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Sample records for california san francisco

  1. Northern California near San Francisco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A part of northern California centered near San Francisco Bay (38.0N, 122.0W) photographed at 3 p.m. January 1, 1974, from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. This near vertical view encompasses the coastline from Monteray Bay (right) to about 50 miles north of Point Reyes (left) and includes, from bottom to top, San Francisco Bay (center), Sacramento Valley (left center), San Joaquin Valley (right center), and the snow-covered Sierra Nevada. Afternoon shadows sharply delineate a valley which parallels San Francisco Bay, crosses Point Reyes, and lies between the Bay and the Pacific coastline. This valley marks the location of the San Andreas Fault. Forces acting on the crust are causing the land west (bottom) of the fault line to move north relative to land on the east side. Agricultural areas in the Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys are indicated by the tan areas which are easily discerned in contrast to the green-gray background.

  2. Space Radar Image of San Francisco, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This image of San Francisco, California shows how the radar distinguishes between densely populated urban areas and nearby areas that are relatively unsettled. Downtown San Francisco is at the center and the city of Oakland is at the right across the San Francisco Bay. Some city areas, such as the South of Market, called the SOMA district in San Francisco, appear bright red due to the alignment of streets and buildings to the incoming radar beam. Various bridges in the area are also visible including the Golden Gate Bridge (left center) at the opening of San Francisco Bay, the Bay Bridge (right center) connecting San Francisco and Oakland, and the San Mateo Bridge (bottom center). All the dark areas on the image are relatively smooth water: the Pacific Ocean to the left, San Francisco Bay in the center, and various reservoirs. Two major faults bounding the San Francisco-Oakland urban areas are visible on this image. The San Andreas fault, on the San Francisco peninsula, is seen in the lower left of the image. The fault trace is the straight feature filled with linear reservoirs which appear dark. The Hayward fault is the straight feature on the right side of the image between the urban areas and the hillier terrain to the east. The image is about 42 kilometers by 58 kilometers (26 miles by 36 miles) with north toward the upper right. This area is centered at 37.83 degrees north latitude, 122.38 degrees east longitude. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture (SIR-C/X-SAR) imaging radar when it flew aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on October 3, 1994. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and the United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  3. South San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dartnell, Peter; Gibbons, Helen

    2007-01-01

    View eastward. Elevations in mapped area color coded: purple (approx 15 m below sea level) to red-orange (approx 90 m above sea level). South San Francisco Bay is very shallow, with a mean water depth of 2.7 m (8.9 ft). Trapezoidal depression near San Mateo Bridge is where sediment has been extracted for use in cement production and as bay fill. Land from USGS digital orthophotographs (DOQs) overlaid on USGS digital elevation models (DEMs). Distance across bottom of image approx 11 km (7 mi); vertical exaggeration 1.5X.

  4. Radar image San Francisco Bay Area, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay Area in California and its surroundings are shown in this radar image from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). On this image, smooth areas, such as the bay, lakes, roads and airport runways appear dark, while areas with buildings and trees appear bright. Downtown San Francisco is at the center and the city of Oakland is at the right across the San Francisco Bay. Some city areas, such as the South of Market district in San Francisco, appear bright due to the alignment of streets and buildings with respect to the incoming radar beam. Three of the bridges spanning the Bay are seen in this image. The Bay Bridge is in the center and extends from the city of San Francisco to Yerba Buena and Treasure Islands, and from there to Oakland. The Golden Gate Bridge is to the left and extends from San Francisco to Sausalito. The Richmond-San Rafael Bridge is in the upper right and extends from San Rafael to Richmond. Angel Island is the large island east of the Golden Gate Bridge, and lies north of the much smaller Alcatraz Island. The Alameda Naval Air Station is seen just below the Bay Bridge at the center of the image. Two major faults bounding the San Francisco-Oakland urban areas are visible on this image. The San Andreas fault, on the San Francisco peninsula, is seen on the left side of the image. The fault trace is the straight feature filled with linear reservoirs, which appear dark. The Hayward fault is the straight feature on the right side of the image between the urban areas and the hillier terrain to the east.

    This radar image was acquired by just one of SRTM's two antennas and, consequently, does not show topographic data, but only the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground. This signal, known as radar backscatter, provides insight into the nature of the surface, including its roughness, vegetation cover and urbanization. The overall faint striping pattern in the images is a data processing artifact due to the

  5. Space Radar Image of San Francisco, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a radar image of San Francisco, California, taken on October 3,1994. The image is about 40 kilometers by 55 kilometers (25 miles by 34 miles) with north toward the upper right. Downtown San Francisco is visible in the center of the image with the city of Oakland east (to the right) across San Francisco Bay. Also visible in the image is the Golden Gate Bridge (left center) and the Bay Bridge connecting San Francisco and Oakland. North of the Bay Bridge is Treasure Island. Alcatraz Island appears as a small dot northwest of Treasure Island. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on orbit 56. The image is centered at 37 degrees north latitude, 122degrees west longitude. This single-frequency SIR-C image was obtained by the L-band (24 cm) radar channel, horizontally transmitted and received. Portions of the Pacific Ocean visible in this image appear very dark as do other smooth surfaces such as airport runways. Suburban areas, with the low-density housing and tree-lined streets that are typical of San Francisco, appear as lighter gray. Areas with high-rise buildings, such as those seen in the downtown areas, appear in very bright white, showing a higher density of housing and streets which run parallel to the radar flight track. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The radars illuminate Earth with microwaves, allowing detailed observations at any time, regardless of weather or sunlight conditions. SIR-C/X-SAR uses three microwave wavelengths: the L-band (24 cm), C-band (6 cm) and X-band (3cm). The multi-frequency data will be used by the international scientific community to better understand the global environment and how it is changing. The SIR-C/X-SAR data, complemented by aircraft and ground studies, will give scientists clearer insights into those environmental changes

  6. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of San Francisco, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Greene, H. Gary; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Golden, Nadine E.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Endris, Charles A.; Manson, Michael W.; Sliter, Ray W.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Watt, Janet Tilden; Ross, Stephanie L.; Bruns, Terry R.

    2015-01-01

    Circulation over the continental shelf in the Offshore of San Francisco map area is dominated by the southward-flowing California Current, an eastern limb of the North Pacific Gyre that flows from Oregon to Baja California. At its midpoint offshore of central California, the California Current transports subarctic surface waters southeastward, about 150 to 1,300 km from shore. Seasonal northwesterly winds that are, in part, responsible for the California Current, generate coastal upwelling. Ocean temperatures offshore of central California have increased over the past 50 years, driving an ecosystem shift from the productive subarctic regime towards a depopulated subtropical environment.

  7. San Francisco, California: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-10-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of San Francisco, CA, a 2007 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

  8. Community Heavy Metal Exposure, San Francisco, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez, A.; Devine, M.; Ho, T.; Zapata, I.; Bissell, M.; Neiss, J.

    2008-12-01

    Heavy metals are natural elements that generally occur in minute concentrations in the earth's crust. While some of these elements, in small quantities, are vital to life, most are harmful in larger doses. Various industrial and agricultural processes can result in dangerously high concentrations of heavy metals in our environment. Consequently, humans can be exposed to unsafe levels of these elements via the air we breathe, the water and food we consume, and the many products we use. During a two week study we collected numerous samples of sediments, water, food, and household items from around the San Francisco Bay Area that represent industrial, agricultural, and urban/residential settings. We analyzed these samples for Mercury (Hg), Lead (Pb), and Arsenic (As). Our goal was to examine the extent of our exposure to heavy metals in our daily lives. We discovered that many of the common foods and materials in our lives have become contaminated with unhealthy concentrations of these metals. Of our food samples, many exceeded the EPA's Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL) set for each metal. Meats (fish, chicken, and beef) had higher amounts of each metal than did non-meat items. Heavy metals were also prevalent in varying concentrations in the environment. While many of our samples exceeded the EPA's Sediment Screening Level (SSL) for As, only two other samples surpassed the SSL set for Pb, and zero of our samples exceeded the SSL for Hg. Because of the serious health effects that can result from over-exposure to heavy metals, the information obtained in this study should be used to influence our future dietary and recreational habits.

  9. Groundwater quality in the San Francisco Bay groundwater basins, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, Mary C.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California’s drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State’s groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. Selected groundwater basins of the San Francisco Bay area constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  10. A Water Quality Study: Heron's Head Park, San Francisco, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, A.; Wu, K.; Neiss, J.

    2007-12-01

    Heron's Head Park, formerly known as Pier 98, is a 24-acre restored wetland, owned and operated by the Port of San Francisco and situated at the base of the Hunter's Point Power Plant. Heron's Head is a unique environment that is built on landfill and is now a thriving marsh maintained primarily by youth and community volunteers. Adjacent to the park stands a PG&E power plant (closed May 2006), a county waste transfer station, and a combined sewer overflow (CSO) pipe. The park is bordered by San Francisco Bay on the north, east and south sides of the park. We examined the levels of ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate and fecal coliform at nine sites around the park. Utilizing historical data from other San Francisco Bay sites and other similar estuarine settings in California, we assessed the health of the Bay waters surrounding the park. We found the levels of ammonia, nitrate, nitrite and phosphates to be within the parameters of historical San Francisco Bay data and similar to settings such as Elkhorn Slough, Tomales Bay and Tijuana Estuary. In our study we did find a potential hazard to human health. Fecal coliform concentrations in waters that border the park range from 340 MPN/100 mL - 24,000 MPN/100 mL. This level significantly exceeds Environmental Protection Agency recommendations of 300 MPN/100 mL for human contact with water.

  11. Environmental contaminants in canvasbacks wintering on San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miles, A.K.; Ohlendorf, H.M.

    1993-01-01

    The concentrations of 11 trace elements, 21 organochlorines, 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and 13 aliphatic hydrocarbons were determined in canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) wintering on San Francisco Bay, California during 1988. With the exception of Se, concentrations of potentially toxic elements were low. Similarly, concentrations of most organic compounds were near or below detection limits. Aliphatic hydrocarbons, PCBs, and DDE were common, but at levels lower than those known to be harmful to waterfowl. Innocuous trace elements (Cu, Fe, and Zn), which are often associated with anthropogenic contamination, occurred at high levels. Concentrations of toxic elements were several times lower and those of benign elements were similar or greater than concentrations reported for surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata) or greater scaup (Aythya marila) from San Francisco Bay.

  12. Sand waves at the mouth of San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbons, Helen; Barnard, Patrick L.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey; California State University, Monterey Bay; U.S. Army Corps of Engineers; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration; and Center for Integrative Coastal Observation, Research and Education partnered to map central San Francisco Bay and its entrance under the Golden Gate Bridge using multibeam echosounders. View eastward, through the Golden Gate into central San Francisco Bay. Depth of sea floor color coded: red (less than 10 m deep) to purple (more than 100 m deep). Land from USGS digital orthophotographs (DOQs) overlaid on USGS digital elevation models (DEMs). Sand waves in this view average 6 m in height and 80 m from crest to crest. Golden Gate Bridge is about 2 km long. Vertical exaggeration is approximately 4x for sea floor, 2x for land.

  13. Underwater gravity meter survey of San Francisco and San Pablo bays, California, 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childs, Jonathan R.; Beyer, L.A.; McCulloch, D.S.; McHendrie, G.A.; Steele, W.C.

    1983-01-01

    Seafloor gravity measurements were made at 281 bottom stations in San Francisco and San Pablo Bays, California, on a series of lines oriented approximately NNE.. Line spacing was approximately 2.8 km and stations along the lines mere spaced 0.5 to 1.5 km apart, between 0.5 and 1.5 km perpendicular to the axis. Sample Bouguer anomalies in the San Francisco Bay range from -15 to +15 mGals (?0.1 mgal), while anomalies in the San Pablo Bay are consistently negative, ranging from +4.0 to -40.0 mGal (?0.2 mGal).

  14. Characterizing the scientific potential of satellite sensors. [San Francisco, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Analytical and programming support is to be provided to characterize the potential of the LANDSAT thematic mapper (TM) digital imagery for scientific investigations in the Earth sciences and in terrestrial physics. In addition, technical support to define lower atmospheric and terrestrial surface experiments for the space station and technical support to the Research Optical Sensor (ROS) study scientist for advanced studies in remote sensing are to be provided. Eleven radiometric calibration and correction programs are described. Coherent noise and bright target saturation correction are discussed along with image processing on the LAS/VAX and Hp-300/IDIMS. An image of San Francisco, California from TM band 2 is presented.

  15. Microplastic contamination in the San Francisco Bay, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Rebecca; Mason, Sherri A; Stanek, Shavonne K; Willis-Norton, Ellen; Wren, Ian F; Box, Carolynn

    2016-08-15

    Despite widespread detection of microplastic pollution in marine environments, data describing microplastic abundance in urban estuaries and microplastic discharge via treated municipal wastewater are limited. This study presents information on abundance, distribution, and composition of microplastic at nine sites in San Francisco Bay, California, USA. Also presented are characterizations of microplastic in final effluent from eight wastewater treatment plants, employing varying treatment technologies, that discharge to the Bay. With an average microplastic abundance of 700,000particles/km(2), Bay surface water appears to have higher microplastic levels than other urban waterbodies sampled in North America. Moreover, treated wastewater from facilities that discharge into the Bay contains considerable microplastic contamination. Facilities employing tertiary filtration did not show lower levels of contamination than those using secondary treatment. As textile-derived fibers were more abundant in wastewater, higher levels of fragments in surface water suggest additional pathways of microplastic pollution, such as stormwater runoff. PMID:27289280

  16. Structure of the continental shelf west of San Francisco, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooper, Alan K.

    1973-01-01

    The continental shelf west of San Francisco, California is divided into two structural provinces along the offshore extension of the Seal Cove fault, the Farallon and Golden Gate platforms. The Farallon platform lies west of the Seal Cove fault and is characterized by a thick sequence of Tertiary sediments with a maximum thickness of 3.5 km. These sediments are bounded at the edge of the continental shelf by a ridge of Cretaceous granitic rock which crops out at the Farallon Islands. The granitic basement is vertically displaced along the eastern flank of the granitic ridge and along two high angle reverse faults located near Point Reyes. The Point Reyes fault trends east-west and has possibly offset the granitic basement 1500 meters since late Pliocene time. Two northwest trending anticlines lie south of the Point Reyes fault. The eastern boundary of the Tertiary basin is delineated by a structural high composed of deformed basin sediments. This structural high is truncated at the Seal Cove fault. On the Golden Gate platform, the San Andreas fault zone is marked by a near surface graben, showing a maximum vertical displacement of 20 meters, and by a wider linear depression observed to a depth of 700 meters. The Pilarcitos fault continues offshore and joins the San Andreas fault south of Bolinas. The development of the present Tertiary basin under the continental shelf commenced in late Miocene time with. the initial uplift of the Farallon ridge and the compression of the eastern basin margin. Strike-slip faulting on the seal Cove fault in Pliocene time truncated middle Tertiary sediments at the fault and thus formed a distinct structural boundary between the Farallon and Golden Gate platforms. Surface extensional features observed within the San Andreas fault zone are suggestive of strike-slip faulting in late Tertiary time. The compressional high angle reverse faulting at Point Reyes occurred during the late Pliocene orogenic period of the California Coast Ranges.

  17. Specific conductance, water temperature, and water level data, San Francisco Bay, California, water year 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchanan, Paul A.

    1999-01-01

    Specific conductance and water temperature data are continuously recorded at four sites in San Francisco Bay, California: San Pablo Strait at Point San Pablo, Central San Francisco Bay at Presidio Military Reservation, Pier 24 at Bay Bridge, and South San Francisco Bay at San Mateo Bridge near Foster City (Figure 1). Water level data are recorded only at San Pablo Strait at Point San Pablo. These data were recorded by the Department of Water Resources (DWR) before 1988, by the US Geological Survey (USGS) National Research Program from 1988 to 1989, and by the USGS-DWR cooperative program since 1990. This article presents time-series plots of data from the four sites in San Francisco Bay during water year 1998 (1 October 1997 through 30 September 1998).

  18. San Francisco Bay, California as seen from STS-59

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    San Francisco Bay as seen from STS-59. View is oriented with the sea up. The delta of the combined Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers occupies the foreground with San Francisco Bay in the middle distance, then the Pacific Ocean. Variations in water color caused both by sediment load and by wind streaking strike the eye. Man-made features dominate this scene. The Lafayette/Concord complex is left of the bay head, Vallejo is to the right, the Berkeley/Oakland complex rims the shoreline of the main bay, and San Francisco fills the peninsula beyond. Salt-evaporation ponds contain differently-colored algae depending on salinity. The low altitude (less than 120 nautical miles) and unusually-clear air combine to provide unusually-strong green colors in this Spring scene.

  19. California coastal processes study: Skylab. [San Pablo and San Francisco Bays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirie, D. M.; Steller, D. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. In San Pablo Bay, the patterns of dredged sediment discharges were plotted over a three month period. It was found that lithogenous particles, kept in suspension by the fresh water from the Sacramento-San Joaquin, were transported downstream to the estuarine area at varying rates depending on the river discharge level. Skylab collected California coastal imagery at limited times and not at constant intervals. Resolution, however, helped compensate for lack of coverage. Increased spatial and spectral resolution provided details not possible utilizing Landsat imagery. The S-192 data was reformatted; band by band image density stretching was utilized to enhance sediment discharge patterns entrainment, boundaries, and eddys. The 26 January 1974 Skylab 4 imagery of San Francisco Bay was taken during an exceptionally high fresh water and suspended sediment discharge period. A three pronged surface sediment pattern was visible where the Sacramento-San Joaquin Rivers entered San Pablo Bay through Carquinez Strait.

  20. Near bottom velocity measurements in San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gartner, Jeffrey W.; Cheng, Ralph T.

    1996-01-01

    The ability to accurately measure long-term time-series of tidal currents in bays and estuaries is critical in estuarine hydrodynamic studies. Accurate measurements of tidal currents near the air-water interface and in the bottom boundary layer remain difficult in spite of the significant advances in technology for measuring tidal currents which have been achieved in recent years. One of the objectives of this study is to demonstrate that turbulent mean velocity distribution within the bottom boundary layer can be determined accurately by using a broad-band acoustic Doppler current profiler (BB-ADCP). A suite of instruments, including two BB-ADCPs and four electromagnetic (EM) current meters was deployed in San Francisco Bay, California in an investigation of resuspension and transport of sediment during March 1995. The velocity measurements obtained in the bottom boundary layer by BB-ADCP were highly coherent (r2>0.94) with the velocity measurements obtained by EM current meters. During early March 1995, both BB-ADCPs and EM current meters recorded a very unusual flow event. Agreement among independent measurements by these instruments in describing such an atypical hydrodynamic occurrence further validates the velocity measurements obtained by BB-ADCP in the bottom boundary layer.

  1. Bottom boundary layer in south San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, Ralph T.; Gartner, Jeffrey W.; Smith, Richard E.

    1997-01-01

    Detailed velocity distributions within the benthic turbulent boundary layer were measured by a Broad Band Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (BB-ADCP) in South San Francisco Bay, California. In "mode 5", the BB-ADCP was able to measure velocity in 5 cm increments. The validation of these measurements was achieved by comparing the BB-ADCP measurements with the velocities measured by a Narrow Band Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (NB-ADCP) in close proximity. There were thirty-three (33) velocity time-series measured by the BB-ADCP beginning at 7 cm above bed and extending to 175 cm in water column for about two weeks. The velocities from locations at 7 cm and 12 cm above the bed were determined to be of lower accuracy, and they were not used in estimates of friction velocity, u.. The values of u. at 95% confidence level were determined with relative error less than 20%. The time-series of u. varied with velocity outside of the boundary layer, and responded to spring-neap tidal variations. Attempts to use acoustic backscatterance echo intensity to measure suspended sediment concentration showed prom ise, and merit consideration in future studies.

  2. 29. Photocopy of photograph (from San Francisco Chronicle Library, San ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Photocopy of photograph (from San Francisco Chronicle Library, San Francisco, California, c. 1930 (?) EXTERIOR, GENERAL VIEW OF CONVENTO, FRONT VIEW, AFTER RESTORATION - Mission San Francisco Solano de Sonoma, First & Spain Streets, Sonoma, Sonoma County, CA

  3. Late Holocene Marsh Expansion in Southern San Francisco Bay, California

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently, the largest tidal wetlands restoration project on the US Pacific Coast is being planned and implemented in southern San Francisco Bay; however, knowledge of baseline conditions of salt marsh extent in the region prior to European settlement is limited. Here, analysis o...

  4. 2000 yr record of Sacramento-San Joaquin river inflow to San Francisco Bay estuary, California

    SciTech Connect

    Ingram, B.L.; Ingle, J.C.; Conrad, M.E.

    1996-04-01

    Oxygen and carbon isotopic measurements of fossil bivalves (Macoma nasuta) contained in estuarine sediment are used to reconstruct a late Holocene record of salinity and stream flow in San Francisco Bay. Discharge into the bay is a particularly good indicator of paleoclimate in California because the bay`s influent streams drain 40% of the state. The isotopic record suggests that between about 1670 and 1900 calendar years (yr cal) B.P. inflow to the bay was substantially greater than the estimated prediversion inflow of 1100 M{sup 3}/s. An unconformity representing a 900 yr hiatus is present in the core between 1670 and 750 yr cal B.P., possibly caused by a major hydrological event. Over the past 750 yr, stream flow to San Francisco Bay has varied with a period of 200 yr; alternate wet and dry (drought) intervals typically have lasted 40 to 160 yr. 27 refs., 7 figs.

  5. A 2000 yr record of Sacramento San Joaquin River inflow to San Francisco Bay estuary, California

    SciTech Connect

    Ingram, B.L.; Ingle, J.C.; Conrad, M.E.

    1995-10-01

    Oxygen and carbon isotopic measurements of fossil bivalves (Macoma nasuta) contained in estuarine sediment are used to reconstruct a late Holocene record of salinity and stream flow in San Francisco Bay. Discharge into the bay is a particularly good indicator of paleoclimate in California because the bay's influent streams drain 40 percent of the state, The isotopic record suggests that between about 1670 and 1900 calendar years (yr cal) B.P. inflow to the bay was substantially greater than the estimated prediversion inflow of 1100 m(3)/s, An unconformity representing a 900 yr hiatus is present in the core between 1670 and 750 yr cal B.P., possibly caused by a major hydrological event. Over the past 750 yr, stream flow to San Francisco Bay has varied with a period of 200 yr; alternate wet and dry (drought) intervals typically have lasted 40 to 160 yr.

  6. Regional Air Toxics Modeling in California's San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martien, P. T.; Tanrikulu, S.; Tran, C.; Fairley, D.; Jia, Y.; Fanai, A.; Reid, S.; Yarwood, G.; Emery, C.

    2011-12-01

    Regional toxics modeling conducted for California's San Francisco Bay Area (SFBA) estimated potential cancer risk from diesel particulate matter (DPM) and four key reactive toxic gaseous pollutants (1,3-butadiene, benzene, formaldehyde, and acetaldehyde). Concentrations of other non-cancerous gaseous toxic air contaminants, including acrolein, were also generated. In this study, meteorological fields generated from July and December periods in 2000 and emissions from 2005 provided inputs to a three-dimensional air quality model at high spatial resolution (1x1 km^2 grid), from which a baseline set of annual risk values was estimated. Simulated risk maps show highest annual average DPM concentrations and cancer risks were located near and downwind of major freeways and near the Port of Oakland, a major container port in the area. Population weighted risks, using 2000 census data, were found to be highest in highly urbanized areas adjacent to significant DPM sources. For summer, the ratio of mean measured elemental carbon to mean modeled DPM was 0.78, conforming roughly to expectations. But for winter the ratio is 1.13, suggesting other sources of elemental carbon, such as wood smoke, are important. Simulated annual estimates for benzene and 1-3, butadiene compared well to measured annual estimates. Simulated acrolein and formaldehyde significantly under-predicted observed values. Simulations repeated using projected 2015 toxic emissions predicted that potential cancer risk dropped significantly in all areas throughout the SFBA. Emissions estimates for 2015 included the State of California's recently adopted on-road truck rule. Emission estimates of DPM are projected to drop about 70% between 2005 and 2015 in the SFBA, with a commensurate reduction in potential cancer risks. However, due to projected shifts in population during this period, with urban densification close to DPM sources outpacing emission reductions, there are some areas where population-weighted risks

  7. Benthic macrofauna data for San Francisco Bay, California, September 1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schemel, Laurence E.; Thompson, J.K.; Harmon, J.G.; Yost, B.T.

    1995-01-01

    Benthic macrofauna were collected during September 1986 to evaluate locations for long-term monitoring stations as part of the U.S. Geological Survey Regional Effects Monitoring Program in San Francisco Bay, California. Three to ten replicate samples were collected with a modified Van Veen sampler (0.05 m2 area) at ten locations. One box core sample (0.06 m2 area) was collected at seven to the ten locations. Six of the box core samples were split into an upper 10 cm sample and a deeper sample before analysis. Macrofauna specimens were identified to the lowest possible taxon, usually genus and species, then counted. An average of 88 percent of the benthic macrofauna specimens were identified to the species level. The fraction identified varied among stations from 54 to 98 percent. Nematodes and oligochaetes accounted for most of the unidentified specimens. Relative to the total number of species identified in five replicates at each location, an average of 90 percent of the species were collected with three replicates. In general, species with high to moderate abundances were present in all replicates, and species collected only after three or more replicates averaged less than one specimen per replicate. Results from the box cores showed that the dominant species were most abundant in the upper 10 cm, the depth of sediment that can be adequately sampled with a modified Van Veen sampler. On the basis of the number of species and their abundances at each location, seven of the ten locations were selected for sampling in the regular program, which began in March 1987.

  8. Demography of the San Francisco gartersnake in coastal San Mateo County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halstead, Brian J.; Wylie, Glenn D.; Amarello, Melissa; Smith, Jeffrey J.; Thompson, Michelle E.; Routman, Eric J.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    The San Francisco gartersnake Thamnophis sirtalis tetrataenia has been federally listed as endangered since 1967, but little demographic information exists for this species. We examined the demography of a San Francisco gartersnake population on approximately 213 ha of California coastal prairie in San Mateo County, California, from 2007 to 2010. The best-supported mark-recapture model indicated annual variation in daily capture probabilities and annual survival rates. Abundance increased throughout the study period, with a mean total population from 2008 to 2010 of 443 (95% CI = 313-646) individuals. Annual survival was slightly greater than that of most other gartersnakes, with an annual probability of survival of 0.78 (0.55-0.95) in 2008-2009 and 0.75 (0.49-0.93) in 2009-2010. Mean annual per capita recruitment rates were 0.73 (0.02-2.50) in 2008-2009 and 0.47 (0.02-1.42) in 2009-2010. From 2008 to 2010, the probability of an increase in abundance at this site was 0.873, with an estimated increase of 115 (-82 to 326) individuals. The estimated population growth rate in 2008-2009 was 1.52 (0.73-3.29) and in 2009-2010 was 1.21 (0.70-2.17). Although this population is probably stable or increasing in the short term, long-term studies of the status of the San Francisco gartersnake at other sites are required to estimate population trends and to elucidate mechanisms that promote the recovery of this charismatic member of our native herpetofauna.

  9. 2005 hydrographic survey of south San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foxgrover, Amy C.; Jaffe, Bruce E.; Hovis, Gerald T.; Martin, Craig A.; Hubbard, James R.; Samant, Manoj R.; Sullivan, Steve M.

    2007-01-01

    An acoustic hydrographic survey of South San Francisco Bay (South Bay) was conducted in 2005. Over 20 million soundings were collected within an area of approximately 250 sq km (97 sq mi) of the bay extending south of Coyote Point on the west shore, to the San Leandro marina on the east, including Coyote Creek and Ravenswood, Alviso, Artesian, and Mud Sloughs. This is the first survey of this scale that has been conducted in South Bay since the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Ocean Service (NOS) last surveyed the region in the early 1980s. Data from this survey will provide insight to changes in bay floor topography from the 1980s to 2005 and will also serve as essential baseline data for tracking changes that will occur as restoration of the South San Francisco Bay salt ponds progress. This report provides documentation on how the survey was conducted, an assessment of accuracy of the data, and distributes the sounding data with Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) compliant metadata. Reports from NOS and Sea Surveyor, Inc., containing additional survey details are attached as appendices.

  10. 40. Historic American Buildings Survey San Francisco Chronicle Collection San ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. Historic American Buildings Survey San Francisco Chronicle Collection San Francisco, California March 24, 1924 VIEW OF HIGH ALTAR - Mission San Carlos Borromeo, Rio Road & Lausen Drive, Carmel-by-the-Sea, Monterey County, CA

  11. Characterizing the scientific potential of satellite sensors. [San Francisco, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Eleven thematic mapper (TM) radiometric calibration programs were tested and evaluated in support of the task to characterize the potential of LANDSAT TM digital imagery for scientific investigations in the Earth sciences and terrestrial physics. Three software errors related to integer overflow, divide by zero, and nonexist file group were found and solved. Raw, calibrated, and corrected image groups that were created and stored on the Barker2 disk are enumerated. Black and white pixel print files were created for various subscenes of a San Francisco scene (ID 40392-18152). The development of linear regression software is discussed. The output of the software and its function are described. Future work in TM radiometric calibration, image processing, and software development is outlined.

  12. Water Quality Analysis of Yosemite Creek Watershed, San Francisco, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, J. R.; Snow, M. K.; Aquino, A.; Huang, C.; Thai, A.; Yuen, C.

    2003-12-01

    Surface water quality in urban settings can become contaminated by anthropogenic inputs. Yosemite Creek watershed is situated on the east side of San Francisco near Bayview Hunters Point and provides an ideal location for water quality investigations in urban environments. Accordingly, students from Philip and Sala Burton High School monitored water quality at three locations for their physicochemical and biological characteristics. Water was tested for pH, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, total dissolved solids, salinity, and oxidation reduction potential. In addition, a Hach DR 850 digital colorimeter was utilized to measure chlorine, fluorine, nitrogen, phosphorous, and sulfate. The biological component was assessed via monitoring benthic macro invertebrates. Specifically, the presence of caddisfly (Trichoptera) were used to indicate low levels of contaminants and good water quality. Our results indicate that water quality and macro invertebrate populations varied spatially within the watershed. Further investigation is needed to pinpoint the precise location of contaminant inputs.

  13. Medical Ethics Teaching Programs at the University of California, San Francisco, and the University of Washington.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonsen, Albert R.

    1989-01-01

    The development of medical ethics education at the University of California, San Francisco, is chronicled and its contributions to bioethics literature are noted. Emphasis is placed on the importance of using medical cases in such instruction. The University of Washington's ethics program and its potential for innovation are then described.…

  14. Humanities Teaching and Research at the University of California, San Francisco.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jameton, Andrew; Todes, Dan

    1982-01-01

    Among the humanities offerings integrated into the health sciences at the University of California, San Francisco, are the following: bioethics workshop, ethical dilemmas in medical practice, health and human rights, and history of the health sciences. Such courses help illuminate the relationship between humanities teaching and the health…

  15. Initiating Change under the Pew National Dental Education Program at the University of California, San Francisco.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, John C.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The University of California, San Francisco School of Dentistry, has begun the process of evaluating a strategic plan through the design of a performance evaluation system. Renovation of the predoctoral curriculum focused on decompressing the curriculum, adding flexibility, and improving basic science instruction and the clinical experience. (MLW)

  16. Physical and chemical properties of San Francisco Bay, California, 1980

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ota, Allan Y.; Schemel, L.E.; Hager, S.W.

    1989-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted hydrologic investigations in both the deep water channels and the shallow-water regions of the San Francisco Bay estuarine system during 1980. Cruises were conducted regularly, usually at two-week intervals. Physical and chemical properties presented in this report include temperature , salinity, suspended particulate matter, turbidity, extinction coefficient, partial pressure of CO2, partial pressure of oxygen , dissolved organic carbon, particulate organic carbon, discrete chlorophyll a, fluorescence of photosynthetic pigments, dissolved silica, dissolved phosphate, nitrate plus nitrite, nitrite, ammonium, dissolved inorganic nitrogen, dissolved nitrogen, dissolved phosphorus, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus. Analytical methods are described. The body of data contained in this report characterizes hydrologic conditions in San Francisco Bay during a year with an average rate of freshwater inflow to the estuary. Concentrations of dissolved silica (discrete-sample) ranged from 3.8 to 310 micro-M in the northern reach of the bay, whereas the range in the southern reach was limited to 63 to 150 micro-M. Concentrations of phosphate (discrete-sample) ranged from 1.3 to 4.4 micro-M in the northern reach, which was narrow in comparison with that of 2.2 to 19.0 micro-M in the southern reach. Concentrations of nitrate plus nitrite (discrete-sample) ranged from near zero to 53 micro-M in the northern reach, and from 2.3 to 64 micro-M in the southern reach. Concentrations of nitrite (discrete-sample) were low in both reaches, exhibiting a range from nearly zero to approximately 2.3 micro-M. Concentrations of ammonium (discrete-sample) ranged from near zero to 14.2 micro-M in the northern reach, and from near zero to 8.3 micro-M in the southern reach. (USGS)

  17. Variation of the Beach Profile, Ocean Beach, San Francisco, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J. E.; Ho, T.; Li, A.; Perez, A.; Wong, Y.; Bissell, M.

    2006-12-01

    Ocean Beach is a 7-km-long stretch of beach that is the western boundary of the city of San Francisco with the Pacific Ocean. This beach is exposed to large winter waves produced in the North Pacific and smaller summer waves from both the North and South Pacific. Recent decades have seen an increased rate of erosion at the south end of the beach that has led to the partial collapse of a parking lot, and continued erosion threatens both public and private infrastructure. To gain an understanding of the variation in beach profiles we established six cross-shore profiles approximately 1 km apart. Each profile represents a part of the beach that experiences different wave conditions, caused by refraction across the San Francisco Bar, and thus has a different morphologic response to offshore sea conditions. The six sub-aerial profiles were measured using a total station one week apart in August 2006. All profiles increased in elevation and five of the six profiles showed the early formation or continued growth of berms. The same profiles will be re-analyzed in the autumn to determine further change, and compared to data collected by a 2004 SF-ROCKS group that also studied Ocean Beach. We will relate beach profile change to wave conditions measured at an offshore buoy to determine what wave conditions cause profile accretion or erosion. The results of this study will shed light on the processes occurring at Ocean Beach and will help us to understand why the south end of the beach is eroding.

  18. Nowcast model for hazardous material spill prevention and response, San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, Ralph T.; Wilmot, Wayne L.; Galt, Jerry A.

    1997-01-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) installed the Physical Oceanographic Real-time System (PORTS) in San Francisco Bay, California, to provide real-time observations of tides, tidal currents, and meteorological conditions to, among other purposes, guide hazardous material spill prevention and response. Integrated with nowcast modeling techniques and dissemination of real-time data and the nowcasting results through the Internet on the World Wide Web, emerging technologies used in PORTS for real-time data collection forms a nowcast modeling system. Users can download tides and tidal current distribution in San Francisco Bay for their specific applications and/or for further analysis.

  19. Groundwater quality in the North San Francisco Bay groundwater basins, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater provides more than 40 percent of California's drinking water. To protect this vital resource, the State of California created the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The Priority Basin Project of the GAMA Program provides a comprehensive assessment of the State's groundwater quality and increases public access to groundwater-quality information. The basins north of San Francisco constitute one of the study units being evaluated.

  20. Earliest record of the invasive Foraminifera Trochammina hadai in San Francisco Bay, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGann, Mary

    2014-01-01

    In 1995, Trochammina hadai, a benthic Foraminifera prevalent in Japanese estuaries, was found in San Francisco Bay, California, USA. Subsequent field investigations determined that the species was also present in nearly all of the major ports and estuaries along the western United States. Because of its widespread colonization, it is of interest to determine when T. hadai first appeared as an invasive in the coastal regions of the North Pacific. In San Francisco Bay, the species was not found in 404 surface samples collected between 1930 and 1981. In 1983, however, a grab sediment sample from one of four sites in the southern portion of the bay contained T. hadai. This site was the most northern of the four and contained 12 specimens of the invasive, comprising 1.5% of the assemblage. This is the earliest appearance on record of T. hadai in San Francisco Bay.

  1. 78 FR 64196 - Foreign-Trade Zone 3-San Francisco, California; Application for Subzone; Phillips 66 Company...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 3--San Francisco, California; Application for Subzone...) Board by the City and County of San Francisco, grantee of FTZ 3, requesting subzone status for...

