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1

Chemical Contamination of California Drinking Water  

PubMed Central

Drinking water contamination by toxic chemicals has become widely recognized as a public health concern since the discovery of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane in California's Central Valley in 1979. Increased monitoring since then has shown that other pesticides and industrial chemicals are present in drinking water. Contaminants of drinking water also include naturally occurring substances such as asbestos and even the by-products of water chlorination. Public water systems, commercially bottled and vended water and mineral water are regulated, and California is also taking measures to prevent water pollution by chemicals through various new laws and programs. PMID:3321714

Russell, Hanafi H.; Jackson, Richard J.; Spath, David P.; Book, Steven A.

1987-01-01

2

Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

... the safest water supplies in the world, but drinking water quality can vary from place to place. It ... water supplier must give you annual reports on drinking water. The reports include where your water came from ...

3

Drinking Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This publication, authored by Thodore B. Shelton of Rutgers University, summarizes the information necessary for interpreting drinking water quality analyses performed by water testing laboratories. It focuses on testing results obtained from drinking water supplies from public water systems and non-public water systems (home wells). It is intended primarily for homeowners, but environmental organizations, health departments, and commercial water testing laboratories and others should find this material of interest and value.

Shelton, Thodore B.

4

Drinking Water  

EPA Science Inventory

This encyclopedic entry deals with various aspects of microbiology as it relates to drinking water treatment. The use of microbial indicators for assessing fecal contamination is discussed as well as current national drinking water regulations (U.S. EPA) and guidelines proposed ...

5

Observations of drinking water access in school food service areas before implementation of federal and state school water policy, California, 2011. — Measures of the Food Environment  

Cancer.gov

Patel AI, Chandran K, Hampton KE, Hecht K, Grumbach JM, Kimura AT, Braff-Guajardo E, Brindis CD. Observations of drinking water access in school food service areas before implementation of federal and state school water policy, California, 2011.

6

Radon in Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

... are here: EPA Home Air Indoor Air Radon Health Risks Drinking Water Radon in Drinking Water Public Health ... States and community water systems for reducing radon health risks in both drinking water and indoor air quality, ...

7

Drinking Water Problems: Lead  

E-print Network

Lead in drinking water can damage the brain, kidneys, nervous system and red blood cells. This publication explains how lead can enter drinking water, how to have your water tested, and how to eliminate lead from drinking water....

Dozier, Monty; McFarland, Mark L.

2004-02-20

8

Arsenic in Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

... Water Act Arsenic in Drinking Water Arsenic in Drinking Water Arsenic iHome Basic Information Arsenic Rule Compliance Help ... table. It is odorless and tasteless. It enters drinking water supplies from natural deposits in the earth or ...

9

Dissolved Organic Carbon as a Drinking Water Constituent of Concern in California Agricultural Watersheds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from the breakdown of plant and animal material is a concern for drinking water quality in California due to the potential formation of carcinogenic byproducts during disinfection. Agricultural DOC loading to surface water is a significant concern, but the sources and reactivity in agricultural runoff remains poorly understood. Here we present data on DOC dynamics in surface water from the Willow Slough watershed, a 425\\- km2 agricultural catchment in the Sacramento Valley, California. Samples collected weekly during 2006 and 2007 were analyzed for DOC concentration, optical properties (UV absorbance and fluorescence), 13C\\- DOC isotopes, and trihalomethane formation potential (a regulated disinfection byproduct formed during chlorination). DOC concentrations at the watershed mouth ranged from 2 to 4 mg/L during winter and spring, with a clear increase in DOC concentrations to more than 7 mg L following the onset of summer irrigation. The 13C\\- DOC values revealed a large range (-19 to -27 ‰), with lowest values during winter baseflow and higher values during summer and winter storms. Spectral slopes also varied seasonally (0.012 to 0.020), with steeper slopes during winter baseflow. Both isotopic and optical data provide evidence for algal\\- derived DOC during the winter baseflow and terrestrial sources during winter storms and summer irrigation. Total THM formation potential was higher in winter than summer, and is strongly correlated to DOC concentrations in surface waters (r2 = 0.87). In contrast to the total THM formation potential, the specific THM formation potential (e.g., total THM normalized to DOC) decreased during the summer irrigation season, suggesting a change in reactivity related to DOC source or degradation. Additional data from plant leachates and ground water will be discussed, as well as the implications of watershed management on DOC dynamics and reactivity in agriculturally-dominated landscapes.

Pellerin, B. A.; Bergamaschi, B. A.; Downing, B. D.; Bachand, P. A.; Deverel, S.; Kendall, C.

2007-12-01

10

Pregnancy outcomes in women potentially exposed to solvent-contaminated drinking water in San Jose, California  

SciTech Connect

During 1980-1981, solvents leaked from an underground storage tank of a semiconductor firm in southern Santa Clara County, California, contaminating local drinking water. The contaminated well was closed in December 1981. An epidemiologic study conducted in 1983 confirmed statistically significant excesses of adverse pregnancy outcomes in an exposed community compared with an unexposed community, but could not establish a causal connection between the leak and the adverse outcomes. This study expanded the first study; adverse pregnancy outcomes occurring in 1980-1985 were studied in two communities exposed to the contaminated drinking water and in two demographically comparable but unexposed communities. The period 1980-1981 was the time period in which the well was considered to have been contaminated and 1982-1985 was considered the postcontamination time period. Both exposed and unexposed communities were considered unexposed during the latter period (1982-1985). Out of 10,055 households surveyed, interviews were conducted with 1,105 women who reported one or more eligible pregnancies. Miscarriages and birth defects were validated by medical record review or physician reports. Although the authors again observed statistically significant excesses of spontaneous abortions and birth defects in the originally studied exposed area in 1980-1981, they observed deficits of these outcomes in the second exposed study area. Adjustment for potential confounders did not alter these findings. Analyses of pregnancy outcomes during 1981 in relation to exposure estimates based on hydrogeologic modeling of water and contaminant distribution within the exposed areas also indicated that the leak was not likely to have caused the observed excesses of adverse pregnancy outcomes in the originally studied area.

Wrensch, M.; Swan, S.; Lipscomb, J.; Epstein, D.; Fenster, L.; Claxton, K.; Murphy, P.J.; Shusterman, D.; Neutra, R. (California Department of Health Services, Berkeley (USA))

1990-02-01

11

Availability of Drinking Water in California Public Schools. Testimony Presented before the California State Assembly Subcommittee on Education on April 2, 2008  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A senior researcher and hospital Chief of General Pediatrics, testifies about his work with a California school district to prevent obesity by developing a middle school program to promote healthy eating and physical activity. A two-year study has found that students have limited access to drinking water, especially at meals. In the schools being…

Schuster, Mark A.

2008-01-01

12

Case-Control Study of Arsenic in Drinking Water and Lung Cancer in California and Nevada  

PubMed Central

Millions of people are exposed to arsenic in drinking water, which at high concentrations is known to cause lung cancer in humans. At lower concentrations, the risks are unknown. We enrolled 196 lung cancer cases and 359 controls matched on age and gender from western Nevada and Kings County, California in 2002–2005. After adjusting for age, sex, education, smoking and occupational exposures, odds ratios for arsenic concentrations ?85 µg/L (median = 110 µg/L, mean = 173 µg/L, maximum = 1,460 µg/L) more than 40 years before enrollment were 1.39 (95% CI = 0.55–3.53) in all subjects and 1.61 (95% CI = 0.59–4.38) in smokers. Although odds ratios were greater than 1.0, these increases may have been due to chance given the small number of subjects exposed more than 40 years before enrollment. This study, designed before research in Chile suggested arsenic-related cancer latencies of 40 years or more, illustrates the enormous sample sizes needed to identify arsenic-related health effects in low-exposure countries with mobile populations like the U.S. Nonetheless, our findings suggest that concentrations near 100 µg/L are not associated with markedly high relative risks. PMID:23917816

Dauphiné, David C.; Smith, Allan H.; Yuan, Yan; Balmes, John R.; Bates, Michael N.; Steinmaus, Craig

2013-01-01

13

Ground Water and Drinking Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Environmental Protection Agencies Web site, Ground Water and Drinking Water (last mentioned in the March 29, 2002 Scout Report), has many additional high quality features not mentioned in previous reports. The site has continually updated information regarding drinking water regulation, as well as general facts such as where drinking water comes from, what's in it, drinking water standards, how you can protect your drinking water, a link for kids, and an extensive amount of additional material.

14

Drinking Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial introduces students to the importance of water to living organisms, including humans. The discussion points out that all organisms contain water, and decribes how water is accumulated and stored. There is also an examination of the water supplies of Winnipeg, Ontario, and Vancouver, British Columbia, and a discussion of the importance of purifying driking water supplies to remove harmful bacteria and microbes.

15

Lead Concentration Levels in Drinking Water from Schools in Oakland, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead was often used in plumbing during the past century because of its malleability and ability to ensure water tight pipe connections. However, when this element was discovered to be poisonous, the use of lead pipes was outlawed. In spite of this, lead solder continued to be used until the late 1980's. In 1991, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) passed an act that established a lead concentration limit of 15 ppb (parts per billion) in drinking water. Still, any trace of this heavy metal has been determined to be a health risk. Several schools in the Oakland Unified School District have been built close to one century ago. Many schools were built during the time in which lead pipes or lead solder were allowed. As a result, drinking water at these schools is a cause for concern. In an effort to begin assessing the drinking water quality in Oakland schools, five water samples were collected from each of thirteen schools between mid March and early May 2006. Schools were specifically chosen because of their age and location. The samples were taken to the Lawrence Hall of Science for analysis, and the results were tabulated and analyzed. Preliminary analysis of our data suggests that drinking water in schools built after the 1950's contain average lead concentrations above 15 ppb. Furthermore, out of the thirteen schools from which samples were collected, all but two issued water with lead concentrations that exceed the EPA action limit of 15 ppb. Overall, our work thus far indicates that greater attention should be devoted to investigating lead concentrations in Oakland schools' drinking water, and that in some cases immediate intervention strategies must be devised. To aid in such efforts, we plan to continue our study and further investigate water quality in Oakland Schools by collecting additional samples from a wider range of school sites.

Araraso, I.; Huang, J.; Lau, S.; Le, A.

2006-12-01

16

It's Your Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

... safewater/dwinfo.htm and click on your state. Database: EPA collects information on every public drinking water ... in the nation and stores it in a database called the Safe Drinking Water Information System (SDWIS). ...

17

AIRCRAFT DRINKING WATER RULE  

EPA Science Inventory

Under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), any interstate carrier conveyance (ICC) that regularly serves drinking water to an average of at least 25 individuals daily, at least 60 days per year, is subject to the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWR). An ICC is a car...

18

Quality of Drinking Water  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

Roman, Harry T.

2009-01-01

19

Drinking Water Distribution Systems Hydraulics, Leakage, and Water Quality Issues  

E-print Network

in California Water-Climate- Society Research #12;Contamination from the ground can intrude into our drinking#12; Drinking Water Distribution Systems Hydraulics, Leakage, and Water Quality Issues Life Cycle Assessment for Different Piping Materials Water Demand Analysis due to Water Meter Installation

Su, Xiao

20

Drinking Water and Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to a provision of the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 which called for a study that would serve as a scientific basis for revising the primary drinking water regulations that were promulgated under the Act, a study of the scientific literature was undertaken in order to assess the implications for human health of the constituents of…

National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

21

Contaminants in drinking water.  

PubMed

An adequate supply of safe drinking water is one of the major prerequisites for a healthy life, but waterborne disease is still a major cause of death in many parts of the world, particularly in children, and it is also a significant economic constraint in many subsistence economies. The basis on which drinking water safety is judged is national standards or international guidelines. The most important of these are the WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. The quality of drinking water and possible associated health risks vary throughout the world with some regions showing, for example, high levels of arsenic, fluoride or contamination of drinking water by pathogens, whereas elsewhere these are very low and no problem. Marked variations also occur on a more local level within countries due, for example, to agricultural and industrial activities. These and others are discussed in this chapter. PMID:14757718

Fawell, John; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

2003-01-01

22

Drinking water and cancer.  

PubMed Central

Any and all chemicals generated by human activity can and will find their way into water supplies. The types and quantities of carcinogens present in drinking water at the point of consumption will differ depending on whether they result from contamination of the source water, arise as a consequence of treatment processes, or enter as the water is conveyed to the user. Source-water contaminants of concern include arsenic, asbestos, radon, agricultural chemicals, and hazardous waste. Of these, the strongest evidence for a cancer risk involves arsenic, which is linked to cancers of the liver, lung, bladder, and kidney. The use of chlorine for water treatment to reduce the risk of infectious disease may account for a substantial portion of the cancer risk associated with drinking water. The by-products of chlorination are associated with increased risk of bladder and rectal cancer, possibly accounting for 5000 cases of bladder cancer and 8000 cases of rectal cancer per year in the United States. Fluoridation of water has received great scrutiny but appears to pose little or no cancer risk. Further research is needed to identify and quantify risks posed by contaminants from drinking-water distribution pipes, linings, joints, and fixtures and by biologically active micropollutants, such as microbial agents. We need more cost-effective methods for monitoring drinking-water quality and further research on interventions to minimize cancer risks from drinking water. PMID:8741788

Morris, R D

1995-01-01

23

Drinking Water Problems: Benzene  

E-print Network

L-5513 4/09 Drinking Water Problems: Benzene Monty Dozier and Bruce Lesikar* enzene is a clear, colorless, aromatic, highly flam- mable liquid with a distinctive, sweet smell. Benzene occurs naturally and evaporates easily. Small amounts...

Dozier, Monty; Lesikar, Bruce J.

2009-04-16

24

Occurrence and concentrations of pharmaceutical compounds in deep groundwater used for public drinking-water supply in California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Pharmaceutical compounds were detected at low concentrations in 2.3% of 1231 samples of groundwater (median depth to top of screened interval in wells = 61 m) used for public drinking-water supply in California. Samples were collected statewide for the California State Water Resources Control Board's Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. Of 14 pharmaceutical compounds analyzed, 7 were detected at concentrations greater than or equal to method detection limits: acetaminophen (used as an analgesic, detection frequency 0.32%, maximum concentration 1.89 ?g/L), caffeine (stimulant, 0.24%, 0.29 ?g/L), carbamazepine (mood stabilizer, 1.5%, 0.42 ?g/L), codeine (opioid analgesic, 0.16%, 0.214 ?g/L), p-xanthine (caffeine metabolite, 0.08%, 0.12 ?g/L), sulfamethoxazole (antibiotic, 0.41%, 0.17 ?g/L), and trimethoprim (antibiotic, 0.08%, 0.018 ?g/L). Detection frequencies of pesticides (33%), volatile organic compounds not including trihalomethanes (23%), and trihalomethanes (28%) in the same 1231 samples were significantly higher. Median detected concentration of pharmaceutical compounds was similar to those of volatile organic compounds, and higher than that of pesticides. Pharmaceutical compounds were detected in 3.3% of the 855 samples containing modern groundwater (tritium activity > 0.2 TU). Pharmaceutical detections were significantly positively correlated with detections of urban-use herbicides and insecticides, detections of volatile organic compounds, and percentage of urban land use around wells. Groundwater from the Los Angeles metropolitan area had higher detection frequencies of pharmaceuticals and other anthropogenic compounds than groundwater from other areas of the state with similar proportions of urban land use. The higher detection frequencies may reflect that groundwater flow systems in Los Angeles area basins are dominated by engineered recharge and intensive groundwater pumping.

Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

2011-01-01

25

Drinking Water and Ground Water: Kids' Stuff  

MedlinePLUS

... Kids Drinking Water & Ground Water Kids' Stuff Drinking Water & Ground Water Kids' Stuff Kids' Home Games & Activities Other Kids' ... to you. Submit Your Artwork from Thirstin's Wacky Water Adventure Activity Book Here Area Navigation Water Home ...

26

Safe Drinking Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides an overview of types of drinking water contaminants, where they come from, and their effects on human health. Special topics include chemical and microbial contamination, health effects of microbes, pesticides, metals and various other contaminants, and causes of source water contamination. The site also features links to current news and other related resources and organizations.

Responsibility, Physicians F.; Envirohealthaction

27

Drinking Water Problems: Corrosion  

E-print Network

Drinking Water Problems: Corrosion Mark L. McFarland, Tony L. Provin, and Diane E. Boellstorff and fail. Corrosion can cause three types of damage: · The entire metal surface gradually thins and red (Fig. 1). · Deep pits appear that can penetrate pipe or tank walls. This type of corrosion may not add

28

Drinking Water Problems: MTBE  

E-print Network

L-5502 8/08 Drinking Water Problems: MTBE Monty Dozier and Bruce Lesikar* M ethyl tertiary-butyl ether, commonly called MTBE, is a common gasoline additive that re- duces air pollution. However, it has been found Thirty-two areas in 18 states...

Dozier, Monty; Lesikar, Bruce J.

2008-08-28

29

Arsenic in Your Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

... sized swimming pool. FOR MORE INFORMATION Arsenic in drinking water http://www.epa.gov/safewater/arsenic Arsenic health ... well http://www.epa.gov/safewater/privatewells Safe Drinking Water Hotline 1-800-426-4791 JUST THE FACTS ...

30

Drinking Water Treatment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson provides an introduction to the treatment of drinking water to remove harmful or distasteful substances. Topics include the history of treatment and a brief listing of treatment processes. Students can examine a selection of online resources for more detailed information on modern treatment methods and potential contaminants. The lesson includes an activity in which they construct a model treatment plant and treat water that they have 'contaminated' themselves in order to observe firsthand the steps involved in purifying water for human consumption.

Laposata, Matt

31

Inspecting for Quality. California's Lowest-Achieving Schools are Routinely Visited by Inspectors on the Lookout for, among Other things, Inadequate Textbook Supplies, Dirty Drinking Water, and Evidence of Vermin  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes how the California's lowest-achieving schools are routinely visited by inspectors on the lookout for, among other things, inadequate textbook supplies, dirty drinking water, and evidence of vermin. Following the settlement from the case "Williams v. California," the laws known as the "Williams legislation"…

Jacobson, Linda

2006-01-01

32

Emergency Disinfection of Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

... any prepared drink, or for brushing teeth. Downloads & Translations You will need Adobe Reader to view some ... of Drinking Water (PDF) (4 pp, 317 K) Translations En Español Desinfección de Emergencia del Agua Potable ...

33

America's Drinking Water in 1997  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has provided online access to two reports, America's Drinking Water in 1997 and the 1996 National Public Water System Annual Compliance Report and Update on Implementation of the 1996 Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments. While both reports find that US drinking water is generally safe, the EPA also reviews initiatives to improve water quality. The brief summaries of these reports can be viewed in HTML format, while the full-text articles are available in .pdf format.

1997-01-01

34

Drinking water and women's health.  

PubMed

Primary health providers in the community must be able to field questions and guide vulnerable populations to informed decisions about drinking water quality and health. This article offers an overview of selected contaminants in drinking water and their possible effects on the health of women over the life span. Historical concerns for drinking water safety, which led to the development of current drinking water regulations, are briefly explored. Several chemical, microbial, and radionuclide contaminants of particular concern to women and children are discussed. Short- and long-term tap water alternatives are suggested for when tap water is deemed unsuitable for use. PMID:16399605

Afzal, Brenda M

2006-01-01

35

Dissolved organic carbon concentrations and compositions, and trihalomethane formation potentials in waters from agricultural peat soils, Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California; implications for drinking-water quality  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water exported from the Sacramento-San Joaquin River delta (Delta) is an important drinking-water source for more than 20 million people in California. At times, this water contains elevated concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and bromide, and exceeds the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant level for trihalomethanes of 0.100 milligrams per liter if chlorinated for drinking water. About 20 to 50 percent of the trihalomethane precursors to Delta waters originates from drainage water from peat soils on Delta islands. This report elucidates some of the factors and processes controlling and affecting the concentration and quality of dissolved organic carbon released from peat soils and relates the propensity of dissolved organic carbon to form trihalomethanes to its chemical composition.Soil water was sampled from near-surface, oxidized, well-decomposed peat soil (upper soil zone) and deeper, reduced, fibrous peat soil (lower soil zone) from one agricultural field in the west central Delta over 1 year. Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon in the upper soil zone were highly variable, with median concentrations ranging from 46.4 to 83.2 milligrams per liter. Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon in samples from the lower soil zone were much less variable and generally slightly higher than samples from the upper soil zone, with median concentrations ranging from 49.3 to 82.3 milligrams per liter. The dissolved organic carbon from the lower soil zone had significantly higher aromaticity (as measured by specific ultraviolet absorbance) and contained significantly greater amounts of aromatic humic substances (as measured by XAD resin fractionation and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of XAD isolates) than the dissolved organic carbon from the upper soil zone. These results support the conclusion that more aromatic forms of dissolved organic carbon are produced under anaerobic conditions compared to aerobic conditions. Dissolved organic carbon concentration, trihalomethane formation potential, and ultraviolet absorbance were all highly correlated, showing that trihalomethane precursors increased with increasing dissolved organic carbon and ultraviolet absorbance for whole water samples. Contrary to the generally accepted conceptual model for trihalomethane formation that assumes that aromatic forms of carbon are primary precursors to trihalomethanes, results from this study indicate that dissolved organic carbon aromaticity appears unrelated to trihalomethane formation on a carbon-normalized basis. Thus, dissolved organic carbon aromaticity alone cannot fully explain or predict trihalomethane precursor content, and further investigation of aromatic and nonaromatic forms of carbon will be needed to better identify trihalomethane precursors.

Fujii, Roger; Ranalli, Anthony J.; Aiken, George R.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.

1998-01-01

36

Ensuring safer drinking water  

SciTech Connect

Today's regulatory environment has led to the proliferation of voluntary consensus standards and certification programs that are important to ensuring safety and health in a number of areas. One such area -- the treatment and delivery of potable water -- is addressed by the Drinking Water Additives Program.'' At the request of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), this program was developed in the mid-1980s by an independent, voluntary consensus standards organization called NSF International (formerly known as the National Sanitation Foundation). This paper explains the need for and the structure of the Drinking Water Additives Program; the rationale for transferring responsibility for its execution from the EPA to the private sector; and the impact of its standards on users, manufacturers, and state and local regulatory bodies. Understanding the additives program is critically important to industry suppliers because, as it continues to gain greater awareness and acceptance, there are a growing number of manufacturers sourcing materials and products primarily from suppliers whose products meet the program's certification requirements.

Christensen, J. (Advanced Elastomer Systems, St. Louis, MO (United States). Fluid Delivery and Electrical Markets); Higgins, P. (PJ Higgins and Associates Inc., Frederick, MD (United States))

1994-09-01

37

Lead and Drinking Water from Private Wells  

MedlinePLUS

... remove lead from my drinking water? Lead and Drinking Water from Private Wells What is lead? Lead is ... page. Where and how does lead get into drinking water? Lead rarely occurs naturally in water; it usually ...

38

Drinking Water Treatability Database (Database)  

EPA Science Inventory

The drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) will provide data taken from the literature on the control of contaminants in drinking water, and will be housed on an interactive, publicly-available USEPA web site. It can be used for identifying effective treatment processes, rec...

39

Lead in School Drinking Water.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Lead levels in school drinking water merit special concern because children are more at risk than adults from exposure to lead. This manual provides ways in which school officials can minimize this risk. It assists administrators by providing: (1) general information on the significance of lead in school drinking water and its effects on children;…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

40

Campylobacter and Drinking Water from Private Wells  

MedlinePLUS

... remove Campylobacter from my drinking water? Campylobacter and Drinking Water from Private Wells What is campylobacteriosis? Campylobacteriosis (CAMP- ... page. Where and how does Campylobacter get into drinking water? Campylobacter is found in every part of the ...

41

30 CFR 75.1718 - Drinking water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 false Drinking water. 75.1718 Section 75...Miscellaneous § 75.1718 Drinking water. [Statutory Provisions] An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided for drinking purposes in the active...

2010-07-01

42

Giardia and Drinking Water from Private Wells  

MedlinePLUS

... remove Giardia from my drinking water? Giardia and Drinking Water from Private Wells What is giardiasis? Giardiasis (GEE- ... website. Where and how does Giardia get into drinking water? Millions of Giardia parasites can be released in ...

43

Molecular Ecology of Drinking Water  

EPA Science Inventory

The presentation consists of examples of molecular research: ?Detection and control (removal and/or inactivation) of microbes in drinking source waters ?Changing microbial quality of water during distribution and storage ?Detection and identification of microbial agents, incl...

44

Drinking Water Database  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This summer I had the opportunity to work in the Environmental Management Office (EMO) under the Chemical Sampling and Analysis Team or CS&AT. This team s mission is to support Glenn Research Center (GRC) and EM0 by providing chemical sampling and analysis services and expert consulting. Services include sampling and chemical analysis of water, soil, fbels, oils, paint, insulation materials, etc. One of this team s major projects is the Drinking Water Project. This is a project that is done on Glenn s water coolers and ten percent of its sink every two years. For the past two summers an intern had been putting together a database for this team to record the test they had perform. She had successfully created a database but hadn't worked out all the quirks. So this summer William Wilder (an intern from Cleveland State University) and I worked together to perfect her database. We began be finding out exactly what every member of the team thought about the database and what they would change if any. After collecting this data we both had to take some courses in Microsoft Access in order to fix the problems. Next we began looking at what exactly how the database worked from the outside inward. Then we began trying to change the database but we quickly found out that this would be virtually impossible.

Murray, ShaTerea R.

2004-01-01

45

Drinking Water (Environmental Health Student Portal)  

MedlinePLUS

... Water Waterborne Diseases & Illnesses Water Cycle Water Treatment Drinking Water The Basics A cool glass of tap water ... of medicines can find their way to our drinking water supply when people flush unused medicines down the ...

46

Environmental justice implications of arsenic contamination in California’s San Joaquin Valley: a cross-sectional, cluster-design examining exposure and compliance in community drinking water systems  

PubMed Central

Background Few studies of environmental justice examine inequities in drinking water contamination. Those studies that have done so usually analyze either disparities in exposure/harm or inequitable implementation of environmental policies. The US EPA’s 2001 Revised Arsenic Rule, which tightened the drinking water standard for arsenic from 50 ?g/L to 10 ?g/L, offers an opportunity to analyze both aspects of environmental justice. Methods We hypothesized that Community Water Systems (CWSs) serving a higher proportion of minority residents or residents of lower socioeconomic status (SES) have higher drinking water arsenic levels and higher odds of non-compliance with the revised standard. Using water quality sampling data for arsenic and maximum contaminant level (MCL) violation data for 464 CWSs actively operating from 2005–2007 in California’s San Joaquin Valley we ran bivariate tests and linear regression models. Results Higher home ownership rate was associated with lower arsenic levels (ß-coefficient= ?0.27 ?g As/L, 95% (CI), -0.5, -0.05). This relationship was stronger in smaller systems (ß-coefficient= ?0.43, CI, -0.84, -0.03). CWSs with higher rates of homeownership had lower odds of receiving an MCL violation (OR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.16, 0.67); those serving higher percentages of minorities had higher odds (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.2, 5.4) of an MCL violation. Conclusions We found that higher arsenic levels and higher odds of receiving an MCL violation were most common in CWSs serving predominantly socio-economically disadvantaged communities. Our findings suggest that communities with greater proportions of low SES residents not only face disproportionate arsenic exposures, but unequal MCL compliance challenges. PMID:23151087

2012-01-01

47

The risks of drinking water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three researchers from the Energy and Environmental Policy Center at Harvard University have come up with a new method of calculating the risk from contaminants in drinking water, one that they believe takes into account some of the uncertainties in pronouncing water safe or dangerous to drink. The new method concentrates on the risk of cancer, which authors Edmund Crouch, Richard Wilson, and Lauren Zeise believe has not been properly considered in establishing drinking water standards.Writing in the December 1983 issue of Water Resources Research, the authors state that “current [drinking water] standards for a given chemical or class of chemicals do not account for the presence of other pollutants” that could combine to create dangerous substances. According to Wilson, “Over a hundred industrial pollutants and chlorination byproducts have been found in various samples of drinking water, some of which are known carcinogens, others suspected carcinogens.” The same chlorine that solves one major health problem—the threat of bacterial disease—can thus contribute to another, according to the authors, by increasing the long-term risk of cancer. The largest risks are due to halomethanes such as chloroform and bromoform, produced as chlorine reacts with organic matter in drinking water.

Reichhardt, Tony

1984-04-01

48

INJURED COLIFORMS IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Coliforms were enumerated by using m-Endo agar LES and m-T7 agar in 102 routine samples of drinking water from three New England community water systems to investigate the occurrence and significance of injured coliforms. Samples included water collected immediately after convent...

49

Drinking water constituents and disease.  

PubMed

Several epidemiological investigations over the last 50 y have demonstrated a relation between risk for cardiovascular disease and drinking water hardness or its content of magnesium and calcium. An additional parameter, first suggested in a study from Japan 50 y ago, is the acidity of the water. It is known that acid load influences the reabsorption of calcium and magnesium in the renal tubuli. Intervention studies have shown that acid-base conditions influence the homeostasis of minerals. Data from intervention studies using magnesium, calcium, and hydrogen carbonate are reviewed. It is suggested that the health effects related to drinking water found in some studies may be caused by an increased urinary excretion of minerals induced by acid conditions in the body and that drinking water should contain sufficient amounts of hydrogen carbonate to prevent this effect. PMID:18203915

Rylander, Ragnar

2008-02-01

50

California's Water Energy Relationship  

E-print Network

1 CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION California's Water ­ Energy Relationship Prepared in Support The California's Water-Energy Relationship report is the product of contributions by many California Energy, Lorraine White and Zhiqin Zhang. Staff would also like to thank the members of the Water-Energy Working

51

Ground water provides drinking water, irrigation for  

E-print Network

Ground water provides drinking water, irrigation for crops and water for indus- tries. It is also connected to surface waters, and maintains the flow of rivers and streams and the level of wetlands- tion of those along Lake Michigan, most communi- ties, farms and industries still rely on ground water

Saldin, Dilano

52

Sodium in Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

... To reduce my sodium intake, should I buy bottled water instead of using tap water? For more information. ... To reduce my sodium intake, should I buy bottled water instead of using tap water? It is not ...

53

Safe Water Drinking Act Basic Information  

MedlinePLUS

... created in commemoration of the anniversary . (ALL ABOUT PDF FILES) Source Water Protection Operator Certification Drinking Water ... Act EPA 816-F-04-030 June 2004 PDF (291 K PDF FILE, 4 pgs) Drinking Water ...

54

Private Drinking Water Wells  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, created by the Environmental Protection Agency, contains information from the on testing and protecting private water sources. The site can be helpful for persons having a private well or simply those interested in water science.

2008-10-06

55

DRINKING WATER ARSENIC AND PERINATAL OUTCOMES  

EPA Science Inventory

Drinking Water Arsenic and Perinatal Outcomes DT Lobdell, Z Ning, RK Kwok, JL Mumford, ZY Liu, P Mendola Many studies have documented an association between drinking water arsenic (DWA) and cancer, vascular diseases, and dermatological outcomes, but few have investigate...

56

Drinking water safely during cancer treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... for Disease Control and Prevention. A guide to drinking water treatment technologies for household use. http://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/drinking/travel/household_water_treatment.html. Accessed May 7, 2014.

57

Basic Information about Asbestos in Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

... an increased risk of developing benign intestinal polyps. Drinking Water Health Advisories provide more information on health effects ... 396 K, About PDF ) EPA regulates asbestos in drinking water to protect public health. Asbestos may cause health ...

58

Relationship of Fluoride in Drinking Water to Other Drinking Water Parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluoride in drinking water and 32 other drinking water variables were evaluated in an epidemiologic study of 158 municipalities in the State of Iowa. The study included three study groups: two for controlled fluoridation and one for natural fluoride. Previous epidemiologic studies of fluoride in drinking water have rarely addressed other drinking water parameters. The results indicated that controlled fluoridation

Charles F. Lynch

1987-01-01

59

THE DRINKING WATER TREATABILITY DATABASE (Slides)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) assembles referenced data on the control of contaminants in drinking water, housed on an interactive, publicly-available, USEPA web site (www.epa.gov/tdb). The TDB is of use to drinking water utilities, treatment process design engin...

60

THE DRINKING WATER TREATABILITY DATABASE (Conference Paper)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) assembles referenced data on the control of contaminants in drinking water, housed on an interactive, publicly-available, USEPA web site (www.epa.gov/tdb). The TDB is of use to drinking water utilities, treatment process design engin...

