×105 cells mL?1. This indisputably demonstrates biological instability in this particular drinking water distribution system, which was ascribed to a loss of disinfectant residuals and concomitant bacterial growth. The study highlights the potential of using cultivation-independent methods for the assessment of chlorinated water samples. In addition, it underlines the complexity of full-scale drinking water distribution systems, and the resulting challenges to establish the causes of biological instability.

Nescerecka, Alina; Rubulis, Janis; Vital, Marius; Juhna, Talis; Hammes, Frederik

2014-01-01

280

Diversity and Significance of Mold Species in Norwegian Drinking Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine the occurrence, distribution, and significance of mold species in groundwater- and surface water-derived drinking water in Norway, molds isolated from 273 water samples were identified. Samples of raw water, treated water, and water from private homes and hospital installations were analyzed by incubation of 100-ml membrane-filtered samples on dichloran-18% glycerol agar. The total count (number of

Gunhild Hageskal; Ann Kristin Knutsen; Peter Gaustad; G. Sybren de Hoog; Ida Skaar

2006-01-01

281

Condition Assessment for Drinking Water Transmission and Distribution Mains  

EPA Science Inventory

This project seeks to improve the capability to characterize the condition of water infrastructure. The integrity of buried drinking water mains is critical, as it influences water quality, losses, pressure and cost. This research complements the U.S. Environmental Protection A...

282

BIOASSAY PROCEDURE FOR PREDICTING COLIFORM BACTERIAL GROWTH IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Water quality degradation due to the growth of microorganisms Is an area of concern for many water utilities. urrently the nutrient status of drinking water is difficult to measure and can only be defined in relative terms. o date, the procedures developed for determining the amo...

283

DETECTION OF ENTERIC VIRUSES IN TREATED DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The occurrence of viruses in conventionally treated drinking water derived from a heavily polluted source was evaluated by collecting and analyzing 38 large volume (65 to 756 liter) samples of water from a 9m3/sec (205 mgd) water treatment plant. Samples of raw, clarified, filter...

284

EXPOSURE TO ASBESTOS FROM DRINKING WATER IN THE UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

Over 1500 asbestos analyses of water supplies in 43 states, Puerto Rico and the District of Columbia were evaluated in order to assess the exposure of the United States population to asbestos in drinking water. It was cocluded that the large majority of U.S. water consumers are n...

285

Environmental Technology Verification Report: Removal of Microbial Contaminants in Drinking Water. Watts Premier, Inc., M-2400 Point-of-Entry Reverse Osmosis Drinking Water Treatment System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Watts Premier M-2400 POE RO Drinking Water Treatment System was tested at the NSF Drinking Water Treatment Systems Laboratory for removal of the viruses fr and MS2, the bacteria Brevundimonas diminuta, and chemicals aldicarb, benzene, cadmium, carbofu...

2006-01-01

286

Protecting Sources of Drinking Water: Case Studies in Watershed Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Water has released a publication concerning the quality of drinking water in America that supplements the recent 1997 National Public Water System Annual Compliance Report (discussed in the April 28, 1999 Scout Report for Science & Engineering). This report documents the experiences of seventeen drinking water suppliers who draw from lakes, reservoirs, and rivers in their efforts to manage and protect their sources. The report covers topics such as creating partnerships, watershed assessment, land use in watersheds, and wastewater management.

Water., United S.

1999-01-01

287

Guidance for Applicants for State Wellhead Protection Program Assistance Funds under the Safe Drinking Water Act.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 1986 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) establish a new Wellhead Protection (WHP) Program to protect ground waters that supply wells and wellfields contributing drinking water to public water supply systems. The Guidance outlines procedu...

1987-01-01

288

COST AND BENEFITS OF DRINKING WATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The article develops a framework for evaluating the costs and benefits of environmental control and preventive public health practices and asks the policy question: How do the authors achieve the best mix of protection against infectious disease and toxic chemicals in drinking wa...

289

DRINKING WATER QUALITY DETERIORATION IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS: COLORED WATER FORMATION AND ITS CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

The release of iron from drinking water distribution systems is a common source of drinking water distribution system consumer complaints. Suspended iron particles result in colored (red) water and metallic tasting water. Iron release results from both physical and chemical mec...

290

ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM HOUSEHOLD DRINKING WATER BY ADSORPTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geogenic inorganic arsenic contamination in drinking water has been raising public health concern especially in developing countries. Cost-effective and stopgap arsenic removal method for household use (cooking and drinking) is very urgent. Several iron treated natural materials such as Fe-treated activated carbon (FeAC), Fe-treated gel beads (FeGB) and iron oxide-coated sand (IOCS), were investigated in this study for arsenic removal

Tao Yuan; Jiang Yong Hu; Say Leong Ong; Qi Fang Luo; Wern Jun Ng

2002-01-01

291

A survey of ²²²Rn in drinking water in Mexico City.  

PubMed

In Mexico City there are more than 22 millions of inhabitants (10 in the metropolitan area and 12 in the suburban zone) exposed to drinking water. The local epidemiological authorities recognised that exposure to radon contaminated drinking water is a potential health hazard, as has been considered worldwide. The United States Environmental Protection Agency has proposed a limit of 11.1 Bq l(-1) for the radon level in drinking water. In Mexico a maximum contamination level of radon in drinking water has not yet even considered. In this work, a (222)Rn study of drinking water in Mexico City has revealed a range of concentrations from background level to 3.8 Bq l(-1). (222)Rn was calculated using a portable degassing system (AquaKIT) associated with an AlphaGUARD measuring system. Samples from 70 wells of the water system of the south of the Valley Basin of Mexico City and from houses of some other political administrative divisions of Mexico City were taken. PMID:21467584

Vázquez-López, C; Zendejas-Leal, B E; Golzarri, J I; Espinosa, G

2011-05-01

292

Are Endocrine Disrupting Compounds a Health Risk in Drinking Water?  

PubMed Central

There has been a great deal of international discussion on the nature and relevance of endocrine disrupting compounds in the environment. Changes in reproductive organs of fish and mollusks have been demonstrated in rivers downstream of sewage discharges in Europe and in North America, which have been attributed to estrogenic compounds in the effluent. The anatomical and physiological changes in the fauna are illustrated by feminization of male gonads. The compounds of greatest hormonal activity in sewage effluent are the natural estrogens 17?-estradiol, estrone, estriol and the synthetic estrogen ethinylestradiol. Androgens are also widely present in wastewaters. Investigations of anthropogenic chemical contaminants in freshwaters and wastewaters have shown a wide variety of organic compounds, many of which have low levels of estrogenic activity. In many highly populated countries the drinking water is sourced from the same rivers and lakes that are the recipients of sewage and industrial discharge. The River Thames which flows through London, England, has overall passed through drinking water and sewage discharge 5 times from source to mouth of the river. Under these types of circumstance, any accumulation of endocrine disrupting compounds from sewage or industry potentially affects the quality of drinking water. Neither basic wastewater treatment nor basic drinking water treatment will eliminate the estrogens, androgens or detergent breakdown products from water, due to the chemical stability of the structures. Hence a potential risk to health exists; however present data indicate that estrogenic contamination of drinking water is very unlikely to result in physiologically detectable effects in consumers. Pesticide, detergent and industrial contamination remain issues of concern. As a result of this concern, increased attention is being given to enhanced wastewater treatment in locations where the effluent is directly or indirectly in use for drinking water. In some places at which heavy anthropogenic contamination of drinking water sources occurs, advanced drinking water treatment is increasingly being implemented. This treatment employs particle removal, ozone oxidation of organic material and activated charcoal adsorption of the oxidation products. Such processes will remove industrial organic chemicals, pesticides, detergents, pharmaceutical products and hormones. Populations for which only basic wastewater and drinking water treatment are available remain vulnerable.

Falconer, Ian R.

2006-01-01

293

Assessment of environmental health risk for drinking water sources  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exposure to drinking water is one of the important ways to influence human health. This study calculated the health risk of adults and children for drinking water sources in the Fuyang city. The results showed that the total health risk of adults and children caused by water quality was 6.75 × 10-5 and 8.15 × 10-5, which exceeded the highest acceptable risk of 5.0 × 10-5 from the International Radiation Committee, but was still lower than the maximum risk level of 1.0 × 10-4 from US EPA. The health risk of children is 20% higher than that of adults, so we should pay more attention to children for drinking water health issues.

Hu, Xibang; Xu, Zhencheng; Wang, Junneng; Zeng, Dong; Han, Qiuping

294

Occurrence and hygienic relevance of fungi in drinking water.  

PubMed

Fungi, above all filamentous fungi, can occur almost everywhere, even in water. They can grow in such a quantity in water that they can affect the health of the population or have negative effects on food production. There are several reports of fungal growth in water from different countries, but to our knowledge none from Austria so far. The aim of this study was to gain an overview of the spectrum of filamentous fungi and yeasts in drinking water systems. Thirty-eight water samples from drinking water and groundwater were analysed. Fungi were isolated by using membrane filtration and plating method with subsequent cultivation on agar plates. The different taxa of fungi were identified using routine techniques as well as molecular methods. Fungi were isolated in all water samples examined. The mean value for drinking water was 9.1 CFU per 100 ml and for groundwater 5400 CFU per 100 ml. Altogether 32 different taxa of fungi were found. The taxa which occurred most frequently were Cladosporium spp., Basidiomycetes and Penicillium spp. (74.6%, 56.4% and 48.7%, respectively). This study shows that drinking water can be a reservoir for fungi, among them opportunists, which can cause infections in immunosuppressed patients. PMID:18254755

Kanzler, D; Buzina, W; Paulitsch, A; Haas, D; Platzer, S; Marth, E; Mascher, F

2008-03-01

295

Lithium levels in drinking water and risk of suicide.  

PubMed

Although lithium is known to prevent suicide in people with mood disorders, it is uncertain whether lithium in drinking water could also help lower the risk in the general population. To investigate this, we examined lithium levels in tap water in the 18 municipalities of Oita prefecture in Japan in relation to the suicide standardised mortality ratio (SMR) in each municipality. We found that lithium levels were significantly and negatively associated with SMR averages for 2002-2006. These findings suggest that even very low levels of lithium in drinking water may play a role in reducing suicide risk within the general population. PMID:19407280

Ohgami, Hirochika; Terao, Takeshi; Shiotsuki, Ippei; Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Iwata, Noboru

2009-05-01

296

German drinking water regulations, pesticides, and axiom of concern  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The limit value of 0.1 µg/liter for “substances used in plant treatment and pest control including their main toxic degradation products” (PBSM) established in the German Drinking Water Regulations (Trinkwasserverordnung) serves comprehensively to protect drinking water from unexpected toxicological risks and thus corresponds to the axiom of concern (Besorgnisgrundsatz) contained in §11,2 of the Federal Communicable Disease Control Act (Bundesseuchengesetz), which is an essential cornerstone of the Drinking Water Regulations. Furthermore, precautionary values that are specific to the particular substance and near the valid limit can be found for about 10% of all registered active substances. The goal of the PBSM Recommendations of the Federal Health Office (BGA) issued in July 1989 is to preserve and restore groundwater and drinking water through measures to be taken by the causal party, while reducing consumer health risks to the greatest extent possible. The EC commission's drawbacks on these recommendations and the imminent EC-wide directive for the uniform registration of pesticides being based solely on Article 43 of the European Treaty would seriously endanger this goal. Therefore, a situation threatens in Europe similar to that in the United States, where at least 18 active ingredients have been detected in groundwater in concentrations of up to 1000 times the toxicologically established limits for drinking water.

Dieter, Hermann H.

1992-01-01

297

Health risks due to radon in drinking water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Following more than a decade of scientific debate about the setting of a standard for 222Rn in drinking water, Congress established a timetable for the promulgation of a standard in the 1996 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act. As a result of those Amendments, the EPA contracted with the National Academy of Sciences to undertake a risk assessment for exposure to radon in drinking water. In addition, the resulting committee was asked to address several other scientific issues including the national average ambient 222Rn concentration and the increment of 222Rn to the indoor- air concentration arising from the use of drinking water in a home. A new dosimetric analysis of the cancer risk to the stomach from ingestion was performed. The recently reported risk estimates developed by the BEIR VI Committee for inhalation of radon decay products were adopted. Because the 1996 Amendments permit states to develop programs in which mitigation of air- producing health-risk reductions equivalent to that which would be achieved by treating the drinking water, the scientific issues involved in such 'multimedia mitigation programs' were explored.

Hopke, P. K.; Borak, T. B.; Doull, J.; Cleaver, J. E.; Eckerman, K. F.; Gundersen, L. C. S.; Harley, N. H.; Hess, C. T.; Kinner, N. E.; Kopecky, K. J.; Mckone, T. E.; Sextro, R. G.; Simon, S. L.

2000-01-01

298

Perfluorinated Surfactants in Surface and Drinking Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goal, Scope and Background. Perfluorinated surfactants (e.g. PFOS and PFOA) have shown different potentials for reproductory interfer- ence and carcinogenity in animal experiments as well as partly long half-lives in humans. They possess compound-dependent extreme re- calcitrance against microbiological and chemical degradation and, in addition, they show variable potentials for bioaccumulation in ani- mals and humans. Methods. Surface and drinking

Martin JW; Smithwick MM; Hoekstra PF; Muir DCG

299

Modeling the impact of body-contact recreation on pathogen concentrations in a source drinking water reservoir  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modeling study was conducted to evaluate the impact of body-contact recreation (e.g., water skiing, jet skiing, swimming) on pathogen concentrations in a source drinking water reservoir under construction in eastern Riverside County in Southern California. A hybridized Monte Carlo-finite segment model was used to predict pathogen concentrations in the reservoir resulting from pathogen inputs associated with shed fecal material

Michael A. Anderson; Mic H. Stewart; Marylynn V. Yates; Charles P. Gerba

1998-01-01

300

Development of a Health-Protective Drinking Water Level for Perchlorate  

PubMed Central

We evaluated animal and human toxicity data for perchlorate and identified reduction of thyroidal iodide uptake as the critical end point in the development of a health-protective drinking water level [also known as the public health goal (PHG)] for the chemical. This work was performed under the drinking water program of the Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment of the California Environmental Protection Agency. For dose–response characterization, we applied benchmark-dose modeling to human data and determined a point of departure (the 95% lower confidence limit for 5% inhibition of iodide uptake) of 0.0037 mg/kg/day. A PHG of 6 ppb was calculated by using an uncertainty factor of 10, a relative source contribution of 60%, and exposure assumptions specific to pregnant women. The California Department of Health Services will use the PHG, together with other considerations such as economic impact and engineering feasibility, to develop a California maximum contaminant level for perchlorate. We consider the PHG to be adequately protective of sensitive subpopulations, including pregnant women, their fetuses, infants, and people with hypothyroidism.

Ting, David; Howd, Robert A.; Fan, Anna M.; Alexeeff, George V.

2006-01-01

301

EFFECT OF THE DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM ON DRINKING WATER QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The Safe Drinking Water Act and its Amendments has focused interest on the factors that cause the deterioration of water between the treatment plant and the consumer. The distribution system itself can contribute to this deterioration. Numerous examples of waterborne disease outb...

302

Don't Let Kids Drink Pool Water  

MedlinePLUS

... enable JavaScript. Don't Let Kids Drink Pool Water Expert offers tips for spotting chlorine poisoning, bacterial ... July 26, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Child Safety Water Safety (Recreational) SATURDAY, July 26, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- ...

303

EVALUATION OF DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNIQUES FOR EDC REMOVAL  

EPA Science Inventory

Many of the chemicals identified as potential endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may be present in surface or ground waters used as drinking water sources, due to their disposal via domestic and industrial sewage treatment systems and wet-weather runoff. In order to decrease t...

304

Remediation Technologies for Arsenic Contaminated Drinking Waters (9 pp)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic is a toxic metalloid element that is now recognised to be an important contaminant of drinking water – particularly, but not exclusively, in poor regions of southern Asia. In effected regions, many millions are at risk of arsenic-induced disease and strategies are required to provide safe water for consumption. The main strategies available are mitigation (the provision of alternative

Hemda Garelick; Agnieszka Dybowska; Eugenia Valsami-Jones; Nicholas D. Priest

2005-01-01

305

Proposed Arsenic in Drinking Water Rule Regulatory Impact Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An enforceable standard of 50 micrograms L currently exists for arsenic in community water systems under the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWR) (40 CRF 59566). In 1412 (b) (12) (A) of the SDWA, as amended in 1996, Congress specifi...

2000-01-01

306

USEPA'S RESEARCH EFFORTS IN SMALL DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Currently, in the United States there are approximately 50,000 small community and 130,000 non-community systems providing water to over 25 million people. The drinking water treatment systems at these locations are not always adequate to comply with current and pending regulati...

307

THE FETOTOXIC POTENTIAL OF MUNICIPAL DRINKING WATER IN THE MOUSE  

EPA Science Inventory

Mice (CD-1 strain) were placed on diets containing either municipal drinking water (Durham, North Carolina) or water that had been distilled and passed through cartridges to reduce organics and remove inorganics. After a two-week acclimation period, animals were bred and pregnanc...

308

ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY IRON REMOVAL PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report documents a long term performance study of two iron removal water treatment plants to remove arsenic from drinking water sources. Performance information was collected from one system located in midwest for one full year and at the second system located in the farwest...

309

Nitrate Removal from Drinking Water in Glendale, Arizona.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A 15-month pilot-scale study of nitrate removal from drinking water by ion exchange (IX), reverse osmosis (RO), and electrodialysis (ED) was carried out in Glendale, Arizona, where the raw water contained 18 to 25 mg/L NO3-N. The experiments were carried ...

D. Clifford C. C. Lin L. L. Horng J. Boegel

1986-01-01

310

A Study on Arsenic Removal from Household Drinking Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic removal from household drinking water has been receiving considerable attention in the field of water supply engineering. To develop the optimal coagulation protocol, the effectiveness of several operation options such as coagulants, coagulant aids and additives, as well as flocs separation systems were investigated in this study through the use of orthogonal array experiment based on Taguchi method. Arsenic

Tao Yuan; Qi-Fang Luo; Jiang-Yong Hu; Say-Leong Ong; Wun-Jern Ng

2003-01-01

311

SAFE DRINKING WATER FROM SMALL SYSTEMS: TREATMENT OPTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Bringing small water systems into compliance with the ever-increasing number of regulations will require flexibility in terms of technology application and institional procedures. his article looks at the means by which small systems can provide safe drinking water, focusing on t...

312

Wastewater to Drinking Water: Are Emerging Contaminants Making it Through?  

EPA Science Inventory

Lake Mead serves as the primary drinking water source for Las Vegas, Nevada and surrounding communities. Besides snow-melt from the Rockies water levels in the lake are supplemented by the inflow of treated wastewater from communities along the Colorado River, including Las Vegas...