  2. Reconstructing Contaminant Deposition in a San Francisco Bay Marina, California

    PubMed Central

    Love, Adam H.; Esser, Bradley K.; Hunt, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Two sediment cores were collected from a marina in the San Francisco Bay to characterize historical sediment contamination resulting from the direct discharge of industrial wastewater from Naval Air Station Alameda. Depth profiles of trace metals, petroleum hydrocarbons, and radionuclides were determined with a 12-cm spacing down to a depth of 120 cm. The chronology of sediment accumulation is established by depth profiles of sedimentary time markers in conjunction with information on site history. The traditional approach of determining sediment accumulation rates by measuring atmospheric 210Pb deposition was obscured by a larger source of 210Pb in the sediments from the decay of anthropogenic 226Ra, likely from luminescent paints used at this facility and released to the marina. The sedimentation rates inferred from the data indicate that the greatest amount of contamination by trace metals and petroleum hydrocarbons took place between 1940 and 1960. In addition, anthropogenic 226Ra activities are positively correlated with some of the contaminants in the sediments, allowing the wastewater discharged from the facility to be distinguished from baywide contamination. In locations such as this, where there is a complex history of contaminant deposition, a source-specific tracer may be the only feasible method of attributing historical contamination to a point source. PMID:20333267

  3. Record of Environmental Change in San Francisco Bay, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGann, M.

    2004-05-01

    Benthic foraminifera in a 3.52 m core recovered from San Francisco Bay, CA yield a 3,800-year sediment record of climate and environmental change. The microfaunal assemblage of the core contains abundant subtidal estuarine benthic foraminifers found today at shallow water depths (<10 m) in the bay. A Q-mode cluster analysis of the samples grouped them into two clusters and one outlier. Cluster A is dominated by the herbivorous species Elphidium excavatum; its abundance often comprises 70-90% of the foraminiferal assemblage. Today, the species typically resides in cold, estuarine waters. Its dominance in the core from 352-150 cm (1920 B.C. to A.D. 652) and 88-18 cm (from A.D. 1224 to A.D. 1980) suggests that this area of the bay has remained relatively cold and shallow for about 3400 years out of the last four millennia. Cluster B, the Ammonia beccarii-Elphidium gunteri association, occurs from 150-88 cm in the core and is interpreted as representing warmer and possibly lower oxygenated conditions from A.D. 652 to A.D. 1224. The outlier, Cluster C (A.D. 1980 to present), is attributable to the recent appearance of the invasive Japanese species Trochammina hadai. Oxygen isotopes and trace elements were measured in specimens of Elphidium excavatum at 10 cm intervals throughout the length of the core. From 150-88 cm (A.D. 652 to A.D. 1224), d 18O values (mean = -3.81 mil) average 0.3 and 0.2 mil lighter than below and above this interval, respectively, corresponding to an increase in water temperature of about 1 deg C in the bay. A heightened Mg/Ca ratio at this time also indicates an increase in water temperature (by 0.3 deg C). The timing of this warming correlates well with records of the Medieval Warm Period. Trochammina hadai was introduced into the bay in the early 1980s, presumably in ballast sediment released from transoceanic vessels. In its native Japan, this species is often found in the most heavily polluted urban areas; its presence being regarded as an

  4. Simulations of the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake and Scenario Earthquakes in Northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, S.; Dreger, D.; Dolenc, D.

    2006-12-01

    3-D simulations of seismic ground motions are performed to better characterize the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and to investigate the seismic consequences from scenario events in northern California. Specifically, we perform simulations of: 1) the 1906 earthquake, which bilaterally ruptured a 480-km segment of the San Andreas fault from San Juan Bautista to Cape Mendocino (epicenter a few kilometers off the coast of San Francisco); 2) large scenario San Andreas events with different epicentral locations; and 3) smaller scenario events along faults local to the San Francisco Bay Area. Simulations of the 1906 earthquake indicate that significant ground motion occurred up and down the northern California coast and out into the Central Valley. Comparisons between the simulated motions and observed data (e.g., shaking intensities, Boatwright and Bundock, 2005), suggest that the moment magnitude of this event was between M7.8 and M7.9. Simulations of 1906-like scenario events along the San Andreas fault reveal that ground motions in the San Francisco Bay Area and in the Sacramento Delta region would be significantly stronger for earthquakes initiating along the northern section of the fault and rupturing to the southeast. Simulations of smaller scenario events in the San Francisco Bay Area indicate areas of concentrated shaking. These simulations are performed using a recently developed 3-D geologic model of northern California (Brocher and Thurber, 2005; Jachens et al., 2005), together with finite-difference codes (E3D and a new public domain package). The effects of topography and attenuation are included. The full computational domain spans most of the geologic model and is 630x320x50 km3. The minimum S-wave velocity is constrained to 500 m/s, except in water. Frequencies up to 1.0 Hz are modeled. The grid spacing ranges from 75 m to 200 m. High performance supercomputers are used for the simulations, which include models of over 23 billion grid nodes using 2000

  5. Estimates of suspended sediment entering San Francisco Bay from the Sacramento and San Joaquin Delta, San Francisco Bay, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKee, Lester J.; Ganju, Neil K.; Schoellhamer, David H.

    2006-05-01

    This study demonstrates the use of suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) data collected at Mallard Island as a means of determining suspended-sediment load entering San Francisco Bay from the Sacramento and San Joaquin River watersheds. Optical backscatter (OBS) data were collected every 15 min during water years (WYs) 1995-2003 and converted to SSC. Daily fluvial advective sediment load was estimated by combining estimated Delta outflow with daily averaged SSC. On days when no data were available, SSC was estimated using linear interpolation. A model was developed to estimate the landward dispersive load using velocity and SSC data collected during WYs 1994 and 1996. The advective and dispersive loads were summed to estimate the total load. Annual suspended-sediment load at Mallard Island averaged 1.2±0.4 Mt (million metric tonnes). Given that the average water discharge for the 1995-2003 period was greater than the long -term average discharge, it seems likely that the average suspended-sediment load may be less than 1.2±0.4 Mt. Average landward dispersive load was 0.24 Mt/yr, 20% of the total. On average during the wet season, 88% of the annual suspended-sediment load was discharged through the Delta and 43% occurred during the wettest 30-day period. The January 1997 flood transported 1.2 Mt of suspended sediment or about 11% of the total 9-year load (10.9 Mt). Previous estimates of sediment load at Mallard Island are about a factor of 3 greater because they lacked data downstream from riverine gages and sediment load has decreased. Decreasing suspended-sediment loads may increase erosion in the Bay, help to cause remobilization of buried contaminants, and reduce the supply of sediment for restoration projects.

  6. Estimates of suspended sediment entering San Francisco Bay from the Sacramento and San Joaquin Delta, San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, L.J.; Ganju, N.K.; Schoellhamer, D.H.

    2006-01-01

    This study demonstrates the use of suspended-sediment concentration (SSC) data collected at Mallard Island as a means of determining suspended-sediment load entering San Francisco Bay from the Sacramento and San Joaquin River watersheds. Optical backscatter (OBS) data were collected every 15 min during water years (WYs) 1995-2003 and converted to SSC. Daily fluvial advective sediment load was estimated by combining estimated Delta outflow with daily averaged SSC. On days when no data were available, SSC was estimated using linear interpolation. A model was developed to estimate the landward dispersive load using velocity and SSC data collected during WYs 1994 and 1996. The advective and dispersive loads were summed to estimate the total load. Annual suspended-sediment load at Mallard Island averaged 1.2??0.4 Mt (million metric tonnes). Given that the average water discharge for the 1995-2003 period was greater than the long -term average discharge, it seems likely that the average suspended-sediment load may be less than 1.2??0.4 Mt. Average landward dispersive load was 0.24 Mt/yr, 20% of the total. On average during the wet season, 88% of the annual suspended-sediment load was discharged through the Delta and 43% occurred during the wettest 30-day period. The January 1997 flood transported 1.2 Mt of suspended sediment or about 11% of the total 9-year load (10.9 Mt). Previous estimates of sediment load at Mallard Island are about a factor of 3 greater because they lacked data downstream from riverine gages and sediment load has decreased. Decreasing suspended-sediment loads may increase erosion in the Bay, help to cause remobilization of buried contaminants, and reduce the supply of sediment for restoration projects. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey San Francisco Chronicle Library San ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey San Francisco Chronicle Library San Francisco, California Year Built: 1834 Photo Taken: About 1925 VIEW FROM EAST - General Sherman Quarters, 464 Calle Principal, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  8. Three-dimensional upper crustal velocity structure beneath San Francisco Peninsula, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Tom; Zoback, Mary Lou

    1997-03-01

    This paper presents new seismic data from, and crustal models of the San Francisco Peninsula. In much of central California the San Andreas fault juxtaposes the Cretaceous granitic Salinian terrane on its west and the Late Mesozoic/Early Tertiary Franciscan Complex on its east. On San Francisco Peninsula, however, the present-day San Andreas fault is completely within a Franciscan terrane, and the Pilarcitos fault, located southwest of the San Andreas, marks the Salinian-Franciscan boundary. This circumstance has evoked two different explanations: either the Pilarcitos is a thrust fault that has pushed Franciscan rocks over Salinian rocks or the Pilarcitos is a transform fault that has accommodated significant right-lateral slip. In an effort to better resolve the subsurface structure of the peninsula faults, we established a temporary network of 31 seismographs arrayed across the San Andreas fault and the subparallel Pilarcitos fault at ˜1-2 km spacings. These instruments were deployed during the first 6 months of 1995 and recorded local earthquakes, air gun sources set off in San Francisco Bay, and explosive sources. Travel times from these sources were used to augment earthquake arrival times recorded by the Northern California Seismic Network and were inverted for three-dimensional velocity structure. Results show lateral velocity changes at depth (˜0.5-7 km) that correlate with downward vertical projections of the surface traces of the San Andreas and Pilarcitos faults. We thus interpret the faults as high-angle to vertical features (constrained to a 70°-110° dip range). From this we conclude that the Pilarcitos fault is probably an important strike-slip fault that accommodated much of the right-lateral plate boundary strain on the peninsula prior to the initiation of the modern-day San Andreas fault in this region sometime after about 3.0 m.y. ago.

  9. Municipal and industrial wastewater loading in the San Francisco Bay, California, 1970

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hines, W.G.; Palmer, R.H.

    1971-01-01

    The purpose of this release is to describe the approximate volumes and significant pollutional loading attributable to municipal and industrial wastewater discharged into the San Francisco Bay. The six receiving-water regions (fig.1) are the same as those used previously by Pearson, Storrs, and Selleck (1969) in describing results of the comprehensive wastewater-monitoring program conducted by the University of California, Berkeley, during the period 1960-64.

  10. A nowcast model for tides and tidal currents in San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, Ralph T.; Smith, Richard E.

    1998-01-01

    National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) installed Physical Oceanographic Real-Time System (PORTS) in San Francisco Bay, California to provide observations of tides, tidal currents, and meteorological conditions. PORTS data are used for optimizing vessel operations, increasing margin of safety for navigation, and guiding hazardous material spill prevention and response. Because tides and tidal currents in San Francisco Bay are extremely complex, limited real-time observations are insufficient to provide spatial resolution for variations of tides and tidal currents. To fill the information gaps, a highresolution, robust, semi-implicit, finite-difference nowcast numerical model has been implemented for San Francisco Bay. The model grid and water depths are defined on coordinates based on Mercator projection so the model outputs can be directly superimposed on navigation charts. A data assimilation algorithm has been established to derive the boundary conditions for model simulations. The nowcast model is executed every hour continuously for tides and tidal currents starting from 24 hours before the present time (now) covering a total of 48 hours simulation. Forty-eight hours of nowcast model results are available to the public at all times through the World Wide Web (WWW). Users can view and download the nowcast model results for tides and tidal current distributions in San Francisco Bay for their specific applications and for further analysis.

  11. Fault zone connectivity: slip rates on faults in the san francisco bay area, california.

    PubMed

    Bilham, R; Bodin, P

    1992-10-01

    The slip rate of a fault segment is related to the length of the fault zone of which it is part. In turn, the slip rate of a fault zone is related to its connectivity with adjoining or contiguous fault zones. The observed variation in slip rate on fault segments in the San Francisco Bay area in California is consistent with connectivity between the Hayward, Calaveras, and San Andreas fault zones. Slip rates on the southern Hayward fault taper northward from a maximum of more than 10 millimeters per year and are sensitive to the active length of the Maacama fault. PMID:17835127

  12. A Study of the San Andreas Slip Rate on the San Francisco Peninsula, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feigelson, L. M.; Prentice, C.; Grove, K.; Caskey, J.; Ritz, J. F.; Leslie, S.

    2008-12-01

    The most recent large earthquake on the San Andreas Fault (SAF) along the San Francisco Peninsula was the great San Francisco earthquake of April 18, 1906, when a Mw= 7.8 event ruptured 435-470 km of the northern SAF. The slip rate for this segment of the SAF is incompletely known but is important for clarifying seismic hazard in this highly urbanized region. A previous study south of our site has found an average slip rate of 17±4 mm/yr for the late Holocene on the San Francisco Peninsula segment of the SAF. North of the Golden Gate, the SAF joins the San Gregorio Fault with an estimated slip rate of 6 mm/yr. A trench study north of where the two faults join has produced an average late Holocene slip rate of 24±3 mm/yr. To refine slip-rate estimates for the peninsula segment of the SAF, we excavated a trench across the fault where we located an abandoned channel between the San Andreas and Lower Crystal Springs reservoirs. This abandoned channel marks the time when a new channel cut across the SAF; the new channel has since been offset in a right-lateral sense about 20 m. The measured amount of offset and the age of the youngest fluvial sediments in the abandoned channel will yield a slip rate for the San Francisco Peninsula segment of the SAF. We excavated a trench across the abandoned channel and logged the exposed sediments. Our investigation revealed channel-fill alluvium incised and filled by probable debris flow sediments, and a wide fault zone in bedrock, west of the channel deposits. The most prominent fault is probably the strand that moved in 1906. We completed a total-station survey to more precisely measure the offset stream, and to confirm that the fault exposed in the trench aligns with a fence that is known to have been offset 2.8m during the 1906 earthquake. We interpret the debris flow sediments to represent the last phase of deposition prior to abandonment of the old channel. We collected samples for radiocarbon dating, optically stimulated

  13. Predicting the vertical structure of tidal current and salinity in San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ford, Michael; Wang, Jia; Cheng, Ralph T.

    1990-01-01

    A two-dimensional laterally averaged numerical estuarine model is developed to study the vertical variations of tidal hydrodynamic properties in the central/north part of San Francisco Bay, California. Tidal stage data, current meter measurements, and conductivity, temperature, and depth profiling data in San Francisco Bay are used for comparison with model predictions. An extensive review of the literature is conducted to assess the success and failure of previous similar investigations and to establish a strategy for development of the present model. A σ plane transformation is used in the vertical dimension to alleviate problems associated with fixed grid model applications in the bay, where the tidal range can be as much as 20–25% of the total water depth. Model predictions of tidal stage and velocity compare favorably with the available field data, and prototype salinity stratification is qualitatively reproduced. Conclusions from this study as well as future model applications and research needs are discussed.

  14. Evaluation of Nonpoint Source Pollution in Stormwater Run-Off in Neighborhoods in San Francisco, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, C.; Bailey, E.; Cai, W.; Chen, K.; Duario, D.; Gonzalez, S.; Li, A.; Liu, L. W.; Matic, M.; Wu, M. L.; Wu, X. P.; Xie, J.; Yue, J.; Yuen, K.; Kirwin, J. P.; Neiss, J.

    2007-12-01

    This is the San Francisco Bay watershed encompasses 40% of California. When precipitation occurs, nonpoint source pollutants such as fertilizers, heavy metals, pesticides, gas and oil, enter the San Francisco Bay through this watershed. These pollutants contain dangerous chemicals that can potentially impact people and local ecology. The goal of Project Watershed is for high school students to design a study that investigates nonpoint source pollution in their own neighborhood and correlate these findings to the human activity in the neighborhood. Fifteen high school students participating in this study designed a stormwater collection devise that was installed in the public storm drain near each students home. Stormwater samples where collected from each device during the period of December 2006 to April 2007. Students assessed the samples for nitrates, heavy metals, oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons, toluene and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). This study outlines the methods students used to design the study and a summary of results found.

  15. Concentrations, transport and biological effects of dormant spray pesticides in the San Francisco Estuary, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuivila, K.M.; Foe, C.G.

    1995-01-01

    The transport and biological effects of dormant spray pesticides were examined in the San Francisco Estuary, California, by measuring dissolved- pesticide concentrations and estimating toxicity using bioassays at a series of sites in January and February 1993. Distinct pulses of pesticides, including diazinon, methidathion, and chlorpyrifos, were detected in the San Joaquin River in January and February and in the Sacramento River in February following rainfall. The higher pesticide loads in the Sacramento River compared with those in the San Joaquin River can be attributed to the greater amount of rainfall in the Sacramento Valley. The use patterns and water solubility of the pesticides can account for the observed temporal and spatial distributions in the two rivers. The pesticide pulses detected at Sacramento were followed through the northern embayment of San Francisco Estuary. In contrast, the pesticide distribution in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta changed from distinct pulses to steady increases in concentration over time. Seven-day bioassays indicated that Sacramento River water at Rio Vista was acutely toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia (water flea) for 3 consecutive d and San Joaquin River water at Vernalis for 12 consecutive d. These water samples all had the highest diazinon concentrations. Examination of 96-h LC50 values (lethal concentration that kills 50% of test organisms in 96 H) indicates that measured diazinon concentrations could account for most but not all the observed toxicity. Other pesticides present could contribute to the toxicity.

  16. Deformation across the Pacific-North America plate boundary near San Francisco, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prescott, W.H.; Savage, J.C.; Svarc, J.L.; Manaker, D.

    2001-01-01

    We have detected a narrow zone of compression between the Coast Ranges and the Great Valley, and we have estimated slip rates for the San Andreas, Rodgers Creek, and Green Valley faults just north of San Francisco. These results are based on an analysis of campaign and continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) data collected between 1992 and 2000 in central California. The zone of compression between the Coast Ranges and the Great Valley is 25 km wide. The observations clearly show 3.8??1.5 mm yr-1 of shortening over this narrow zone. The strike slip components are best fit by a model with 20.8??1.9 mm yr-1 slip on the San Andreas fault, 10.3??2.6 mm yr-1 on the Rodgers Creek fault, and 8.1??2.1 mm yr-1 on the Green Valley fault. The Pacific-Sierra Nevada-Great Valley motion totals 39.2??3.8 mm yr-1 across a zone that is 120 km wide (at the latitude of San Francisco). Standard deviations are one ??. The geodetic results suggest a higher than geologic rate for the Green Valley fault. The geodetic results also suggest an inconsistency between geologic estimates of the San Andreas rate and seismologic estimates of the depth of locking on the San Andreas fault. The only convergence observed is in the narrow zone along the border between the Great Valley and the Coast Ranges.

  17. SummerHill Homes, San Francisco Bay Area, Fremont, California

    SciTech Connect

    2006-10-01

    Building America fact sheet on SummerHill Homes of Northern California. The Villa Savona Homes in Fremont, California were built using 15% fly ash in concrete, engineered lumber for floors, high efficiency windows with Low-emissivity (Low-E) glass, and fi

  18. Dipping San Andreas and Hayward faults revealed beneath San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, T.; Hart, P.E.

    1999-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay area is crossed by several right-lateral strike-slip faults of the San Andreas fault zone. Fault-plane reflections reveal that two of these faults, the San Andreas and Hayward, dip toward each other below seismogenic depths at 60?? and 70??, respectively, and persist to the base of the crust. Previously, a horizontal detachment linking the two faults in the lower crust beneath San Francisco Bay was proposed. The only near-vertical-incidence reflection data available prior to the most recent experiment in 1997 were recorded parallel to the major fault structures. When the new reflection data recorded orthogonal to the faults are compared with the older data, the highest, amplitude reflections show clear variations in moveout with recording azimuth. In addition, reflection times consistently increase with distance from the faults. If the reflectors were horizontal, reflection moveout would be independent of azimuth, and reflection times would be independent of distance from the faults. The best-fit solution from three-dimensional traveltime modeling is a pair of high-angle dipping surfaces. The close correspondence of these dipping structures with the San Andreas and Hayward faults leads us to conclude that they are the faults beneath seismogenic depths. If the faults retain their observed dips, they would converge into a single zone in the upper mantle -45 km beneath the surface, although we can only observe them in the crust.

  19. Diazinon concentrations in the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers and San Francisco Bay, California, February 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuivila, Kathryn M.

    1993-01-01

    The distribution and possible biological effects of a dormant spray pesticide, diazinon, were examined by measuring pesticide concentrations and estimating toxicity using bioassays at a series of sites in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta and San Francisco Bay. Pulses of diazinon were observed in early February 1993 in the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers after heavy rains, with elevated concentrations measured for a few days to weeks at a time. The pulse of diazinon in the Sacramento River was followed from Sacramento through Suisun Bay, the eastward embayment of San Francisco Bay. In the central delta, well-defined pulses of diazinon were not observed at the Old and Middle River sites; instead, the concentrations steadily increased throughout February. Ceriodaphnia dubia mortality was 100% in water samples collected for 12 consecutive days (February 8-19) from the San Joaquin River at Vernalis. The bioassay mortality corresponded with the peak diazinon concentrations. Conversely, no toxicity was observed in water collected before or after peaks of diazinon concentration. Other pesticides present also could contribute to the toxicity.

  20. Specific conductance and water temperature data for San Francisco Bay, California, for Water Year 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchanan, P.A.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents time-series graphs of specificconductance and water-temperature data collected in San Francisco Bay during water year 2004 (October 1, 2003, through September 30, 2004). Specific-conductance and water-temperature data were recorded at 15-minute intervals at seven U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) locations (Figure 1, Table 1). Specific-conductance and water-temperature data from Point San Pablo (PSP) and San Mateo Bridge (SMB) were recorded by the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) before 1988, by the USGS National Research Program from 1988 to 1989, and by the USGSDWR cooperative program since 1990. Benicia Bridge (BEN), Carquinez Bridge (CARQ), and Napa River (NAP) were established in 1998 by the USGS. San Pablo Bay (SPB) was initially established in 1998 at Channel Marker 9 but was moved to Channel Marker 1 in 2003. The monitoring station at Alcatraz (ALC) was established in 2003 by the USGS to replace the discontinued monitoring station San Francisco Bay at Presidio Military Reservation.

  1. Spatial and temporal trends of contaminants in eggs of wading birds from San Francisco Bay, California

    SciTech Connect

    Hothem, R.L.; Marois, K.C.; Wainwright, S.E.; Roster, D.L.; King, K.A.; Keldsen, T.J.

    1995-08-01

    Between 1989 and 1991, reproduction by black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) and snowy egrets (Egretta thula) was studied at sites in San Francisco Bay. Eggs were collected from these and other bay sites and from South Wilbur Flood Area, a reference site in California`s San Joaquin Valley. Eggs were analyzed for inorganic trace elements, organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Results were compared among sites and years and with results of previous studies. There was some evidence of impaired reproduction, but concentrations of contaminants were generally lower than threshold levels for such effects. Egg hatchability was generally good, with predation being the factor that most limited reproductive success. Mean PCB concentrations were generally higher in eggs from the south end of San Francisco Bay than from the north, but the only temporal change, an increase, was observed at Alcatraz Island. There were spatial differences for p,p{prime}-DDE in night-heron eggs in 1990, but the highest mean concentration of DDE was in night-heron eggs from South Wilbur in 1991. Temporal declines in maximum concentrations of DDE in eggs were observed in the bay, but means did not change significantly over time. At Bair Island in the southern end of the bay, mean concentrations of mercury decreased while selenium increased in night-heron eggs over time, but there were no clear bay-wide spatial or temporal trends for either element.

  2. Benthic macrofauna and ancillary data for San Francisco Bay, California, March to November 1987

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schemel, Laurence E.; Ota, Allan Y.; Harmon, J.G.; Shay, J.M.; Adorado, R.N.

    1988-01-01

    Benthic macrofauna and ancillary data were collected during 1987 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey Regional Effects Monitoring Program in San Francisco Bay, California. Data were collected during five cruises at 2-month intervals from March through November. Benthic macrofauna for identification of species and sediment for size analysis were sampled at eight stations. Ancillary data, which consisted of salinity, temperature, dissolved-oxygen concentrations, and suspended sediment, were collected at 12 stations. Salinity and temperature were measured at three stations that coincided with continuous water quality monitors. Abundances and geographical distributions of a newly introduced species of clam were measured. (USGS)

  3. Water level, specific conductance, and water temperature data, San Francisco Bay, California, for Water Year 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchanan, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    Time series of water-level, specific-conductance, and watertemperature data were collected at seven sites in San Francisco Bay during water year 2000 (October 1, 1999 through September 30, 2000). Water-level data were recorded only at Point San Pablo. Specific-conductance and water-temperature data were recorded at 15-minute intervals at the following locations (Figure 1): • Carquinez Strait at Carquinez Bridge • Napa River at Mare Island Causeway near Vallejo • San Pablo Bay at Petaluma River Channel Marker 9 • San Pablo Strait at Point San Pablo • Central San Francisco Bay at Presidio Military Reservation • Central San Francisco Bay at Pier 24 • South San Francisco Bay at San Mateo Bridge near Foster City.

  4. The Public School System of San Francisco, California. Bulletin, 1917, No. 46

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Education, Department of the Interior, 1917

    1917-01-01

    During the month of December, 1914, representatives of the San Francisco Chamber of Commerce conferred with the Commissioner of Education in Washington concerning the possibility of a survey of the San Francisco public school system under the direction of the Bureau of Education. At that time the Commissioner of Education drafted a statement of…

  5. Geologic nature of the Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve, San Francisco Peninsula, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coleman, R.G.

    2004-01-01

    This short report attempts to illuminate the geological features that contributed to making the Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve (JRBP) a unique research island within the rapidly urbanized San Francisco Peninsula. Written in the rocks of the Preserve is a history of continental growth that extends back to the Jurassic (???150 Ma) as the California continental margin grew by subduction and accretion. Movement along the San Andreas fault system has left an indelible mark on the topography by uplift and faulting, and is even now changing the landscape by measurable increments. The sediments of Searsville Lake preserve a chronology of logging in the last century and housing development in more recent decades. Continued multidisciplinary study of this dynamic island of preserved interlocking biological, geological, and hydrogeological records will enhance student, faculty, and docent research, and our understanding of this complex area. ?? 2004 by V. H. Winston and Son, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Spatial and temporal trends of contaminants in eggs of wading birds from San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hothem, R.L.; Roster, D.L.; King, K.A.; Keldsen, T.J.; Marois, K.C.; Wainwright, S.E.

    1995-01-01

    Between 1989 and 1991, reproduction by black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) and snowy egrets (Egretta thula) was studied at sites in San Francisco Bay. Eggs were collected from these and other bay sites and from South Wilbur Flood Area, a reference site in California's San Joaquin Valley. Eggs were analyzed for inorganic trace elements, organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Results were compared among sites and years and with results of previous studies. There was some evidence of impaired reproduction, but concentrations of contaminants were generally lower than threshold levels for such effects. Egg hatchability was generally good, with predation being the factor that most limited reproductive success. Mean PCB concentrations were generally higher in eggs from the south end of San Francisco Bay than from the north, but the only temporal change, an increase, was observed at Alcatraz Island. There were spatial differences for p,p'-DDE in night-heron eggs in 1990, but the highest mean concentration of DDE was in night-heron eggs from South Wilbur in 1991. Temporal declines in maximum concentrations of DDE in eggs were observed in the bay, but means did not change significantly over time, At Bair Island in the southern end of the bay, mean concentrations of mercury decreased while selenium increased in night-heron eggs over time, but there were no clear bay-wide spatial or temporal trends for either element.

  7. Epidemiology and Genetic Diversity of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in the San Francisco Bay Area, California.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Nathan C; Salkeld, Daniel J

    2016-07-01

    In California, the agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA), Anaplasma phagocytophilum, is transmitted by western black-legged ticks (Ixodes pacificus). Cases of HGA are infrequent in California but do occur annually. We investigated nymphal and adult western black-legged tick populations in 20 recreational areas in California's San Francisco Bay Area (Marin, Napa, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, and Sonoma counties). Overall, prevalence of A. phagocytophilum in adult ticks was 0.8% (11/1,465), and in nymphal ticks was 4.2% (24/568), though presence was patchy and prevalence varied locally. We detected significant sequence variation in our quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-positive samples. This included four sequences that grouped within a clade that contains clinical human and veterinary isolates as well as four others that grouped with sequences from PCR-positive lizards from northern California. Tick populations in our study sites harbor genetically diverse strains of A. phagocytophilum, which may influence potential risk in the region. PMID:27139447

  8. SIMILARITY OF PARTICLE-ASSOCIATED AND FREE-LIVING BACTERIAL COMMUNITIES IN NORTHERN SAN FRANCISCO BAY, CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rDNA PCR amplicons to analyze the composition of Bacteria communities in samples collected during the summer, low flow season from northern San Francisco Bay, California. There were clear compositional differences in ...

  9. 78 FR 2952 - Foreign-Trade Zone 3-San Francisco, California; Application for Expansion and Expansion of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... on January 9, 2013. FTZ 3 was approved by the Board on March 10, 1948 (Board Order 12, 13 FR 1459, 3/19/48) and the zone was reorganized under the ASF on October 7, 2010 (Board Order 1718, 75 FR 64708... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 3--San Francisco, California; Application for Expansion...

  10. Flow and suspended particulate transport in a tidal bottom layer, south San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, R.T.; Gartner, J.W.; Cacchione, D.A.; Tate, G.B.

    1998-01-01

    Field investigations of the hydrodynamics and the resuspension and transport of particulate matter in a bottom boundary layer were carried out in South San Francisco Bay, California during March-April 1995. The GEOPROBE, an instrumented bottom tripod, and broad-band acousti Doppler current profilers were used in this investigation. The instrument assemblage provided detailed measurements of 1) turbulent mean velocity distribution within 1.5 m of sediment-w interface; 2) characteristics of 3-D tidal current in the water column; 3) friction velocity u* or bottom shear stress and bottom roughness length zo; 4) hydrodynamic conditions conducive for s resuspension; and 5) circulation patterns which are responsible for transporting suspended particulate matter in South San Francisco Bay. An unusual flow event was recorded by the instruments during March 8-11, 1995. A 3-D numerical model was implemented which re qualitatively, the unusual observations and supported the hypothesis that the unusual flow event caused by a combination of wind driven circulation and weak neap tides.

  11. Crustal structure from San Francisco, California, to Eureka, Nevada, from seismic-refraction measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eaton, Jerry P.

    1963-01-01

    Seismic-refraction measurements from chemical explosions near San Francisco, California, and Fallon and Eureka, Nevada, were made along a line extending nearly 700 km inland from San Francisco across the Coast Ranges, Great Valley, Sierra Nevada, and Basin and Range Province. The velocity of Pg in the Basin and Range Province was found to be 6.0 km/sec. Between Fallon and Eureka the velocity of Pn is 7.8 km/sec, and just east of the Sierra Nevada it is about 7.9 km/sec. Two prominent phases closely following the first arrival between 50 and 250 km from the source in the Basin and Range Province were interpreted as reflections from an intermediate layer and from the Mohorovicic discontinuity. The velocity of P in the possible intermediate layer, deduced from the reflected phases be cause the refracted wave expected from this layer is nowhere a first arrival, seems to be 6.6 km/sec at the top of the layer and probably increases with depth.

  12. Modeling the periodic stratification and gravitational circulation in San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, Ralph T.; Casulli, Vincenzo

    1996-01-01

    A high resolution, three-dimensional (3-D) hydrodynamic numerical model is applied to San Francisco Bay, California to simulate the periodic tidal stratification caused by tidal straining and stirring and their long-term effects on gravitational circulation. The numerical model is formulated using fixed levels in the vertical and uniform computational mesh on horizontal planes. The governing conservation equations, the 3-D shallow water equations, are solved by a semi-implicit finite-difference scheme. Numerical simulations for estuarine flows in San Francisco Bay have been performed to reproduce the hydrodynamic properties of tides, tidal and residual currents, and salt transport. All simulations were carried out to cover at least 30 days, so that the spring-neap variance in the model results could be analyzed. High grid resolution used in the model permits the use of a simple turbulence closure scheme which has been shown to be sufficient to reproduce the tidal cyclic stratification and well-mixed conditions in the water column. Low-pass filtered 3-D time-series reveals the classic estuarine gravitational circulation with a surface layer flowing down-estuary and an up-estuary flow near the bottom. The intensity of the gravitational circulation depends upon the amount of freshwater inflow, the degree of stratification, and spring-neap tidal variations.

  13. Risk Factors for Human Lice and Bartonellosis among the Homeless, San Francisco, California, USA

    PubMed Central

    Cole-Porse, Charsey; Kjemtrup, Anne; Osikowicz, Lynn; Kosoy, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Homeless persons in San Francisco, California, USA, have been shown to have head and body lice infestations and Bartonella quintana infections. We surveyed a self-selected population of homeless persons in San Francisco to assess infestations of head and body lice, risks of having body lice, and presence of B. quintana in lice. A total of 203 persons who reported itching were surveyed during 2008–2010 and 2012: 60 (30%) had body lice, 10 (4.9%) had head lice, and 6 (3.0%) had both. B. quintana was detected in 10 (15.9%) of 63 body lice pools and in 6 (37.5%) of 16 head lice pools. Variables significantly associated (p<0.05) with having body lice in this homeless population included male sex, African–American ethnicity, and sleeping outdoors. Our study findings suggest that specific segments of the homeless population would benefit from information on preventing body lice infestations and louseborne diseases. PMID:25280380

  14. Quaternary Geology and Liquefaction Susceptibility, San Francisco, California 1:100,000 Quadrangle: A Digital Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knudsen, Keith L.; Noller, Jay S.; Sowers, Janet M.; Lettis, William R.

    1997-01-01

    This Open-File report is a digital geologic map database. This pamphlet serves to introduce and describe the digital data. There are no paper maps included in the Open-File report. The report does include, however, PostScript plot files containing the images of the geologic map sheets with explanations, as well as the accompanying text describing the geology of the area. For those interested in a paper plot of information contained in the database or in obtaining the PostScript plot files, please see the section entitled 'For Those Who Aren't Familiar With Digital Geologic Map Databases' below. This digital map database, compiled from previously unpublished data, and new mapping by the authors, represents the general distribution of surficial deposits in the San Francisco bay region. Together with the accompanying text file (sf_geo.txt or sf_geo.pdf), it provides current information on Quaternary geology and liquefaction susceptibility of the San Francisco, California, 1:100,000 quadrangle. The database delineates map units that are identified by general age and lithology following the stratigraphic nomenclature of the U.S. Geological Survey. The scale of the source maps limits the spatial resolution (scale) of the database to 1:100,000 or smaller. The content and character of the database, as well as three methods of obtaining the database, are described below.

  15. 1. SAN FRANCISCO STREET PROFILES: Photocopy of engraving, c. 1880, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SAN FRANCISCO STREET PROFILES: Photocopy of engraving, c. 1880, showing street profiles of three San Francisco cable lines. Figure 7, at bottom of engraving, is the profile of Hallidie's Clay Street Hill Railroad. Figures 8 and 9 show the grades for the California Street Cable Railroad and the Geary Street Park & Ocean Railroad respectively. Note the lack of significant grades along Geary Street. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  16. Specific-conductance, water-temperature, and water-level data, San Francisco Bay, California, for water years 2001-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchanan, P.A.

    2003-01-01

    This article presents time-series plots of specific-conductance, water-temperature, and water-level data collected in San Francisco Bay during water years 2001 and 2002 (October 1, 2000, through September 30, 2002). Specific-conductance and water-temperature data were recorded at 15-minute intervals at the following US Geological Survey (USGS) locations (Figure 1): • Suisun Bay at Benicia Bridge, near Benicia, California (BEN) (site # 11455780) • Carquinez Strait at Carquinez Bridge, near Crockett, California (CARQ) (site # 11455820) • Napa River at Mare Island Causeway, near Vallejo, California (NAP) (site # 11458370) • San Pablo Strait at Point San Pablo, California (PSP) (site # 11181360) • San Pablo Bay at Petaluma River Channel Marker 9, California (SPB) (site # 380519122262901) • San Francisco Bay at Presidio Military Reservation, California (PRES) (site # 11162690) • San Francisco Bay at Pier 24, at San Francisco, California (P24) (site # 11162700) • San Francisco Bay at San Mateo Bridge, near Foster City, California (SMB) (site # 11162765). Water-level data were recorded only at PSP through January 1, 2001. Suspended-sediment concentration data also were collected at most of these sites and were published by Buchanan and Ganju (2003). The data from PSP, PRES, P24, and SMB were recorded by the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) before 1988, by the USGS National Research Program from 1988 to 1989, and by the USGSDWR cooperative program since 1990. BEN, CARQ, NAP, and SPB were established in 1998 by the USGS.