61

Risk management for assuring safe drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Millions of people die every year around the world from diarrheal diseases much of which is caused by contaminated drinking water. By contrast, drinking water safety is largely taken for granted by many citizens of affluent nations. The ability to drink water that is delivered into households without fear of becoming ill may be one of the key defining characteristics

Steve E. Hrudey; Elizabeth J. Hrudey; Simon J. T. Pollard

2006-01-01

62

Drinking water standards and risk assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role and use of risk assessment methods in the establishment of drinking water standards are described with emphasis on recent applications. The process essentially includes an attempt to quantify human exposure from all routes including drinking water, animal toxicology, and human epidemiology, when available, to arrive at drinking water concentrations at which exposure would result in ''no known or

J COTRUVO

1988-01-01

63

Ground Water and Drinking Water: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, from the Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, presents a list of most frequently asked questions (with answers). Question topics include: drinking water standards, getting information about your tap water and questions about bottled water.

64

DRINKING WATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of water treatment is threefold: 1. To improve the aethetic quality ofwater, 2. to remove toxic or health-hazardous chemicals, 3. to remove and/or inactivate any disease causing microorganisms. These objectives should be accomplished using a reasonable safety factor...

65

Quality control of bottled and vended water in California: A review and comparison to tap water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current regulations and compliance for quality control of bottled and vended water in California are compared with that of the tap water industry in this research. Over 35% of the bottled water sold in the US is consumed in California where a third of the residents use such water as a primary source of drinking water. California is one of

J. L. Darby; L. Allen

1994-01-01

66

Cleaning Up Our Drinking Water  

SciTech Connect

Imagine drinking water that you wring out of the sponge you’ve just used to wash your car. This is what is happening around the world. Rain and snow pass through soil polluted with pesticides, poisonous metals and radionuclides into the underground lakes and streams that supply our drinking water. “We need to understand this natural system better to protect our groundwater and, by extension, our drinking water,” said Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s Applied Geology and Geochemistry Group Manager, Wayne Martin. Biologists, statisticians, hydrologists, geochemists, geologists and computer scientists at PNNL work together to clean up contaminated soils and groundwater. The teams begin by looking at the complexities of the whole environment, not just the soil or just the groundwater. PNNL researchers also perform work for private industries under a unique use agreement between the Department of Energy and Battelle, which operates the laboratory for DOE. This research leads to new remediation methods and technologies to tackle problems ranging from arsenic at old fertilizer plants to uranium at former nuclear sites. Our results help regulators, policy makers and the public make critical decisions on complex environmental issues.

Manke, Kristin L.

2007-08-01

67

Naphthalene: Drinking water health advisory  

SciTech Connect

The Drinking Water Health Advisory, Office of Water, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, has issued its report on the chemical, naphthalene. Naphthalene is used in the manufacture of phthalic and anthranilic acids and other derivatives, and in making dyes; in the manufacture of resins, celluloid, lampblack and smokeless gunpowder; and as moth repellant, insecticide, anthelmintic, vermicide, and intestinal antiseptic. The report covers the following areas: the occurrence of the chemical in the environment; its environmental fate; the chemical's absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in the human body; and its health effects on humans and animals, including its mutagenicity and carcinogenicity characteristics. Also included is the quantification of its toxicological effects.

Not Available

1990-03-01

68

SHORTER MENSTRUAL CYCLES ASSOCIATED WITH CHLORINATION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Shorter Menstrual Cycles Associated with Chlorination by-Products in Drinking Water. Gayle Windham, Kirsten Waller, Meredith Anderson, Laura Fenster, Pauline Mendola, Shanna Swan. California Department of Health Services. In previous studies of tap water consumption we...

69

DETERMINATION OF NEWLY IDENTIFIED DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The Metropolitan Water District of Southern California (MWDSC) is investigating the occurrence of 39 newly identified disinfection by-products (DBPs)-which were not included in the Information Collection Rule (ICR)-in drinking waters. Halomethanes (HMs), haloacetonitriles (HANs),...

70

INACTIVATION OF MS2 VIRUS IN DRINKING WATER: ATLANTIC ULTRAVIOLET CORPORATION MEGATRON UNIT, MODEL M250 AT CHULA VISTA, CALIFORNIA  

EPA Science Inventory

Verification testing of the Atlantic Ultraviolet Megatron M250 system was conducted over a 48-day period from 11/01/01 to 12/18/01. The feedwater to the ultraviolet (UV) unit during the testing was effluent from the Otay Water Treatment Plant (OWTP), a conventional plant with fl...

71

Water Treatment: Can You Purify Water for Drinking?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a three-day mini unit on purification of drinking water that uses the learning cycle approach. Demonstrates the typical technology that water companies use to provide high-quality drinking water. (JRH)

Harris, Mary E.

1996-01-01

72

The Economics of Safe Drinking Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies a drinking water market in which a water company, faced with random contamination, chooses a treatment system, treatment levels, and whether to notify consumers that they should drink bottled water rather than risk exposure to contaminants in the tap water. The paper describes efi cient practices including protocols which prescribe when a company should notify customers to

Robert Innes; Dennis Cory

2001-01-01

73

MINI PILOT PLANT FOR DRINKING WATER RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

The Water Supply & Water Resources Division (WSWRD) has constructed 2 mini-pilot plant systems used to conduct drinking water research. These two systems each have 2 parallel trains for comparative research. The mini-pilot plants are small conventional drinking water treatment ...

74

A stepped wedge, cluster-randomized trial of a household UV-disinfection and safe storage drinking water intervention in rural Baja California Sur, Mexico.  

PubMed

In collaboration with a local non-profit organization, this study evaluated the expansion of a program that promoted and installed Mesita Azul, an ultraviolet-disinfection system designed to treat household drinking water in rural Mexico. We conducted a 15-month, cluster-randomized stepped wedge trial by randomizing the order in which 24 communities (444 households) received the intervention. We measured primary outcomes (water contamination and diarrhea) during seven household visits. The intervention increased the percentage of households with access to treated and safely stored drinking water (23-62%), and reduced the percentage of households with Escherichia coli contaminated drinking water (risk difference (RD): -19% [95% CI: -27%, -14%]). No significant reduction in diarrhea was observed (RD: -0.1% [95% CI: -1.1%, 0.9%]). We conclude that household water quality improvements measured in this study justify future promotion of the Mesita Azul, and that future studies to measure its health impact would be valuable if conducted in populations with higher diarrhea prevalence. PMID:23732255

Gruber, Joshua S; Reygadas, Fermin; Arnold, Benjamin F; Ray, Isha; Nelson, Kara; Colford, John M

2013-08-01

75

A Stepped Wedge, Cluster-Randomized Trial of a Household UV-Disinfection and Safe Storage Drinking Water Intervention in Rural Baja California Sur, Mexico  

PubMed Central

In collaboration with a local non-profit organization, this study evaluated the expansion of a program that promoted and installed Mesita Azul, an ultraviolet-disinfection system designed to treat household drinking water in rural Mexico. We conducted a 15-month, cluster-randomized stepped wedge trial by randomizing the order in which 24 communities (444 households) received the intervention. We measured primary outcomes (water contamination and diarrhea) during seven household visits. The intervention increased the percentage of households with access to treated and safely stored drinking water (23–62%), and reduced the percentage of households with Escherichia coli contaminated drinking water (risk difference (RD): ?19% [95% CI: ?27%, ?14%]). No significant reduction in diarrhea was observed (RD: ?0.1% [95% CI: ?1.1%, 0.9%]). We conclude that household water quality improvements measured in this study justify future promotion of the Mesita Azul, and that future studies to measure its health impact would be valuable if conducted in populations with higher diarrhea prevalence. PMID:23732255

Gruber, Joshua S.; Reygadas, Fermin; Arnold, Benjamin F.; Ray, Isha; Nelson, Kara; Colford, John M.

2013-01-01

76

EPA?s Drinking Water Treatability Database: A Tool for All Drinking Water Professionals  

EPA Science Inventory

The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) is being developed by the USEPA Office of Research and Development to allow drinking water professionals and others to access referenced information gathered from thousands of literature sources and assembled on one site. Currently, ...

77

Ensuring the Public's Drinking-Water Welfare.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some questions are answered concerning the justification, intent, and purpose of the Safe Drinking Water Act's regulations. Some points, previously misinterpreted, are placed in clear perspective. (BB)

McDermott, James H.

1978-01-01

78

Delta Drinking Water Quality and Treatment Costs  

E-print Network

Delta Drinking Water Quality and Treatment Costs Technical Appendix H Wei-Hsiang Chen Kristine-San Joaquin Delta, prepared by a team of researchers from the Center for Watershed Sciences (University Acknowledgments v Acronyms vi Introduction 1 1. WATER QUALITY IN AND NEAR DELTA 2 Delta Drinking Water Intakes 2

Pasternack, Gregory B.

79

Disinfection by-products in drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many organic contaminants have been identified in drinking water, some of which are introduced during treatment. Whereas chlorination of drinking water prevents the transmission of infectious diseases, free chlorine can react with precursors in water, such as humic and fulvic acids, to produce halogenated and oxidized by-products. Many disinfection by-products have been detected, including haloketones, haloaldehydes, haloacids, haloacetonitrile, cyanogen chloride,

Craun

2008-01-01

80

30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603 Section...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water...

2014-07-01

81

30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603 Section...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water...

2012-07-01

82

30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603 Section...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water...

2013-07-01

83

30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603 Section...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water...

2011-07-01

84

75 FR 48329 - Tribal Drinking Water Operator Certification Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AGENCY [FRL-9186-8] Tribal Drinking Water Operator Certification Program...details of EPA's voluntary Tribal Drinking Water Operator Certification Program...The program enables qualified drinking water operators at public water...

2010-08-10

85

30 CFR 71.602 - Drinking water; distribution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; distribution. 71.602 Section 71.602...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.602 Drinking water; distribution. (a) Water shall be...

2010-07-01

86

30 CFR 75.1718-1 - Drinking water; quality.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 75.1718-1 ...Miscellaneous § 75.1718-1 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water...minimum health requirements for drinking water established by the State or...

2010-07-01

87

30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603 Section...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water...

2010-07-01

88

The Drinking Water Treatability Database (Poster)  

EPA Science Inventory

Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) will provide data taken from the literature on the control of contaminants in drinking water, and will be housed on an interactive, publicly-available USEPA web site. It can be used for identifying effective treatment processes, recogni...

89

Monitoring of Microbes in Drinking Water  

EPA Science Inventory

Internationally there is a move towards managing the provision of safe drinking water by direct assessment of the performance of key pathogen barriers (critical control points), rather than end point testing (i.e. in drinking water). For fecal pathogens that breakthrough the vari...

90

Drinking Water: A Community Action Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While much of the drinking water in the United States is safe for consumption, protecting its quality and assuring its availability are becoming increasingly difficult. This booklet is written for individuals and groups who are concerned about the drinking water in their communities. It provides a general introduction to the complex issues of…

Boyd, Susan, Ed.; And Others

91

GENOTOXICITY STUDIES OF DRINKING WATER MIXTURES  

EPA Science Inventory

Investigations into the mutagenicity and mutational mechanisms of single chemicals within drinking water as well as of organic extracts of drinking water are being pursued using the Salmonella (Ames) mutagenicity assay as well as in human samples. For example, the semi-volatile ...

92

ARSENIC COMPLIANCE DATABASE FOR DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Resource Purpose: Section 1412(b)(12)(A) of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) (42 U.S.C. ? 300f-300j), as amended in 1996, required EPA to propose a National Primary Drinking Water Regulation for arsenic by January 1, 2000, and to issue a final regulation by January 1, 20...

93

New Website Provides Essential Drinking Water Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

he United States National Acad- emy of Sciences and the Global Health and Education Founda- tion, along with more than 125 science, engineering and medical academies around the world have joined forces to provide comprehensive and informative Web resources aimed at providing essen- tial information related to safe global drinking water. The website is titled Safe Drinking Water is Essential

Kelly A. Reynolds

2007-01-01

94

EPA List of Drinking Water Contaminants and MCLs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site contains listings of drinking water contaminants and the EPA regulatory limit for each contaminant. Tables include the national primary drinking water regulations, the national secondary drinking water regulations, and unregulated contaminants.

Agency, Us E.

95

THE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS OF DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

A number of chemical contaminants have been identified in drinking water. These contaminants reach drinking water supplies from various sources, including municipal and industrial discharges, urban and rural run-off, natural geological formations, drinking water distrib...

96

21 CFR 520.2325a - Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water. 520.2325a Section 520...520.2325a Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water. (a) Sponsor . See...Conditions of use. It is used in drinking water as follows: (1)...

2010-04-01

97

30 CFR 71.600 - Drinking water; general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; general. 71.600 Section 71.600 ...SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.600 Drinking water; general. An adequate supply of...

2010-07-01

98

9 CFR 3.115 - Food and drinking water requirements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Food and drinking water requirements. 3.115 Section...Standards § 3.115 Food and drinking water requirements. (a) Those marine mammals that require drinking water must be offered potable...

2010-01-01

99

Drinking Water in Schools and Child Care Facilities  

MedlinePLUS

... Schools & Child Care Facilities Drinking Water in Schools & Child Care Facilities This one-stop EPA site provides information about drinking water quality in schools and child care facilities. Ensuring drinking water quality at these facilities ...

100

OVERVIEW OF RADIONUCLIDES IN DRINKING WATER SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Invited presentation at the 2007 National Rural Water Association National Conference, Philadelphia, PA, September 23-26, 2007. The presentation reviews the chemistry of radium and uranium in drinking water sources, treatment options, and guidelines for disposal. Presentation giv...

101

Assessment of the Santa Margarita Sandstone as a source of drinking water for the Scotts Valley area, Santa Cruz County, California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Scotts Valley, Calif., is a rural residential area with a rapidly expanding population. Its mediterranean-type climate yields an average annual rainfall of 40 inches. The Santa Margarita Sandstone is the principal aquifer in the area, supplying about 90 percent of all water for domestic purposes. Sources of recharge for the Santa Margarita Sandstone are natural recharge, subsurface inflow from adjacent areas, artificial recharge, and deep penetration of excess irrigation water. Total domestic water use in 1979 was about 2,600 acre-feet. The quantity of ground water pumped for domestic use is expected to increase at a rate of 7 percent per year. Evapotranspiration, estimated to be about 29 inches per year, is the largest form of ground-water discharge. Ground water from the Santa Margarita Sandstone is generally suitable for domestic use. Potential for water-quality degradation exists from urban runoff, leachates from a solid-waste disposal site, and liquid wastes. Several agencies and individuals monitor surface-water and ground-water quality in the Scotts Valley area. Water from streams and the city of Santa Cruz are potential alternate sources of drinking water for the Scotts Valley area. (USGS)

Muir, K.S.

1981-01-01

102

Drinking Water Program 1992 annual report  

SciTech Connect

EG&G Idaho, Inc., initiated a monitoring program for drinking water in 1988 for the US Department of Energy at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. EG&G Idaho structured this monitoring program to ensure that they exceeded the minimum regulatory requirements for monitoring drinking water. This program involves tracking the bacteriological, chemical, and radiological parameters that are required for a {open_quotes}community water system{close_quotes} (maximum requirements). This annual report describes the drinking water monitoring activities conducted at the 17 EG&G Idaho operated production wells and 11 distribution systems. It also contains all of the drinking water parameters that were detected and the regulatory limits that were exceeded during 1992. In addition, ground water quality is discussed as it relates to contaminants identified at the wellhead for EG&G Idaho production wells.

Andersen, B.D.; Peterson-Wright, L.J.

1993-08-01

103

Investigation of Drinking Water Quality in Kosovo  

PubMed Central

In the recent years, not much environmental monitoring has been conducted in the territory of Kosovo. This study represents the first comprehensive monitoring of the drinking water situation throughout most of the territory of Kosovo. We present the distribution of major and minor trace elements in drinking water samples from Kosovo. During our study we collected 951 samples from four different sources: private-bored wells; naturally flowing artesian water; pumped-drilled wells; and public water sources (tap water). The randomly selected drinking water samples were investigated by routine water analyses using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) for 32 elements (Li, Be, B, Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Te, Ba, Tl, Pb, Bi, Th, U). Even though there are set guidelines for elemental exposure in drinking water worldwide, in developing countries, such as Kosovo, the lack of monitoring drinking water continues to be an important health concern. This study reports the concentrations of major and minor elements in the drinking water in Kosovo. Additionally, we show the variation of the metal concentration within different sources. Of the 15 regulated elements, the following five elements: Mn, Fe, Al, Ni, As, and U were the elements which most often exceeded the guidelines set by the EU and/or WHO. PMID:23509472

Berisha, Fatlume; Goessler, Walter

2013-01-01

104

Acid Precipitation and Drinking Water Supplies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three areas of concern about the effect of acid precipitation on drinking water supplies are evaluated— the increased levels of heavy metals in raw water, biological imbalances in water supplies, and increased corrosivity of delivered water. Although two thirds of the US water supplies are corrosive, the extent to which this corrosivity is related to acid precipitation is unknown. Shallow

John S. Reed; John C. Henningson

1984-01-01

105

Arsenic Occurrence in New Hampshire Drinking Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Chemical Society (ACS) provides online access to the article, Arsenic Occurrence in New Hampshire Drinking Water. The article reports that domestic wells rather than municipal wells in New Hampshire are more likely to contain ten times the recommended federal levels of arsenic for drinking water. This is a relevant finding since "arsenic in drinking water is linked to certain types of cancer in humans." The abstract can be viewed in HTML format, while the full-text article is available in both HTML and .pdf format.

106

Geochemical conditions and the occurrence of selected trace elements in groundwater basins used for public drinking-water supply, Desert and Basin and Range hydrogeologic provinces, 2006-11: California GAMA Priority Basin Project  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Arsenic (As), boron (B), fluoride (F), molybdenum (Mo), strontium (Sr), uranium (U), and vanadium (V) were selected for assessment in this study because they occurred at concentrations greater than California Department of Public Health or U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regulatory or non-regulatory drinking-water-quality benchmarks in more than 2 percent of the 223 samples collected in the DBR study unit. As and F were detected most commonly (18 and 13 percent, respectively) at concentrations above associated water-quality benchmarks and Sr and V least frequently (both at 3 percent). Given that 14C groundwater ages are predominantly >100 years BP, land use in the study unit is primarily undeveloped, and chemicals derived from anthropogenic sources,

Wright, Michael T.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

2015-01-01

107

Risk management for assuring safe drinking water.  

PubMed

Millions of people die every year around the world from diarrheal diseases much of which is caused by contaminated drinking water. By contrast, drinking water safety is largely taken for granted by many citizens of affluent nations. The ability to drink water that is delivered into households without fear of becoming ill may be one of the key defining characteristics of developed nations in relation to the majority of the world. Yet there is well-documented evidence that disease outbreaks remain a risk that could be better managed and prevented even in affluent nations. A detailed retrospective analysis of more than 70 case studies of disease outbreaks in 15 affluent nations over the past 30 years provides the basis for much of our discussion [Hrudey, S.E. and Hrudey, E.J. Safe Drinking Water--Lessons from Recent Outbreaks in Affluent Nations. London, UK: IWA Publishing; 2004.]. The insights provided can assist in developing a better understanding within the water industry of the causes of drinking water disease outbreaks, so that more effective preventive measures can be adopted by water systems that are vulnerable. This preventive feature lies at the core of risk management for the provision of safe drinking water. PMID:16839605

Hrudey, Steve E; Hrudey, Elizabeth J; Pollard, Simon J T

2006-12-01

108

DRINKING WATER ON EMPTY RINK WATER ON EMPTY STOMACHD  

E-print Network

DRINKING WATER ON EMPTY STOMACH RINK WATER ON EMPTY STOMACHD It is popular in Japan today to drink water immediately after waking up every morning. Furthermore, scientific tests have proven its value.. We publish below a description of use of water for our readers. For old and serious diseases as well

Srivastava, Kumar Vaibhav

109

Smart Water: Energy-Water Optimization in Drinking Water Systems  

EPA Science Inventory

This project aims to develop and commercialize a Smart Water Platform ? Sensor-based Data-driven Energy-Water Optimization technology in drinking water systems. The key technological advances rely on cross-platform data acquisition and management system, model-based real-time sys...

110

TRIHALOMETHANES IN DRINKING WATER AND SPONTANEOUS ABORTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

A limited number of epidemiological studies have evaluated the potential association between exposure to DBPs in drinking water and adverse reproductive outcomes. Reproductive effects that have been studied include, for example, spontaneous abortions, congenital defects, low birt...

111

Condition Assessment for Drinking Water Systems  

EPA Science Inventory

This project will enable a systematic approach to characterizing the value of condition assessment of drinking water mains that will provide the basis for better communication among, and decisions by, stakeholders regarding goals and priorities for research, development, and tech...

112

ALTERNATIVE DISINFECTANTS FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

During a one-year study at Jefferson Parish, Louisiana the chemical, microbiological, and mutagenic effects of using the major drinking water disinfectants (chlorine, chlorine dioxide, chloramine, ozone) were evaluated. ests were performed on samples collected from various treatm...

113

A WATERSHED APPROACH TO DRINKING WATER QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of this presentation is to describe emerging technologies and strategies managing watersheds with the goal of protecting drinking water sources. Included are discussions on decentralized wastewater treatment, whole organism biomonitor detection systems, treatment of...

114

Drinking Water Plant Lecture-Demonstration.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a simple way to demonstrate the principles involved in a drinking water plant. This demonstration developed for a general public lecture can be used in chemistry and biology courses for an ecological and environmental emphasis. (HM)

Vestling, Martha M.

1977-01-01

115

MONITORING TRICHLOROACETIC ACID IN MUNICIPAL DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Scientific interest has recently focused on the hydrophobic halogenated byproducts of drinking water disinfection with chlorine, principally chloroform and its sister trihalomethanes (THMs). There is, however, a growing body of literature indicating that THM formation cannot acco...

116

Drinking Water: Health Hazards Still Not Resolved  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the suggested link between cancer deaths and drinking obtained from the Mississippi River, New Orleans still treats its water supply in the same manner as before the Environmental Defense Fund's epidemiological study. (BT)

Wade, Nicholas

1977-01-01

117

The epidemiology of chemical contaminants of drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of chemical contaminants have been identified in drinking water. These contaminants reach drinking water supplies from various sources, including municipal and industrial discharges, urban and rural run-off, natural geological formations, drinking water distribution materials and the drinking water treatment process. Chemical contaminants for which epidemiologic studies have reported associations include the following: aluminium, arsenic, disinfection by-products, fluoride, lead,

R. L. Calderon

2000-01-01

118

Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE): Drinking Water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

MTBE, a gasoline oxygenater additive, has been detected in ground water sources throughout different parts of the country. These ground water sources are often the source of drinking water, and the presence of methyl tertiary butyl ether in even minute quantities can make the water undrinkable. Research to date has not conclusively identified any quantitative level at which serious health risks may occur. This site provides information on behalf of the Environmental Protection Agency on the concerns and occurence of MTBE in drinking water.

119

The Drinking Water Disparities Framework: On the Origins and Persistence of Inequities in Exposure  

PubMed Central

With this article, we develop the Drinking Water Disparities Framework to explain environmental injustice in the context of drinking water in the United States. The framework builds on the social epidemiology and environmental justice literatures, and is populated with 5 years of field data (2005–2010) from California’s San Joaquin Valley. We trace the mechanisms through which natural, built, and sociopolitical factors work through state, county, community, and household actors to constrain access to safe water and to financial resources for communities. These constraints and regulatory failures produce social disparities in exposure to drinking water contaminants. Water system and household coping capacities lead, at best, to partial protection against exposure. This composite burden explains the origins and persistence of social disparities in exposure to drinking water contaminants. PMID:24524500

Balazs, Carolina L.; Ray, Isha

2014-01-01

120

DETERIORATION OF DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

A frequently overlooked fact, but one that is becoming of increasing concern, is the effect that the drinking water delivery system can have on the quality of water received at the tap. Deterioration of aging water supply systems can result in pipeline failures, pressure losses, ...

121

INVESTIGATION OF 'LEGIONELLA PNEUMOPHILA' IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

An investigation of Legionella pneumophila in drinking water systems and home plumbing appurtenances was done. In Phase 1, 68 water samples were collected from kitchen sink faucets in homes on 17 community water systems. No. L. pneumophila organisms were isolated. In Phase 1A, th...

122

75 FR 54871 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AGENCY [FRL-9198-8] National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready...Working Group of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC). The...Agency, Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, Water Security Division...

2010-09-09

123

75 FR 20352 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AGENCY [FRL-9139-3] National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready...Working Group of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC). The...Agency, Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, Water Security Division...

2010-04-19

124

75 FR 35458 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AGENCY [FRL-9165-6] National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready...Working Group of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC). The...Agency, Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, Water Security Division...

2010-06-22

125

75 FR 1380 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready Water Utilities Working Group Meeting...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AGENCY [FRL-9101-9] National Drinking Water Advisory Council's Climate Ready...Working Group of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC). The...Agency, Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, Water Security Division...

2010-01-11

126

Perceived agricultural runoff impact on drinking water.  

PubMed

Agricultural runoff into surface water is a problem in Australia, as it is in arguably all agriculturally active countries. While farm practices and resource management measures are employed to reduce downstream effects, they are often either technically insufficient or practically unsustainable. Therefore, consumers may still be exposed to agrichemicals whenever they turn on the tap. For rural residents surrounded by agriculture, the link between agriculture and water quality is easy to make and thus informed decisions about water consumption are possible. Urban residents, however, are removed from agricultural activity and indeed drinking water sources. Urban and rural residents were interviewed to identify perceptions of agriculture's impact on drinking water. Rural residents thought agriculture could impact their water quality and, in many cases, actively avoided it, often preferring tank to surface water sources. Urban residents generally did not perceive agriculture to pose health risks to their drinking water. Although there are more agricultural contaminants recognised in the latest Australian Drinking Water Guidelines than previously, we argue this is insufficient to enhance consumer protection. Health authorities may better serve the public by improving their proactivity and providing communities and water utilities with the capacity to effectively monitor and address agricultural runoff. PMID:25252352

Crampton, Andrea; Ragusa, Angela T

2014-09-01

127

Quantitative risk assessment of drinking water contaminants  

SciTech Connect

The development of criteria and standards for the regulation of drinking water contaminants involves a variety of processes, one of which is risk estimation. This estimation process, called quantitative risk assessment, involves combining data on the occurrence of the contaminant in drinking water and its toxicity. The human exposure to a contaminant can be estimated from occurrence data. Usually the toxicity or number of health effects per concentration level is estimated from animal bioassay studies using the multistage model. For comparison, other models will be used including the Weibull, probit, logit and quadratic ones. Because exposure and toxicity data are generally incomplete, assumptions need to be made and this generally results in a wide range of certainty in the estimates. This range can be as wide as four to six orders of magnitude in the case of the volatile organic compounds in drinking water and a factor of four to five for estimation of risk due to radionuclides in drinking water. As examples of the differences encountered in risk assessment of drinking water contaminants, discussions are presented on benzene, lead, radon and alachlor. The lifetime population risk estimates for these contaminants are, respectively, in the ranges of: <1 - 3000, <1 - 8000, 2000-40,000 and <1 - 80. 11 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

Cothern, C.R.; Coniglio, W.A.; Marcus, W.L.

1986-01-01

128

ETV REPORT - PHYSICAL REMOVAL OF MICROBIOLOGICAL, PARTICULATE AND ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER - ZENON ENHANCED COAGULATION ZEEWEED ULTRAFILTRATION MEMBRANE SYSTEM AT ESCONDIDO, CALIFORNIA: NSF00/02/EPADW395  

EPA Science Inventory

NSF Int in cooperation with EPA operates the Package Drinking Water Treatment Systems program, one of 12 technology areas under ETV. The performance of an enhanced coagulation membrane filtration systems used in package drinking water treatment system applications was recently ev...

129

Biofilm accumulation in drinking water distribution systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to classify the relative importance of the parameters governing the accumulation of biofilm in drinking water distribution systems, a study has been carried out, using an industrial pilot plant fed with finished waters, with three main objectives, viz. (i) determination of biofilm density on pipe surfaces (PVC or cement lined cast iron) as a function of the distance

J. C. Block; K. Haudidier; J. L. Paquin; J. Miazga; Y. Levi

1993-01-01

130

Uses of ozone in drinking water treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ozone has been used continuously for the treatment of drinking water since 1906, when it was first installed in the city of Nice, France, for disinfection purposes. Although many water treatment plants throughout the world still utilize ozone primarily for disinfection, most modern plants rely on ozone to perform one or more oxidation functions. Applications for ozonation now include oxidation

Rip G. Rice; C. Michael Robson; G. Wade Miller; Archibald G. Hill

1981-01-01

131

EPA?s Drinking Water Treatment Research  

EPA Science Inventory

Riverbank filtration has been utilized for decades as a pretreatment for waters that will be used for drinking water. A study investigating the occurrence and potential for removal of suspected endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) during riverbank filtration at a municipal well...

132

MEMBRANES FOR REMOVING ORGANICS FROM DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Membranes have historically been used to remove salts and other inorganic compounds from water but recently both bench-scale and field studies have shown their effectiveness for removing organic compounds from drinking water. wo different membrane types have been evaluated by the...

133

SAFE DRINKING WATER INFORMATION SYSTEM (STATE)  

EPA Science Inventory

Resource Purpose: The Safe Drinking Water Information System (STATE) (SDWIS/STATE) is an information system OGWDW is developing for states and EPA regions to manage their water industry. SDWIS/STATE is not an information system for which EPA HQ is using to store or retrie...

134

A Drop to Drink. . .A Report on the Quality of Our Drinking Water.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Basic information about the quality of our nation's drinking water is contained in this brochure. Written for the general public to familiarize them with the situation, it will also help them evaluate the state of the nation's drinking water as well as that of their own communities. The need to assure reliable sources of healthful drinking water

Tait, Jack

135

Drinking Water Standards Drinking water from a local public supply must  

E-print Network

of raw sewage and other pollutants into surface waters used for drinking, ice supply, and other domestic other important acts expanded water quality protection. The Montana Water Pollution Control Act of 1955, and control of water pollution. With this landmark legislation, Montana's concept of water quality expanded

Dyer, Bill

136

Set Pair Analysis for Rural Drinking Water Quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large number of uncertain problems existing in rural drinking water safety system, it is of great significances to apply Set Pair Analysis (SPA) theory to analyze and study these uncertain problems in rural drinking water safety system. This study applies SPA theory to conduct an integrated evaluation of water quality to rural drinking water safety in Ya'an City, based

Ni Fuquan; Liu Guo-dong; Gao Yang-yang; Xu Li-ping; Fu Cheng-wei

2010-01-01

137

Decision support system for drinking water management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problems in drinking water management are complex and often solutions must be reached under strict time constrains. This is especially distinct in case of environmental accidents in the catchment areas of the wells that are used for drinking water supply. The beneficial tools that can help decision makers and make program of activities more efficient are decision support systems (DSS). In general they are defined as computer-based support systems that help decision makers utilize data and models to solve unstructured problems. The presented DSS was developed in the frame of INCOME project which is focused on the long-term stable and safe drinking water supply in Ljubljana. The two main water resources Ljubljana polje and Barje alluvial aquifers are characterized by a strong interconnection of surface and groundwater, high vulnerability, high velocities of groundwater flow and pollutant transport. In case of sudden pollution, reactions should be very fast to avoid serious impact to the water supply. In the area high pressures arising from urbanization, industry, traffic, agriculture and old environmental burdens. The aim of the developed DSS is to optimize the activities in cases of emergency water management and to optimize the administrative work regarding the activities that can improve groundwater quality status. The DSS is an interactive computer system that utilizes data base, hydrological modelling, and experts' and stakeholders' knowledge. It consists of three components, tackling the different abovementioned issues in water management. The first one utilizes the work on identification, cleaning up and restoration of illegal dumpsites that are a serious threat to the qualitative status of groundwater. The other two components utilize the predictive capability of the hydrological model and scenario analysis. The user interacts with the system by a graphical interface that guides the user step-by-step to the recommended remedial measures. Consequently, the acquisition of information to support the water management's decisions is simplified and faster, thus contributing to more efficient water management and a safer supply of drinking water.

Janža, M.