313

Fluoride Content in Drinking Water Supplies of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Groundwater supplies about 34% ofthe total water demand for the capital city of SaudiArabia, Riyadh. The other 66% is desalinatedseawater. The fluoride level in Riyadh drinking watersupplies was evaluated. Samples were collected fromselected wells, treatment plants, desalinatedseawater, distribution network and 19 locally producedand imported bottled water. The fluoride level in theinfluent to the seven groundwater treatment plants andtheir final product

Abdulrahman I. Alabdula'aly; King Abdulaziz

1997-01-01

314

NUTRIENTS FOR BACTERIAL GROWTH IN DRINKING WATER: BIOASSAY EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The regrowth of bacteria in drinking water distribution systems can lead to the deterioration of water quality. Pathogenic bacteria are heterotrophs, and heterotrophs are probably the dominant bacteria associated with the regrowth phenomenon. Only a portion of the total organic c...

315

DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION USING A UV/PHOTOCATALYST  

EPA Science Inventory

Worldwide, lack of safe drinking water takes an inestimable toll on human health. The objective of this project is to develop a small-scale sustainable water disinfection technology requiring a minimum of treatment time. The technology to be developed will be simple, sustain...

316

The Accumulation of Radioactive Contaminants in Drinking Water Distribution Systems  

EPA Science Inventory

The accumulation of trace contaminants in drinking water distribution systems has been documented and the subsequent release of the contaminants back to the water is a potential exposure pathway. Radioactive contaminants are of particular concern because of their known health eff...

317

Gastrointestinal Absorption of Soluble Uranium from Drinking Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The manuscript describes results of an experiment to determine the gastrointestinal absorption of uranium from drinking water in 12 health adults. Most of the uranium ingested was excreted in feces in the first 2 days following ingestion of the water. The...

M. E. Wrenn N. P. Singh H. Ruth D. Burleigh

1988-01-01

318

Photocatalytic Coats in Glass Drinking-Water Bottles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

According to a proposal, the insides of glass bottles used to store drinking water would be coated with films consisting of or containing TiO2. In the presence of ultraviolet light, these films would help to remove bacteria, viruses, and trace organic contaminants from the water.

Andren, Anders W.; Armstrong, David E.; Anderson, Marc A.

2005-01-01

319

SMALL DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR COMPLIANCE WITH THE ENHANCED SURFACE WATER TREATMENT RULES  

EPA Science Inventory

According to FY2003 statistics compiled by the Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, the U.S. regulates about 160,000 small drinking water systems that impact close to 70 million people. Small systems (serving transient and non-transient populations of 10,000 people or less...

320

Coliform culturability in over- versus undersaturated drinking waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The culturability of Escherichia coli in undersaturated drinking water with respect to CaCO3 (corrosive water) or in oversaturated water (non-corrosive water) was tested in different reactors: glass flasks (batch, “non-reactive” wall); glass reactors (chemostat, “non-reactive” wall) versus a corroded cast iron Propella™ reactor (chemostat, “reactive” wall) and a 15-year-old distribution system pilot (chemostat, “reactive” wall with 1% corroded cast iron

D. Grandjean; S. Fass; D. Tozza; J. Cavard; V. Lahoussine; S. Saby; H. Guilloteau; J.-C. Block

2005-01-01

321

40 CFR 144.12 - Prohibition of movement of fluid into underground sources of drinking water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...fluid into underground sources of drinking water. 144.12 Section 144.12 Protection...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION...fluid into underground sources of drinking water. (a) No owner or operator...

2013-07-01

322

CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF NEWLY DISCOVERED IODOACID DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Iodoacid drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBPs) were recently uncovered in drinking water samples from source water with a high bromide/iodide concentration that was disinfected with chloramines. The purpose of this paper is to report the analytical chemical identification...

323

21 CFR 1240.80 - General requirements for water for drinking and culinary purposes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2014-04-01 false General requirements for water for drinking and culinary purposes. 1240...COMMUNICABLE DISEASES Source and Use of Potable Water § 1240.80 General requirements for water for drinking and culinary purposes....

2014-04-01

324

Effects of chlorinated drinking water on human lipid metabolism.  

PubMed Central

Atherosclerosis with its complications is the most important health problem affecting American adults. The levels of serum cholesterol, of high and low density lipoproteins, and of apolipoproteins A1, A2, and B are major risk factors for the development of atherosclerotic lesions. Animal studies suggest that chlorinated drinking water may elevate the serum cholesterol. Studies are too limited to confirm or refute this effect in humans. Since millions of humans have and have had daily exposure to chlorinated drinking water, it is essential to study the effects of such exposure on human lipid metabolism. We have begun a protocol to discover whether consuming chlorinated drinking water elevates serum cholesterol and the other lipid components of blood known to be associated with atherosclerosis. This protocol has been designed to improve the chance of observing an effect while preserving the ability to generalize the data.

Wones, R G; Glueck, C J

1986-01-01

325

Drinking water disinfection byproducts: review and approach to toxicity evaluation.  

PubMed Central

There is widespread potential for human exposure to disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in drinking water because everyone drinks, bathes, cooks, and cleans with water. The need for clean and safe water led the U.S. Congress to pass the Safe Drinking Water Act more than 20 years ago in 1974. In 1976, chloroform, a trihalomethane (THM) and a principal DBP, was shown to be carcinogenic in rodents. This prompted the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) in 1979 to develop a drinking water rule that would provide guidance on the levels of THMs allowed in drinking water. Further concern was raised by epidemiology studies suggesting a weak association between the consumption of chlorinated drinking water and the occurrence of bladder, colon, and rectal cancer. In 1992 the U.S. EPA initiated a negotiated rulemaking to evaluate the need for additional controls for microbial pathogens and DBPs. The goal was to develop an approach that would reduce the level of exposure from disinfectants and DBPs without undermining the control of microbial pathogens. The product of these deliberations was a proposed stage 1 DBP rule. It was agreed that additional information was necessary on how to optimize the use of disinfectants while maintaining control of pathogens before further controls to reduce exposure beyond stage 1 were warranted. In response to this need, the U.S. EPA developed a 5-year research plan to support the development of the longer term rules to control microbial pathogens and DBPs. A considerable body of toxicologic data has been developed on DBPs that occur in the drinking water, but the main emphasis has been on THMs. Given the complexity of the problem and the need for additional data to support the drinking water DBP rules, the U.S. EPA, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, and the U.S. Army are working together to develop a comprehensive biologic and mechanistic DBP database. Selected DBPs will be tested using 2-year toxicity and carcinogenicity studies in standard rodent models; transgenic mouse models and small fish models; in vitro mechanistic and toxicokinetic studies; and reproductive, immunotoxicity, and developmental studies. The goal is to create a toxicity database that reflects a wide range of DBPs resulting from different disinfection practices. This paper describes the approach developed by these agencies to provide the information needed to make scientifically based regulatory decisions. Images Figure 3

Boorman, G A

1999-01-01

326

Water, Water Everywhere, But Not a Drop to Drink: Pani Politics (Water Politics) in Rural Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article looks at the nature of water politics (pani politics) in the context of arsenic contamination of drinking water in rural Bangladesh. Pani politics is found to be a product of intersecting similarities and differences among women and men, where water comes to have material and symbolic power that people can exercise, which can lead to conflicts, marginalization and

Farhana Sultana

2007-01-01

327

74 FR 53590 - National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Drinking Water Regulations for Aircraft Public Water...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...as water for brushing teeth and hand washing (see 63 FR 41941; August 5...consumption (e.g., brushing teeth, hand washing). Additionally, lavatory samples...carriers were allowed to use water for hand washing purposes when the water was...

2009-10-19

328

40 CFR 142.19 - EPA review of State implementation of national primary drinking water regulations for lead and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...implementation of national primary drinking water regulations for lead and copper. 142...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION Primary...

2013-07-01

329

40 CFR 142.19 - EPA review of State implementation of national primary drinking water regulations for lead and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...implementation of national primary drinking water regulations for lead and copper. 142...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION Primary...

2011-07-01

330

40 CFR 142.19 - EPA review of State implementation of national primary drinking water regulations for lead and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...implementation of national primary drinking water regulations for lead and copper. 142...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION Primary...

2010-07-01

331

PIXE measurements of drinking water of Salt Lake, Calcutta, India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study of the trace elemental concentration in drinking water from Salt Lake City, a residential locality in Calcutta, India, was carried out using the proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. Samples were collected from overhead tanks, where drinking water is stored for supply to all parts of this residential area. A chelating agent (NaDDTC) was used for the pre-concentration of the trace elements. A large number of elements, namely Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Ba, Tl and Pb were detected and the results are discussed.

Sudarshan, M.; Dutta, R. K.; Vijayan, V.; Chintalapudi, S. N.

2000-08-01

332

Drinking water consumption patterns in Canadian communities (2001-2007).  

PubMed

A pooled analysis of seven cross-sectional studies from Newfoundland and Labrador, Waterloo and Hamilton Regions, Ontario and Vancouver, East Kootenay and Northern Interior Regions, British Columbia (2001 to 2007) was performed to investigate the drinking water consumption patterns of Canadians and to identify factors associated with the volume of tap water consumed. The mean volume of tap water consumed was 1.2 L/day, with a large range (0.03 to 9.0 L/day). In-home water treatment and interactions between age and gender and age and bottled water use were significantly associated with the volume of tap water consumed in multivariable analyses. Approximately 25% (2,221/8,916) of participants were classified as bottled water users, meaning that 75% or more of their total daily drinking water intake was bottled. Approximately 48.6% (4,307/8,799) of participants used an in-home treatment method to treat their tap water for drinking purposes. This study provides a broader geographic perspective and more current estimates of Canadian water consumption patterns than previous studies. The identified factors associated with daily water consumption could be beneficial for risk assessors to identify individuals who may be at greater risk of waterborne illness. PMID:22361703

Roche, S M; Jones, A Q; Majowicz, S E; McEwen, S A; Pintar, K D M

2012-03-01

333

Fate of perfluorooctanesulfonate and perfluorooctanoate in drinking water treatment processes.  

PubMed

Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) have been recognized as global environmental pollutants. Although PFOS and PFOA have been detected in tap water from Japan and several other countries, very few studies have examined the fate, especially removal, of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in drinking water treatment processes. In this study, we analyzed PFOS and PFOA at every stages of drinking water treatment processes in several water purification plants that employ advanced water treatment technologies. PFOS and PFOA concentrations did not vary considerably in raw water, sand filtered water, settled water, and ozonated water. Sand filtration and ozonation did not have an effect on the removal of PFOS and PFOA in drinking water. PFOS and PFOA were removed effectively by activated carbon that had been used for less than one year. However, activated carbon that had been used for a longer period of time (>1 year) was not effective in removing PFOS and PFOA from water. Variations in the removal ratios of PFOS and PFOA by activated carbon were found between summer and winter months. PMID:21628066

Takagi, Sokichi; Adachi, Fumie; Miyano, Keiichi; Koizumi, Yoshihiko; Tanaka, Hidetsugu; Watanabe, Isao; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

2011-07-01

334

New Perspectives in Monitoring Drinking Water Microbial Quality  

PubMed Central

The safety of drinking water is evaluated by the results obtained from faecal indicators during the stipulated controls fixed by the legislation. However, drinking-water related illness outbreaks are still occurring worldwide. The failures that lead to these outbreaks are relatively common and typically involve preceding heavy rain and inadequate disinfection processes. The role that classical faecal indicators have played in the protection of public health is reviewed and the turning points expected for the future explored. The legislation for protecting the quality of drinking water in Europe is under revision, and the planned modifications include an update of current indicators and methods as well as the introduction of Water Safety Plans (WSPs), in line with WHO recommendations. The principles of the WSP approach and the advances signified by the introduction of these preventive measures in the future improvement of dinking water quality are presented. The expected impact that climate change will have in the quality of drinking water is also critically evaluated.

Figueras, Ma Jose; Borrego, Juan J.

2010-01-01

335

Is There Lead in My Drinking Water?  

MedlinePLUS

... Additional Information How Does Lead Get Into My Water? Lead enters the water (“leaches”) through contact with ... should I do if I suspect that my water contains high lead levels? If you want to ...

336

EMERGING CONTAMINANTS IN THE DRINKING WATER CYCLE  

EPA Science Inventory

PRESENTATION OUTLINE: I. General overview of the water cycle; II. USEPA and USGS Research; a. Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents and downstream surface waters; b. Groundwater down gradient from WW lagoon; c. Source and finished water fro...

337

[Moulds and yeasts in bottled water and soft drinks].  

PubMed

Some damaged cartons of soft drinks and carbonated water were analyzed to detect the microorganisms that caused the damage. The contaminants of sugar used in the production of one of the drinks were also studied. The methods of Déak & Beuchat and Pitt & Hocking were used for the identification of yeasts and moulds, respectively. The agents of the spoilage of soft drinks were Debaryomyces hansenii, Debaryomyces polymorphus, Galactomyces geotrichum, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Mucor circinelloides, Pichia anomala, Pichia jadinii, Pichia subpelliculosa, Rhodotorula glutinis and Zygosaccharomyces bailii. The microorganisms found in sugar were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus penicilloides, Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Mucor racemosus, P. anomala and Rhizopus stolonifer. Paecilomyces fulvus and Penicillium glabrum were observed in carbonated water. PMID:17037258

Ancasi, E G; Carrillo, L; Benítez Ahrendts, M R

2006-01-01

338

Drinking water standards in South American countries: convergences and divergences.  

PubMed

In this paper we present a comparative assessment of drinking-water standards from almost all South American countries, using the USA and the Canadian standards and the World Health Organization (WHO) Guidelines as references. Similarities and discrepancies between standards/guidelines were identified through descriptive analyses and, in the case of chemical standards, clustering techniques. In general, one or another of the four consecutive editions of the WHO Guidelines were shown to be quite influential in setting drinking-water standards in the region, but not so much the USA and the Canadian standards. Considerable discrepancies between South American drinking-water standards were found, mainly with respect to chemical substances. Questions are raised about their scientific basis and/or the practicalities for their enforcement. In conclusion, the paper highlights that many drinking-water regulations in South America need updating, taking on the approach of health-based targets in setting these standards, as well as that of a broader risk-based preventive management in the entire supply system to assure water safety. PMID:22717755

Pinto, Vívian Gemiliano; Heller, Léo; Bastos, Rafael Kopschitz Xavier

2012-06-01

339

BIOFILM IN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Throughout the world there are millions of miles of water distribution pipe lines which provide potable water for use by individuals and industry. Some of these water distribution systems have been in service well over one hundred years. Treated water moving through a distributio...

340

Removal of estrogens and estrogenicity through drinking water treatment.  

PubMed

Estrogenic compounds have been shown to be present in surface waters, leading to concerns over their possible presence in finished drinking waters. In this work, two in vitro human cell line bioassays for estrogenicity were used to evaluate the removal of estrogens through conventional drinking water treatment using a natural water. Bench-scale studies utilizing chlorine, alum coagulation, ferric chloride coagulation, and powdered activated carbon (PAC) were conducted using Ohio River water spiked with three estrogens, 17?-estradiol, 17?-ethynylestradiol, and estriol. Treatment of the estrogens with chlorine, either alone or with coagulant, resulted in approximately 98% reductions in the concentrations of the parent estrogens, accompanied by formation of by-products. The MVLN reporter gene and MCF-7 cell proliferation assays were used to characterize the estrogenic activity of the water before and after treatment. The observed estrogenic activities of the chlorinated samples showed that estrogenicity of the water was reduced commensurate with removal of the parent estrogen. Therefore, the estrogen chlorination by-products did not contribute appreciably to the estrogenic activity of the water. Coagulation alone did not result in significant removals of the estrogens. However, addition of PAC, at a typical drinking water plant dose, resulted in removals ranging from approximately 20 to 80%. PMID:22361701

Schenck, Kathleen; Rosenblum, Laura; Wiese, Thomas E; Wymer, Larry; Dugan, Nicholas; Williams, Daniel; Mash, Heath; Merriman, Betty; Speth, Thomas

2012-03-01

341

MEETING THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE U.S. SAFE DRINKING WATER ACT: THE ROLE OF TECHNOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The passage of the U.S. Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) in 1974 has had a major impact on the way water is treated and delivered in the United States. The Act established national drinking water regulations for more than 170,000 public drinking water systems serving over 250 mill...

342

Multiple regression models: A methodology for evaluating trihalomethane concentrations in drinking water from raw water characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of trihalomethanes (THMs) in drinking water has attracted the attention of both researchers and professionals, because of the harmful effects of these substances on human health. A multiple regression model was developed to estimate THM concentrations in finished drinking water, using data from the Menidi Treatment Plant of Athens. A number of routinely measured characteristics––including chlorine dose, chlorophyll

Spyros K. Golfinopoulos; George B. Arhonditsis

2002-01-01

343

Arsenic in Drinking Water in Bangladesh: Factors Affecting Child Health  

PubMed Central

The focus of this paper is to present an empirical model of factors affecting child health by observing actions households take to avoid exposure to arsenic in drinking water. Millions of Bangladeshis face multiple health hazards from high levels of arsenic in drinking water. Safe water sources are either expensive or difficult to access, affecting people’s individuals’ time available for work and ultimately affecting the health of household members. Since children are particularly susceptible and live with parents who are primary decision makers for sustenance, parental actions linking child health outcomes is used in the empirical model. Empirical results suggest that child health is significantly affected by the age and gender of the household water procurer. Adults with a high degree of concern for children’s health risk from arsenic contamination, and who actively mitigate their arsenic contaminated water have a positive effect on child health.

Aziz, Sonia N.; Aziz, Khwaja M. S.; Boyle, Kevin J.

2014-01-01

344

Evaluation of minerals content of drinking water in Malaysia.  

PubMed

The drinking and mineral water samples obtained from different geographical locations had concentrations of the selected minerals lower than the standard limits, except for manganese, arsenic, and fluoride. The concentrations of manganese and arsenic in two mineral water samples were slightly higher than the standard international recommended limits. One mineral water sample had a fluoride concentration higher than the standard limits, whereas manganese was not detected in nine drinking and mineral water samples. Most of the selected minerals found in the tap water samples were below the international standard limits, except for iron and manganese. The concentrations of iron and manganese in the tap water samples were higher than the standard limits, which were obtained from one and three of the studied locations, respectively. The potable water obtained from various manufacturers and locations in Peninsular Malaysia is safe for consumption, as the minerals concentrations were below the standard limits prescribed by the Malaysian Food Regulations of 1985. The data obtained may also provide important information related to daily intake of these minerals from drinking water. PMID:22649292

Azlan, Azrina; Khoo, Hock Eng; Idris, Mohd Aizat; Ismail, Amin; Razman, Muhammad Rizal

2012-01-01

345

Evaluation of Minerals Content of Drinking Water in Malaysia  

PubMed Central

The drinking and mineral water samples obtained from different geographical locations had concentrations of the selected minerals lower than the standard limits, except for manganese, arsenic, and fluoride. The concentrations of manganese and arsenic in two mineral water samples were slightly higher than the standard international recommended limits. One mineral water sample had a fluoride concentration higher than the standard limits, whereas manganese was not detected in nine drinking and mineral water samples. Most of the selected minerals found in the tap water samples were below the international standard limits, except for iron and manganese. The concentrations of iron and manganese in the tap water samples were higher than the standard limits, which were obtained from one and three of the studied locations, respectively. The potable water obtained from various manufacturers and locations in Peninsular Malaysia is safe for consumption, as the minerals concentrations were below the standard limits prescribed by the Malaysian Food Regulations of 1985. The data obtained may also provide important information related to daily intake of these minerals from drinking water.