  17. Maps of Quaternary Deposits and Liquefaction Susceptibility in the Central San Francisco Bay Region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Witter, Robert C.; Knudsen, Keith L.; Sowers, Janet M.; Wentworth, Carl M.; Koehler, Richard D.; Randolph, Carolyn E.; Brooks, Suzanna K.; Gans, Kathleen D.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a map and database of Quaternary deposits and liquefaction susceptibility for the urban core of the San Francisco Bay region. It supercedes the equivalent area of U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 00-444 (Knudsen and others, 2000), which covers the larger 9-county San Francisco Bay region. The report consists of (1) a spatial database, (2) two small-scale colored maps (Quaternary deposits and liquefaction susceptibility), (3) a text describing the Quaternary map and liquefaction interpretation (part 3), and (4) a text introducing the report and describing the database (part 1). All parts of the report are digital; part 1 describes the database and digital files and how to obtain them by downloading across the internet. The nine counties surrounding San Francisco Bay straddle the San Andreas fault system, which exposes the region to serious earthquake hazard (Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities, 1999). Much of the land adjacent to the Bay and the major rivers and streams is underlain by unconsolidated deposits that are particularly vulnerable to earthquake shaking and liquefaction of water-saturated granular sediment. This new map provides a consistent detailed treatment of the central part of the 9-county region in which much of the mapping of Open-File Report 00-444 was either at smaller (less detailed) scale or represented only preliminary revision of earlier work. Like Open-File Report 00-444, the current mapping uses geomorphic expression, pedogenic soils, inferred depositional environments, and geologic age to define and distinguish the map units. Further scrutiny of the factors controlling liquefaction susceptibility has led to some changes relative to Open-File Report 00-444: particularly the reclassification of San Francisco Bay mud (Qhbm) to have only MODERATE susceptibility and the rating of artificial fills according to the Quaternary map units inferred to underlie them (other than dams - adf). The two colored

  18. Women's attitudes toward careers in academic medicine at the University of California, San Francisco.

    PubMed

    Osborn, E H; Ernster, V L; Martin, J B

    1992-01-01

    In order to identify the concerns and possible barriers for women considering careers in academic medicine, in 1990 the authors surveyed both men and women medical students, housestaff, postdoctoral students, and junior faculty at The University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). The authors achieved a 58% response rate from students and faculty, a 21% response rate from postdoctoral students, and a 15% response rate from housestaff. Results indicated that women at all levels were less interested in academic careers than were their male colleagues. Concerns about balancing family responsibilities, clinical practice, and teaching in addition to the research required of an academic career were mentioned most frequently. Women, especially those among the housestaff and junior faculty, reported fewer mentor relationships and role models. The authors discuss these findings in relation to other studies and describe what they are doing to foster women's interest and success in academic medicine at UCSF. PMID:1729997

  19. A regional mass balance of methylmercury in San Francisco Bay, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Yee, Donald; McKee, Lester J; Oram, John J

    2011-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay (California, USA) is a water body listed as impaired because of Hg contamination in sport fish for human consumption, as well as possible effects on resident wildlife. A legacy of Hg mining in local watersheds and Hg used in Au mining in the Sierra Nevada (USA) has contributed to contamination seen in the bay, with additional more recent and ongoing inputs from various sources. Methylmercury is the species of Hg most directly responsible for contamination in biota, so better understanding of its sources, loads, and processes was sought to identify the best means to reduce impacts. A regional scale model of San Francisco Bay was developed to characterize major methylmercury inputs and processes. The model was used to evaluate the potential impact of uncertainties in estimates for methylmercury loading pathways and environmental processes, identify major data gaps, and explore management prospects for reducing methylmercury contamination. External loading pathways considered in the mass balance include methylmercury loads entering via atmospheric deposition to the bay surface, and discharges from the Sacramento/San Joaquin Delta, local watersheds, municipal wastewater, and fringing wetlands. Internal processes considered include exchange between bed and suspended sediments and the water column, in situ production and demethylation, biological uptake, and losses via hydrologic transport to the ocean through the Golden Gate. In situ sediment methylation and demethylation were dominant sources and losses determining ambient steady-state concentrations in the model, with changes in external loads and export causing smaller changes. Better information on methylation and demethylation is thus most critical to improving understanding of methylmercury balances and management. PMID:20872899

  20. 41. Historic American Buildings Survey San Francisco CallBulletin Library San ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. Historic American Buildings Survey San Francisco Call-Bulletin Library San Francisco, California INTERIOR VIEW OF CHURCH BEFORE RESTORATION - 1934 - Mission San Carlos Borromeo, Rio Road & Lausen Drive, Carmel-by-the-Sea, Monterey County, CA

  1. Neogene contraction between the San Andreas fault and the Santa Clara Valley, San Francisco Bay region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLaughlin, R.J.; Langenheim, V.E.; Schmidt, K.M.; Jachens, R.C.; Stanley, R.G.; Jayko, A.S.; McDougall, K.A.; Tinsley, J.C.; Valin, Z.C.

    1999-01-01

    In the southern San Francisco Bay region of California, oblique dextral reverse faults that verge northeastward from the San Andreas fault experienced triggered slip during the 1989 M7.1 Loma Prieta earthquake. The role of these range-front thrusts in the evolution of the San Andreas fault system and the future seismic hazard that they may pose to the urban Santa Clara Valley are poorly understood. Based on recent geologic mapping and geophysical investigations, we propose that the range-front thrust system evolved in conjunction with development of the San Andreas fault system. In the early Miocene, the region was dominated by a system of northwestwardly propagating, basin-bounding, transtensional faults. Beginning as early as middle Miocene time, however, the transtensional faulting was superseded by transpressional NE-stepping thrust and reverse faults of the range-front thrust system. Age constraints on the thrust faults indicate that the locus of contraction has focused on the Monte Vista, Shannon, and Berrocal faults since about 4.8 Ma. Fault slip and fold reconstructions suggest that crustal shortening between the San Andreas fault and the Santa Clara Valley within this time frame is ~21%, amounting to as much as 3.2 km at a rate of 0.6 mm/yr. Rates probably have not remained constant; average rates appear to have been much lower in the past few 100 ka. The distribution of coseismic surface contraction during the Loma Prieta earthquake, active seismicity, late Pleistocene to Holocene fluvial terrace warping, and geodetic data further suggest that the active range-front thrust system includes blind thrusts. Critical unresolved issues include information on the near-surface locations of buried thrusts, the timing of recent thrust earthquake events, and their recurrence in relation to earthquakes on the San Andreas fault.

  2. 30. Photocopy of photograph (from National Park Service, San Francisco, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Photocopy of photograph (from National Park Service, San Francisco, California, 1930 (?) EXTERIOR, EAST SIDE OF MISSIONA AFTER RESTORATION, C. 1930 (?) - Mission San Francisco Solano de Sonoma, First & Spain Streets, Sonoma, Sonoma County, CA

  3. 27. Photocopy of photograph (from National Park Service, San Francisco, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Photocopy of photograph (from National Park Service, San Francisco, California, Date unknown) EXTERIOR, SOUTH FRONT, DETAIL OF ENTRANCE AFTER RESTORATION, C. 1930 (?) - Mission San Francisco Solano de Sonoma, First & Spain Streets, Sonoma, Sonoma County, CA

  4. 13. Photocopy of photograph (from Golden Gate Museum, San Francisco, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopy of photograph (from Golden Gate Museum, San Francisco, California, 1850's) EXTERIOR, VIEW OF CONVENTO BEFORE RESTORATION, 1850'S - Mission San Francisco Solano de Sonoma, First & Spain Streets, Sonoma, Sonoma County, CA

  5. Preliminary location and age database for invertebrate fossils collected in the San Francisco Bay region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, John M.; West, William B.; Malmborg, William T.; Brabb, Earl E.

    2003-01-01

    Most geologic maps published for central California in the past century have been made without the benefit of microfossils. The age of Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks in the structurally complex sedimentary formations of the Coast Ranges is critical in determining stratigraphic succession and in determining whether the juxtapositon of similar appearing formations means that a fault is present. Since the 1930’s, at least, oil company geologists have used microfossils to assist them in geologic mapping and in determining the environments of deposition of sedimentary rocks. This information has been confidential, but in the past 20 years the attitude of petroleum companies about this information has changed, and much material is now available. We report here on approximately 4,700 samples, largely foraminifers, from surface localities in the San Francisco Bay region of California. The information contained here can be used to update geologic maps, to analyze the depth and temperature of ocean water covering parts of California during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras, and for solving other geologic problems.

  6. Seismic Velocity Structure and Seismotectonics of the Hayward Fault System, East San Francisco Bay, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardebeck, J. L.; Michael, A. J.; Brocher, T. M.

    2004-12-01

    The Hayward Fault is considered the most likely fault in the San Francisco Bay Area, California, to have a major earthquake in the next 30 years, posing a serious earthquake risk to more than 2 million people. In order to accurately evaluate various earthquake scenarios for this fault, it is important to understand its structure, kinematics, and physical properties. We present a new seismological study of the Hayward Fault system, including a new 3D seismic velocity model for the East San Francisco Bay, relocated earthquake hypocenters, and improved focal mechanisms. We use these new constraints on structure and seismicity to study the geometry and kinematics of the Hayward Fault. The new East Bay 3D tomography model, based on travel times from earthquakes and controlled-source experiments, reveals a clear velocity contrast across the Hayward Fault. In the upper 10 km, the P-wave velocity in the Franciscan rocks to the west are up to 0.8 km/s faster than in the Great Valley sequence rocks to the east. Below 10 km, where Franciscan rocks are thought to be present on both sides of the fault, there is negligible contrast. The observed P-wave velocities are comparable with velocities observed in deep boreholes in the East Bay. Anomalously low S-wave velocities are observed east of the Hayward Fault, near the Livermore Basin. We relocated more than 20,000 East Bay earthquakes, 1967-2004, with the 3D model. The events illuminate the Hayward Fault at depth, shifting from near-vertical in the north to steeply east-dipping in the south. New focal mechanisms were also computed, using take-off angles from ray tracing in the 3D seismic velocity model. Previous authors found heterogeneous focal mechanisms along the Hayward Fault near San Leandro, interpreted it as a zone of complex fracturing, and speculated that San Leandro marks a probable boundary for major Hayward Fault earthquakes. We find, however, that our high-quality focal mechanisms for events all along the Hayward

  7. Near-surface structure of the 1906 main trace of the San Andreas Fault, San Francisco peninsula segment, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, C.; Catchings, R. D.; Rymer, M. J.; Goldman, M.; Grove, K.; Prentice, C. S.

    2012-12-01

    The peninsula segment of the San Andreas Fault (SAF) is forecasted to have the second highest probability of producing a M6.7 or greater earthquake in the San Francisco Bay Area in the next 30 years; yet, relatively little is known about its slip history. In most places, the surface location of the SAF has been determined primarily on the basis of geomorphic features and from mapping surface ruptures associated with the 1906 M7.9 San Francisco earthquake. To more precisely locate traces of this segment of the SAF along the San Francisco peninsula in the subsurface, we acquired a high-resolution seismic imaging survey, using both seismic refraction and reflection profiling, south of Upper Crystal Springs Reservoir near Woodside, California in June 2012. High-resolution seismic images produced from this study may benefit ongoing paleoseismological investigations along the SAF because the seismic data can be used to precisely locate the main fault trace and auxiliary faults that may contribute to the earthquake hazards associated with the fault zone. Furthermore, the seismic images provide insights into near-surface fault structure and P- and S-wave velocities, which can be important in understanding strong shaking resulting from future earthquakes along this segment of the SAF. We acquired both P- and S-wave data using a 60-channel seismograph system connected via cable to 40-Hz vertical-component and 4-Hz horizontal geophones, which were spaced at 1-m intervals along a 60-m-long transect. Seismic sources (shots) were generated by hammer impacts on a steel plate or aluminum block at each geophone location. All shots were recorded on all channels. This survey design permits simultaneous acquisition of reflection and refraction data so that both refraction tomography and reflection images can be developed. Our initial analysis of the P-wave data shows that seismic velocities across the main trace of the SAF vary from about 700 m/s near the surface to more than 2500 m

  8. Seismic evidence for a lower-crustal detachment beneath San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brocher, T.M.; McCarthy, J.; Hart, P.E.; Holbrook, W.S.; Furlong, K.P.; McEvilly, T.V.; Hole, J.A.; Klemperer, S.L.

    1994-01-01

    Results from the San Francisco Bay area seismic imaging experiment (BASIX) reveal the presence of a prominent lower crustal reflector at a depth of ~ 15 kilometers beneath San Francisco and San Pablo bays. Velocity analyses indicate that this reflector marks the base of Franciscan assemblage rocks and the top of a mafic lower crust. Because this compositional contrast would imply a strong rheological contrast, this interface may correspond to a lower crustal detachment surface. If so, it may represent a subhorizontal segment of the North America and Pacific plate boundary proposed by earlier thermomechanical and geological models.

  9. Development of San Leandro synform and neotectonics of the San Francisco Bay block, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marlow, M. S.; Jachens, R.C.; Hart, P.E.; Carlson, P.R.; Anima, R.J.; Childs, J. R.

    1999-01-01

    High-resolution, 24-channel seismic-reflection data show a stratified synform beneath south San Francisco Bay. These seismic-reflection data reveal an eastward-dipping bedrock surface that is about 40 m deep (subbottom) beneath the western south bay, and that reaches a maximum observed depth of 500-800 m (subbottom) below the eastern half of the south bay. An angular unconformity cuts both the synform and underlying bedrock. The age of the unconformity is unknown but may be Pleistocene, when these strata forming the synform were presumably exposed subaerially during lowered sea levels. The synformal strata, the unconformity, and some generally flat-lying and overlying strata are folded near the eastern shore of the bay. This folding may result from movement on the Hayward fault (fault interactions and localized strain partitioning) or from compressional deformation in the East Bay Hills related to NE-SW ('fault-normal') convergence between the Pacific and North American plates. In general, reflections from sediment overlying the unconformity are flat lying (except near the eastern shore of the bay), whereas reflections beneath the unconformity dip eastward. The overlying, flat sediment section fills a shallow basin that is coincident with an elliptical residual gravity low. This low appears to be related to the deeper sedimentary, synformal section based on the spatial correlation between the east-dipping reflections and the gravity anomaly. Projecting the east-dipping reflections to the center of the gravity low suggests that the total section of flat-lying and dipping reflections in the synform may exceed 1000 m. Modeling of the gravity low suggests a total low-density section, about 1.5 km thick, at the center of the synform relative to the surrounding bedrock of presumed Franciscan Complex.High-resolution, 24-channel seismic-reflection data show a stratified synform beneath south San Francisco Bay. These seismic-reflection data reveal an eastward

  10. Hydrostratigraphy of the Westside Groundwater Basin, San Francisco and San Mateo Counties, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogge, E. H.; Laforce, M. J.

    2002-12-01

    The Westside Groundwater Basin is a coastal aquifer system located on the San Francisco Peninsula between Golden Gate Park and Burlingame. Since the beginning of the 20th century groundwater from the Basin has been used for drinking water and irrigation purposes. Unfortunately, the Basin wide potentiometric surface has gradually declined and saltwater intrusion from the Pacific Ocean is threatening this fragile aquifer system. Several studies have looked at groundwater movement within the Basin (Boone, Cook and Associates (1987), Yates et al. (1990), Applied Consultants (1991), Geo/Resources Consultants (1993), Phillips et al. (1993), CH2Mhill (1997)); unfortunately, all of the studies assumed horizontal layering of the hydrostratigraphic units. However, recent studies indicate that tectonic deformation and intense folding has altered the stratigraphy of the Westside Basin close to the Pacific Ocean (Bonilla (1998), Barr (1999)). Accordingly, the purpose of this study is to delineate hydrostratigraphic units within the Westside Basin by using tritium, helium, and oxygen isotopes in conjunction with general mineral water quality data, water level data, and geologic cross-sections to depict the subsurface hydrogeology of the system. Our results indicate that the upper part of the Merced Formation (sequences P through Z of Clifton and Hunter (1991, 1999)) forms the major hydrostratigraphic units where groundwater is extracted, and that the Serra Fault separates the upper part of the Merced from the lower part (below sequence P) along most of its extent. In addition, thick clay layers, observed in well logs and identified in cross sections, were tentatively correlated with sequences W and S2. These clay layers, although discontinuous at places, work as aquitards between the hydrostratigraphic units as the difference in water chemistry and age indicates.

  11. Summary of Suspended-Sediment Concentration Data, San Francisco Bay, California, Water Year 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchanan, Paul A.; Lionberger, Megan A.

    2007-01-01

    Suspended-sediment concentration data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in San Francisco Bay during water year 2005 (October 1, 2004-September 30, 2005). Optical sensors and water samples were used to monitor suspended-sediment concentration at two sites in Suisun Bay, three sites in San Pablo Bay, two sites in Central San Francisco Bay, and three sites in South San Francisco Bay. Sensors were positioned at two depths at most sites. Water samples were collected periodically and analyzed for concentrations of suspended sediment. The results of the analyses were used to calibrate the output of the optical sensors so that a record of suspended-sediment concentrations could be derived. This report presents the data-collection methods used and summarizes, in graphs, the suspended-sediment concentration data collected from October 2004 through September 2005. Calibration curves and plots of the processed data for each sensor also are presented.

  12. A summary view of water supply and demand in the San Francisco Bay Region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rantz, Saul E.

    1972-01-01

    This report presents a summary view of the water-supply situation in the nine counties that comprise the San Francisco Bay region, California, and thereby provides water data, based on 1970 conditions, that are needed for regional planning. For the purpose of this study the nine-county region has been divided into 15 subregions on the basis of hydrologic and economic considerations. Firm water supply is tabulated for each subregion by source--ground water, surface water, and imported water. Water demand in 1970 is tabulated for each subregion by type of use or demand--public supply, rural self-supply, irrigation, self-supplied industrial water and thermoelectric power generation. The San Francisco Bay region is dependent to a large degree on imported water. Under 1970 conditions of development, the firm water supply is 2.2 million acre-feet per year; of that quantity, almost 1 million acre-feet per year is imported water. The water demand in 1970 was 1.9 million acre-feet, about half of which was consumed. Under 1970 conditions of water development and use, a series of dry years would probably necessitate some curtailment of irrigation activities in four of the subregions, where the bulk of the demands i for irrigation water. Under those same conditions there is generally ample water for municipal and industrial use throughout the region, except in eastern Marin County where the firm municipal supple does not exceed the 1970 demand for municipal and industrial water. Although the firm water supply of the San Francisco Bay region, including imported water, is generally adequate to meet present needs, supplemental supply will be required to meet increased demand in the future. The expansion of existing surface-water facilities and the construction of new surface-water projects, now considered feasible, could provide a combined firm supplemental yield of slightly more than 1 million acre-feet per year, almost three-fourths of which would be available for import by

  13. A record of estuarine water contamination from the Cd content of foraminiferal tests in San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    VanGeen, A.; Luoma, S.N.

    1999-01-01

    A five-year dissolved Cd time series from San Francisco Bay and adjacent coastal water shows that the composition of surface water towards the mouth of the estuary is determined largely by the effect of coastal upwelling. Cd concentrations inside and outside the estuary (0.2-1.0 nmol/kg) increase as Cd-rich deep water is advected to the surface near the coast during spring and summer. On average, the mean Cd concentrations inside San Francisco Bay (0.54 nmol/kg) during 1991-1995 was significantly higher than outside (0.35 nmol/kg), however. Surface samples collected throughout San Francisco Bay confirm an internal Cd source unrelated to river discharge. The Cd content of the test of a benthic foraminifer (Elphidiella hannai) in a dated sediment core from San Francisco Bay was measured to determine if the water column Cd enrichments in San Francisco Bay could be related to the rapid development of the watershed. The method is based on the observation that the Cd/Ca ratio of carefully cleaned tests of foraminifera is, determined by the dissolved Cd content of overlying water at the time of test formation. Pre-industrial foraminiferal Cd/Ca ratios in the sediment core average 274 ?? 15 nmol/mol (n = 19) nmol/mol. Foraminiferal Cd/Ca ratios increased to 386 ?? 33 nmol/mol (n = 19) over the past several decades indicating a 40% increase in the mean Cd content of surface water in Central San Francisco Bay. We suggest that, in addition to Cd discharges into the estuary, indirect consequences of agricultural development in the Central Valley of California could have contributed to this increase. This new method to reconstruct estuarine contamination is not affected by some of the processes that complicate the interpretation of changes in bulk sediment metal concentrations.

  14. Dietary mercury exposure to endangered California Clapper Rails in San Francisco Bay.

    PubMed

    Casazza, Michael L; Ricca, Mark A; Overton, Cory T; Takekawa, John Y; Merritt, Angela M; Ackerman, Joshua T

    2014-09-15

    California Clapper Rails (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) are an endangered waterbird that forage in tidal-marsh habitats that pose risks from mercury exposure. We analyzed total mercury (Hg) in six macro-invertebrate and one fish species representing Clapper Rail diets from four tidal-marshes in San Francisco Bay, California. Mercury concentrations among individual taxa ranged from lowest at Colma Creek (mean range: 0.09-0.2 μg/g dw) to highest at Cogswell (0.2-0.7), Laumeister (0.2-0.9) and Arrowhead Marshes (0.3-1.9). These spatial patterns for Hg matched patterns reported previously in Clapper Rail blood from the same four marshes. Over 25% of eastern mudsnails (Ilyanassa obsolete) and staghorn sculpin (Leptocottus armatus) exceeded dietary Hg concentrations (ww) often associated with avian reproductive impairment. Our results indicate that Hg concentrations vary considerably among tidal-marshes and diet taxa, and Hg concentrations of prey may provide an appropriate proxy for relative exposure risk for Clapper Rails. PMID:25066452

  15. Climate Change and Conservation Planning in California: The San Francisco Bay Area Upland Habitat Goals Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branciforte, R.; Weiss, S. B.; Schaefer, N.

    2008-12-01

    Climate change threatens California's vast and unique biodiversity. The Bay Area Upland Habitat Goals is a comprehensive regional biodiversity assessment of the 9 counties surrounding San Francisco Bay, and is designing conservation land networks that will serve to protect, manage, and restore that biodiversity. Conservation goals for vegetation, rare plants, mammals, birds, fish, amphibians, reptiles, and invertebrates are set, and those goals are met using the optimization algorithm MARXAN. Climate change issues are being considered in the assessment and network design in several ways. The high spatial variability at mesoclimatic and topoclimatic scales in California creates high local biodiversity, and provides some degree of local resiliency to macroclimatic change. Mesoclimatic variability from 800 m scale PRISM climatic norms is used to assess "mesoclimate spaces" in distinct mountain ranges, so that high mesoclimatic variability, especially local extremes that likely support range limits of species and potential climatic refugia, can be captured in the network. Quantitative measures of network resiliency to climate change include the spatial range of key temperature and precipitation variables within planning units. Topoclimatic variability provides a finer-grained spatial patterning. Downscaling to the topoclimatic scale (10-50 m scale) includes modeling solar radiation across DEMs for predicting maximum temperature differentials, and topographic position indices for modeling minimum temperature differentials. PRISM data are also used to differentiate grasslands into distinct warm and cool types. The overall conservation strategy includes local and regional connectivity so that range shifts can be accommodated.

  16. Uptake of environmental contaminants by small mammals in pickleweed habitats at San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R., Jr.; Foerster, K.S.; Marn, C.M.; Hothem, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Small mammals were livetrapped in pickleweed (Salicornia virginica) habitats near San Francisco Bay, California in order to measure the uptake of several contaminants and to evaluate the potential effects of these contaminants on the endangered salt marsh harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys raviventris). Tissues of house mice (Mus musculus), deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), and California voles (Microtus californicus) from nine sites were analyzed for chemical contaminants including mercury, selenium, cadmium, lead, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Concentrations of contaminants differed significantly among sites and species. Mean concentrations at sites where uptake was greatest were less than maximum means for the same or similar species recorded elsewhere. Harvest mice (Reithrodontomys spp.) were captured only at sites where concentrations of mercury or PCBs were below specific levels in house mice. Additional studies aimed at the protection of the salt marsh harvest mouse are suggested. These include contaminant feeding studies in the laboratory as well as field monitoring of surrogate species and community structure in salt marsh harvest mouse habitats.

  17. Dietary mercury exposure to endangered California Clapper Rails in San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casazza, Michael L.; Ricca, Mark A.; Overton, Cory T.; Takekawa, John Y.; Merritt, Angela M.; Ackerman, Joshua T.

    2015-01-01

    California Clapper Rails (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) are an endangered waterbird that forage in tidal-marsh habitats that pose risks from mercury exposure. We analyzed total mercury (Hg) in six macro-invertebrate and one fish species representing Clapper Rail diets from four tidal-marshes in San Francisco Bay, California. Mercury concentrations among individual taxa ranged from lowest at Colma Creek (mean range: 0.09–0.2 μg/g dw) to highest at Cogswell (0.2–0.7), Laumeister (0.2–0.9) and Arrowhead Marshes (0.3–1.9). These spatial patterns for Hg matched patterns reported previously in Clapper Rail blood from the same four marshes. Over 25% of eastern mudsnails (Ilyanassa obsolete) and staghorn sculpin (Leptocottus armatus) exceeded dietary Hg concentrations (ww) often associated with avian reproductive impairment. Our results indicate that Hg concentrations vary considerably among tidal-marshes and diet taxa, and Hg concentrations of prey may provide an appropriate proxy for relative exposure risk for Clapper Rails.

  18. Uptake of environmental contaminants by small mammals in pickleweed habitats at San Francisco Bay, California.

    PubMed

    Clark, D R; Foerster, K S; Marn, C M; Hothem, R L

    1992-05-01

    Small mammals were live-trapped in pickleweed (Salicornia virginica) habitats near San Francisco Bay, California in order to measure the uptake of several contaminants and to evaluate the potential effects of these contaminants on the endangered salt marsh harvest mouse (Reithrodontomys raviventris). Tissues of house mice (Mus musculus), deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus), and California voles (Microtus californicus) from nine sites were analyzed for chemical contaminants including mercury, selenium, cadmium, lead, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Concentrations of contaminants differed significantly among sites and species. Mean concentrations at sites where uptake was greatest were less than maximum means for the same or similar species recorded elsewhere. Harvest mice (Reithrodontomys spp.) were captured only at sites where concentrations of mercury or PCBs were below specific levels in house mice. Additional studies aimed at the protection of the salt marsh harvest mouse are suggested. These include contaminant feeding studies in the laboratory as well as field monitoring of surrogate species and community structure in salt marsh harvest mouse habitats. PMID:1586203

  19. Summary of Suspended-Sediment Concentration Data, San Francisco Bay, California, Water Year 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchanan, Paul A.; Morgan, Tara L.

    2010-01-01

    Suspended-sediment concentration data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in San Francisco Bay during water year 2007 (October 1, 2006-September 30, 2007). Optical sensors and water samples were used to monitor suspended-sediment concentration at two sites in Suisun Bay, two sites in Central San Francisco Bay, and one site in South San Francisco Bay. Sensors were positioned at two depths at most sites to help define the vertical variability of suspended sediments.Water samples were collected periodically and analyzed for concentrations of suspended sediment. The results of the analyses were used to calibrate the output of the optical sensors so that a record of suspended-sediment concentrations could be derived. This report presents the data-collection methods used and summarizes, in graphs, the suspended-sediment concentration data collected from October 2006 through September 2007. Calibration curves and plots of the processed data for each sensor also are presented.

  20. Summary of suspended-sediment concentration data, San Francisco Bay, California, water year 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchanan, Paul A.; Morgan, Tara L.

    2011-01-01

    Suspended-sediment concentration data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in San Francisco Bay during water year 2008 (October 1, 2007–September 30, 2008). Optical sensors and water samples were used to monitor suspended-sediment concentration at two sites in Suisun Bay, two sites in Central San Francisco Bay, and one site in South San Francisco Bay. Sensors were positioned at two depths at most sites to help define the vertical variability of suspended sediments. Water samples were collected periodically and analyzed for concentrations of suspended sediment. The results of the analyses were used to calibrate the output of the optical sensors so that a record of suspended-sediment concentrations could be derived. This report presents the data-collection methods used and summarizes, in graphs, the suspended-sediment concentration data collected from October 2007 through September 2008. Calibration curves and plots of the processed data for each sensor also are presented.

  1. Physical and chemical data for northern San Francisco Bay, California, September through November, 1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ota, Allan Y.; Schemel, L.E.; Hager, S.W.

    1986-01-01

    This report presents physical and chemical data for northern San Francisco Bay waters. Samples were collected during the late summer and fall of 1984 during six cruises at near-two-week intervals. Bay waters were sampled at designated (historical) stations and selected salinitis along the deep channel of northern San Francisco Bay. Measurements included temperature, salinity, turbidity, in vivo fluorescence, chlorophyll a, alkalinity, suspended particulate matter, dissolved organic carbon, and dissolved inorganic nutrients: nitrite, nitrate + nitrite, ammonium, dissolved silica, and ortho-phosphate. Numerical results are tabulated and methods are described. (USGS)

  2. Specific conductance and water temperature data for San Francisco Bay, California, for Water Year 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchanan, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents time-series graphs of specific-conductance and water-temperature data collected in San Francisco Bay during water year 2003 (October 1, 2002, through September 30, 2003). Specific-conductance and water-temperature data were recorded at 15-minute intervals at the following US Geological Survey (USGS) locations (Figure 1): • Suisun Bay at Benicia Bridge, near Benicia, CA. (BEN) (site # 11455780) • Carquinez Strait at Carquinez Bridge, near Crockett, CA. (CARQ) (site # 11455820) • Napa River at Mare Island Causeway, near Vallejo, CA. (NAP) (site # 11458370) • San Pablo Strait at Point San Pablo, CA. (PSP) (site # 11181360) • San Pablo Bay at Petaluma River Channel Marker 9, CA. (SPB) (site # 380519122262901) • San Francisco Bay at Presidio Military Reservation, CA. (PRES) (site # 11162690) • San Francisco Bay at San Mateo Bridge, near Foster City, CA. (SMB) (site # 11162765) Suspended-sediment-concentration data also were collected at most of these sites during water year 2003. Specific-conductance and water-temperature data from PSP, PRES, and SMB were recorded by the CA Department of Water Resources (DWR) before 1988, by the USGS National Research Program from 1988 to 1989, and by the USGS-DWR cooperative program since 1990. BEN, CARQ, NAP, and SPB were established in 1998 by USGS. The monitoring station at PRES was discontinued on November 12, 2002, due to shoaling at the site.

  3. On Lagrangian residual currents with applications in south San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, Ralph T.; Casulli, Vincenzo

    1982-01-01

    The Lagrangian residual circulation has often been introduced as the sum of the Eulerian residual circulation and the Stokes' drift. Unfortunately, this definition of the Lagrangian residual circulation is conceptually incorrect because both the Eulerian residual circulation and the Stokes' drift are Eulerian variables. In this paper a classification of various residual variables are reviewed and properly defined. The Lagrangian residual circulation is then studied by means of a two-stage formulation of a computer model. The tidal circulation is first computed in a conventional Eulerian way, and then the Lagrangian residual circulation is determined by a method patterned after the method of markers and cells. To demonstrate properties of the Lagrangian residual circulation, application of this approach in South San Francisco Bay, California, is considered. With the aid of the model results, properties of the Eulerian and Lagrangian residual circulation are examined. It can be concluded that estimation of the Lagrangian residual circulation from Eulerian data may lead to unacceptable error, particularly in a tidal estuary where the tidal excursion is of the same order of magnitude as the length scale of the basin. A direction calculation of the Lagrangian residual circulation must be made and has been shown to be feasible.

  4. Harmonic analysis of tides and tidal currents in South San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, R.T.; Gartner, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    Water level observations from tide stations and current observations from current-meter moorings in South San Francisco Bay (South Bay), California have been harmonically analysed. At each tide station, 13 harmonic constituents have been computed by a least-squares regression without inference. Tides in South Bay are typically mixed; there is a phase lag of approximately 1 h and an amplification of 1??5 from north to south for a mean semi-diurnal tide. Because most of the current-meter records are between 14 and 29 days, only the five most important harmonics have been solved for east-west and north-south velocity components. The eccentricity of tidal-current ellipse is generally very small, which indicates that the tidal current in South Bay is strongly bidirectional. The analyses further show that the principal direction and the magnitude of tidal current are well correlated with the basin bathymetry. Patterns of Eulerian residual circulation deduced from the current-meter data show an anticlockwise gyre to the west and a clockwise gyre to the east of the main channel in the summer months due to the prevailing westerly wind. Opposite trends have been observed during winter when the wind was variable. ?? 1985.

  5. Breeding stage influences space use of female American avocets in San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Demers, Scott A.; Colwell, M.A.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Ackerman, J.T.

    2008-01-01

    Female American Avocets (Recurvirostra americana) were radio-marked (N=15) and tracked in the South San Francisco Bay, California, to determine if space use varied by breeding stage. Visual observations were used to determine breeding stage (pre-incubation, incubation, brood-rearing, post-breeding) of marked avocets. Space use measurements (linear movements, home ranges, core areas, and average distance from nest) varied significantly among breeding stages. Space use was greatest for the post-breeding stage, followed by pre-incubation, incubation, and brood-rearing. Most avocet nests (93%) were located within their pre-incubation core area boundaries, whereas only 36% of nests were within post-breeding core areas. Distance between daily location and future nest sites decreased significantly as the number of days prior to incubation decreased, suggesting that avocets prospected future nest sites several weeks prior to nesting. These data indicate that breeding stage influences space use of female American Avocets and illustrates the importance of delineating breeding stages to better understand space use of avian species.

  6. Food availability controls seasonal cycle of growth in Macoma balthica (L.) in San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, J.K.; Nichols, F.H.

    1988-01-01

    A 2-yr field study of growth in the bivalve Macoma balthica (L.) at four locations in San Francisco Bay, California, U.S., showed that the timing and rate of growth (increase in shell length) were related to food supply. This clam feeds on both planktonic and benthic microalgae, depending on availability. Growth was apparently food-limited during some months, during one year more than the other, and at some locations more than others. Tissue-weight changes were also related to food availability. The heaviest animals were found in that year and at those locations with the highest chl a concentrations. Tissue-weight gains usually coincided with increased shell-growth rate or with reproductive development, although some large animals showed weight gain independent of both of these factors during periods with mid-range chl a levels. Weight losses coincided with spawning or periods of low growth rate, except at one station where, during a period when most animals were reproductively ripe, food concentrations were high, and shell growth was rapid, animals lost weight. This study failed to show a relation between salinity and the timing or rate of change of either shell length or tissue weight. The mild temperatures (10-23 ??C water temperature) of the area studied resulted in no growth inhibition due to low temperature, but there was some indication that the high air temperatures found in these intertidal areas limited growth rates. ?? 1988.

  7. Evaluating wildlife response to coastal dune habitat restoration in san francisco, california

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Russell, W.; Shulzitski, J.; Setty, A.

    2009-01-01

    The vast dune system that once dominated the entire western half of the San Francisco peninsula in California has been reduced to a few fragments that conserve locally threatened plant and animal species. We measured the effects of ongoing restoration efforts on wildlife abundance and diversity on one of the largest of these fragments, Fort Funston in the Golden Gate National Recreation Area. Efforts included removal of non-native species, active restoration of native dune vegetation, and restricted visitor use. We collected data regarding the composition and abundance of vegetation, birds, and ground-dwelling vertebrates on four treatments including an actively restored area with restricted visitor use, an unrestored area where visitor use had been restricted for ten years, an unrestored area where visitor use had been restricted for two years, and an unrestored area with unrestricted visitor use. Results indicated that the diversity and abundance of wildlife species, as well as the richness and cover of native plant species, were greater in the restored area than in all other sampled areas. Restricted visitor use alone had only modest positive effects on the abundance and diversity of wildlife and the richness and cover of native plant species.

  8. Estuarine Vegetation at Rush Ranch Open Space Preserve, San Francisco Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve, California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Rush Ranch Open Space Preserve (Rush Ranch) includes the largest remaining undiked tidal wetland within the Suisun Marsh region of the San Francisco Estuary. The brackish tidal wetlands grade into transitional vegetation and undeveloped grasslands of the Potrero Hills. We present analysis of ...

  9. Innovation in san francisco.

    PubMed

    Travis, J

    1992-08-01

    In San Francisco 2 weeks ago, AAAS and Science sponsored a new meeting, Science Innovation '92. The unusual gathering focused not on research results but on new techniques and instruments, particularly for biomedical science. As seen in the stories below, some of the most eye-catching innovations emerged at the intersection of physics and biology. PMID:17736460

  10. The Black Mountain asperity - Seismic hazard of the southern San Francisco Peninsula, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholz, C. H.

    1985-01-01

    A slip deficit region running 75 km from Black Mountain south of Palo Alto to San Juan Battista is studied to assess earthquake hazard. If this region were ruptured in its entirety, the event would produce a M-sub-s = 6.9 earthquake. The conditional probability of this rupturing in the near future is the highest of any section of the San Andreas fault except Parkfield. This earthquake would rupture 30 km farther northwest and be about 3 times larger than that previously proposed by others (Lindh, 1983, and Sykes and Nishenko, 1984). This constitutes a greater risk to the southern San Francisco Peninsula than previously expected.