2012-04-01

138

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR CHLORAMINES  

EPA Science Inventory

Critical to establishing a regulatory strategy for drinking water is identifying those contaminants which pose the greatest risk to human health and consequently, what treatments could be developed to address those risks and at what cost. The National Center for Environmental Ass...

139

Renal Effects of Uranium in Drinking Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

statistically significantly associated with calcium fractional excretion, but not with phosphate or glucose excretion. Uranium exposure was not associated with creatinine clearance or urinary albu- min, which reflect glomerular function. In conclusion, uranium exposure is weakly associated with altered proximal tubulus function without a clear threshold, which suggests that even low uranium concentrations in drinking water can cause nephrotoxic effects.

Päivi Kurttio; Anssi Auvinen; Laina Salonen; Heikki Saha; Juha Pekkanen; Ilona Mäkeläinen; Sari B. Väisänen; Ilkka M. Penttilä; Hannu Komulainen

2002-01-01

140

Emerging Contaminants in the Drinking Water Cycle.  

EPA Science Inventory

In the past decade, the scientific community and general public have become increasingly aware of the potential for the presence of unregulated, and generally unmonitored contaminants, found at low concentrations (sub-¿g/L) in surface, ground and drinking water. The most common...

141

Emerging Contaminants in the Drinking Water Cycle  

EPA Science Inventory

In the past decade, the scientific community and general public have become increasingly aware of the potential for the presence of unregulated, and generally unmonitored contaminants, found at low concentrations (sub-µg/L) in surface, ground and drinking water. The most common...

142

CONTROL OF ZOONOTIC DISEASES IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

For over a century, the process of providing hygienically safe drinking water has focused on utilizing treatment processes to provide barriers to the passage of infectious disease-causing organisms to humans. This concept is often considered the cornerstone of sanitary engineerin...

143

CHLORINE DIOXIDE FOR DRINKING WATER RESEARCH DIVISION  

EPA Science Inventory

In order to comply with the trihalomethane regulation, many drinking water utilities have had to alter their treatment methods. ne option available to these utilities is to use a disinfectant other than chlorine such as chlorine dioxide. ith chlorine dioxide disinfection, trihalo...

144

DRINKING WATER FROM AGRICULTURALLY CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Sharp increases in fertilizer and pesticide use throughout the 1960s and 1970s along with generally less attachment to soil particles may result in more widespread contamination of drinking water supplies. he purpose of this study was to highlight the use of agricultural chemical...

145

DEFLUORIDATION OF DRINKING WATER IN SMALL COMMUNITIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The report discusses the results of a study of defluoridation of drinking water in small communities using either central or point-of-use treatment. The ten sites used for project data collection had natural fluoride in their groundwater supplies in excess of the Maximum Contamin...

146

Drinking Water. The Food Guide Pyramid.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet for young children is part of a series that supports national science standards related to physical health and nutrition, describing and illustrating the importance of drinking water. Colorful photographs support early readers in understanding the text. The repetition of words and phrases helps early readers learn new words. The book…

Frost, Helen

147

Lead in the School's Drinking Water.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this manual is to assist school officials by providing information on the effects of lead in school drinking water on children, how to detect the presence of lead, how to reduce the lead, and how to provide training for sampling and remedial programs. A protocol is provided for procedures to determine the location and source of lead…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

148

DRINKING WATER SUPPLY MANAGEMENT: AN INTERACTIVE APPROACH  

EPA Science Inventory

In February 1977, a massive discharge of carbon tetrachloride into the Kanawha River in West Virginia threatened much of the Ohio River Valley with contaminated drinking water potentially affecting over one million consumers. The episode heightened the awareness of consumers and ...

149

TREATABILITY DATABASE FOR DRINKING WATER CHEMICALS (CCL)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Treatability Data Base will assemble referenced data on the control of contaminants in drinking water. It will be an interactive data base, housed in an EPA, web-accessible site. It may be used for many purposes, including: identifying an effective treatment process or a se...

150

Aeromonas sobria in chlorinated drinking water supplies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aeromonas species were recovered from over 27% of 183 chlorinated drinking water samples collected during an 18-month period. Sixteen of 20 isolates tested elicited a cytotoxic response by Y-1 mouse adrenal cells. None of the strains was either enterotoxigenic by the rabbit ligated ileal loop assay, exhibited piliation, or showed significant mannose resistant adherence to human buccal cells. TheAeromonas isolates

M. W. LeChevallier; T. M. Evans; R. J. Seidler; O. P. Daily; B. R. Merrell; D. M. Rollins; S. W. Joseph

1982-01-01

151

An Environmental Assessment of United States Drinking Water Watersheds  

EPA Science Inventory

There is an emerging recognition that natural lands and their conservation are important elements of a sustainable drinking water infrastructure. We conducted a national, watershed-level environmental assessment of drinking water watersheds using data on land cover, hydrography a...

152

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR PENTACHLOROPHENOL (FINAL DRAFT)  

EPA Science Inventory

The Office of Drinking Water (ODW), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has prepared a Drinking Water Criteria Document on pentachlorophenol. The Criteria Document is an extensive review of the following topics: Physical and chemical properties of pentachlorophenol, Toxicokineti...

153

21 CFR 520.2240a - Sulfaethoxypyridazine drinking water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sulfaethoxypyridazine drinking water. 520.2240a Section 520.2240a Food and Drugs...ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.2240a Sulfaethoxypyridazine drinking water. (a) Chemical name. N...

2010-04-01

154

Basic Information about Mercury (inorganic) in Drinking Water  

MedlinePLUS

... MCL over many years could experience kidney damage. Drinking Water Health Advisories provide more information on health effects ... 396 K, About PDF ) EPA regulates mercury in drinking water to protect public health. Mercury may cause health ...

155

RESPONDING TO THREATS AND INCIDENTS OF INTENTIONAL DRINKING WATER CONTAMINATION  

EPA Science Inventory

All drinking water systems have some degree of vulnerability to contamination, and analysis shows that it is possible to contaminate drinking water at levels causing varying degrees of harm. Furthermore, experience indicates that the threat of contamination, overt or circumstant...

156

ENDOTOXINS, ALGAE AND 'LIMULUS' AMOEBOCYTE LYSATE TEST IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Field and laboratory studies were conducted to determine the distribution of algae and bacteria, and investigate sources of endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides) in drinking water. The field survey was performed on five drinking water systems located in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania ...

157

Field Monitoring of Chrysotile Asbestos in California Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent of asbestos contamination in sources of drinking water in the state of California is being monitored. Preliminary results show substantial fiber concentrations in surface waters whose watersheds include serpentine rock. These concentrations exhibit seasonal variations, with the largest concentrations occurring during or just following heavy rains in the watershed. Some of the concentrations were the highest measured anywhere

Steven B. Hayward

1984-01-01

158

CASE FOR DRINKING WATER SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The purpose of the study was to present a tool useful to water utilities that not only could analyze historical distribution system reliability data, but also provide a flexible and expandable mechanism for record-keeping enabling overall management of water work's facilities and...

159

Achieving Biologically Stable Drinking Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biologically stable water does not promote the growth of microorganisms during its distribution. This article combines microbiological theory and European practice to demonstrate how biological processes within a water treatment plant can remove the organic and inorganic substrates that cause or contribute to biological instability. Theory and practice indicate that ammonium and manganese ions and biodegradable organic compounds can be

Bruce E. Rittmann; Vernon L. Snoeyink

1984-01-01

160

Brookhaven National Laboratory Source Water Assessment for Drinking Water  

E-print Network

areas for each water supply well were identified using the BNL Regional Groundwater Model. The extent and anticipated future operational demands. Because BNL's water supply is drawn from the shallow Upper GlacialBNL 52608 Brookhaven National Laboratory Source Water Assessment for Drinking Water Supply Wells

161

Combating An Odorless, Tasteless, Unseen Problem in Nebraska Drinking Water  

E-print Network

with the specter of arsenic contamination in their drinking water. For more than 60 years, the maximum allowable limit for arsenic in public drinking water supplies has been 50 parts per billion (ppb) and most public.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) may have underestimated the cancer risks of arsenic in drinking water

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

162

Toxicological relevance of emerging contaminants for drinking water quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

The detection of many new compounds in surface water, groundwater and drinking water raises considerable public concern, especially when human health based guideline values are not available it is questioned if detected concentrations affect human health. In an attempt to address this question, we derived provisional drinking water guideline values for a selection of 50 emerging contaminants relevant for drinking

Merijn Schriks; Minne B. Heringa; Margaretha M. E. van der Kooi; Pim de Voogt; Annemarie P. van Wezel

2010-01-01

163

Safe Drinking Water Policy for Canada - Turning Hindsight into Foresight  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much of Canada lags international leaders in adopting management systems for assuring safe drinking water. Despite some clear progress in individual provinces, Canada, and small communities in particular, need a system that better promotes and rewards competence among drinking water providers. In much of the developed, industrialized world, including most of urbanized Canada, public drinking water poses a negligible health

Steve E. Hrudey

2011-01-01

164

Recommended combat drinking water standards for organophosphorus nerve agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents may be used on an integrated battlefield and US Army preventive medicine and quartermaster personnel are required to ensure the safety of drinking water supplies in such combat situations. We developed improved drinking water standards for OP nerve agents, recommending interim drinking water standards for OP nerve agents for consumption rates of 5 and 15 L\\/d

J. I. Daniels; S. A. Schaub

1989-01-01

165

Amending the Safe Drinking Water Act: View from Congress  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1986, the last time Congress amended the Safe Drinking Water Act, the legislative process was a model of cooperative progress. Across the nation, the message is clear: Safe drinking water can no longer be taken for granted. Polls show that drinking water safety is a growing public concern, with one industry survey showing that more than 80 percent of

2009-01-01

166

DRINKING WATER AND LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE  

EPA Science Inventory

Pneumonia outbreaks caused by Legionella species recently have been epidemiologically linked to potable water distribution systems in hospitals and hotels. Showerheads were confirmed as the immediate source of the Legionella in many of the outbreaks, however, the organism also wa...

167

Drinking water health advisory for boron  

SciTech Connect

The Health Advisory Program, sponsored by the Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Water, has issued its report on the element boron: included are the compounds boric acid and borax(sodium tetraborate). It provides information on the health effects, analytical methodology, and treatment technology that would be useful in dealing with the contamination of drinking water. Health Advisories (HAs) describe nonregulatory concentrations of drinking water contaminants at which adverse health effects would not be anticipated to occur over specific exposure durations. HAs serve as informal technical guidance to assist Federal, State, and local officials responsible for protecting public health when emergency spills or contamination situations occur. They are not legally enforceable Federal Standards and are subject to change as new information becomes available.

Cantilli, R.

1991-04-01

168

SMALL DRINKING WATER SYSTEMS RESEARCH  

EPA Science Inventory

There are 159,796 Community Water Systems (CWSs) in the United States. Ninety-three percent of CWSs are considered very small to medium-sized systems that serve roughly 19% of the CWS population. In contrast, large to very large systems comprise just 7% of CWSs, but serve 81% of ...

169

Drinking-water safety: challenges for community-managed systems.  

PubMed

A targeted review of documented waterborne disease outbreaks over the past decades reveals some recurring themes that should be understood by drinking-water suppliers. Evidence indicates the outbreaks are often linked to some significant change in conditions that provides a sudden challenge to a water system. Severe weather events, such as heavy rainfall or runoff from snow melt, as well as treatment process and system changes, are common risk factors for drinking-water outbreaks. Failure to recognise warning signs and complacency are important contributors to drinking water becoming unsafe. Drinking-water suppliers must focus on competence and vigilance in maintaining effective multiple barriers appropriate to the challenges facing the drinking-water system. Understanding the risk factors and failure modes of waterborne disease outbreaks is an essential component for effective management of community drinking-water supplies and ensuring the delivery of safe drinking-water to consumers. PMID:18401127

Rizak, S; Hrudey, Steve E

2008-01-01

170

TOXICITY OF CHLORINE DIOXIDE IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is currently being considered as an alternate to chlorine as a disinfectant for public water supplies. Studies were conducted to determine the toxicity of ClO2 (0, 1, 10, 100, 1000 mg/L) and its metabolites, ClO2(-1) and ClO3(-1) (10, 100 mg/L) in drinking...

171

Comparation Between Drinking Water Quality Of Point-Of-Use (POU) Treated Water And Tap Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are a number of methods available to improve or enhance drinking water quality. People work very hard to improve treatments like purification and disinfections to get perfect product-drink safe for health and necessary for life called simply water. POU (Point Of Use) filters are used one or few technologies whose produced pure water in one object for drinking and

Gligorijevic Snezana; Nikolic Maj; Kocic Biljana

172

ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT FOR THE ANALYSIS OF N-NITROSODIMETHYLAMINE (NDMA) IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), a by-product of the manufacture of liquid rocket fuel, has recently been identified as a contaminant in several California drinking water sources. The initial source of the contamination was identified as an aerospace facility. Subsequent testing ...

173

Water, Water Everywhere, But is it Safe to Drink?  

EPA Science Inventory

Drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs) have been associated with adverse human health effects, including bladder cancer, early term miscarriage, and birth defects. While it is vitally important to kill harmful pathogens in water, it is also important to minimize harmful ...

174

WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN A DRINKING WATER RESERVOIR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake Rockwell provides drinking water to Akron, Ohio. Algae and macrophytes cause increased treatment costs, user complaints, and concerns about water quality standards. The reservoir is very eutrophic. A diagnostic study performed in the laboratory with intact cores taken from littoral and anoxic sediments determined that oxic and anoxic sediments have a very high potential for phosphorus release. Only 19

G. Dennis Cooke; Robert E. Carlson

1986-01-01

175

Ammonia pollution characteristics of centralized drinking water sources in China.  

PubMed

The characteristics of ammonia in drinking water sources in China were evaluated during 2005-2009. The spatial distribution and seasonal changes of ammonia in different types of drinking water sources of 22 provinces, 5 autonomous regions and 4 municipalities were investigated. The levels of ammonia in drinking water sources follow the order of river > lake/reservoir > groundwater. The levels of ammonia concentration in river sources gradually decreased from 2005 to 2008, while no obvious change was observed in the lakes/reservoirs and groundwater drinking water sources. The proportion of the type of drinking water sources is different in different regions. In river drinking water sources, the ammonia level was varied in different regions and changed seasonally. The highest value and wide range of annual ammonia was found in South East region, while the lowest value was found in Southwest region. In lake/reservoir drinking water sources, the ammonia levels were not varied obviously in different regions. In underground drinking water sources, the ammonia levels were varied obviously in different regions due to the geological permeability and the natural features of regions. In the drinking water sources with higher ammonia levels, there are enterprises and wastewater drainages in the protected areas of the drinking water sources. PMID:23520842

Fu, Qing; Zheng, Binghui; Zhao, Xingru; Wang, Lijing; Liu, Changming

2012-01-01

176

Contaminants in the Glacial Aquifer Drinking Water System  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Approximately one-sixth of the United States population, or 41 million people, relied on the glacial aquifer system for drinking water in 2005. However, untreated water from one in five drinking water wells in this aquifer, sampled as part of the USGS National Water Quality Assessment Program, excee...

177

ATRAZOME CHLORINATION TRANSFORMATION PRODUCTS UNDER DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONDITIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

Chlorination is a commonly-used disinfectant step in drinking water treatment. Should free chlorine be added to water used as a drinking water source, it is widely understood that many biological species in the water, along with dissolved organic and inorganic chemicals, will rea...

178

Genotoxicity of drinking water from Chao Lake  

SciTech Connect

Genotoxic activity appears to originate primarily from reactions of chlorine with humic substances in the source waters. Comparisons of extracts of settled versus chlorinated water have confirmed that chlorinating during water treatment produces mutagenic activity in the mutagenicity tests. Present work on XAD-2 extracts of raw, chlorinated (treated), and settled water from the Chao Lake region of China has involved a battery of mutagenicity assays for various genetic endpoints: the Salmonella test, the sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) induction in Chinese hamster lung (CHL) cells, and the micronucleus (MN) induction in the peripheral blood erythrocytes of silver carp. Extracts of raw and treated water but not the settled water are mutagenic in the Salmonella assay. On the other hand, extracts of three water samples show activity in the SCE and MN assays, especially the raw and treated water. These data show that contamination and chlorinating contribute mutagens to drinking water and suggest that the mammalian assays may be more sensitive for detecting mutagenicity in aquatic environment than the Salmonella test.

Liu, Q.; Jiao, Q.C. [Nanjing Univ. (China). Dept. of Biological Science and Technology] [Nanjing Univ. (China). Dept. of Biological Science and Technology; Huang, X.M.; Jiang, J.P.; Cui, S.Q.; Yao, G.H.; Jiang, Z.R.; Zhao, H.K.; Wang, N.Y. [Anhui Antiepidemic Station, Hefei (China)] [Anhui Antiepidemic Station, Hefei (China)

1999-02-01

179

DRINKING WATER AND CANCER INCIDENCE IN IOWA. 2. RADIOACTIVITY IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper presents a logical epidemiologic exploration into possible associations between exposures to radium-226 in drinking water and incidence rates for cancers of the bladder, breast, colon, lung, prostate, and rectum. The most striking finding is the increasing gradient of ...

180

CALIFORNIA WATER VIRTUAL TOUR Suggested Further Reading  

E-print Network

. Regional Reports Volume 3. California Water Plan Update. Bulletin 16009 State of California, DepartmentCALIFORNIA WATER VIRTUAL TOUR Suggested Further Reading Water Law ­ Virginia Cahill Norris Hundley, Jr., The Great Thirst, Californians and Water: A History, University of California Press

Pasternack, Gregory B.

181

Water drinking as a treatment for orthostatic syndromes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

PURPOSE: Water drinking increases blood pressure in a substantial proportion of patients who have severe orthostatic hypotension due to autonomic failure. We tested the hypothesis that water drinking can be used as a practical treatment for patients with orthostatic and postprandial hypotension, as well as those with orthostatic tachycardia. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We studied the effect of drinking water on seated and standing blood pressure and heart rate in 11 patients who had severe orthostatic hypotension due to autonomic failure and in 9 patients who had orthostatic tachycardia due to idiopathic orthostatic intolerance. We also tested the effect of water drinking on postprandial hypotension in 7 patients who had autonomic failure. Patients drank 480 mL of tap water at room temperature in less than 5 minutes. RESULTS: In patients with autonomic failure, mean (+/- SD) blood pressure after 1 minute of standing was 83 +/- 6/53 +/- 3.4 mm Hg at baseline, which increased to 114 +/- 30/66 +/- 18 mm Hg (P <0.01) 35 minutes after drinking. After a meal, blood pressure decreased by 43 +/- 36/20 +/- 13 mm Hg without water drinking, compared with 22 +/- 10/12 +/- 5 mm Hg with drinking (P <0.001). In patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance, water drinking attenuated orthostatic tachycardia (123 +/- 23 beats per minute) at baseline to 108 +/- 21 beats per minute after water drinking ( P <0.001). CONCLUSION: Water drinking elicits a rapid pressor response in patients with autonomic failure and can be used to treat orthostatic and postprandial hypotension. Water drinking moderately reduces orthostatic tachycardia in patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance. Thus, water drinking may serve as an adjunctive treatment in patients with impaired orthostatic tolerance.

Shannon, John R.; Diedrich, Andre; Biaggioni, Italo; Tank, Jens; Robertson, Rose Marie; Robertson, David; Jordan, Jens

2002-01-01

182

Heavy metals in drinking water and human health, Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This study seeks to find out if chronic exposure via drinking water to high doses of a mixture of metals found as contaminants in tap and bottled water sources can alter the systemic physiology of residents. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A case control study was designed, 18 subjects drinking mainly tap water as main group (group I) and 15 subjects

Eman A. E. Badr; Asmaa A. E. Agrama; Safaa A. E. Badr

2011-01-01

183

Melioidosis Caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei in Drinking Water, Thailand, 2012  

PubMed Central

We identified 10 patients in Thailand with culture-confirmed melioidosis who had Burkholderia pseudomallei isolated from their drinking water. The multilocus sequence type of B. pseudomallei from clinical specimens and water samples were identical for 2 patients. This finding suggests that drinking water is a preventable source of B. pseudomallei infection. PMID:24447771

Wongsuvan, Gumphol; Aanensen, David; Ngamwilai, Sujittra; Saiprom, Natnaree; Rongkard, Patpong; Thaipadungpanit, Janjira; Kanoksil, Manas; Chantratita, Narisara; Day, Nicholas P.J.; Peacock, Sharon J.

2014-01-01

184

Unsealed tubewells lead to increased fecal contamination of drinking water  

E-print Network

Unsealed tubewells lead to increased fecal contamination of drinking water Peter S. K. Knappett ABSTRACT Bangladesh is underlain by shallow aquifers in which millions of drinking water wells are emplaced the impact of well construction on microbial water quality 35 private tubewells (11 with intact cement

van Geen, Alexander

185

DETERMINATION OF NINE HALOACETIC ACIDS IN FINISHED DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Whenever natural water or humic substances are chlorinated significant concentrations of haloacetic acids (HAAS) are produced. he presence of HAAs in drinking water are suspected to have an adverse health effect on humans. o control HAAs in drinking water, analytical techniques s...

186

ADVANCES IN DRINKING WATER TREATMENT IN THE UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

The United States drinking water public health protection goal is to provide water that meets all health-based standards to ninety-five percent of the population served by public drinking water supplies by 2005. In 2002, the level of compliance with some eighty-five health-based ...

187

The Safe Drinking Water Act First 180 Days  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Safe Drinking Water Act protects our drinking and ground water resources. The Water Advisory Council interprets and implements the law. Implementation principles include high priorities for public health, cost considerations, state and local participation, environmental impact, decentralized decision making, and use of federal and state…

Lehr, Jay H.

1975-01-01

188

Visions of the Future in Drinking Water Microbiology.  

EPA Science Inventory

Drinking water microbiology will have a tremendous impact on defining a safe drinking water in the future. There will be breakthroughs in realtime testing of process waters for pathogen surrogates with results made available within 1 hour for application to treatment adjustments ...

189

The Next Generation of Drinking Water Disinfection By-Products  

EPA Science Inventory

The disinfection of drinking water has been rightly hailed as a public health triumph of the 20th century. Millions of people worldwide receive quality drinking water every day from their public water systems. However, chemical disinfection has also produced an unintended healt...

190

76 FR 7762 - Drinking Water: Regulatory Determination on Perchlorate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRL-9262-8] RIN 2040-AF08 Drinking Water: Regulatory Determination on Perchlorate...perchlorate in accordance with the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). Specifically, EPA has determined...likelihood that perchlorate will occur in public water systems with a frequency and at...

2011-02-11

191

Benefits of Safer Drinking Water: The Value of Nitrate Reduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrates in drinking water, which may come from nitrogen fertilizers applied to crops, are a potential health risk. This report evaluates the potential benefits of reducing human exposure to nitrates in the drinking water supply. In a survey, respondents were asked a series of questions about their willingness to pay for a hypothetical water filter, which would reduce their risk

Stephen R. Crutchfield; Joseph C. Cooper; Daniel Hellerstein

1997-01-01

192

REMOTE MONITORING OF WATER QUALITY IN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Water is a precious natural resource that Americans enjoy with little thought to contamination or potential tampering. However, the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001, and ensuing threats have increased awareness of the potential for contamination of the nation's drinking w...

193

TREATMENT OF DRINKING WATER CONTAINING TRICHLOROETHYLENE AND RELATED INDUSTRIAL SOLVENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Volatile chlorinated and non-chlorinated compounds occur in both untreated and treated drinking water. Because volatilization is restricted, ground waters rather than surface waters are more likely to have high concentrations of these compounds. This document reviews properties, ...

194

TREATMENT OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Volatile chlorinated and non-chlorinated compounds occur in both untreated and treated drinking water. Because volatilization is restricted, ground waters rather than surface waters are more likely to have high concentrations of these compounds. This document reviews properties, ...

195

9 CFR 3.115 - Food and drinking water requirements.  

...Treatment, and Transportation of Marine Mammals Transportation Standards § 3.115...water requirements. (a) Those marine mammals that require drinking water must be...enclosure for transport in commerce. Marine mammals must be provided water as often...

2014-01-01

196

LOW-LEVEL EMERGING CONTAMINANTS IN LAKE HAVASU, ARIZONA AND CALIFORNIA AND THEIR ACCESS TO LAKE HAVASU CITY'S DRINKING WATER SUPPLY  

EPA Science Inventory

In preparation of a wastewater effluent re-charge and recovery program, involving alluvial fan sediments, the City of Lake Havasu initiated a survey to evaluate possible waterborne sources of emerging contaminants in the water/wastewater distribution cycle. This distribution cyc...

197

75 FR 53267 - National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule; Extension of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RIN 2040-AD94 National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the...for a proposed National Primary Drinking Water Regulation, the Revisions to...Conley, Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water (MC 4607M), U.S....

2010-08-31

198

CALIFORNIA DROUGHT State of California The Resources Agency California Department of Water Resources  

E-print Network

CALIFORNIA DROUGHT AN UPDATE 2008 State of California · The Resources Agency · California Department of Water Resources #12;CALIFORNIA DROUGHT, AN UPDATE April 2008 DEPARTME NT OF WATER R ESOURCES ST for Resources The Resources Agency Lester A. Snow Director Department of Water Resources #12;CALIFORNIA DROUGHT

199

Arsenic occurrence in New Hampshire drinking water  

SciTech Connect

Arsenic concentrations were measured in 992 drinking water samples collected from New Hampshire households using online hydride generation ICP-MS. These randomly selected household water samples contain much less arsenic than those voluntarily submitted for analysis to the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES). Extrapolation of the voluntarily submitted sample set to all New Hampshire residents significantly overestimates arsenic exposure. In randomly selected households, concentrations ranged from <0.0003 to 180 {micro}g/L, with water from domestic wells containing significantly more arsenic than water from municipal sources. Water samples from drilled bedrock wells had the highest arsenic concentrations, while samples from surficial wells had the lowest arsenic concentrations. The authors suggest that much of the groundwater arsenic in New Hampshire is derived from weathering of bedrock materials and not from anthropogenic contamination. The spatial distribution of elevated arsenic concentrations correlates with Late-Devonian Concord-type granitic bedrock. Field observations in the region exhibiting the highest groundwater arsenic concentrations revealed abundant pegmatite dikes associated with nearby granites. Analysis of rock digests indicates arsenic concentrations up to 60 mg/kg in pegmatites, with much lower values in surrounding schists and granites. Weak acid leaches show that approximately half of the total arsenic in the pegmatites is labile and therefore can be mobilized during rock-water interaction.

Peters, S.C.; Blum, J.D.; Klaue, B. [Dartmouth Coll., Hanover, NH (United States). Dept. of Earth Sciences] [Dartmouth Coll., Hanover, NH (United States). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Karagas, M.R. [Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH (United States). Dept. of Community and Family Medicine] [Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH (United States). Dept. of Community and Family Medicine

1999-05-01

200

[Hydraulic fracturing - a hazard for drinking water?].  

PubMed

Hydraulic fracturing (fracking) is a technique used to release and promote the extraction of natural gas (including shale gas, tight gas, and coal bed methane) from deep natural gas deposits. Among the German public there is great concern with regard to the potential environmental impacts of fracking including the contamination of ground water, the most important source of drinking water in Germany. In the present article the risks of ground water contamination through fracking are discussed. Due to the present safety requirements and the obligatory geological and hydrogeological scrutiny of the underground, which has to be performed prior to fracking, the risk of ground water contamination by fracking can be regarded as very low. The toxicity of chemical additives of fracking fluids is discussed. It is recommended that in the future environmental impact assessment and approval of fracs should be performed by the mining authorities in close cooperation with the water authorities. Furthermore, it is recommended that hydraulic fracturing in the future should be accompanied by obligatory ground water monitoring. PMID:24285158

Ewers, U; Gordalla, B; Frimmel, F

2013-11-01

201

[The virological supervision of drinking water quality--a review].  

PubMed

Drinking-water must be free of pathogenic organisms; this challenge refers to pathogenic viruses too. In order to control virological aspects of water quality realistic and practicable monitoring procedures, esp. practical microbial assays, must be performed. They should include in all cases standard plate counts and counts of total or faecal coliform bacteria. Counts of coliphages in combination with standard plate counts and counts of coliform bacteria offer a practical and reliable indicator system for evaluating the virological safety of treated drinking-water supplies in the case of drinking-water reclaimed from contaminated raw water, esp. surface water. PMID:2110396

Schulze, E

1990-01-01

202

Occurrence of chlorobenzene in drinking water, food and air  

SciTech Connect

This document addresses the occurrence of chlorobenzene in drinking water, food and air. It is intended as a companion document to existing National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations. It analyzes sources of dietary and respiratory intake of chlorobenzene and the related health risks. It also examines economic aspects of regulating this chemical.

Letkiewicz, F.; Johnston, P.; Macaluso, C.; Elder, R.; Yu, W.

1983-12-02

203

Arsenic in drinking water Increases mortality from cardiovascular disease  

E-print Network

Arsenic in drinking water Increases mortality from cardiovascular disease Allan H Smith professor cardiovascular disease with the findings of their prospective cohort study in Bangladesh.7 The first evidence of a link between cardiovascular disease and arsenic in drinking water came in 1980 from Antofagasta, Chile

California at Berkeley, University of

204

HEALTH EFFECTS OF HUMAN EXPOSURE TO BARIUM IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The overall objective of this study was to examine by epidemiologic and supportive laboratory studies, the human health effects associated with ingestion of barium in drinking water exceeding the U.S. drinking water standard of 1.0 mg/l. The incidence of cardiovascular mortality ...

205

ACCESS TO DRINKING WATER: CASE OF TANKERFED VILLAGES IN THANE  

E-print Network

ACCESS TO DRINKING WATER: CASE OF TANKERFED VILLAGES IN THANE DISTRICT, MAHARASHTRA MTech that the dissertation titled "Access To Drinking Water: Case Of Tankerfed Villages in Thane District, Maharashtra in my own words and where other,,s ideas or words have been included, I have adequately cited

Sohoni, Milind

206

GENOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The information summarized in this review provides substantial evidence for the widespread presence of genotoxins in drinking water. In many, if not most cases, the genotoxic activity can be directly attributed to the chlorination stage of drinking water treatment. The genotoxic ...

207

ACCUMULATION OF ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The tendency for iron solid surfaces to adsorb arsenic is well known and has become the basis for several drinking water treatment approaches that remove arsenic. It is reasonable to assume that iron-based solids, such as corrosion deposits present in drinking water distribution ...

208

Disinfection By-Products and Drinking Water Treatment  

EPA Science Inventory

The disinfection of drinking water has been rightly hailed as a public health triumph of the 20th century. Before its widespread use, millions of people died from waterborne diseases. Now, people in developed nations receive quality drinking water every day from their public wa...

209

Reducing Lead in Drinking Water: A Manual for Minnesota's Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual was designed to assist Minnesota's schools in minimizing the consumption of lead in drinking water by students and staff. It offers step-by-step instructions for testing and reducing lead in drinking water. The manual answers: Why is lead a health concern? How are children exposed to lead? Why is lead a special concern for schools? How…

Minnesota State Dept. of Health, St. Paul.

210

Studies on Disinfection By-Products and Drinking Water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Drinking water is disinfected with chemicals to remove pathogens, such as Giardia and Cryptosproridium, and prevent waterborne diseases such as cholera and typhoid. During disinfection, by-products are formed at trace concentrations. Because some of these by-products are suspected carcinogens, drinking water utilities must maintain the effectiveness of the disinfection process while minimizing the formation of by-products.

Rostad, Colleen E.

2007-01-01

211

Safety on Tap: A Citizen's Drinking Water Handbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This citizen's guide to ensuring a safe supply of drinking water for all provides the information and analysis that individuals need to understand the issues and to participate in local decision making. The sources of drinking water, the types of human activities that results in contamination, and the contaminants that are of most concern are…

Loveland, David Gray; Reichheld, Beth

212

Reducing Lead in School Drinking Water: A Case Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Seattle School District began a program in 1990 to identify lead levels in the district's drinking water and to implement measures to lower any high lead levels. Recounts each of the seven steps of the program, discusses what the district found, and explains how it lowered lead levels in the drinking water. (MLF)

Odell, Lee

1991-01-01

213

RESEARCH AND GUIDANCE ON DRINKING WATER CONTAMINANT MIXTURES  

EPA Science Inventory

Accurate assessment of potential human health risk(s) from multiple-route exposures to multiple chemicals in drinking water is needed because of widespread daily exposure to this complex mixture. Hundreds of chemicals have been identified in drinking water with the mix of chemic...