Azlan, Azrina; Khoo, Hock Eng; Idris, Mohd Aizat; Ismail, Amin; Razman, Muhammad Rizal

2012-01-01

346

MODELING DISINFECTANT RESIDUALS IN DRINKING-WATER STORAGE TANKS  

EPA Science Inventory

The factors leading to the loss of disinfectant residual in well-mixed drinking-water storage tanks are studied. Equations relating disinfectant residual to the disinfectant's reation rate, the tank volume, and the fill and drain rates are presented. An analytical solution for ...

347

MODELING DISINFECTANT RESIDUALS IN DRINKING-WATER STORAGE TANKS  

EPA Science Inventory

The factors leading to the loss of disinfectant residual in well-mixed drinking-water storage tanks are studied. quations relating disinfectant residual to the disinfectant's reaction rate, the tank volume, and the fill and drain rates are presented. n analytical solution for the...

348

DRINKING WATER TREATMENT AND RISK OF CANCER DEATH IN WISCONSIN  

EPA Science Inventory

A case control study of drinking water treatment practices and female cancer mortality was conducted in Wisconsin. Cancer deaths for 1972-1977 from 28 Wisconsin counties and non-cancer deaths matched to cancer deaths on age, year of death and county of residence, were compared fo...

349

DBP CONTROL IN DRINKING WATER: COST AND PERFORMANCE  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) is currently attempting to balance the complex trade-offs in chemical and microbial risks associated with controlling disinfection and disinfection byproducts (D/DBP) in drinking water. In attempting to achieve this balance, the...

350

DBP CONTROL IN DRINKING WATER: COST AND PERFORMANCE  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S.EPA) is:currently attempting to balance the complex tradeoff in chemical and microbial risk associated with controlling disinfection and disinfection by-products (D/DBP) in drinking water. n attempting to achieve this balance, the U.S...

351

MOLECULAR DIVERSITY OF DRINKING WATER MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES: A PHYLOGENETIC APPROACH  

EPA Science Inventory

The microbiological quality of drinking water is assessed using culture-based methods that are highly selective and that tend to underestimate the densities and diversity of microbial populations inhabiting distribution systems. In order to better understand the effect of differe...

352

Drinking Water Activities for Students, Teachers, and Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide provides teachers with materials, information, and classroom activities to enhance any drinking water curriculum. Students can use the activity sheets to further lessons and stimulate thought. Parents can use the guide to develop science projects that will provoke thought, encourage research, and provide a scientific approach to…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

353

RESIDENTIAL EXPOSURE TO DRINKING WATER ARSENIC IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA  

EPA Science Inventory

Residential exposure to drinking water arsenic in Inner Mongolia, China Zhixiong Ning1, Richard K. Kwok2, Zhiyi Liu1, Shiying Zhang1, Chenglong Ma1, Danelle T. Lobdell2, Michael Riediker3 and Judy L. Mumford2 1) Institute of Endemic Disease for Prevention and Treatment in I...

354

ENUMERATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF HETEROTROPHIC BACTERIA FROM DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Various spread-plating enumeration media and procedures have been tested to determine the method of choice for the enumeration of the highest numbers of heterotrophic bacteria from chlorinated drinking waters. Dilute media, including a caseinate peptone starch medium, a dilute pe...

355

CONTROL OF MICROBES AND DBPS IN DRINKING WATER: AN OVERVIEW  

EPA Science Inventory

Historically drinking water utilities in the United States (U.S.) have played a major role in protecting public health through the reduction of waterborne disease. These reductions in waterborne disease outbreaks were brought about by the use of sand filtration, disinfection and...

356

Disinfection by-products in Canadian drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Halogenated disinfection by-products were determined in Canadian drinking water supplies where chlorine was used at some stage in the treatment process. The effects of applied disinfectants (chlorine, chloramine and ozone), seasonal variation (winter and summer) and spatial variation (treatment plant and distribution system) were examined. Chloroform, dichloroacetic acid and trichloroacetic acid were the major disinfection by-products found in all treated

David T. Williams; Guy L. LeBel; Frank M. Benoit

1997-01-01

357

COMPARATIVE RISK DILEMNAS IN DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION [EDITORIAL  

EPA Science Inventory

Disinfection of drinking water supplies has been one of the most succesful public health interventions of the twentieth century. It has virtually eliminated outbreaks of serious waterborne infectious diseases, such as cholera and typhoid. there are still, however, an average of...

358

RECOVERY AND DIVERSITY OF HETEROTROPHIC BACTERIA FROM CHLORINATED DRINKING WATERS  

EPA Science Inventory

Heterotrophic bacteria were enumerated from the Seattle drinking water catchment basins and distribution system. The highest bacterial recoveries were obtained by using a very dilute medium containing 0.01% peptone as the primary carbon source. Other factors favoring high recover...

359

Decontamination Methods For Drinking Water Treatment And Distribution Systems  

EPA Science Inventory

Once contamination has occurred in drinking water systems and the contaminated segment has been isolated from other parts of the system, there will be great urgency to decontaminate the areas as rapidly and cost effectively as possible. This article describes available and deve...

360

ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDE DEGRADATION UNDER DRINKING WATER TREATMENT CONDITIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Chlorpyrifos (CP) was used as a model compound to develop experimental methods and prototype modeling tools to forecast the fate of organophosphate (OP) pesticides under drinking water treatment conditions. CP was found to rapidly oxidize to chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) in the presen...

361

Arsenic in Drinking Water: Recent Regulatory Developments and Issues.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1996, Congress directed the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to propose a new standard for arsenic in drinking water by January 1, 2000, and to issue a final standard by January 1, 2001. Congress also directed EPA, with the National Academy of Sci...

M. Tiemann

2001-01-01

362

ELECTRO-REGENERATED ION-EXCHANGE DEIONIZATION OF DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents the development of a device for removal of inorganic salts from drinking water to facilitate the subsequent concentration of organic solutes for bioassay. Prior attempts to concentrate the organic solutes by reverse osmosis (RO) resulted in precipitation of t...

363

FATE OF PESTICIDES AND TOXIC CHEMICALS DURING DRINKING WATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Regulations require that all relevant routes of human consumption be considered in risk assessments for anthropogenic chemicals. A large percentage of the U.S. population consumes drinking water (DW) that is treated. Limited studies show that some pesticides and toxics occurrin...

364

COST MODELING FOR DRINKING WATER UNIT TREATMENT PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

Current U.S. EPA research is underway to improve and expand upon a cost data base for use in estimating the economics of building and operating drinking water treatment facilities. his cost data is important to the EPA decision making process when formulating new regulations and ...

365

EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES OF ORGANIC MICROPOLLUTANTS IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Epidemiologic studies have been conducted in order to make a quantitative statement about associations between drinking water contaminants and disease. The basic measures of the association are a rate ratio or relative risk and rate difference or attributable risk. The appropriat...

366

RESEARCH FOR THE TREATMENT OF ORGANICS IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-Drinking Water Research Division uses a three tiered approach to research. The first step is bench-scale, where the chemical behavior of the organic contaminant can be investigated in a closely controlled environment. The next level, pilot...

367

Metagenomic Analyses of Drinking Water Receiving Different Disinfection Treatments  

EPA Science Inventory

A metagenome-based approach was utilized for assessing the taxonomic affiliation and function potential of microbial populations in free chlorine (CHL) and monochloramine (CHM) treated drinking water (DW). A total of 1,024, 242 (averaging 544 bp) and 849, 349 (averaging 554 bp) ...

368

Arsenic removal from drinking water by flocculation and microfiltration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic removal from drinking water is a major problem in many parts of the world. We have investigated arsenic removal by flocculation and microfiltration. Ferric chloride and ferric sulphate have been used as flocculants. The use of small amounts of cationic polymeric flocculants, as flocculation aids in the presence of ferric ions, has also been investigated. The results obtained here

Binbing Han; Timothy Runnells; Julio Zimbron; Ranil Wickramasinghe

2002-01-01

369

Iron coated pottery granules for arsenic removal from drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new media, iron coated pottery granules (ICPG) has been developed for As removal from drinking water. ICPG is a solid phase media that produces a stable Fe–Si surface complex for arsenic adsorption. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to document the physical attributes (grain size, pore size and distribution, surface roughness) of the ICPG media. Several advantages of the

Liangjie Dong; Pavel V. Zinin; James P. Cowen; Li Chung Ming

2009-01-01

370

BACTERIA ASSOCIATED WITH GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON PARTICLES IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

A sampling protocol was developed to examine particles released from granular activated carbon filter beds. A gauze filter/Swinnex procedure was used to collect carbon fines from 201 granular activated carbon-treated drinking water samples over 12 months. Application of a homogen...

371

Fluorometric determination of the DNA concentration in municipal drinking water.  

PubMed Central

DNA concentrations in municipal drinking water samples were measured by fluorometry, using Hoechst 33258 fluorochrome. The concentration, extraction, and detection methods used were adapted from existing techniques. The method is reproducible, fast, accurate, and simple. The amounts of DNA per cell for five different bacterial isolates obtained from drinking water samples were determined by measuring DNA concentration and total cell concentration (acridine orange epifluorescence direct cell counting) in stationary pure cultures. The relationship between DNA concentration and epifluorescence total direct cell concentration in 11 different drinking water samples was linear and positive; the amounts of DNA per cell in these samples did not differ significantly from the amounts in pure culture isolates. We found significant linear correlations between DNA concentration and colony-forming unit concentration, as well as between epifluorescence direct cell counts and colony-forming unit concentration. DNA concentration measurements of municipal drinking water samples appear to monitor changes in bacteriological quality at least as well as total heterotrophic plate counting and epifluorescence direct cell counting.

McCoy, W F; Olson, B H

1985-01-01

372

REMOVAL OF ARSENIC FROM DRINKING WATER BY CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT METHODS  

EPA Science Inventory

The USEPA National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NIPDWR) established the maximum contaminant level (MCL) for arsenic at 0.05 mg/L in 1977. everal years ago the USEPA began to re-examine the arsenic health effects information and has indicated that the MCL could be s...

373

Analysis of physical and chemical parameters of bottled drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seventeen different brands of bottled drinking water, collected from different retail shops in Amritsar, were analyzed for different physical and chemical parameters to ascertain their compliability with the prescribed\\/recommended limits of the World Heath Organization (WHO) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). It was found that the majority of the brands tested were over-treated. Lower values of hardness,

Rakesh Kumar Mahajan; T. P. S. Walia; B. S. Lark; Sumanjit

2006-01-01

374

ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDE DEGRADATION UNDER DRINKING WATER TREATMENT CONDITIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996 requires that all tolerances for pesticide chemical residuals in or on food be considered for anticipated exposure. Drinking water is considered a potential pathway for dietary exposure and there is reliable monitoring data for the ...

375

Potential Relationships Between Hydraulic Fracturing and Drinking Water Resources  

EPA Science Inventory

The conferees urge the Agency to carry out a study on the relationship between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water, using a credible approach that relies on the best available science, as well as independent sources of information. The conferees expect the study to be conduct...

376

Recommended combat drinking water standards for organophosphorus nerve agents  

SciTech Connect

Organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents may be used on an integrated battlefield and US Army preventive medicine and quartermaster personnel are required to ensure the safety of drinking water supplies in such combat situations. We developed improved drinking water standards for OP nerve agents, recommending interim drinking water standards for OP nerve agents for consumption rates of 5 and 15 L/d and exposure periods lasting up to seven days. The relationship between pharmacokinetic parameters and toxic responses were established for OP nerve agents for the oral route of exposure only and soman (GD) and VX were identified as being the OP nerve agents of most concern in field-drinking-water supplies. Inhibition of red blood cell cholinesterase (RBC-ChE) was linked to the potential for performance degradation, however, actual toxicological interactions probably occur at cholinergic synapses (i.e., junctions between nerves or nerves and muscles), which cannot be monitored in vivo. In the absence of prophylactic pretreatment with substances such as carbamates, the recommended standards correspond to 50% inhibition of RBC-ChE and are 12 and 4 /mu/g/L for 5 and 15 L/d consumption rates, respectively. If prophylactic pretreatment with a carbamate is used, then RBC-ChE will be inhibited prior to exposure, and the recommended standards correspond to 20% inhibition of RBC-ChE, which correspond to 4.7 and 1.6 /mu/g/L for 5 and 15 L/d consumption rates, respectively. 12 refs.

Daniels, J.I.; Schaub, S.A.

1989-06-01

377

METHODS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Thirteen analytical methods for the identification and measurement of organic compounds in drinking water are described in detail. ix of the methods are for volatile organic compounds (VOC's) and certain disinfection byproducts and these methods were cited in the Federal Register...

378

TECHNIQUES FOR ANALYZING COMPLEX MIXTURES OF DRINKING WATER DBPS  

EPA Science Inventory

Although chlorine has been used to disinfect drinking water for approximately 100 years, there have been concerns raised over its use, due to the formation of potentially hazardous by-products. Trihalomethanes (THMs) were the first disinfection by-products (DBPs) identified and ...

379

ELEVATED LEVELS OF SODIUM IN COMMUNITY DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

A comparison study of students from towns with differing levels of sodium in drinking water revealed statistically significantly higher blood pressure distributions among the students from the town with high sodium levels. Differences were found in both systolic and diastolic rea...

380

RESEARCH PLAN FOR ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER (DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

This research plan was developed to describe research needed to reduce uncertainties in the arsenic risk assessment and to support EPAs development of a new arsenic drinking water standard. The research plan was developed by a team of scientists from EPAs National Laboratories an...

381

Procedures for Preservation of Lead in Drinking Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Jeanne Briskin's March 27, 1989, memo to Gary McKee, Deputy Director, EMSL, requested that information be provided, which would answer several questions concerning the preservation of drinking water samples for lead analysis. It was decided to: Do a liter...

C. Feldmann

1990-01-01

382

DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS AND DURATION OF GESTATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent studies of drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs) suggest high exposure decreases risk of preterm birth. We examined this association with total trihalomethane (TTHM) and five haloacetic acids (HAA5) among 2,041 women in a prospective pregnancy study conducted from...

383

EFFECT OF BROMIDE ON CHLORINATION BYPRODUCTS IN FINISHED DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

To investigate the role of bromide ion concentration on formation and speciation of non-THMs chlorination organic byproducts, a two block full factorial matrix was designed to statistically evaluate the influence of various parameters which are relevant to drinking water treatmen...

384

NNitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) as a Drinking Water Contaminant: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is a member of a family of extremely potent carcinogens, the N-ni- trosamines. Until recently, concerns about NDMA mainly focused on the presence of NDMA in food, consumer products, and polluted air. However, current concern focuses on NDMA as a drinking water contaminant resulting from reactions occurring during chlorination or via direct industrial contamination. Because of the relatively

William A. Mitch; Jonathan O. Sharp; R. Rhodes Trussell; Richard L. Valentine; Lisa Alvarez-Cohen; David L. Sedlak

2003-01-01

385

Guidelines for ultraviolet disinfection of drinking water: considerations for Ontario.  

PubMed

The Ontario Ministry of the Environment is actively investigating protocols for approving the installation of ultraviolet (UV) disinfection systems for drinking water disinfection. This paper discusses issues that may be considered for selecting the appropriate UV dose, validating UV reactor performance, and monitoring the performance of the reactor once installed. PMID:15371218

Hofmann, Ron; Andrews, Bob; Lachmaniuk, Pat

386

DESIGN MANUALS FOR ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

This project consists of the development of several design manuals (3) on drinking water treatment processes that remove arsenic with focus on small systems technologies. Manuals will incorporate arsenic removal information developed from in-house research projects, as well as ot...

387

Mineralogical Evidence of Galvanic Corrosion in Domestic, Drinking Water Pipes  

EPA Science Inventory

Drinking water distribution system (DWDS) piping contains numerous examples of galvanically-coupled metals (e.g., soldered copper pipe joints, copper-lead pipes joined during partial replacements of lead service lines). The possible role of galvanic corrosion in the release of l...

388

Modeling Chlorine Residuals in Drinking-Water Distribution Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A mass transfer-based model is developed for predicting chlorine decay in drinking water distribution networks. The model considers first order reactions of chlorine to occur both in the bulk flow and at the pipe wall. The overall rate of the wall reactio...

L. A. Rossman R. M. Clark W. M. Grayman

1994-01-01

389

Diversity and antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas spp. from drinking water.  

PubMed

Pseudomonas spp. are common inhabitants of aquatic environments, including drinking water. Multi-antibiotic resistance in clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa is widely reported and deeply characterized. However, the information regarding other species and environmental isolates of this genus is scant. This study was designed based on the hypothesis that members of the genus Pseudomonas given their high prevalence, wide distribution in waters and genetic plasticity can be important reservoirs of antibiotic resistance in drinking water. With this aim, the diversity and antibiotic resistance phenotypes of Pseudomonas isolated from different drinking water sources were evaluated. The genotypic diversity analyses were based on six housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, rpoD, rpoB, gyrB, recA and ITS) and on pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Susceptibility to 21 antibiotics of eight classes was tested using the ATB PSE EU (08) and disk diffusion methods. Pseudomonas spp. were isolated from 14 of the 32 sampled sites. A total of 55 non-repetitive isolates were affiliated to twenty species. Although the same species were isolated from different sampling sites, identical genotypes were never observed in distinct types of water (water treatment plant/distribution system, tap water, cup fillers, biofilm, and mineral water). In general, the prevalence of antibiotic resistance was low and often the resistance patterns were related with the species and/or the strain genotype. Resistance to ticarcillin, ticarcillin with clavulanic acid, fosfomycin and cotrimoxazol were the most prevalent (69-84%). No resistance to piperacillin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, gentamicin, tobramycin, amikacin, imipenem or meropenem was observed. This study demonstrates that Pseudomonas spp. are not so widespread in drinking water as commonly assumed. Nevertheless, it suggests that water Pseudomonas can spread acquired antibiotic resistance, preferentially via vertical transmission. PMID:22521167

Vaz-Moreira, Ivone; Nunes, Olga C; Manaia, Célia M

2012-06-01

390

40 CFR 2.304 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Safe Drinking Water Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...governing certain information obtained under the Safe Drinking Water Act. 2...governing certain information obtained under the Safe Drinking Water Act. (a...in drinking water is not eligible...treatment. No information to which...