  11. The Performance of Nearshore Dredge Disposal at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, California, 2005-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Erikson, Li H.; Hansen, Jeff E.; Elias, Edwin

    2009-01-01

    Ocean Beach, California, contains an erosion hot spot in the shadow of the San Francisco ebb tidal delta that threatens valuable public infrastructure as well as the safe recreational use of the beach. In an effort to reduce the erosion at this location a new plan for the management of sediment dredged annually from the main shipping channel at the mouth of San Francisco Bay was implemented in May 2005 by the United States Army Corps of Engineers, San Francisco District (USACE). The USACE designated a temporary nearshore dredge disposal site for the annual disposal of about 230,000 m3 (300,000 yd3) of sand about 750 m offshore and slightly south of the erosion hot spot, in depths between approximately 9 and 14 m. The site has now been used three times for a total sediment disposal of about 690,000 m3 (about 900,000 yds3). The disposal site was chosen because it is in a location where strong tidal currents and open-ocean waves can potentially feed sediment toward the littoral zone in the reach of the beach that is experiencing critical erosion, as well as prevent further scour on an exposed outfall pipe. The onshore migration of sediment from the target disposal location might feed the primary longshore bar or the nearshore zone, and provide a buffer to erosion that peaks during winter months when large waves impact the region. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) has been monitoring and modeling the bathymetric evolution of the test dredge disposal site and the adjacent coastal region since inception in May 2005. This paper reports on the first 2.5 years of this monitoring program effort (May 2005 to December 2007) and assesses the short-term coastal response. Here are the key findings of this report: *Approximately half of the sediment that has been placed in the nearshore dredge-disposal site during the 2.5 years of this study remains within the dredge focus area. *In the winter of 2006-7, large waves transported the dredge-mound material onshore. *High

  12. Near-Surface Structure of the Peninsula Segment of the San Andreas Fault, San Francisco Bay Area, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, C.; Catchings, R.; Rymer, M. J.; Goldman, M.; Grove, K.; Prentice, C. S.

    2013-12-01

    The peninsula segment of the San Andreas Fault (SAF) is a section of the fault that has the potential to produce the next large earthquake in the San Francisco Bay Area, yet the slip history of the peninsula segment is relatively unknown. In most places, the surface location of the SAF has been determined primarily on the basis of geomorphic features and from mapping surface ruptures associated with the 1906 M7.9 San Francisco earthquake. To more precisely locate traces of the SAF along the San Francisco peninsula in the subsurface, we acquired a high-resolution seismic imaging survey, using both seismic refraction and reflection profiling, south of Upper Crystal Springs Reservoir near Woodside, California in June 2012. We acquired coincident P- and S-wave data using a 60-channel seismograph system connected via cable to 40-Hz vertical-component and 4-Hz horizontal-component geophones, with spacing at 1-m intervals along a 60-m-long transect across the SAF. Seismic sources (shots) were generated by hammer impacts on a steel plate or aluminum block at each geophone location. All shots were recorded on all channels. This survey design permitted simultaneous acquisition of reflection and refraction data such that both refraction tomography and reflection images were developed. Analysis of the P- and S-wave data, using refraction tomography, shows abrupt variations in the P-wave (Vp) and S-wave (Vs) velocities, including the 1,500 m/s velocity contour that outlines the top to groundwater and images of Vp/Vs and Poisson's ratios. P-wave velocities range from about 700 m/s at the surface to more than 4000 m/s at 20-m depth. S-wave velocities range from about 300 m/s at the surface to about 800 m/s at 20-m depth. The combined data indicate that the near-surface trace of the SAF dips steeply to the southwest in the upper few tens of meters. Variations in the velocity images also suggest the possibility of two additional near-surface fault traces within about 25 m of the

  13. Mercury in birds of San Francisco Bay-Delta, California: trophic pathways, bioaccumulation, and ecotoxicological risk to avian reproduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Heinz, Gary; De La Cruz, Susan E. W.; Takekawa, John Y.; Miles, A. Keith; Adelsbach, Terrence L.; Herzog, Mark P.; Bluso-Demers, Jill D.; Demers, Scott A.; Herring, Garth; Hoffman, David J.; Hartman, Christopher A.; Willacker, James J.; Suchanek, Thomas H.; Schwarzbach, Steven E.; Maurer, Thomas C.

    2014-01-01

    San Francisco Bay Estuary in northern California has a legacy of mercury contamination, which could reduce the health and reproductive success of waterbirds in the estuary. The goal of this study was to use an integrated field and laboratory approach to evaluate the risks of mercury exposure to birds in the estuary. We examined mercury bioaccumulation, and other contaminants of concern, in five waterbird species that depend heavily on San Francisco Bay Estuary for foraging and breeding habitat: American avocets (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), Forster’s terns (Sterna forsteri), Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia), and surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata). These species have different foraging habitats and diets that represent three distinct foraging guilds within the estuary’s food web. In this report, we provide an integrated synthesis of the primary findings from this study and results are synthesized from 54 peer-reviewed publications generated to date with other unpublished results.

  14. Invaders eating invaders: Exploitation of novel alien prey by the alien shimofuri goby in the San Francisco Estuary, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matern, S.A.; Brown, L.R.

    2005-01-01

    The shimofuri goby (Tridentiger bifasciatus), which is native to Asian estuaries, was recently introduced to the San Francisco Estuary, California, USA. We conducted gut content analyses to examine the goby's feeding ecology in this highly invaded estuary. Shimofuri gobies were generalist predators on benthic invertebrates, consuming seasonally abundant prey, especially amphipods (Corophium spp.). In addition, shimofuri goby utilized two novel prey items not exploited by other resident fishes - hydroids (Cordylophora caspia) and barnacle (Balanus improvisus) cirri, both of which are alien. The shimofuri goby's feeding ecology appears well-suited to the fluctuating environment of the San Francisco Estuary and may partially explain observed increases in shimofuri goby abundance compared with declines in populations of some native species. ?? Springer 2005.

  15. Confirmatory sediment analyses and solid and suspended particulate phase bioassays on sediment from Oakland Inner Harbor, San Francisco, California

    SciTech Connect

    Word, J.Q.; Ward, J.A.; Apts, C.W.; Woodruff, D.L.; Barrows, M.E.; Cullinan, V.I.; Hyland, J.L.; Campbell, J.F.

    1988-12-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District, was authorized by the US Congress to deepen the navigation channels of Inner and Outer Oakland Harbor, California. During review of the environmental impact statement required for this dredging and disposal project, a panel of national experts approved the open-water disposal of dredged sediment from selected areas within the Inner Harbor, subject to results of confirmatory solid phase bioassays. The San Francisco District of the Corps requested the Battle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to conduct these confirmatory studies. The studies provided technical data for an evaluation of the potential environmental impact of this project. Within extremely narrow time constraints, these studies provided chemical and biological information required by ocean dumping regulations to determine suitability of the Oakland Inner Harbor and turning basin sediment for ocean disposal. 23 refs., 18 figs., 45 tabs.

  16. Summary of suspended-sediment concentration data, San Francisco Bay, California, water year 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchanan, Paul A.; Morgan, Tara L.

    2012-01-01

    Suspended-sediment concentration data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in San Francisco Bay during water year 2009 (October 1, 2008–September 30, 2009). Optical sensors and water samples were used to monitor suspended-sediment concentration at two sites in Suisun Bay, one site in San Pablo Bay, two sites in Central San Francisco Bay, and one site in South San Francisco Bay. Sensors were positioned at two depths at most sites to help define the vertical variability of suspended sediments. Water samples were collected periodically and analyzed for concentrations of suspended sediment. The results of the analyses were used to calibrate the output of the optical sensors so that a record of suspended-sediment concentrations could be derived. This report presents the data-collection methods used and summarizes, in graphs, the suspended-sediment concentration data collected from October 2008 through September 2009. Calibration curves and plots of the processed data for each sensor also are presented.

  17. Summary of suspended-sediment concentration data, San Francisco Bay, California, water year 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchanan, Paul A.; Morgan, Tara L.

    2014-01-01

    Suspended-sediment concentration data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in San Francisco Bay during water year 2010 (October 1, 2009–September 30, 2010). Turbidity sensors and water samples were used to monitor suspended-sediment concentration at two sites in Suisun Bay, one site in San Pablo Bay, three sites in Central San Francisco Bay, and one site in South San Francisco Bay. Sensors were positioned at two depths at most sites to help define the vertical variability of suspended sediments. Water samples were collected periodically and analyzed for concentrations of suspended sediment. The results of the analyses were used to calibrate the output of the turbidity sensors so that a record of suspended-sediment concentrations could be computed. This report presents the data-collection methods used and summarizes, in graphs, the suspended-sediment concentration data collected from October 2009 through September 2010. Calibration curves and plots of the processed data for each sensor also are presented.

  18. Summary of Suspended-Sediment Concentration Data, San Francisco Bay, California, Water Year 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchanan, Paul A.; Lionberger, Megan A.

    2009-01-01

    Suspended-sediment concentration data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in San Francisco Bay during water-year 2006 (October 1, 2005-September 30, 2006). Optical sensors and water samples were used to monitor suspended-sediment concentration at two sites in Suisun Bay, one site in San Pablo Bay, two sites in Central San Francisco Bay, and one site in South San Francisco Bay. Sensors were positioned at two depths at most sites to help define the vertical variability of suspended sediments. Water samples were collected periodically and analyzed for concentrations of suspended sediment. The results of the analyses were used to calibrate the output of the optical sensors so that a record of suspended-sediment concentrations could be derived. This report presents the data-collection methods used and summarizes, in graphs, the suspended-sediment concentration data collected from October 2005 through September 2006. Calibration curves and plots of the processed data for each sensor also are presented.

  19. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey San Francisco Examiner Library EAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey San Francisco Examiner Library EAST ELEVATION - Presidio of San Francisco, Old Station Hospital, Funston Avenue & Lincoln Boulevard, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  20. The San Andreas fault in the San Francisco Bay region, California: Structure and kinematics of a Young plate boundary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jachens, R.C.; Zoback, M.L.

    1999-01-01

    Recently acquired high-resolution aeromagnetic data delineate offset and/or truncated magnetic rock bodies of the Franciscan Complex that define the location and structure of, and total offset across, the San Andreas fault in the San Francisco Bay region. Two distinctive magnetic anomalies caused by ultramafic rocks and metabasalts east of, and truncated at, the San Andreas fault have clear counterparts west of the fault that indicate a total right-lateral offset of only 22 km on the Peninsula segment, the active strand that ruptured in 1906. The location of the Peninsula segment is well defined magnetically on the northern peninsula where it goes offshore, and can be traced along strike an additional ~6 km to the northwest. Just offshore from Lake Merced, the inferred fault trace steps right (northeast) 3 km onto a nearly parallel strand that can be traced magnetically northwest more than 20 km as the linear northeast edge of a magnetic block bounded by the San Andreas fault, the Pilarcitos fault, and the San Gregorio-Hosgri fault zone. This right-stepping strand, the Golden Gate segment, joins the eastern mapped trace of the San Andreas fault at Bolinas Lagoon and projects back onshore to the southeast near Lake Merced. Inversion of detailed gravity data on the San Francisco Peninsula reveals a 3 km wide basin situated between the two strands of the San Andreas fault, floored by Franciscan basement and filled with Plio-Quaternary sedimentary deposits of the Merced and Colma formations. The basin, ~1 km deep at the coast, narrows and becomes thinner to the southeast along the fault over a distance of ~12 km. The length, width, and location of the basin between the two strands are consistent with a pull-apart basin formed behind the right step in the right-lateral strike-slip San Andreas fault system and currently moving southeast with the North American plate. Slight nonparallelism of the two strands bounding the basin (implying a small component of convergence

  1. The impact of human activities on sediments of San Francisco Bay, California: an overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Geen, Alexander; Luoma, Samuel N.

    1999-01-01

    This note introduces a set of eight papers devoted to a detailed study of two sediment cores from San Francisco Bay with an overview of the region and a chronology of human activities. Data used in this study to constrain the range of sediment ages at different depths include , and  concentrations in the sediment and the  age of shell fragments. In order of first detectable appearance in the record, the indicators of contamination that were analyzed include PAHs>Hg>Ag, Cu, Pb, Zn>DDT, PCB>foraminiferal Cd/Ca. This study also documents a large memory effect for estuarine contamination caused by sediment mixing and resuspension. Once an estuary such as San Francisco Bay has been contaminated, decades must pass before contaminant levels in surface sediment will return to background levels, even if external contaminant inputs have been entirely eliminated.

  2. Selenium bioaccumulation and body condition in shorebirds and terns breeding in San Francisco Bay, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Ackerman, Joshua T; Eagles-Smith, Collin A

    2009-10-01

    The present study evaluated Se bioaccumulation in four waterbird species (n=206 birds) that breed within San Francisco Bay, California, U.S.A.: American avocets (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri), and Caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia). Selenium concentrations were variable and influenced by several factors, including species, region, reproductive stage, age, and sex. Adult Se concentrations (microg/g dry wt) in livers ranged from 3.07 to 48.70 in avocets (geometric mean +/- standard error, 7.92 +/- 0.64), 2.28 to 41.10 in stilts (5.29 +/- 0.38), 3.73 to 14.50 in Forster's terns (7.13 _ 0.38), and 4.77 to 14.40 in Caspian terns (6.73 +/- 0.78). Avocets had higher Se concentrations in the North Bay compared to the South Bay, whereas stilt Se concentrations were similar between these regions and Forster's terns had lower Se concentrations in the North Bay compared to the South Bay. Female avocets had higher Se concentrations than male avocets, but this was not the case for stilts and Forster's terns. Of the factors assessed, reproductive stage had the most consistent effect among species. Prebreeding birds tended to have higher liver Se concentrations than breeding birds, but this trend was statistically significant only for Forster's terns. Forster's tern chicks had lower Se concentrations than Forster's tern adults, whereas avocet and stilt adults and chicks were similar. Additionally, body condition was negatively related to liver Se concentrations in Forster's tern adults but not in avocet, stilt, or Caspian tern adults and chicks. These variable results illustrate the complexity of Se bioaccumulation and highlight the need to sample multiple species and examine several factors to assess the impact of Se on wildlife. PMID:19459720

  3. Mercury correlations among six tissues for four waterbird species breeding in San Francisco Bay, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Ackerman, Joshua T; Adelsbach, Terrence L; Takekawa, John Y; Miles, A Keith; Keister, Robin A

    2008-10-01

    Despite a large body of research concerning mercury (Hg) in birds, no single tissue has been used consistently to assess Hg exposure, and this has hampered comparisons across studies. We evaluated the relationships of Hg concentrations among tissues in four species of waterbirds (American avocets [Recurvirostra americana], black-necked stilts [Himantopus mexicanus], Caspian terns [Hydroprogne caspia; formerly Sterna caspia], and Forster's terns [Sterna forsteri]) and across three life stages (prebreeding adults, breeding adults, and chicks) in San Francisco Bay, California, USA. Across species and life stages, Hg concentrations (least square mean +/- standard error) were highest in head feathers (6.45 +/- 0.31 microg/g dry wt) and breast feathers (5.76 +/- 0.28 microg/g dry wt), followed by kidney (4.54 +/- 0.22 microg/g dry wt), liver (4.43 +/- 0.21 microg/g dry wt), blood (3.10 +/- 0.15 microg/g dry wt), and muscle (1.67 +/- 0.08 microg/g dry wt). Relative Hg distribution among tissues, however, differed by species and life stage. Mercury concentrations were highly correlated among internal tissues (r2 > or = 0.89). Conversely, the relationships between Hg in feathers and internal tissues were substantially weaker (r2 < or = 0.42). Regression slopes sometimes differed among species and life stages, indicating that care must be used when predicting Hg concentrations in one tissue based on those in another. However, we found good agreement between predictions made using a general tissue-prediction equation and more specific equations developed for each species and life stage. Finally, our results suggest that blood is an excellent, nonlethal predictor of Hg concentrations in internal tissues but that feathers are relatively poor indicators of Hg concentrations in internal tissues. PMID:18444697

  4. Mercury correlations among six tissues for four waterbird species breeding in San Francisco Bay, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eagles-Smith, C. A.; Ackerman, J.T.; Adelsbach, T.L.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Miles, A.K.; Keister, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Despite a large body of research concerning mercury (Hg) in birds, no single tissue has been used consistently to assess Hg exposure, and this has hampered comparisons across studies. We evaluated the relationships of Hg concentrations among tissues in four species of waterbirds (American avocets [Recurvirostra americana], black-necked stilts [Himantopus mexicanus], Caspian terns [Hydroprogne caspia; formerly Sterna caspia], and Forster's terns [Sterna forsteri]) and across three life stages (prebreeding adults, breeding adults, and chicks) in San Francisco Bay, California, USA. Across species and life stages, Hg concentrations (least square mean ?? standard error) were highest in head feathers (6.45 ?? 0.31 ??g/g dry wt) and breast feathers (5.76 ?? 0.28 ??g/g dry wt), followed by kidney (4.54 ?? 0.22 ??g/g dry wt), liver (4.43 ?? 0.21 ??g/g dry wt), blood (3.10 ?? 0.15 ??g/g dry wt), and muscle (1.67 ?? 0.08 ??g/g dry wt). Relative Hg distribution among tissues, however, differed by species and life stage. Mercury concentrations were highly correlated among internal tissues (r 2 ??? 0.89). Conversely, the relationships between Hg in feathers and internal tissues were substantially weaker (r2 ??? 0.42). Regression slopes sometimes differed among species and life stages, indicating that care must be used when predicting Hg concentrations in one tissue based on those in another. However, we found good agreement between predictions made using a general tissue-prediction equation and more specific equations developed for each species and life stage. Finally, our results suggest that blood is an excellent, nonlethal predictor of Hg concentrations in internal tissues but that feathers are relatively poor indicators of Hg concentrations in internal tissues. ?? 2008 SETAC Printed in the USA.

  5. Marsh expansion at Calaveras Point Marsh, South San Francisco Bay, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Elizabeth Burke

    2008-07-01

    Studies of shoreline progradation along low-energy vegetated shorelines have been limited, as these environments are generally experiencing erosion rather than deposition, with extreme erosion rates frequently found. This study examined yearly changes along a vegetated shoreline at Calaveras Point Marsh, South San Francisco Bay, California, using aerial photography, to determine the roles of climatic, watershed, and coastal process in driving shoreline changes. In addition, sediment accumulation was monitored on a yearly basis at 48 locations across the marsh to determine the role of geomorphic factors in promoting accumulation. Calaveras Point Marsh was found to have expanded from 49.26 ± 5.2 to 165.7 ± 4.7 ha between 1975 and 2005. Although the rate of marsh expansion was not positively correlated with yearly variability in precipitation, local streamflow, delta outflow, water level observations, population growth, or ENSO indices, marsh growth was greater during years of higher than average temperatures. Warmer temperatures may have promoted the recruitment and growth of Spartina foliosa, a C 4 grass known to be highly responsive to temperature. Other factors, such as the formation of a coastal barrier, a recent change in the location of the mouth of the Guadalupe River, and channel readjustment in response to diking are credited with driving the bulk of the marsh expansion. Sediment accumulation was found to be high closest to channels and to the shoreline, at low elevations and in recently vegetated marsh. Globally, the pace of sea level rise exerts the primary control on wetland development and persistence. However, at local geographic scales, factors such as tectonic events, modifications to natural sediment transport pathways or land use changes may overwhelm the effects of regional sea level rise, and allow for wetlands to develop, expand and persist despite rapid sea level rise.

  6. Crustal structure of the coastal and marine San Francisco Bay region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, Tom, (Edited By)

    2002-01-01

    In summary, these studies were carried out in an environment where background information on faults in the San Francisco Bay region was sought. Much of the structural information presented here comes from experiments of a style unlikely to be conducted by the USGS in the near future. Together, the chapters in this volume provide a structural framework for a major part of a complex strike-slip fault system.

  7. Sedimentary record of anthropogenic and biogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pereira, W.E.; Hostettler, F.D.; Luoma, S.N.; VanGeen, A.; Fuller, C.C.; Anima, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    Dated sediment cores collected from Richardson and San Pablo Bays in San Francisco Bay were used to reconstruct a history of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination. The sedimentary record of PAHs in Richardson Bay shows that anthropogenic inputs have increased since the turn of the century, presumably as a result of increasing urbanization and industrialization around the Bay Area. Concentrations range from about 0.04-6.3 ??g g-1. The dominant origin of the PAHs contributing to this modern contamination is from combustion processes. Depth profiles in San Pablo Bay indicate higher concentrations of PAHs since the 1950s than during the late 1800s, also presumably resulting from an increase in urbanization and industrialization. Total PAHs in San Pablo Bay range from about 0.04-1.3 ??g g-1. The ratios of methylphenanthrenes/phenanthrene and (methylfluoranthenes + methylpyrenes)/fluoranthene were sensitive indicators of anthropogenic influences in the estuary. Variations in the ratio of 1,7-dimethylphenanthrene/2,6-dimethylphenanthrene indicate a gradual replacement of wood by fossil-fuel as the main combustion source of PAHs in. San Francisco Bay sediments. The profile of perylene may be an indicator of eroding peat from marshlands.

  8. Map showing thickness of young bay mud, southern San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDonald, Sandra D.; Nichols, Donald R.; Wright, Nancy A.; Atwater, Brian

    1978-01-01

    Soft water-saturated estuarine deposits less than 10,000 years old underlie the southern part of San Francisco bay and the present and former marshlands that border the bay. Known locally as bay mud or as young bay mud, these deposits, and the estuarine environment that produces them, are of major importance in making decision on land use and development in the San Francisco Bay area. Knowledge of the distribution, thickness, and physical properties of young bay mud is critical to the feasibility, design, and maintenance of structures built on it. Fore this reason, numerous attempts have been made in the past to map or describe these characteristics (Mitchell, 1963; Goldman, 1969; McDonald and Nichols, 1974). The accompanying map of bay-mud thickness significantly revises part of an earlier compilation by Kahle and Goldman (1969) and includes new data from approximately 2400 boreholes, most of which have been drilled during the past 15 years. It also incorporates information on historic margins of San Francisco Bay and its tidal marshes (Nichols and Wright, 1971). Although this map was compelled mostly from data gathered during foundation investigations and construction projects, it is mostly from data gathered during foundation investigations and construction projects, it is not a substitute for such studies. Rather, the map provides regional information for land-use planning, seismic zonation, and design of foundation investigations.

  9. Spawning, fertilization, and larval development of Potamocorbula amurensis (Mollusca: Bivalvia) from San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nicolini, M.H.; Penry, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    In Potamocorbula amurensis time for development to the straight-hinge larval stage is 48 hr at 15??C. Potamocorbula amurensis settles at a shell length of approximately 135 ??m 17 to 19 days after fertilization. Our observations of timing of larval devdlopment in P. amurensis support the hypothesis of earlier workers that its route of initial introduction to San Francisco Bay was as veliger larvae transported in ballast water by trans-Pacific cargo ships. The length of the larval period of P. amurensis relative to water mass residence times in San Francisco Bay suggests that it is sufficient to allow substantial dispersal from North Bay to South Bay populations in concordance with previous observations that genetic differentiation among populations of P. amurensis in San Francisco Bay is low. Potamocorbula amurensis is markedly euryhaline at all stages of development. Spawning and fertilization can occur at salinities from 5 to 25 psu, and eggs and sperms can each tolerance at least a 10-psu step increase or decrease in salinity. Embryos that are 2 hr old can tolerate the same range of salinities from (10 to 30 psu), and by the time they are 24 hr old they can tolerate the same range of salinities (2 to 30 psu) that adult clams can. The ability of P. amurensis larvae to tolerate substantial step changes in salinity suggests a strong potential to survive incomplete oceanic exchanges of ballast water and subsequent discharge into receiving waters across a broad range of salinities.

  10. A history of intertidal flat area in south San Francisco Bay, California: 1858 to 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaffe, Bruce; Foxgrover, Amy

    2006-01-01

    A key question in salt pond restoration in South San Francisco Bay is whether sediment sinks created by opening ponds will result in the loss of intertidal flats. Analyses of a series of bathymetric surveys of South San Francisco Bay made from 1858 to 2005 reveal changes in intertidal flat area in both space and time that can be used to better understand the pre-restoration system. This analysis also documents baseline conditions of intertidal flats that may be altered by restoration efforts. From 1858 to 2005, intertidal flat area decreased by about 25% from 69.2 +6.4/-7.6 km2 to 51.2 +4.8/-5.8 km2. Intertidal flats in the north tended to decrease in area during the period of this study whereas those south of Dumbarton Bridge were either stable or increased in area. From 1983 to 2005, intertidal flats south of Dumbarton Bridge increased from 17.6 +1.7/-2.5 km2 to 24.2 +1.0/-1.8 km2. Intertidal flats along the east shore of the bay tended to be more erosional and decreased in area while those along the west shore of the bay did not significantly change in area. Loss of intertidal flats occurred intermittently along the eastern shore of the bay north of the Dumbarton Bridge. There was little or no loss from 1931 to 1956 and from 1983 to 2005. Predictions of future change in intertidal flat area that do not account for this spatial and temporal variability are not likely to be accurate. The causes of the spatial and temporal variability in intertidal flat area in South San Francisco Bay are not fully understood, but appear related to energy available to erode sediments, sediment redistribution from north to south in the bay, and sediment available to deposit on the flats. Improved understanding of sediment input to South San Francisco Bay, especially from Central Bay, how it is likely to change in the future, the redistribution of sediment within the bay, and ultimately its effect on intertidal flat area would aid in the management of restoration of South San

  11. An empirical model for earthquake probabilities in the San Francisco Bay region, California, 2002-2031

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reasenberg, P.A.; Hanks, T.C.; Bakun, W.H.

    2003-01-01

    The moment magnitude M 7.8 earthquake in 1906 profoundly changed the rate of seismic activity over much of northern California. The low rate of seismic activity in the San Francisco Bay region (SFBR) since 1906, relative to that of the preceding 55 yr, is often explained as a stress-shadow effect of the 1906 earthquake. However, existing elastic and visco-elastic models of stress change fail to fully account for the duration of the lowered rate of earthquake activity. We use variations in the rate of earthquakes as a basis for a simple empirical model for estimating the probability of M ???6.7 earthquakes in the SFBR. The model preserves the relative magnitude distribution of sources predicted by the Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities' (WGCEP, 1999; WGCEP, 2002) model of characterized ruptures on SFBR faults and is consistent with the occurrence of the four M ???6.7 earthquakes in the region since 1838. When the empirical model is extrapolated 30 yr forward from 2002, it gives a probability of 0.42 for one or more M ???6.7 in the SFBR. This result is lower than the probability of 0.5 estimated by WGCEP (1988), lower than the 30-yr Poisson probability of 0.60 obtained by WGCEP (1999) and WGCEP (2002), and lower than the 30-yr time-dependent probabilities of 0.67, 0.70, and 0.63 obtained by WGCEP (1990), WGCEP (1999), and WGCEP (2002), respectively, for the occurrence of one or more large earthquakes. This lower probability is consistent with the lack of adequate accounting for the 1906 stress-shadow in these earlier reports. The empirical model represents one possible approach toward accounting for the stress-shadow effect of the 1906 earthquake. However, the discrepancy between our result and those obtained with other modeling methods underscores the fact that the physics controlling the timing of earthquakes is not well understood. Hence, we advise against using the empirical model alone (or any other single probability model) for estimating the

  12. Mercury concentrations and loads in a large river system tributary to San Francisco Bay, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    David, N.; McKee, L.J.; Black, F.J.; Flegal, A.R.; Conaway, C.H.; Schoellhamer, D.H.; Ganju, N.K.

    2009-01-01

    In order to estimate total mercury (HgT) loads entering San Francisco Bay, USA, via the Sacramento-San Joaquin River system, unfiltered water samples were collected between January 2002 and January 2006 during high flow events and analyzed for HgT. Unfiltered HgT concentrations ranged from 3.2 to 75 ng/L and showed a strong correlation (r2 = 0.8, p < 0.001, n = 78) to suspended sediment concentrations (SSC). During infrequent large floods, HgT concentrations relative to SSC were approximately twice as high as observed during smaller floods. This difference indicates the transport of more Hg-contaminated particles during high discharge events. Daily HgT loads in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River at Mallard Island ranged from below the limit of detection to 35 kg. Annual HgT loads varied from 61 ?? 22 kg (n = 5) in water year (WY) 2002 to 470 ?? 170 kg (n = 25) in WY 2006. The data collected will assist in understanding the long-term recovery of San Francisco Bay from Hg contamination and in implementing the Hg total maximum daily load, the long-term cleanup plan for Hg in the Bay. ?? 2009 SETAC.

  13. A Tidally Averaged Sediment-Transport Model for San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lionberger, Megan A.; Schoellhamer, David H.

    2009-01-01

    A tidally averaged sediment-transport model of San Francisco Bay was incorporated into a tidally averaged salinity box model previously developed and calibrated using salinity, a conservative tracer (Uncles and Peterson, 1995; Knowles, 1996). The Bay is represented in the model by 50 segments composed of two layers: one representing the channel (>5-meter depth) and the other the shallows (0- to 5-meter depth). Calculations are made using a daily time step and simulations can be made on the decadal time scale. The sediment-transport model includes an erosion-deposition algorithm, a bed-sediment algorithm, and sediment boundary conditions. Erosion and deposition of bed sediments are calculated explicitly, and suspended sediment is transported by implicitly solving the advection-dispersion equation. The bed-sediment model simulates the increase in bed strength with depth, owing to consolidation of fine sediments that make up San Francisco Bay mud. The model is calibrated to either net sedimentation calculated from bathymetric-change data or measured suspended-sediment concentration. Specified boundary conditions are the tributary fluxes of suspended sediment and suspended-sediment concentration in the Pacific Ocean. Results of model calibration and validation show that the model simulates the trends in suspended-sediment concentration associated with tidal fluctuations, residual velocity, and wind stress well, although the spring neap tidal suspended-sediment concentration variability was consistently underestimated. Model validation also showed poor simulation of seasonal sediment pulses from the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta at Point San Pablo because the pulses enter the Bay over only a few days and the fate of the pulses is determined by intra-tidal deposition and resuspension that are not included in this tidally averaged model. The model was calibrated to net-basin sedimentation to calculate budgets of sediment and sediment-associated contaminants. While

  14. Influence of hydrologic processes on reproduction of the introduced bivalve Potamocorbula amurensis in northern San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parchaso, F.; Thompson, J.K.

    2002-01-01

    Monthly censusing of reproductive condition of the Asian clam Potamocorbula amurensis at four sites in northern San Francisco Bay over a 9-yr period revealed year-to-year differences in local reproductive activity that are associated with patterns of hydrologic variability. Between 1989 and 1992, Northern California experienced a drought, whereas the period between 1993 and 1998 was marked by a mix of wet and dry years. We took advantage of the extreme year-to-year differences to examine reproductive responses to river inflow patterns. Populations of P. amurensis at the upstream sites in Suisun Bay and Carquinez Strait were more reproductively active during wet years than dry years. Conversely, at the downstream site in San Pablo Bay, the population was more reproductively active during dry years than wet years. We suggest that the different reproductive patterns observed reflect the clam's response to different sources of food. During wet years, organic matter from the rivers augments food supplies in Suisun Bay. During dry years, when inflow into the San Francisco Bay Estuary from the rivers is reduced, water transported from the adjacent ocean into the estuary as far as San Pablo Bay provides a supplemental food supply for the local production. The populations take advantage of these spatially distinct food supplies by initiating and maintaining local reproductive activity. We conclude that the ability of P. amurensis to consume and use various types of food to regulate its reproductive activity is part of the reason for its success as an invasive species.

  15. A Community Stormwater Investigation, San Francisco, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chio, J.; Garcia, E.; Hernandez, M.; Devine, M.; Isip, N.; Jiang, J.; Li, A.; Li, D.; Lopez, J.; Mark, J.; McGuire, S.; Navarro, K.; Negrete, R.; Orellana, S.; Yun, C.; Bissell, M.; Neiss, J.

    2008-12-01

    The San Francisco Bay watershed covers 40% of the State of California. Nonpoint source pollutants from cars, lawns, houses, parks and people residing within the watershed contribute contamination into San Francisco Bay. To measure the contribution from our neighborhoods we collected runoff from storm-drains at 10 different sites around San Francisco and tested them for heavy metals, Total Organic Carbons (TOC), and Methylene Blue Active Substances (MBAS) during a six-month period. Each sample site location is situated within one block of each participant's home. The goal of this study was to determine the contaminants contributed as nonpoint source pollution into San Francisco Bay. Our results show that a variety of contaminants are entering the Bay's ecosystem via sources in our residential settings. While this contribution may be thought of as unsubstantial, our results show that our neighborhoods are significant sources of watershed pollution.

  16. A review of circulation and mixing studies of San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Lawrence H.

    1987-01-01

    A description of the major characteristics and remaining unknowns of circulation and mixing in San Francisco Bay has been constructed from a review of published studies. From a broad perspective San Francisco Bay is an ocean-river mixing zone with a seaward flow equal to the sum of the river inflows less evaporation. Understanding of circulation and mixing within the bay requires quantification of freshwater inflows and ocean-bay exchanges, characterization of source-water variations, and separation of the within-bay components of circulation and mixing processes. Description of net circulation and mixing over a few days to a few months illustrates best the interactions of major components. Quantification of tidal circulation and mixing is also necessary because net circulation and mixing contain a large tide-induced component, and because tidal variations are dominant in measurements of stage, currents, and salinity. The discharge of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta into Suisun Bay is approximately 90 percent of the freshwater inflow to San Francisco Bay. Annual delta discharge is characterized by a winter season of high runoff and a summer season of low runoff. For the period 1956 to 1985 the mean of monthly discharges exceeded 1,000 cubic meters per second (35,000 cubic feet per second) for the months of December through April, whereas for July through October, it was less than 400 cubic meters per second (14,000 cubic feet per second). The months of November, May, and June commonly were transition months between these seasons. Large year-to-year deviations from this annual pattern have occurred frequently. Much less is known about the ocean-bay exchange process. Net exchanges depend on net seaward flow in the bay, tidal amplitude, and longshore coastal currents, but exchanges have not yet been measured successfully. Source-water variations are ignored by limiting discussion of mixing to salinity. The bay is composed of a northern reach, which is strongly

  17. Pesticides associated with suspended sediments in the San Francisco Bay Estuary, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Crepeau, Kathryn L.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.

    1997-01-01

    During the study of inputs of sediment-associated pesticides into the San Francisco Bay Estuary, suspended sediments were isolated from large-volume water samples collected over several years at various stations in Suisun Bay and also covering the principal inputs and outlet. The samples were analyzed for 21 pesticides and pesticide degradation products to provide information about the source and fate of pesticides associated with suspended sediments in the estuary. Where multiple samples were collected and analyzed, the data were averaged to provide a more general picture of pesticide transport.

  18. Studies of the San Francisco Bay, California, estuarine ecosystem regional monitoring program results, 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baylosis, Jelriza I.; Edmunds, Jody L.; Cole, Brian E.; Cloern, James E.

    1997-01-01

    As part of a regional monitoring program, water samples were collected in the San Francisco Bay estuary during 21 cruises from January through December 1996. Conductivity, temperature, light attenuation, turbidity, oxygen, and in-vivo chlorophyll fluorescence were measured longitudinally and vertically in the main channel of the estuary from south of the Dumbarton Bridge in the southern part of the Bay to Rio Vista on the Sacramento River. Discrete water samples were analyzed for chlorophyll a, phaeopigments, suspended participate matter, and dissolved oxygen. Water density was calculated from salinity, temperature, and pressure (depth), and is included in the data summaries.

  19. Monitoring the subsurface hydrologic response to shallow landsliding in the San Francisco Bay Area, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, B. D.; Stock, J. D.; Foster, K. A.; Knepprath, N.; Reid, M. E.; Schmidt, K. M.; Whitman, M. W.

    2011-12-01

    Intense or prolonged rainfall triggers shallow landslides in steeplands of the San Francisco Bay Area each year. These landslides cause damage to built infrastructure and housing, and in some cases, lead to fatalities. Although our ability to forecast and map the distribution of rainfall has improved (e.g., NEXRAD, SMART-R), our ability to estimate landslide susceptibility is limited by a lack of information about the subsurface response to rainfall. In particular, the role of antecedent soil moisture content in setting the timing of shallow landslide failures remains unconstrained. Advances in instrumentation and telemetry have substantially reduced the cost of such monitoring, making it feasible to set up and maintain networks of such instruments in areas with a documented history of shallow landslides. In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a pilot project to establish a series of shallow landslide monitoring stations in the San Francisco Bay area. The goal of this project is to obtain a long-term (multi-year) record of subsurface hydrologic conditions that occur from winter storms. Three monitoring sites are now installed in key landslide prone regions of the Bay Area (East Bay Hills, Marin County, and San Francisco Peninsula Hills) each consisting of a rain gage and multiple nests of soil-moisture sensors, matric-potential sensors, and piezometers. The sites were selected with similar characteristics in mind consisting of: (1) convergent bedrock hollow topographic settings located near ridge tops, (2) underlying sandstone bedrock substrates, (3) similar topographic gradients (~30°), (4) vegetative assemblages of grasses with minor chaparral, and (5) a documented history of landsliding in the vicinity of each site. These characteristics are representative of shallow-landslide-prone regions of the San Francisco Bay Area and also provide some constraint on the ability to compare and contrast subsurface response across different regions. Data streams from

  20. Issues related to modeling the transport of suspended sediments in Northern San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDonald, Ellen Thomas; Cheng, Ralph T.

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of suspended sediment concentrations at several deep-channel stations in San Francisco Bay are reviewed. Sediment concentrations are found to be strongly correlated with delta outflow, tidal, and spring/neap variations. However, little to no correlation is observed between wind speed and sediment concentration in the deep channel. A two-dimensional depth-averaged sediment transport model has been developed which includes the effects of tidal and spring-neap variations and wind-generated resuspension. During a period of low delta outflow, the model successfully reproduces field measurements of suspended sediment concentration at a station in San Pablo Bay. The model is found to be most sensitive to critical shear stresses, settling velocity, and the erosion rate constant.