214

Lung Cancer and Arsenic Concentrations in Drinking Water in Chile  

E-print Network

Lung Cancer and Arsenic Concentrations in Drinking Water in Chile Catterina Ferreccio,1,2 Claudia- trations have since been reduced to 40 g/liter. We investi- gated the relation between lung cancer and arsenic in drinking water in northern Chile in a case-control study involving patients diagnosed with lung

California at Berkeley, University of

215

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, DAVIS Water Supply and Prospects in Baja California  

E-print Network

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, DAVIS Water Supply and Prospects in Baja California THESIS Submitted ................................... 11 Baja California Human Geography .......................... 11 Baja California Physical Geography ................................................................ 45 #12;3 Water Supply and Prospects in Baja California ABSTRACT The water supply infrastructure

Lund, Jay R.

216

A role for human reliability analysis (HRA) in preventing drinking water incidents and securing safe drinking water.  

PubMed

The prevalence of water quality incidents and disease outbreaks suggests an imperative to analyse and understand the roles of operators and organisations in the water supply system. One means considered in this paper is through human reliability analysis (HRA). We classify the human errors contributing to 62 drinking water accidents occurring in affluent countries from 1974 to 2001; define the lifecycle of these incidents; and adapt Reason's 'Swiss cheese' model for drinking water safety. We discuss the role of HRA in human error reduction and drinking water safety and propose a future research agenda for human error reduction in the water sector. PMID:19493557

Wu, Shaomin; Hrudey, Steve; French, Simon; Bedford, Tim; Soane, Emma; Pollard, Simon

2009-07-01

217

In Brief: Web site addresses global drinking water crisis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new Web resource provides the public with peer-reviewed scientific and technical information about the need for safe drinking water and strategies to enhance the safety and availability of water supplies around the world. Developed by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences (NAS) and the Global Health and Education Foundation, the ``Safe Drinking Water is Essential'' Web site (http://www.drinking-water.org) presents data and case studies written for a lay audience and aims to provide international decision-makers with tools to solve local water quality problems.

Kumar, Mohi

2007-09-01

218

76 FR 7106 - Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Formic Acid  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Formic Acid AGENCY...additives permitted in feed and drinking water of animals to provide for the...ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS 0 1. The...

2011-02-09

219

78 FR 25267 - Request for Information To Inform Hydraulic Fracturing Research Related to Drinking Water Resources  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fracturing Research Related to Drinking Water Resources AGENCY: Environmental...impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources from April 30, 2013...between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water resources. The EPA...

2013-04-30

220

40 CFR 144.7 - Identification of underground sources of drinking water and exempted aquifers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Identification of underground sources of drinking water and exempted aquifers. 144...Identification of underground sources of drinking water and exempted aquifers. ...as an underground source of drinking water, all aquifers or parts of...

2010-07-01

221

78 FR 61867 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act On September 26, 2013, the...300g-3,300i of the Safe Drinking Water Act (``SDWA'') for violations...ensure proper operation of the drinking water systems on the Reservation....

2013-10-04

222

77 FR 27057 - Request for Nominations of Drinking Water Contaminants for the Fourth Contaminant Candidate List  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRL-9669-1] Request for Nominations of Drinking Water Contaminants for the Fourth Contaminant...possible inclusion in the fourth drinking water Contaminant Candidate List (CCL...information contact the EPA Safe Drinking Water Hotline at (800)...

2012-05-08

223

78 FR 19261 - Safe Drinking Water Act Sole Source Aquifer Program; Designation of Bainbridge Island, Washington...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Safe Drinking Water Act Sole Source Aquifer Program...Section 1424(e) of the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Administrator of the...the sole or principle source of drinking water for the citizens of...

2013-03-29

224

77 FR 34382 - Meetings of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council-Notice of Public Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRL-9682-1] Meetings of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council--Notice of...in-person meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC or Council), established under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). The Council...

2012-06-11

225

78 FR 42692 - Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Ammonium Formate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Ammonium Formate...additives permitted in feed and drinking water of animals to correct the description...additives permitted in feed and drinking water of animals do not correctly...

2013-07-17

226

76 FR 8674 - Notice of a Public Meeting: Environmental Justice Considerations for Drinking Water Regulatory...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Environmental Justice Considerations for Drinking Water Regulatory Efforts AGENCY: Environmental...Regulatory Determinations from the drinking water Contaminant Candidate List 3...announced its intentions to develop drinking water regulatory actions for...

2011-02-15

227

78 FR 36183 - State Allotment Percentages for the Drinking Water State Revolving Fund Program  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Allotment Percentages for the Drinking Water State Revolving Fund Program AGENCY...EPA) is announcing the revised Drinking Water State Revolving Fund (DWSRF...results from EPA's most recent Drinking Water Infrastructure Needs Survey...

2013-06-17

228

76 FR 67187 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council; Notice of a Public Teleconference Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AGENCY [FRL 9485-2] National Drinking Water Advisory Council; Notice of a...teleconference of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC or Council...replacement requirements of the National Drinking Water Regulations for Lead and...

2011-10-31

229

78 FR 65981 - Meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRL-9902-32-OW] Meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council AGENCY: Environmental...announcing a meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (Council), established under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). The meeting...

2013-11-04

230

76 FR 61355 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council; Request for Nominations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AGENCY [FRL-9475-2] National Drinking Water Advisory Council; Request for...three-year appointment to the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (Council...Council was established by the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) to provide...

2011-10-04

231

21 CFR 1240.80 - General requirements for water for drinking and culinary purposes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... General requirements for water for drinking and culinary purposes... General requirements for water for drinking and culinary purposes. Only potable water shall be provided for drinking and culinary purposes...

2010-04-01

232

76 FR 38158 - Meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council; Notice of Public Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRL-9425-8] Meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council; Notice of Public...given of a meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC), established under the Safe Drinking Water Act, as amended (42...

2011-06-29

233

21 CFR 520.2261a - Sulfamethazine sodium drinking water solution.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Sulfamethazine sodium drinking water solution. 520.2261a Section...2261a Sulfamethazine sodium drinking water solution. (a) Sponsors...1) Amount. Administer in drinking water to provide: Cattle...

2010-04-01

234

78 FR 68838 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council; Request for Nominations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRL-9902-93-OW] National Drinking Water Advisory Council; Request for...three-year appointment to the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (Council...Council was established by the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) to provide...

2013-11-15

235

77 FR 14425 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act Notice is hereby given that...civil penalties under the Safe Drinking Water Act (``SDWA''), 42 U...violations of the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations...

2012-03-09

236

75 FR 41725 - Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Ammonium Formate  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Ammonium Formate...additives permitted in feed and drinking water of animals to provide for the...ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS 0 1. The...

2010-07-19

237

77 FR 67361 - Request for Information To Inform Hydraulic Fracturing Research Related to Drinking Water Resources  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Fracturing Research Related to Drinking Water Resources AGENCY: Environmental...impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources. DATES: EPA will accept...between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water resources. EPA is...

2012-11-09

238

75 FR 12569 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act Pursuant to 28 CFR 50.7...Section 1414(b) of the Safe Drinking Water Act (``SDWA''), 42 U...requirements of the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations...

2010-03-16

239

40 CFR 144.82 - What must I do to protect underground sources of drinking water?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...protect underground sources of drinking water? 144.82 Section 144.82...protect underground sources of drinking water? If you own or operate...cause a violation of the primary drinking water standards under 40 CFR...

2010-07-01

240

75 FR 35801 - Meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council-Notice of Public Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRL-9166-9] Meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council--Notice of...given of a meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC), established under the Safe Drinking Water Act, as amended (42...

2010-06-23

241

75 FR 30401 - National Primary Drinking Water Regulations; Announcement of the Results of EPA's Review of...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...RIN 2040-AE90 National Primary Drinking Water Regulations; Announcement of...of EPA's Review of Existing Drinking Water Standards and Request for Public...period for the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations; Announcement...

2010-06-01

242

75 FR 54872 - Drinking Water Strategy Contaminants as Group(s)-Notice of Public Stakeholder Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9198-9] Drinking Water Strategy Contaminants as Group...Lisa P. Jackson announced the Drinking Water Strategy, a new vision to expand public health protection for drinking water by going beyond the...

2010-09-09

243

77 FR 64113 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council: Request for Nominations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AGENCY [FRL-9742-7] National Drinking Water Advisory Council: Request for...three-year appointment to the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (Council...Council was established by the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) to provide...

2012-10-18

244

75 FR 70918 - Meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council-Notice of Public Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRL-9229-6] Meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council--Notice of...given of a meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC), established under the Safe Drinking Water Act, as amended (42...

2010-11-19

245

75 FR 61751 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council: Request for Nominations  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...AGENCY [FRL-9210-7] National Drinking Water Advisory Council: Request for...term as members of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (Council...Council was established by the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) to provide...

2010-10-06

246

78 FR 73206 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act On November 23, 2013 the Department...reporting, and other requirements of the Safe Drinking Water Act and the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (``NPDWRs''), two...

2013-12-05

247

78 FR 48158 - Meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRL-9843-4] Meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council AGENCY: Environmental...announcing a meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (Council), established under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). This meeting...

2013-08-07

248

40 CFR 194.53 - Consideration of underground sources of drinking water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Consideration of underground sources of drinking water. 194.53 Section 194.53...Consideration of underground sources of drinking water. In compliance assessments...chapter, all underground sources of drinking water in the accessible...

2010-07-01

249

76 FR 72703 - Meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council-Notice of Public Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRL-9496-4] Meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council--Notice of...given of a meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC or Council), established under the Safe Drinking Water Act. The Council will...

2011-11-25

250

77 FR 52023 - Meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...FRL-9721-1] Meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council AGENCY: Environmental...announcing a meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC or Council), established under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). This meeting...

2012-08-28

251

76 FR 22100 - Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Science Advisory Board; Drinking Water Committee...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of the Science Advisory Board; Drinking Water Committee Augmented for the Review...public teleconference of the SAB Drinking Water Committee Augmented for the Review...Background: Exposure to lead through drinking water results primarily from the...

2011-04-20

252

77 FR 40382 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act Notice is hereby given that...alleged violations of the Safe Drinking Water Act (``SDWA''), 42 U...violations of the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations...

2012-07-09

253

76 FR 2383 - Proposed HHS Recommendation for Fluoride Concentration in Drinking Water for Prevention of Dental...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for Fluoride Concentration in Drinking Water for Prevention of Dental Caries AGENCY...U.S. Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards related to recommendations for fluoride concentrations in drinking water. The U.S. Public Health Service...

2011-01-13

254

30 CFR 75.1718-1 - Drinking water; quality.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

(a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions of § 75.1718 shall meet the applicable minimum health requirements for drinking water established by the State or community in which the mine is...

2012-07-01

255

30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

(a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions of § 71.600 shall meet the applicable minimum health requirements for drinking water established by the State or community in which the mine is...

2011-07-01

256

30 CFR 75.1718-1 - Drinking water; quality.  

(a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions of § 75.1718 shall meet the applicable minimum health requirements for drinking water established by the State or community in which the mine is...

2014-07-01

257

OVERVIEW OF USEPA MICROBIOLOGICAL RESEARCH IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The Microbial Contaminants Control Branch (MCCB) conducts research on microbiological problems related to drinking water treatment, distribution and storage, and has recently become involved in watershed and source water quality issues such as fecal indicator bacteria and fecal p...

258

Water Dispensers at School May Encourage Kids to Drink More  

MedlinePLUS

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Water Dispensers at School May Encourage Kids to Drink More Researchers found students drank three times more water after dispensers were installed (*this news item will ...

259

APPLICATION OF USEPA'S DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS TOWARDS RAINWATER CATCHMENT SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Rainwater harvesting is receiving increased attention worldwide as an alternative source of drinking water. Although federal agencies such as the USEPA acknowledge the existence of rainwater collection systems, the monitoring of this water source is still typically carried out b...

260

Arsenic in Drinking Water-A Global Environmental Problem  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Information on the worldwide occurrence of groundwater pollution by arsenic, the ensuing health hazards, and the debatable government regulations of arsenic in drinking water, is presented. Diagnostic identification of arsenic, and methods to eliminate it from water are also discussed.

Wang, Joanna Shaofen; Wai, Chien M.

2004-01-01

261

Investigations on boron levels in drinking water sources in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate boron contamination of public drinking water in China, both dissolved and total boron contents in 98 public drinking\\u000a water sources from 49 cities, 42 brands of bottled water samples from supermarkets in several cities, and 58 water samples\\u000a from boron industrial area were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Our experimental results\\u000a showed that boron existed in

Ren-ji Xu; Xiao-ru Xing; Qun-fang Zhou; Gui-bin Jiang; Fu-sheng Wei

2010-01-01

262

Drinking water quality assessment in Southern Sindh (Pakistan)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The southern Sindh province of Pakistan adjoins the Arabian Sea coast where drinking water quality is deteriorating due to\\u000a dumping of industrial and urban waste and use of agrochemicals and yet has limited fresh water resources. The study assessed\\u000a the drinking water quality of canal, shallow pumps, dug wells, and water supply schemes from the administrative districts\\u000a of Thatta, Badin,

Mehrunisa Memon; Mohammed Saleh Soomro; Mohammad Saleem Akhtar; Kazi Suleman Memon

2011-01-01

263

Organochlorine Pesticides Residues in Bottled Drinking Water from Mexico City  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work describes concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in bottled drinking water (BDW) in Mexico City. The results\\u000a of 36 samples (1.5 and 19 L presentations, 18 samples, respectively) showed the presence of seven pesticides (HCH isomers,\\u000a heptachlor, aldrin, and p,p?-DDE) in bottled water compared with the drinking water standards set by NOM-127-SSA1-1994, EPA, and World Health Organization.\\u000a The concentrations of the

Gilberto Díaz; Rutilio Ortiz; Beatriz Schettino; Salvador Vega; Rey Gutiérrez

2009-01-01

264

NITRATE TOXICITY AND DRINKING WATER STANDARDS - A REVIEW  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current US EPA maximum contaminant level (MCL) for public drinking water supplies and the health advisory level (HAL) for other private water supplies is 10 mg\\/L, expressed as NO3-N. Unlike other drinking water standards, the nitrate standard has no safety factor, which typically is about a 10-fold safety factor to account for differences in human susceptibility. Guidance, action, or

B. C. Kross

265

USE ONLY WATER THAT HAS BEEN PROPERLY DISINFECTED FOR DRINKING, COOKING, MAKING ANY PREPARED DRINK, OR FOR BRUSHING TEETH  

E-print Network

, OR FOR BRUSHING TEETH 1. Use bottled water that has not been exposed to flood waters if it is available. 2. If you don't have bottled water, you should boil water to make it safe. Boiling water will kill most typesUSE ONLY WATER THAT HAS BEEN PROPERLY DISINFECTED FOR DRINKING, COOKING, MAKING ANY PREPARED DRINK

Tullos, Desiree

266

Microbial quality of drinking water from microfiltered water dispensers.  

PubMed

A comparison was made between the microbial quality of drinking water obtained from Microfiltered Water Dispensers (MWDs) and that of municipal tap water. A total of 233 water samples were analyzed. Escherichia coli (EC), enterococci (ENT), total coliforms (TC), Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and heterotrophic plate count (HPC) at 22 °C and 37 °C were enumerated. In addition, information was collected about the principal structural and functional characteristics of each MWD in order to study the various factors that might influence the microbial quality of the water. EC and ENT were not detected in any of the samples. TC were never detected in the tap water but were found in 5 samples taken from 5 different MWDs. S. aureus was found in a single sample of microfiltered water. P. aeruginosa was found more frequently and at higher concentrations in the samples collected from MWDs. The mean HPCs at 22 °C and 37 °C were significantly higher in microfiltered water samples compared to those of the tap water. In conclusion, the use of MWDs may increase the number of bacteria originally present in tap water. It is therefore important to monitor the quality of the dispensed water over time, especially if it is destined for vulnerable users. PMID:23838062

Sacchetti, R; De Luca, G; Dormi, A; Guberti, E; Zanetti, F

2014-03-01

267

Safe and Affordable Drinking Water for Developing Countries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Safe drinking water remains inaccessible for about 1.2 billion people in the world, and the hourly toll from biological contamination of drinking water is 200 deaths mostly among children under five years of age. This chapter summarizes the need for safe drinking water, the scale of the global problem, and various methods tried to address it. Then it gives the history and current status of an innovation ("UV Waterworks™") developed to address this major public health challenge. It reviews water disinfection technologies applicable to achieve the desired quality of drinking water in developing countries, and specifically, the limitations overcome by one particular invention: UV Waterworks. It then briefly describes the business model and financing option than is accelerating its implementation for affordable access to safe drinking water to the unserved populations in these countries. Thus this chapter describes not only the innovation in design of a UV water disinfection system, but also innovation in the delivery model for safe drinking water, with potential for long term growth and sustainability.

Gadgil, Ashok

2008-09-01

268

Water Resources Data for California, Water Year 1988. Volume 5. Ground-Water Data for California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water resources data for the 1988 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water-quality in wells. Volume 5 contains water levels for 980 observation wells and water-quality data for 239 observation monitoring wells. These data represent that part of the National water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

Lamb, C.E.; Fogelman, R.P.; Grillo, D.A.

1989-01-01

269

Water Resources Data for California, Water Year 1987. Volume 5. Ground-water Data for California  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Water resources data for the 1987 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 5 contains water levels for 786 observation wells and water-quality data for 168 observation wells. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

Lamb, C.E.; Fogelman, R.P.; Grillo, D.A.

1989-01-01

270

Drinking Water Infrastructure and Environmental Disparities: Evidence and Methodological Considerations  

PubMed Central

Potable drinking water is essential to public health; however, few studies have investigated income or racial disparities in water infrastructure or drinking water quality. There were many case reports documenting a lack of piped water or serious water quality problems in low income and minority communities, including tribal lands, Alaskan Native villages, colonias along the United States–Mexico border, and small communities in agricultural areas. Only 3 studies compared the demographic characteristics of communities by the quality of their drinking water, and the results were mixed in these studies. Further assessments were hampered by difficulties linking specific water systems to the sociodemographic characteristics of communities, as well as little information about how well water systems operated and the effectiveness of governmental oversight. PMID:21836110

2011-01-01

271

The U.S. Geological Survey Drinking Water Initiative  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Safe drinking-water supplies are critical to maintaining and preserving public health. Although the Nation's drinking water is generally safe, natural and introduced contaminants in water supplies throughout the country have adversely affected human health. This new U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) initiative will provide information on the vulnerability of water supplies to be used by water-supply and regulatory agencies who must balance water-supply protection with the wise use of public funds. Using the results of the initiative, they will be better able to focus on the supplies most at risk and the variability of contaminants of most concern, and so address the mandates of the Safe Drinking Water Act. With its store of geologic, hydrologic, and land use and land cover data and its network of information in every State, the USGS can help to identify potential sources of contamination, delineate source areas, determine the vulnerability of waters to potential contamination, and evaluate strategies being used to protect source waters in light of the scientific information available. Many recent and ongoing studies by the USGS concern drinking-water issues. This fact sheet highlights four particular studies begun under the Drinking Water Initiative.

U.S. Geological Survey

1997-01-01

272

DRINKING WATER AS A SOURCE OF MINERAL NUTRITION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The contributions of drinking water to the mineral nutrition of individuals are functions of the mineral contents of that water and the rate of water consumption of those individuals. The mineral contents of water supplies vary considerably, and many are processed to remove minerals. In fact, the pr...

273

INEXPENSIVE DRINKING WATER CHLORINATION UNIT FOR SMALL COMMUNITIES - PHASE II  

EPA Science Inventory

Over 250 drinking water systems exist for small communities in Puerto Rico that serve 25-500 individuals. These water systems fall outside of Puerto Rico Aquaduct and Sewer Authority and, thus, have no or insufficient water treatment systems. Water sources for these communit...

274

INEXPENSIVE DRINKING WATER CHLORINATION UNIT FOR SMALL COMMUNITIES - PHASE I  

EPA Science Inventory

More than 250 drinking water systems exist for small communities in Puerto Rico that serve between 25 and 500 individuals. These water systems fall outside of the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority and, thus, have insufficient water treatment systems or no water treatmen...

275

Monochloramine Cometabolism by Nitrosomonas europaea under Drinking Water Conditions  

EPA Science Inventory

Chloramine use is widespread in United States drinking water systems as a secondary disinfectant. While beneficial from the perspective of controlling disinfectant by-product formation, chloramination may promote the growth of nitrifying bacteria because ammonia is present. At ...

276

ADVANCED CONTAMINANT INACTIVATION SYSTEM FOR DRINKING WATER - PHASE I  

EPA Science Inventory

The Environmental Protection Agency is soliciting innovations for the development of small unit drinking water systems that will inactivate contaminants, including pesticides, organic pollutants, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and pathogens. In the U.S., 85% ...

277

Impact of Plumbing Age on Copper Levels in Drinking Water  

EPA Science Inventory

Theory and limited practical experiences suggest that higher copper levels in drinking water tap samples are typically associated with newer plumbing systems, and levels decrease with increasing plumbing age. Past researchers have developed a conceptual model to explain the ?agin...

278

EPIDEMIOLOGICAL EVIDENCE OF CARCINOGENICITY OF CHLORINATED ORGANICS IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Concern has recently been voiced over possible chronic toxicity associated with chlorination of public drinking water supplies in the United States. This paper reviews the available evidence and the studies underway to further evaluate hypothesized associations between cancer ris...

279

IDENTIFICATION OF TI02/UV DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Due to concern over the presence of trihalomethanes (THMs) and other chlorinated byproducts in chlorinated drinking water, alternative disinfection methods are being explored. One of the alternative treatment methods currently being evaluated for potential use with small systems ...

280

Communicating Research to Small Drinking Water Systems: Dissemination by Researchers  

EPA Science Inventory

This talk discusses the challenges of disseminating research relevant to small systems. The presentation discusses efforts by the U.S. EPA’s Office of Research and Development to effectively communicating drinking water information. In particular, communication approaches ...

281

EPA Study of Hydraulic Fracturing and Drinking Water Resources  

EPA Science Inventory

In its FY2010 Appropriations Committee Conference Report, Congress directed EPA to study the relationship between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water, using: ? Best available science ? Independent sources of information ? Transparent, peer-reviewed process ? Consultatio...

282

Radium and Other Radiological Chemicals: Drinking Water Treatment Strategies  

EPA Science Inventory

Radium and Other Radiological Chemicals: Drinking Water Treatment Technologies Topics include: Introduction to Rad Chemistry, Summary of the Rad, Regulations Treatment Technology, and Disposal. The introductions cover atoms, ions, radium and uranium and the removal of radioac...

283

REMOVING TRIHALOMETHANES FROM DRINKING WATER - AN OVERVIEW OF TREATMENT TECHNIQUES  

EPA Science Inventory

In 1974 trihalomethanes (chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform) were discovered to be formed during the disinfection step of drinking water if free chlorine was the disinfectant. This, coupled with the perceived hazard to the consumer's health, led...

284

Biological Treatment of Drinking Water: Applications, Advantages and Disadvantages  

EPA Science Inventory

The fundamentals of biological treatment are presented to an audience of state drinking water regulators. The presentation covers definitions, applications, the basics of bacterial metabolism, a discussion of treatment options, and the impact that implementation of these options...

285

MOLECULAR DIVERSITY OF DRINKING WATER MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES: A PHYLOGENETIC APPROACH  

EPA Science Inventory

Culture-based methods are traditionally used to determine microbiological quality of drinking water even though these methods are highly selective and tend to underestimate the densities and diversity bacterial populations inhabiting distribution systems. In order to better under...

286

Public Health Issues Associated with Small Drinking Water Systems  

E-print Network

...........................................................................................8 Workshop Follow-up regulated) drinking water systems and to define the role of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to accomplish these activities. If resources for these projects become available, NCEH will follow-up with state

287

INTERACTIONS OF SILICA PARTICLES IN DRINKING WATER TREATMENT PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA Identifier: U915331 Title: Interactions of Silica Particles in Drinking Water Treatment Processes Fellow (Principal Investigator): Christina L. Clarkson Institution: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University EPA GRANT R...

288

DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS: WHAT IS KNOWN  

EPA Science Inventory

Chlorine, ozone, chlorine dioxide, and chloramine are currently the major disinfectants being used to disinfect drinking water. Although the alternative disinfectants (ozone, chlorine dioxide, and chloramine) are increasing in popularity in the United States, chlorine is still us...

289

Fate of High Priority Pesticides During Drinking Water Treatment  

EPA Science Inventory

The fate of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides in the presence of chlorinated oxidants was investigated under drinking water treatment conditions. In the presence of aqueous chlorine, intrinsic rate coefficients were found for the reaction of hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite ion ...

290

Lung Cancer and Arsenic Concentrations in Drinking Water in Chile  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cities in northern Chile had arsenic concentrations of 860 mg\\/liter in drinking water in the period 1958 -1970. Concen- trations have since been reduced to 40 mg\\/liter. We investi- gated the relation between lung cancer and arsenic in drinking water in northern Chile in a case-control study involving patients diagnosed with lung cancer between 1994 and 1996 and frequency-matched hospital

Catterina Ferreccio; Vivian Milosavjlevic; Guillermo Marshall; Ana Maria Sancha; Allan H. Smith

2000-01-01

291

Heterotrophic plate count measurement in drinking water safety management  

Microsoft Academic Search

A group of microbiology and public health experts including regulatory and medical expertise was convened in Geneva, Switzerland, 25–26 April 2002 to consider the utility of heterotrophic plate count (HPC) measurements in addressing drinking water quality and safety. The group was convened following the NSF International\\/World Health Organization Symposium on HPC Bacteria in Drinking Water—Public Health Implications?The Expert Meeting was

J Bartram; J Cotruvo; M Exner; C Fricker; Axel Glasmacher

2004-01-01

292

Public perception of drinking water from private water supplies: focus group analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Over four million Canadians receive their drinking water from private water supplies, and numerous studies report that these supplies often exceed the minimal acceptable standards for contamination. Canadians in rural areas test their water intermittently, if at all, and treatment of water from private supplies is not common. Understanding the perceptions of drinking water among residents served by private

Andria Q Jones; Catherine E Dewey; Kathryn Doré; Shannon E Majowicz; Scott A McEwen; David Waltner-Toews; Spencer J Henson; Eric Mathews

2005-01-01

293

Drinking Water Quality in the Pacific Island Countries: Situation Analysis and Needs Assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Access to safe and adequate supplies of drinking water is fundamental for human health and well-being. Countries in the Pacific Region are constantly faced with drinking water supply problems. The World Health Organization (WHO) and partner agencies support member states in the Pacific region in their efforts to improve drinking water quality. The WHO workshop on Drinking Water Quality (DWQ)

Anumitra V. Mirti; Sarah Davies

294

Study on Rural Drinking Water Safety and Measures in Heilongjiang Province  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the current situation of drinking water security in rural areas in Heilongjiang Province, the overall distribution feature and the spatial distribution characteristics of population drinking unsafe water in rural areas, the cause of different drinking water security issues and the main factors of impacting the drinking water safety are analyzed. In view of the distribution feature of rural

Tienan Li; Jingbo Lang; Dawei Wang

295

INTERGRATING SOURCE WATER PROTECTION AND DRINKING WATER TREATMENT: U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) is an internationally recognized water research organization established to assist in responding to public health concerns related to drinking water supplies. WSWRD has evolved from...

296

INTEGRATING SOURCE WATER PROTECTION AND DRINKING WATER TREATMENT: U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) is an internationally recognized water research organization established to assist in responding to public health concerns related to drinking water supplies. WSWRD has evolved from...

297

ETV REPORT: REMOVAL OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER ? PALL/KINETICO PUREFECTA DRINKING WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The Pall/Kinetico Purefecta? POU drinking water treatment system was tested for removal of aldicarb, benzene, cadmium, carbofuran, cesium, chloroform, dichlorvos, dicrotophos, fenamiphos, mercury, mevinphos, oxamyl, strontium, and strychnine. The Purefecta? employs several compon...

298

Biological Instability in a Chlorinated Drinking Water Distribution Network  

PubMed Central

The purpose of a drinking water distribution system is to deliver drinking water to the consumer, preferably with the same quality as when it left the treatment plant. In this context, the maintenance of good microbiological quality is often referred to as biological stability, and the addition of sufficient chlorine residuals is regarded as one way to achieve this. The full-scale drinking water distribution system of Riga (Latvia) was investigated with respect to biological stability in chlorinated drinking water. Flow cytometric (FCM) intact cell concentrations, intracellular adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP), heterotrophic plate counts and residual chlorine measurements were performed to evaluate the drinking water quality and stability at 49 sampling points throughout the distribution network. Cell viability methods were compared and the importance of extracellular ATP measurements was examined as well. FCM intact cell concentrations varied from 5×103 cells mL?1 to 4.66×105 cells mL?1 in the network. While this parameter did not exceed 2.1×104 cells mL?1 in the effluent from any water treatment plant, 50% of all the network samples contained more than 1.06×105 cells mL?1. This indisputably demonstrates biological instability in this particular drinking water distribution system, which was ascribed to a loss of disinfectant residuals and concomitant bacterial growth. The study highlights the potential of using cultivation-independent methods for the assessment of chlorinated water samples. In addition, it underlines the complexity of full-scale drinking water distribution systems, and the resulting challenges to establish the causes of biological instability. PMID:24796923

Nescerecka, Alina; Rubulis, Janis; Vital, Marius; Juhna, Talis; Hammes, Frederik

2014-01-01

299

Diversity and Significance of Mold Species in Norwegian Drinking Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine the occurrence, distribution, and significance of mold species in groundwater- and surface water-derived drinking water in Norway, molds isolated from 273 water samples were identified. Samples of raw water, treated water, and water from private homes and hospital installations were analyzed by incubation of 100-ml membrane-filtered samples on dichloran-18% glycerol agar. The total count (number of

Gunhild Hageskal; Ann Kristin Knutsen; Peter Gaustad; G. Sybren de Hoog; Ida Skaar

2006-01-01

300

Sources of chlorate ion in US drinking water  

SciTech Connect

Samples of untreated source water and finished drinking water were obtained from 42 water utilities which treated their water with oxidants-disinfectants that included chlorine dioxide (ClO[sub 2]), gaseous chlorine, hypochlorite solutions, and chloramines. Chlorite ion was only detected in water from utilities that used ClO[sub 2]. Finished water from utilities that used ClO[sub 2] or hypochlorite solutions contained comparable concentrations of chlorate ion (ClO[sub 3][sup [minus

Bolyard, M. (Environmental Protection Agency, Denver, CO (United States)); Fair, P.S. (Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States)); Hautman, D.P. (Technology Applications Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States))

1993-09-01

301

Sources of Chlorate Ion in US Drinking Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of untreated source water and finished drinking water were obtained from 42 water utilities which treated their water with oxidants-disinfectants that included chlorine dioxide (C1O?), gaseous chlorine, hypochlorite solutions, and chloramines. Chlorite ion was only detected in water from utilities that used C1O?. Finished water from utilities that used C1O? or hypochlorite solutions contained comparable concentrations of chlorate ion

Michele Bolyard; Patricia Snyder Fair; Daniel P. Hautman

1993-01-01

302

Review of Campylobacter spp. in drinking and environmental waters.  

PubMed

Consumption of contaminated drinking water is a significant cause of Campylobacter infections. Drinking water contamination is known to result from septic seepage and wastewater intrusion into non-disinfected sources of groundwater and occasionally from cross-connection into drinking water distribution systems. Wastewater effluents, farm animals and wild birds are the primary sources contributing human-infectious Campylobacters in environmental waters, impacting on recreational activities and drinking water sources. Culturing of Campylobacter entails time-consuming steps that often provide qualitative or semi-quantitative results. Viable but non-culturable forms due to environmental stress are not detected, and thus may result in false-negative assessments of Campylobacter risks from drinking and environmental waters. Molecular methods, especially quantitative PCR applications, are therefore important to use in the detection of environmental Campylobacter spp. Processing large volumes of water may be required to reach the desired sensitivity for either culture or molecular detection methods. In the future, applications of novel molecular techniques such as isothermal amplification and high-throughput sequencing applications are awaited to develop and become more affordable and practical in environmental Campylobacter research. The new technologies may change the knowledge on the prevalence and pathogenicity of the different Campylobacter species in the water environment. PMID:23810971

Pitkänen, Tarja

2013-10-01

303

A Review of Chlorine Dioxide in Drinking Water Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increased interest in using chlorine dioxide to treat drinking water for trihalomethane control, taste and odor control, oxidation of iron and manganese, and oxidant-enhanced coagulation-sedimentation. This article reviews the physical, chemical, and biological properties of chlorine dioxide as they relate to water treatment. The generation reactions as well as the reactions likely to occur in treated water are

E. Marco Aieta; James D. Berg

1986-01-01

304

EXPOSURE TO ASBESTOS FROM DRINKING WATER IN THE UNITED STATES  

EPA Science Inventory

Over 1500 asbestos analyses of water supplies in 43 states, Puerto Rico and the District of Columbia were evaluated in order to assess the exposure of the United States population to asbestos in drinking water. It was cocluded that the large majority of U.S. water consumers are n...