2009-07-01

391

40 CFR 2.304 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Safe Drinking Water Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...governing certain information obtained under the Safe Drinking Water Act. 2...governing certain information obtained under the Safe Drinking Water Act. (a...in drinking water is not eligible...treatment. No information to which...

2010-07-01

392

40 CFR 2.304 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Safe Drinking Water Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the Safe Drinking Water Act, 42 U.S...et seq. (2) Contaminant means any physical...absence, or level of contaminants in drinking water is not eligible...absence, or level of contaminants in drinking water shall be...

2013-07-01

393

OCCURRENCE OF ALUMINUM IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

A random selection of 186 water utilities was used for this study in which raw and finished water samples were collected from each facility five times throughout a year and analyzed for iron and aluminum by atomic absorption techniques. The water samples were categorized by the s...

394

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR 1,2-DIBROMO-3-CHLOROPROPANE (DBCP) (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on dibromochloropropane. This Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of dibromochloropropane; Toxic...

395

IDENTIFICATION OF DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS FROM OZONE, CHLORINE DIOXIDE, CHLORAMINE, AND CHLORINE  

EPA Science Inventory

Many drinking water treatment plants are currently using alternative disinfectants to treat drinking water, with ozone, chlorine dioxide, and chloramine being the most popular. However, compared to chlorine, which has been much more widely studied, there is little information abo...

396

REMOVAL OF BERYLLIUM FROM DRINKING WATER BY CHEMICAL COAGULATION AND LIME SOFTENING  

EPA Science Inventory

The effectiveness of conventional drinking water treatment and lime softening was evaluated for beryllium removal from two drinking water sources. ar test studies were conducted to determine how common coagulants (aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride and lime softening performed ...

397

76 FR 67187 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council; Notice of a Public Teleconference Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Drinking Water Regulations for Lead and Copper. DATES: The public teleconference will...Drinking Water Regulations for Lead and Copper: EPA is developing proposed revisions to the Lead and Copper Rule (LCR), which is the National...

2011-10-31

398

Treatment Technology to Meet the Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations for Inorganics: Part 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is the third in a series summarizing existing treatment technology to meet the inorganic National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations. This report deals specifically with treatment methods for removing cadmium, lead, and silver from drinking water. (CS)

Sorg, Thomas J.; And Others

1978-01-01

399

Drinking Water Criteria Document for Atrazine (External Review Draft), August 1988.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Office of Drinking Water, Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on Atrazine. The Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical chemical properties of Atrazine; Toxicokinetics and h...

1988-01-01

400

Community Health Associated with Arsenic in Drinking Water in Millard County, Utah.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study evaluates the health effects of arsenic in drinking water at levels approximately four times the maximum allowed by the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations. Physical examinations of 250 people included evaluating dermatological ...

J. W. Southwick A. E. Western M. M. Beck T. Whitley R. Isaacs

1981-01-01

401

40 CFR 194.53 - Consideration of underground sources of drinking water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01...sources of drinking water. 194.53 Section...53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...sources of drinking water in the accessible environment that are...

2010-07-01

402

40 CFR 194.53 - Consideration of underground sources of drinking water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...40 Protection of Environment 24 2009-07-01...sources of drinking water. 194.53 Section...53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...sources of drinking water in the accessible environment that are...

2009-07-01

403

Roadmap for Interdisciplinary Research on Drinking Water Disinfection By-Products  

EPA Science Inventory

Slide presentation on interdisciplinary research on drinking water disinfection by-products which summarized important issues with drinking water disinfection by-products and focused on emerging, unregulated DBPs....

404

PREDICTING TOXIC WASTE CONCENTRATIONS IN COMMUNITY DRINKING WATER SUPPLIES: ANALYSIS OF VULNERABILITY TO UPSTREAM INDUSTRIAL DISCHARGES  

EPA Science Inventory

In February, 1978 the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed amendments to the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations to deal with the control of chloroform and synthetic organics in drinking water. In November, 1979 the regulation regarding synthetic organic...

405

TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY TO MEET THE INTERIM PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS FOR INORGANICS: PART 5  

EPA Science Inventory

The fifth in a series summarizing existing treatment technology to meet the inorganic National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations, this report describes current methods for removing barium and radionuclides from drinking water....

406

Formation and Control of Trihalomethanes in Chlorinated Drinking Waters Containing Fulvic Acid.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The formation of halogenated organic compounds in drinking waters is a potentially serious environmental problem. This study examined the production of trihalomethanes by the chlorination of drinking waters containing fulvic acid and the effects of conven...

D. J. O'Brien R. L. Bixby M. A. Jewett K. M. Stewart

1980-01-01

407

Transparent exopolymer particle removal in different drinking water production centers.  

PubMed

Transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) have recently gained interest in relation to membrane fouling. These sticky, gel-like particles consist of acidic polysaccharides excreted by bacteria and algae. The concentrations, expressed as xanthan gum equivalents L?¹ (?g X(eq) L?¹), usually reach hundred up to thousands ?g X(eq) L?¹ in natural waters. However, very few research was performed on the occurrence and fate of TEP in drinking water, this far. This study examined three different drinking water production centers, taking in effluent of a sewage treatment plant (STP), surface water and groundwater, respectively. Each treatment step was evaluated on TEP removal and on 13 other chemical and biological parameters. An assessment on TEP removal efficiency of a diverse range of water treatment methods and on correlations between TEP and other parameters was performed. Significant correlations between particulate TEP (>0.4 ?m) and viable cell concentrations were found, as well as between colloidal TEP (0.05-0.4 ?m) and total COD, TOC, total cell or viable cell concentrations. TEP concentrations were very dependent on the raw water source; no TEP was detected in groundwater but the STP effluent contained 1572 ?g X(eq) L?¹ and the surface water 699 ?g X(eq) L?¹. Over 94% of total TEP in both plants was colloidal TEP, a fraction neglected in nearly every other TEP study. The combination of coagulation and sand filtration was effective to decrease the TEP levels by 67%, while the combination of ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis provided a total TEP removal. Finally, in none of the installations TEP reached the final drinking water distribution system at significant concentrations. Overall, this study described the presence and removal of TEP in drinking water systems. PMID:22537844

Van Nevel, Sam; Hennebel, Tom; De Beuf, Kristof; Du Laing, Gijs; Verstraete, Willy; Boon, Nico

2012-07-01

408

[New drinking water reference values for monocyclic nitro compounds].  

PubMed

Nitro compounds are important industrial chemicals with a broad range of applications. During their commercial production or practical use and through leaching from military waste sites they may be released into the environment and thus lead to a contamination of drinking water resources. In the last 15-20 years, the wider public first became aware of nitro compounds as contaminants in groundwater and drinking water resources that originated from manufacturing and processing of secondary explosives during World War II. In 1980, the former Bundesgesundheitsamt (BGA; Federal Health Office) had based its first risk assessment of monocyclic nitro compounds in drinking water on the known carcinogenicity of some aromatic amines in the working environment. On this basis, the BGA recommended for metabolites of aromatic nitro compounds a guide value of 0.1 mug/l for the sum of aromatic amines. From the beginning to the middle of the 1990s, the BGA established a more specific health-related assessment for the individual compounds, but not on the basis of tolerable or acceptable body doses but of dimensionless risk assessment scores ranking their combined toxic and carcinogenic potential on a scale from 1 to 100. In this contribution, we derived new health-based drinking water guide values for 19 nitro(aromatic) compounds and nitramines, including hexogen, octogen, and tetryl as well as the O-nitro compound PETN. All compounds under consideration have been detected within the last 15 years in Germany at contaminated sites close to or directly in groundwater resources for drinking water. For toxicological evaluation and derivation of guideline values for the nitro compounds of interest, the tolerable daily intake (TDI) approach was used for chemicals exhibiting a threshold for toxic effects. This was done by using established tolerable body doses for humans based on an identified NOAEL/LOAEL for the most sensitive toxic endpoint. In the case of non-threshold chemical substances, suitable estimates of excess lifetime cancer risk have been applied. PMID:16222406

Wollin, K-M; Dieter, H H

2005-11-01

409

Analysis of Trace Level Perchlorate in Drinking Water and Ground Water by Electrospray Mass Spectrometry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new method involving the use of electrospray mass spectrometry was developed for the detection of trace levels of perchlorate in ground water and drinking water. Electrospray mass spectrometry was shown to be both sensitive and selective for the detecti...

R. A. Clewell W. T. Brashear D. T. Tsui S. Chaudhuri R. S. Cassady

1998-01-01

410

Options for the Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water Information Strategy (Working Draft).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information is critical to the management of major national programs and shapes responses to rapidly changing events in the public health arena. The Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water must bring its information management into strategic alignment w...

2001-01-01

411

[Medical and environmental aspects of the drinking water supply crisis].  

PubMed

Modern data determining drinking water supply crisis in Russia have been considered. The probability of influence of drinking water quality used by population on current negative demographic indices was shown. The necessity of taking into account interests of public health care in the process of formation of water management decisions was grounded. To achieve this goal the application of medical ecological interdisciplinary approach was proposed Its use is mostly effective in construction of goal-directed medical ecological sections for territorial schemes of the rational use and protection of water resources. Stages of the elaboration of these sections, providing the basing of evaluation and prognostic medical and environmental constructions on similar engineering studies of related disciplinary areas (hydrological, hydrogeological, hydrobiological, hydrochemical, environmental, socio-economic, technical and technological) were determined. PMID:24624819

Él'piner, L I

2013-01-01

412

QSPR for predicting chloroform formation in drinking water disinfection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlorination is the most widely used technique for water disinfection, but may lead to the formation of chloroform (trichloromethane; TCM) and other by-products. This article reports the first quantitative structure–property relationship (QSPR) for predicting the formation of TCM in chlorinated drinking water. Model compounds (n?=?117) drawn from 10 literature sources were divided into training data (n?=?90, analysed by five-way leave-many-out

G. B. Luilo; S. E. Cabaniss

2011-01-01

413

ETV REPORT: REMOVAL OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER ? WATTS PREMIER INC. WP-4V DRINKING WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The Watts Premier WP-4V POU drinking water treatment system was tested for removal of aldicarb, benzene, cadmium, carbofuran, cesium, chloroform, dichlorvos, dicrotophos, fenamiphos, mercury, mevinphos, oxamyl, strontium, and strychnine. The WP-4V employs a reverse osmosis (RO) m...

414

DRINKING WATER AND CANCER INCIDENCE IN IOWA. 1. TRENDS AND INCIDENCE BY SOURCE OF DRINKING WATER AND SIZE OF MUNICIPALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The available data resources in the State of Iowa were used to investigate the relationships of drinking water contaminants and cancer incidence rates for communities. Age-adjusted, sex-specific cancer incidence rates for the years 1969-1978 were determined for municipalities hav...

415

DEVELOPMENT OF WATER SUPPLY TECHNOLOGY TO MEET THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE SAFE DRINKING WATER ACT OF 1996: TRENDS AND PROSPECTS.  

EPA Science Inventory

The passage of the U.S. Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) in 1974 has had a major impact on the way water is treated and delivered in the U.S. The Act established national drinking water regulations for more than 170,000 public drinking water systems serving over 250 million people ...

416

73 FR 19320 - National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Drinking Water Regulations for Aircraft Public Water...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...as water for brushing teeth and hand washing (see 63 FR 41941 (August...preparation, teeth-brushing, hand washing, or any other consumptive...food or beverage preparation, hand washing, teeth brushing, or any...

2008-04-09

417

Health Risk Assessment of Drinking Water Contaminants in Canada: The Applicability of Mixture Risk Assessment Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this article are: (i) to review the current approaches of Health Canada to the risk assessment of drinking water contaminants, and (ii) to examine the applicability of mixture risk assessment methods to drinking water contaminants. Health Canada's current approaches to drinking water risk assessment, like those of many regulatory agencies, focus almost solely on the effects of

Kannan Krishnan; Joel Paterson; David T. Williams

1997-01-01

418

Sources of Elevated Sodium Levels in Drinking Water...and Recommendations for Reduction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sodium enters drinking water by a variety of human activities and by natural means. Evidence suggests elevated levels of sodium in drinking water may adversely affect health. Action should be taken to reduce the level of human exposure to sodium in drinking water. (RE)

Calabrese, Edward J.; Tuthill, Robert W.

1978-01-01

419

40 CFR 799.5075 - Drinking water contaminants subject to testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...palatability, a drinking water test is not feasible...oral gavage, in the diet, or in capsules...administered in the drinking water, by gavage, in the diet, or in capsules...palatability, a drinking water test is not feasible...oral gavage, in the diet, or in...

2009-07-01

420

40 CFR 799.5075 - Drinking water contaminants subject to testing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...palatability, a drinking water test is not feasible...oral gavage, in the diet, or in capsules...administered in the drinking water, by gavage, in the diet, or in capsules...palatability, a drinking water test is not feasible...oral gavage, in the diet, or in...

2010-07-01

421

Regulation of Environmental Contaminants in Drinking Water: State Methods and Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Risk assessment methodologies form the basis for deriving guidelines for environmental contaminants in drinking water. A state may have to set, on an emergency basis, an interim guideline for a drinking water contaminant for which only limited data are available. Additional national drinking water standards will be useful for state regulatory agencies, because maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) are legally enforceable,

Kirpal S. Sidhu

1992-01-01

422

ALTERNATIVE DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS FROM SUPERFUND SITES: DEVELOPMENT OF A NATIONAL REGISTER  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes a 'prototype' program initiated by U.S. EPA's Drinking Water Research Division (Cincinnati, Ohio), Region V Drinking Water Program (Chicago, Illinois), and Technology Evaluation Section (Edison, New Jersey) to inventory the types of drinking water related tech...

423

MODELING CHLORINE DECAY AND THE FORMATION OF DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS (DBPS) IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

A major objective of drinking water treatment is to provide microbiologically safe drinking water. The combination of conventional drinking water treatment and disinfection has proved to be one of the major public health advances in modern times. In the US, chlorine is most often...

424

78 FR 68838 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council; Request for Nominations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRL-9902-93-OW] National Drinking Water Advisory Council; Request for Nominations...three-year appointment to the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (Council). The 15 member...Council was established by the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) to provide practical and...

2013-11-15

425

METHODS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN DRINKING WATER - SUPPLEMENT I  

EPA Science Inventory

Nine analytical methods covering 54 organic contaminants which may be present in drinking water or drinking water sources are described in detail. even of these methods cover compounds designated for regulation under the Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1986. egulations for ...

426

78 FR 42692 - Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Ammonium Formate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Ammonium Formate AGENCY: Food and Drug...permitted in feed and drinking water of animals to correct the description of ammonium...permitted in feed and drinking water of animals do not correctly describe ammonium...

2013-07-17

427

Arsenic removal from drinking water during coagulation  

SciTech Connect

The efficiency of arsenic removal from source waters and artificial freshwaters during coagulation with ferric chloride and alum was examined in bench-scale studies. Arsenic(V) removal by either ferric chloride or alum was relatively insensitive to variations in source water composition below pH 8. At pH 8 and 9, the efficiency of arsenic(V) removal by ferric chloride was decreased in the presence of natural organic matter. The pH range for arsenic(V) removal with alum was more restricted than with ferric chloride. For source waters spiked with 20 {micro}g/L arsenic(V), final dissolved arsenic(V) concentrations in the product water of less than 2 {micro}g/L were achieved with both coagulants at neutral pH. Removal of arsenic(III) from source waters by ferric chloride was both less efficient and more strongly influenced by source water composition than removal of arsenic(V). The presence of sulfate (at pH 4 and 5) and natural organic matter (at pH 4 through 9) adversely affected the efficiency of arsenic(III) removal by ferric chloride. Arsenic(III) could not be removed from source waters by coagulation with alum.

Hering, J.G. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States); Chen, P.Y. [Industrial Technology Research Inst., Chutung Hsinchu (Taiwan, Province of China); Wilkie, J.A.; Elimelech, M. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

1997-08-01

428

Presence of Enteric Viruses in Source Waters for Drinking Water Production in the Netherlands?  

PubMed Central

The quality of drinking water in the Netherlands has to comply with the Dutch Drinking Water Directive: less than one infection in 10,000 persons per year may occur due to consumption of unboiled drinking water. Since virus concentrations in drinking waters may be below the detection limit but entail a public health risk, the infection risk from drinking water consumption requires the assessment of the virus concentrations in source waters and of the removal efficiency of treatment processes. In this study, samples of source waters were taken during 4 years of regular sampling (1999 to 2002), and enteroviruses, reoviruses, somatic phages, and F-specific phages were detected in 75% (range, 0.0033 to 5.2 PFU/liter), 83% (0.0030 to 5.9 PFU/liter), 100% (1.1 to 114,156 PFU/liter), and 97% (0.12 to 14,403 PFU/liter), respectively, of 75 tested source water samples originating from 10 locations for drinking water production. By endpoint dilution reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), 45% of the tested source water samples were positive for norovirus RNA (0.22 to 177 PCR-detectable units [PDU]/liter), and 48% were positive for rotavirus RNA (0.65 to 2,249 PDU/liter). Multiple viruses were regularly detected in the source water samples. A significant correlation between the concentrations of the two phages and those of the enteroviruses could be demonstrated. The virus concentrations varied greatly between 10 tested locations, and a seasonal effect was observed. Peak concentrations of pathogenic viruses occur in source waters used for drinking water production. If seasonal and short-term fluctuations coincide with less efficient or failing treatment, an unacceptable public health risk from exposure to this drinking water may occur.

Lodder, W. J.; van den Berg, H. H. J. L.; Rutjes, S. A.; de Roda Husman, A. M.

2010-01-01

429

Removal of Glyphosate from Drinking Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The effectiveness of granulated activated carbon (GAC), packed activated carbon (PAC), conventional treatment, membranes, and oxidation for removing glyphosate from natural waters is evaluated. Results indicate that GAC and PAC are not effective in removi...

T. F. Speth

1991-01-01

430

ALTERNATIVE DISINFECTION FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

During a one-yr study at Jefferson Parish, La., the chemical, microbiological, and mutagenic effects os using the major drinkgin water disinfectants (chlorine, chlorine dioxide, chloramine, ozone) were evaluated. Tests were performed on samples collected from various treatment s...

431

Natural radionuclides in drinking waters in Serbia.  