  1. Disease Risk & Landscape Attributes of Tick-Borne Borrelia Pathogens in the San Francisco Bay Area, California

    PubMed Central

    Carbajales-Dale, Patricia; Carbajales-Dale, Michael; Cinkovich, Stephanie S.; Lambin, Eric F.

    2015-01-01

    Habitat heterogeneity influences pathogen ecology by affecting vector abundance and the reservoir host communities. We investigated spatial patterns of disease risk for two human pathogens in the Borrelia genus–B. burgdorferi and B. miyamotoi–that are transmitted by the western black-legged tick, Ixodes pacificus. We collected ticks (349 nymphs, 273 adults) at 20 sites in the San Francisco Bay Area, California, USA. Tick abundance, pathogen prevalence and density of infected nymphs varied widely across sites and habitat type, though nymphal western black-legged ticks were more frequently found, and were more abundant in coast live oak forest and desert/semi-desert scrub (dominated by California sagebrush) habitats. We observed Borrelia infections in ticks at all sites where we able to collect >10 ticks. The recently recognized human pathogen, B. miyamotoi, was observed at a higher prevalence (13/349 nymphs = 3.7%, 95% CI = 2.0–6.3; 5/273 adults = 1.8%, 95% CI = 0.6–4.2) than recent studies from nearby locations (Alameda County, east of the San Francisco Bay), demonstrating that tick-borne disease risk and ecology can vary substantially at small geographic scales, with consequences for public health and disease diagnosis. PMID:26288371

  2. Disease Risk & Landscape Attributes of Tick-Borne Borrelia Pathogens in the San Francisco Bay Area, California.

    PubMed

    Salkeld, Daniel J; Nieto, Nathan C; Carbajales-Dale, Patricia; Carbajales-Dale, Michael; Cinkovich, Stephanie S; Lambin, Eric F

    2015-01-01

    Habitat heterogeneity influences pathogen ecology by affecting vector abundance and the reservoir host communities. We investigated spatial patterns of disease risk for two human pathogens in the Borrelia genus-B. burgdorferi and B. miyamotoi-that are transmitted by the western black-legged tick, Ixodes pacificus. We collected ticks (349 nymphs, 273 adults) at 20 sites in the San Francisco Bay Area, California, USA. Tick abundance, pathogen prevalence and density of infected nymphs varied widely across sites and habitat type, though nymphal western black-legged ticks were more frequently found, and were more abundant in coast live oak forest and desert/semi-desert scrub (dominated by California sagebrush) habitats. We observed Borrelia infections in ticks at all sites where we able to collect >10 ticks. The recently recognized human pathogen, B. miyamotoi, was observed at a higher prevalence (13/349 nymphs = 3.7%, 95% CI = 2.0-6.3; 5/273 adults = 1.8%, 95% CI = 0.6-4.2) than recent studies from nearby locations (Alameda County, east of the San Francisco Bay), demonstrating that tick-borne disease risk and ecology can vary substantially at small geographic scales, with consequences for public health and disease diagnosis. PMID:26288371

  3. Probabilistic Methodology for Estimation of Number and Economic Loss (Cost) of Future Landslides in the San Francisco Bay Region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crovelli, Robert A.; Coe, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    The Probabilistic Landslide Assessment Cost Estimation System (PLACES) presented in this report estimates the number and economic loss (cost) of landslides during a specified future time in individual areas, and then calculates the sum of those estimates. The analytic probabilistic methodology is based upon conditional probability theory and laws of expectation and variance. The probabilistic methodology is expressed in the form of a Microsoft Excel computer spreadsheet program. Using historical records, the PLACES spreadsheet is used to estimate the number of future damaging landslides and total damage, as economic loss, from future landslides caused by rainstorms in 10 counties of the San Francisco Bay region in California. Estimates are made for any future 5-year period of time. The estimated total number of future damaging landslides for the entire 10-county region during any future 5-year period of time is about 330. Santa Cruz County has the highest estimated number of damaging landslides (about 90), whereas Napa, San Francisco, and Solano Counties have the lowest estimated number of damaging landslides (5?6 each). Estimated direct costs from future damaging landslides for the entire 10-county region for any future 5-year period are about US $76 million (year 2000 dollars). San Mateo County has the highest estimated costs ($16.62 million), and Solano County has the lowest estimated costs (about $0.90 million). Estimated direct costs are also subdivided into public and private costs.

  4. 27 CFR 9.157 - San Francisco Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Mountain, California, scale 1:24,000, dated 1956, Photorevised 1980; (25) Half Moon Bay, California, scale... Francisco South, Montara Mountain, Half Moon Bay, San Gregorio, Pigeon Point, Franklin Point, Año Nuevo...

  5. 27 CFR 9.157 - San Francisco Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Mountain, California, scale 1:24,000, dated 1956, Photorevised 1980; (25) Half Moon Bay, California, scale... Francisco South, Montara Mountain, Half Moon Bay, San Gregorio, Pigeon Point, Franklin Point, Año Nuevo...

  6. 27 CFR 9.157 - San Francisco Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Mountain, California, scale 1:24,000, dated 1956, Photorevised 1980; (25) Half Moon Bay, California, scale... Francisco South, Montara Mountain, Half Moon Bay, San Gregorio, Pigeon Point, Franklin Point, Año Nuevo...

  7. 27 CFR 9.157 - San Francisco Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Mountain, California, scale 1:24,000, dated 1956, Photorevised 1980; (25) Half Moon Bay, California, scale... Francisco South, Montara Mountain, Half Moon Bay, San Gregorio, Pigeon Point, Franklin Point, Año Nuevo...

  8. Benthic flux of nutrients and trace metals in the northern component of San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuwabara, James S.; Topping, Brent R.; Parcheso, Francis; Engelstad, Anita C.; Greene, Valerie E.

    2009-01-01

    Two sets of sampling trips were coordinated in late summer 2008 (weeks of July 8 and August 6) to sample the interstitial and overlying bottom waters at 10 shallow locations (9 sites <3 meters in depth) within the northern component of the San Francisco Bay/Delta (herein referred to as North Bay). The work was performed to better understand sources of biologically reactive solutes (namely, dissolved macronutrients and trace metals) that may affect the base of the food web in this part of the estuary. A nonmetallic pore-water profiler was used to obtain the first centimeter-scale estimates of the vertical solute-concentration gradients for diffusive-flux determinations. This study, performed in collaboration with scientists from San Francisco State University?s Romberg Tiburon Center for Environmental Studies, provides information to assist in developing and refining management strategies for the Bay/Delta system and supports efforts to monitor changes in food-web structure associated with regional habitat modifications directed by the California Bay-Delta Authority. On July 7, 2008, and August 5, 2008, pore-water profilers were successfully deployed at six North Bay sites per trip to measure the concentration gradient of dissolved macronutrients and trace metals near the sediment-water interface. Only two of the sites (433 and SSB009 within Honker Bay) were sampled in both series of profiler deployments. At each sampling site, profilers were deployed in triplicate, while discrete samples and dataloggers were used to collect ancillary data from both the water column and benthos to help interpret diffusive-flux measurements. Benthic flux of dissolved (0.2-micron filtered) inorganic phosphate (that is, soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP)) ranged from negligible levels (-0.003?0.005 millimole per square meter per day (mmole m-2d-1) at Site 4.1 outside Honker Bay) to 0.060?0.006 mmole m-2d-1 near the northern coast of Brown?s Island. Except for the elevated flux at Browns

  9. Sea level fluctuations in central California at subtidal to decadal and longer time scales with implications for San Francisco Bay, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, H. F.; Noble, M. A.

    2007-07-01

    Sea level elevations from near the mouth of San Francisco Bay are used to describe the low-frequency variability of forcing of the coastal ocean on the Bay at a variety of temporal scales. About 90% of subtidal fluctuations in sea level in San Francisco Bay are driven by the sea level variations in the coastal ocean that propagate into the Bay at the estuary mouth. We use the 100-year sea level record available at San Francisco to document a 1.9 mm/yr mean sea level rise, and to determine fluctuations related to El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and other climatic events. At time scales greater than 1 year, ENSO dominates the sea level signal and can result in fluctuations in sea level of 10-15 cm. Alongshore wind stress data from central California are also analyzed to determine the impact of changes in coastal elevation at the mouth of San Francisco Bay within the synoptic wind band of 2-30 days. At least 40% of the subtidal fluctuations in sea level of the Bay are tied to the large-scale regional wind field affecting sea level variations in the coastal ocean, with little local, direct wind forcing of the Bay itself. The majority of the subtidal sea level fluctuations within the Bay that are not related to the coastal ocean sea level signal are forced by an east-west sea level gradient resulting from tidally induced variations in sea level at specific beat frequencies that are enhanced in the northern reach of the Bay. River discharge into the Bay through the Sacramento and San Joaquin River Delta also contributes to the east-west gradient, but to a lesser degree.

  10. Elevation maps of the San Francisco Bay region, California, a digital database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, Scott E.; Pike, Richard J.

    1998-01-01

    PREFACE: Topography, the configuration of the land surface, plays a major role in various natural processes that have helped shape the ten-county San Francisco Bay region and continue to affect its development. Such processes include a dangerous type of landslide, the debris flow (Ellen and others, 1997) as well as other modes of slope failure that damage property but rarely threaten life directly?slumping, translational sliding, and earthflow (Wentworth and others, 1997). Different types of topographic information at both local and regional scales are helpful in assessing the likelihood of slope failure and the mapping the extent of its past activity, as well as addressing other issues in hazard mitigation and land-use policy. The most useful information is quantitative.

  11. Proceedings of the Second Life Education Workshop, Part of the Second Life Community Convention (1st, San Francisco, California, August 18-20, 2006)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingstone, Daniel, Ed.; Kemp, Jeremy, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This document is a compilation of 14 papers from presentations and posters of the Second Life Education Workshop at the Second Life Community Convention, presented at the Fort Mason Centre in San Francisco, California in August 2006. Following a foreword (John Bransford and Drue Gawel); preface (John Lester); and word from the chairs (Daniel…

  12. Handbook of Techniques and Guides for the Study of the San Francisco Bay-Delta-Estuary Complex, Part 5. Keys to the Freshwater and Anadromous Fishes of California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimsey, J. B.; Fisk, Leonard O.

    1960-01-01

    This key to freshwater and anadromous fishes of California is included as the fifth of a series of guides being produced by Project MER (Marine Ecology Research). This project is part of the effort to improve environmental education in the San Francisco Bay Area schools by gathering and organizing data on the ecological character of the San…

  13. Revisiting the Lau Decision: 20 Years After. Proceedings of a National Commemorative Symposium (San Francisco, California, November 3-4, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ARC Associates, Inc. Oakland, CA.

    The "Lau" decision of 1974, which was related to the education of Chinese-speaking students in San Francisco (California), ushered in new programs, teaching approaches, frameworks, legislation, and government agencies designed to redress fundamental inequities in the educational opportunities available to language minority students. This symposium…

  14. Effects of predation, flooding, and contamination on reproductive success of California Clapper Rails (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) in San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwarzbach, S.E.; Albertson, J.D.; Thomas, C.M.

    2006-01-01

    We assessed the reproductive success of the California Clapper Rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus), an endangered subspecies restricted to San Francisco Bay, and the relative importance of predation, flooding, and contaminants as factors affecting that success. Our study was conducted in six tidal marshes in the northern and southern reaches of San Francisco Bay. This assessment, conducted in four breeding seasons (1991, 1992, 1998, 1999), determined that productivity of California Clapper Rails was much reduced over the natural potential. Only 69% of clapper rail eggs whose viability could be assessed were viable. Hatchability of eggs in North Bay and South Bay marshes was 65% and 70%, respectively. Only 45% of the nests successfully hatched at least one egg. Despite mean clutch sizes of 6.7 and 6.9 in the North and South bays, respectively, clapper rails produced only 1.9 and 2.5 young per nesting attempt. Flooding was a minor factor, reducing the number of eggs available to hatch by only 2.3%. Predation on eggs was a major factor affecting nest success, reducing productivity by a third. Failed eggs were examined for abnormal development and contaminant concentrations. Contamination appeared to adversely influence California Clapper Rail reproductive success, as evidenced by deformities; embryo hemorrhaging; embryo malpositions; a depressed rate of hatchability; excess concentrations of mercury, barium, and chromium over known avian embryotoxic thresholds; and a correlation of deformities with elevated concentrations of some trace elements in eggs that failed to hatch. Mercury was the only significant contaminant common to all marshes. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2006.

  15. Legacy Mercury in Alviso Slough, South San Francisco Bay, California: Concentration, Speciation and Mobility

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark; Cox, Marisa H.

    2007-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a significant contaminant in the waters, sediment and biota of San Francisco Bay, largely resulting from extensive historic regional mining activities. Alviso Slough represents one of the most mercury contaminated waterways entering south San Francisco Bay, as it is associated with the drainage of the New Almaden mercury mining district. Wetland habitat restoration of former salt manufacturing ponds adjacent to Alviso Slough is currently being planned. One management scenario being considered is a levee breach between Alviso Slough and Pond A8, which will allow reconnection of the salt pond with the tidal slough. This action is projected to increase the tidal prism within Alviso Slough and result in some degree of sediment remobilization as the main channel deepens and widens. The focus of the current study is to assess: a) the current mercury species composition and concentration in sediments within the Alviso Slough main channel and its associated fringing marsh plain, b) how much of each mercury species will be mobilized as a result of projected channel deepening and widening, and c) potential changes in inorganic reactive mercury bioavailability (for conversion to toxic methylmercury) associated with the mobilized sediment fraction. The current report details the field sampling approach and all laboratory analyses conducted, as well as provides the complete dataset associated with this project including a) a quantitative assessment of mercury speciation (total mercury, reactive mercury and methylmercury), b) estimates of the quantity of sediment and mercury mobilized based on 20-foot and 40-foot levee wall notch scenarios, and c) results from a sediment scour experiment examining the changes in the reactive mercury pool under four treatment conditions (high / low salinity and oxic / anoxic water). Ancillary sediment data also collected and reported herein include bulk density, organic content, magnetic susceptibility, percent dry weight, grain

  16. Polychlorinated biphenyls in the exterior caulk of San Francisco Bay Area buildings, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Klosterhaus, Susan; McKee, Lester J; Yee, Donald; Kass, Jamie M; Wong, Adam

    2014-05-01

    Extensive evidence of the adverse impacts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to wildlife, domestic animals, and humans has now been documented for over 40 years. Despite the ban on production and new use of PCBs in the United States in 1979, a number of fish consumption advisories remain in effect, and there remains considerable uncertainty regarding ongoing environmental sources and management alternatives. Using a blind sampling approach, 25 caulk samples were collected from the exterior of ten buildings in the San Francisco Bay Area and analyzed for PCBs using congener-specific gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and chlorine using portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF). PCBs were detected in 88% of the caulk samples collected from the study area buildings, with 40% exceeding 50 ppm. Detectable PCB concentrations ranged from 1 to 220,000 ppm. These data are consistent with previous studies in other cities that have identified relatively high concentrations of PCBs in concrete and masonry buildings built between 1950 and 1980. Portable XRF was not a good predictor of the PCB content in caulk and the results indicate that portable XRF analysis may only be useful for identifying caulk that contains low concentrations of Cl (≤ 10,000 ppm) and by extension low or no PCBs. A geographic information system-based approach was used to estimate that 10,500 kg of PCBs remain in interior and exterior caulk in buildings located in the study area, which equates to an average of 4.7 kg PCBs per building. The presence of high concentrations in the exterior caulk of currently standing buildings suggests that building caulk may be an ongoing source of PCBs to the San Francisco Bay Area environment. Further studies to expand the currently small international dataset on PCBs in caulking materials in buildings of countries that produced or imported PCBs appear justified in the context of both human health and possible ongoing environmental release. PMID:24518434

  17. Seismic velocities and geologic logs from boreholes at three downhole arrays in San Francisco, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, James F.; Fumal, Thomas E.; Borcherdt, Roger D.; Warrick, Richard E.; Liu, Hsi-Ping; Westerlund, Robert E.

    1994-01-01

    The Loma Prieta earthquake of October 17, 1989 (1704 PST), has reinforced observations made by Wood and others (1908) after the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, that poor ground conditions (soft soil) increase the likelihood of shaking damage to structures. Since 1908 many studies (for example Borcherdt, 1970, Borcherdt and Gibbs, 1976, Borcherdt and Glassmoyer, 1992) have shown that soft soils amplify seismic waves at frequencies that can be damaging to structures. Damage in the City of San Francisco from the Loma Prieta earthquake was concentrated in the Marina District, the Embarcadero, and the China Basin areas. Each of these areas, to some degree, is underlain by soft soil deposits. These concentrations of damage raise important questions regarding the amplification effects of such deposits at damaging levels of motion. Unfortunately, no strong-motion recordings were obtained in these areas during the Loma Prieta earthquake and only a limited number (< 10) have been obtained on other soft soil sites in the United States. Consequently, important questions exist regarding the response of such deposits during damaging earthquakes, especially questions regarding the nonlinear soil response. Towards developing a data set to address these important questions, borehole strong-motion arrays have been installed at three locations. These arrays consist of groups of wide-dynamic-range pore-pressure transducers and three-component accelerometers, the outputs of which are recorded digitally. The arrays are designed to provide an integrated set of data on ground shaking, liquifaction-induced ground failure, and structural response. This report describes the detailed geologic, seismic, and material-property determinations derived at each of these sites.

  18. Three-dimensional P wave velocity model for the San Francisco Bay region, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurber, Clifford H.; Brocher, Thomas M.; Zhang, Haijiang; Langenheim, Victoria E.

    2007-07-01

    A new three-dimensional P wave velocity model for the greater San Francisco Bay region has been derived using the double-difference seismic tomography method, using data from about 5,500 chemical explosions or air gun blasts and approximately 6,000 earthquakes. The model region covers 140 km NE-SW by 240 km NW-SE, extending from 20 km south of Monterey to Santa Rosa and reaching from the Pacific coast to the edge of the Great Valley. Our model provides the first regional view of a number of basement highs that are imaged in the uppermost few kilometers of the model, and images a number of velocity anomaly lows associated with known Mesozoic and Cenozoic basins in the study area. High velocity (Vp > 6.5 km/s) features at ˜15-km depth beneath part of the edge of the Great Valley and along the San Francisco peninsula are interpreted as ophiolite bodies. The relocated earthquakes provide a clear picture of the geometry of the major faults in the region, illuminating fault dips that are generally consistent with previous studies. Ninety-five percent of the earthquakes have depths between 2.3 and 15.2 km, and the corresponding seismic velocities at the hypocenters range from 4.8 km/s (presumably corresponding to Franciscan basement or Mesozoic sedimentary rocks of the Great Valley Sequence) to 6.8 km/s. The top of the seismogenic zone is thus largely controlled by basement depth, but the base of the seismogenic zone is not restricted to seismic velocities of ≤6.3 km/s in this region, as had been previously proposed.

  19. The critical role of islands for waterbird breeding and foraging habitat in managed ponds of the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project, South San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Hartman, C. Alex; Herzog, Mark P.; Smith, Lacy M.; Moskal, Stacy M.; De La Cruz, Susan E. W.; Yee, Julie L.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2014-01-01

    The South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project aims to restore 50–90 percent of former salt evaporation ponds into tidal marsh in South San Francisco Bay, California. However, large numbers of waterbirds use these ponds annually as nesting and foraging habitat. Islands within ponds are particularly important habitat for nesting, foraging, and roosting waterbirds. To maintain current waterbird populations, the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project plans to create new islands within former salt ponds in South San Francisco Bay. In a series of studies, we investigated pond and individual island attributes that are most beneficial to nesting, foraging, and roosting waterbirds.

  20. Accelerating and spatially-varying crustal uplift and its geomorphic expression, San Andreas Fault zone north of San Francisco, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grove, Karen; Sklar, Leonard S.; Scherer, Anne Marie; Lee, Gina; Davis, Jerry

    2010-12-01

    Marine terraces that bevel the western flank of the Point Reyes Peninsula were used to measure crustal uplift rates west of the San Andreas Fault segment north of San Francisco. Field measurements of platform inner edges, and luminescence ages from overlying marine sediments, suggest the youngest platform was cut by waves during the ~ 80-ka sea-level high stand (MIS 5a). Since 80 ka, the platform has been uplifted slowly throughout most of the peninsula, but more rapidly in the southern part, where uplift reaches a rate of ~ 1 m/ka. Analyses of the spatial distributions of hillslope gradient and elevation are consistent with the terrace data. Correlations of older terrace levels to high-stand ages suggest that crustal uplift has accelerated in the southern part of the peninsula during the past ~ 300 ky, probably as a result of a contractional zone that has been migrating northward. This study is the first to quantify the rate and style of crustal uplift west of this San Andreas Fault segment. Although the transform motions in this region are well documented, the complex nature of interacting fault strands are only beginning to be understood. These results imply that other faults, with reverse-motions, are also active and potentially contributing to earthquake hazards.

  1. A review of circulation and mixing studies of San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, L.H.

    1987-01-01

    A description of the major characteristics and remaining unknowns of circulation and mixing in San Francisco Bay has been constructed from a review of published studies. Description of net circulation and mixing over a few days to a few months illustrates best the interactions of major components. The discharge of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta into Suisun Bay is approximately 90% of the freshwater inflow to San Francisco Bay. Annual delta discharge is characterized by a winter season of high runoff and a summer season of low runoff. For the period 1956 to 1985 the mean of monthly discharges exceeded 1,000 cu m/s (35,000 cu ft/s) for the months of December through April, whereas for July through October, it was < 400 cu m/s (14,000 cu ft/s). The months of November, May, and June commonly were transition months between these seasons. Large year-to-year deviations from this annual pattern have occurred frequently. Much less is known about the ocean-bay exchange process. Net exchanges depend on net seaward flow in the bay, tidal amplitude , and longshore coastal currents, but exchanges have not yet been measured successfully. The bay is composed of a northern reach, which is strongly influenced by delta discharge, and South Bay, a tributary estuary which responds to conditions in Central Bay. In the northern reach net circulation is characterized by the river-induced seaward flow and a resulting gravitational circulation in the channels, and by a tide and wind-induced net horizontal circulation. During low delta discharges South Bay has nearly the same salinity as Central Bay and is characterized by tide and wind-induced net horizontal circulation. In the northern reach a nontidal current null zone moves rapidly seaward in response to increases in delta discharge, and after runoff events returns landward over a few months. During the low-discharge period the northern reach achieves an approximate salt balance in two to three months. When gravitational circulation

  2. Simulation model of Skeletonema costatum population dynamics in northern San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cloern, J.E.; Cheng, R.T.

    1981-01-01

    A pseudo-two-dimensional model is developed to simulate population dynamics of one dominant phytoplankton species (Skeletonema costatum) in northern San Francisco Bay. The model is formulated around a conceptualization of this estuary as two distinct but coupled subsystems-a deep (10-20 m) central channel and lateral areas with shallow (<2 m) water and slow circulation. Algal growth rates are governed by solar irradiation, temperature and salinity, while population losses are assumed to result from grazing bycalanoid copepods. Consequences of estuarine gravitational circulation are approximated simply by reducing convective-dispersive transport in that section of the channel (null zone) where residual bottom currents are near zero, and lateral mixing is treated as a bulkexchange process between the channel and the shoals. Model output is consistent with the hypothesis that, because planktonic algae are light-limited, shallow areas are the sites of active population growth. Seasonal variation in the location of the null zone (a response to variable river discharge) is responsible for maintaining the spring bloom of neritic diatoms in the seaward reaches of the estuary (San Pablo Bay) and the summer bloom upstream (Suisun Bay). Model output suggests that these spring and summer blooms result from the same general process-establishment of populations over the shoals, where growth rates are rapid, coupled with reduced particulate transport due to estuarine gravitational circulation. It also suggests, however, that the relative importance of physical and biological processes to phytoplankton dynamics is different in San Pablo and Suisun Bays. Finally, the model has helped us determine those processes having sufficient importance to merit further refinement in the next generation of models, and it has given new direction to field studies. ?? 1981 Academic Press Inc. (London) Ltd.

  3. Recent scientific advances and their implications for sand management near San Francisco, California: the influences of the ebb tidal delta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanes, Daniel M.; Barnard, Patrick L.; Dallas, Kate; Elias, Edwin; Erikson, Li H.; Eshleman, Jodi; Hansen, Jeff; Hsu, Tian Jian; Shi, Fengyan

    2011-01-01

    Recent research in the San Francisco, California, U.S.A., coastal region has identified the importance of the ebb tidal delta to coastal processes. A process-based numerical model is found to qualitatively reproduce the equilibrium size and shape of the delta. The ebb tidal delta itself has been contracting over the past century, and the numerical model is applied to investigate the sensitivity of the delta to changes in forcing conditions. The large ebb tidal delta has a strong influence upon regional coastal processes. The prominent bathymetry of the ebb tidal delta protects some of the coast from extreme storm waves, but the delta also focuses wave energy toward the central and southern portions of Ocean Beach. Wave focusing likely contributes to a chronic erosion problem at the southern end of Ocean Beach. The ebb tidal delta in combination with non-linear waves provides a potential cross-shore sediment transport pathway that probably supplies sediment to Ocean Beach.

  4. Measurements of salinity, temperature, and tides in south San Francisco Bay, California, at Dumbarton Bridge; 1990-93 water years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schemel, Laurence E.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey measures salinity, temperature, and water levels (tides) in southern San Francisco Bay at Dumbarton Bridge as part of a cooperative program with the California State Department of Water Resources. During water years 1990-93, measurements were made at 15-minute intervals with electonic sensors located approximately one meter above the substrate in approximately six meters of water (at mean water level). During March and April of 1991 and 1992, salinity and temperature also were measured with a self-contained system floating one meter below the surface of the water. Sections of the data set were selected to illustrate influences of tidal currents, weather events, and seasonal and interannual variations in climate on salinity, temperature, and water levels at this location. The edited data are provided on high-density disks in comma-delimited, ASCII text files.

  5. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and..., Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and connecting waters in California. (a) Location. All waters of San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River,...

  6. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and..., Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and connecting waters in California. (a) Location. All waters of San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River,...

  7. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and..., Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and connecting waters in California. (a) Location. All waters of San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River,...

  8. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and..., Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and connecting waters in California. (a) Location. All waters of San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River,...

  9. Integrated geomorphic and geodynamic modeling of a potential blind thrust in the San Francisco Bay area, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Courtney B.; Furlong, Kevin P.; Kirby, Eric

    2009-06-01

    Geometries and slip budgets of the faults in the San Francisco Bay area imply previously unrecognized fault linkages, including examples of blind thrust structures that appear to connect segments of strike-slip faults and accommodate along-strike variations in slip rate along these structures. Displacement along linking faults may be associated with the development of topography and also may serve as earthquake sources. In Marin County, California, systematic spatial patterns in landscape topography and geomorphic indices suggest that the region north of Mt. Tamalpais is experiencing differential rock uplift. We suggest that a blind thrust underlies the elevated area, creating the observed topography and possibly resolving a slip discrepancy between the Hayward and San Andreas Fault in this region. We have developed and implemented an integrative approach that combines observations from tectonic deformation and geomorphic properties to identify a potential blind thrust beneath Marin County. Elastic displacement modeling has been tested for compatibility with the blind thrust hypothesis and to assess the sensitivity of observables to fault geometry and orientation; from this, a set of plausible blind thrust structures are defined. We use a range of empirical relationships between channel steepness index and erosion rate to estimate spatial variations in erosion rate along Bolinas Ridge. By coupling these erosion estimates with elastic displacement fault modeling, we can use the resulting topographic envelopes to constrain the rate and duration of deformation. These constraints, along with spatial bounds on the possible fault models, are used to calculate potential seismic moment and moment magnitude. With an assumed recurrence interval of ~ 100 years, such blind thrusts can produce a Mw ~ 6.3 earthquake, while a longer recurrence time (~ 1000 years) results in a maximum Mw ~ 7.0 earthquake. Although such events are not likely to be catastrophic, they are large

  10. Jean Parker School, San Francisco.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Soren

    1999-01-01

    Describes the post-earthquake renovation of a San Francisco urban elementary school that preserved its historical detail within a modern replacement. Design features are detailed; photos and a floorplan are included. (GR)

  11. Understanding Urban Watersheds through Digital Interactive Maps, San Francisco Bay Area, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowers, J. M.; Ticci, M. G.; Mulvey, P.

    2014-12-01

    Dense urbanization has resulted in the "disappearance" of many local creeks in urbanized areas surrounding the San Francisco Bay. Long reaches of creeks now flow in underground pipes. Municipalities and water agencies trying to reduce non-point-source pollution are faced with a public that cannot see and therefore does not understand the interconnected nature of the drainage system or its ultimate discharge to the bay. Since 1993, we have collaborated with the Oakland Museum, the San Francisco Estuary Institute, public agencies, and municipalities to create creek and watershed maps to address the need for public understanding of watershed concepts. Fifteen paper maps are now published (www.museumca.org/creeks), which have become a standard reference for educators and anyone working on local creek-related issues. We now present digital interactive creek and watershed maps in Google Earth. Four maps are completed covering urbanized areas of Santa Clara and Alameda Counties. The maps provide a 3D visualization of the watersheds, with cartography draped over the landscape in transparent colors. Each mapped area includes both Present and Past (circa 1800s) layers which can be clicked on or off by the user. The Present layers include the modern drainage network, watershed boundaries, and reservoirs. The Past layers include the 1800s-era creek systems, tidal marshes, lagoons, and other habitats. All data are developed in ArcGIS software and converted to Google Earth format. To ensure the maps are interesting and engaging, clickable icons pop-up provide information on places to visit, restoration projects, history, plants, and animals. Maps of Santa Clara Valley are available at http://www.valleywater.org/WOW.aspx. Maps of western Alameda County will soon be available at http://acfloodcontrol.org/. Digital interactive maps provide several advantages over paper maps. They are seamless within each map area, and the user can zoom in or out, and tilt, and fly over to explore

  12. Crustal structure of a transform plate boundary: San Francisco Bay and the central California continental margin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holbrook, W.S.; Brocher, T.M.; ten Brink, U.S.; Hole, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    Wide-angle seismic data collected during the Bay Area Seismic Imaging Experiment provide new glimpses of the deep structure of the San Francisco Bay Area Block and across the offshore continental margin. San Francisco Bay is underlain by a veneer (<300 m) of sediments, beneath which P wave velocities increase rapidly from 5.2 km/s to 6.0 km/s at 7 km depth, consistent with rocks of the Franciscan subduction assemblage. The base of the Franciscan at-15-18 km depth is marked by a strong wide-angle reflector, beneath which lies an 8- to 10-km-thick lower crust with an average velocity of 6.75??0.15 km/s. The lower crust of the Bay Area Block may be oceanic in origin, but its structure and reflectivity indicate that it has been modified by shearing and/or magmatic intrusion. Wide-angle reflections define two layers within the lower crust, with velocities of 6.4-6.6 km/s and 6.9-7.3 km/s. Prominent subhorizontal reflectivity observed at near-vertical incidence resides principally in the lowermost layer, the top of which corresponds to the "6-s reflector" of Brocher et al. [1994]. Rheological modeling suggests that the lower crust beneath the 6-s reflector is the weakest part of the lithosphere; the horizontal shear zone suggested by Furlong et al. [1989] to link the San Andreas and Hayward/Calaveras fault systems may actually be a broad zone of shear deformation occupying the lowermost crust. A transect across the continental margin from the paleotrench to the Hayward fault shows a deep crustal structure that is more complex than previously realized. Strong lateral variability in seismic velocity and wide-angle reflectivity suggests that crustal composition changes across major transcurrent fault systems. Pacific oceanic crust extends 40-50 km landward of the paleotrench but, contrary to prior models, probably does not continue beneath the Salinian Block, a Cretaceous arc complex that lies west of the San Andreas fault in the Bay Area. The thickness (10 km) and high

  13. Crustal structure of a transform plate boundary: San Francisco Bay and the central California continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbrook, W. Steven; Brocher, Thomas M.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Hole, John A.

    1996-10-01

    Wide-angle seismic data collected during the Bay Area Seismic Imaging Experiment provide new glimpses of the deep structure of the San Francisco Bay Area Block and across the offshore continental margin. San Francisco Bay is underlain by a veneer (<300 m) of sediments, beneath which P wave velocities increase rapidly from 5.2 km/s to 6.0 km/s at 7 km depth, consistent with rocks of the Franciscan subduction assemblage. The base of the Franciscan at 15-18 km depth is marked by a strong wide-angle reflector, beneath which lies an 8- to 10-km-thick lower crust with an average velocity of 6.75 ± 0.15 km/s. The lower crust of the Bay Area Block may be oceanic in origin, but its structure and reflectivity indicate that it has been modified by shearing and/or magmatic intrusion. Wide-angle reflections define two layers within the lower crust, with velocities of 6.4-6.6 km/s and 6.9-7.3 km/s. Prominent subhorizontal reflectivity observed at near-vertical incidence resides principally in the lowermost layer, the top of which corresponds to the "6-s reflector" of Brocher et al. [1994]. Rheological modeling suggests that the lower crust beneath the 6-s reflector is the weakest part of the lithosphere; the horizontal shear zone suggested by Furlong et al. [1989] to link the San Andreas and Hayward/Calaveras fault systems may actually be a broad zone of shear deformation occupying the lowermost crust. A transect across the continental margin from the paleotrench to the Hayward fault shows a deep crustal structure that is more complex than previously realized. Strong lateral variability in seismic velocity and wide-angle reflectivity suggests that crustal composition changes across major transcurrent fault systems. Pacific oceanic crust extends 40-50 km landward of the paleotrench but, contrary to prior models, probably does not continue beneath the Salinian Block, a Cretaceous arc complex that lies west of the San Andreas fault in the Bay Area. The thickness (10 km) and high

  14. A numerical model of sediment transport applied to San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mcdonald, E.T.; Cheng, R.T.

    1997-01-01

    A two dimensional depth-averaged sediment transport model is used to simulate field measurements of suspended sediment concentrations in northern San Francisco Bay. The model uses a semi-implicit finite difference method to solve the shallow water equations and incorporates standard empirical expressions for erosion and deposition of sediments into the transport equation as source/sink terms. The field measurements indicate that tidal scale variations (both diurnal and spring-neap) dominate the variations in suspended sediment concentration (SSC). Increases in SSC also correlated highly with large delta outflows following a storm in late winter. The sediment transport model reproduces the field measurements quite well during periods when the water column is relatively well-mixed vertically. However, the present model only includes one size class of sediment and does not perform well when spatial variability of sediment properties and multiple size classes are significant factors. Comparison of erosion and accretion patterns generated by the model with those obtained from historical bathymetric surveys indicate that the model captures several of the general features observed historically. A sensitivity analysis demonstrates that the model is very sensitive to the critical shear stress for erosion and moderately sensitive to the erosion rate constant, critical shear stress for deposition, and settling velocity.

  15. Assessment of macrobenthos response to sediment contamination in the San Francisco Estuary, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Bruce; Lowe, Sarah

    2004-09-01

    A multimetric benthic assessment method was developed for two benthic assemblages in the San Francisco Estuary (USA) using data from several monitoring programs collected over five years. Assessment indicators used were total number of taxa, total abundances, oligochaete abundances, number of molluscan taxa, number of amphipod taxa, and Capitella capitata and Streblospio benedicti abundances. Exceedances of the maximum or minimum indicator values in reference samples were used to assess test samples using a weight-of-evidence to obtain an assessment value. Only 2.5% of the samples from the deeper, offshore sites had benthic impacts, 14.3% of the samples from near wastewater discharges had impacts, and 78.3% of the samples from the estuary margins and channels were impacted. Impacted samples from both assemblages had significantly higher mean effects range-median quotient values (mERMq) than reference samples, total organic carbon (TOC) was significantly higher in the impacted samples from the mesohaline assemblage, and percent fines was significantly higher in the impacted samples from the polyhaline assemblage, reflecting the close associations of contaminants with fine sediments and organic material. In samples with mERMq below 0.050, there were no benthic impacts. The incidence of impacts remained low (9.4%) at mERMq below 0.146, but when mERMq was above 0.146, 68.2% of the samples had benthic impacts, and samples with mERMq above 0.740 were always impacted. PMID:15378995

  16. Distributions of pesticides and organic contaminants between water and suspended sediment, San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Domagalski, J.L.; Kuivila, K.M.

    1993-01-01

    Suspended-sediment and water samples were collected from San Francisco Bay in 1991 during low river discharge and after spring rains. All samples were analyzed for organophosphate, carbamate, and organochlorine pesticides; petroleum hydrocarbons; biomarkers; and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. The objectives were to determine the concentrations of these contaminants in water and suspended sediment during two different hydrologic conditions and to determine partition coefficients of the contaminants between water and sediment. Concentrations of hydrophobic contaminants, such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, varied with location of sample collection, riverine discharge, and tidal cycle. Concentrations of hydrophobic contaminants in suspended sediments were highest during low river discharge but became diluted as agricultural soils entered the bay after spring rains. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons defined as dissolved in the water column were not detected. The concentrations sorbed on suspended sediments were variable and were dependent on sediment transport patterns in the bay. In contrast, the relatively hydrophilic organophosphate pesticides, such as chlorpyrifos and diazinon, has a more uniform concentration in suspended sediment. These pesticides were detected only after spring rains. Most of the measured diazinon, at least 98% for all samples, was in the dissolved phase. Measured partition coefficients for diazinon generally were uniform, which suggests that suspended-sediment concentrations were close to equilibrium with dissolved concentrations. The concentration of diazinon sorbed to suspended sediments, at any given sampling site, was driven primarily by the more abundant solution concentration. The concentrations of diazinon sorbed to suspended sediments, therefore, were independent of the patterns of sediment movement. ?? 1993 Estuarine Research Federation.