305

Hydrogen Sulfide in Drinking Water: Causes and Treatment Alternatives  

E-print Network

in drinking water. Water tests should always be conducted on new wells or when problems are suspected in an existing water supply. This can be particularly important if more than one contami- nant is involved because it will affect proper diagnosis...

McFarland, Mark L.; Provin, Tony

1999-06-15

306

BIOASSAY PROCEDURE FOR PREDICTING COLIFORM BACTERIAL GROWTH IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Water quality degradation due to the growth of microorganisms Is an area of concern for many water utilities. urrently the nutrient status of drinking water is difficult to measure and can only be defined in relative terms. o date, the procedures developed for determining the amo...

307

DETECTION OF ENTERIC VIRUSES IN TREATED DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The occurrence of viruses in conventionally treated drinking water derived from a heavily polluted source was evaluated by collecting and analyzing 38 large volume (65 to 756 liter) samples of water from a 9m3/sec (205 mgd) water treatment plant. Samples of raw, clarified, filter...

308

Condition Assessment for Drinking Water Transmission and Distribution Mains  

EPA Science Inventory

This project seeks to improve the capability to characterize the condition of water infrastructure. The integrity of buried drinking water mains is critical, as it influences water quality, losses, pressure and cost. This research complements the U.S. Environmental Protection A...

309

Regional Drinking Water Security District Level Pilot Project  

E-print Network

of western and central Maharashtra have had scanty rainfall this year. As a con- sequence, it is likely. This stress will create a composite set of demands: domestic water, water and fodder for cattle, livelihoods. The central objective of the project will be to ensure regional drinking water security for a district

Sohoni, Milind

310

DRINKING-WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT: THE AUSTRALIAN FRAMEWORK  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most effective means of assuring drinking-water quality and the protection of public health is through adoption of a preventive management approach that encompasses all steps in water production from catchment to consumer. However, the reliance of current regulatory structures on compliance monitoring of treated water tends to promote a reactive management style where corrective actions are initiated after monitoring

Martha Sinclair; Samantha Rizak

2004-01-01

311

Aluminium content of drinking waters, fruit juices and soft drinks: contribution to dietary intake.  

PubMed

Concentrations of aluminium in drinking waters (tap water, still mineral water and sparkling mineral water), fruit juices and soft drinks were determined using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) of samples processed with a HNO3-V205 acid digestion pre-treatment. In water samples, aluminium was determined directly. We verified the sensitivity, accuracy and precision of the method and ruled out matrix interferences. In analysed samples, aluminium values ranged from 4.2 to 165.3 microg/l in drinking water (n=41), from 49.3 to 1,144.6 microg/l in fruit juices (n=47), and from 44.6 to 1053.3 microg/l in soft drinks (n=88). According to the type of container (glass or can) statistically significant differences (P<0.01) have been demonstrated. Considering the mean daily individual consumption of these beverages in Spain, the daily dietary intake of Al supplied by this source is estimated as 156 microg/person/day. This study contributes new data on the Al content of a variety of foods and beverages in Spain and to estimate reliably the total dietary intake of aluminium. PMID:12146520

López, Francisco F; Cabrera, Carmen; Lorenzo, M Luisa; López, M Carmen

2002-06-26

312

Protecting Sources of Drinking Water: Case Studies in Watershed Management  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Water has released a publication concerning the quality of drinking water in America that supplements the recent 1997 National Public Water System Annual Compliance Report (discussed in the April 28, 1999 Scout Report for Science & Engineering). This report documents the experiences of seventeen drinking water suppliers who draw from lakes, reservoirs, and rivers in their efforts to manage and protect their sources. The report covers topics such as creating partnerships, watershed assessment, land use in watersheds, and wastewater management.

United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Water.

1999-01-01

313

Investigations on boron levels in drinking water sources in China.  

PubMed

To evaluate boron contamination of public drinking water in China, both dissolved and total boron contents in 98 public drinking water sources from 49 cities, 42 brands of bottled water samples from supermarkets in several cities, and 58 water samples from boron industrial area were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Our experimental results showed that boron existed in public drinking water sources mainly in dissolved status with total concentrations ranging from 0.003 to 0.337 mg/L (mean = 0.046 mg/L). The mean boron concentrations in mineral and pure bottled water were 0.052 and 0.028 mg/L, respectively. The results obtained in this work showed that there was no health risk on view of boron in public drinking water sources and bottled water. In boron industrial area, boron concentrations in surface water and ground water were 1.28 mg/L (range = 0.007-3.8 mg/L) and 18.3 mg/L (range = 0.015-140 mg/L), respectively, which indicated that boron industry caused boron pollution in local water system. PMID:19444639

Xu, Ren-ji; Xing, Xiao-ru; Zhou, Qun-fang; Jiang, Gui-bin; Wei, Fu-sheng

2010-06-01

314

A role for human reliability analysis (HRA) in preventing drinking water incidents and securing safe drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence of water quality incidents and disease outbreaks suggests an imperative to analyse and understand the roles of operators and organisations in the water supply system. One means considered in this paper is through human reliability analysis (HRA). We classify the human errors contributing to 62 drinking water accidents occurring in affluent countries from 1974 to 2001; define the

Shaomin Wu; Steve Hrudey; Simon French; Tim Bedford; Emma Soane; Simon Pollard

2009-01-01

315

Deficiencies in drinking water distribution systems in developing countries.  

PubMed

Rapidly growing populations and migration to urban areas in developing countries has resulted in a vital need for the establishment of centralized water systems to disseminate potable water to residents. Protected source water and modern, well-maintained drinking water treatment plants can provide water adequate for human consumption. However, ageing, stressed or poorly maintained distribution systems can cause the quality of piped drinking water to deteriorate below acceptable levels and pose serious health risks. This review will outline distribution system deficiencies in developing countries caused by: the failure to disinfect water or maintain a proper disinfection residual; low pipeline water pressure; intermittent service; excessive network leakages; corrosion of parts; inadequate sewage disposal; and inequitable pricing and usage of water. Through improved research, monitoring and surveillance, increased understanding of distribution system deficiencies may focus limited resources on key areas in an effort to improve public health and decrease global disease burden. PMID:16075938

Lee, Ellen J; Schwab, Kellogg J

2005-06-01

316

Occurrence and hygienic relevance of fungi in drinking water.  

PubMed

Fungi, above all filamentous fungi, can occur almost everywhere, even in water. They can grow in such a quantity in water that they can affect the health of the population or have negative effects on food production. There are several reports of fungal growth in water from different countries, but to our knowledge none from Austria so far. The aim of this study was to gain an overview of the spectrum of filamentous fungi and yeasts in drinking water systems. Thirty-eight water samples from drinking water and groundwater were analysed. Fungi were isolated by using membrane filtration and plating method with subsequent cultivation on agar plates. The different taxa of fungi were identified using routine techniques as well as molecular methods. Fungi were isolated in all water samples examined. The mean value for drinking water was 9.1 CFU per 100 ml and for groundwater 5400 CFU per 100 ml. Altogether 32 different taxa of fungi were found. The taxa which occurred most frequently were Cladosporium spp., Basidiomycetes and Penicillium spp. (74.6%, 56.4% and 48.7%, respectively). This study shows that drinking water can be a reservoir for fungi, among them opportunists, which can cause infections in immunosuppressed patients. PMID:18254755

Kanzler, D; Buzina, W; Paulitsch, A; Haas, D; Platzer, S; Marth, E; Mascher, F

2008-03-01

317

Occurrence of organophosphate flame retardants in drinking water from China.  

PubMed

Several organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) have been identified as known or suspected carcinogens or neurotoxic substances. Given the potential health risks of these compounds, we conducted a comprehensive survey of nine OPFRs in drinking water in China. We found total concentrations of OPFRs in tap water ranging from 85.1 ng/L to 325 ng/L, and tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBEP), triphenyl phosphate (TPP), and tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCPP) were the most common components. Similar OPFR concentrations and profiles were observed in water samples processed through six different waterworks in Nanjing, China. However, boiling affected OPFR levels in drinking water by either increasing (e.g., TBEP) or decreasing (e.g., tributyl phosphate, TBP) concentrations depending on the particular compound and the state of the indoor environment. We also found that bottled water contained many of the same major OPFR compounds with concentrations 10-25% lower than those in tap water, although TBEP contamination in bottled water remained a concern. Finally, we concluded that the risk of ingesting OPFRs through drinking water was not a major health concern for either adults or children in China. Nevertheless, drinking water ingestion represents an important exposure pathway for OPFRs. PMID:24556230

Li, Jun; Yu, Nanyang; Zhang, Beibei; Jin, Ling; Li, Meiying; Hu, Mengyang; Zhang, Xiaowei; Wei, Si; Yu, Hongxia

2014-05-01

318

Your Actions Can Help Protect Our Drinking Water  

E-print Network

Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) from the manufacturer (phone numbers are usually listed on the labels), or consult a Poison Control Center (1-800- 764-7661). Buy only the amount of household product that you need for the job. Then, use the product according...Your actions in and around your home can help protect the safety and quality of your drinking water. Every day Americans drink more than 1 billion glasses of water. That amount is in addition to the other uses for water in our homes...

Harris, Janie

2004-06-29

319

Detection of Salmonella bacterium in drinking water using microring resonator.  

PubMed

A new microring resonator system is proposed for the detection of the Salmonella bacterium in drinking water, which is made up of SiO2-TiO2 waveguide embedded inside thin film layer of the flagellin. The change in refractive index due to the binding of the Salmonella bacterium with flagellin layer causes a shift in the output signal wavelength and the variation in through and drop port's intensities, which leads to the detection of Salmonella bacterium in drinking water. The sensitivity of proposed sensor for detecting of Salmonella bacterium in water solution is 149 nm/RIU and the limit of detection is 7 × 10(- 4)RIU. PMID:25133457

Bahadoran, Mahdi; Noorden, Ahmad Fakhrurrazi Ahmad; Mohajer, Faeze Sadat; Abd Mubin, Mohamad Helmi; Chaudhary, Kashif; Jalil, Muhammad Arif; Ali, Jalil; Yupapin, Preecha

2014-08-18

320

Health risks due to radon in drinking water  

SciTech Connect

Following more than a decade of scientific debate about the setting of a standard for {sup 222}Rn in drinking water, Congress established a timetable for the promulgation of a standard in the 1996 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act. As a result of those Amendments, the EPA contracted with the National Academy of Sciences to undertake a risk assessment for exposure to radon in drinking water. In addition, the resulting committee was asked to address several other scientific issues including the national average ambient {sup 222}Rn concentration and the increment of {sup 222}Rn to the indoor-air concentration arising from the use of drinking water in a home. A new dosimetric analysis of the cancer risk to the stomach from ingestion was performed. The recently reported risk estimates developed by the BEIR VI Committee for inhalation of radon decay products were adopted. Because the 1996 Amendments permit states to develop programs in which mitigation of air-producing health-risk reductions equivalent to that which would be achieved by treating the drinking water, the scientific issues involved in such multimedia mitigation programs were explored.

Hopke, P.K. Borak, T.B.; Doull, J. [and others] [and others

2000-03-15

321

Health risks due to radon in drinking water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Following more than a decade of scientific debate about the setting of a standard for 222Rn in drinking water, Congress established a timetable for the promulgation of a standard in the 1996 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act. As a result of those Amendments, the EPA contracted with the National Academy of Sciences to undertake a risk assessment for exposure to radon in drinking water. In addition, the resulting committee was asked to address several other scientific issues including the national average ambient 222Rn concentration and the increment of 222Rn to the indoor- air concentration arising from the use of drinking water in a home. A new dosimetric analysis of the cancer risk to the stomach from ingestion was performed. The recently reported risk estimates developed by the BEIR VI Committee for inhalation of radon decay products were adopted. Because the 1996 Amendments permit states to develop programs in which mitigation of air- producing health-risk reductions equivalent to that which would be achieved by treating the drinking water, the scientific issues involved in such 'multimedia mitigation programs' were explored.

Hopke, P.K.; Borak, T.B.; Doull, J.; Cleaver, J.E.; Eckerman, K.F.; Gundersen, L.C.S.; Harley, N.H.; Hess, C.T.; Kinner, N.E.; Kopecky, K.J.; Mckone, T.E.; Sextro, R.G.; Simon, S.L.

2000-01-01

322

The Accumulation of Radioactive Contaminants in Drinking Water Distribution Systems  

EPA Science Inventory

The accumulation of trace contaminants in drinking water distribution systems has been documented and the subsequent release of the contaminants back to the water is a potential exposure pathway. Radioactive contaminants are of particular concern because of their known health eff...

323

EVALUATION OF DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNIQUES FOR EDC REMOVAL  

EPA Science Inventory

Many of the chemicals identified as potential endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may be present in surface or ground waters used as drinking water sources, due to their disposal via domestic and industrial sewage treatment systems and wet-weather runoff. In order to decrease t...

324

Drinking water treatment processes for removal of Cryptosporidium and Giardia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major waterborne cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis outbreaks associated with contaminated drinking water have been linked to evidence of suboptimal treatment. Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts are particularly more resistant than Giardia lamblia cysts to removal and inactivation by conventional water treatment (coagulation, sedimentation, filtration and chlorine disinfection); therefore, extensive research has been focused on the optimization of treatment processes and application of new

Walter Q. Betancourt; Joan B. Rose

2004-01-01

325

GASTROINTESTINAL ABSORPTION OF SOLUBLE URANIUM FROM DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The manuscript describes results of an experiment to determine the gastrointestinal absorption of uranium from drinking water in 12 health adults. Most of the uranium ingested was excreted in feces in the first 2 days following ingestion of the water. The absorption was the same ...

326

NUTRIENTS FOR BACTERIAL GROWTH IN DRINKING WATER: BIOASSAY EVALUATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The regrowth of bacteria in drinking water distribution systems can lead to the deterioration of water quality. Pathogenic bacteria are heterotrophs, and heterotrophs are probably the dominant bacteria associated with the regrowth phenomenon. Only a portion of the total organic c...

327

Remediation Technologies for Arsenic Contaminated Drinking Waters (9 pp)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic is a toxic metalloid element that is now recognised to be an important contaminant of drinking water – particularly, but not exclusively, in poor regions of southern Asia. In effected regions, many millions are at risk of arsenic-induced disease and strategies are required to provide safe water for consumption. The main strategies available are mitigation (the provision of alternative

Hemda Garelick; Agnieszka Dybowska; Eugenia Valsami-Jones; Nicholas D. Priest

2005-01-01

328

THE FETOTOXIC POTENTIAL OF MUNICIPAL DRINKING WATER IN THE MOUSE  

EPA Science Inventory

Mice (CD-1 strain) were placed on diets containing either municipal drinking water (Durham, North Carolina) or water that had been distilled and passed through cartridges to reduce organics and remove inorganics. After a two-week acclimation period, animals were bred and pregnanc...

329

NITRATE REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER IN GLENDALE, ARIZONA  

EPA Science Inventory

A 15-month pilot-scale study of nitrate removal from drinking water by ion exchange (IX), reverse osmosis (RO), and electrodialysis (ED) was carried out in Glendale, Arizona, where the raw water contained 18 to 25 mg/L NO3-N. The experiments were carried out using the University ...

330

DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION USING A UV/PHOTOCATALYST  

EPA Science Inventory

Worldwide, lack of safe drinking water takes an inestimable toll on human health. The objective of this project is to develop a small-scale sustainable water disinfection technology requiring a minimum of treatment time. The technology to be developed will be simple, sustain...

331

USEPA'S RESEARCH EFFORTS IN SMALL DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Currently, in the United States there are approximately 50,000 small community and 130,000 non-community systems providing water to over 25 million people. The drinking water treatment systems at these locations are not always adequate to comply with current and pending regulati...

332

Photocatalytic Coats in Glass Drinking-Water Bottles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

According to a proposal, the insides of glass bottles used to store drinking water would be coated with films consisting of or containing TiO2. In the presence of ultraviolet light, these films would help to remove bacteria, viruses, and trace organic contaminants from the water.

Andren, Anders W.; Armstrong, David E.; Anderson, Marc A.

2005-01-01

333

Wastewater to Drinking Water: Are Emerging Contaminants Making it Through?  

EPA Science Inventory

Lake Mead serves as the primary drinking water source for Las Vegas, Nevada and surrounding communities. Besides snow-melt from the Rockies water levels in the lake are supplemented by the inflow of treated wastewater from communities along the Colorado River, including Las Vegas...

334

Radon concentration in Jordanian drinking water and hot springs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The radon concentration in Jordanian drinking water and hot springs has been measured using the electret-passive environmental radon monitoring method. This study maps out Jordanian water sources from the north to the south as well as the area around the capital Amman and the Jordan valley. Samples from 30 sources were collected and analysed during the period from November 2001

Akeel T. Al-Kazwini; Mahmoud A. Hasan

2003-01-01

335

Drinking Water Implications of Cyanobacteria on the Kansas River to  

E-print Network

Page 1 Drinking Water Implications of Cyanobacteria on the Kansas River to WaterOne and other on the Kansas River City of Topeka, population 127,473 City of Lawrence, population 87,643 City of Olathe Lake Tuttle Creek Lake Perry Lake Clinton LakeKansas River Missouri River #12;Page 4 Background Taste

336

EFFECT OF THE DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM ON DRINKING WATER QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The Safe Drinking Water Act and its Amendments has focused interest on the factors that cause the deterioration of water between the treatment plant and the consumer. The distribution system itself can contribute to this deterioration. Numerous examples of waterborne disease outb...

337

Reducing Disinfection By-Products in Small Drinking Water Systems  

E-print Network

Reducing Disinfection By-Products in Small Drinking Water Systems by M. Robin Collins, James P Public Water Systems...Protecting Public Health #12;#12;4 Disinfection Byproducts Formation NOM + Disinfectant = DBPs NOM=Natural Organic Matter=Organic Precursor Disinfectants=Chlorine, Chloramination, UV

338

UNREGULATED DRINKING WATER CONTAMINANTS AND INNOVATIVE APPROACHES FOR DETERMINING NEUROTOXICITY  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA's Office of Water (OW) is concerned about potential neurotoxicity of monomethyl, dimethyl, monobutyl, and dibutyl organotins that can leach into drinking water from PVC pipe. NTD?s evaluation of these organotins indicated that they were not likely to be a significant risk at ...

339

SAFE DRINKING WATER FOR THE LITTLE GUY: OPTIONS AND ALTERNATIVES  

EPA Science Inventory

The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) and its Amendments sets regulations applicable to all community water systems that have 15 or more service connections and/or serve at least 25 people. t first glance, this may appear most inclusive, but in reality there are numerous private hom...

340

SMALL DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR COMPLIANCE WITH THE ENHANCED SURFACE WATER TREATMENT RULES  

EPA Science Inventory

According to FY2003 statistics compiled by the Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, the U.S. regulates about 160,000 small drinking water systems that impact close to 70 million people. Small systems (serving transient and non-transient populations of 10,000 people or less...

341

Electricity price and Southern California’s water supply options  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper evaluates the impact of fluctuating electricity prices on the cost of five options to increase the water supply to urban areas in Southern California—new surface storage, water purchases, desalination, wastewater recycling, and conservation.We show that the price of electricity required to produce and transport water influences the cost of water supply options and may alter the decision makers

Larry Dale

2004-01-01

342

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION STAFF COOLING WATER MANAGEMENT  

E-print Network

1 CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION STAFF COOLING WATER MANAGEMENT PROGRAM WATER MANAGEMENT PROGRAM GUIDELINES for Wet and Hybrid Cooling Towers at Power Plants May 17, 2004 A widely distributed in man-made water systems. It is the principal cause of Legionellosis, otherwise known

343

STATE OF CALIFORNIA DOMESTIC HOT WATER (DHW)  

E-print Network

STATE OF CALIFORNIA DOMESTIC HOT WATER (DHW) CEC- CF-6R-MECH-01 (Revised 08/09) CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION INSTALLATION CERTIFICATE CF-6R-MECH-01 Domestic Hot Water (DHW) (Page 1 of 3) Site Address: Enforcement Agency: Permit Number: 2008 Residential Compliance Forms August 2009 1. WATER HEATING SYSTEMS

344

Water, Water Everywhere, But Not a Drop to Drink: Pani Politics (Water Politics) in Rural Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article looks at the nature of water politics (pani politics) in the context of arsenic contamination of drinking water in rural Bangladesh. Pani politics is found to be a product of intersecting similarities and differences among women and men, where water comes to have material and symbolic power that people can exercise, which can lead to conflicts, marginalization and

Farhana Sultana

2007-01-01

345

78 FR 28242 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act On May 7, 2013, the Department of Justice lodged...Carmen Aurea Fernandez Ramos for violations of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) and the Surface Water Treatment...

2013-05-14

346

75 FR 40925 - National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Parts 141 and 142 National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform...RIN 2040-AD94 National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform...g., Public Notification and Ground Water Rules). These proposed revisions...

2010-07-14

347

Estimating effects of improved drinking water and sanitation on cholera.  

PubMed

Demand for adequate provision of drinking-water and sanitation facilities to promote public health and economic growth is increasing in the rapidly urbanizing countries of the developing world. With a panel of data on Asia and Africa from 1990 to 2008, associations are estimated between the occurrence of cholera outbreaks, the case rates in given outbreaks, the mortality rates associated with cholera and two disease control mechanisms, drinking-water and sanitation services. A statistically significant and negative effect is found between drinking-water services and both cholera case rates as well as cholera-related mortality rates. A relatively weak statistical relationship is found between the occurrence of cholera outbreaks and sanitation services. PMID:24334841

Leidner, Andrew J; Adusumilli, Naveen C

2013-12-01

348

Postexercise rehydration: potassium-rich drinks versus water and a sports drink.  

PubMed

Fluid retention, thirst quenching, tolerance, and palatability of different drinks were assessed. On 4 different days, 12 healthy, physically active volunteers (24.4 ± 3.2 years old, 74.75 ± 11.36 kg body mass (mean ± S.D)), were dehydrated to 2.10% ± 0.24% body mass by exercising in an environmental chamber (32.0 ± 0.4 °C dry bulb, 53.8 ± 5.2% relative humidity). Each day they drank 1 of 4 beverages in random order: fresh coconut water (FCW), bottled water (W), sports drink (SD), or potassium-rich drink (NEW); volume was 120% of weight loss. Urine was collected and perceptions self-reported for 3 h. Urine output was higher (p < 0.05) for W (894 ± 178 mL) than SD (605 ± 297 mL) and NEW (599 ± 254 mL). FCW (686 ± 250 mL) was not different from any other drink (p > 0.05). Fluid retention was higher for SD than W (68.2% ± 13.0% vs. 51.3% ± 12.6%, p = 0.013), but not for FCW and NEW (62.5% ± 15.4% and 65.9% ± 15.4%, p > 0.05). All beverages were palatable and well tolerated; none maintained a positive net fluid balance after 3 h, but deficit was greater in W versus SD (p = 0.001). FCW scored higher for sweetness (p = 0.03). Thirst increased immediately after exercise but returned to baseline after drinking a small volume (p < 0.0005). In conclusion, additional potassium in FCW and NEW did not result in additional rehydration benefits over those already found in a conventional sports drink with sodium. PMID:25017113

Pérez-Idárraga, Alexandra; Aragón-Vargas, Luis Fernando

2014-10-01

349

Accumulation of arsenic in drinking water distribution systems.  

PubMed

The tendency for iron solid surfaces to adsorb arsenic is well-known and has become the basis for several drinking water treatment approaches that remove arsenic. It is reasonable to assume that iron-based solids, such as corrosion deposits present in drinking water distribution systems, have similar adsorptive properties and could therefore concentrate arsenic and potentially re-release it into the distribution system. The arsenic composition of solids collected from drinking water distribution systems (pipe sections and hydrant flush solids), where the waters had measurable amounts of arsenic in their treated water, were determined. The elemental composition and mineralogy of 67 solid samples collected from 15 drinking water utilities located in Ohio (7), Michigan (7), and Indiana (1) were also determined. The arsenic content of these solids ranged from 10 to 13 650 microg of As/g of solid (as high as 1.37 wt %), and the major element of most solids was iron. Significant amounts of arsenic were even found in solids from systems that were exposed to relatively low concentrations of arsenic (<10 microg/L) in the water. PMID:15543738

Lytle, Darren A; Sorg, Thomas J; Frietch, Christy

2004-10-15

350

Use of activated carbon to remove radon from drinking water  

SciTech Connect

The project studied the feasibility of using granular activated carbon (GAC) as a point-of-entry treatment method to remove radon from individual drinking water supplies. The project included an experimental determination of the removal fraction for radon from drinking water by GAC. The experimental design consisted of flowing radon laden water through a GAC column, measuring the inlet and outlet concentrations of radon in the water, and measuring the activity of 210 Pb in slices of GAC from the column. The results of the work indicated a removal fraction of radon from drinking water of approximately 0.95. The results also indicated that nearly 100% of the 210 Pb produced from the decay of the radon was retained on the GAC. It appears that GAC systems could be used to remove radon from most individual North Carolina water supplies without the GAC being classified as low-level radioactive waste (based on a criterion of 2,000 pCi/g) if the GAC occasionally is replaced. More restrictive requirements on the disposal of solid waste containing natural radionuclides would limit the feasibility of using GAC to remove radon from drinking water.

Watson, J.E.; Crawford-Brown, D.J.

1991-09-01

351

78 FR 22540 - Notice of Public Meeting/Webinar: EPA Method Development Update on Drinking Water Testing Methods...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...EPA Method Development Update on Drinking Water Testing Methods for Contaminant...EPA) Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, Standards and Risk Management...for unregulated contaminants in drinking water that are, or are being...

2013-04-16

352

Drinking water disinfection byproducts: review and approach to toxicity evaluation.  

PubMed Central

There is widespread potential for human exposure to disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in drinking water because everyone drinks, bathes, cooks, and cleans with water. The need for clean and safe water led the U.S. Congress to pass the Safe Drinking Water Act more than 20 years ago in 1974. In 1976, chloroform, a trihalomethane (THM) and a principal DBP, was shown to be carcinogenic in rodents. This prompted the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) in 1979 to develop a drinking water rule that would provide guidance on the levels of THMs allowed in drinking water. Further concern was raised by epidemiology studies suggesting a weak association between the consumption of chlorinated drinking water and the occurrence of bladder, colon, and rectal cancer. In 1992 the U.S. EPA initiated a negotiated rulemaking to evaluate the need for additional controls for microbial pathogens and DBPs. The goal was to develop an approach that would reduce the level of exposure from disinfectants and DBPs without undermining the control of microbial pathogens. The product of these deliberations was a proposed stage 1 DBP rule. It was agreed that additional information was necessary on how to optimize the use of disinfectants while maintaining control of pathogens before further controls to reduce exposure beyond stage 1 were warranted. In response to this need, the U.S. EPA developed a 5-year research plan to support the development of the longer term rules to control microbial pathogens and DBPs. A considerable body of toxicologic data has been developed on DBPs that occur in the drinking water, but the main emphasis has been on THMs. Given the complexity of the problem and the need for additional data to support the drinking water DBP rules, the U.S. EPA, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, and the U.S. Army are working together to develop a comprehensive biologic and mechanistic DBP database. Selected DBPs will be tested using 2-year toxicity and carcinogenicity studies in standard rodent models; transgenic mouse models and small fish models; in vitro mechanistic and toxicokinetic studies; and reproductive, immunotoxicity, and developmental studies. The goal is to create a toxicity database that reflects a wide range of DBPs resulting from different disinfection practices. This paper describes the approach developed by these agencies to provide the information needed to make scientifically based regulatory decisions. Images Figure 3 PMID:10229719

Boorman, G A

1999-01-01

353

40 CFR 142.19 - EPA review of State implementation of national primary drinking water regulations for lead and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...implementation of national primary drinking water regulations for lead and copper. 142...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION Primary...

2012-07-01

354

40 CFR 142.19 - EPA review of State implementation of national primary drinking water regulations for lead and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...implementation of national primary drinking water regulations for lead and copper. 142...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION Primary...

2011-07-01

355

40 CFR 142.19 - EPA review of State implementation of national primary drinking water regulations for lead and...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...implementation of national primary drinking water regulations for lead and copper. 142...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION Primary...

2010-07-01

356

Assessing the Microbial Quality of Improved Drinking Water Sources: Results from the Dominican Republic  

PubMed Central

Millennium Development Goal Target 7c (to halve between 1990 and 2015 the proportion of the global population without sustainable access to safe drinking water), was celebrated as achieved in 2012. However, new studies show that we may be prematurely celebrating. Access to safe drinking water may be overestimated if microbial water quality is considered. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between microbial drinking water quality and drinking water source in the Puerto Plata region of the Dominican Republic. This study analyzed microbial drinking water quality data from 409 households in 33 communities. Results showed that 47% of improved drinking water sources were of high to very-high risk water quality, and therefore unsafe for drinking. This study provides evidence that the current estimate of safe water access may be overly optimistic, and microbial water quality data are needed to reliably assess the safety of drinking water. PMID:24218411

Baum, Rachel; Kayser, Georgia; Stauber, Christine; Sobsey, Mark

2014-01-01

357

Assessing the microbial quality of improved drinking water sources: results from the Dominican Republic.  

PubMed

Millennium Development Goal Target 7c (to halve between 1990 and 2015 the proportion of the global population without sustainable access to safe drinking water), was celebrated as achieved in 2012. However, new studies show that we may be prematurely celebrating. Access to safe drinking water may be overestimated if microbial water quality is considered. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between microbial drinking water quality and drinking water source in the Puerto Plata region of the Dominican Republic. This study analyzed microbial drinking water quality data from 409 households in 33 communities. Results showed that 47% of improved drinking water sources were of high to very-high risk water quality, and therefore unsafe for drinking. This study provides evidence that the current estimate of safe water access may be overly optimistic, and microbial water quality data are needed to reliably assess the safety of drinking water. PMID:24218411

Baum, Rachel; Kayser, Georgia; Stauber, Christine; Sobsey, Mark

2014-01-01

358

Introduction Global demand for drinking water  

E-print Network

perceptions and an important coping strategy, bottled water consumption, of Phoenix Downtown Market vendors assess how socio-demographic factors influence respondent's water quality index and bottled water% use bottled water Demographics, Immigration, and Tap Water Quality Perceptions in the Phoenix

Hall, Sharon J.

359

New Perspectives in Monitoring Drinking Water Microbial Quality  

PubMed Central

The safety of drinking water is evaluated by the results obtained from faecal indicators during the stipulated controls fixed by the legislation. However, drinking-water related illness outbreaks are still occurring worldwide. The failures that lead to these outbreaks are relatively common and typically involve preceding heavy rain and inadequate disinfection processes. The role that classical faecal indicators have played in the protection of public health is reviewed and the turning points expected for the future explored. The legislation for protecting the quality of drinking water in Europe is under revision, and the planned modifications include an update of current indicators and methods as well as the introduction of Water Safety Plans (WSPs), in line with WHO recommendations. The principles of the WSP approach and the advances signified by the introduction of these preventive measures in the future improvement of dinking water quality are presented. The expected impact that climate change will have in the quality of drinking water is also critically evaluated. PMID:21318002

Figueras, Ma José; Borrego, Juan J.

2010-01-01

360

Evaluation of ATP measurements to detect microbial ingress by wastewater and surface water in drinking water.  