PubMed

Gross alpha and beta activities, (3)H, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K activities were measured in bottled mineral water produced in Serbia in order to assess its radiological quality. In 11 samples of tap water and in 1 sample of spring waters gross alpha and beta activity were determined. The natural activity concentration of alpha and beta emitting radionuclides are within the range recommended by World Health Organization. The tritium concentration in bottled mineral waters ranged from 0.023 ± 0.012 to 0.046 ± 0.006 Bq l(-1). The activity of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K were below the minimum detectable activity. In order to evaluate the annual effective dose for different classes of age, a conservative dosimetric calculation was carried out. PMID:23041389

Jankovi?, Marija M; Todorovi?, Dragana J; Todorovi?, Nataša A; Nikolov, Jovana

2012-12-01

432

Don't drink the water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

If water exists in permanently shadowed terrain on the moon as suggested by a number of investigators (Watson et al., 1961; Arnold, 1979; Hodges, 1980; Nozette et al., 1996; Duke and Whittaker, 1997) and strongly supported by the Lunar Prospector neutron flux measurements (Feldman et al., 1998), the results of studies on another volatile, namely Hg, are quite relevant. Whereas water has not been positively found, a large number of studies has established the presence of Hg in lunar samples. Its presence and volatile behavior are important when considering water as probably the most important in situ lunar resource. Here we show that the amount of Hg in lunar cold traps may be comparable to the amounts of water.

Reed, George W., Jr.

1999-09-01

433

Understanding medicinal taste and odour formation in drinking waters.  

PubMed

The formation of bromophenols during chlorination of phenol- and bromide-containing waters can be critical for taste and odour problems in drinking waters. The work performed has confirmed that flavour threshold concentrations of some bromophenols are in the ng/L range. In addition, under typical drinking water conditions, kinetic experiments and model simulations performed have shown that (1) bromination is the predominant reaction pathway, (2) bromophenol reaction kinetics are rapid leading to taste-and-odour episodes that last for short periods of 10-20 min, (3) increasing phenol concentration and pH tends to increase taste and odour intensity, (4) increasing chlorine or bromide concentrations tends to shorten the duration of the taste-and-odour episode. PMID:17489397

Piriou, P; Soulet, C; Acero, J L; Bruchet, A; Von Gunten, U; Suffet, I H

2007-01-01

434

Enteropathogenic Bacteria Contamination of Unchlorinated Drinking Water in Korea, 2010  

PubMed Central

Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess the microbiological quality of unchlorinated drinking water in Korea, 2010. One hundred and eighty unchlorinated drinking water samples were collected from various sites in Seoul and Gyeonggi province. Methods To investigate bacterial presence, the pour plate method was used with cultures grown on selective media for total bacteria, total coliforms, and Staphylococcus spp., respectively. Results In the 180 total bacteria investigation, 72 samples from Seoul and 33 samples from Gyeonggi province were of an unacceptable quality (>102 CFU/mL). Of all the samples tested, total coliforms were detected in 28 samples (15.6%) and Staphylococcus spp. in 12 samples (6.7%). Most of the coliform isolates exhibited high-level resistance to cefazolin (88.2%), cefonicid (64.7%) and ceftazidime (20.6%). In addition, Staphylococcus spp. isolates exhibited high-level resistance to mupirocin (42%). Species of Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Cupriavidus, Hafnia, Rahnella, Serratia, and Yersinia were isolated from the water samples. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that consumption of unchlorinated drinking water could represent a notable risk to the health of consumers. As such, there is need for continuous monitoring of these water sources and to establish standards.

Lee, Si Won; Lee, Do Kyung; An, Hyang Mi; Cha, Min Kyeong; Kim, Kyung Jae

2011-01-01

435

Drinking water standard for tritium-what's the risk?  

PubMed

This paper presents an assessment of lifetime risks of cancer incidence associated with the drinking water standard for tritium established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA); this standard is an annual-average maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 740 Bq L(-1). This risk assessment has several defining characteristics: (1) an accounting of uncertainty in all parameters that relate a given concentration of tritium in drinking water to lifetime risk (except the number of days of consumption of drinking water in a year and the number of years of consumption) and an accounting of correlations of uncertain parameters to obtain probability distributions that represent uncertainty in estimated lifetime risks of cancer incidence; (2) inclusion of a radiation effectiveness factor (REF) to represent an increased biological effectiveness of low-energy electrons emitted in decay of tritium compared with high-energy photons; (3) use of recent estimates of risks of cancer incidence from exposure to high-energy photons, including the dependence of risks on an individual's gender and age, in the BEIR VII report; and (4) inclusion of risks of incidence of skin cancer, principally basal cell carcinoma. By assuming ingestion of tritium in drinking water at the MCL over an average life expectancy of 80 y in females and 75 y in males, 95% credibility intervals of lifetime risks of cancer incidence obtained in this assessment are (0.35, 12) × 10(-4) in females and (0.30, 15) × 10(-4) in males. Mean risks, which are considered to provide the best single measure of expected risks, are about 3 × 10(-4) in both genders. In comparison, USEPA's point estimate of the lifetime risk of cancer incidence, assuming a daily consumption of drinking water of 2 L over an average life expectancy of 75.2 y and excluding an REF for tritium and incidence of skin cancer, is 5.6 × 10(-5). Probability distributions of annual equivalent doses to the whole body associated with the drinking water standard for tritium also were obtained. Means and 97.5th percentiles of maximum annual doses to females and males, which occur at age <1 y, all are less than the annual equivalent dose of 40 ?Sv used by USEPA to establish the MCL. PMID:21799344

Kocher, D C; Hoffman, F O

2011-09-01

436

Drinking Water Treatment: Activated Carbon Filtration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, presented by the University of Nebraska - Lincoln Extension, discusses the principles, processes and requirements of activated carbon filtration systems for the domestic (household) user. The site addresses contaminants removed, those not removed, water testing, principals of treatment and the equipment used in this treatment.

Divorak, Bruce I.; Skipton, Sharon

2008-10-21

437

ARSENIC DESORPTION FROM DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has recently lowered the maximum contaminant level (MCL) for arsenic from 0.050 mg/L to 0.010 mg/L for all community and non-community water sources. The new MCL for arsenic must be met by January 2006. Recent studies have found th...

438

BIOFILMS IN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Virtually anywhere a surface comes into contact with the water in a distribution system, one can find biofilms. Biofilms are formed in distribution system pipelines when microbial cells attach to pipe surfaces and multiply to form a film or slime layer on the pipe. Probably withi...

439

ANALYZING DRINKING WATER FOR DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS  

EPA Science Inventory

In the mid 19th Century, Chinese workers on the North American transcontinental railroad suffered less illness than other groups. While generally mysterious at the time, today the reason is obvious. The Chinese preference for tea required heating the water, thus killing many path...

440

DRINKING WATER INFRASTRUCTURE NEEDS SURVEY (1999)  

EPA Science Inventory

Resource Purpose: EPA is conducting the 1999 Needs Survey to meet requirements of the SDWA. Section 1452(h) of the SDWA requires EPA to conduct an assessment every 4 years of capital investments that are needed by public water systems (PWSs). In addition, SDWS sec 1452(i)...

441

[Microflora of drinking water reclaimed from waste water in an hermetically closed environment].  

PubMed

Microorganisms dwelling in drinking water reclaimed from water containing water in an enclosed environment were identified. The microbial species in the water reclaimed from the condensate of hydrogen peroxide decomposition products and from the air humidity condensate showed specific features and differences when compared to those in natural water. PMID:1981380

Shikina, M I; Vinogradova, L A; Kolesina, N B; Volkova, L N

1990-01-01

442

Identification and Assessment of Potential Water Quality Impact Factors for Drinking-Water Reservoirs  

PubMed Central

Various reservoirs have been serving as the most important drinking water sources in Zhejiang Province, China, due to the uneven distribution of precipitation and severe river pollution. Unfortunately, rapid urbanization and industrialization have been continuously challenging the water quality of the drinking-water reservoirs. The identification and assessment of potential impacts is indispensable in water resource management and protection. This study investigates the drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province to better understand the potential impact on water quality. Altogether seventy-three typical drinking reservoirs in Zhejiang Province encompassing various water storage levels were selected and evaluated. Using fifty-two reservoirs as training samples, the classification and regression tree (CART) method and sixteen comprehensive variables, including six sub-sets (land use, population, socio-economy, geographical features, inherent characteristics, and climate), were adopted to establish a decision-making model for identifying and assessing their potential impacts on drinking-water quality. The water quality class of the remaining twenty-one reservoirs was then predicted and tested based on the decision-making model, resulting in a water quality class attribution accuracy of 81.0%. Based on the decision rules and quantitative importance of the independent variables, industrial emissions was identified as the most important factor influencing the water quality of reservoirs; land use and human habitation also had a substantial impact on water quality. The results of this study provide insights into the factors impacting the water quality of reservoirs as well as basic information for protecting reservoir water resources.

Gu, Qing; Deng, Jinsong; Wang, Ke; Lin, Yi; Li, Jun; Gan, Muye; Ma, Ligang; Hong, Yang

2014-01-01

443

Residential exposure to drinking water arsenic in Inner Mongolia, China  

SciTech Connect

In the Ba Men region of Inner Mongolia, China, a high prevalence of chronic arsenism has been reported in earlier studies. A survey of the arsenic contamination among wells from groundwater was conducted to better understand the occurrence of arsenic (As) in drinking water. A total of 14,866 wells (30% of all wells in the region) were analyzed for their arsenic-content. Methods used to detect arsenic were Spectrophotometric methods with DCC-Ag (detection limit, 0.5 {mu}g of As/L); Spot method (detection limit, 10 {mu}g of As/L); and air assisted Colorimetry method (detection limit, 20 {mu}g of As/L). Arsenic-concentrations ranged from below limit of detection to 1200 {mu}g of As/L. Elevated concentrations were related to well depth (10 to 29 m), the date the well was built (peaks from 1980-1990), and geographic location (near mountain range). Over 25,900 individuals utilized wells with drinking water arsenic concentrations above 20 {mu}g of As/L (14,500 above 50 {mu}g of As/L-the current China national standard in drinking water and 2198 above 300 {mu}g of As/L). The presented database of arsenic in wells of the Ba Men region provides a useful tool for planning future water explorations when combined with geological information as well as support for designing upcoming epidemiological studies on the effects of arsenic in drinking water for this region.

Ning Zhixiong [Ba Men Anti-Epidemic Station, Lin He, Inner Mongolia (China); Lobdell, Danelle T. [Epidemiology and Biomarkers Branch, Human Studies Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA, Chapel Hill (United States); Kwok, Richard K. [RTI International, P.O. Box 12194, 3040 Cornwallis Rd, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2194 (United States)], E-mail: rkwok@rti.org; Liu Zhiyi; Zhang Shiying; Ma Chenglong [Ba Men Anti-Epidemic Station, Lin He, Inner Mongolia (China); Riediker, Michael [Institut Universitaire Romand de Sante au Travail, Lausanne (Switzerland); Mumford, Judy L. [Epidemiology and Biomarkers Branch, Human Studies Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA, Chapel Hill (United States)

2007-08-01

444

Health significance and occurrence of injured bacteria in drinking water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Enteropathogenic and indicator bacteria become injured in drinking water with exposure to sublethal levels of various biological, chemical and physical factors. One manifestation of this injury is the inability to grow and form colonies on selective media containing surfactants. The resulting underestimation of indicator bacteria can lead to a false estimation of water potability. m-T7 medium was developed specifically for the recovery of injured coliforms (both "total" and fecal) in drinking water. The m-T7 method was used to survey operating drinking water treatment and distribution systems for the presence of injured coliforms that were undetected with currently used media. The mean recovery with m-Endo LES medium was less than 1/100 ml while it ranged between 6 and 68/100ml with m-T7 agar. The majority of samples giving positive results with m-T7 medium yielded no detectable coliforms with m-Endo LES agar. Over 95% of the coliform bacteria in these samples were injured. Laboratory experiments were also done to ascribe the virulence of injured waterborne pathogens. Enteropathogens including Salmonella typhimurium, Yersinia enterocolitica and Shigella spp. required up to 20 times the chlorine levels to produce the same injury in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and nonpathogenic coliforms. Similar results were seen with Y. enterocolitica exposed to copper. The recovery of ETEC was followed by delayed enterotoxin production, both in vitro and in the gut of experimental animals. This indicates that injured waterborne enteropathogenic bacteria can be virulent.

McFeters, G. A.; LeChevallier, M. W.; Singh, A.; Kippin, J. S.

1986-01-01

445

Monochloramine cometabolism by Nitrosomonas europaea under drinking water conditions.  

PubMed

Chloramine is widely used in United States drinking water systems as a secondary disinfectant, which may promote the growth of nitrifying bacteria because ammonia is present. At the onset of nitrification, both nitrifying bacteria and their products exert a monochloramine demand, decreasing the residual disinfectant concentration in water distribution systems. This work investigated another potentially significant mechanism for residual disinfectant loss: monochloramine cometabolism by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). Monochloramine cometabolism was studied with the pure culture AOB Nitrosomonas europaea (ATCC 19718) in batch kinetic experiments under drinking water conditions. Three batch reactors were used in each experiment: a positive control to estimate the ammonia kinetic parameters, a negative control to account for abiotic reactions, and a cometabolism reactor to estimate the cometabolism kinetic constants. Kinetic parameters were estimated in AQUASIM with a simultaneous fit to all experimental data. The cometabolism reactors showed a more rapid monochloramine decay than in the negative controls, demonstrating that cometabolism occurs. Cometabolism kinetics were best described by a pseudo first order model with a reductant term to account for ammonia availability. Monochloramine cometabolism kinetics were similar to those of ammonia metabolism, and monochloramine cometabolism was a significant loss mechanism (30-60% of the observed monochloramine decay). These results suggest that monochloramine cometabolism should occur in practice and may be a significant contribution to monochloramine decay during nitrification episodes in drinking water distribution systems. PMID:23770484

Maestre, Juan P; Wahman, David G; Speitel, Gerald E

2013-09-01

446

Antibiotic administration in the drinking water of mice.  

PubMed

Although antibiotics frequently are added to the drinking water of mice, this practice has not been tested to confirm that antibiotics reach therapeutic concentrations in the plasma of treated mice. In the current investigation, we 1) tested the stability of enrofloxacin and doxycycline in the drinking water of adult, female C57BL/6 mice; 2) measured the mice's consumption of water treated with enrofloxacin, doxycycline, amoxicillin, or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole; and 3) used HPLC to measure plasma antibiotic concentrations in mice that had ingested treated water for 1 wk. Plasma concentrations of antibiotic were measured 1 h after the start of both the light and dark cycle. The main findings of the study were that both enrofloxacin and nonpharmaceutical, chemical-grade doxycycline remained relatively stable in water for 1 wk. In addition, mice consumed similar volumes of antibiotic-treated and untreated water. The highest plasma antibiotic concentrations measured were: enrofloxacin, 140.1 ± 10.4 ng/mL; doxycycline, 56.6 ± 12.5 ng/mL; amoxicillin, 299.2 ± 64.1 ng/mL; and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 5.9 ± 1.2 ng/mL. Despite the stability of the antibiotics in the water and predictable water consumption by mice, the plasma antibiotic concentrations were well below the concentrations required for efficacy against bacterial pathogens, except for those pathogens that are exquisitely sensitive to the antibiotic. The findings of this investigation prompt questions regarding the rationale of the contemporary practice of adding antibiotics to the drinking water of mice for systemic antibacterial treatments. PMID:24827573

Marx, James O; Vudathala, Daljit; Murphy, Lisa; Rankin, Shelley; Hankenson, F Claire

2014-05-01

447

Engineering and operating approaches for controlling asbestos fibers in drinking water.  

PubMed Central

Techniques are available to minimize the concentration of asbestos fibers in drinking water. Filtration research conducted at locations on Lake Superior and in the Cascade Mountains in Washington has shown that amphibole and chrysotile fibers can be removed by granular media filtration. Removal percentages can exceed 99% when the raw water is coagulated properly and the filtered water turbidity is 0.10 ntu (nephelometric turbidity units) or lower. Filtered water fiber counts below detectable limits of 0.1 to 0.01 X 10(6) fibers/L can be attained. A study by the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California showed that when raw water chrysotile counts ranged from 200 X 10(6) fibers/L to 2000 X 10(6) fibers/L, filtered water fiber counts frequently exceeded 1 X 10(6) fibers/L. Even so, striving to attain a filtered water turbidity of 0.1 ntu resulted in improved fiber removal. Pilot scale and distribution system research projects have shown that asbestos cement (AC) pipes can be protected from dissolution and leaching effects that can result in release of asbestos fibers into drinking water. Suggested techniques include modifying low pH, low alkalinity waters so they are not aggressive; coating the pipe wall with a chemical precipitate; and applying a cement mortar lining to the pipe wall. Operation and maintenance practices related to the distribution system, when AC water mains are in service, can influence the fiber count in tapwater. Main flushing can stir up sediment that accumulates in low-flow and dead-end areas, raising the fiber count. If mains are tapped and the cuttings are not flushed away through the tapping machine, but are instead permitted to fall into the water main, the fiber count can be raised.

Logsdon, G S

1983-01-01

448

Federal regulation of lead in drinking water  

SciTech Connect

The decline of the Roman Empire has been attributed, in part, to lead poisoning. Scholars have reported that Roman food, water and wine all contained excessive amounts of lead. Although Americans ingest considerably less lead than did the ancient Romans, lead poisoning still poses a significant public health threat in this country, particularly to children. The Federal Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recently reported that more than four million children suffer from lead poisoning. The director of the CDC has stated that {open_quotes}lead poisoning is the No. 1 environmental problem facing America`s children.{close_quotes} In addition to threatening children, lead poisoning presents health dangers to adults and, ironically, to federal government officials themselves. For example, at the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) headquarters, water samples at nineteen sources were found to contain excessive amounts of lead. Additionally, a survey of twelve Capitol Hill buildings found that twenty-one percent of the water sources tested contained excessive lead levels.

Reiss, K.M.

1991-12-31

449

[Microbial contamination of drinking water by a polyamide feedpipe].  

PubMed

An incident is described with high colony counts in the drinking water from a well. The well was disinfected with sodium hypochlorite for several times, but without permanent success. After that the search for the reason of the high colony counts started. It turned out that the polyamide rising-pipe produced the microbial growth. Besides the colony increase in the water there was a microbial growth upon the surface of the polyamide pipe as well. When a high grade steel pipe was installed instead of the polyamide pipe there was no colony increase in the water any more. PMID:2526939

Schoenen, D; Schüssler, G

1989-06-01

450

Biodegradation of six haloacetic acids in drinking water.  

PubMed

Haloacetic acids (HAAs) are produced by the reaction of chlorine with natural organic matter and are regulated disinfection by-products of health concern. Biofilms in drinking water distribution systems and in filter beds have been associated with the removal of some HAAs, however the removal of all six routinely monitored species (HAA(6)) has not been previously reported. In this study, bench-scale glass bead columns were used to investigate the ability of a drinking water biofilm to degrade HAA(6). Monochloroacetic acid (MCAA) and monobromoacetic acid (MBAA) were the most readily degraded of the halogenated acetic acids. Trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) was not removed biologically when examined at a 90% confidence level. In general, di-halogenated species were removed to a lesser extent than the mono-halogenated compounds. The order of biodegradability by the biofilm was found to be monobromo > monochloro > bromochloro > dichloro > dibromo > trichloroacetic acid. PMID:17998604

Bayless, Walt; Andrews, Robert C

2008-03-01

451

Drinking water and biofilm disinfection by Fenton-like reaction.  