  17. A Trajectory Analysis of Alcohol and Marijuana Use Among Latino Adolescents in San Francisco, California

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Sandra I.; Jewell, Nicholas P.; Hubbard, Alan; Gerdts, Caitlin E.; Doherty, Irene A.; Padian, Nancy S.; Minnis, Alexandra M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We examined alcohol and marijuana use trajectories among Latino adolescents in the San Francisco Bay Area. Methods A total of 410 Latino adolescents aged 14–19 years were recruited from community venues from years 2001 to 2004 and followed up for 2 years. In separate models, we identified groups with similar temporal patterns of alcohol and marijuana use using semi-parametric latent group trajectory modeling. Multivariable multinomial logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with the probability of trajectory group membership. Results The use of alcohol (76%) and marijuana (55%) in the previous 6 months was common. Three alcohol-use trajectories were identified: low users (18%), moderate users (37%), and frequent users (45%). Low alcohol users (vs. moderate users) were found to be younger in age, preferred Spanish language, and had more parental monitoring. Frequent users were more likely to be male, sexually active, gang exposed, and have less parental monitoring than moderate users. Similarly, three marijuana-use trajectories were identified: low users (36%), moderate users (35%), and frequent users (28%), with similar correlates of group membership. Conclusions Urban Latino adolescents’ substance use is shaped by complex cultural and environmental influences. Patterns of substance use emerge by early adolescence highlighting the need for timely intervention. PMID:21094433

  18. Estuarine sedimentation, sediment character, and foraminiferal distribution in central San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chin, John L.; Woodrow, Donald L.; McGann, Mary; Wong, Florence L.; Fregoso, Theresa; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2010-01-01

    Central San Francisco Bay is the deepest subembayment in the San Francisco Bay estuary and hence has the largest water volume of any of the subembayments. It also has the strongest tidal currents and the coarsest sediment within the estuary. Tidal currents are strongest over the west-central part of central bay and, correspondingly, this area is dominated by sand-size sediment. Much of the area east of a line from Angel Island to Alcatraz Island is characterized by muddy sand to sandy mud, and the area to the west of this line is sandy. The sand-size sediment over west-central bay furthermore is molded by the energetic tidal currents into bedforms of varying sizes and wavelengths. Bedforms typically occur in water depths of 15-25 m. High resolution bathymetry (multibeam) from 1997 and 2008 allow for subdivision of the west-central bayfloor into four basic types based on morphologic expression: featureless, sand waves, disrupted/man-altered, and bedrock knobs. Featureless and sand-wave morphologies dominate the bayfloor of west-central bay. Disrupted bayfloor has a direct association with areas that are undergoing alteration due to human activities, such as sand-mining lease areas, dredging, and disposal of dredge spoils. Change detection analysis, comparing the 1997 and 2008 multibeam data sets, shows that significant change has occurred in west-central bay during the roughly 10 years between surveys. The surveyed area lost about 5.45 million m3 of sediment during the decade. Sand-mining lease areas within west-central bay lost 6.77 million m3 as the bayfloor deepened. Nonlease areas gained 1.32 million m3 of sediment as the bayfloor shallowed slightly outside of sand-mining lease areas. Furthermore, bedform asymmetry did not change significantly, but some bedforms did migrate some tens of meters. Gravity cores show that the area east of Angel and Alcatraz Islands is floored by clayey silts or silty sand whereas the area to the west of the islands is floored

  19. 78 FR 34895 - Safety Zone; San Francisco Independence Day Fireworks Display, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; San Francisco Independence Day Fireworks Display, San.... SUMMARY: The Coast Guard will enforce the safety zones for the San Francisco Independence Day Fireworks... INFORMATION: The Coast Guard will enforce the San Francisco Independence Day Fireworks Display safety...

  20. Stormwater-related transport of the insecticides bifenthrin, fipronil, imidacloprid, and chlorpyrifos into a tidal wetland, San Francisco Bay, California.

    PubMed

    Weston, Donald P; Chen, Da; Lydy, Michael J

    2015-09-15

    Suisun Marsh, in northern San Francisco Bay, is the largest brackish marsh in California, and provides critical habitat for many fish species. Storm runoff enters the marsh through many creeks that drain agricultural uplands and the urban areas of Fairfield and Suisun City. Five creeks were sampled throughout a major storm event in February 2014, and analyzed for representatives of several major insecticide classes. Concentrations were greatest in creeks with urban influence, though sampling was done outside of the primary season for agricultural pesticide use. Urban creek waters reached maximum concentrations of 9.9 ng/l bifenthrin, 27.4 ng/l fipronil, 11.9 ng/l fipronil sulfone, 1462 ng/l imidacloprid, and 4.0 ng/l chlorpyrifos. Water samples were tested for toxicity to Hyalella azteca and Chironomus dilutus, and while few samples caused mortality, 70% of the urban creek samples caused paralysis of either or both species. Toxic unit analysis indicated that bifenthrin was likely responsible for effects to H. azteca, and fipronil and its sulfone degradate were responsible for effects to C. dilutus. These results demonstrate the potential for co-occurrence of multiple insecticides in urban runoff, each with the potential for toxicity to particular species, and the value of toxicity monitoring using multiple species. In the channels of Suisun Marsh farther downstream, insecticide concentrations and toxicity diminished as creek waters mixed with brackish waters entering from San Francisco Bay. Only fipronil and its degradates remained measurable at 1-10 ng/l. These concentrations are not known to present a risk based on existing data, but toxicity data for estuarine and marine invertebrates, particularly for fipronil's degradates, are extremely limited. PMID:25956145

  1. The San Andreas Fault in the San Francisco Bay area, California: a geology fieldtrip guidebook to selected stops on public lands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoffer, Philip W.

    2005-01-01

    This guidebook contains a series of geology fieldtrips with selected destinations along the San Andreas Fault in part of the region that experienced surface rupture during the Great San Francisco Earthquake of 1906. Introductory materials present general information about the San Andreas Fault System, landscape features, and ecological factors associated with faults in the South Bay, Santa Cruz Mountains, the San Francisco Peninsula, and the Point Reyes National Seashore regions. Trip stops include roadside areas and recommended hikes along regional faults and to nearby geologic and landscape features that provide opportunities to make casual observations about the geologic history and landscape evolution. Destinations include the sites along the San Andreas and Calaveras faults in the San Juan Bautista and Hollister region. Stops on public land along the San Andreas Fault in the Santa Cruz Mountains in Santa Clara and Santa Cruz counties include in the Loma Prieta summit area, Forest of Nicene Marks State Park, Lexington County Park, Sanborn County Park, Castle Rock State Park, and the Mid Peninsula Open Space Preserve. Destinations on the San Francisco Peninsula and along the coast in San Mateo County include the Crystal Springs Reservoir area, Mussel Rock Park, and parts of Golden Gate National Recreation Area, with additional stops associated with the San Gregorio Fault system at Montara State Beach, the James F. Fitzgerald Preserve, and at Half Moon Bay. Field trip destinations in the Point Reyes National Seashore and vicinity provide information about geology and character of the San Andreas Fault system north of San Francisco.

  2. San Francisco Bay Sediment Concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This March 3, 2000 image of the San Francisco Bay region shows a 60 by 75 kilometer Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image in band 1 (near infrared, 0.52-0.60 microns). The color coded suspended sediment image was created from band 1 by blacking out the land, and assigning colors to the relative brightnesses in the water. High values were colored white, then red, yellow, green, and blue. Brighter values in band 1 indicate higher sediment load in the water. The highest values are in Suisun and San Pablo Bays, into which the Sacramento River empties, and along the coast of the San Francisco Peninsula. The Pacific Ocean and San Francisco Bay water are relatively clear. Image courtesy ASTER Science Team

  3. Identifying nest predators of American avocets (Recurvirostra americana) and black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus) in San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herring, G.; Ackerman, J.T.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Eagles-Smith, C. A.; Eadie, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated predation on nests and methods to detect predators using a combination of infrared cameras and plasticine eggs at nests of American avocets (Recurvirostra americana) and black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus) in Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, San Mateo and Santa Clara counties, California. Each technique indicated that predation was prevalent; 59% of monitored nests were depredated. Most identifiable predation (n = 49) was caused by mammals (71%) and rates of predation were similar on avocets and stilts. Raccoons (Procyon lotor) and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) each accounted for 16% of predations, whereas gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) and avian predators each accounted for 14%. Mammalian predation was mainly nocturnal (mean time, 0051 h ?? 5 h 36 min), whereas most avian predation was in late afternoon (mean time, 1800 h ?? 1 h 26 min). Nests with cameras and plasticine eggs were 1.6 times more likely to be predated than nests where only cameras were used in monitoring. Cameras were associated with lower abandonment of nests and provided definitive identification of predators.

  4. Identifying nest predators of American avocets (Recurvirostra americana) and black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus) in San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Takekawa, John Y.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Eadie, John M.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated predation on nests and methods to detect predators using a combination of infrared cameras and plasticine eggs at nests of American avocets (Recurvirostra americana) and black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus) in Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, San Mateo and Santa Clara counties, California. Each technique indicated that predation was prevalent; 59% of monitored nests were depredated. Most identifiable predation (n = 49) was caused by mammals (71%) and rates of predation were similar on avocets and stilts. Raccoons (Procyon lotor) and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) each accounted for 16% of predations, whereas gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) and avian predators each accounted for 14%. Mammalian predation was mainly nocturnal (mean time, 0051 h +/- 5 h 36 min), whereas most avian predation was in late afternoon (mean time, 1800 h +/- 1 h 26 min). Nests with cameras and plasticine eggs were 1.6 times more likely to be predated than nests where only cameras were used in monitoring. Cameras were associated with lower abandonment of nests and provided definitive identification of predators.

  5. Salt Ponds, South San Francisco Bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    higher resolution 1000 pixel-wide image The red and green colors of the salt ponds in South San Francisco Bay are brilliant visual markers for astronauts. The STS-111 crew photographed the bay south of the San Mateo bridge in June, 2002. This photograph is timely because a large number of the salt ponds (more than 16,500 acres) that are owned by Cargill, Inc. will be sold in September for wetlands restoration-a restoration project second in size only to the Florida Everglades project. Rough boundaries of the areas to be restored are outlined on the image. Over the past century, more than 80% of San Francisco Bay's wetlands have been filled and developed or diked off for salt mining. San Francisco Bay has supported salt mining since 1854. Cargill has operated most of the bay's commercial salt ponds since 1978, and had already sold thousands of acres to the State of California and the Don Edwards National Wildlife Refuge. This new transaction will increase San Francisco Bay's existing tidal wetlands by 50%. The new wetlands, to be managed by the California Department of Fish and Game and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, will join the Don Edwards National Wildlife Refuge, and provide valuable habitat for birds, fish and other wildlife. The wetlands will contribute to better water quality and flood control in the bay, and open up more coastline for public enjoyment. Additional information: Cargill Salt Ponds (PDF) Turning Salt Into Environmental Gold Salt Ponds on Way to Becoming Wetlands Historic Agreement Reached to Purchase San Francisco Bay Salt Ponds Astronaut photograph STS111-376-3 was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth

  6. Modeling selenium bioaccumulation through arthropod food webs in San Francisco Bay, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schlekat, C.E.; Purkerson, D.G.; Luoma, S.N.

    2004-01-01

    Trophic transfer is the main process by which upper trophic level wildlife are exposed to selenium. Transfers through lower levels of a predator's food web thus can be instrumental in determining the threat of selenium in an ecosystem. Little is known about Se transfer through pelagic, zooplankton-based food webs in San Francisco Bay ([SFB], CA, USA), which serve as an energy source for important predators such as striped bass. A dynamic multipathway bioaccumulation model was used to model Se transfer from phytoplankton to pelagic copepods to carnivorous mysids (Neomysis mercedis). Uptake rates of dissolved Se, depuration rates, and assimilation efficiencies (AE) for the model were determined for copepods and mysids in the laboratory. Small (73-250 ??m) and large (250-500 ??m) herbivorous zooplankton collected from SFB (Oithona/Limnoithona and Acartia sp.) assimilated Se with similar efficiencies (41-52%) from phytoplankton. Mysids assimilated 73% of Se from small herbivorous zooplankton; Se AE was significantly lower (61%) than larger herbivorous zooplankton. Selenium depuration rates were high for both zooplankton and mysids (12-25% d-1), especially compared to bivalves (2-3% d-1). The model predicted steady state Se concentrations in mysids similar to those observed in the field. The predicted concentration range (1.5-5.4 ??g g -1) was lower than concentrations of 4.5 to 24 ??g g-1 observed in bivalves from the bay. Differences in efflux between mysids and bivalves were the best explanation for the differences in uptake. The results suggest that the risk of selenium toxicity to predators feeding on N. mercedis would be less than the risk to predators feeding on bivalves. Management of selenium contamination should include food webs analyses to focus on the most important exposure pathways identified for a given watershed.

  7. Earthquake stress drops and inferred fault strength on the Hayward Fault, east San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hardebeck, J.L.; Aron, A.

    2009-01-01

    We study variations in earthquake stress drop with respect to depth, faulting regime, creeping versus locked fault behavior, and wall-rock geology. We use the P-wave displacement spectra from borehole seismic recordings of M 1.0-4.2 earthquakes in the east San Francisco Bay to estimate stress drop using a stack-and-invert empirical Green's function method. The median stress drop is 8.7 MPa, and most stress drops are in the range between 0.4 and 130 MPa. An apparent correlation between stress drop and magnitude is entirely an artifact of the limited frequency band of 4-55 Hz. There is a trend of increasing stress drop with depth, with a median stress drop of ~5 MPa for 1-7 km depth, ~10 MPa for 7-13 km depth, and ~50 MPa deeper than 13 km. We use S=P amplitude ratios measured from the borehole records to better constrain the first-motion focal mechanisms. High stress drops are observed for a deep cluster of thrust-faulting earthquakes. The correlation of stress drops with depth and faulting regime implies that stress drop is related to the applied shear stress. We compare the spatial distribution of stress drops on the Hayward fault to a model of creeping versus locked behavior of the fault and find that high stress drops are concentrated around the major locked patch near Oakland. This also suggests a connection between stress drop and applied shear stress, as the locked patch may experience higher applied shear stress as a result of the difference in cumulative slip or the presence of higher-strength material. The stress drops do not directly correlate with the strength of the proposed wall-rock geology at depth, suggesting that the relationship between fault strength and the strength of the wall rock is complex.

  8. Factors affecting suspended-solids concentrations in South San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoellhamer, D.H.

    1996-01-01

    Measurements of suspended-solids concentration (SSC) were made at two depths at three sites in South San Francisco Bay (South Bay) to determine the factors that affect SSC. Twenty-eight segments of reliable and continuous SSC time series data longer than 14 days were collected from late 1991 or 1992 through September 1993. Spectral analysis and singular spectrum analysis were used to relate these data segments to time series of several potential forcing factors, including diurnal and semidiurnal tides, the spring-neap tidal cycle, wind shear, freshwater runoff, and longitudinal density differences. SSC is greatest during summer when a landward wind shear is applied to South Bay by the afternoon sea breeze. About one half the variance of SSC is caused by the spring-neap cycle, and SSC lags the spring-neap cycle by about 2 days. Relatively short duration of slack water limits the duration of deposition of suspended solids and consolidation of newly deposited bed sediment during the tidal cycle, so suspended solids accumulate in the water column as a spring tide is approached and slowly deposit as a neap tide is approached. Perturbations in SSC caused by wind and local runoff from winter storms during the study period were usually much smaller than SSC variations caused by the spring-neap cycle. Variations of SSC at the study sites at tidal timescales are tidally forced, and nonlinear physical processes are significant. Advective transport dominates during spring tides when water with higher SSC due to wind wave resuspension is advected to the main channel from shallow water, but during neap tides, advective transport is less significant. The findings of this and other studies indicate that the tidally averaged transport of suspended solids responds to seasonal variations of wind shear in South Bay.

  9. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey National Park Service San Francisco, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey National Park Service San Francisco, California Year Built: 1835 Photo Taken: 1939 GENERAL VIEW - Pacific House, 200-222 Calle Principal, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  10. Sediment geochemistry of Corte Madera Marsh, San Francisco Bay, California: have local inputs changed, 1830-2010?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Takesue, Renee K.; Jaffe, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    Large perturbations since the mid-1800s to the supply and source of sediment entering San Francisco Bay have disturbed natural processes for more than 150 years. Only recently have sediment inputs through the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (the Delta) decreased to what might be considered pre-disturbance levels. Declining sediment inputs to San Francisco Bay raise concern about continued tidal marsh accretion, particularly if sea level rise accelerates in the future. The aim of this study is to explore whether the relative amount of local-watershed sediment accumulating in a tidal marsh has changed as sediment supply from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Rivers has decreased. To address this question, sediment geochemical indicators, or signatures, in the fine fraction (silt and clay) of Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, San Francisco Bay, and Corte Madera Creek sediment were identified and applied in sediment recovered from Corte Madera Marsh, one of the few remaining natural marshes in San Francisco Bay. Total major, minor, trace, and rare earth element (REE) contents of fine sediment were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass and atomic emission spectroscopy. Fine sediment from potential source areas had the following geochemical signatures: Sacramento River sediment downstream of the confluence of the American River was characterized by enrichments in chromium, zirconium, and heavy REE; San Joaquin River sediment at Vernalis and Lathrop was characterized by enrichments in thorium and total REE content; Corte Madera Creek sediment had elevated nickel contents; and the composition of San Francisco Bay mud proximal to Corte Madera Marsh was intermediate between these sources. Most sediment geochemical signatures were relatively invariant for more than 150 years, suggesting that the composition of fine sediment in Corte Madera Marsh is not very sensitive to changes in the magnitude, timing, or source of sediment entering San Francisco Bay through the Delta. Nor

  11. Maps Showing Locations of Damaging Landslides Caused by El Nino Rainstorms, Winter Season 1997-98, San Francisco Bay Region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Godt, Jonathan W.

    1999-01-01

    Heavy rainfall associated with a strong El Nino caused over $150 million in landslide damage in the 10-county San Francisco Bay region during the winter and spring of 1998. Reports of landsliding began in early January 1998 and continued throughout the winter and spring. On February 9, President Clinton declared all 10 counties eligible for Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) disaster assistance. In April and May of 1998, personnel from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a field reconnaissance in the area to provide a general overview of landslide damage resulting from the 1997-98 sequence of El Nino-related storms. Seven scientists from the USGS Landslide Hazards Program based in Reston, Virginia; Golden, Colorado; and Menlo Park, California; and five scientists from the USGS Geologic Mapping Program?s San Francisco Bay Mapping Team based in Menlo Park, California, cooperated in the landslide-damage assessments. The assessments were done for 10 counties in the Bay area: Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Napa, San Francisco, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, San Mateo, Solano, and Sonoma. USGS Maps in this series include: MF-2325-A (Napa County), MF-2325-B (Alameda County), MF-2325-C (Marin County), MF-2325-D (Santa Cruz County), MF-2325-E (Contra Costa County), MF-2325-F (Sonoma County), MF-2325-G (San Francisco City and County), MF-2325-H (San Mateo County), MF-2325-I (Solano County), MF-2325-J (Santa Clara County). In addition to USGS scientists providing data from the field evaluation, each of the counties, many consultants, and others cooperated fully in providing the landslide-damage information compiled here.

  12. 77 FR 15260 - Safety Zone; San Francisco Fireworks Display, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; San Francisco Fireworks Display, San Francisco, CA AGENCY... safety zone for the San Francisco Giants Fireworks Display in the Captain of the Port, San Francisco area... and property of the maritime public from the hazards associated with the fireworks display. During...

  13. 76 FR 38305 - Safety Zone; San Francisco Chronicle Fireworks Display, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; San Francisco Chronicle Fireworks Display, San Francisco... will enforce the safety zones for the annual San Francisco Chronicle Fireworks Display (Independence Day Celebration for the City of San Francisco Fireworks). This action is necessary to control...

  14. 75 FR 39166 - Safety Zone; San Francisco Giants Baseball Game Promotion, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; San Francisco Giants Baseball Game... Bay off San Francisco, CA in support of the San Francisco Giants Baseball Game Promotion. This safety... Giants will sponsor the San Francisco Giants Baseball Game Promotion on July 16, 2010, on the...

  15. Subsurface structure of the East Bay Plain ground-water basin: San Francisco Bay to the Hayward fault, Alameda County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Catchings, R.D.; Borchers, J.W.; Goldman, M.R.; Gandhok, G.; Ponce, D.A.; Steedman, C.E.

    2006-01-01

    The area of California between the San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Santa Clara Valley, and the Diablo Ranges (East Bay Hills), commonly referred to as the 'East Bay', contains the East Bay Plain and Niles Cone ground-water basins. The area has a population of 1.46 million (2003 US Census), largely distributed among several cities, including Alameda, Berkeley, Fremont, Hayward, Newark, Oakland, San Leandro, San Lorenzo, and Union City. Major known tectonic structures in the East Bay area include the Hayward Fault and the Diablo Range to the east and a relatively deep sedimentary basin known as the San Leandro Basin beneath the eastern part of the bay. Known active faults, such as the Hayward, Calaveras, and San Andreas pose significant earthquake hazards to the region, and these and related faults also affect ground-water flow in the San Francisco Bay area. Because most of the valley comprising the San Francisco Bay area is covered by Holocene alluvium or water at the surface, our knowledge of the existence and locations of such faults, their potential hazards, and their effects on ground-water flow within the alluvial basins is incomplete. To better understand the subsurface stratigraphy and structures and their effects on ground-water and earthquake hazards, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD), acquired a series of high-resolution seismic reflection and refraction profiles across the East Bay Plain near San Leandro in June 2002. In this report, we present results of the seismic imaging investigations, with emphasis on ground water.

  16. Analysis of sediment, water, and biological samples from the Bay Farm Borrow Area, San Francisco Bay, California

    SciTech Connect

    Thom, R.M.; Lefkovitz, L.F. )

    1991-08-01

    The Bay Farm Borrow Area (BFBA) of San Francisco Bay, California, is under consideration as a dredged-material disposal site by the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). As part of the analysis of the site, information is required on the quality of benthic biota, sediment, and water in the BFBA. The objective of this report was to provide data on infauna communities, sediment, and water chemistry from samples collected from the BFBA. The samples were collected, and the data will be analyzed by Science Applications International (SAIC). A total of four samples for sediment chemistry, four samples for water chemistry, and 7 samples for infauna communities were analyzed by the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL). Water analyses included tests for dissolved organic carbon, total suspended solids, four metals, butyltins, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorinated pesticides, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), four phenols, and total phenol. Sediment samples were analyzed for percent solids, total organic carbon, total oil and grease, total petroleum hydrocarbons, grain size, 10 metals, butyltins, PCBs, chlorinated pesticides, PAHs, four phenols, and total phenol. The data along with controls and spike recovery analyses, are presented in tables, and the results are discussed in the text. The quality assurance/quality control criteria were met for the analyses as were the detection limits specified by the sponsor.

  17. Late Holocene Marsh Expansion in Southern San Francisco Bay, California: Implications for the Use of Historic Baselines as Restoration Targets

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently, the largest tidal wetlands restoration project on the US Pacific Coast is being planned and implemented in southern San Francisco Bay; however, knowledge of baseline conditions of salt marsh extent in the region prior to European settlement is limited. Here, analysis o...

  18. America's Bicentennial; Some Ideas for Librarians. Bibliographies Compiled for a Workshop (San Francisco, California, September 17 and 18, 1975).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Francisco Public Library, CA. Bay Area Reference Center.

    Prepared for a workshop, this collection of annotated bibliographies provides sources of information on the Bicentennial celebration of the United States and the simultaneous observance of San Francisco's two-hundredth birthday. Separate bibliographies deal with federal documents on the Bicentennial; the American Revolution in fiction; California…

  19. Education Exhibits at the Panama-Pacific International Exposition, San Francisco, California, 1915. Bulletin, 1916, No. 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, W. Carson, Jr.

    1916-01-01

    The purpose of this bulletin is to present, for the benefit of school officials and others interested in education, a brief description of the education exhibits at the Panama-Pacific International Exposition, held in San Francisco during 1915. Exhibits described herein are almost entirely limited to those that are educational in the narrower…

  20. Remarkable invasion of San Francisco Bay (California, USA), by the Asian clam Potamocorbula amurensis. I. Introduction and dispersal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlton, James T.; Thompson, Janet K.; Schemel, Laurence E.; Nichols, Frederic H.

    1990-01-01

    The euryhaline bivalve mollusc Potamocorbula amurensis (family Corbulidae), a native of China, Japan, and Korea, has recently appeared and become very abundant in San Francisco Bay. This clam appears to have been introduced as veliger larvae in the seawater ballast of cargo vessels. It was first collected in northern San Francisco Bay in late 1986. P, amurensis then spread throughout the estuary within 2 yr and reached densities at some sites exceeding 10 000 m-2 It lives primarily in the subtidal on all substrates (mud, sand, peat, and clay) and is found in the full range of bay salinities (< 1 to 33%). Its explosive increase in abundance and spread may result in major alterations of the San Francisco Bay estuary ecosystem. These could include changes in (1) trophic dynamics (through competition with other suspension-feeding and deposit-feeding infauna; changes in benthic community energy flow; availability of a new and abundant prey item for birds, fish, and crabs; and reduction - as a result of its filter feeding - of phytoplankton standmg stock) and (2) benthic dynamics (through inhibition and/or enhancement of infauna due to substrate destabilization; alteration of suspended sediment load of near-bottom water; and change of sediment surface redox balance). The early detection of the appearance and spread of P. amurensis in San Francisco Bay makes this one of the best documented invasions of any estuary in the world.

  1. Preliminary maps of Quaternary deposits and liquefaction susceptibility, nine-county San Francisco Bay region, California: a digital database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knudsen, Keith L.; Sowers, Janet M.; Witter, Robert C.; Wentworth, Carl M.; Helley, Edward J.; Nicholson, Robert S.; Wright, Heather M.; Brown, Katherine H.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary map and database of Quaternary deposits and liquefaction susceptibility for the nine-county San Francisco Bay region, together with a digital compendium of ground effects associated with past earthquakes in the region. The report consists of (1) a spatial database of fivedata layers (Quaternary deposits, quadrangle index, and three ground effects layers) and two text layers (a labels and leaders layer for Quaternary deposits and for ground effects), (2) two small-scale colored maps (Quaternary deposits and liquefaction susceptibility), (3) a text describing the Quaternary map, liquefaction interpretation, and the ground effects compendium, and (4) the databse description pamphlet. The nine counties surrounding San Francisco Bay straddle the San Andreas fault system, which exposes the region to serious earthquake hazard (Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities, 1999). Much of the land adjacent to the Bay and the major rivers and streams is underlain by unconsolidated deposits that are particularly vulnerable to earthquake shaking and liquefaction of water-saturated granular sediment. This new map provides a modern and regionally consistent treatment of Quaternary surficial deposits that builds on the pioneering mapping of Helley and Lajoie (Helley and others, 1979) and such intervening work as Atwater (1982), Helley and others (1994), and Helley and Graymer (1997a and b). Like these earlier studies, the current mapping uses geomorphic expression, pedogenic soils, and inferred depositional environments to define and distinguish the map units. In contrast to the twelve map units of Helley and Lajoie, however, this new map uses a complex stratigraphy of some forty units, which permits a more realistic portrayal of the Quaternary depositional system. The two colored maps provide a regional summary of the new mapping at a scale of 1:275,000, a scale that is sufficient to show the general distribution and relationships of

  2. Seeking Justice in San Francisco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascopella, Angela

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the life of Carlos A. Garcia, superintendent at the San Francisco Unified School District. Garcia was born in Chicago, but his parents shortly thereafter moved back to their homeland of Mexico for a few years. When Garcia was almost 5, his family moved to Los Angeles, where his parents worked in factories and Garcia was…

  3. Late Quaternary depositional history, Holocene sea-level changes, and vertical crustal movement, southern San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atwater, Brian F.; Hedel, Charles W.; Helley, Edward J.

    1977-01-01

    Sediments collected for bridge foundation studies at southern San Francisco Bay, Calif., record estuaries that formed during Sangamon (100,000 years ago) and post-Wisconsin (less than 10,000 years ago) high stands of sea level. The estuarine deposits of Sangamon and post-Wisconsin ages are separated by alluvial and eolian deposits and by erosional unconformities and surfaces of nondeposition, features that indicate lowered base levels and oceanward migrations of the shoreline accompanying low stands of the sea. Estuarine deposits of mid-Wisconsin age appear to be absent, suggesting that sea level was not near its present height 30,000–40,000 years ago in central California. Holocene sea-level changes are measured from the elevations and apparent 14C ages of plant remains from 13 core samples. Uncertainties of ±2 to ±4 m in the elevations of the dated sea levels represent the sum of errors in determination of (1) sample elevation relative to present sea level, (2) sample elevation relative to sea level at the time of accumulation of the dated material, and (3) postdepositional subsidence of the sample due to compaction of underlying sediments. Sea level in the vicinity of southern San Francisco Bay rose about 2 cm/yr from 9,500 to 8,000 years ago. The rate of relative sea-level rise then declined about tenfold from 8,000 to 6,000 years ago, and it has averaged 0.1–0.2 cm/yr from 6,000 years ago to the present. This submergence history indicates that the rising sea entered the Golden Gate 10,000–11,000 years ago and spread across land areas as rapidly as 30 m/yr until 8,000 years ago. Subsequent shoreline changes were more gradual because of the decrease in rate of sea-level rise. Some of the sediments under southern San Francisco Bay appear to be below the level at which they initially accumulated. The vertical crustal movement suggested by these sediments may be summarized as follows: (1) Some Quaternary(?) sediments have sustained at least 100 m of

  4. Selenium and stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen in the benthic clam Corbula amurensis from Northern San Francisco Bay, California: May 1995-February 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kleckner, Amy E.; Stewart, A. Robin; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2010-01-01

    The clam-based food webs of San Francisco Bay, California efficiently bioaccumlate selenium and thus provide pathways for exposure to predators important to the estuary. This study documents changes in monthly selenium concentrations for the clam Corbula amurensis, a keystone species of the estuary, at five locations in northern San Francisco Bay from 1995 through 2010. Samples were collected from designated U.S. Geological Survey stations and prepared and analyzed by U.S. Geological Survey methods. Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen in soft tissues of clams also were measured as an indicator of sources of selenium for the clams. These monitoring data indicate that clam selenium concentrations ranged from a low of 2 to a high of 22 micrograms per gram dry weight with strong spatial and seasonal variation over the period of study.

  5. Geology, geochronology, and paleogeography of the southern Sonoma volcanic field and adjacent areas, northern San Francisco Bay region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, D.L.; Saucedo, G.J.; Clahan, K.B.; Fleck, R.J.; Langenheim, V.E.; McLaughlin, R.J.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.; Allen, J.R.; Deino, A.L.

    2011-01-01

    Recent geologic mapping in the northern San Francisco Bay region (California, USA) supported by radiometric dating and tephrochronologic correlations, provides insights into the framework geology, stratigraphy, tectonic evolution, and geologic history of this part of the San Andreas transform plate boundary. There are 25 new and existing radiometric dates that define three temporally distinct volcanic packages along the north margin of San Pablo Bay, i.e., the Burdell Mountain Volcanics (11.1 Ma), the Tolay Volcanics (ca. 10-8 Ma), and the Sonoma Volcanics (ca. 8-2.5 Ma). The Burdell Mountain and the Tolay Volcanics are allochthonous, having been displaced from the Quien Sabe Volcanics and the Berkeley Hills Volcanics, respectively. Two samples from a core of the Tolay Volcanics taken from the Murphy #1 well in the Petaluma oilfield yielded ages of 8.99 ?? 0.06 and 9.13 ?? 0.06 Ma, demonstrating that volcanic rocks exposed along Tolay Creek near Sears Point previously thought to be a separate unit, the Donnell Ranch volcanics, are part of the Tolay Volcanics. Other new dates reported herein show that volcanic rocks in the Meacham Hill area and extending southwest to the Burdell Mountain fault are also part of the Tolay Volcanics. In the Sonoma volcanic field, strongly bimodal volcanic sequences are intercalated with sediments. In the Mayacmas Mountains a belt of eruptive centers youngs to the north. The youngest of these volcanic centers at Sugarloaf Ridge, which lithologically, chemically, and temporally matches the Napa Valley eruptive center, was apparently displaced 30 km to the northwest by movement along the Carneros and West Napa faults. The older parts of the Sonoma Volcanics have been displaced at least 28 km along the RodgersCreek fault since ca. 7 Ma. The Petaluma Formation also youngs to the north along the Rodgers Creek-Hayward fault and the Bennett Valley fault. The Petaluma basin formed as part of the Contra Costa basin in the Late Miocene and was

  6. ASTER Flyby of San Francisco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection radiometer, ASTER, is an international project: the instrument was supplied by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint US/Japan science team developed algorithms for science data products, and is validating instrument performance. With its 14 spectral bands, extremely high spatial resolution, and 15 meter along-track stereo capability, ASTER is the zoom lens of the Terra satellite. The primary mission goals are to characterize the Earth's surface; and to monitor dynamic events and processes that influence habitability at human scales. ASTER's monitoring and mapping capabilities are illustrated by this series of images of the San Francisco area. The visible and near infrared image reveals suspended sediment in the bays, vegetation health, and details of the urban environment. Flying over San Francisco (3.2MB) (high-res (18.3MB)), we see the downtown, and shadows of the large buildings. Past the Golden Gate Bridge and Alcatraz Island, we cross San Pablo Bay and enter Suisun Bay. Turning south, we fly over the Berkeley and Oakland Hills. Large salt evaporation ponds come into view at the south end of San Francisco Bay. We turn northward, and approach San Francisco Airport. Rather than landing and ending our flight, we see this is as only the beginning of a 6 year mission to better understand the habitability of the world on which we live. For more information: ASTER images through Visible Earth ASTER Web Site Image courtesy of MITI, ERSDAC, JAROS, and the U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team

  7. 77 FR 28771 - Safety Zone; San Francisco Giants Fireworks Display, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; San Francisco Giants Fireworks Display, San Francisco, CA... enforce the safety zone for the San Francisco Giants Fireworks Display in the Captain of the Port, San... life and property of the maritime public from the hazards associated with the fireworks display....

  8. 78 FR 20792 - Safety Zone; San Francisco Giants Fireworks Display, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; San Francisco Giants Fireworks Display, San Francisco, CA... enforce the safety zone for the San Francisco Giants Fireworks Display in the Captain of the Port, San... life and property of the maritime public from the hazards associated with the fireworks display....

  9. 77 FR 37603 - Safety Zone; San Francisco Independence Day Fireworks Display, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; San Francisco Independence Day Fireworks Display, San... Guard will enforce the safety zones for the San Francisco Independence Day Fireworks Display in the... INFORMATION: The Coast Guard will enforce the San Francisco Independence Day Fireworks Display safety...

  10. Projected evolution of California's San Francisco Bay-Delta-River System in a century of continuing climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cloern, James E.; Knowles, Noah; Brown, Larry R.; Cayan, Daniel; Dettinger, Michael D.; Morgan, Tara L.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Stacey, Mark T.; van der Wegen, Mick; Wagner, R. Wayne; Jassby, Alan D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence shows that the planet is warming as a response to human emissions of greenhouse gases. Strategies of adaptation to climate change will require quantitative projections of how altered regional patterns of temperature, precipitation and sea level could cascade to provoke local impacts such as modified water supplies, increasing risks of coastal flooding, and growing challenges to sustainability of native species. Methodology/Principal Findings We linked a series of models to investigate responses of California's San Francisco Estuary-Watershed (SFEW) system to two contrasting scenarios of climate change. Model outputs for scenarios of fast and moderate warming are presented as 2010–2099 projections of nine indicators of changing climate, hydrology and habitat quality. Trends of these indicators measure rates of: increasing air and water temperatures, salinity and sea level; decreasing precipitation, runoff, snowmelt contribution to runoff, and suspended sediment concentrations; and increasing frequency of extreme environmental conditions such as water temperatures and sea level beyond the ranges of historical observations. Conclusions/Significance Most of these environmental indicators change substantially over the 21st century, and many would present challenges to natural and managed systems. Adaptations to these changes will require flexible planning to cope with growing risks to humans and the challenges of meeting demands for fresh water and sustaining native biota. Programs of ecosystem rehabilitation and biodiversity conservation in coastal landscapes will be most likely to meet their objectives if they are designed from considerations that include: (1) an integrated perspective that river-estuary systems are influenced by effects of climate change operating on both watersheds and oceans; (2) varying sensitivity among environmental indicators to the uncertainty of future climates; (3) inevitability of biological community

  11. Storm surges and climate change implications for tidal marshes: Insight from the San Francisco Bay Estuary, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorne, Karen M.; Buffington, Kevin J.; Swanson, Kathleen; Takekawa, John Y.