PubMed

Fast and reliable methods are required for monitoring of microbial drinking water quality in order to protect public health. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was investigated as a potential real-time parameter for detecting microbial ingress in drinking water contaminated with wastewater or surface water. To investigate the ability of the ATP assay in detecting different contamination types, the contaminant was diluted with non-chlorinated drinking water. Wastewater, diluted at 10(4) in drinking water, was detected with the ATP assay, as well as 10(2) to 10(3) times diluted surface water. To improve the performance of the ATP assay in detecting microbial ingress in drinking water, different approaches were investigated, i.e. quantifying microbial ATP or applying reagents of different sensitivities to reduce measurement variations; however, none of these approaches contributed significantly in this respect. Compared to traditional microbiological methods, the ATP assay could detect wastewater and surface water in drinking water to a higher degree than total direct counts (TDCs), while both heterotrophic plate counts (HPC 22 °C and HPC 37 °C) and Colilert-18 (Escherichia coli and coliforms) were more sensitive than the ATP measurements, though with much longer response times. Continuous sampling combined with ATP measurements displays definite monitoring potential for microbial drinking water quality, since microbial ingress in drinking water can be detected in real-time with ATP measurements. The ability of the ATP assay to detect microbial ingress is influenced by both the ATP load from the contaminant itself and the ATP concentration in the specific drinking water. Consequently, a low ATP concentration of the specific drinking water facilitates a better detection of a potential contamination of the water supply with the ATP assay. PMID:25086698

Vang, Óluva K; Corfitzen, Charlotte B; Smith, Christian; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

2014-11-01

361

Recent advances in drinking water disinfection: successes and challenges.  

PubMed

Drinking water is the most important single source of human exposure to gastroenteric diseases, mainly as a result of the ingestion of microbial contaminated water. Waterborne microbial agents that pose a health risk to humans include enteropathogenic bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. Therefore, properly assessing whether these hazardous agents enter drinking water supplies, and if they do, whether they are disinfected adequately, are undoubtedly aspects critical to protecting public health. As new pathogens emerge, monitoring for relevant indicator microorganisms (e.g., process microbial indicators, fecal indicators, and index and model organisms) is crucial to ensuring drinking water safety. Another crucially important step to maintaining public health is implementing Water Safety Plans (WSPs), as is recommended by the current WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. Good WSPs include creating health-based targets that aim to reduce microbial risks and adverse health effects to which a population is exposed through drinking water. The use of disinfectants to inactivate microbial pathogens in drinking water has played a central role in reducing the incidence of waterborne diseases and is considered to be among the most successful interventions for preserving and promoting public health. Chlorine-based disinfectants are the most commonly used disinfectants and are cheap and easy to use. Free chlorine is an effective disinfectant for bacteria and viruses; however, it is not always effective against C. parvum and G. lamblia. Another limitation of using chlorination is that it produces disinfection by-products (DBPs), which pose potential health risks of their own. Currently, most drinking water regulations aggressively address DBP problems in public water distribution systems. The DBPs of most concern include the trihalomethanes (THMs), the haloacetic acids (HAAs), bromate, and chlorite. However, in the latest edition of the WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality, it is recommended that water disinfection should never be compromised by attempting to control DBPs. The reason for this is that the risks of human illness and death from pathogens in drinking water are much greater than the risks from exposure to disinfectants and disinfection by-products. Nevertheless, if DBP levels exceed regulatory limits, strategies should focus on eliminating organic impurities that foster their formation, without compromising disinfection. As alternatives to chlorine, disinfectants such as chloramines, ozone, chlorine dioxide, and UV disinfection are gaining popularity. Chlorine and each of these disinfectants have individual advantage and disadvantage in terms of cost, efficacy-stability, ease of application, and nature of disinfectant by-products (DBPs). Based on efficiency, ozone is the most efficient disinfectant for inactivating bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. In contrast, chloramines are the least efficient and are not recommended for use as primary disinfectants. Chloramines are favored for secondary water disinfection, because they react more slowly than chlorine and are more persistent in distribution systems. In addition, chloramines produce lower DBP levels than does chlorine, although microbial activity in the distribution system may produce nitrate from monochloramine, when it is used as a residual disinfectant, Achieving the required levels of water quality, particularly microbial inactivation levels, while minimizing DBP formation requires the application of proper risk and disinfection management protocols. In addition, the failure of conventional treatment processes to eliminate critical waterborne pathogens in drinking water demand that improved and/or new disinfection technologies be developed. Recent research has disclosed that nanotechnology may offer solutions in this area, through the use of nanosorbents, nanocatalysts, bioactive nanoparticles, nanostructured catalytic membranes, and nanoparticle-enhanced filtration. PMID:22990947

Ngwenya, Nonhlanhla; Ncube, Esper J; Parsons, James

2013-01-01

362

[Moulds and yeasts in bottled water and soft drinks].  

PubMed

Some damaged cartons of soft drinks and carbonated water were analyzed to detect the microorganisms that caused the damage. The contaminants of sugar used in the production of one of the drinks were also studied. The methods of Déak & Beuchat and Pitt & Hocking were used for the identification of yeasts and moulds, respectively. The agents of the spoilage of soft drinks were Debaryomyces hansenii, Debaryomyces polymorphus, Galactomyces geotrichum, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Mucor circinelloides, Pichia anomala, Pichia jadinii, Pichia subpelliculosa, Rhodotorula glutinis and Zygosaccharomyces bailii. The microorganisms found in sugar were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus penicilloides, Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Mucor racemosus, P. anomala and Rhizopus stolonifer. Paecilomyces fulvus and Penicillium glabrum were observed in carbonated water. PMID:17037258

Ancasi, E G; Carrillo, L; Benítez Ahrendts, M R

2006-01-01

363

77 FR 61027 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act and Safe Drinking Water Act  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Under the Clean Water Act and Safe Drinking Water Act On September 28, 2012, the...of the Clean Water Act and Safe Drinking Water Act at mobile home parks operated...defendants treat sewage and provide drinking water at a number of its mobile...

2012-10-05

364

[Hygienic bases for management of bottled drinking water quality].  

PubMed

The paper analyzes the existing normative requirements, by controlling the packaged drinking waters versus tap water; substantiates additions into a list, the regulated levels of a number of indices for this type of products, including those for the waters designed for babies, and the narrowed list of indices for state control. To assure the high quality of finished products, it is shown to be important to perform a sanitary-and-epidemiological study of raw water for pouring and finished products in full conformity with normative documents and to use current water conditioning technologies by the level of major biogenic elements to have physiologically adequate waters of high quality. PMID:21842738

Rakhmanin, D V; Mikha?lova, R I

2011-01-01

365

Arsenic exposure to drinking water in the Mekong Delta.  

PubMed

Arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater drinking sources was investigated in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam in order to assess the occurrence of As in the groundwater, and the magnitude of As exposure of local residents through measurements of As in toenails of residents consuming groundwater as their major drinking water source. Groundwater (n=68) and toenail (n=62) samples were collected in Dong Thap Province, adjacent to the Mekong River, in southern Vietnam. Fifty-three percent (n=36) of the wells tested had As content above the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommended limit of 10ppb. Samples were divided into Northern (mean As=4.0ppb) and Southern (329.0ppb) groups; wells from the Southern group were located closer to the Mekong River. Elevated As contents were associated with depth (<200m), salinity (low salinity), and redox state (reducing conditions) of the study groundwater. In 79% of the wells, As was primarily composed of the reduced As(III) species. Arsenic content in nails collected from local residents was significantly correlated to As in drinking water (r=0.49, p<0.001), and the relationship improved for pairs in which As in drinking water was higher than 1ppb (r=0.56, p<0.001). Survey data show that the ratio of As in nail to As in water varied among residents, reflecting differential As bioaccumulation in specific exposed sub-populations. The data show that water filtration and diet, particularly increased consumption of animal protein and dairy, and reduced consumption of seafood, were associated with lower ratios of As in nail to As in water and thus could play important roles in mitigating As exposure in areas where As-rich groundwater is the primary drinking water source. PMID:25585157

Merola, R B; Hien, T T; Quyen, D T T; Vengosh, A

2015-04-01

366

MEETING THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE U.S. SAFE DRINKING WATER ACT: THE ROLE OF TECHNOLOGY  

EPA Science Inventory

The passage of the U.S. Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) in 1974 has had a major impact on the way water is treated and delivered in the United States. The Act established national drinking water regulations for more than 170,000 public drinking water systems serving over 250 mill...

367

Demineralization of drinking water: Is it prudent?  

PubMed

Water is the elixir of life. The requirement of water for very existence of life and preservation of health has driven man to devise methods for maintaining its purity and wholesomeness. The water can get contaminated, polluted and become a potential hazard to human health. Water in its purest form devoid of natural minerals can also be the other end of spectrum where health could be adversely affected. Limited availability of fresh water and increased requirements has led to an increased usage of personal, domestic and commercial methods of purification of water. Desalination of saline water where fresh water is in limited supply has led to development of the latest technology of reverse osmosis but is it going to be safe to use such demineralized water over a long duration needs to be debated and discussed. PMID:25382914

Verma, K C; Kushwaha, A S

2014-10-01

368

Arsenic in Drinking Water in Bangladesh: Factors Affecting Child Health  

PubMed Central

The focus of this paper is to present an empirical model of factors affecting child health by observing actions households take to avoid exposure to arsenic in drinking water. Millions of Bangladeshis face multiple health hazards from high levels of arsenic in drinking water. Safe water sources are either expensive or difficult to access, affecting people’s individuals’ time available for work and ultimately affecting the health of household members. Since children are particularly susceptible and live with parents who are primary decision makers for sustenance, parental actions linking child health outcomes is used in the empirical model. Empirical results suggest that child health is significantly affected by the age and gender of the household water procurer. Adults with a high degree of concern for children’s health risk from arsenic contamination, and who actively mitigate their arsenic contaminated water have a positive effect on child health. PMID:24982854

Aziz, Sonia N.; Aziz, Khwaja M. S.; Boyle, Kevin J.

2014-01-01

369

Quality control of bottled and vended water in California: A review and comparison to tap water  

SciTech Connect

Current regulations and compliance for quality control of bottled and vended water in California are compared with that of the tap water industry in this research. Over 35% of the bottled water sold in the US is consumed in California where a third of the residents use such water as a primary source of drinking water. California is one of several states that regulates bottled water more rigorously than the federal government. In California, water quality standards for the two industries are comparable except that many of the organic standards for bottled water are applicable only to the source water, a concern due to potential organic contamination during processing. Reporting requirements, significantly less stringent for bottled water, allow considerable latitude in assessing risks and make assessment of compliance difficult. Based on available statistics, compliance for the two industries is comparable; the majority of violations posed no health risks. For both industries, small systems comprised the majority of violations whereas large systems had excellent compliance rates.

Darby, J.L. (Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering); Allen, L.

1994-04-01

370

Evaluation of Minerals Content of Drinking Water in Malaysia  

PubMed Central

The drinking and mineral water samples obtained from different geographical locations had concentrations of the selected minerals lower than the standard limits, except for manganese, arsenic, and fluoride. The concentrations of manganese and arsenic in two mineral water samples were slightly higher than the standard international recommended limits. One mineral water sample had a fluoride concentration higher than the standard limits, whereas manganese was not detected in nine drinking and mineral water samples. Most of the selected minerals found in the tap water samples were below the international standard limits, except for iron and manganese. The concentrations of iron and manganese in the tap water samples were higher than the standard limits, which were obtained from one and three of the studied locations, respectively. The potable water obtained from various manufacturers and locations in Peninsular Malaysia is safe for consumption, as the minerals concentrations were below the standard limits prescribed by the Malaysian Food Regulations of 1985. The data obtained may also provide important information related to daily intake of these minerals from drinking water. PMID:22649292

Azlan, Azrina; Khoo, Hock Eng; Idris, Mohd Aizat; Ismail, Amin; Razman, Muhammad Rizal

2012-01-01

371

Removal of alkanes from drinking water using membrane technologies  

SciTech Connect

Increasingly, the public is concerned about the quality of its drinking water. The chlorinated alkanes are saturated, aliphatic, synthetic organic compounds (SOC`s). When hydrocarbon feedstocks are chlorinated, a wide variety of chlorocarbons and chlorohydrocarbons are produced that are used as industrial solvents, degreasers and intermediaries. Because compounds such as Carbon Tetrachloride and 1,2-Dichloroethane are widely used, they often find their way into drinking water, particularly groundwaters. Surface waters are somewhat less affected bemuse of the high volatility of many chlorinated alkanes. The Drinking Water Research Division is responsible for evaluating various membrane technologies that may be feasible for meeting Maximum Contaminant Levels. Several membrane processes are under investigation to determine their effectiveness in removing SOC`s from drinking water. One study addressed the removal of a variety of alkanes from spiked groundwater by six reverse osmosis membranes: a cellulose acetate, a polyamide (hollow fiber), and four different types of thin-film composite membranes. Progressive chlorination of methanes, ethanes and propanes produces compounds that exhibit differing physicochemical properties. The differences in compound properties have an effect on the removal of these compounds by reverse osmosis membranes. For example only 25% of the methylene chloride (Dichloromethane) was removed by one thin-film composite versus 90% removal of the carbon tetrachloride. In addition, the various membranes are made of different polymeric materials and showed a wide range of removals. Generally, the thin-film composite membranes out performed the other membranes and the more highly chlorinated the compound the better the removal. Pervaporation is yet another membrane process that may prove effective in removal of alkanes and future studies will address its usefulness as a drinking water.

Fronk, C.A. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1995-10-01

372

Fluorometric determination of the DNA concentration in municipal drinking water.  

PubMed Central

DNA concentrations in municipal drinking water samples were measured by fluorometry, using Hoechst 33258 fluorochrome. The concentration, extraction, and detection methods used were adapted from existing techniques. The method is reproducible, fast, accurate, and simple. The amounts of DNA per cell for five different bacterial isolates obtained from drinking water samples were determined by measuring DNA concentration and total cell concentration (acridine orange epifluorescence direct cell counting) in stationary pure cultures. The relationship between DNA concentration and epifluorescence total direct cell concentration in 11 different drinking water samples was linear and positive; the amounts of DNA per cell in these samples did not differ significantly from the amounts in pure culture isolates. We found significant linear correlations between DNA concentration and colony-forming unit concentration, as well as between epifluorescence direct cell counts and colony-forming unit concentration. DNA concentration measurements of municipal drinking water samples appear to monitor changes in bacteriological quality at least as well as total heterotrophic plate counting and epifluorescence direct cell counting. PMID:3890737

McCoy, W F; Olson, B H

1985-01-01

373

DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS AND DURATION OF GESTATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent studies of drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs) suggest high exposure decreases risk of preterm birth. We examined this association with total trihalomethane (TTHM) and five haloacetic acids (HAA5) among 2,041 women in a prospective pregnancy study conducted from...

374

MODELING DISINFECTANT RESIDUALS IN DRINKING-WATER STORAGE TANKS  

EPA Science Inventory

The factors leading to the loss of disinfectant residual in well-mixed drinking-water storage tanks are studied. Equations relating disinfectant residual to the disinfectant's reation rate, the tank volume, and the fill and drain rates are presented. An analytical solution for ...

375

MODELING DISINFECTANT RESIDUALS IN DRINKING-WATER STORAGE TANKS  

EPA Science Inventory

The factors leading to the loss of disinfectant residual in well-mixed drinking-water storage tanks are studied. quations relating disinfectant residual to the disinfectant's reaction rate, the tank volume, and the fill and drain rates are presented. n analytical solution for the...

376

REMOVING ESOTERIC CONTAMINANTS FROM DRINKING WATERS: IMPACTS OF TREATMENT IMPLEMENTATION  

EPA Science Inventory

At first blush, the production and distribution of drinking water seems to be a very straight forward process. There is a need to remove microbial agents and any anthropogenic or autochthonous contaminants that may be of health concern. Finally, a disinfectant is usually added to...

377

Acinetobacter calcoaceticus plays a bridging function in drinking water biofilms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intergeneric coaggregation of six drinking water autochthonous heterotrophic bacteria isolated from a model laboratory system were tested for their ability to coaggregate by a visual assay and by two microscopic techniques (epifluorescence and scanning electron microscopies). One isolate, identified as Acinetobacter calcoacticus, was found not only to autoaggregate, but also to coaggregate with four of the five other isolates (Burkholderia

Lúcia Chaves Simões; Manuel Simões; Maria João Vieira

378

Potential Relationships Between Hydraulic Fracturing and Drinking Water Resources  

EPA Science Inventory

The conferees urge the Agency to carry out a study on the relationship between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water, using a credible approach that relies on the best available science, as well as independent sources of information. The conferees expect the study to be conduct...

379

PRESCRIBED PROCEDURES FOR MEASUREMENT OF RADIOACTIVITY IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Appropriate radiochemical procedures have been complied in a laboratory manual for use in the analysis of gross alpha activity, gross beta activity, 134/137Cs, 131I, 226/228Ra, 89,90Sr, 3H, uranium, and the actinide elements, in drinking water. These methods possess the necessary...

380

METHODS FOR REMOVING URANIUM FROM DRINKING WATER (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

The number of water supplies with high uranium levels and the possibility of a national uranium regulation has stimulated greater interest in uranium removal technology. The paper summarizes recent information on the effectiveness of various methods for uranium removal from drink...

381

Emerging Contaminants in the Drinking Water Cycle - MCEARD  

EPA Science Inventory

In the past decade, the scientific community and general public have become increasingly aware of the potential for the presence of unregulated, and generally unmonitored contaminants, found at low concentrations (sub-¿g/L) in surface, ground and drinking water. The most common...

382

Decontamination Methods For Drinking Water Treatment And Distribution Systems  

EPA Science Inventory

Once contamination has occurred in drinking water systems and the contaminated segment has been isolated from other parts of the system, there will be great urgency to decontaminate the areas as rapidly and cost effectively as possible. This article describes available and deve...

383

Disinfection by-products in Canadian drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Halogenated disinfection by-products were determined in Canadian drinking water supplies where chlorine was used at some stage in the treatment process. The effects of applied disinfectants (chlorine, chloramine and ozone), seasonal variation (winter and summer) and spatial variation (treatment plant and distribution system) were examined. Chloroform, dichloroacetic acid and trichloroacetic acid were the major disinfection by-products found in all treated

David T. Williams; Guy L. LeBel; Frank M. Benoit

1997-01-01

384

EVALUATION OF 'BACTEROIDES' AS INDICATOR BACTERIA IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The research project is concerned with the development of more rapid and sensitive procedures to determine the quality of drinking water. The specific objective of the project was to evaluate the use of a new group of indicator bacteria for assessing fecal contamination of drinki...

385

MODELING CHLORINE RESIDUALS IN DRINKING-WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

A mass-transfer-based model is developed for predicting chlorine decay in drinking-water distribution networks. The model considers first-order reactions of chlorine to occur both in the bulk flow and at the pipe wall. The overall rate of the wall reaction is a function of the ...

386

MODELING CHLORINE RESIDUALS IN DRINKING-WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

A mass transfer-based model is developed for predicting chlorine decay in drinking water distribution networks. he model considers first order reactions of chlorine to occur both in the bulk flow and at the pipe wall. he overall rate of the wall reaction is a function of the rate...

387

URBAN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS: A U.S. PERSPECTIVE  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper will examine several case studies that illustrate the critical role drinking water treatment and distribution systems play in protecting public health. It will also present a case study that documents the dramatic impact that the regulations promulgated under the Safe...

388

MOLECULAR DIVERSITY OF DRINKING WATER MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES: A PHYLOGENETIC APPROACH  

EPA Science Inventory

The microbiological quality of drinking water is assessed using culture-based methods that are highly selective and that tend to underestimate the densities and diversity of microbial populations inhabiting distribution systems. In order to better understand the effect of differe...

389

COMPARATIVE RISK DILEMNAS IN DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION [EDITORIAL  

EPA Science Inventory

Disinfection of drinking water supplies has been one of the most succesful public health interventions of the twentieth century. It has virtually eliminated outbreaks of serious waterborne infectious diseases, such as cholera and typhoid. there are still, however, an average of...

390

DBP CONTROL IN DRINKING WATER: COST AND PERFORMANCE  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S.EPA) is:currently attempting to balance the complex tradeoff in chemical and microbial risk associated with controlling disinfection and disinfection by-products (D/DBP) in drinking water. n attempting to achieve this balance, the U.S...

391

DBP CONTROL IN DRINKING WATER: COST AND PERFORMANCE  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) is currently attempting to balance the complex trade-offs in chemical and microbial risks associated with controlling disinfection and disinfection byproducts (D/DBP) in drinking water. In attempting to achieve this balance, the...

392

ELECTRO-REGENERATED ION-EXCHANGE DEIONIZATION OF DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents the development of a device for removal of inorganic salts from drinking water to facilitate the subsequent concentration of organic solutes for bioassay. Prior attempts to concentrate the organic solutes by reverse osmosis (RO) resulted in precipitation of t...

393

Drinking Water Activities for Students, Teachers, and Parents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide provides teachers with materials, information, and classroom activities to enhance any drinking water curriculum. Students can use the activity sheets to further lessons and stimulate thought. Parents can use the guide to develop science projects that will provoke thought, encourage research, and provide a scientific approach to…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

394

REAL-TIME REMOTE MONITORING OF DRINKING WATER QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Over the past eight years, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD) has funded the testing and evaluation of various online "real-time" technologies for monitoring drinking water quality. The events of 9/11 and subsequent threats t...

395

ABSORPTION OF LEAD FROM DRINKING WATER WITH VARYING MINERAL CONTENT  

EPA Science Inventory

Lead (Pb) (200 ppm) was administered via drinking water to rats for nine weeks. In addition, the rats were grouped so that they received 75, 100, 150 and 250% of the minimum daily requirements (MDR) of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), and magnesium (Mg) as required for normal growth. The...

396

EFFECT OF BROMIDE ON CHLORINATION BYPRODUCTS IN FINISHED DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

To investigate the role of bromide ion concentration on formation and speciation of non-THMs chlorination organic byproducts, a two block full factorial matrix was designed to statistically evaluate the influence of various parameters which are relevant to drinking water treatmen...

397

Environmental health perspectives. Volume 46. Drinking water disinfectants - December 1982  

SciTech Connect

Among subjects considered are chlorine dioxide, N-chloramines, mutagenic activity by disinfectant reaction products, trihalomethane and behavioral toxicity, and carcinogenic risk estimation. There are 27 papers on these and related topics. The volume stems from a symposium on drinking water disinfectants and disinfectant by-products.

Lucier, G.W.; Hook, G.E.R. (eds.)

1982-01-01

398

ENUMERATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF HETEROTROPHIC BACTERIA FROM DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Various spread-plating enumeration media and procedures have been tested to determine the method of choice for the enumeration of the highest numbers of heterotrophic bacteria from chlorinated drinking waters. Dilute media, including a caseinate peptone starch medium, a dilute pe...

399

Detection of Heavy Metal Ions in Drinking Water Using a  

E-print Network

Detection of Heavy Metal Ions in Drinking Water Using a High-Resolution Differential Surface-resolution differential surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor for heavy metal ion detection. The sensor surface using this sensor. Introduction The detection and quantification of heavy metal ions are important

Chen, Wilfred

400

ELEVATED LEVELS OF SODIUM IN COMMUNITY DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

A comparison study of students from towns with differing levels of sodium in drinking water revealed statistically significantly higher blood pressure distributions among the students from the town with high sodium levels. Differences were found in both systolic and diastolic rea...

401

PRESENCE-ABSENCE COLIFORM TEST IN MONITORING DRINKING WATER QUALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

Data from four comparative studies were analyzed to compare the recovery of total coliform bacteria from drinking water using the presence-absence test, the multiple fermentation tube procedure and the membrane filter technique. ombined recoveries showed the presence-absence test...

402

Dimethylamine biodegradation by mixed culture enriched from drinking water biofilter.  

PubMed

Dimethylamine (DMA) is one of the important precursors of drinking water disinfection by-product N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). Reduction of DMA to minimize the formation of carcinogenic NDMA in drinking water is of practical importance. Biodegradation plays a major role in elimination of DMA pollution in the environment, yet information on DMA removal by drinking water biofilter is still lacking. In this study, microcosms with different treatments were constructed to investigate the potential of DMA removal by a mixed culture enriched from a drinking water biofilter and the effects of carbon and nitrogen sources. DMA could be quickly mineralized by the enrichment culture. Amendment of a carbon source, instead of a nitrogen source, had a profound impact on DMA removal. A shift in bacterial community structure was observed with DMA biodegradation, affected by carbon and nitrogen sources. Proteobacteria was the predominant phylum group in DMA-degrading microcosms. Microorganisms from a variety of bacterial genera might be responsible for the rapid DMA mineralization. PMID:25280176

Liao, Xiaobin; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Jingxu; Dai, Yu; Zhang, Xiaojian; Xie, Shuguang

2015-01-01

403

Cancer risk analysis and assessment of trihalomethanes in drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study conducts risk assessment for an array of health effects that may result from exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs). An analysis of the relationship between exposure and health-related outcomes is conducted. The trihalomethanes (THMs) species have been verified as the principal DBPs in the drinking water disinfection process. The data used in this study was collected from the Taiwan

Han-Keng Lee; Yir-Yarn Yeh; Wei-Ming Chen

2006-01-01

404

Toxicologic Risk Assessment Issues for Drinking Water Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intent of this presentation is to review the studies conducted by the National Research Council (NRC) where risk assessment was the central theme and to present both a current view and some ideas for the future of risk assessment procedures for drinking water. Although the principal interest is in the use of toxicologic data in assessing risk, nonetheless, mention

Richard D. Thomas

1992-01-01

405

Nitrate removal from drinking water -- Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrate concentrations in surface water and especially in ground water have increased in Canada, the US, Europe, and other areas of the world. This trend has raised concern because nitrates cause methemoglobiinemia in infants. Several treatment processes including ion exchange, biological denitrification, chemical denitrification, reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, and catalytic denitrification can remove nitrates from water with varying degrees of efficiency,

Anoop Kapoor; T. Viraraghavan

1997-01-01

406

Water Everywhere: Is There Enough to Drink?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson focuses on water supply issues stemming from population growth and land use. Students can complete histograms on global water usage, create a water usage trivia game or campaign, write a "sinkhole" news article, examine an aquifer system, illustrate a desalination process and more!

Kim Burley (Lindsay Thurber Comprehensive High School; )

2002-05-01

407

40 CFR 2.304 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Safe Drinking Water Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...information obtained under the Safe Drinking Water Act. 2.304 Section 2...information obtained under the Safe Drinking Water Act. (a) Definitions. ...(1) Act means the Safe Drinking Water Act, 42 U.S.C. 300f et...

2010-07-01

408

77 FR 44562 - Public Meeting: Potential Regulatory Implications of the Reduction of Lead in Drinking Water Act...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Implications of the Reduction of Lead in Drinking Water Act of 2011 AGENCY: Environmental...from States, manufacturers, drinking water systems, other interested groups...implementation of the Reduction of Lead in Drinking Water Act of 2011 (``the...

2012-07-30

409

76 FR 33756 - Notice of Approval of the Primacy Application for National Primary Drinking Water Regulations for...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Application for National Primary Drinking Water Regulations for the State of Missouri...of Natural Resources, Public Drinking Water Branch, 1101 Riverside Drive...Wetlands and Pesticides Division, Drinking Water Management Branch, 901...

2011-06-09

410

TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY TO MEET THE INTERIM PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS FOR INORGANICS: PART 5  

EPA Science Inventory

The fifth in a series summarizing existing treatment technology to meet the inorganic National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations, this report describes current methods for removing barium and radionuclides from drinking water....

411

40 CFR 144.7 - Identification of underground sources of drinking water and exempted aquifers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

(a) The Director may identify (by narrative description, illustrations, maps, or other means) and shall protect as underground sources of drinking water, all aquifers and parts of aquifers which meet the definition of “underground source of drinking water” in §...

2013-07-01

412

A Visual Insight into the Degradation of Metals Used in Drinking Water Distribution Systems Using AFM  

EPA Science Inventory

Evaluating the fundamental corrosion and passivation of metallic copper used in drinking water distribution materials is important in understanding the overall mechanism of the corrosion process. Copper pipes are widely used for drinking water distribution systems and although it...

413

REMOVAL OF BERYLLIUM FROM DRINKING WATER BY CHEMICAL COAGULATION AND LIME SOFTENING  

EPA Science Inventory

The effectiveness of conventional drinking water treatment and lime softening was evaluated for beryllium removal from two drinking water sources. ar test studies were conducted to determine how common coagulants (aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride and lime softening performed ...

414

78 FR 65385 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Safe Drinking Water Act On Wednesday, October 23, 2013, the Department...DN. To settle the claims against it under the Safe Drinking Water Act (``SDWA''), Newfield Production...

2013-10-31

415

Treatment Technology to Meet the Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations for Inorganics: Part 3.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is the third in a series summarizing existing treatment technology to meet the inorganic National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations. This report deals specifically with treatment methods for removing cadmium, lead, and silver from drinking water. (CS)

Sorg, Thomas J.; And Others

1978-01-01

416

40 CFR 23.7 - Timing of Administrator's action under Safe Drinking Water Act.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Timing of Administrator's action under Safe Drinking Water Act. 23.7 Section 23.7 Protection of Environment...7 Timing of Administrator's action under Safe Drinking Water Act. Unless the Administrator otherwise...

2010-07-01

417

COMMUNITY HEALTH ASSOCIATED WITH ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER IN MILLARD COUNTY, UTAH  

EPA Science Inventory

This study evaluates the health effects of arsenic in drinking water at levels approximately four times the maximum allowed by the National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations. Physical examinations of 250 people included evaluating dermatological and neurological health, ...

418

SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF Fe IN DRINKING WATER Background Reading: Harris, 7th  

E-print Network

the iron content of drinking water to detect contaminants in drinking water can be determined spectrophotometrically, including iron. Although iron the presence of these low levels of iron spectrophotometrically. As is the case whenever trace quantities

Weston, Ken

419

40 CFR 144.82 - What must I do to protect underground sources of drinking water?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false What must I do to protect underground sources of drinking water? 144...CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Requirements...144.82 What must I do to protect underground sources of drinking...

2012-07-01

420

40 CFR 144.82 - What must I do to protect underground sources of drinking water?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false What must I do to protect underground sources of drinking water? 144...CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Requirements...144.82 What must I do to protect underground sources of drinking...

2013-07-01

421

40 CFR 144.82 - What must I do to protect underground sources of drinking water?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false What must I do to protect underground sources of drinking water? 144...CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Requirements...144.82 What must I do to protect underground sources of drinking...

2011-07-01

422

Determination of uranium in drinking water using a PERALS spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

The determination of uranium from natural water samples involves a lengthy and complicated process which is characterized by low recoveries and precision. Methods must incorporate the isolation of natural uranium isotopes ({sup 238}U and {sup 234}U) from other radionuclides, while purifying the samples to prevent organic and metal interferences. A new analysis method for uranium in drinking water has been proposed combining solvent extraction sample preparation and high-resolution, alpha-liquid-scintillation-spectrometric analysis for effective beta/gamma background rejection. The Photon Electron Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation spectrometer has a counting efficiency for alphas of 99.68%, while rejecting >99% of interfering beta and gamma pulses. The new method is a rapid, easy, cost-effective procedure for the determination of total uranium activity or limited isotopic uranium ({sup 238}U and {sup 234}U) activity in drinking water with recoveries of >95%. The results of analysis of various drinking water samples including well water, bottled water, and ground water will be presented. {reg_sign}PERALS is a registered trademark of ORDELA, Inc.

Ensor, D.D.; Narrie, C.L. [Tennessee Technological Univ., Cookeville, TN (United States)

1996-10-01

423

Purification of drinking water by low cost method in Ethiopia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays, water treatment is a big issue in rural areas especially in African country. Due to lack of facilities available in those areas and the treatment are expensive. In this regard's an attempt has been made to find alternative natural way to treat the rural drinking water. The experiment trials were undertaken on the most promising plant extracts, namely: Moringa oleifera, Jatropha curcas and Guar gum. The extracts were used to treat contaminated water obtained from a number of wells. The results showed that the addition of M. oleifera can considerably improve the quality of drinking water. A 100 % improvement both in turbidity and reduction in Escherichia coli was noted for a number of the samples, together with significant improvements in colour.