PubMed

A Fenton-like disinfection process was conducted with Fenton's reagent (H2O2) at pH 3 or 5 on autochthonous drinking water biofilms grown on corroded or non-corroded pipe material. The biofilm disinfection by Fenton-like oxidation was limited by the low content of iron and copper in the biomass grown on non-corroded plumbing. It was slightly improved by spiking the distribution system with some additional iron source (soluble iron II or ferrihydrite particles appeared as interesting candidates). However successful in situ disinfection of biofilms was only achieved in fully corroded cast iron pipes using H2O2 and adjusting the pH to 5. These new results provide additional support for the use of Fenton's processes for cleaning drinking water distribution systems contaminated with biological agents or organics. PMID:23866142

Gosselin, F; Madeira, L M; Juhna, T; Block, J C

2013-10-01

452

Detection of microsporidia in drinking water, wastewater and recreational rivers.  

PubMed

Diarrhea is the main health problem caused by human-related microsporidia, and waterborne transmission is one of the main risk factors for intestinal diseases. Recent studies suggest the involvement of water in the epidemiology of human microsporidiosis. However, studies related to the presence of microsporidia in different types of waters from countries where human microsporidiosis has been described are still scarce. Thirty-eight water samples from 8 drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs), 8 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and 6 recreational river areas (RRAs) from Galicia (NW Spain) have been analyzed. One hundred liters of water from DWTPs and 50 L of water from WWTPs and RRAs were filtered to recover parasites, using the IDEXX Filta-Max® system. Microsporidian spores were identified by Weber's stain and positive samples were analyzed by PCR, using specific primers for Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Encephalitozoon intestinalis, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, and Encephalitozoon hellem. Microsporidia spores were identified by staining protocols in eight samples (21.0%): 2 from DWTPs, 5 from WWTPs, and 1 from an RRA. In the RRA sample, the microsporidia were identified as E. intestinalis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of human-pathogenic microsporidia in water samples from DWTPs, WWTPs and RRAs in Spain. These observations add further evidence to support that new and appropriate control and regulations for drinking, wastewater, and recreational waters should be established to avoid health risks from this pathogen. PMID:21774958

Izquierdo, Fernando; Castro Hermida, José Antonio; Fenoy, Soledad; Mezo, Mercedes; González-Warleta, Marta; del Aguila, Carmen

2011-10-15

453

Tracking persistent pharmaceutical residues from municipal sewage to drinking water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In urban areas such as Berlin (Germany) with high municipal sewage water discharges and low surface water flows there is a potential risk of drinking water contamination by polar organic compounds when groundwater recharge is used in drinking water production. Thus, some pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) are not eliminated completely in the municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs) and they are discharged as contaminants into the receiving waters. In terms of several monitoring studies carried out in Berlin between 1996 and 2000, PhACs such as clofibric acid, diclofenac, ibuprofen, propyphenazone, primidone and carbamazepine were detected at individual concentrations up to the ?g/l-level in influent and effluent samples from STPs and in all surface water samples collected downstream from the STPs. Under recharge conditions, several compounds were also found at individual concentrations up to 7.3 ?g/l in samples collected from groundwater aquifers near to contaminated water courses. A few of the PhACs were also identified at the ng/l-level in Berlin tap water samples.

Heberer, Thomas

2002-09-01

454

Removal of Arsenic from Drinking Water by Adsorption and Coagulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Removal of arsenic from drinking water has been an important issue worldwide, which has attracted greater attentions in recent years especially for supplying safe drinking water in developing countries. Although many kinds of treatment approaches that are available or applicable both in principle and practice, such as adsorption, coagulation, membrane filtration, ion exchange, biological process, electrocoagulation and so on, the first 2 approaches (i.e., adsorption and coagulation) are most promising due to the low-cost, high-efficiency, simplicity of treating systems, and thus can be practically used in developing countries. In this study, a literature survey on water quality in Bangladesh was performed to understand the ranges of arsenic concentration and pH of groundwater in Bangladesh. A series of tests were then organized and performed to investigate the effects of arsenic concentration, arsenic forms, pH, chemical compositions of the materials used for adsorption and coagulation, particle size distribution and treatment time on quality of treated water. The experimental results obtained in the study illustrated that both adsorption and coagulation can be used to effectively reduce the concentrations of either arsenic (V) or arsenic (III) from the contaminated water. Coagulation of arsenic with a magnesium-based material developed in this study can be very effective to remove arsenic, especially arsenic (V), from contaminated water with a concentration of 10 ppm to an undetectable level of 0.002 ppm by ICP analyses. Compared to arsenic (III), arsenic (V) is easier to be removed. The materials used for adsorption and coagulation in this study can remove arsenic (V) up to 9 mg/g and 6 mg/g, and arsenic (III) up to 4 mg/g and 3 mg/g, respectively, depending on test conditions and compositions of the materials being used. The control of pH during treatment can be a challenging technical issue for developing both adsorbent and coagulant. Keywords: Water Treatment, Arsenic, Adsorption, Coagulation, Drinking Water, Bangladesh

Zhang, M.; Sugita, H.; Hara, J.; Takahashi, S.

2013-12-01

455

Biofilm Interactions between Distinct Bacterial Genera Isolated from Drinking Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the environment, multiple microorganisms coexist as communities, competing for resources and often associated as biofilms. In this study, single- and dual-species biofilm formation by, and specific activities of, six heterotrophic intergeneric bacteria were determined using 96-well polystyrene plates over a 72-h period. These bacteria were isolated from drinking water and identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. A series

Lucia Chaves Simoes; Manuel Simoes; Maria Joao Vieira

2007-01-01

456

Perfluorinated Surfactants in Surface and Drinking Waters (9 pp)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, Aim and Scope  \\u000a In this paper recent results are provided of an investigation on the discovery of 12 perfluorinated surfactants (PS) in different\\u000a surface and drinking waters (Skutlarek et al. 2006 a, Skutlarek et al. 2006 b). In the last years, many studies have reported\\u000a ubiquitous distribution of this group of perfluorinated chemicals, especially perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic

Martin Exner; Harald Färber

2006-01-01

457

Tin promoted palladium catalysts for nitrate removal from drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogenation of nitrate to nitrogen using Pd\\/Al2O3 catalysts promoted by a second metal offers a promising process for nitrate removal in drinking water treatment. This study was aimed to elucidate the nature and function of promoting tin species in PdSn\\/Al2O3 catalysts obtained in different preparation routes. On one hand, a parent Pd\\/Al2O3 catalyst was doped via impregnation with aqueous solutions

H Berndt; I Mönnich; B Lücke; M Menzel

2001-01-01

458

Biodegradation of six haloacetic acids in drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haloacetic acids (HAAs) are produced by the reaction of chlorine with natural organic matter and are regulated disinfection by-products of health concern. Biofilms in drinking water distribution systems and in filter beds have been associated with the removal of some HAAs, however the removal of all six routinely monitored species (HAA6) has not been previously reported. In this study, bench-scale

Walt Bayless; Robert C. Andrews

2008-01-01

459

SIM.QMS2 supplemental: Trace elements in drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to address laboratory capability for the determination of trace elements in drinking water and to support corresponding CMC submissions for several SIM members, the exercise SIM.QM-S2 was planned in 2008 and authorized as a supplementary comparison at the April 2010 meeting of the Inorganic Analysis Working Group (IAWG) of the Consultative Committee for Amount of Substance–Metrology in Chemistry

Scott Willie

2012-01-01

460

Arsenic in drinking water and lung cancer: A systematic review  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to inorganic arsenic via drinking water is a growing public health concern. We conducted a systematic review of the literature examining the association between arsenic in drinking water and the risk of lung cancer in humans. Towards this aim, we searched electronic databases for articles published through April 2006. Nine ecological studies, two case-control studies, and six cohort studies were identified. The majority of the studies were conducted in areas of high arsenic exposure (100 {mu}g/L) such as southwestern Taiwan, the Niigata Prefecture, Japan, and Northern Chile. Most of the studies reported markedly higher risks of lung cancer mortality or incidence in high arsenic areas compared to the general population or a low arsenic exposed reference group. The quality assessment showed that, among the studies identified, only four assessed arsenic exposure at the individual level. Further, only one of the ecological studies presented results adjusted for potential confounders other than age; of the cohort and case-control studies, only one-half adjusted for cigarette smoking status in the analysis. Despite these methodologic limitations, the consistent observation of strong, statistically significant associations from different study designs carried out in different regions provide support for a causal association between ingesting drinking water with high concentrations of arsenic and lung cancer. The lung cancer risk at lower exposure concentrations remains uncertain.

Celik, Ismail [Department of Medical Oncology, Hacettepe University Institute of Oncology, Ankara (Turkey); Gallicchio, Lisa [Prevention and Research Center, Mercy Medical Center (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health (United States); Boyd, Kristina; Lam, Tram K.; Matanoski, Genevieve [Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health (United States); Tao Xuguang [Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health (United States); Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (United States); Shiels, Meredith; Hammond, Edward [Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health (United States); Chen Liwei [Department of International Health, Center for Human Nutrition, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health (United States); Robinson, Karen A. [Department of General Internal Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (United States); Caulfield, Laura E. [Department of International Health, Center for Human Nutrition, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health (United States); Herman, James G. [Department of Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (United States); Guallar, Eliseo [Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health (United States); Alberg, Anthony J. [Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health (United States); Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Hollings Cancer Center, and Department of Biostatistics, Bioinformatics and Epidemiology, Medical University of South Carolina (United States)], E-mail: alberg@musc.edu

2008-09-15

461

Drinking water contaminants and adverse pregnancy outcomes: a review.  

PubMed Central

Concern for exposures to drinking water contaminants and their effects on adverse birth outcomes has prompted several studies evaluating chlorination disinfection by-products and chlorinated solvents. Some of these contaminants are found to be teratogenic in animal studies. This review evaluates 14 studies on chlorination disinfection by-products such as trihalomethanes (THMs) and five studies on chlorinated solvents such as trichloroethylene (TCE). The adverse birth outcomes discussed in this review include small for gestational age (SGA), low birth weight, preterm birth, birth defects, spontaneous abortions, and fetal deaths. Because of heterogeneities across the studies in the characterization of birth outcomes, the assessment and categorization of exposures, and the levels and mixtures of contaminants, a qualitative review was conducted. Generally, the chief bias in these studies was exposure misclassification that most likely underestimated the risk, as well as distorted exposure-response relationships. The general lack of confounding bias by risk factors resulted from these factors not being associated with drinking water exposures. The studies of THMs and adverse birth outcomes provide moderate evidence for associations with SGA, neural tube defects (NTDs), and spontaneous abortions. Because fewer studies have been conducted for the chlorinated solvents than for THMs, the evidence for associations is less clear. Nevertheless, the findings of excess NTDs, oral clefts, cardiac defects, and choanal atresia in studies that evaluated TCE-contaminated drinking water deserve follow-up.

Bove, Frank; Shim, Youn; Zeitz, Perri

2002-01-01

462

Is the EU drinking water directive standard for pesticides in drinking water consistent with the precautionary principle?  

PubMed

Regulations based on the precautionary principle should undertake a comprehensive assessment of all available scientific and technical data to identify sources of epistemic uncertainty. In the European Union (EU), environmental regulation is required to fulfill the principles established in Article 174 of the EU Treaty, such that it offers a high level of protection and is consistent with the precautionary principle. Pesticides in drinking water are currently regulated by the Drinking Water Directive using a maximum allowable concentration of 0.1 ?g/L. This standard (a surrogate zero) was consistent with the precautionary principle when it was originally set in 1980 and remained consistent when retained in 1998. However, given developments in EU pesticide and water policy, international experience in regulating pesticides, and an increasing knowledge of pesticide toxicity, it can be argued that the level of epistemic uncertainty faced by regulators has substantially decreased. In this paper, we examine the extent to which such developments now challenge the basis of European drinking water standards for pesticides and whether, for substances for which there is good toxicological understanding, a regulatory approach based upon the World Health Organization (WHO) Guideline Value (GV) methodology would be more consistent with the principles underpinning European environmental policy. PMID:23590121

Dolan, Tom; Howsam, Peter; Parsons, David J; Whelan, Mick J

2013-05-21

463

Drinking water biofilm cohesiveness changes under chlorination or hydrodynamic stress.  

PubMed

Attempts at removal of drinking water biofilms rely on various preventive and curative strategies such as nutrient reduction in drinking water, disinfection or water flushing, which have demonstrated limited efficiency. The main reason for these failures is the cohesiveness of the biofilm driven by the physico-chemical properties of its exopolymeric matrix (EPS). Effective cleaning procedures should break up the matrix and/or change the elastic properties of bacterial biofilms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the change in the cohesive strength of two-month-old drinking water biofilms under increasing hydrodynamic shear stress ?w (from ?0.2 to ?10 Pa) and shock chlorination (applied concentration at T0: 10 mg Cl2/L; 60 min contact time). Biofilm erosion (cell loss per unit surface area) and cohesiveness (changes in the detachment shear stress and cluster volumes measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM)) were studied. When rapidly increasing the hydrodynamic constraint, biofilm removal was found to be dependent on a dual process of erosion and coalescence of the biofilm clusters. Indeed, 56% of the biofilm cells were removed with, concomitantly, a decrease in the number of the 50-300 ?m(3) clusters and an increase in the number of the smaller (i.e., <50 ?m(3)) and larger (i.e., >600 ?m(3)) ones. Moreover, AFM evidenced the strengthening of the biofilm structure along with the doubling of the number of contact points, NC, per cluster volume unit following the hydrodynamic disturbance. This suggests that the compactness of the biofilm exopolymers increases with hydrodynamic stress. Shock chlorination removed cells (-75%) from the biofilm while reducing the volume of biofilm clusters. Oxidation stress resulted in a decrease in the cohesive strength profile of the remaining drinking water biofilms linked to a reduction in the number of contact points within the biofilm network structure in particular for the largest biofilm cluster volumes (>200 ?m(3)). Changes in the cohesive strength of drinking water biofilms subsequent to cleaning/disinfection operations call into question the effectiveness of cleaning-in-place procedures. The combined alternating use of oxidation and shear stress sequences needs to be investigated as it could be an important adjunct to improving biofilm removal/reduction procedures. PMID:24607313

Mathieu, L; Bertrand, I; Abe, Y; Angel, E; Block, J C; Skali-Lami, S; Francius, G

2014-05-15

464

Recovery and diversity of heterotrophic bacteria from chlorinated drinking waters.  

PubMed Central

Heterotrophic bacteria were enumerated from the Seattle drinking water catchment basins and distribution system. The highest bacterial recoveries were obtained by using a very dilute medium containing 0.01% peptone as the primary carbon source. Other factors favoring high recovery were the use of incubation temperatures close to that of the habitat and an extended incubation (28 days or longer provided the highest counts). Total bacterial counts were determined by using acridine orange staining. With one exception, all acridine orange counts in chlorinated samples were lower than those in prechlorinated reservoir water, indicating that chlorination often reduces the number of acridine orange-detectable bacteria. Source waters had higher diversity index values than did samples examined following chlorination and storage in reservoirs. Shannon index values based upon colony morphology were in excess of 4.0 for prechlorinated source waters, whereas the values for final chlorinated tap waters were lower than 2.9. It is not known whether the reduction in diversity was due solely to chlorination or in part to other factors in the water treatment and distribution system. Based upon the results of this investigation, we provide a list of recommendations for changes in the procedures used for the enumeration of heterotrophic bacteria from drinking waters. Images

Maki, J S; LaCroix, S J; Hopkins, B S; Staley, J T

1986-01-01

465

Multivariate analysis of drinking water quality parameters in Bhopal, India.  

PubMed

Pollution of water bodies is one of the areas of major concern to environmentalists. Water quality is an index of health and well being of a society. Industrialization, urbanization and modern agriculture practices have direct impact on the water resources. These factors influence the water resources quantitatively and qualitatively. The study area selected were the Upper lake and Kolar reservoir of Bhopal, the state capital of Madhya Pradesh, India. The Upper lake and Kolar reservoir both are the important sources of potable water supply for the Bhopal city. The physico-chemical parameters like temperature, pH, turbidity, total hardness, alkalinity, BOD, COD, Chloride, nitrate and phosphate were studied to ascertain the drinking water quality. PMID:17632768

Parashar, Charu; Verma, Neelam; Dixit, Savita; Shrivastava, Rajneesh

2008-05-01

466

Physicochemical and microbiological assessment of recreational and drinking waters.  

PubMed

The present study was aimed to make an assessment of health risk due to pollution and human pathogenic bacteria associated with the recreational and drinking water sources in twin densely populated holy Indian cities Ayodhya and Faizabad. Though physicochemical studies revealed that the water available in the area is under recommended limits for human use, it is unsafe on account of poor microbiological quality of surface and ground water in the region. The most probable number (MPN) test results revealed the preponderance of ?2,400 total coliforms (TC) (100 ml)(-1) in river, pond, dug well and kund waters. Contrary to that, 94% tube wells, 32% hand pumps and 25% piped supply water were under safe limits having <3 TC (100 ml)(-1). The shallow depth (~40 ft), water logging and presence of septic tanks in the near vicinity are the possible reasons of poor microbial quality of hand pump drinking water. The municipal supply water passes along sewage line where loose connections and/or cracks in pipe lead to mixing and contamination. The significant best quality of tube well water evident from the absence of TC could be attributed to the depth of well ?150 ft and usually their location away from the habitation. A total of 263 bacteria from 186 water samples were isolated, and at least five genera of enteric bacteria from various water sources were identified morphologically and biochemically as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp., Enterobacter sp., Shigella sp. and Salmonella sp. The serotyping of 72 E. coli and 36 Salmonella sp. revealed 51 as E. coli O157 and 20 as Salmonella sp. The presence of enteric pathogens in water sources pose threat to human health and therefore call for immediate remedial measures. PMID:21713494

Kumar, Shailendra; Tripathi, Vinayak R; Garg, Satyendra K

2012-05-01

467

Nonvolatile mutagens in drinking water: production by chlorination and destruction by sulfite  

SciTech Connect

In a laboratory simulation of a drinking water treatment process, the levels of nonvolatile mutagens in drinking water were quantified. By means of the Ames Salmonella test, unchlorinated water was found to be devoid of mutagens. Chloramine-treated water however, contained mutagenic activity; water chlorinated with free chlorine showed even greater mutagenic activity. Dechlorination of drinking water with sulfite sharply reduced the mutagenic activity. Treatment with sulfur dioxide is proposed as an effective, inexpensive method of reducing the direct-acting mutagenic activity of drinking water and of aqueous industrial effluents. (1 graph, 20 references, 1 table)

Cheh, A.M.; Skochdopole, J.; Koski, P.; Cole, L.