    2013-01-01

    Tidal marshes are dynamic ecosystems that are influenced by oceanic and freshwater processes and daily changes in sea level. Projected sea-level rise and changes in storm frequency and intensity will affect tidal marshes by altering suspended sediment supply, plant and wildlife communities, and the inundation duration and depth of the marsh platform. The objective of this research was to evaluate how regional weather conditions resulting in low-pressure storms changed tidal conditions locally within three tidal marshes. We hypothesized that regional storms will increase sea level heights locally, resulting in increased inundation of the tidal marsh platform and plant communities. Using site-level measurements of elevation, plant communities, and water levels, we present results from two storm events in 2010 and 2011 from the San Francisco Bay Estuary (SFBE), California, USA. The January 2010 storm had the lowest recorded sea level pressure in the last 30 years for this region. During the storm episodes, the duration of tidal marsh inundation was 1.8 and 3.1 times greater than average for that time of year in 2010 and 2011, respectively. At peak storm surges, over 65% in 2010 and 93% in 2011 of the plant community was under water. We also discuss the implications of these types of storms and projected sea-level rise on the structure and function of tidal marshes and how that may affect the hydrogeomorphic processes and marsh biotic communities. This type of information is useful to managers for incorporating local climate change into developing their monitoring, management, and adaptation strategies.

  12. Projected evolution of California's San Francisco bay-delta-river system in a century of climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cloern, J.E.; Knowles, N.; Brown, L.R.; Cayan, D.; Dettinger, M.D.; Morgan, T.L.; Schoellhamer, D.H.; Stacey, M.T.; van der Wegen, M.; Wagner, R.W.; Jassby, A.D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Accumulating evidence shows that the planet is warming as a response to human emissions of greenhouse gases. Strategies of adaptation to climate change will require quantitative projections of how altered regional patterns of temperature, precipitation and sea level could cascade to provoke local impacts such as modified water supplies, increasing risks of coastal flooding, and growing challenges to sustainability of native species. Methodology/Principal Findings: We linked a series of models to investigate responses of California's San Francisco Estuary-Watershed (SFEW) system to two contrasting scenarios of climate change. Model outputs for scenarios of fast and moderate warming are presented as 2010-2099 projections of nine indicators of changing climate, hydrology and habitat quality. Trends of these indicators measure rates of: increasing air and water temperatures, salinity and sea level; decreasing precipitation, runoff, snowmelt contribution to runoff, and suspended sediment concentrations; and increasing frequency of extreme environmental conditions such as water temperatures and sea level beyond the ranges of historical observations. Conclusions/Significance: Most of these environmental indicators change substantially over the 21st century, and many would present challenges to natural and managed systems. Adaptations to these changes will require flexible planning to cope with growing risks to humans and the challenges of meeting demands for fresh water and sustaining native biota. Programs of ecosystem rehabilitation and biodiversity conservation in coastal landscapes will be most likely to meet their objectives if they are designed from considerations that include: (1) an integrated perspective that river-estuary systems are influenced by effects of climate change operating on both watersheds and oceans; (2) varying sensitivity among environmental indicators to the uncertainty of future climates; (3) inevitability of biological community

  13. Contemporary Land Change Alters Fish Communities in a San Francisco Bay Watershed, California, U.S.A.

    PubMed Central

    Cervantes-Yoshida, Kristina; Leidy, Robert A.; Carlson, Stephanie M.

    2015-01-01

    Urbanization is one of the leading threats to freshwater biodiversity, and urban regions continue to expand globally. Here we examined the relationship between recent urbanization and shifts in stream fish communities. We sampled fishes at 32 sites in the Alameda Creek Watershed, near San Francisco, California, in 1993–1994 and again in 2009, and we quantified univariate and multivariate changes in fish communities between the sampling periods. Sampling sites were classified into those downstream of a rapidly urbanizing area (“urbanized sites”), and those found in less impacted areas (“low-impacted sites”). We calculated the change from non-urban to urban land cover between 1993 and 2009 at two scales for each site (the total watershed and a 3km buffer zone immediately upstream of each site). Neither the mean relative abundance of native fish nor nonnative species richness changed significantly between the survey periods. However, we observed significant changes in fish community composition (as measured by Bray-Curtis dissimilarity) and a decrease in native species richness between the sampling periods at urbanized sites, but not at low-impacted sites. Moreover, the relative abundance of one native cyprinid (Lavinia symmetricus) decreased at the urbanized sites but not at low-impacted sites. Increased urbanization was associated with changes in the fish community, and this relationship was strongest at the smaller (3km buffer) scale. Our results suggest that ongoing land change alters fish communities and that contemporary resurveys are an important tool for examining how freshwater taxa are responding to recent environmental change. PMID:26580560

  14. Recovery strategies for the California clapper rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) in the heavily-urbanized San Francisco estuarine ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foin, T.C.; Garcia, E.J.; Gill, R.E.; Culberson, S.D.; Collins, J.N.

    1997-01-01

    The California clapper rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus), a Federal- and State-listed endangered marsh bird, has a geographic range restricted to one of the most heavily-urbanized estuaries in the world. The rail population has long been in a state of decline, although the exact contribution of each of the many contributing causes remains unclear. The rail is one of the key targets of emerging plans to conserve and restore tidal marshlands. Reduction of tidal marsh habitat, estimated at 85-95%, has been the major historical cause of rail decline. Increased predation intensity may be the more important present problem, because habitat fragmentation and alteration coupled with the invasion of the red fox have made the remaining populations more vulnerable to predators. Population viability analysis shows that adult survivorship is the key demographic variable; reversals in population fate occur over a narrow range of ecologically realistic values. Analysis of habitat requirements and population dynamics of the clapper rail in the San Francisco Estuary shows that decreased within-marsh habitat quality, particularly reduction of tidal flows and alteration of drainage, is an important barrier to population recovery. Management and restoration activities should emphasize the development of well-channelized high tidal marsh, because this is the key requirement of rail habitat. Developing effective restoration programs depends upon having information that field research will not provide. The effect of spatial pattern of reserves requires accurate estimation of the effects of predation and inter-marsh movement, both of which are practically impossible to measure adequately. It will be necessary to develop and use simulation models that can be applied to geographic data to accomplish this task.

  15. Reproductive success of the Black-crowned Night Heron at Alcatraz Island, San Francisco Bay, California, 1990-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hothem, R.L.; Hatch, D.

    2004-01-01

    Nesting chronology, habitat use, subcolony use, and hatchability were documented for the Black-crowned Night Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) nesting at Alcatraz Island, San Francisco Bav, California during 1990-2002. Reproductive success was estimated using the Mayfield method and compared among years. Totals of monitored nests per year ranged from 68 in 2001 to 341 in 1996, with a trend of declining numbers since 1996. An increase in numbers of the Western Gull (Larus occidentalis), the Black-crowned Night Heron's primary competitor, occurred during the same period. Overall reproductive success of the Black-crowned Night Heron at Alcatraz Island was below the 13-year average of 56.4% since 1996. During the study, the average number of chicks fledged per nest each year ranged from 0.46 to 1.27, which is less than the two chicks per nest suggested as a requirement for a sustained population. Embryos in five of 187 failed Black-crowned Night Heron eggs were deformed. In 1990 and 1991, eggs were analyzed for a wide range of contaminants, but none appeared to be sufficiently elevated to have caused the observed deformities. Based on these relatively low levels of contaminants, a high hatchability rate (94.5%), and relatively low levels of embryotoxicity, contaminants did not appear to significantly affect Black-crowned Night Heron reproduction at Alcatraz Island. However, predation by the Common Raven (Corvus corax) and Western Gull, interspecific competition with the Western Gull, habitat deterioration, and possible human disturbance are likely factors contributing to the decline in Black-crowned Night Heron reproductive success on Alcatraz Island in recent years.

  16. Estimating suspended solids concentrations from backscatter intensity measured by acoustic Doppler current profiler in San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gartner, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    The estimation of mass concentration of suspended solids is one of the properties needed to understand the characteristics of sediment transport in bays and estuaries. However, useful measurements or estimates of this property are often problematic when employing the usual methods of determination from collected water samples or optical sensors. Analysis of water samples tends to undersample the highly variable character of suspended solids, and optical sensors often become useless from biological fouling in highly productive regions. Acoustic sensors, such as acoustic Doppler current profilers that are now routinely used to measure water velocity, have been shown to hold promise as a means of quantitatively estimating suspended solids from acoustic backscatter intensity, a parameter used in velocity measurement. To further evaluate application of this technique using commercially available instruments, profiles of suspended solids concentrations are estimated from acoustic backscatter intensity recorded by 1200- and 2400-kHz broadband acoustic Doppler current profilers located at two sites in San Francisco Bay, California. ADCP backscatter intensity is calibrated using optical backscatterance data from an instrument located at a depth close to the ADCP transducers. In addition to losses from spherical spreading and water absorption, calculations of acoustic transmission losses account for attenuation from suspended sediment and correction for nonspherical spreading in the near field of the acoustic transducer. Acoustic estimates of suspended solids consisting of cohesive and noncohesive sediments are found to agree within about 8-10% (of the total range of concentration) to those values estimated by a second optical backscatterance sensor located at a depth further from the ADCP transducers. The success of this approach using commercially available Doppler profilers provides promise that this technique might be appropriate and useful under certain conditions in

  17. Projected Evolution of California's San Francisco Bay-Delta-River System in a Century of Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Cloern, James E.; Knowles, Noah; Brown, Larry R.; Cayan, Daniel; Dettinger, Michael D.; Morgan, Tara L.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Stacey, Mark T.; van der Wegen, Mick; Wagner, R. Wayne; Jassby, Alan D.

    2011-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence shows that the planet is warming as a response to human emissions of greenhouse gases. Strategies of adaptation to climate change will require quantitative projections of how altered regional patterns of temperature, precipitation and sea level could cascade to provoke local impacts such as modified water supplies, increasing risks of coastal flooding, and growing challenges to sustainability of native species. Methodology/Principal Findings We linked a series of models to investigate responses of California's San Francisco Estuary-Watershed (SFEW) system to two contrasting scenarios of climate change. Model outputs for scenarios of fast and moderate warming are presented as 2010–2099 projections of nine indicators of changing climate, hydrology and habitat quality. Trends of these indicators measure rates of: increasing air and water temperatures, salinity and sea level; decreasing precipitation, runoff, snowmelt contribution to runoff, and suspended sediment concentrations; and increasing frequency of extreme environmental conditions such as water temperatures and sea level beyond the ranges of historical observations. Conclusions/Significance Most of these environmental indicators change substantially over the 21st century, and many would present challenges to natural and managed systems. Adaptations to these changes will require flexible planning to cope with growing risks to humans and the challenges of meeting demands for fresh water and sustaining native biota. Programs of ecosystem rehabilitation and biodiversity conservation in coastal landscapes will be most likely to meet their objectives if they are designed from considerations that include: (1) an integrated perspective that river-estuary systems are influenced by effects of climate change operating on both watersheds and oceans; (2) varying sensitivity among environmental indicators to the uncertainty of future climates; (3) inevitability of biological community

  18. Flood-prone areas and land-use planning; selected examples from the San Francisco Bay region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waananen, Arvi O.; Limerinos, J.T.; Kockelman, W.J.; Spangle, W.E.; Blair, M.L.

    1977-01-01

    The common goal of flood-plain regulation and use is protecting life, minimizing public expenditures, and reducing flood loss. A comprehensive program combining structural and nonstructural measures can yield substantial benefits and may present a practical approach for managing a flood plain. A review of flood-plain planning, management, and regulation in the San Francisco Bay region, Calif., as shown by a study of Napa County , demonstrates complex multijurisdictional involvements. (Woodard-USGS)

  19. Counterfeit Norco Poisoning Outbreak - San Francisco Bay Area, California, March 25-April 5, 2016.

    PubMed

    Vo, Kathy T; van Wijk, Xander M R; Lynch, Kara L; Wu, Alan H B; Smollin, Craig G

    2016-01-01

    On March 28, 2016, two patients were evaluated at the Contra Costa Regional Medical Center emergency department (ED) in Contra Costa County, California, for nausea, vomiting, central nervous system depression, and respiratory depression, 30 minutes after ingesting what appeared to be Norco, a prescription opioid pain medication that contains acetaminophen and hydrocodone. The patients purchased the drug from a friend a few days earlier. The two cases of drug intoxication were reported to a Contra Costa County Health Department public health official who subsequently notified the California State Health Department. PMID:27123589

  20. Mercury burdens in Chinese mitten crabs (Eriocheir sinensis) in three tributaries of southern San Francisco Bay, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Hui, Clifford A; Rudnick, Deborah; Williams, Erin

    2005-02-01

    Chinese mitten crabs (Eriocheir sinensis), endemic to Asia, were first reported in the San Francisco Bay in 1992. They are now established in nearly all San Francisco Bay tributaries. These crabs accumulate more metals, such as mercury, than crustaceans living in the water column. Because their predators include fish, birds, mammals and humans, their mercury burdens have an exceptional potential to impact the ecosystem and public health. We sought to elucidate the potential threat of mitten crab mercury burdens in three adjacent streams in southern San Francisco Bay, one of which is known to be contaminated with mercury. Mitten crabs had hepatopancreas concentrations of total mercury and methylmercury that did not differ among streams. The maximum burden we measured was below the action level of 1 ppm recommended by the USEPA. Hepatopancreas concentrations of methylmercury declined with increasing crab size, suggesting a mechanism for mercury excretion and that predators might reduce mercury exposure if they select larger crabs. Because mercury may be heterogeneously distributed among tissues, estimation of the impacts of crab mercury burdens on the environment requires more data on the feeding preferences of predators. PMID:15519723

  1. Data from theodolite measurements of creep rates on San Francisco Bay region faults, California: 1979-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galehouse, Jon S.

    2002-01-01

    My purpose is to make our creep data on San Francisco Bay region active faults available to the scientific research community. My student research assistants and I measured creep (aseismic slip) rates on these faults from 1979 until my retirement from the project in 2001. These data are further described in my final technical report as principal investigator, which summarizes results from 22 September 1979 through 28 February 2001 (Galehouse, 2001). We made over 2,600 creep measurements, about one-third in the ten years prior to the Loma Prieta earthquake (LPEQ) and two-thirds in the 11.4 years following it. The measurements are continuing to be made by members of the Geosciences Department at San Francisco State University (SFSU) under the direction of Karen Grove and John Caskey. A complete analysis of our results obtained on the Hayward fault is presented in Lienkaemper, Galehouse, and Simpson (2001). A formal report based on the entire San Francisco Bay region data set is in preparation. Data sheets for each site along the fault are available for downloading in Excel format to facilitate analysis of the data. They are also available as tab-delimited raw data. The data include all regular measurement sites, SF–1 through SF–34, and the 20 SFSU and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) afterslip sites on the Hayward fault.

  2. Mercury burdens in Chinese mitten crabs (Eriocheir sinensis) in three tributaries of southern San Francisco Bay, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hui, C.A.; Rudnick, D.; Williams, E.

    2005-01-01

    Chinese mitten crabs (Eriocheir sinensis), endemic to Asia, were first reported in the San Francisco Bay in 1992. They are now established in nearly all San Francisco Bay tributaries. These crabs accumulate more metals, such as mercury, than crustaceans living in the water column. Because their predators include fish, birds, mammals and humans, their mercury burdens have an exceptional potential to impact the ecosystem and public health. We sought to elucidate the potential threat of mitten crab mercury burdens in three adjacent streams in southern San Francisco Bay, one of which is known to be contaminated with mercury. Mitten crabs had hepatopancreas concentrations of total mercury and methylmercury that did not differ among streams. The maximum burden we measured was below the action level of 1 ppm recommended by the USEPA. Hepatopancreas concentrations of methylmercury declined with increasing crab size, suggesting a mechanism for mercury excretion and that predators might reduce mercury exposure if they select larger crabs. Because mercury may be heterogeneously distributed among tissues, estimation of the impacts of crab mercury burdens on the environment requires more data on the feeding preferences of predators. Hepatopancreas concentrations of mercury decline with crab size, which may have important consequences for bio-magnification in food webs. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 10. Office of the Post Engineer, Presidio of San Francisco. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Office of the Post Engineer, Presidio of San Francisco. Location of Water Lines, Presidio of San Francisco. Sheet 30. November 1943. SHOWING EASTERN PORTION OF CRISSY FIELD AND AREA A. - Presidio of San Francisco, Storehouse & Administration, Crissy Field North cantonment, Allen Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  4. 9. Office of the Post Engineer, Presidio of San Francisco. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Office of the Post Engineer, Presidio of San Francisco. Location of Water Lines, Presidio of San Francisco. Sheet 29. June 1944. SHOWING EASTERN PORTION OF CRISSY FIELD. - Presidio of San Francisco, Storehouse & Administration, Crissy Field North cantonment, Allen Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  5. 36. Post Engineer Office, Presidio of San Francisco. Plot Plan, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. Post Engineer Office, Presidio of San Francisco. Plot Plan, Letterman Army Hospital, San Francisco, Calif. 1958. SHOWING LOCATION OF BUILDINGS 1006 AND 1049 IN LETTERMAN HOSPITAL COMPLEX IN 1958. - Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman General Hospital, Building No. 27, Letterman Hospital Complex, Edie Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  6. 33 CFR 165.1197 - Security Zones; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 100 yards of the Shell Terminal, Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in San Pablo Bay within a... the Amorco Pier, Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in the Carquinez Strait within a line..., Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in Suisun Bay within a line connecting the following...

  7. 33 CFR 165.1197 - Security Zones; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 100 yards of the Shell Terminal, Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in San Pablo Bay within a... the Amorco Pier, Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in the Carquinez Strait within a line..., Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in Suisun Bay within a line connecting the following...

  8. 33 CFR 165.1197 - Security Zones; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 100 yards of the Shell Terminal, Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in San Pablo Bay within a... the Amorco Pier, Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in the Carquinez Strait within a line..., Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in Suisun Bay within a line connecting the following...

  9. 33 CFR 165.1197 - Security Zones; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 100 yards of the Shell Terminal, Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in San Pablo Bay within a... the Amorco Pier, Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in the Carquinez Strait within a line..., Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in Suisun Bay within a line connecting the following...

  10. 33 CFR 165.1197 - Security Zones; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 100 yards of the Shell Terminal, Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in San Pablo Bay within a... the Amorco Pier, Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in the Carquinez Strait within a line..., Martinez, CA, and encompasses all waters in Suisun Bay within a line connecting the following...

  11. Mercury concentrations and loads in a large river system tributary to San Francisco Bay, California, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    David, Nicole; McKee, Lester J; Black, Frank J; Flegal, A Russell; Conaway, Christopher H; Schoellhamer, David H; Ganju, Neil K

    2009-10-01

    In order to estimate total mercury (HgT) loads entering San Francisco Bay, U.S.A., via the Sacramento-San Joaquin River system, unfiltered water samples were collected between January 2002 and January 2006 during high flow events and analyzed for HgT. Unfiltered HgT concentrations ranged from 3.2 to 75 ng/L and showed a strong correlation (r2 = 0.8, p < 0.001, n=78) to suspended sediment concentrations (SSC). During infrequent large floods, HgT concentrations relative to SSC were approximately twice as high as observed during smaller floods. This difference indicates the transport of more Hg-contaminated particles during high discharge events. Daily HgT loads in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River at Mallard Island ranged from below the limit of detection to 35 kg. Annual HgT loads varied from 61 +/- 22 kg (n=5) in water year (WY) 2002 to 470 +/- 170 kg (n=25) in WY 2006. The data collected will assist in understanding the long-term recovery of San Francisco Bay from Hg contamination and in implementing the Hg total maximum daily load, the long-term cleanup plan for Hg in the Bay. PMID:19499967

  12. High-resolution foraminiferal, isotopic, and trace element records from holocene estuarine deposits of San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGann, M.

    2008-01-01

    Ice Age (LIA I and LIA II) is evident from 650 to 280 cal YBP, with the return of the E. excavatum association and an extreme drop in ??18O values, all indicating increased precipitation and fresh water inflow. This was followed by generally drier conditions to the present, except for a brief wet period around 100 cal YBP, and fairly consistent water temperatures in the middle 13??C, except for a drop to 12.8??C at 200 cal YBP. Two significant faunal changes occur near the top of the core. First, there is the reappearance of the A. beccarii-E. gunteri association, suggesting that, once again, regional warming has taken place, oxygen availability has declined, and/or environmental conditions changed such that diatoms have become a scarce food source. Second, there is the first appearance of the invasive Japanese foraminifera Trochammina hadai Uchio, a species that commonly lives in highly polluted areas and is an indicator of eutrophication in its native estuaries. At the same time, freshwater inflow decreased, which may be explained by global warming during the last 100 years, or more likely due to modern water diversion for agriculture in the central valley of California. ADDITIONAL INDEX WORDS: Climate, San Francisco Bay, Holocene, foraminifers, isotopes, trace metals, Medieval Warm Period, Little Ice Age.

  13. Geology and geochemistry of volcanic centers within the eastern half of the Sonoma volcanic field, northern San Francisco Bay region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweetkind, Donald S.; Rytuba, James J.; Langenheim, V.E.; Fleck, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    The volcanic fields in the California Coast Ranges north of San Francisco Bay are temporally and spatially associated with the northward migration of the Mendocino triple junction and the transition from subduction and associated arc volcanism to a slab window tectonic environment. Our geochemical analyses from the Sonoma volcanic field highlight the geochemical diversity of these volcanic rocks, allowing us to clearly distinguish these volcanic rocks from those of the roughly coeval ancestral Cascades magmatic arc to the west, and also to compare rocks of the Sonoma volcanic field to rocks from other slab window settings.

  14. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the San Francisco Bay groundwater basins, 2007—California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, Mary C.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 620-square-mile (1,600-square-kilometer) San Francisco Bay study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in the Southern Coast Ranges of California, in San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Alameda, and Contra Costa Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA San Francisco Bay study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated groundwater within the primary aquifer system, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout the State. The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected by the USGS from 79 wells in 2007 and is supplemented with water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifer system is defined by the depth interval of the wells listed in the CDPH database for the San Francisco Bay study unit. The quality of groundwater in shallower or deeper water-bearing zones may differ from that in the primary aquifer system; shallower groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. The first component of this study, the status of the current quality of the groundwater resource, was assessed by using data from samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, and naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. Water- quality data from the CDPH database also were incorporated for this assessment. This status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of groundwater resources within the primary aquifer system of the San Francisco Bay study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water

  15. Forecasting the Next Great San Francisco Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rundle, P.; Rundle, J. B.; Turcotte, D. L.; Donnellan, A.; Yakovlev, G.; Tiampo, K. F.

    2005-12-01

    The great San Francisco earthquake of 18 April 1906 and its subsequent fires killed more than 3,000 persons, and destroyed much of the city leaving 225,000 out of 400,000 inhabitants homeless. The 1906 earthquake occurred on a km segment of the San Andreas fault that runs from the San Juan Bautista north to Cape Mendocino and is estimated to have had a moment magnitude m ,l 7.9. Observations of surface displacements across the fault were in the range m. As we approach the 100 year anniversary of this event, a critical concern is the hazard posed by another such earthquake. In this talk we examine the assumptions presently used to compute the probability of occurrence of these earthquakes. We also present the results of a numerical simulation of interacting faults on the San Andreas system. Called Virtual California, this simulation can be used to compute the times, locations and magnitudes of simulated earthquakes on the San Andreas fault in the vicinity of San Francisco. Of particular importance are new results for the statistical distribution of interval times between great earthquakes, results that are difficult or impossible to obtain from a purely field-based approach. We find that our results are fit well under most circumstances by the Weibull statistical distribution, and we compute waiting times to future earthquakes based upon our simulation results. A contrasting approach to the same problem has been adopted by the Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities, who use observational data combined with statistical assumptions to compute probabilities of future earthquakes.

  16. 75 FR 8106 - Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, Alameda, Santa Clara, and San Mateo...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, Alameda, Santa Clara... located in Alameda, Santa Clara, and San Mateo Counties of California. We provide this notice in..., we initiate our process for developing a CCP for Don Edwards San Francisco Bay NWR in Alameda,...

  17. Seismotectonic Implications Of Clustered Regional GPS Velocities In The San Francisco Bay Region, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graymer, R. W.; Simpson, R.

    2012-12-01

    We have used a hierarchical agglomerative clustering algorithm with Euclidean distance and centroid linkage, applied to continuous GPS observations for the Bay region available from the U.S. Geological Survey website. This analysis reveals 4 robust, spatially coherent clusters that coincide with 4 first-order structural blocks separated by 3 major fault systems: San Andreas (SA), Southern/Central Calaveras-Hayward-Rodgers Creek-Maacama (HAY), and Northern Calaveras-Concord-Green Valley-Berryessa-Bartlett Springs (NCAL). Because observations seaward of the San Gregorio (SG) fault are few in number, the cluster to the west of SA may actually contain 2 major structural blocks not adequately resolved: the Pacific plate to the west of the northern SA and a Peninsula block between the Peninsula SA and the SG fault. The average inter-block velocities are 11, 10, and 9 mm/yr across SA, HAY, and NCAL respectively. There appears to be a significant component of fault-normal compression across NCAL, whereas SA and HAY faults appear to be, on regional average, purely strike-slip. The velocities for the Sierra Nevada - Great Valley (SNGV) block to the west of NCAL are impressive in their similarity. The cluster of these velocities in a velocity plot forms a tighter grouping compared with the groupings for the other cluster blocks, suggesting a more rigid behavior for this block than the others. We note that for 4 clusters, none of the 3 cluster boundaries illuminate geologic structures other than north-northwest trending dominantly strike-slip faults, so plate motion is not accommodated by large-scale fault-parallel compression or extension in the region or by significant plastic deformation , at least over the time span of the GPS observations. Complexities of interseismic deformation of the upper crust do not allow simple application of inter-block velocities as long-term slip rates on bounding faults. However, 2D dislocation models using inter-block velocities and typical

  18. ASTER Images San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image of the San Francisco Bay region was acquired on March 3, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters about 50 to 300 feet ), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    Image: This image covers an area 60 kilometers (37 miles) wide and 75 kilometers (47 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. The combination of bands portrays vegetation in red, and urban areas in gray. Sediment in the Suisun Bay, San Pablo Bay, San Francisco Bay, and the Pacific Ocean shows up as lighter shades of blue. Along the west coast of the San Francisco Peninsula, strong surf can be seen as a white fringe along the shoreline. A powerful rip tide is visible extending westward from Daly City into the Pacific Ocean. In the lower right corner, the wetlands of the South San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge appear as large dark blue and brown polygons. The high spatial resolution of ASTER allows fine detail to be observed in the scene. The main bridges of the area (San Mateo, San Francisco-Oakland Bay, Golden Gate, Richmond-San Rafael, Benicia-Martinez, and Carquinez) are easily picked out, connecting the different communities in the Bay area. Shadows of the towers along the Bay Bridge can be seen over the adjacent bay water. With enlargement the entire road network can be easily mapped; individual buildings are visible, including the shadows of the high-rises in downtown San Francisco.

    Inset: This enlargement of the San Francisco Airport highlights the high spatial resolution of ASTER. With further enlargement and careful examination, airplanes can be seen at the terminals.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth

  19. 75 FR 35651 - Safety Zone; San Francisco Chronicle Fireworks Display, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; San Francisco Chronicle Fireworks Display, San Francisco... will enforce the Independence Day Celebration for the City of San Francisco Fireworks safety zone from 11 a.m. through 10 p.m. on July 4, 2010. The fireworks will be fired simultaneously from two...

  20. 78 FR 18238 - Safety Zone; SFPD Training Safety Zone; San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... of Homeland Security FR Federal Register SFPD San Francisco Police Department NPRM Notice of Proposed... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; SFPD Training Safety Zone; San Francisco... Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone in the navigable waters of the San Francisco Bay...

  1. 77 FR 57494 - Safety Zone; Fleet Week Fireworks, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-18

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 Safety Zone; Fleet Week Fireworks, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco... will enforce the safety zone for the Fleet Week Fireworks in the Captain of the Port, San Francisco...'' W (NAD83) for the Fleet Week Fireworks in 33 CFR 165.1191, Table 1, item number 25. This safety...

  2. Distribution of biologic, anthropogenic, and volcanic constituents as a proxy for sediment transport in the San Francisco Bay coastal system, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGann, M.; Erikson, L. H.; Wan, E.; Powell, C., II; Maddocks, R. F.

    2012-12-01

    The biological, anthropogenic, and volcanic constituents of more than 300 samples collected from 1995 to 2010 in San Francisco Bay and the nearby coastal area were analyzed to discern patterns of sediment transport and deposition. The biological constituents investigated include microfauna (benthic and planktic foraminifers, ostracods, radiolarians, diatoms, and thecamoebians), macrofauna (bivalve mollusks, gastropods, barnacles, bryozoa, worm tubes, echinoids, crabs, and fish fragments), and flora (woody stems, roots, spores, and seeds). The distributional pattern of the benthic foraminifers was further refined by Q-mode cluster analysis into four assemblages that reflect where the taxa reside: the Brackish Shallow Subtidal Assemblage, the Estuarine Shallow Subtidal Assemblage, the Estuarine Intermediate/Deep Subtidal Assemblage, and the Nearshore Marine Assemblage. The anthropogenic objects recovered in this study include welding slag and glass microspheres most likely used to increase roadway line reflectivity. The volcanic constituents are glass shards of the Pliocene (3.27 Ma) Nomlaki Tuff, and Miocene tephra mostly derived from the Great Central Valley (including from the 23-19 Ma Valley Springs Formation, among others) and from the Sonoma Volcanic Field of California. The presence of allochthonous sedimentological constituents in this study was used to identify pathways of sediment transport and deposition within the San Francisco Bay coastal system. Several patterns have been identified: 1) volcanic glass shards are transported from the Great Central Valley through the delta to all regions of the bay, including the extreme end of south bay, as well as along the coast outside the bay and southward to Pedro Point; 2) microorganisms (benthic and planktic foraminifers, ostracods, diatoms, and radiolaria) from the marine realm outside San Francisco Bay are found in the estuary at the southern end of south bay, commonly in the middle of San Pablo Bay, and

  3. Seismic Images of Near-Surface Faulting Along the Northern Projection of the Silver Creek Fault, Eastern and Southern San Francisco Bay, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catchings, R. D.; Rymer, M. J.; Goldman, M. R.; Gandhok, G.; Sickler, R. R.

    2008-12-01

    We acquired high-resolution shallow-depth and lower-resolution crustal-scale images across the northern projection of the Silver Creek in the Eastern San Francisco Bay, California. On a regional seismic profile from the Pacific Ocean to the Livermore Valley, the Silver Creek fault approximately marks the boundary between high velocities beneath the San Francisco Bay and lower velocities to the east, suggesting that the Silver Creek fault represents a major structural boundary between the San Andreas and Hayward faults. Locally, we acquired a series of high-resolution seismic profiles across the alluvial-covered northern projection of the Silver Creek fault, as inferred from vertical offsets in the groundwater table and from InSAR images. In San Jose, we found evidence for near-surface faulting across the Silver Creek fault as reported in a companion abstract by Goldman et al. (this volume). Along the Fremont/Union City Border at Alameda Creek, we acquired an approximately 2-km-long high-resolution seismic reflection/refraction profile that shows vertical offsets of near-surface strata and the underlying bedrock, and farther north in San Lorenzo, we acquired an approximately 8-km-long high-resolution seismic reflection/refraction profile that also shows vertical offsets of near-surface strata and the underlying bedrock. Both profiles show the apparent faulting along the northward projection of the Silver Creek fault. Although the vast majority of seismic events recorded in the area can be attributed to the slip on the Hayward fault, the northern California seismic catalog shows that some events occur beneath the near-surface trace of the Silver Creek fault. Collectively, the available data indicate that the Silver Creek fault may be more than 80 km long and may be currently or recently active. Because of its proximity to high-population centers, more careful examination of this fault is warranted.

  4. Present, future, and novel bioclimates of the San Francisco, California region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torregrosa, Alicia; Taylor, Maxwell D.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Flint, Alan L.

    2013-01-01

    Bioclimates are syntheses of climatic variables into biologically relevant categories that facilitate comparative studies of biotic responses to climate conditions. Isobioclimates, unique combinations of bioclimatic indices (continentality, ombrotype, and thermotype), were constructed for northern California coastal ranges based on the Rivas-Martinez worldwide bioclimatic classification system for the end of the 20th century climatology (1971–2000) and end of the 21st century climatology (2070–2099) using two models, Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) model and the Parallel Climate Model (PCM), under the medium-high A2 emission scenario. The digitally mapped results were used to 1) assess the relative redistribution of isobioclimates and their magnitude of change, 2) quantify the loss of isobioclimates into the future, 3) identify and locate novel isobioclimates projected to appear, and 4) explore compositional change in vegetation types among analog isobioclimate patches. This study used downscaled climate variables to map the isobioclimates at a fine spatial resolution −270 m grid cells. Common to both models of future climate was a large change in thermotype. Changes in ombrotype differed among the two models. The end of 20th century climatology has 83 isobioclimates covering the 63,000 km2 study area. In both future projections 51 of those isobioclimates disappear over 40,000 km2. The ordination of vegetation-bioclimate relationships shows very strong correlation of Rivas-Martinez indices with vegetation distribution and composition. Comparisons of vegetation composition among analog patches suggest that vegetation change will be a local rearrangement of species already in place rather than one requiring long distance dispersal. The digitally mapped results facilitate comparison with other Mediterranean regions. Major remaining challenges include predicting vegetation composition of novel isobioclimates and developing metrics to compare

  5. Present, Future, and Novel Bioclimates of the San Francisco, California Region

    PubMed Central

    Torregrosa, Alicia; Taylor, Maxwell D.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Flint, Alan L.

    2013-01-01

    Bioclimates are syntheses of climatic variables into biologically relevant categories that facilitate comparative studies of biotic responses to climate conditions. Isobioclimates, unique combinations of bioclimatic indices (continentality, ombrotype, and thermotype), were constructed for northern California coastal ranges based on the Rivas-Martinez worldwide bioclimatic classification system for the end of the 20th century climatology (1971–2000) and end of the 21st century climatology (2070–2099) using two models, Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) model and the Parallel Climate Model (PCM), under the medium-high A2 emission scenario. The digitally mapped results were used to 1) assess the relative redistribution of isobioclimates and their magnitude of change, 2) quantify the loss of isobioclimates into the future, 3) identify and locate novel isobioclimates projected to appear, and 4) explore compositional change in vegetation types among analog isobioclimate patches. This study used downscaled climate variables to map the isobioclimates at a fine spatial resolution −270 m grid cells. Common to both models of future climate was a large change in thermotype. Changes in ombrotype differed among the two models. The end of 20th century climatology has 83 isobioclimates covering the 63,000 km2 study area. In both future projections 51 of those isobioclimates disappear over 40,000 km2. The ordination of vegetation-bioclimate relationships shows very strong correlation of Rivas-Martinez indices with vegetation distribution and composition. Comparisons of vegetation composition among analog patches suggest that vegetation change will be a local rearrangement of species already in place rather than one requiring long distance dispersal. The digitally mapped results facilitate comparison with other Mediterranean regions. Major remaining challenges include predicting vegetation composition of novel isobioclimates and developing metrics to compare

  6. The Rhizosphere Zone: A Hot Spot of Microbial Activity and Methylmercury Production in Saltmarsh Sediments of San Francisco Bay, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Windham-Myers, L.; Marvin-Dipasquale, M.; Voytek, M.; Kirshtein, J.; Krabbenhoft, D. P.; Agee, J. L.; Cox, M.; Kakouros, E.; Collins, J. N.; Yee, D.

    2008-12-01

    Tidal marshes of varying hydrology and salinity have been shown to have high rates of microbial methylmercury (MeHg) production, especially the periodically flooded, higher elevations which are densely vegetated with shallowly rooted plants. The specific influence of emergent wetland plants and their active rhizosphere (root zone) on mercury (Hg) biogeochemistry, however, is poorly understood. Seasonal and spatial patterns of Hg biogeochemistry were examined in 2005 and 2006 at three marshes along a salinity gradient of the Petaluma River, in Northern San Francisco Bay, California. In addition, to directly examine the influence of rhizosphere activity on MeHg production, a suite of devegetation experiments was conducted in 2006 within each marsh using paired vegetated and devegetated plots in two marsh subhabitats: poorly- drained interior sites and well-drained "edge" sites near slough channels. Surface sediment (0-2cm) was sampled in both April and August from these plots, as well as from 1st and 3rd order slough channels that were naturally free of vegetation. Vegetated marsh sites produced 3- to19-fold more MeHg than did slough sites, and MeHg production rates were greater in marsh interior sites compared to more oxic marsh "edge" sites. Microbial biomass (ng DNA gdrysed) was greater in vegetated marsh settings, compared to slough channels, and increased significantly between April and August at all marsh sites. Despite this seasonal increase in microbial biomass, MeHg concentrations and production rates decreased from April to August in vegetated surface sediments. Microbial indicators of methylation also decreased from April to August, including rates of microbial sulfate reduction and the abundance of iron- and sulfate- reducing bacterial DNA. Results from the devegetated plots suggest that root exudation of fermentative labile carbon to surface soils is responsible for the higher microbial biomass, and the higher relative abundance of iron- and sulfate

  7. Geohydrology, water quality, and estimation of ground-water recharge in San Francisco, California, 1987-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, S.P.; Hamlin, S.N.; Yates, E.B.