Abatneh, Yasabie; Sahu, Omprakash; Yimer, Seid

2014-12-01

424

Safe drinking water projects integrated information system for rural areas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

According to the water supply characteristics in rural areas, it designs a safe drinking water project in this paper. The whole system includes three parts. Those are communication part, automatic control and test part and video surveillance part. Communication part mainly realizes the data transfer between PLC controlled equipment, branch pipeline monitoring and control equipment in the water plant. Automatic control and test part adopts hierarchical, distributed, decentralized structure to remote control and dynamic detect the data on-site. Video Surveillance part can monitor the personnel and equipment condition to guarantee the safe of the whole system. The system takes Visual Studio .NET as the development platform and it entirely bases on the public network B/S structure. From the application, it can be seen that the whole system has the characters of using and maintaining easily, interface simple and friend and it can improve the drinking water condition in rural areas greatly.

Song, Xue-ling; Zhao, Ying-bao; Liu, Chao-ying; Song, Zhe-ying

2009-07-01

425

Modeling contaminant propagation in drinking-water distribution systems  

SciTech Connect

The Safe Drinking Water Act and its Amendments (SDWAA) will pose a massive challenge for the drinking-water industry in the United States. As the SDWAA regulations reach implementation, increasing effort will be devoted to understanding the factors causing deterioration of water quality between treatment and consumption. A cooperative study involving the U.S. EPA, the University of Michigan, and the South Central Connecticut Regional Water Authority (RWA) demonstrated and validated the use of modeling techniques in the RWA distribution system. Models are used to predict the propagation of chlorine residual in one portion of the RWA system. It is found that residuals varied widely both spatially and temporally. Long residence times in storage tanks caused residual disinfection concentrations to be low or nonexistent during discharge cycles. It was found that system operation has a significant effect on the distribution and concentration of chlorine residuals in the system.

Clark, R.M.; Grayman, W.M.; Males, R.M.; Hess, A.F.

1993-01-01

426

DEVELOPMENT OF WATER SUPPLY TECHNOLOGY TO MEET THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE SAFE DRINKING WATER ACT OF 1996: TRENDS AND PROSPECTS.  

EPA Science Inventory

The passage of the U.S. Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) in 1974 has had a major impact on the way water is treated and delivered in the U.S. The Act established national drinking water regulations for more than 170,000 public drinking water systems serving over 250 million people ...

427

76 FR 72973 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act and Safe Drinking Water Act  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Under the Clean Water Act and Safe Drinking Water Act Notice is hereby given that...S.C. 1251-387; the Safe Drinking Water Act, 42 U.S.C. 300f-300j-26...collection and treatment system and drinking water treatment system...

2011-11-28

428

Pentachlorophenol Contamination of Private Drinking Water From Treated Utility Poles  

PubMed Central

In 2009, after resident calls regarding an odor, the Vermont Department of Health and state partners responded to 2 scenarios of private drinking water contamination from utility poles treated with pentachlorophenol (PCP), an organochlorine wood preservative used in the United States. Public health professionals should consider PCP contamination of private water if they receive calls about a chemical or gasoline-like odor with concurrent history of nearby utility pole replacement. PMID:23237185

Cragin, Lori; Center, Gail; Giguere, Cary; Comstock, Jeff; Boccuzzo, Linda; Sumner, Austin

2013-01-01

429

Reverse osmosis treatment to remove inorganic contaminants from drinking water  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of the research project was to determine the removal of inorganic contaminants from drinking water using several state-of-the-art reverse osmosis membrane elements. A small 5-KGPD reverse osmosis system was utilized and five different membrane elements were studied individually with the specific inorganic contaminants added to several natural Florida ground waters. Removal data were also collected on naturally occurring substances.

Huxstep, M.R.; Sorg, T.J.

1987-12-01

430

Iodine content in drinking water and other beverages in Denmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate the variation in iodine content in drinking water in Denmark and to determine the difference in iodine content between organic and non-organic milk. Further, to analyse the iodine content in other beverages.Design and setting: Tap water samples were collected from 41 evenly distributed localities in Denmark. Organic and non-organic milk was collected at the same time (twice

LB Rasmussen; EH Larsen; L Ovesen

2000-01-01

431

DRINKING WATER AND CANCER INCIDENCE IN IOWA. 1. TRENDS AND INCIDENCE BY SOURCE OF DRINKING WATER AND SIZE OF MUNICIPALITY  

EPA Science Inventory

The available data resources in the State of Iowa were used to investigate the relationships of drinking water contaminants and cancer incidence rates for communities. Age-adjusted, sex-specific cancer incidence rates for the years 1969-1978 were determined for municipalities hav...

432

PHYSICAL REMOVAL OF MICROBIAL CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER ? WATTS PREMIER INC. WP-4V DRINKING WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The Watts Premier WP-4V four-stage POU RO system was tested for removal of bacteria and viruses at NSF?s Drinking Water Treatment Systems Laboratory. Five systems were challenged with the bacteriophage viruses fr and MS2, and the bacteria Brevundimonas diminutaEM. The ...

433

ETV REPORT: REMOVAL OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER ? WATTS PREMIER INC. WP-4V DRINKING WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The Watts Premier WP-4V POU drinking water treatment system was tested for removal of aldicarb, benzene, cadmium, carbofuran, cesium, chloroform, dichlorvos, dicrotophos, fenamiphos, mercury, mevinphos, oxamyl, strontium, and strychnine. The WP-4V employs a reverse osmosis (RO) m...

434

ACIDIC DEPOSITION AND CISTERN DRINKING WATER SUPPLIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The Water quality charecteristics, including the trace element Cd, cu, Pb, and Zn, in rainwater cistern supplies representing an area receiving acidic deposition were compared to cistern water chemistry in a control area that does not receive a significant input of acidic deposit...

435

ALTERNATIVE DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS FROM SUPERFUND SITES: DEVELOPMENT OF A NATIONAL REGISTER  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper describes a 'prototype' program initiated by U.S. EPA's Drinking Water Research Division (Cincinnati, Ohio), Region V Drinking Water Program (Chicago, Illinois), and Technology Evaluation Section (Edison, New Jersey) to inventory the types of drinking water related tech...

436

MODELING CHLORINE DECAY AND THE FORMATION OF DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS (DBPS) IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

A major objective of drinking water treatment is to provide microbiologically safe drinking water. The combination of conventional drinking water treatment and disinfection has proved to be one of the major public health advances in modern times. In the US, chlorine is most often...

437

Lead in Drinking Water in Schools and Non-Residential Buildings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This manual demonstrates how drinking water in schools and non-residential buildings can be tested for lead and how contamination problems can be corrected when found. The manual also provides background information concerning the sources and health effects of lead, how lead gets into drinking water, how lead in drinking water is regulated, and…

Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

438

76 FR 10899 - Proposed HHS Recommendation for Fluoride Concentration in Drinking Water for Prevention of Dental...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...for Fluoride Concentration in Drinking Water for Prevention of Dental Caries...adjust the amount of fluoride in drinking water to 0.7 mg/L to provide the...for fluoride concentration in drinking water for the prevention of dental...

2011-02-28

439

Sources of Elevated Sodium Levels in Drinking Water...and Recommendations for Reduction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sodium enters drinking water by a variety of human activities and by natural means. Evidence suggests elevated levels of sodium in drinking water may adversely affect health. Action should be taken to reduce the level of human exposure to sodium in drinking water. (RE)

Calabrese, Edward J.; Tuthill, Robert W.

1978-01-01

440

Occurrence, oral exposure and risk assessment of volatile organic compounds in drinking water for ?zmir  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured in the drinking water in Province of ?zmir, Turkey, and associated health risks due to ingestion of these compounds were investigated using population weighted random samples. A total of 100 houses were visited in different districts of ?zmir and drinking water samples were collected from consumers’ drinking water source. Questionnaires were administered

P?nar Kavcar; Mustafa Odabasi; Mehmet Kitis; Fikret Inal; Sait C. Sofuoglu

2006-01-01

441

Decision Support System for Drinking Water Safety in Rural Area in Ya'an of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In consideration of the drinking water safety in rural areas in the western mountainous regions of Sichuan Province, the author adopts the module technique to integrate the GIS with the specialized application function to develop a drinking water safety spatial analysis system. The system provides the Ya'an's seven counties with each kind of function the daily management of drinking water

Ni Fu-quan; Liu Guodong; Ye Jian; Yang Shang-chuan; Zheng cai-xia

2009-01-01

442

The impacts of the “right to know”: Information disclosure and the violation of drinking water standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information disclosure regulations are increasingly common, but their effects on the behavior of regulated firms are unclear. The 1996 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act mandated that community drinking water suppliers issue to customers annual consumer confidence reports (CCRs), containing information on violations of drinking water regulations and on observed contaminant levels. We examine the impact of mandatory information

Lori S. Bennear; Sheila M. Olmstead

2008-01-01

443

Drinking water and health research: a look to the future in the United States and globally  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drinking water supplies continue to be a major source of human disease and death globally because many of them remain unsafe and vulnerable. Greater efforts are needed to address the key issues and questions which influence the provision of safe drinking water. Efforts are needed to re-evaluate and set new and better priorities for drinking water research and practice. More

Mark D. Sobsey

2006-01-01

444

Rural Drinking Water Quality Health Risk in Rain City District of Ya'an, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to assess exposure to unsafe rural drinking water quality which is the core problem of rural drinking water safety and evaluate the risk of rural drinking water quality among the Rain City District of Ya'an, Sichuan Province, China population. The study calculated the carcinogenic risk (R) and non-carcinogenic risk (hazard index, HI) by applying

Ni Fu-quan; Liu Guo-dong; Deng Yu; Fu Cheng-wei

2010-01-01

445

Hydrogeologic assessment of exposure to solvent-contaminated drinking water: Pregnancy outcomes in relation to exposure  

SciTech Connect

We recently concluded that exposure to solvent-contaminated drinking water was an unlikely explanation for observed excesses of adverse pregnancy outcomes during 1980-1981 in the Los Paseos neighborhood of Santa Clara County, California, because these excesses were not observed in an adjacent exposed area. The validity of this conclusion depends on the assumption that the two areas had comparable exposure. Using quantitative methods to model movement of the solvent leak plume and water flow within the distribution system, we estimated that women with adverse outcomes were no more likely to have received contaminated water than women with normal live births. These results strengthen the conclusion that exposures to water from the contaminated well were not responsible for the excess of adverse outcomes observed in the Los Paseos area.

Wrensch, M.; Swan, S.; Murphy, P.J.; Lipscomb, J.; Claxton, K.; Epstein, D.; Neutra, R. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (USA))

1990-07-01

446

Molecular assessment of bacterial pathogens - a contribution to drinking water safety.  

PubMed

Human bacterial pathogens are considered as an increasing threat to drinking water supplies worldwide because of the growing demand of high-quality drinking water and the decreasing quality and quantity of available raw water. Moreover, a negative impact of climate change on freshwater resources is expected. Recent advances in molecular detection technologies for bacterial pathogens in drinking water bear the promise in improving the safety of drinking water supplies by precise detection and identification of the pathogens. More importantly, the array of molecular approaches allows understanding details of infection routes of waterborne diseases, the effects of changes in drinking water treatment, and management of freshwater resources. PMID:18534839

Brettar, Ingrid; Höfle, Manfred G

2008-06-01

447

DRINKING WATER CRITERIA DOCUMENT FOR PSEUDOMONAS  

EPA Science Inventory

This document presents the occurrence, health effects and effects of water treatment on the bacterium. The document was developed in support of the unregulated contaminants and the Total Coliform Rule....

448

Natural radionuclides in drinking waters in Serbia.  

PubMed

Gross alpha and beta activities, (3)H, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K activities were measured in bottled mineral water produced in Serbia in order to assess its radiological quality. In 11 samples of tap water and in 1 sample of spring waters gross alpha and beta activity were determined. The natural activity concentration of alpha and beta emitting radionuclides are within the range recommended by World Health Organization. The tritium concentration in bottled mineral waters ranged from 0.023 ± 0.012 to 0.046 ± 0.006 Bq l(-1). The activity of (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K were below the minimum detectable activity. In order to evaluate the annual effective dose for different classes of age, a conservative dosimetric calculation was carried out. PMID:23041389

Jankovi?, Marija M; Todorovi?, Dragana J; Todorovi?, Nataša A; Nikolov, Jovana

2012-12-01

449

PREVENTING HALOFORM FORMATION IN DRINKING WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

The Huron, South Dakota, water distribution system was monitored for trihalomethanes at several locations. Deposits from within the distribution system were evaluated as potential precursor material and were found to be precursors for the haloform reaction. Field tests designed t...

450

ALTERNATIVE DISINFECTION FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

During a one-yr study at Jefferson Parish, La., the chemical, microbiological, and mutagenic effects os using the major drinkgin water disinfectants (chlorine, chlorine dioxide, chloramine, ozone) were evaluated. Tests were performed on samples collected from various treatment s...

451

VIRUS REMOVAL DURING CONVENTIONAL DRINKING WATER TREATMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

The reduction of enteroviruses and rotaviruses was studied at a full scale 205 mgd water treatment plant involving chemical clarification, sand filtration and chlorination. Reduction of enteroviruses and rotaviruses averaged 81% and 93%, respectively, for the complete treatment p...

452

Removing lead in drinking water with activated carbon  

SciTech Connect

A point-of-use (POU) granular activated carbon (GAC) fixed bed adsorber (FBA) was evaluated for reduction of soluble and insoluble lead from drinking water. Some of the factors which affect lead removal by GAC were evaluated, such as carbon type, solution pH, and a limited amount of work on competitive interactions. The design criteria for lead reduction by a POU device are also addressed. Minicolumns were used to evaluate the capacity of carbon for lead under a variety of conditions. The importance of surface chemistry of the carbon and the relationship with the pH of the water for lead reduction was demonstrated. Results indicate that a properly designed POU-GAC-FBA can reduce lead in drinking water to below the EPA action level of 15 ppb while being tested under a variety of conditions as specified under the National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) International Standard 53 test protocol. 37 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Taylor, R.M.; Kuennen, R.W. (Amway Corp., Ada, MI (United States))

1994-02-01

453

Microbial contamination of drinking water in Pakistan--a review.  

PubMed

Water pollution with pathogenic microorganisms is one of the serious threats to human health, particularly in developing countries. The main objective of this article is to highlight microbial contamination of drinking water, the major factors responsible for microbial contamination, and the resulting health problems in Pakistan. Furthermore, this study will be helpful for researchers and administrative agencies to initiate relevant studies and develop new policies to protect further deterioration of water supply with pathogenic microbes and ensure clean and safe drinking water to the public in Pakistan. In Pakistan, water at the source, in the distribution network, and at the consumer tap is heavily polluted with coliforms and fecal coliforms all over the country. An overview of more than 7,000 water samples reviewed here reveals that an average of over 71 and 58 % samples in the country was contaminated with total coliforms and fecal coliforms, respectively. Drinking water contamination accounts for 20 to 40 % of all diseases in the country, which causes national income losses of Rs 25-58 billion annually (US$0.25-0.58 billion, approximately 0.6-1.44 % of the country's GDP). Improper disposal of industrial and municipal wastes is the most important factor responsible for water pollution in the country followed by cross-contamination due to old and leaking pipes and lack of water filtration and disinfection facilities. There is an urgent need for emergency steps to stop further deterioration of water quality and improve the existing water quality so as to protect the public from widespread waterborne diseases. PMID:25056753

Nabeela, Farhat; Azizullah, Azizullah; Bibi, Roqaia; Uzma, Syeda; Murad, Waheed; Shakir, Shakirullah Khan; Ullah, Waheed; Qasim, Muhammad; Häder, Donat-Peter

2014-12-01

454

Nano-silver in drinking water and drinking water sources: stability and influences on disinfection by-product formation.  

PubMed

Nano-silver is increasingly used in consumer products from washing machines and refrigerators to devices marketed for the disinfection of drinking water or recreational water. The nano-silver in these products may be released, ending up in surface water bodies which may be used as drinking water sources. Little information is available about the stability of the nano-silver in sources of drinking water, its fate during drinking water disinfection processes, and its interaction with disinfection agents and disinfection by-products (DBPs). This study aims to investigate the stability of nano-silver in drinking water sources and in the finished drinking water when chlorine and chloramines are used for disinfection and to observe changes in the composition of DBPs formed when nano-silver is present in the source water. A dispersion of nano-silver particles (10 nm; PVP-coated) was used to spike untreated Ottawa River water, treated Ottawa River water, organic-free water, and a groundwater at concentrations of 5 mg/L. The diluted dispersions were kept under stirred and non-stirred conditions for up to 9 months and analyzed weekly using UV absorption to assess the stability of the nano-silver particles. In a separate experiment, Ottawa River water containing nano-silver particles (at 0.1 and 1 mg/L concentration, respectively) was disinfected by adding sodium hypochlorite (a chlorinating agent) in sufficient amounts to maintain a free chlorine residual of approximately 0.4 mg/L after 24 h. The disinfected drinking water was then quenched with ascorbic acid and analyzed for 34 neutral DBPs (trihalomethanes, haloacetonitriles, haloacetaldehydes, 1,1 dichloro-2-propanone, 1,1,1 trichloro-2-propanone, chloropicrin, and cyanogen chloride). The results were compared to the profile of DBPs obtained under the same conditions in the absence of nano-silver and in the presence of an equivalent concentration of Ag(+) ions (as AgNO3). The stability of the nano-silver dispersions in untreated Ottawa River water, with a dissolved organic carbon concentration of 6 mg/L, was significantly higher than the stability of the nano-silver dispersions in distilled, organic-free water. Nano-silver particles suspended in the groundwater agglomerated and were quickly and quantitatively removed from the solution. Our data confirm previous observations that natural dissolved organic matter stabilizes nano-silver particles, while the high-ionic strength of groundwater appears to favor their agglomeration and precipitation. As expected, nano-silver was not stable in Ottawa River water through the chlorination process, but survived for many days when added to the Ottawa River water after treatment with chlorine or chloramines. Stirring appeared to have minimal effect on nano-silver stability in untreated and treated Ottawa River water. The profile of DBPs formed in the presence of nAg differed significantly from the profile of DBPs formed in the absence of nAg only at the 1 mg/L nAg concentration. The differences observed consisted mainly in reduced formation of some brominated DBPs and a small increase in the formation of cyanogen chloride. The reduced formation of brominated congeners may be explained by the decrease in available bromide due to the presence of Ag(+) ions. It should be noted that a concentration of 1 mg/L is significantly higher than nAg concentrations that would be expected to be present in surface waters, but these results could be significant for the disinfection of some wastewaters with comparably high nano-silver concentrations. PMID:24458938

Tugulea, A-M; Bérubé, D; Giddings, M; Lemieux, F; Hnatiw, J; Priem, J; Avramescu, M-L

2014-10-01

455

Enhanced drinking water supply through harvested rainwater treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decentralized drinking water systems represent an important element in the process of achieving the Millennium Development Goals, as centralized systems are often inefficient or nonexistent in developing countries. In those countries, most water quality related problems are due to hygiene factors and pathogens. A potential solution might include decentralized systems, which might rely on thermal and/or UV disinfection methods as well as physical and chemical treatments to provide drinking water from rainwater. For application in developing countries, decentralized systems major constraints include low cost, ease of use, environmental sustainability, reduced maintenance and independence from energy sources. This work focuses on an innovative decentralized system that can be used to collect and treat rainwater for potable use (drinking and cooking purposes) of a single household, or a small community. The experimented treatment system combines in one compact unit a Filtration process with an adsorption step on GAC and a UV disinfection phase in an innovative design (FAD - Filtration Adsorption Disinfection). All tests have been carried out using a full scale FAD treatment unit. The efficiency of FAD technology has been discussed in terms of pH, turbidity, COD, TOC, DOC, Escherichia coli and Total coliforms. FAD technology is attractive since it provides a total barrier for pathogens and organic contaminants, and reduces turbidity, thus increasing the overall quality of the water. The FAD unit costs are low, especially if compared to other water treatment technologies and could become a viable option for developing countries.

Naddeo, Vincenzo; Scannapieco, Davide; Belgiorno, Vincenzo

2013-08-01

456

Effects of saline drinking water on early gosling development  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Relatively high levels of saline drinking water may adversely affect the growth, development, and survival of young waterfowl. Saline drinking water was suspect in the low survival rate of Canada goose (Branta canadensis) goslings at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge (FSNWR) in western Utah. Hence, we investigated the effects of saline drinking water on the survival and growth of captive, wild-strain goslings from day 1-28 following hatch. We compared survival and growth (as measured by body mass, wing length, and culmen length) between a control group on tap water with a mean specific conductivity of 650 ??S/cm, and 2 saline water treatments: (1) intermediate level (12,000 ??S/cm), and (2) high level (18,000 ??S/cm). Gosling mortality occurred only in the 18,000 ??S/cm treatment group (33%; n = 9). Slopes of regressions of mean body mass, wing length, and culmen length on age were different from each other (P < 0.05), except for culmen length for the intermediate and high treatment levels. We predict that free-ranging wild goslings will experience mortality at even lower salinity levels than captive goslings because of the combined effects of depressed growth and environmental stresses, including hot desert temperatures and variable food quality over summer.

Stolley, D.S.; Bissonette, J.A.; Kadlec, J.A.; Coster, D.

1999-01-01

457

Author's personal copy Reply to the comment ``Bottled drinking water: Water contamination  

E-print Network

Author's personal copy Reply Reply to the comment ``Bottled drinking water: Water contamination with the bottle walls or be due to the formation and dissolution of colloids in the water during storage planning to use bottled water as a proxy for ground- water composition at the European scale. Müller

Filzmoser, Peter

458

Drinking water standard for tritium-what's the risk?  

PubMed

This paper presents an assessment of lifetime risks of cancer incidence associated with the drinking water standard for tritium established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA); this standard is an annual-average maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 740 Bq L(-1). This risk assessment has several defining characteristics: (1) an accounting of uncertainty in all parameters that relate a given concentration of tritium in drinking water to lifetime risk (except the number of days of consumption of drinking water in a year and the number of years of consumption) and an accounting of correlations of uncertain parameters to obtain probability distributions that represent uncertainty in estimated lifetime risks of cancer incidence; (2) inclusion of a radiation effectiveness factor (REF) to represent an increased biological effectiveness of low-energy electrons emitted in decay of tritium compared with high-energy photons; (3) use of recent estimates of risks of cancer incidence from exposure to high-energy photons, including the dependence of risks on an individual's gender and age, in the BEIR VII report; and (4) inclusion of risks of incidence of skin cancer, principally basal cell carcinoma. By assuming ingestion of tritium in drinking water at the MCL over an average life expectancy of 80 y in females and 75 y in males, 95% credibility intervals of lifetime risks of cancer incidence obtained in this assessment are (0.35, 12) × 10(-4) in females and (0.30, 15) × 10(-4) in males. Mean risks, which are considered to provide the best single measure of expected risks, are about 3 × 10(-4) in both genders. In comparison, USEPA's point estimate of the lifetime risk of cancer incidence, assuming a daily consumption of drinking water of 2 L over an average life expectancy of 75.2 y and excluding an REF for tritium and incidence of skin cancer, is 5.6 × 10(-5). Probability distributions of annual equivalent doses to the whole body associated with the drinking water standard for tritium also were obtained. Means and 97.5th percentiles of maximum annual doses to females and males, which occur at age <1 y, all are less than the annual equivalent dose of 40 ?Sv used by USEPA to establish the MCL. PMID:21799344

Kocher, D C; Hoffman, F O

2011-09-01

459

Water safety plans: methodologies for risk assessment and risk management in drinking-water systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Providing good and safe drinking-water is world-wide considered to be a fundamental political issue for public health protection, and must be the primary objective of water supply systems. Drinking-water quality control has currently been based on detection of pathogens and toxic concentrations of chemicals by means of monitoring programs and compliance with national or international guidelines and standards, relying mainly

JOSÉ MANUEL PEREIRA VIEIRA

460

ANALYZING DRINKING WATER FOR DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS  

EPA Science Inventory

In the mid 19th Century, Chinese workers on the North American transcontinental railroad suffered less illness than other groups. While generally mysterious at the time, today the reason is obvious. The Chinese preference for tea required heating the water, thus killing many path...

461

ARSENIC DESORPTION FROM DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has recently lowered the maximum contaminant level (MCL) for arsenic from 0.050 mg/L to 0.010 mg/L for all community and non-community water sources. The new MCL for arsenic must be met by January 2006. Recent studies have found th...

462

REMEDIATION OF DRINKING WATER FOR RURAL POPULATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nitrate is the most common nitrogen contaminant in raw water supplies. In rural areas agricultural activities that involve the use of fertilizers and animal manures are major sources of nitrate contamination. Several processes are currently available that can effectively remove nitrate from raw wa...

463

Delta Drinking Water Quality and TreatmentDelta Drinking Water Quality and Treatment WeiWei--Hsiang ChenHsiang Chen  

E-print Network

11 Delta Drinking Water Quality and TreatmentDelta Drinking Water Quality and Treatment Costs processes in the DeltaCurrent treatment processes in the Delta X X (a) X X (a) X X a X X a X X (a) X a X a ­ Ozonation (widely used for Delta water) ­ UV irradiation · Treatment processes for DBP precursor removal

Pasternack, Gregory B.

464

Residential exposure to drinking water arsenic in Inner Mongolia, China  

SciTech Connect

In the Ba Men region of Inner Mongolia, China, a high prevalence of chronic arsenism has been reported in earlier studies. A survey of the arsenic contamination among wells from groundwater was conducted to better understand the occurrence of arsenic (As) in drinking water. A total of 14,866 wells (30% of all wells in the region) were analyzed for their arsenic-content. Methods used to detect arsenic were Spectrophotometric methods with DCC-Ag (detection limit, 0.5 {mu}g of As/L); Spot method (detection limit, 10 {mu}g of As/L); and air assisted Colorimetry method (detection limit, 20 {mu}g of As/L). Arsenic-concentrations ranged from below limit of detection to 1200 {mu}g of As/L. Elevated concentrations were related to well depth (10 to 29 m), the date the well was built (peaks from 1980-1990), and geographic location (near mountain range). Over 25,900 individuals utilized wells with drinking water arsenic concentrations above 20 {mu}g of As/L (14,500 above 50 {mu}g of As/L-the current China national standard in drinking water and 2198 above 300 {mu}g of As/L). The presented database of arsenic in wells of the Ba Men region provides a useful tool for planning future water explorations when combined with geological information as well as support for designing upcoming epidemiological studies on the effects of arsenic in drinking water for this region.

Ning Zhixiong [Ba Men Anti-Epidemic Station, Lin He, Inner Mongolia (China); Lobdell, Danelle T. [Epidemiology and Biomarkers Branch, Human Studies Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA, Chapel Hill (United States); Kwok, Richard K. [RTI International, P.O. Box 12194, 3040 Cornwallis Rd, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2194 (United States)], E-mail: rkwok@rti.org; Liu Zhiyi; Zhang Shiying; Ma Chenglong [Ba Men Anti-Epidemic Station, Lin He, Inner Mongolia (China); Riediker, Michael [Institut Universitaire Romand de Sante au Travail, Lausanne (Switzerland); Mumford, Judy L. [Epidemiology and Biomarkers Branch, Human Studies Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA, Chapel Hill (United States)

2007-08-01

465

Health significance and occurrence of injured bacteria in drinking water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Enteropathogenic and indicator bacteria become injured in drinking water with exposure to sublethal levels of various biological, chemical and physical factors. One manifestation of this injury is the inability to grow and form colonies on selective media containing surfactants. The resulting underestimation of indicator bacteria can lead to a false estimation of water potability. m-T7 medium was developed specifically for the recovery of injured coliforms (both "total" and fecal) in drinking water. The m-T7 method was used to survey operating drinking water treatment and distribution systems for the presence of injured coliforms that were undetected with currently used media. The mean recovery with m-Endo LES medium was less than 1/100 ml while it ranged between 6 and 68/100ml with m-T7 agar. The majority of samples giving positive results with m-T7 medium yielded no detectable coliforms with m-Endo LES agar. Over 95% of the coliform bacteria in these samples were injured. Laboratory experiments were also done to ascribe the virulence of injured waterborne pathogens. Enteropathogens including Salmonella typhimurium, Yersinia enterocolitica and Shigella spp. required up to 20 times the chlorine levels to produce the same injury in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and nonpathogenic coliforms. Similar results were seen with Y. enterocolitica exposed to copper. The recovery of ETEC was followed by delayed enterotoxin production, both in vitro and in the gut of experimental animals. This indicates that injured waterborne enteropathogenic bacteria can be virulent.

McFeters, G. A.; LeChevallier, M. W.; Singh, A.; Kippin, J. S.

1986-01-01

466

Antibiotic Administration in the Drinking Water of Mice  

PubMed Central

Although antibiotics frequently are added to the drinking water of mice, this practice has not been tested to confirm that antibiotics reach therapeutic concentrations in the plasma of treated mice. In the current investigation, we 1) tested the stability of enrofloxacin and doxycycline in the drinking water of adult, female C57BL/6 mice; 2) measured the mice's consumption of water treated with enrofloxacin, doxycycline, amoxicillin, or trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole; and 3) used HPLC to measure plasma antibiotic concentrations in mice that had ingested treated water for 1 wk. Plasma concentrations of antibiotic were measured 1 h after the start of both the light and dark cycle. The main findings of the study were that both enrofloxacin and nonpharmaceutical, chemical-grade doxycycline remained relatively stable in water for 1 wk. In addition, mice consumed similar volumes of antibiotic-treated and untreated water. The highest plasma antibiotic concentrations measured were: enrofloxacin, 140.1 ± 10.4 ng/mL; doxycycline, 56.6 ± 12.5 ng/mL; amoxicillin, 299.2 ± 64.1 ng/mL; and trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole, 5.9 ± 1.2 ng/mL. Despite the stability of the antibiotics in the water and predictable water consumption by mice, the plasma antibiotic concentrations were well below the concentrations required for efficacy against bacterial pathogens, except for those pathogens that are exquisitely sensitive to the antibiotic. The findings of this investigation prompt questions regarding the rationale of the contemporary practice of adding antibiotics to the drinking water of mice for systemic antibacterial treatments. PMID:24827573

Marx, James O; Vudathala, Daljit; Murphy, Lisa; Rankin, Shelley; Hankenson, F Claire

2014-01-01

467

Mean Residence Time and Emergency Drinking Water Supply.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Immediately after securing an endangered population, the first priority of aid workers following a disaster is the distribution of drinking water. Such emergency situations are reported from many parts of the world following regional chemical or nuclear pollution accidents, floods, droughts, rain-induced landslides, tsunami, and other extreme events. It is often difficult to organise a replacement water supply when regular water systems with short residence times are polluted, infiltrated or even flooded by natural or man-made disasters. They are either unusable or their restoration may take months or even years. Groundwater resources, proven safe and protected by the geological environment, with long residence times and the necessary infrastructure for their exploitation, would provide populations with timeous replacement of vulnerable water supply systems and make rescue activities more rapid and effective. Such resources have to be identified and investigated, as a substitute for affected drinking water supplies thereby eliminating or reducing the impact of their failure following catastrophic events. Even in many areas such water resources with long residence times in years or decades are difficult to find it should be known which water supply facilities in the region are matching these requirements to allow in emergency situation the transport of water in tankers to the affected regions to prevent epidemics, importing large quantities of bottled water. One should know the residence time of the water supply to have sufficient time to plan and install new safe water supply facilities. Development of such policy and strategy for human security - both long term and short term - is therefore needed to decrease the vulnerability of populations threatened by extreme events and water supplies with short residence times. Generally: The longer the residence time of groundwater in the aquifer, the lower its vulnerability. The most common and economic methods to estimate Mean Residence Times (MRTs) of the raw water of drinking water supplies is the measurement of the water-isotopes (oxygen-18, hydrogen-2 and tritium (3H)). The traceability and the quality oft he lumped model calculation is based on the quality and the density of input (meteorological) stations in the region with monthly measurements. In addition, noble gas measurements in the groundwater (helium-3, krypton-85) and of industrial tracer gases (chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and sulphurhexaflorid (SF6)) are important tools to estimate the MRTs of the raw water in the aquifers. To exclude the presence of small amounts of very recent waters, which are in cases of accidents some times heavily polluted, the raw water is tested for natural radionuclides (beryllium-7 or sulphur-35) with very short half-life or artificial fluorescence tracers. In addition, the estimate of the MRTs of groundwater is an essential part of the vulnerability assessment of drinking water supplies due to climate change impacts (frequency of droughts and floods in the recharge area) and offers a valuable tool to specify a sustainable water abstraction. The applicability of this approach was tested in several springs and groundwater monitoring wells used for raw water abstraction for drinking water supply in Austria.