1980-01-04

468

Human exposure to arsenic from drinking water in Vietnam.  

PubMed

Vietnam is an agricultural country with a population of about 88 million, with some 18 million inhabitants living in the Red River Delta in Northern Vietnam. The present study reports the chemical analyses of 68 water and 213 biological (human hair and urine) samples conducted to investigate arsenic contamination in tube well water and human arsenic exposure in four districts (Tu Liem, Dan Phuong, Ly Nhan, and Hoai Duc) in the Red River Delta. Arsenic concentrations in groundwater in these areas were in the range of <1 to 632?g/L, with severe contamination found in the communities Ly Nhan, Hoai Duc, and Dan Phuong. Arsenic concentrations were markedly lowered in water treated with sand filters, except for groundwater from Hoai Duc. Human hair samples had arsenic levels in the range of 0.07-7.51?g/g, and among residents exposed to arsenic levels ?50?g/L, 64% of them had hair arsenic concentrations higher than 1?g/g, which is a level that can cause skin lesions. Urinary arsenic concentrations were 4-435?g/g creatinine. Concentrations of arsenic in hair and urine increased significantly with increasing arsenic content in drinking water, indicating that drinking water is a significant source of arsenic exposure for these residents. The percentage of inorganic arsenic (IA) in urine decreased with age, whereas the opposite trend was observed for monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) in urine. Significant co-interactions of age and arsenic exposure status were also detected for concentrations of arsenic in hair and the sum of IA, MMA, and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in urine and %MMA. In summary, this study demonstrates that a considerable proportion of the Vietnamese population is exposed to arsenic levels of chronic toxicity, even if sand filters reduce exposure in many households. Health problems caused by arsenic ingestion through drinking water are increasingly reported in Vietnam. PMID:24262873

Agusa, Tetsuro; Trang, Pham Thi Kim; Lan, Vi Mai; Anh, Duong Hong; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Viet, Pham Hung; Berg, Michael

2014-08-01

469

Incidence of fecal contamination within a public drinking water supply in Ratta Amral, Rawalpindi  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to monitor microbial water quality and residual chlorine in drinking water supplies at the treatment plant and in the water distribution network of Ratta Amral, Rawalpindi, Pakistan. The drinking water quality in the distribution network was performed by collecting samples from water source, over head reservoir and residential taps and for analyzing chemical and

Imran Hashmi; Shaukat Farooq; Sara Qaiser

2009-01-01

470

Bacteriological quality of drinking water in Nyala, South Darfur, Sudan.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the bacterial contaminations in drinking water in Nyala city, South Darfur, Sudan with special reference to the internally displaced people camps (IDPs). Two hundred and forty water samples from different sites and sources including bore holes, hand pumps, dug wells, water points, water reservoir and household storage containers were collected in 2009. The most probable number method was used to detect and count the total coliform, faecal coliform and faecal enterococci. Results revealed that the three indicators bacteria were abundant in all sources except water points. Percentages of the three indicators bacteria count above the permissible limits for drinking water in all samples were 46.4% total coliform, 45.2% faecal coliform and 25.4% faecal enterococci whereas the highest count of the indicators bacteria observed was 1,600 U/100 ml water. Enteric bacteria isolated were Escherichia coli (22.5%), Enterococcus faecalis (20.42%), Klebsiella (15.00%), Citrobacter (2.1%) and Enterobacter (3.33%). The highest contamination of water sources was observed in household storage containers (20%) followed by boreholes (11.25%), reservoirs (6.24%), hand pumps (5.42%) and dug wells (2.49%). Contamination varied from season to season with the highest level in autumn (18.33%) followed by winter (13.75%) and summer (13.32%), respectively. All sources of water in IDP camps except water points were contaminated. Data suggested the importance of greater attention for household contamination, environmental sanitation control and the raise of awareness about water contamination. PMID:20480392

Abdelrahman, Amira Ahmed; Eltahir, Yassir Mohammed

2011-04-01

471

Selective enumeration strategies for Brevundimonas diminuta from drinking water.  

PubMed

Brevundimonas diminuta is used as a control organism for validating the efficiency of water filtration systems. Since these protocols use nonselective growth media, heterotrophic plate count bacteria (HPCs) indigenous to the water distribution system may interfere with B. diminuta enumeration, thus leading to inaccurate assessment of the filter's microbial reduction capability. This could negatively impact public health as unsafe drinking water may be produced. This study was conducted to evaluate different potential routes for selective enumeration of B. diminuta in drinking water. B. diminuta's biochemical and molecular relationships to HPCs recovered from a laboratory drinking-water system were investigated. Of the 24 HPC morphotypes recovered, members of the Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria were most commonly identified. Based on comparisons of catabolic profiles (generated by the Biolog system) using principal component analysis, B. diminuta possessed similar metabolic patterns to several of the Alphaproteobacteria (Sphingomonas and Caulobacter), indicating that development of a selective medium based solely on carbon source was not feasible. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles revealed that the HPCs were least resistant to kanamycin, making it a candidate for future selective applications. Sequence comparisons of partial 16S rRNA sequences did not reveal any distinct similarities. However, basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) alignments of the gyrB and rpoD sequences for B. diminuta did show uniqueness, with the next closest match being to Caulobacter (88% and 79% similarity, respectively). Future investigation will focus on applying molecular assays, such as fluorescent in situ hybridization and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and incorporating an antibiotic marker or expressed fluorescent protein into the wild-type strain of B. diminuta for selective enumeration of B. diminuta. PMID:20087629

Donofrio, Robert Scott; Bestervelt, Lorelle L; Saha, Ratul; Bagley, Susan T

2010-04-01

472

Haloactamides versus halomethanes formation and toxicity in chloraminated drinking water.  

PubMed

In this study we quantified the concentrations of nine haloacetamides (HAcAms) and nine halomethanes (HMs) in the final waters of five drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) that use either chlorination or chloramination for disinfection and evaluated the toxicity of dichloroacetamide (DCAcAm) and dichloromethane (DCM) in normal rat kidney (NRK) cells using four in vitro toxicity assays. All the DWTPs final waters contained primarily di-HAcAms, followed by tri- and mono-HAcAms, and DCAcAm was the most abundant species of the 9 HAcAms, regardless of chlorination or chloramination being applied. In the final waters of DWTPs using chlorination, tri-HMs (trihalomethanes, THMs) accounted for the majority of HMs, whereas chloramination resulted in more di-HMs (especially DCM) than THMs. All four in vitro toxicity assays indicated that the NRK cell chronic cytotoxicity and acute genotoxicity of DCAcAm were substantially higher than that of DCM. In view of observed occurrence concentrations and quantified toxicity levels, the findings of this study suggest that DCAcAm represents a higher toxicity risk than DCM in chloraminated drinking waters. PMID:24780857

Yang, Fan; Zhang, Jing; Chu, Wenhai; Yin, Daqiang; Templeton, Michael R

2014-06-15

473

Drinking Water Contamination Due To Lead-based Solder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of lead in drinking water creates many health hazards. Exposure to lead-contaminated water can affect the brain, the central nervous system, blood cells, and kidneys, causing such problems as mental retardation, kidney disease, heart disease, stroke, and death. One way in which lead can contaminate our water supply is through the use of lead solder to join pipes. Lead solder was widely used in the past because of its ease of application as well as its low cost. Lead contamination in residential areas has previously been found to be a particularly serious problem in first-draw samples, of water that has sat stagnant in pipes overnight. To investigate the time-dependence of drinking water lead contamination, we analyzed samples taken hourly of water exposed to lead solder. While our preliminary data was insufficient to show more than a rough correlation between time of exposure and lead concentration over short periods (1-3 hours), we were able to confirm that overnight exposure of water to lead-based solder results in the presence high levels of lead. We also investigated other, external factors that previous research has indicated contribute to increased concentrations of lead. Our analysis of samples of lead-exposed water at various pH and temperatures suggests that these factors can be equally significant in terms of their contribution to elevated lead concentration levels. In particular, water that is slightly corrosive appears to severely impact the solubility of lead. As this type of water is common in much of the Northeast United States, the presence of lead-based solder in residential areas there is especially problematic. Although lead-based solder has been banned since the 1980s, it remains a serious concern, and a practical solution still requires further research.

Garcia, N.; Bartelt, E.; Cuff, K. E.

2004-12-01

474

California Tribal Nations Technical Water Research  

SciTech Connect

This research focused on identifying the key technical water issues of federally recognized California Native American tribes, the context within which these water issues arise for the tribes, and an appropriate format for potentially opening further dialogue on water research issues between the tribes and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) scientists. At LLNL, a Water Quality and Resource Management Issues Workshop held in January of 2003 resulted in multiple recommendations, one proposing a LLNL dialogue with California tribes to further inform LLNL's prioritization of water issues based on identified needs across national sectors. The focus of this aforementioned Water Quality and Resource Management Issues Workshop was to identify national and international priority water research issues with which LLNL may align their research efforts and contribute to resolving these needs. LLNL staff researched various sectors to delineate the key water issues associated with each. This preliminary water issue research included diverse entities such as international water agencies, federal and state agencies, industry, non-governmental agencies, and private organizations. The key (identified) water issues across these sectors were presented to workshop attendees and used during workshop debates and sessions. However, the key water issues of federally recognized Native American tribes remained less understood, resulting in a workshop proposal for additional research and LLNL potentially hosting a dialog with representatives of these tribes. Federally recognized Native American tribes have a unique government-to-government relationship with the United States (U.S.) government, in contrast to other sectors researched for the workshop. Within the U.S., the number of federally recognized tribes currently stands at 562 and, in addition to this large number of tribes, much diversity across these tribes exists. For the purposes of this preliminary research and report, it was necessary to confine the analysis to a smaller geographic area, yet still represent the diversity of tribes and context within which tribal water issues arise. The state of California provides this opportunity. California has 106 federally recognized tribes. California is diverse in its geography, environment, demographics, and economic bases; California tribes demonstrate similar diversity. Additionally, no central repository of national or state tribal water issues exists and information must be aggregated, in general, tribe by tribe. This presents research challenges and, for this report, these were overcome by developing a method to essentially ''sub-sample'' the 106 federally recognized tribes in the state, while making every effort to maintain a sub-sample that broadly represents all of the 106 tribes. n an effort to develop an equitable and appropriate method with which to identify this set of representative tribes, multiple entities were contacted for guidance. Consultation with the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Indian Health Services (IHS), U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Bureau of Reclamation (BOR) and Tribal Environmental Directors, provided key information and recommendations to guide the research process. It is hoped that an appropriate representation of the diversity of tribes across the state has been achieved; this includes an adequate representation of similarities and differences between Californian tribes on key water research issues (and the same between regions). This research occurred over a limited time period (i.e., three months) and given a general concern that this may not be sufficient, any information and conclusions in this report should be viewed with this in mind. Finally, it is hoped that this research allows for an (enhanced) informed capacity to better propose further dialog between tribes and LLNL to continue to exchange water research perspectives and define potential research collaborations.

Ben, C; Coty, J

2005-08-15

475

Fecal contamination of drinking water within peri-urban households, Lima, Peru.  

PubMed

We assessed fecal contamination of drinking water in households in 2 peri-urban communities of Lima, Peru. We measured Escherichia coli counts in municipal source water and, within households, water from principal storage containers, stored boiled drinking water, and water in a serving cup. Source water was microbiologically clean, but 26 (28%) of 93 samples of water stored for cooking had fecal contamination. Twenty-seven (30%) of 91 stored boiled drinking water samples grew E. coli. Boiled water was more frequently contaminated when served in a drinking cup than when stored (P < 0.01). Post-source contamination increased successively through the steps of usage from source water to the point of consumption. Boiling failed to ensure safe drinking water at the point of consumption because of easily contaminated containers and poor domestic hygiene. Hygiene education, better point-of-use treatment and storage options, and in-house water connections are urgently needed. PMID:17978074

Oswald, William E; Lescano, Andrés G; Bern, Caryn; Calderon, Maritza M; Cabrera, Lilia; Gilman, Robert H

2007-10-01

476

The First Outbreak of Giardiasis with Drinking Water in Korea  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To identify the pathogen of the diarrhea outbreak in a village in Jeollabuk province in Korea in April 2010. Methods: DNA extraction was performed from the 120 L of collected water, which was centrifuged at 10,000 x g for 30 min. PCR reactions were conducted in a total of 25 ul, which included PCR premix (GenDEPOT, Barker, TX, USA), 2 ul (?100 ng) of extracted DNA, and 10 pmol of each primer. Results: Nine people out of 25 had a symptom of abdominal pain accompanied by diarrhea after they used stored valley water in a water tank as a provisional water supply source without chlorine sterilization. Among them Giardia lamblia was detected in fecal samples of 7 people using the polymerase chain reaction method. Although G. lamblia was also detected from water provided by the provisional water supply system stored in the water tank and used as drinking water, it was not detected in the water tank itself. This water-borne outbreak is considered to have occurred when the provisional water supply tube was destroyed under a building construction and contaminated by G. lamblia, but its precise cause has not been clarified. Conclusion: This outbreak resulting from G. lamblia is very meaningful as the first outbreak of an infection by a water-borne parasite in Korea.

Cheun, Hyeng-Il; Kim, Cheon-Hyeon; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Ma, Da-Won; Goo, Bo-La; Na, Mun-Su; Youn, Seung-Ki; Lee, Won-Ja

2013-01-01

477

Leaching of Heavy Metals from Water Bottle Components into the Drinking Water of Rodents  

PubMed Central

Providing high-quality, uncontaminated drinking water is an essential component of rodent husbandry. Acidification of drinking water is a common technique to control microbial growth but is not a benign treatment. In addition to its potential biologic effects, acidified water might interact with the water-delivery system, leading to the leaching of heavy metals into the drinking water. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the effects of water acidification and autoclaving on water-bottle assemblies. The individual components of the system (stainless-steel sipper tubes, rubber stoppers, neoprene stoppers, and polysulfone water bottles) were acid-digested and analyzed for cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, selenium, and zinc to quantify the metal composition of each material. In addition the amounts of these metals that leached into tap and acidified water with and without autoclaving were quantified after 1 wk of contact time. On a weight basis, sipper tubes contained the largest quantities of all metals except magnesium and zinc, which were greatest in the neoprene stoppers. Except for cadmium and selenium, all metals had leached into the water after 1 wk, especially under the acidified condition. The quantities of copper, lead, and zinc that leached into the drinking water were the most noteworthy, because the resulting concentrations had the potential to confound animal experiments. On the basis of these findings, we suggest that water-quality monitoring programs include heavy metal analysis at the level of water delivery to animals.

Nunamaker, Elizabeth A; Otto, Kevin J; Artwohl, James E; Fortman, Jeffrey D

2013-01-01

478

Leaching of heavy metals from water bottle components into the drinking water of rodents.  

PubMed

Providing high-quality, uncontaminated drinking water is an essential component of rodent husbandry. Acidification of drinking water is a common technique to control microbial growth but is not a benign treatment. In addition to its potential biologic effects, acidified water might interact with the water-delivery system, leading to the leaching of heavy metals into the drinking water. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the effects of water acidification and autoclaving on water-bottle assemblies. The individual components of the system (stainless-steel sipper tubes, rubber stoppers, neoprene stoppers, and polysulfone water bottles) were acid-digested and analyzed for cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, selenium, and zinc to quantify the metal composition of each material. In addition the amounts of these metals that leached into tap and acidified water with and without autoclaving were quantified after 1 wk of contact time. On a weight basis, sipper tubes contained the largest quantities of all metals except magnesium and zinc, which were greatest in the neoprene stoppers. Except for cadmium and selenium, all metals had leached into the water after 1 wk, especially under the acidified condition. The quantities of copper, lead, and zinc that leached into the drinking water were the most noteworthy, because the resulting concentrations had the potential to confound animal experiments. On the basis of these findings, we suggest that water-quality monitoring programs include heavy metal analysis at the level of water delivery to animals. PMID:23562029

Nunamaker, Elizabeth A; Otto, Kevin J; Artwohl, James E; Fortman, Jeffrey D

2013-01-01

479

Egg shell quality responses of pullets given saline drinking water at different ages  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Saline drinking water given to pullets before sexual maturity had no effect on their subsequent egg shell quality.2. Hens receiving saline drinking water from or after laying their first egg produced significantly more egg shell defects than hens receiving town water.3. The production of eggs with defective shells occurred more rapidly when saline drinking water was given to 40?week?old

I. Yoselewitz; D. Balnave

1989-01-01

480

Nonvolatile Mutagens in Drinking Water: Production by Chlorination and Destruction by Sulfite  

Microsoft Academic Search

In concentrates of water produced in a laboratory simulation of a drinking water treatment process, direct-acting, nonvolatile mutagens were readily detected by means of the Ames Salmonella test. The mutagens were shown to be produced by the chlorination process. Treatment of the water with chloramine resulted in less mutagenic activity than treatment with free chlorine. Dechlorination of drinking water with

Albert M. Cheh; Jill Skochdopole; Paul Koski; Larry Cole

1980-01-01

481

Performance of Traditional and Molecular Methods for Detecting Biological Agents in Drinking Water  

EPA Science Inventory

USGS Report - To reduce the impact from a possible bioterrorist attack on drinking-water supplies, analytical methods are needed to rapidly detect the presence of biological agents in water. To this end, 13 drinking-water samples were collected at 9 water-treatment plants in Ohio...

482

IN-FIELD PRESERVATION OF ARSENIC SPECIES IN DRINKING WATER USING EDTA  

EPA Science Inventory

The two predominant inorganic arsenic species found in drinking waters are As(III) and As(V). As(III) is commonly associated with ground waters while As(V) is associated with surface waters. The efficiency of arsenic removal from a drinking water supply is dependent on the oxid...

483

Emergency Response Planning to Reduce the Impact of Contaminated Drinking Water during Natural Disasters  

EPA Science Inventory

Natural disasters can be devastating to local water supplies affecting millions of people. Disaster recovery plans and water industry collaboration during emergencies protect consumers from contaminated drinking water supplies and help facilitate the repair of public water system...

484

Following the Water: A Controlled Study of Drinking Water Storage in Northern Coastal Ecuador  

PubMed Central

Background To design the most appropriate interventions to improve water quality and supply, information is needed to assess water contamination in a variety of community settings, including those that rely primarily on unimproved surface sources of drinking water. Objectives We explored the role of initial source water conditions as well as household factors in determining household water quality, and how levels of contamination of drinking water change over time, in a rural setting in northern coastal Ecuador. Methods We sampled source waters concurrently with water collection by household members and followed this water over time, comparing Escherichia coli and enterococci concentrations in water stored in households with water stored under controlled conditions. Results We observed significant natural attenuation of indicator organisms in control containers and significant, although less pronounced, reductions of indicators between the source of drinking water and its point of use through the third day of sampling. These reductions were followed by recontamination in approximately half of the households. Conclusions Water quality improved after water was transferred from the source to household storage containers, but then declined because of recontamination in the home. Our experimental design allowed us to observe these dynamics by controlling for initial source water quality and following changes in water quality over time. These data, because of our controlled experimental design, may explain why recontamination has been reported in the literature as less prominent in areas or households with highly contaminated source waters. Our results also suggest that efforts to improve source water quality and sanitation remain important.