Kralik, Martin; Humer, Franko

2013-04-01

468

Federal regulation of lead in drinking water  

SciTech Connect

The decline of the Roman Empire has been attributed, in part, to lead poisoning. Scholars have reported that Roman food, water and wine all contained excessive amounts of lead. Although Americans ingest considerably less lead than did the ancient Romans, lead poisoning still poses a significant public health threat in this country, particularly to children. The Federal Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recently reported that more than four million children suffer from lead poisoning. The director of the CDC has stated that {open_quotes}lead poisoning is the No. 1 environmental problem facing America`s children.{close_quotes} In addition to threatening children, lead poisoning presents health dangers to adults and, ironically, to federal government officials themselves. For example, at the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) headquarters, water samples at nineteen sources were found to contain excessive amounts of lead. Additionally, a survey of twelve Capitol Hill buildings found that twenty-one percent of the water sources tested contained excessive lead levels.

Reiss, K.M.

1991-12-31

469

Drinking water and biofilm disinfection by Fenton-like reaction.  

PubMed

A Fenton-like disinfection process was conducted with Fenton's reagent (H2O2) at pH 3 or 5 on autochthonous drinking water biofilms grown on corroded or non-corroded pipe material. The biofilm disinfection by Fenton-like oxidation was limited by the low content of iron and copper in the biomass grown on non-corroded plumbing. It was slightly improved by spiking the distribution system with some additional iron source (soluble iron II or ferrihydrite particles appeared as interesting candidates). However successful in situ disinfection of biofilms was only achieved in fully corroded cast iron pipes using H2O2 and adjusting the pH to 5. These new results provide additional support for the use of Fenton's processes for cleaning drinking water distribution systems contaminated with biological agents or organics. PMID:23866142

Gosselin, F; Madeira, L M; Juhna, T; Block, J C

2013-10-01

470

Removal of Arsenic from Drinking Water by Adsorption and Coagulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Removal of arsenic from drinking water has been an important issue worldwide, which has attracted greater attentions in recent years especially for supplying safe drinking water in developing countries. Although many kinds of treatment approaches that are available or applicable both in principle and practice, such as adsorption, coagulation, membrane filtration, ion exchange, biological process, electrocoagulation and so on, the first 2 approaches (i.e., adsorption and coagulation) are most promising due to the low-cost, high-efficiency, simplicity of treating systems, and thus can be practically used in developing countries. In this study, a literature survey on water quality in Bangladesh was performed to understand the ranges of arsenic concentration and pH of groundwater in Bangladesh. A series of tests were then organized and performed to investigate the effects of arsenic concentration, arsenic forms, pH, chemical compositions of the materials used for adsorption and coagulation, particle size distribution and treatment time on quality of treated water. The experimental results obtained in the study illustrated that both adsorption and coagulation can be used to effectively reduce the concentrations of either arsenic (V) or arsenic (III) from the contaminated water. Coagulation of arsenic with a magnesium-based material developed in this study can be very effective to remove arsenic, especially arsenic (V), from contaminated water with a concentration of 10 ppm to an undetectable level of 0.002 ppm by ICP analyses. Compared to arsenic (III), arsenic (V) is easier to be removed. The materials used for adsorption and coagulation in this study can remove arsenic (V) up to 9 mg/g and 6 mg/g, and arsenic (III) up to 4 mg/g and 3 mg/g, respectively, depending on test conditions and compositions of the materials being used. The control of pH during treatment can be a challenging technical issue for developing both adsorbent and coagulant. Keywords: Water Treatment, Arsenic, Adsorption, Coagulation, Drinking Water, Bangladesh

Zhang, M.; Sugita, H.; Hara, J.; Takahashi, S.

2013-12-01

471

Perfluorinated Surfactants in Surface and Drinking Waters (9 pp)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background, Aim and Scope  \\u000a In this paper recent results are provided of an investigation on the discovery of 12 perfluorinated surfactants (PS) in different\\u000a surface and drinking waters (Skutlarek et al. 2006 a, Skutlarek et al. 2006 b). In the last years, many studies have reported\\u000a ubiquitous distribution of this group of perfluorinated chemicals, especially perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic

Martin Exner; Harald Färber

2006-01-01

472

The evaluation of drinking water treatment performed with HPSEC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characterization of natural organic matter (NOM) removal in the drinking-water treatment train can give valuable information, while optimizing the treatment process. In this study, high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) was applied to evaluate the relative changes of molecular size distribution (MSD) of NOM in different treatment steps. The full-scale treatment train consisting of coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, sand filtration, and ozonation was

Riku Vahala; Jukka Rintala; Risto Laukkanen

1998-01-01

473

Concentrations of Natural Radionuclides in Municipal Supply Drinking Water and Evaluation of Radiological Hazards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Naturally occurring radionuclides are always present in groundwater used for drinking and cultivation purposes. Intake of these radionuclides through ingestion of drinking water results in radiation doses to humans, which may cause radiological health hazards. This article presents the results of measured concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides of Ra, Th, and K in municipal supply drinking water in metropolitan Lahore

S. N. A. Tahir; A. S. Alaamer

2009-01-01

474

Drinking water contaminants and adverse pregnancy outcomes: a review.  

PubMed Central

Concern for exposures to drinking water contaminants and their effects on adverse birth outcomes has prompted several studies evaluating chlorination disinfection by-products and chlorinated solvents. Some of these contaminants are found to be teratogenic in animal studies. This review evaluates 14 studies on chlorination disinfection by-products such as trihalomethanes (THMs) and five studies on chlorinated solvents such as trichloroethylene (TCE). The adverse birth outcomes discussed in this review include small for gestational age (SGA), low birth weight, preterm birth, birth defects, spontaneous abortions, and fetal deaths. Because of heterogeneities across the studies in the characterization of birth outcomes, the assessment and categorization of exposures, and the levels and mixtures of contaminants, a qualitative review was conducted. Generally, the chief bias in these studies was exposure misclassification that most likely underestimated the risk, as well as distorted exposure-response relationships. The general lack of confounding bias by risk factors resulted from these factors not being associated with drinking water exposures. The studies of THMs and adverse birth outcomes provide moderate evidence for associations with SGA, neural tube defects (NTDs), and spontaneous abortions. Because fewer studies have been conducted for the chlorinated solvents than for THMs, the evidence for associations is less clear. Nevertheless, the findings of excess NTDs, oral clefts, cardiac defects, and choanal atresia in studies that evaluated TCE-contaminated drinking water deserve follow-up. PMID:11834464

Bove, Frank; Shim, Youn; Zeitz, Perri

2002-01-01

475

Arsenic in drinking water and lung cancer: A systematic review  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to inorganic arsenic via drinking water is a growing public health concern. We conducted a systematic review of the literature examining the association between arsenic in drinking water and the risk of lung cancer in humans. Towards this aim, we searched electronic databases for articles published through April 2006. Nine ecological studies, two case-control studies, and six cohort studies were identified. The majority of the studies were conducted in areas of high arsenic exposure (100 {mu}g/L) such as southwestern Taiwan, the Niigata Prefecture, Japan, and Northern Chile. Most of the studies reported markedly higher risks of lung cancer mortality or incidence in high arsenic areas compared to the general population or a low arsenic exposed reference group. The quality assessment showed that, among the studies identified, only four assessed arsenic exposure at the individual level. Further, only one of the ecological studies presented results adjusted for potential confounders other than age; of the cohort and case-control studies, only one-half adjusted for cigarette smoking status in the analysis. Despite these methodologic limitations, the consistent observation of strong, statistically significant associations from different study designs carried out in different regions provide support for a causal association between ingesting drinking water with high concentrations of arsenic and lung cancer. The lung cancer risk at lower exposure concentrations remains uncertain.

Celik, Ismail [Department of Medical Oncology, Hacettepe University Institute of Oncology, Ankara (Turkey); Gallicchio, Lisa [Prevention and Research Center, Mercy Medical Center (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health (United States); Boyd, Kristina; Lam, Tram K.; Matanoski, Genevieve [Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health (United States); Tao Xuguang [Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health (United States); Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (United States); Shiels, Meredith; Hammond, Edward [Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health (United States); Chen Liwei [Department of International Health, Center for Human Nutrition, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health (United States); Robinson, Karen A. [Department of General Internal Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (United States); Caulfield, Laura E. [Department of International Health, Center for Human Nutrition, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health (United States); Herman, James G. [Department of Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine (United States); Guallar, Eliseo [Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health (United States); Alberg, Anthony J. [Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health (United States); Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Hollings Cancer Center, and Department of Biostatistics, Bioinformatics and Epidemiology, Medical University of South Carolina (United States)], E-mail: alberg@musc.edu

2008-09-15

476

Methods for the determination of organic compounds in drinking water  

SciTech Connect

Thirteen analytical methods for the identification and measurement of organic compounds in drinking water are described in detail. Six of the methods are for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and certain disinfection by-products. These methods were cited in the Federal Register of July 8, 1987, under the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations. The other seven methods are designed for the determination of a variety of synthetic organic compounds and pesticides, and these methods were cited in proposed drinking-water regulations in the Federal Register of May 22, 1989. Five of the methods utilize the inert gas purge-and-trap extraction procedure for VOCs, six methods employ a classical liquid-liquid extraction, one method uses a new liquid-solid extraction technique, and one method is for direct aqueous analysis. Of the 13 methods, 12 use either packed or capillary gas-chromatography column separations followed by detection with mass spectrometry or a selective gas-chromatography detector. One method is based on a high-performance liquid-chromatography separation.

Not Available

1988-12-01

477

Integrated risk assessment and screening analysis of drinking water safety of a conventional water supply system.  

PubMed

Management of drinking water safety is changing towards an integrated risk assessment and risk management approach that includes all processes in a water supply system from catchment to consumers. However, given the large number of water supply systems in China and the cost of implementing such a risk assessment procedure, there is a necessity to first conduct a strategic screening analysis at a national level. An integrated methodology of risk assessment and screening analysis is thus proposed to evaluate drinking water safety of a conventional water supply system. The violation probability, indicating drinking water safety, is estimated at different locations of a water supply system in terms of permanganate index, ammonia nitrogen, turbidity, residual chlorine and trihalomethanes. Critical parameters with respect to drinking water safety are then identified, based on which an index system is developed to prioritize conventional water supply systems in implementing a detailed risk assessment procedure. The evaluation results are represented as graphic check matrices for the concerned hazards in drinking water, from which the vulnerability of a conventional water supply system is characterized. PMID:17898443

Sun, F; Chen, J; Tong, Q; Zeng, S

2007-01-01

478

Recovery and diversity of heterotrophic bacteria from chlorinated drinking waters.  

PubMed Central

Heterotrophic bacteria were enumerated from the Seattle drinking water catchment basins and distribution system. The highest bacterial recoveries were obtained by using a very dilute medium containing 0.01% peptone as the primary carbon source. Other factors favoring high recovery were the use of incubation temperatures close to that of the habitat and an extended incubation (28 days or longer provided the highest counts). Total bacterial counts were determined by using acridine orange staining. With one exception, all acridine orange counts in chlorinated samples were lower than those in prechlorinated reservoir water, indicating that chlorination often reduces the number of acridine orange-detectable bacteria. Source waters had higher diversity index values than did samples examined following chlorination and storage in reservoirs. Shannon index values based upon colony morphology were in excess of 4.0 for prechlorinated source waters, whereas the values for final chlorinated tap waters were lower than 2.9. It is not known whether the reduction in diversity was due solely to chlorination or in part to other factors in the water treatment and distribution system. Based upon the results of this investigation, we provide a list of recommendations for changes in the procedures used for the enumeration of heterotrophic bacteria from drinking waters. Images PMID:3524453

Maki, J S; LaCroix, S J; Hopkins, B S; Staley, J T

1986-01-01

479

Is the EU drinking water directive standard for pesticides in drinking water consistent with the precautionary principle?  

PubMed

Regulations based on the precautionary principle should undertake a comprehensive assessment of all available scientific and technical data to identify sources of epistemic uncertainty. In the European Union (EU), environmental regulation is required to fulfill the principles established in Article 174 of the EU Treaty, such that it offers a high level of protection and is consistent with the precautionary principle. Pesticides in drinking water are currently regulated by the Drinking Water Directive using a maximum allowable concentration of 0.1 ?g/L. This standard (a surrogate zero) was consistent with the precautionary principle when it was originally set in 1980 and remained consistent when retained in 1998. However, given developments in EU pesticide and water policy, international experience in regulating pesticides, and an increasing knowledge of pesticide toxicity, it can be argued that the level of epistemic uncertainty faced by regulators has substantially decreased. In this paper, we examine the extent to which such developments now challenge the basis of European drinking water standards for pesticides and whether, for substances for which there is good toxicological understanding, a regulatory approach based upon the World Health Organization (WHO) Guideline Value (GV) methodology would be more consistent with the principles underpinning European environmental policy. PMID:23590121

Dolan, Tom; Howsam, Peter; Parsons, David J; Whelan, Mick J

2013-05-21

480

Drinking water biofilm cohesiveness changes under chlorination or hydrodynamic stress.  

PubMed

Attempts at removal of drinking water biofilms rely on various preventive and curative strategies such as nutrient reduction in drinking water, disinfection or water flushing, which have demonstrated limited efficiency. The main reason for these failures is the cohesiveness of the biofilm driven by the physico-chemical properties of its exopolymeric matrix (EPS). Effective cleaning procedures should break up the matrix and/or change the elastic properties of bacterial biofilms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the change in the cohesive strength of two-month-old drinking water biofilms under increasing hydrodynamic shear stress ?w (from ?0.2 to ?10 Pa) and shock chlorination (applied concentration at T0: 10 mg Cl2/L; 60 min contact time). Biofilm erosion (cell loss per unit surface area) and cohesiveness (changes in the detachment shear stress and cluster volumes measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM)) were studied. When rapidly increasing the hydrodynamic constraint, biofilm removal was found to be dependent on a dual process of erosion and coalescence of the biofilm clusters. Indeed, 56% of the biofilm cells were removed with, concomitantly, a decrease in the number of the 50-300 ?m(3) clusters and an increase in the number of the smaller (i.e., <50 ?m(3)) and larger (i.e., >600 ?m(3)) ones. Moreover, AFM evidenced the strengthening of the biofilm structure along with the doubling of the number of contact points, NC, per cluster volume unit following the hydrodynamic disturbance. This suggests that the compactness of the biofilm exopolymers increases with hydrodynamic stress. Shock chlorination removed cells (-75%) from the biofilm while reducing the volume of biofilm clusters. Oxidation stress resulted in a decrease in the cohesive strength profile of the remaining drinking water biofilms linked to a reduction in the number of contact points within the biofilm network structure in particular for the largest biofilm cluster volumes (>200 ?m(3)). Changes in the cohesive strength of drinking water biofilms subsequent to cleaning/disinfection operations call into question the effectiveness of cleaning-in-place procedures. The combined alternating use of oxidation and shear stress sequences needs to be investigated as it could be an important adjunct to improving biofilm removal/reduction procedures. PMID:24607313

Mathieu, L; Bertrand, I; Abe, Y; Angel, E; Block, J C; Skali-Lami, S; Francius, G

2014-05-15

481

Mutagenicity and genotoxicity of drinking water in Guelma region, Algeria.  

PubMed

In this study, a battery of genotoxicity assays for monitoring drinking water was performed to assess the quality of the water resulting from the treatment plants. Five different types of samples were collected: raw water (P1), treated after pre-chlorination (P2), treated after decantation (P3), treated post-chlorination (P4), and consumers' taps (P5-P12). This study aims to evaluate the formation/occurrence of mutagenic and/or genotoxic compounds in surface drinking waters treated with chlorine disinfectant, during four seasonal experiments: summer, autumn, winter, and spring between 2012 and 2013 by bacterial reverse mutation assay in both Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains with or without metabolic activation system (S9 mix) and Allium cepa root meristematic cells, respectively. All of water samples, except at P1, P2, and P5 in summer; P1 in autumn; and P1 and P3-P12 in spring without S9 mix, and at P1 and P2 in summer and P6 and P8-P12 in spring with S9 mix, were found to be mutagenic in S. typhimurium TA98. However, only P11 and P12 in winter were found to be mutagenic for TA100 without S9 mix. The tested preparations in Allium anaphase-telophase test revealed a significant decrease in mitotic index (MI) and a simultaneous increase in chromosome aberrations (CAs) compared to the control. The bridge, stickiness, vagrant chromosomes, and disturbed chromosome aberrations were observed in anaphase-telophase cells. Physicochemical analysis, trihalomethanes (THMs), romoform (CHBr3), chloroform (CHCl3), bromodichloromethane (CHBrCl2), and dibromochloromethane (CHBr2Cl) levels in water samples were also determined. The results show also that this short-term battery tests are applicable in the routine monitoring of drinking water quality before and after distribution. PMID:25626560

Abda, Ahlem; Benouareth, Djamel E; Tabet, Mouna; Liman, Recep; Konuk, Muhsin; Khallef, Messaouda; Taher, Ali

2015-02-01

482

Development and application of innovative technologies for drinking water quality assurance in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The continuously deteriorating quality of source water is threatening the safety of drinking water in China. Various efforts\\u000a have been made to update water treatment processes to decrease the pollution problems of drinking water, such as protection\\u000a of drinking water sources, enhancement of conventional treatment processes, and development of new or advanced treatment technologies.\\u000a This paper reviews a variety of

Jiuhui Qu; Chengqing Yin; Min Yang; Huijuan Liu

2007-01-01

483

Drinking water quality assessment in Southern Sindh (Pakistan).  

PubMed

The southern Sindh province of Pakistan adjoins the Arabian Sea coast where drinking water quality is deteriorating due to dumping of industrial and urban waste and use of agrochemicals and yet has limited fresh water resources. The study assessed the drinking water quality of canal, shallow pumps, dug wells, and water supply schemes from the administrative districts of Thatta, Badin, and Thar by measuring physical, chemical, and biological (total coliform) quality parameters. All four water bodies (dug wells, shallow pumps canal water, and water supply schemes) exceeded WHO MPL for turbidity (24%, 28%, 96%, 69%), coliform (96%, 77%, 92%, 81%), and electrical conductivity (100%, 99%, 44%, 63%), respectively. However, the turbidity was lower in underground water, i.e., 24% and 28% in dug wells and shallow pumps as compared to open water, i.e., 96% and 69% in canal and water supply schemes, respectively. In dug wells and shallow pumps, limits for TDS, alkalinity, hardness, and sodium exceeded, respectively, by 63% and 33%; 59% and 70%, 40% and 27%, and 78% and 26%. Sodium was major problem in dug wells and shallow pumps of district Thar and considerable percent in shallow pumps of Badin. Iron was major problem in all water bodies of district Badin ranging from 50% to 69% and to some extent in open waters of Thatta. Other parameters as pH, copper, manganese, zinc, and phosphorus were within standard permissible limits of World Health Organization. Some common diseases found in the study area were gastroenteritis, diarrhea and vomiting, kidney, and skin problems. PMID:20658360

Memon, Mehrunisa; Soomro, Mohammed Saleh; Akhtar, Mohammad Saleem; Memon, Kazi Suleman

2011-06-01

484

Rural drinking water at supply and household levels: Quality and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Access to safe drinking water has been an important national goal in Bangladesh and other developing countries. While Bangladesh has almost achieved accepted bacteriological drinking water standards for water supply, high rates of diarrheal disease morbidity indicate that pathogen transmission continues through water supply chain (and other modes). This paper investigates the association between water quality and selected management practices

Bilqis A. Hoque; Kelly Hallman; Jason Levy; Howarth Bouis; Nahid Ali; Feroze Khan; Sufia Khanam; Mamun Kabir; Sanower Hossain; Mohammad Shah Alam

2006-01-01

485

Drinking and water balance during exercise and heat acclimation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The interactions between fluid intake and balance, and plasma ion, osmotic, and endocrine responses during dehydration produced by exercise in cool and warm environments during acclimation are explored. Two groups of five male subjects performed 8 days of ergometer exercise in hot and thermoneutral conditions, respectively. The exercise trials lasted 2 hr each. Monitoring was carried out on the PV, osmotic, sodium, and endocrine concentrations, voluntary fluid intake, fluid balances, and fluid deficits. A negative correlation was observed between the plasma sodium and osmolality during acclimation. The presence of hypervolemia during acclimation is suggested as a cause of drinking, while the vasopressin concentration was not found to be a significant factor stimulating drinking. Finally, the predominant mechanism in fluid intake during exercise and heat exposure is concluded to be the renin-angiotensin II system in the presence of reductions in total body water and extracellular plasma volumes.

Greenleaf, J. E.; Brock, P. J.; Keil, L. C.; Morse, J. T.

1983-01-01

486

Holding effects on coliform enumeration in drinking water samples.  

PubMed Central

Standard procedures for analyzing drinking water stress the need to adhere to the time and temperature conditions recommended for holding samples collected for microbiological testing. The National Drinking Water Laboratory Certification Program requires compliance with these holding limits, but some investigators have reported difficulties in meeting them. Research was conducted by standard analytical methods to determine if changes occurred when samples were held at 5 and 22 degrees C and analyzed at 0, 24, 30, and 48 h. Samples were analyzed for coliforms by the membrane filter and fermentation-tube procedures and for heterotrophs by the pour plate method. A total of 17 treated water samples were collected from a large municipal distribution system from August to December 1981, and 12 samples were collected from January to May 1983. The samples were dosed with coliforms previously isolated from the water system, Enterobacter cloacae in 1981 and Citrobacter freundii in 1983. The coliform counts declined linearly over time, and the rates of decline were significant at both 5 and 22 degrees C. Within 24 h at 22 degrees C, levels of E. cloacae and C. freundii decreased by 47 and 26%, respectively, and at 5 degrees C, E. cloacae numbers declined by 23%. Results from these representative laboratory-grown coliforms reinforced those previously obtained with naturally occurring coliforms under the same experimental conditions. Significantly, some samples with initially unacceptable counts (greater than 4/100 ml) met the safe drinking water limits after storage at 24 h at 5 and 22 degrees C and would have been classified as satisfactory.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:4083877

McDaniels, A E; Bordner, R H; Gartside, P S; Haines, J R; Brenner, K P; Rankin, C C

1985-01-01

487

California Institute for Water Resources Annual Technical Report  

E-print Network

California Institute for Water Resources Annual Technical Report FY 2013 California Institute for Water Resources Annual Technical Report FY 2013 1 #12;Introduction The California Institute for Water Resources (CIWR) is a special program within the University of California's (UC) Division of Agriculture

488

California Institute for Water Resources Annual Technical Report  

E-print Network

California Institute for Water Resources Annual Technical Report FY 2012 California Institute for Water Resources Annual Technical Report FY 2012 1 #12;Introduction The California Institute for Water Resources (CIWR) is a special program within the University of California's Division of Agriculture

489

Drinking Water Contamination Due To Lead-based Solder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The presence of lead in drinking water creates many health hazards. Exposure to lead-contaminated water can affect the brain, the central nervous system, blood cells, and kidneys, causing such problems as mental retardation, kidney disease, heart disease, stroke, and death. One way in which lead can contaminate our water supply is through the use of lead solder to join pipes. Lead solder was widely used in the past because of its ease of application as well as its low cost. Lead contamination in residential areas has previously been found to be a particularly serious problem in first-draw samples, of water that has sat stagnant in pipes overnight. To investigate the time-dependence of drinking water lead contamination, we analyzed samples taken hourly of water exposed to lead solder. While our preliminary data was insufficient to show more than a rough correlation between time of exposure and lead concentration over short periods (1-3 hours), we were able to confirm that overnight exposure of water to lead-based solder results in the presence high levels of lead. We also investigated other, external factors that previous research has indicated contribute to increased concentrations of lead. Our analysis of samples of lead-exposed water at various pH and temperatures suggests that these factors can be equally significant in terms of their contribution to elevated lead concentration levels. In particular, water that is slightly corrosive appears to severely impact the solubility of lead. As this type of water is common in much of the Northeast United States, the presence of lead-based solder in residential areas there is especially problematic. Although lead-based solder has been banned since the 1980s, it remains a serious concern, and a practical solution still requires further research.

Garcia, N.; Bartelt, E.; Cuff, K. E.

2004-12-01

490

Some effects of ozonation of humic substances in drinking water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ozonation is employed as a method for removal of colour due to humic substances in drinking water. We have examined some effects of ozonation of humic water in the laboratory. Ozonation reduced colour by 80% but had little influence on the DOC concentration and only moderate effect on the UV absorbance at 254 nm. High-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) showed that the content of high-molecular-weight substances was reduced while a nearly corresponding amount of low-molecular-weight compounds was produced. The produced substances have acidic properties, are uncoloured and do not absorb UV light at 254 nm. Ozonation also led to higher BOD values. The formed low-molecular-weight compounds were consumed by microorganisms. In the original humic water sample the microbial degradation affected only high-molecular-weight compounds. The higher content of biodegradable organic compounds in ozonated drinking water is probably responsible for accelerated growth of bacteria and production of sludge in the distribution systems of a Norwegian waterwork. The obtained colour reduction seems to be temporary, since the colour of ozonated water increases under the influence of microorganisms.

Hongve, Dag; Lund, Vidar; Åkesson, Gunvor; Becher, Georg

491

Seawater drinking restores water balance in dehydrated harp seals.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to answer the question of whether dehydrated harp seals (Phoca groenlandica) are able to obtain a net gain of water from the intake of seawater. Following 24 h of fasting, three subadult female harp seals were dehydrated by intravenous administration of the osmotic diuretic, mannitol. After another 24 h of fasting, the seals were given 1,000 ml seawater via a stomach tube. Urine and blood were collected for measurement of osmolality and osmolytes, while total body water (TBW) was determined by injections of tritiated water. In all seals, the maximum urinary concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) were higher than in seawater, reaching 540 and 620 mM, respectively, compared to 444 and 535 mM in seawater. In another experiment, the seals were given ad lib access to seawater for 48 h after mannitol-induced hyper-osmotic dehydration. In animals without access to seawater, the mean blood osmolality increased from 331 to 363 mOsm kg(-1) during dehydration. In contrast, the blood osmolality, hematocrit and TBW returned to normal when the seals were permitted ad lib access to seawater after dehydration. In conclusion, this study shows that harp seals have the capacity to gain net water from mariposa (voluntarily drinking seawater) and are able to restore water balance after profound dehydration by drinking seawater. PMID:17375309

How, Ole-Jakob; Nordøy, Erling S

2007-07-01

492

Ingestion Exposure to Nitrosamines in Chlorinated Drinking Water  

PubMed Central

Objectives N-Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is classified as a probable human carcinogen by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and is formed during the chlorination of municipal drinking water. In this study, selected nitrosamines were measured in chlorinated drinking water collected from Chuncheon, Kangwon-do, Republic of Korea, and a risk assessment for NDMA was conducted. Methods Twelve water samples were collected from 2 treatment plants and 10 household taps. Samples were analyzed for 6 nitrosamines via solid-phase extraction cleanup followed by conversion to dansyl derivatives and high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). Considering the dietary patterns of Korean people and the concentration change of NDMA by boiling, a carcinogenic risk assessment from ingestion exposure was conducted following the US EPA guidelines. Results NDMA concentrations ranged between 26.1 and 112.0 ng/L. NDMA in water was found to be thermally stable, and thus its concentration at the end of boiling was greater than before thermal treatment owing to the decrease in water volume. The estimated excess lifetime carcinogenic risk exceeded the regulatory baseline risk of 10-5. Conclusions This result suggests that more extensive studies need to be conducted on nitrosamine concentration distributions over the country and the source of relatively high nitrosamine concentrations. PMID:22125764

Han, Kichan

2011-01-01

493

Climate Adaptation Capacity for Conventional Drinking Water Treatment Facilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water supplies are vulnerable to a host of climate- and weather-related stressors such as droughts, intense storms/flooding, snowpack depletion, sea level changes, and consequences from fires, landslides, and excessive heat or cold. Surface water resources (lakes, reservoirs, rivers, and streams) are especially susceptible to weather-induced changes in water availability and quality. The risks to groundwater systems may also be significant. Typically, water treatment facilities are designed with an underlying assumption that water quality from a given source is relatively predictable based on historical data. However, increasing evidence of the lack of stationarity is raising questions about the validity of traditional design assumptions, particularly since the service life of many facilities can exceed fifty years. Given that there are over 150,000 public water systems in the US that deliver drinking water to over 300 million people every day, it is important to evaluate the capacity for adapting to the impacts of a changing climate. Climate and weather can induce or amplify changes in physical, chemical, and biological water quality, reaction rates, the extent of water-sediment-air interactions, and also impact the performance of treatment technologies. The specific impacts depend on the watershed characteristics and local hydrological and land-use factors. Water quality responses can be transient, such as erosion-induced increases in sediment and runoff. Longer-term impacts include changes in the frequency and intensity of algal blooms, gradual changes in the nature and concentration of dissolved organic matter, dissolved solids, and modulation of the microbiological community structure, sources and survival of pathogens. In addition, waterborne contaminants associated with municipal, industrial, and agricultural activities can also impact water quality. This presentation evaluates relationships between climate and weather induced water quality variability and the capacity of treatment facilities and supporting water infrastructure to deliver safe drinking water consistently and reliably. Simulation models of water treatment facilities are used to evaluate the outcome of specific source water quality scenarios on treatment system performance and reliability. Modeling results are used to evaluate the process and operational capacity to respond to transient water quality changes and adapt to longer-term variability in water quality and availability. In some cases, changes in temperature and mineral content serve to improve the overall treatment performance. In addition, the integration of microbially enhanced treatment systems such as biological filtration can provide additional capacity. Conversely, changes in the nutrient and temperature dynamics can trigger algal and cyanobacterial blooms that can impair performance. Research needs are identified and the importance of developing more integrated modeling systems is highlighted.

Levine, A.; Goodrich, J.; Yang, J.

2013-12-01

494

Chronic Ingestion of Uranium in Drinking Water: A Study of Kidney Bioeffects in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted of the chemical effects on the human kidney induced by the chronic ingestion of uranium in drinking water. Subjects were divided into two groups:The low-exposure group,whose drinking water was obtained from a municipal water system and contained <1 ?g uranium\\/L, andthe high-exposure group,whose drinking water was obtained from private drilled wells and contained uranium levels that

M. Limson Zamora; B. L. Tracy; J. M. Zielinski; D. P. Meyerhof; M. A. Mossf

1998-01-01

495

Classification of mineral water types and comparison with drinking water standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a study of 291 mineral waters from 41 different countries, 9-20% exceeded the Dutch drinking water standards for chloride, calcium, magnesium, kalium, sodium, sulphate and fluorine. The mineral water quality cannot be qualified as bad since the standards for these compounds with the exception of fluorine, are not based on health effects but on undesirable taste effects and possible

NGFM van der Aa

2007-01-01

496

Classification of mineral water types and comparison with drinking water standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a study of 291 mineral waters from 41 different countries, 9–20% exceeded the Dutch drinking water standards for chloride, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, sulphate, and fluorine. The mineral water quality cannot be qualified as bad because the standards for these compounds (with the exception of fluorine) are not based on health issues, but matters regarding undesirable taste and possible

Monique van der Aa

2003-01-01

497

40 CFR 194.53 - Consideration of underground sources of drinking water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Certification and Re-certification Individual and Ground-Water Protection Requirements § 194.53 Consideration...underground interconnections among bodies of surface water, ground water, and underground sources of drinking water...

2012-07-01

498

40 CFR 194.53 - Consideration of underground sources of drinking water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Certification and Re-certification Individual and Ground-Water Protection Requirements § 194.53 Consideration...underground interconnections among bodies of surface water, ground water, and underground sources of drinking water...

2013-07-01

499

40 CFR 194.53 - Consideration of underground sources of drinking water.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Certification and Re-certification Individual and Ground-Water Protection Requirements § 194.53 Consideration...underground interconnections among bodies of surface water, ground water, and underground sources of drinking water...

2011-07-01

500

Risk perception, drinking water source and quality in a low-income Latino community  

E-print Network

Risk perception, drinking water source and quality in a low-income Latino community along the U water in 2006 (5th overall) · Increased bottled water use has been associated with risk perception standards · To elucidate the risk perceptions residents have about tap and bottled drinking water

Fay, Noah