Levy, Karen; Nelson, Kara L.; Hubbard, Alan; Eisenberg, Joseph N.S.

2008-01-01

485

Speciation and distribution of vanadium in drinking water iron pipe corrosion by-products.  

PubMed

Vanadium (V) when ingested from drinking water in high concentrations (>15 ?g L(-1)) is a potential health risk and is on track to becoming a regulated contaminant. High concentrations of V have been documented in lead corrosion by-products as Pb(5)(V(5+)O(4))(3)Cl (vanadinite) which, in natural deposits is associated with iron oxides/oxyhydroxides, phases common in iron pipe corrosion by-products. The extent of potential reservoirs of V in iron corrosion by-products, its speciation, and mechanism of inclusion however are unknown. The aim of this study is to assess these parameters in iron corrosion by-products, implementing synchrotron-based ?-XRF mapping and ?-XANES along with traditional physiochemical characterization. The morphologies, mineralogies, and chemistry of the samples studied are superficially similar to typical iron corrosion by-products. However, we found V present as discrete grains of Pb(5)(V(5+)O(4))(3)Cl likely embedded in the surface regions of the iron corrosion by-products. Concentrations of V observed in bulk XRF analysis ranged from 35 to 899 mg kg(-1). We calculate that even in pipes with iron corrosion by-products with low V concentration, 100 mg kg(-1), as little as 0.0027% of a 0.1-cm thick X 100-cm long section of that corrosion by-product needs to be disturbed to increase V concentrations in the drinking water at the tap to levels well above the 15 ?g L(-1) notification level set by the State of California and could adversely impact human health. In addition, it is likely that large reservoirs of V are associated with iron corrosion by-products in unlined cast iron mains and service branches in numerous drinking water distribution systems. PMID:20863549

Gerke, Tammie L; Scheckel, Kirk G; Maynard, J Barry

2010-11-01

486

Speciation and distribution of vanadium in drinking water iron pipe corrosion by-products  

SciTech Connect

Vanadium (V) when ingested from drinking water in high concentrations (> 15 {micro}g L{sup -1}) is a potential health risk and is on track to becoming a regulated contaminant. High concentrations of V have been documented in lead corrosion by-products as Pb{sub 5}(V{sup 5+}O{sub 4}){sub 3}Cl (vanadinite) which, in natural deposits is associated with iron oxides/oxyhydroxides, phases common in iron pipe corrosion by-products. The extent of potential reservoirs of V in iron corrosion by-products, its speciation, and mechanism of inclusion however are unknown. The aim of this study is to assess these parameters in iron corrosion by-products, implementing synchrotron-based {mu}-XRF mapping and {mu}-XANES along with traditional physiochemical characterization. The morphologies, mineralogies, and chemistry of the samples studied are superficially similar to typical iron corrosion by-products. However, we found V present as discrete grains of Pb{sub 5}(V{sup 5+}O{sub 4}){sub 3}Cl likely embedded in the surface regions of the iron corrosion by-products. Concentrations of V observed in bulk XRF analysis ranged from 35 to 899 mg kg{sup -1}. We calculate that even in pipes with iron corrosion by-products with low V concentration, 100 mg kg{sup -1}, as little as 0.0027% of a 0.1-cm thick X 100-cm long section of that corrosion by-product needs to be disturbed to increase V concentrations in the drinking water at the tap to levels well above the 15 {micro}g L{sup -1} notification level set by the State of California and could adversely impact human health. In addition, it is likely that large reservoirs of V are associated with iron corrosion by-products in unlined cast iron mains and service branches in numerous drinking water distribution systems.

Gerke, Tammie L.; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Maynard, J. Barry (EPA); (UCIN)

2010-11-12

487

CO2 Releases from Deep Storage Formations into Drinking Water Aquifers - Assessment of Impacts on Drinking Water Quality  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Geological storage of supercritical CO2 is envisioned as a means of mitigating the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. However, the potential exists for CO2 to migrate from the deep geologic formations to overlying aquifers that serve as sources of drinking water, which could lead to geochemical alterations that have detrimental effects on drinking water quality. For example, elevated CO2 levels in drinking water aquifers can enhance the solubility and decrease the sorbed fraction of trace metals and radionuclides to an extent that concentrations may reach undesirable levels at the local scale. Therefore, an assessment of these effects is necessary to determine the risks associated with geologic sequestration of CO2. In this study, the effects of CO2 intrusion into a sandstone aquifer (with and without calcite cement present) on the water chemistry and on the mobility of trace metals and radionuclides were investigated. The aquifer was assumed to be unpolluted such that sorption, not solubility, was likely to be the predominant process controlling heavy metal and radionuclide mobility. Four elements with very different geochemical behaviors were selected for the study - lead, copper, arsenic, and uranium - and sorption was assumed to occur on ferric oxyhydroxides coating the sandstone matrix. Two-dimensional simulations were conducted using the coupled reactive-transport code MULTIFLO to determine the changes in aquifer water chemistry - spatially and temporally - as a function of CO2 flux from a leaking CO2 sequestration aquifer. Lead, copper, arsenic, and uranium Kd values as a function of pH and pCO2 were derived using equilibrium thermodynamic calculations and used to assess the impact of CO2 leakage on heavy metal and radionuclide mobility based on the MULTIFLO results. This work was funded by the Southwest Research Institute Internal Research and Development Project 20- R9826.

Pabalan, R. T.; Painter, S. L.; Walter, G. R.; Bertetti, F. P.

2008-12-01

488

Controversies about the occurrence of chloral hydrate in drinking water.  

PubMed

Besides trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs), chloral hydrate (CH) is the next most prevalent disinfection by-product (DBP) in drinking water, formed as a result of the reaction between chlorine and natural organic matter (NOM). Chloral hydrate (trichloroacetaldehyde) should be limited in drinking water because of its adverse health effect. The controversies concerning the appearance of CH in disinfected water found in literature are discussed in the present paper. According to some authors the CH yield during chlorination of water depends only on TOC. However, there are other data available that do not confirm this relationship. Another fact requiring clarification is the dependence of CH formation on pH. In the present study, CH formation is analysed in different types of water disinfected with different doses of chlorine. Formation of CH is correlated with the dose of Cl(2) and the contact time. The formation of chloral hydrate takes place as long as chlorine is available in the water. Total organic carbon (TOC) is not considered the main factor influencing the production of chloral hydrate in water treated with Cl(2) as the production depends also on the nature of NOM. Higher levels of CH are observed at alkaline conditions (pH>7). A significant correlation (R(2)>0.9) between the concentrations of chloral hydrate and chloroform has been observed. The preozonation increases significantly the chloral hydrate formation potential in the water treated. Biofiltration process does not remove all of CH precursors and its efficiency depends strongly on the contact time. Chloral hydrate was analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detector with the detection limit 0.1 microg L(-1). PMID:19303131

Dabrowska, Agata; Nawrocki, Jacek

2009-05-01

489

An inflight refill unit for replenishing research animal drinking water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the design process and development approach for a method of maintaining sufficient quantities of water for research animals during a Shuttle mission of long duration. An inflight refill unit (IRU) consisting of two major subsystems, a fluid pumping unit (FPU) and a collapsible water reservoir (CWR), were developed. The FPU provides the system measurement and controls, pump, water lines, and plumbing necessary to collect water coming into the unit from the potable water system and pump it out into the RAHF drinking water tanks. The CWR is a Kevlar (TM) reinforced storage bladder connected to the FPU, which has a capacity of 6 liters in its expanded volume and functions to store the water collected from the potable water system, allowing for transport of the water back to the Spacelab where it is pumped into each of two research animal holding facilities. Additional components of the IRU system include the inlet and outlet fluid hoses, a power cable for providing 29V direct current spacecraft electrical power to the pump within the FPU, a tether system for the unit when in use in Spacelab, and an adapter for mating the unit to the orbiter waste collection system in order to dump excess water after use in Spacelab.

Savage, P. D.; Hines, M. L.; Barnes, R.

1995-01-01

490

Effective drinking water collaborations are not accidental: interagency relationships in the international water utility sector.  

PubMed

The role that deficient institutional relationships have played in aggravating drinking water incidents over the last 30 years has been identified in several inquiries of high profile drinking water safety events, peer-reviewed articles and media reports. These indicate that collaboration between water utilities and public health agencies (PHAs) during normal operations, and in emergencies, needs improvement. Here, critical elements of these interagency collaborations, that can be integrated within the corporate risk management structures of water utilities and PHAs alike, were identified using a grounded theory approach and 51 semi-structured interviews with utility and PHA staff. Core determinants of effective interagency relationships are discussed. Intentionally maintained functional relationships represent a key ingredient in assuring the delivery of safe, high quality drinking water. PMID:24239814

Jalba, D I; Cromar, N J; Pollard, S J T; Charrois, J W; Bradshaw, R; Hrudey, S E

2014-02-01

491

Evaluation of Human Enteric Viruses in Surface Water and Drinking Water Resources in Southern Ghana  

PubMed Central

An estimated 884 million people worldwide do not have access to an improved drinking water source, and the microbial quality of these sources is often unknown. In this study, a combined tangential flow, hollow fiber ultrafiltration (UF), and real-time PCR method was applied to large volume (100 L) groundwater (N = 4), surface water (N = 9), and finished (i.e., receiving treatment) drinking water (N = 6) samples for the evaluation of human enteric viruses and bacterial indicators. Human enteric viruses including norovirus GI and GII, adenovirus, and polyomavirus were detected in five different samples including one groundwater, three surface water, and one drinking water sample. Total coliforms and Escherichia coli assessed for each sample before and after UF revealed a lack of correlation between bacterial indicators and the presence of human enteric viruses.

Gibson, Kristen E.; Opryszko, Melissa C.; Schissler, James T.; Guo, Yayi; Schwab, Kellogg J.

2011-01-01

492

Differential resistance of drinking water bacterial populations to monochloramine disinfection.  

PubMed

The impact of monochloramine disinfection on the complex bacterial community structure in drinking water systems was investigated using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Changes in viable bacterial diversity were monitored using culture-independent methods that distinguish between live and dead cells based on membrane integrity, providing a highly conservative measure of viability. Samples were collected from lab-scale and full-scale drinking water filters exposed to monochloramine for a range of contact times. Culture-independent detection of live cells was based on propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment to selectively remove DNA from membrane-compromised cells. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes was used to quantify the DNA of live bacteria and characterize the bacterial communities, respectively. The inactivation rate determined by the culture-independent PMA-qPCR method (1.5-log removal at 664 mg·min/L) was lower than the inactivation rate measured by the culture-based methods (4-log removal at 66 mg·min/L). Moreover, drastic changes in the live bacterial community structure were detected during monochloramine disinfection using PMA-pyrosequencing, while the community structure appeared to remain stable when pyrosequencing was performed on samples that were not subject to PMA treatment. Genera that increased in relative abundance during monochloramine treatment include Legionella, Escherichia, and Geobacter in the lab-scale system and Mycobacterium, Sphingomonas, and Coxiella in the full-scale system. These results demonstrate that bacterial populations in drinking water exhibit differential resistance to monochloramine, and that the disinfection process selects for resistant bacterial populations. PMID:24625288

Chiao, Tzu-Hsin; Clancy, Tara M; Pinto, Ameet; Xi, Chuanwu; Raskin, Lutgarde

2014-04-01

493

Unsealed tubewells lead to increased fecal contamination of drinking water.  

PubMed

Bangladesh is underlain by shallow aquifers in which millions of drinking water wells are emplaced without annular seals. Fecal contamination has been widely detected in private tubewells. To evaluate the impact of well construction on microbial water quality 35 private tubewells (11 with intact cement platforms, 19 without) and 17 monitoring wells (11 with the annulus sealed with cement, six unsealed) were monitored for culturable Escherichia coli over 18 months. Additionally, two 'snapshot' sampling events were performed on a subset of wells during late-dry and early-wet seasons, wherein the fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) E. coli, Bacteroidales and the pathogenicity genes eltA (enterotoxigenic E. coli; ETEC), ipaH (Shigella) and 40/41 hexon (adenovirus) were detected using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). No difference in E. coli detection frequency was found between tubewells with and without platforms. Unsealed private wells, however, contained culturable E. coli more frequently and higher concentrations of FIB than sealed monitoring wells (p < 0.05), suggestive of rapid downward flow along unsealed annuli. As a group the pathogens ETEC, Shigella and adenovirus were detected more frequently (10/22) during the wet season than the dry season (2/20). This suggests proper sealing of private tubewell annuli may lead to substantial improvements in microbial drinking water quality. PMID:23165714

Knappett, Peter S K; McKay, Larry D; Layton, Alice; Williams, Daniel E; Alam, Md J; Mailloux, Brian J; Ferguson, Andrew S; Culligan, Patricia J; Serre, Marc L; Emch, Michael; Ahmed, Kazi M; Sayler, Gary S; van Geen, Alexander

2012-12-01

494

Probing young drinking water biofilms with hard and soft particles.  

PubMed

The aim of our study was to investigate, through the use of soft (Escherichia coli) and hard (polystyrene microspheres) particles, the distribution and persistence of allochthonous particles inoculated in drinking water flow chambers. Biofilms were allowed to grow for 7-10 months in tap water from Nancy's drinking water network and were composed of bacterial aggregates and filamentous fungi. Both model particles adhered almost exclusively on the biofilms (i.e. on the bacterial aggregates and on the filamentous structures) and not directly on the uncolonized walls (glass or Plexiglas). Biofilm age (i.e. bacterial density and biofilm properties) and convective-diffusion were found to govern particle accumulation: older biofilms and higher wall shear rates both increased the velocity and the amount of particle deposition on the biofilm. Persistence of the polystyrene particles was measured over a two-month period after inoculation. Accumulation amounts were found to be very different between hard and soft particles as only 0.03 per thousand of the soft particles inoculated accumulated in the biofilm against 0.3-0.8% for hard particles. PMID:18996556

Paris, Tony; Skali-Lami, Salaheddine; Block, Jean-Claude

2009-01-01

495

Identification and assessment of potential water quality impact factors for drinking-water reservoirs.  

PubMed

Various reservoirs have been serving as the most important drinking water sources in Zhejiang Province, China, due to the uneven distribution of precipitation and severe river pollution. Unfortunately, rapid urbanization and industrialization have been continuously challenging the water quality of the drinking-water reservoirs. The identification and assessment of potential impacts is indispensable in water resource management and protection. This study investigates the drinking water reservoirs in Zhejiang Province to better understand the potential impact on water quality. Altogether seventy-three typical drinking reservoirs in Zhejiang Province encompassing various water storage levels were selected and evaluated. Using fifty-two reservoirs as training samples, the classification and regression tree (CART) method and sixteen comprehensive variables, including six sub-sets (land use, population, socio-economy, geographical features, inherent characteristics, and climate), were adopted to establish a decision-making model for identifying and assessing their potential impacts on drinking-water quality. The water quality class of the remaining twenty-one reservoirs was then predicted and tested based on the decision-making model, resulting in a water quality class attribution accuracy of 81.0%. Based on the decision rules and quantitative importance of the independent variables, industrial emissions was identified as the most important factor influencing the water quality of reservoirs; land use and human habitation also had a substantial impact on water quality. The results of this study provide insights into the factors impacting the water quality of reservoirs as well as basic information for protecting reservoir water resources. PMID:24919129

Gu, Qing; Deng, Jinsong; Wang, Ke; Lin, Yi; Li, Jun; Gan, Muye; Ma, Ligang; Hong, Yang

2014-06-01

496

Separation, preconcentration, and determination of cadmium in drinking waters.  

PubMed

A fast method for separation, preconcentration and determination of cadmium in drinking (source, well, tap) and water for irrigation is described. Iron(III) hexamethylenedithiocarbamate, Fe(HMDTC)3, has the role of colloid precipitate flotation collector. The determination of cadmium in final water solutions preconcentrated by flotation can be performed by flame (FAAS) or electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). The method applied, either FAAS or ETAAS, depends of the concentration level of analyte in the water sample investigating. The AAS results are compared with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometric measurements (ICP-AES) as an independent method. The ETAAS detection limit of cadmium is 0.002 microgram/L. PMID:11460328

Stafilov, T; Pavlovska, G; Cundeva, K; Zendelovska, D; Paneva, V

2001-05-01

497

[How much water do we really need to drink?].  

PubMed

Everywhere around us we see people sipping bottled water. In healthy people, the fluid balance is strictly regulated via osmoregulation by the hormone vasopressin and the kidneys, in combination with the thirst mechanism and drinking. Fluid intake comes from food, metabolism and beverages, including water. People lose fluid via the skin, respiration, faecal fluid and urinary output. The obligatory urine volume is determined by maximal renal concentrating ability and the solute load which must be excreted. Under normal circumstances of diet, exercise and climate the minimal urine output for healthy subjects is about 500 ml/day. Intake of more than 500 ml of fluids per day will result in the excretion of solute-free water. The recommended total daily fluid intake of 3,000 ml for men and of 2,200 ml for women is more than adequate. Higher fluid intake does not have any convincing health benefits, except perhaps in preventing (recurrent) kidney stones. PMID:20356431

Meinders, Arend-Jan; Meinders, Arend E

2010-01-01

498

Status of drinking water contamination in Mountain Region, Nepal.  

PubMed

Status of drinking water contamination was studied in three mountainous districts in Nepal. A total of 43 water samples (Sankhuwasabha: 11, Rasuwa: 12 and Dolpa: 20) were tested for the presence of total coliform (TC) and Escherichia coli as fecal coliform bacilli using commercially available test system called Colilert (Japan). Of the total, 85.7% (36/43) were positive for TC whereas 67.4% (29/43) were positive for Esch. coli. The fecal contamination rates (as indicated by the growth of Esch. coli) in Sankhuwasabha, Rasuwa and Dolpa Districts were 81.8% (9/11), 75.0% (9/12) and 65.0% (13/20), respectively. Most of the water samples collected in district headquarter towns namely Khandbari, Dhunche and Dunai, respectively) showed Esch. coli compared with those collected in remote villages areas. PMID:20635611

Rai, S K; Ono, K; Yanagida, J I; Kurokawa, M; Rai, C K

2009-12-01

499

[Microbiological evaluation of drinking water used in feeding units].  

PubMed

The water for human consumption is the main vehicle for the transmission of pathogens that are capable of causing enteric parasitic diseases; therefore, its microbiological control is vital. This work had the purpose of evaluating the bacteriological quality of drinking