    1993-01-01

    The city of San Francisco is considering further development of local groundwater resources as a supplemental source of water for potable or nonpotable use. By the year 2010, further water demand is projected to exceed the delivery capacity of the existing supply system, which is fed by surface-water sources; thus supplies are susceptible to drought conditions and damage to conveyance lines by earthquakes. The primary purpose of this study is to describe local geohydrology and water quality and to estimate groundwater recharge in the area of the city of San Francisco. Seven groundwater basins were identified in San Francisco on the basis of geologic and geophysical data. Basins on the east side of the city are relatively thin and contain a greater percentage of fine-grained sediments than those on the west side. The relatively small capacity of the basins and greater potential for contamination from sewer sources may limit the potential for groundwater development on the east side. Basins on the west side of the city have a relatively large capacity and low density sewer network. Water-level data indicate that the southern part of the largest basin on the west side of the city (Westside basin) probably cannot accommodate additional groundwater development without adversely affecting water levels and water quality in Lake Merced; however, the remainder of the basin, which is largely undeveloped, could be developed further. A hydrologic routing model was developed for estimating groundwater recharge throughout San Francisco. The model takes into account climatic factors, land and water use, irrigation, leakage from underground pipes, rainfall runoff, evapotranspiration, and other factors associated with an urban environment. Results indicate that area recharge rates for water years 1987-88 for the 7 groundwater basins ranged from 0.32 to 0.78 feet per year. Recharge for the Westside basin was estimated at 0.51 feet per year. Average annual groundwater recharge

  8. 1:100,000-scale topographic contours derived from digital elevation models, San Francisco Bay region, California: a digital database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Heather M.; Wentworth, Carl M.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents a consistent set of 1:100,000-scale vector topographic contours for all eleven 30x60-minute quadrangles in the San Francisco Bay region for use in visualizing the topography and preparing maps of the region. The contours were prepared by contouring an areally continuous 30-m altitude grid (National Elevation Dataset, Jan., 1999), and differ from USGS hypsographic DLG's (available for only part of the region). The report consists of 26 numbered parts, which represent text, spatial data, and 1:100,000-scale map graphics. Most of the files are provided in two or three different digital formats. All files are available for download here.

  9. San Francisco floating STOLport study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The operational, economic, environmental, social and engineering feasibility of utilizing deactivated maritime vessels as a waterfront quiet short takeoff and landing facility to be located near the central business district of San Francisco was investigated. Criteria were developed to evaluate each site, and minimum standards were established for each criterion. Predicted conditions at the two sites were compared to the requirements for each of the 11 criteria as a means of evaluating site performance. Criteria include land use, community structure, economic impact, access, visual character, noise, air pollution, natural environment, weather, air traffic, and terminal design.

  10. Use of geochemical biomarkers in bottom sediment to track oil from a spill, San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hostettler, F.D.; Rapp, J.B.; Kvenvolden, K.A.

    1992-01-01

    In April 1988, approximately 1500 m3 of a San Joaquin Valley crude oil were accidentally released from a Shell Oil Co. refinery near Martinez, Californa. The oil flowed into Carquinez Strait and Suisun Bay in northern San Francisco Bay Sediment and oil samples were collected within a week and analysed for geochemical marker compounds in order to track the molecular signature of the oil spill in the bottom sediment. Identification of the spilled oil in the sediment was complicated by the degraded nature of the oil and the similarity of the remaining, chromatographically resolvable constituents to those already present in the sediments from anthropogenic petroleum contamination, pyrogenic sources, and urban drainage. Ratios of hopane and sterane biomarkers, and of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their alkylated derivatives best identified the oil impingement. They showed the oil impact at this early stage to be surficial only, and to be patchy even within an area of heavy oil exposure.

  11. Sex, Status, and Sand: California Academy of Sciences' Teen Interns Examine Trends of the Pacific Mole Crab (Emerita analoga) at Ocean Beach, San Francisco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, J. B.; Conrad-Saydah, A.; Cohen, S.; Tom, R.; Robins-Moloney, M.; Masters, D.; Mason, K.; Alfaro, F.

    2003-12-01

    Student interns from the California Academy of Sciences' Careers in Sciences program monitored the Pacific mole crab (Emerita analoga), or sand crabs, in collaboration with the Farallones Marine Sanctuary Association. These small crustaceans live in the swash zone of the sandy beach habitat. Sand crabs are important in the food web, and therefore their status can help indicate the health of the larger environment. The interns helped the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary by monitoring the abundance and distribution of sand crabs at Ocean Beach in San Francisco, California. Students set up transects perpendicular to the shoreline, collected 10 samples along the transect, measured the carapace length, determined the sex of each crab, and checked for the presence of eggs. Students monitored June through September, 2003. Trends examined included differences in the gender ratio, size frequency, and distribution along the beach. Students also compared their data to other student data taken from other sites in San Francisco and Marin counties during 2001-2003 from the online database at http://www.sandcrabs.org. Using comparisons, interns were able to better understand the processes and significance of studying marine species. Implementation of the project was invaluable in aiding the interns in their understanding of the natural sciences and the role of monitoring habitats in environmental health.

  12. Evidence for thyroid endocrine disruption in wild fish in San Francisco Bay, California, USA. Relationships to contaminant exposures.

    PubMed

    Brar, Navdeep K; Waggoner, Claire; Reyes, Jesus A; Fairey, Russell; Kelley, Kevin M

    2010-02-18

    It is well documented that many coastal and estuarine environments adjacent to developed and industrialized urban centers, such as the San Francisco Bay Area, are significantly contaminated by anthropogenic chemicals. However, it is not well understood to what extent existing contaminants, many with continuing inflows into the environment, may impact exposed wildlife. This study provided an initial characterization of thyroid endocrine-related effects and their relationship to accumulated contaminants in two indigenous fish species sampled from different San Franicsco Bay Area study sites. Plasma concentrations of thyroxine (T4) were significantly reduced in fish sampled from highly impacted locations such as Oakland Inner Harbor and San Leandro Bay as compared with fish from other locations representing relatively lower human impact, including Bodega Bay, Redwood City and a remote site on Santa Catalina Island. Triiodothyronine (T3) levels also varied significantly by location, with differing T3/T4 ratios in fish from some locations suggestive of altered peripheral deiodinase activity. The changes in thyroid endocrine parameters were significantly correlated with hepatic concentrations of certain environmental contaminants. A large number of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, both co-planar (dioxin-like) and non-co-planar, exhibited significant inverse correlations with T4 levels in the fish, while in contrast, T3 and T3/T4 ratio were positively correlated with PCB exposures. The positive correlation between T3/T4 ratio and PCBs supports the hypothesis that environmental PCBs may alter T4 deiodination or turnover, actions of PCBs reported in laboratory experiments. Some relationships between chlorinated pesticides including DDT and chlordanes, but fewer relationships with PAHs, were also observed. Together, these findings indicate that the thyroid endocrine system is exhibiting alterations associated with different aquatic environments in the San Francisco

  13. Map showing locations of damaging landslides in San Francisco City and County, California, resulting from 1997-98 El Nino rainstorms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hillhouse, John W.; Godt, Jonathan W.

    1999-01-01

    Heavy rainfall associated with a strong El Nino caused over $150 million in landslide damage in the 10-county San Francisco Bay region during the winter and spring of 1998. A team of USGS scientists collected information on landslide locations and damage costs. About $4 million in damages were assessed in San Francisco City and County.

  14. 33 CFR 165.1187 - Security Zones; Golden Gate Bridge and the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, San Francisco Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security Zones; Golden Gate Bridge and the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, San Francisco Bay, California. 165.1187 Section 165.1187 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS...

  15. 33 CFR 165.1187 - Security Zones; Golden Gate Bridge and the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, San Francisco Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Bridge and the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, San Francisco Bay, California. 165.1187 Section 165.1187... SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Eleventh Coast Guard District § 165.1187 Security Zones; Golden Gate Bridge and...

  16. 33 CFR 165.1187 - Security Zones; Golden Gate Bridge and the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, San Francisco Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Bridge and the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, San Francisco Bay, California. 165.1187 Section 165.1187... SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Eleventh Coast Guard District § 165.1187 Security Zones; Golden Gate Bridge and...

  17. 33 CFR 165.1187 - Security Zones; Golden Gate Bridge and the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, San Francisco Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Bridge and the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, San Francisco Bay, California. 165.1187 Section 165.1187... SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Eleventh Coast Guard District § 165.1187 Security Zones; Golden Gate Bridge and...

  18. 33 CFR 165.1187 - Security Zones; Golden Gate Bridge and the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, San Francisco Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Bridge and the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, San Francisco Bay, California. 165.1187 Section 165.1187... SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Specific Regulated Navigation Areas and Limited Access Areas Eleventh Coast Guard District § 165.1187 Security Zones; Golden Gate Bridge and...

  19. Six-year mortality in a street-recruited cohort of homeless youth in San Francisco, California

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jessica S.; Parriott, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The mortality rate of a street-recruited homeless youth cohort in the United States has not yet been reported. We examined the six-year mortality rate for a cohort of street youth recruited from San Francisco street venues in 2004. Methods. Using data collected from a longitudinal, venue-based sample of street youth 15–24 years of age, we calculated age, race, and gender-adjusted mortality rates. Results. Of a sample of 218 participants, 11 died from enrollment in 2004 to December 31, 2010. The majority of deaths were due to suicide and/or substance abuse. The death rate was 9.6 deaths per hundred thousand person-years. The age, race and gender-adjusted standardized mortality ratio was 10.6 (95% CI [5.3–18.9]). Gender specific SMRs were 16.1 (95% CI [3.3–47.1]) for females and 9.4 (95% CI [4.0–18.4]) for males. Conclusions. Street-recruited homeless youth in San Francisco experience a mortality rate in excess of ten times that of the state’s general youth population. Services and programs, particularly housing, mental health and substance abuse interventions, are urgently needed to prevent premature mortality in this vulnerable population. PMID:27114873

  20. Avian response to early tidal salt marsh restoration at former commercial salt evaporation ponds in San Francisco Bay, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Athearn, Nicole D.; Takekawa, John Y.; Shinn, Joel

    2009-01-01

    Restoration of former commercial salt evaporation ponds in the San Francisco Bay estuary is intended to reverse a severe decline (>79%) in tidal salt marshes. San Francisco Bay is a critical migratory stopover site and wintering area for shorebirds and waterfowl, and salt ponds are important high tide roosting and foraging areas. Conservation of past bird abundance is a stated goal of area restoration projects, and early adaptive management will be critical for achieving this objective. However, initial avian response at sites restored to tidal flow may not be indicative of long-term results. For example, winter shorebirds at a 529 ha pond breached in 2002 showed a marked increase in shorebird abundance following breaching. Shorebirds comprised 1% of area totals during 1999-2002 and increased to 46% during 2003-2008. These changes accompanied increased tidal range and sedimentation, but minimal vegetation establishment. Conversely, a fully vegetated, restored 216 ha pond in the same system consistently supported less than 2% of all waterbirds in the region. Early restoration may temporarily increase habitat, but managed ponds will be needed for long-term waterbird abundance within a restored pond-marsh system.

  1. Six-year mortality in a street-recruited cohort of homeless youth in San Francisco, California.

    PubMed

    Auerswald, Colette L; Lin, Jessica S; Parriott, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The mortality rate of a street-recruited homeless youth cohort in the United States has not yet been reported. We examined the six-year mortality rate for a cohort of street youth recruited from San Francisco street venues in 2004. Methods. Using data collected from a longitudinal, venue-based sample of street youth 15-24 years of age, we calculated age, race, and gender-adjusted mortality rates. Results. Of a sample of 218 participants, 11 died from enrollment in 2004 to December 31, 2010. The majority of deaths were due to suicide and/or substance abuse. The death rate was 9.6 deaths per hundred thousand person-years. The age, race and gender-adjusted standardized mortality ratio was 10.6 (95% CI [5.3-18.9]). Gender specific SMRs were 16.1 (95% CI [3.3-47.1]) for females and 9.4 (95% CI [4.0-18.4]) for males. Conclusions. Street-recruited homeless youth in San Francisco experience a mortality rate in excess of ten times that of the state's general youth population. Services and programs, particularly housing, mental health and substance abuse interventions, are urgently needed to prevent premature mortality in this vulnerable population. PMID:27114873

  2. Trouble Brewing in San Francisco. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    The city of San Francisco will face enormous budgetary pressures from the growing deficits in public pensions, both at a state and local level. In this policy brief, the author estimates that San Francisco faces an aggregate $22.4 billion liability for pensions and retiree health benefits that are underfunded--including $14.1 billion for the city…

  3. Jack London and the San Francisco earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sachs, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    After it was over, it seemed to many, and especially to eyewitnesses like Jack London, that the earthquake and fire had devastated San Francisco. However people were confident that, like the phoeniz, San Francisco would rise from the ashes and regain her palce as the "Imperial City of the West." 

  4. California: San Francisco Bay

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) nadir camera on August 17, 2000 during Terra orbit 3545. Toward the top, and nestled between ... NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Terra spacecraft is managed ...

  5. Geophysical Anomalies and Seismicity Suggest a Connection Between the Hayward and Calaveras Faults, Eastern San Francisco Bay Area, Northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponce, D. A.; Phelps, G. A.; Graymer, R. W.; Jachens, R. C.; Simpson, R. W.; Wentworth, C. M.

    2003-12-01

    Gravity, magnetic, and seismicity data of the eastern San Francisco Bay Area are used to reveal the three-dimensional subsurface geologic structure of the eastern San Francisco Bay Area and its relationship to ongoing seismicity. Combined, these data suggest a connection between the Hayward and Calaveras Faults. Gravity and magnetic modeling of a tabular gabbro body near San Leandro and relocated, double-difference seismicity data along the Hayward Fault (Ellsworth et al., 2000) suggest that the Hayward Fault dips to the northeast. Further southeast, double-difference seismicity data indicate that the fault dip becomes shallower, possibly connecting the creeping surface trace of the Hayward Fault with the diverging Mission seismicity trend at depth as suggested by Manaker and Michael (2003). In the stepover region, the southern extension of the Hayward Fault is parallel to the active central Calaveras Fault for about 25 km and the 4-km wide area in between is characterized by en echelon reverse (oblique?) faults. At depths below about 5 km, seismicity appears to be continuous, connecting the Hayward fault to the left-stepping central Calaveras Fault along the Mission seismicity trend. Geophysical interpretation of offset magnetic rock units also suggests that the northern Calaveras Fault has at most a few tens of kilometers of total offset and that most slip may be transferred from the southern Calaveras Fault, with a total offset of about 175 km, along the central Calaveras, Silver Creek, Hayward, and other faults west of the northern Calaveras Fault, consistent with present seismicity. Cross-sectional and 3D visualizations of these data are used to illustrate the proposed geometry of the connection between the Hayward and Calaveras Faults.

  6. South San Francisco Bay tidal marsh vegetation and elevation surveys-Corkscrew Marsh, Bird Island, and Palo Alto Baylands, California, 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orlando, James L.; Drexler, Judy Z.; Dedrick, Kent G.

    2005-01-01

    Changes in the topography and ecology of the San Francisco Bay Estuary ('Estuary') during the past 200 years have resulted in the loss of nearly 80 percent of the historical salt marsh in the region. Currently, numerous projects are being undertaken by federal, state, and local governments in an attempt to restore wetland habitat and ecosystem function at a number of locations within the Estuary. Much information is needed concerning the historical topographic and ecologic characteristics of the Estuary to facilitate these restoration efforts. This report presents previously unpublished vegetation and elevation data collected in 1983 by the California State Lands Commission at Corkscrew marsh, Bird Island, and Palo Alto Baylands, all located in South San Francisco Bay. These precise and detailed elevation and plant surveys represent a snapshot of South Bay flora before invasion by the Atlantic smooth cordgrass, Spartina alterniflora. Such precise elevation data are rare for relatively undisturbed marshes in the San Francisco Bay; publication of these historical data may facilitate wetland restoration efforts. Marsh-surface and tidal-channel elevations were determined at a total of 962 stations by differential leveling to established tidal benchmark stations at each site and referenced to Mean Lower Low Water (MLLW) relative to the National Tidal Datum Epoch (1960-78). In addition, presence or absence of nine salt marsh species, percentage plant cover, and percentage bare soil were recorded for 1-square meter quadrats at 648 stations where elevations were determined. Collectively, over the three sites, salt marsh vegetation ranged in elevation from 0.98 to 2.94 m above MLLW. S. foliosa and Salicornia virginica were the most frequently observed plant species. Atriplex patula, Deschampsia cespitosa, and Limonium californicum were each recorded at only one of the three sites.

  7. Dissolved nutrient and suspended particulate matter data for the San Francisco Bay estuary, California, October 1988 through September 1991

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hager, Stephen W.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted hydrologic investigations in San Francisco Bay during Water Years 1988, 1989, 1990 and 1991. Dissolved inorganic plant nutrients, nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, silica, and reactive phosphorus were measured in surface and in near-bottom waters at previously established locations in both northern and southern reaches of the bay. Salinity, turbidity, and concentrations of suspended particulate matter also were measured. Additionally, in Water Year 1991, concentrations of dissolved organic nitrogen and phosphorus were measured. From November 1990 through April 1991, surface waters were sampled near the end of the old Dumbarton Bridge (east span). Salinity, dissolved inorganic nutrients, and alkalinity were measured for these samples. This report presents the sampling and analytical methods, and the data for these studies.

  8. Dissolved nutrient and suspended particulate matter data for the San Francisco Bay estuary, California, October 1991 through November 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hager, Stephen W.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted hydrologic investigations in San Francisco Bay between October 1991 and November 1993. Dissolved inorganic plant nutrients, nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, silica, and reactive phosphorus were measured in surface and in near-bottom waters at previously established locations in both northern and southern reaches of the bay. Salinity, turbidigy, and concentrations of suspended particulate matter also were measured. Additionally, concentratons of dissolved organic nitrogen and phosphorus were occasionally measured. This report presents the sampling and analytical methods, and the data for these studies. Data on the variability due to sampling and sample handling procedures, on the precision of the analytical methods, and on recoveries of known additions from samples are also presented.

  9. Operation of a real-time warning system for debris flows in the San Francisco bay area, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Raymond C.; Mark, Robert K.; Barbato, Gary

    1993-01-01

    The United States Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Weather Service (NWS) have developed an operational warning system for debris flows during severe rainstorms in the San Francisco Bay region. The NWS makes quantitative forecasts of precipitation from storm systems approaching the Bay area and coordinates a regional network of radio-telemetered rain gages. The USGS has formulated thresholds for the intensity and duration of rainfall required to initiate debris flows. The first successful public warnings were issued during a severe storm sequence in February 1986. Continued operation of the warning system since 1986 has provided valuable working experience in rainfall forecasting and monitoring, refined rainfall thresholds, and streamlined procedures for issuing public warnings. Advisory statements issued since 1986 are summarized.

  10. A Global Talent Magnet: How a San Francisco/Bay Area Global Higher Education Hub Could Advance California's Comparative Advantage in Attracting International Talent and Further Build US Economic Competitiveness. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.9.11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglass, John; Edelstein, Richard; Hoareau, Cecile

    2011-01-01

    During the 2009-10 academic year international students generated more than $18.8 billion in net income into the US economy. California alone had nearly 100,000 international students with an economic impact of nearly $3.0 billion. In this paper, we outline a strategy for the San Francisco/Bay Area to double the number of international students…

  11. The Impacts of California's San Francisco Bay Area Gap on Precipitation Observed in the Sierra Nevada during Hmt and Calwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, A. B.; Neiman, P. J.; Creamean, J.; Coleman, T.; Ralph, F. M.; Prather, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)'s Hydrometeorology Testbed (HMT; hmt.noaa.gov) conducts research on the meteorological and microphysical processes contributing to orographically enhanced precipitation. Some of HMT's precipitation research has been focused on a shallow rainfall process driven by collision-coalescence that often is undetected by the National Weather Service's operational scanning radar network, especially in the Western U.S., but that can produce rain rates that are capable of creating floods. Originally it was believed that this shallow rainfall process would occur more prevalently over the coastal mountain ranges than over the Sierra Nevada, since the higher mountains of the Sierra would force deeper atmospheric ascent and produce deeper precipitating cloud systems that extend well above the melting level. This notion was disproved when it was recently discovered that a site in the northern Sierra had nearly as large of a contribution to seasonal rainfall from this shallow rainfall process, on average, as did a habitually wet site in the coast range of Sonoma County north of San Francisco. This work examines this apparent paradox using observations collected during HMT and CalWater field campaigns. In particular, a case study from CalWater is used to highlight the interaction between a landfalling atmospheric river (AR) and the Sierra Barrier Jet (SBJ). The gap in coastal terrain associated with the San Francisco Bay area is shown to allow unprocessed, moisture-enhanced flow in the AR to reach the northern Sierra site, where the SBJ provides a lifting mechanism to create enhanced orographic precipitation as compared to a site in the southern Sierra, where AR-associated dynamics are weaker and AR flow is modified by upstream coastal terrain.

  12. Data from Theodolite Measurements of Creep Rates on San Francisco Bay Region Faults, California: 1979-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McFarland, Forrest S.; Lienkaemper, James J.; Caskey, S. John; Grove, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Our purpose is to update with six additional years of data, our creep data archive on San Francisco Bay region active faults for use by the scientific research community. Earlier data (1979-2001) were reported in Galehouse (2002) and were analyzed and described in detail in a summary report (Galehouse and Lienkaemper, 2003). A complete analysis of our earlier results obtained on the Hayward fault was presented in Lienkaemper, Galehouse and Simpson (2001). Jon Galehouse of San Francisco State University (SFSU) and many student research assistants measured creep (aseismic slip) rates on these faults from 1979 until his retirement from the project in 2001. The creep measurement project, which was initiated by Galehouse, has continued through the Geosciences Department at SFSU from 2001-2006 under the direction of Co-P.I.'s Karen Grove and John Caskey (Grove and Caskey, 2005), and by Caskey since 2006. Forrest McFarland has managed most of the technical and logistical project operations as well as data processing and compilation since 2001. We plan to publish detailed analyses of these updated creep data in future publications. We maintain a project web site (http://funnel.sfsu.edu/creep/) that includes the following information: project description, project personnel, creep characteristics and measurement, map of creep measurement sites, creep measurement site information, and data plots for each measurement site. Our most current, annually updated results are therefore accessible to the scientific community and to the general public. Information about the project can currently be requested by the public by an email link (fltcreep@sfsu.edu) found on our project website.

  13. Remarkable invasion of San Francisco Bay (California, USA) by the Asian clam Potamocorbula amurensis. II. Displacement of a former community

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, Frederic H.; Thompson, Janet K.; Schemel, Laurence E.

    1990-01-01

    Long-term macrobenthic sampling at a site in northern San Francisco Bay has provided an unusual opportunity for documenting the time course of an invasion by a recently introduced Asian clam Potamocorbula arnurensis. Between 1977, when sampling began, and 1986, when the new clam was first discovered, the benthic community varied predictably in response to river inflow. During years of normal or high river inflow, the community consisted of a few brackish or freshwater species. During prolonged periods of low river inflow, the number of species doubled as estuarine species (e.g. Mya arenana) migrated up the estuary. In June 1987, at the beginning of the longest dry period in recent decades, large numbers (> 12 000 m-2) of juvenile P. arnurensis were discovered at the site. By midsummer 1988 the new clam predominated (> 95 %) in both total number of individuals and biomass, and the expected dry-period estuarine species did not become re-established. The rapid rise of P. arnurensis to numerical dominance throughout the region of the original introduction was probably facilitated by the fact that this region of the bay had been rendered nearly depauperate by a major flood in early 1986. Once introduced, the clam had sufficient time (> 1 yr) to become well established before the salinity regime was appropriate for the return of the estuarine species. Subsequently, the new clam was apparently able to prevent the return of the dry-period community. Its ability to live in low salinity water (< 1 %o) suggests that P. amurensis may not be displaced with the return of normal winter river flow and, therefore, may have permanently changed benthic community dynamics in this region of San Francisco Bay.

  14. Ethnicity and Phonetic Variation in a San Francisco Neighborhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall-Lew, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation advances research in sociolinguistics by analyzing phonetic variation in a majority Asian American community in San Francisco, California. As one of the first community studies focusing on Asian Americans in an urban US context, this work speaks to ongoing discussions about speaker ethnicity, phonetic variation, and regional…

  15. The San Francisco Joint Institutional Transportation Systems Management Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Ira; LaPointe, Robert

    1981-01-01

    Transportation systems management (TSM) programs are discussed, particularly the 1977 program of the University of California, San Francisco, which led to traffic reduction and improved vehicle flow. The city's implementation plan for a similar TSM program for 14 educational institutions and hospitals is described. (MLW)

  16. Cultural Factors Related to Smoking in San Francisco's Irish Bars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satterlund, Travis D.; Antin, Tamar M. J.; Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.

    2009-01-01

    California's Smoke-Free Workplace Act was extended to include bars in 1998. While the majority of bars in the state have become smoke free, in many bars patrons and staff continue to smoke despite the law. The authors present findings from a study which assessed cultural factors related to continued smoking in bars in the city of San Francisco. In…

  17. 42. Post Engineer Office, Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman Army ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. Post Engineer Office, Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman Army Hospital, X-Ray Department and Second Floor Plan, X-Ray Department Plan, Building 1006. no date. BUILDING 1006. - Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman General Hospital, Building No. 27, Letterman Hospital Complex, Edie Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  18. 21. Post Engineer Office, Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman Army ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Post Engineer Office, Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman Army Hospital. EKG Cardiology Clinic, Building 1049. December 1955. BUILDING 1049. - Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman General Hospital, Building No. 12, Letterman Hospital Complex, Edie Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  19. 22. Post Engineer Office, Presidio of San Francisco, Building # ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Post Engineer Office, Presidio of San Francisco, Building # 1049 Letterman General Hospital. Alterations to EKG Cardiology Clinic. November 1963. BUILDING 1049. - Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman General Hospital, Building No. 12, Letterman Hospital Complex, Edie Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  20. Structure and mechanics of the Hayward-Rodgers Creek Fault step-over, San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, T.; Sliter, R.; Geist, E.L.; Jachens, R.C.; Jaffe, B.E.; Foxgrover, A.; Hart, P.E.; McCarthy, J.

    2003-01-01

    A dilatational step-over between the right-lateral Hayward and Rodgers Creek faults lies beneath San Pablo Bay in the San Francisco Bay area. A key seismic hazard issue is whether an earthquake on one of the faults could rupture through the step-over, enhancing its maximum possible magnitude. If ruptures are terminated at the step-over, then another important issue is how strain transfers through the step. We developed a combined seismic reflection and refraction cross section across south San Pablo Bay and found that the Hayward and Rodgers Creek faults converge to within 4 km of one another near the surface, about 2 km closer than previously thought. Interpretation of potential field data from San Pablo Bay indicated a low likelihood of strike-slip transfer faults connecting the Hayward and Rodgers Creek faults. Numerical simulations suggest that it is possible for a rupture to jump across a 4-km fault gap, although special stressing conditions are probably required (e.g., Harris and Day, 1993, 1999). Slip on the Hayward and Rodgers Creek faults is building an extensional pull-apart basin that could contain hazardous normal faults. We investigated strain in the pull-apart using a finite-element model and calculated a ???0.02-MPa/yr differential stressing rate in the step-over on a least-principal-stress orientation nearly parallel to the strike-slip faults where they overlap. A 1- to 10-MPa stress-drop extensional earthquake is expected on normal faults oriented perpendicular to the strike-slip faults every 50-500 years. The last such earthquake might have been the 1898 M 6.0-6.5 shock in San Pablo Bay that apparently produced a small tsunami. Historical hydrographic surveys gathered before and after 1898 indicate abnormal subsidence of the bay floor within the step-over, possibly related to the earthquake. We used a hydrodynamic model to show that a dip-slip mechanism in north San Pablo Bay is the most likely 1898 rupture scenario to have caused the tsunami

  1. 356. Delineator Unknown March 1946 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    356. Delineator Unknown March 1946 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; GENERAL DATA; PLAT III - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  2. Results of bulk sediment analysis and bioassay testing on selected sediments from Oakland Inner Harbor and Alcatraz disposal site, San Francisco, California

    SciTech Connect

    Word, J Q; Ward, J A; Woodruff, D L

    1990-09-01

    The Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) was contracted by the US Army Corps of Engineers, San Francisco District, to perform bulk sediment analysis and oyster larvae bioassays (elutriate) on sediments from Inner Oakland Harbor, California. Analysis of sediment characteristics by MSL indicated elevated priority pollutants, PAHs, pesticides, metals, organotins, and oil and grease concentrations, when compared to Alcatraz Island Dredged Material Disposal Site sediment concentrations. Larvae of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, were exposed to seawater collected from the Alcatraz Island Site water, and a series of controls using water and sediments collected from Sequim Bay, Washington. Exposure of larvae to the Alcatraz seawater and the 50% and 100% elutriate concentrations from each Oakland sediment resulted in low survival and a high proportion of abnormal larvae compared to Sequim Bay control exposures. MSL identified that field sample collection, preservation, and storage protocols used by Port of Oakland contractors were inconsistent with standard accepted practices. 23 refs., 10 figs., 40 tabs.

  3. Health Hazard Evaluation Report HETA-85-020-1587, Department of the Interior, San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, Newark, California

    SciTech Connect

    Belanger, P.L.

    1985-05-01

    Area air samples were analyzed for formaldehyde at the San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge, Newark, California in November and December, 1984. The evaluation was requested by the manager to investigate whether the office staff at the headquarters and visitor center were being exposed to indoor air contaminants due to outgassing from plastic furniture, wood paneling, and the synthetic carpet. Six employees were interviewed to determine if they had experienced any symptoms of formaldehyde exposure. The author concludes that a health hazard does not exist at the facility, but recommends that the formalin solution be well controlled to prevent vapors from spreading to other areas. The formalin solution and other chemicals should be properly stored.

  4. 2. SAN FRANCISCO STREET PROFILES: Photocopy of engraving, c. 1880, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SAN FRANCISCO STREET PROFILES: Photocopy of engraving, c. 1880, showing street profiles of two San Francisco cable railroads. Figure 10 illustrates the mainline of the Sutter Street Railroad on Sutter Street, while Figure 11 shows the route of the Presidio & Ferries Railroad along Union Street. Note the lack of significant grades along the Sutter Street route. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  5. 11. Office of the Post Engineer, Presidio of San Francisco. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Office of the Post Engineer, Presidio of San Francisco. Location of Water Lines, Presidio of San Francisco. Sheet 31. November 1943. SHOWING EASTERN PORTION OF AREA A; BUILDINGS 274, 275, AND 277; AND POST ENGINEER'S SHOP AND YARDS INCLUDING BUILDINGS 280, 282-285, AND 288. - Presidio of San Francisco, Storehouse & Administration, Crissy Field North cantonment, Allen Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  6. Suicide Among Chinese in San Francisco

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourne, Peter G.

    1973-01-01

    Reports on a study which investigated suicide among Chinese in San Francisco, its relationship to age and sex distribution, place of birth, marital status, occupation, and methods and causes of suicide. (SF)

  7. Computerized Bus Routing in San Francisco.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caswell, Peter J.; Jungherr, J. Anton

    1979-01-01

    A computerized routing and scheduling system for the San Francisco Public Schools includes the batch processing of bus route assignments and schedules for all schools and the online terminal processing of daily changes. (Author/MLF)

  8. Comparison of sediment supply to San Francisco Bay from watersheds draining the Bay Area and the Central Valley of California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, L.J.; Lewicki, M.; Schoellhamer, D.H.; Ganju, N.K.

    2013-01-01

    Quantifying suspended sediment loads is important for managing the world's estuaries in the context of navigation, pollutant transport, wetland restoration, and coastal erosion. To address these needs, a comprehensive analysis was completed on sediment supply to San Francisco Bay from fluvial sources. Suspended sediment, optical backscatter, velocity data near the head of the estuary, and discharge data obtained from the output of a water balance model were used to generate continuous suspended sediment concentration records and compute loads to the Bay from the large Central Valley watershed. Sediment loads from small tributary watersheds around the Bay were determined using 235 station-years of suspended sediment data from 38 watershed locations, regression analysis, and simple modeling. Over 16 years, net annual suspended sediment load to the head of the estuary from its 154,000 km2 Central Valley watershed varied from 0.13 to 2.58 (mean = 0.89) million metric t of suspended sediment, or an average yield of 11 metric t/km2/yr. Small tributaries, totaling 8145 km2, in the nine-county Bay Area discharged between 0.081 and 4.27 (mean = 1.39) million metric t with a mean yield of 212 metric t/km2/yr. The results indicate that the hundreds of urbanized and tectonically active tributaries adjacent to the Bay, which together account for just 5% of the total watershed area draining to the Bay and provide just 7% of the annual average fluvial flow, supply 61% of the suspended sediment. The small tributary loads are more variable (53-fold between years compared to 21-fold for the inland Central Valley rivers) and dominated fluvial sediment supply to the Bay during 10 out of 16 yr. If San Francisco Bay is typical of other estuaries in active tectonic or climatically variable coastal regimes, managers responsible for water quality, dredging and reusing sediment accumulating in shipping channels, or restoring wetlands in the world's estuaries may need to more carefully

  9. Toxic phytoplankton in San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodgers, Kristine M.; Garrison, David L.; Cloern, James E.

    1996-01-01

    The Regional Monitoring Program (RMP) was conceived and designed to document the changing distribution and effects of trace substances in San Francisco Bay, with focus on toxic contaminants that have become enriched by human inputs. However, coastal ecosystems like San Francisco Bay also have potential sources of naturally-produced toxic substances that can disrupt food webs and, under extreme circumstances, become threats to public health. The most prevalent source of natural toxins is from blooms of algal species that can synthesize metabolites that are toxic to invertebrates or vertebrates. Although San Francisco Bay is nutrient-rich, it has so far apparently been immune from the epidemic of harmful algal blooms in the world’s nutrient-enriched coastal waters. This absence of acute harmful blooms does not imply that San Francisco Bay has unique features that preclude toxic blooms. No sampling program has been implemented to document the occurrence of toxin-producing algae in San Francisco Bay, so it is difficult to judge the likelihood of such events in the future. This issue is directly relevant to the goals of RMP because harmful species of phytoplankton have the potential to disrupt ecosystem processes that support animal populations, cause severe illness or death in humans, and confound the outcomes of toxicity bioassays such as those included in the RMP. Our purpose here is to utilize existing data on the phytoplankton community of San Francisco Bay to provide a provisional statement about the occurrence, distribution, and potential threats of harmful algae in this Estuary.

  10. Geology of the Right Stepover region between the Rodgers Creek, Healdsburg, and Maacama faults, northern San Francisco Bay region: a contribution to Northern California Geological Society Field Trip Guide, June 6-8, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLaughlin, Robert J.; Sarna-Wojcicki, Andrei

    2003-01-01

    This Open file report was written as part of a two-day field trip on June 7 and 8, 2003, conducted for the Northern California Geological Society. The first day of this field trip (June 7) was led by McLaughlin and Sarna-Wojcicki in the area of the right- step between the Rodgers Creek- Healdsburg fault zone and the Maacama fault. The second day of the trip (June 8), was led by David Wagner of the California Geological Survey and students having recently completed MS theses at San Jose State University (James Allen) and San Francisco State University (Carrie Randolph-Loar), as well as a student from San Francisco State University whose MS thesis was in progress in June 2003 (Eric Ford). The second day covered the Rodgers Creek fault zone and related faults of the Petaluma Valley area (the Tolay and Petaluma Valley fault zones).

  11. Suggested criteria for hydrologic design of storm-drainage facilities in the San Francisco Bay Region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rantz, Saul Edward

    1971-01-01

    This report presents basic criteria, in the form of tables and graphs, for each of the four methods of hydrologic design most commonly used in the San Francisco Bay region--flood-frequency analysis, Rational Method, unit-hydrograph method, and runoff simulation by means of hydrologic basin modeling. The term "hydrologic design" as used in this report refers to the computation of either design values of peak discharge or design hydrographs of storm runoff. The hydraulics of open-channel and pipeline flow and the actual design of appurtenances for conveying the runoff are not discussed in this paper. Use of the suggested criteria results in fairly close agreement between peak discharges computed by the flood-frequency and unit-hydrograph methods. Those peak discharges are not directly comparable with discharges computed by the Rational Method, in part because the results obtained by the Rational Method are affected by the values assigned to parameters for overland and channel flow. Those parameters are additional to the ones used in the flood-frequency and unit-hydrograph methods. A demonstration of runoff simulation by use of a hydrologic basin model is beyond the scope of this paper--such demonstrations are found in the appropriate references cited. However, this report does present an original technique for transposing storm rainfall in the region, storm transposition being commonly required to obtain the precipitation input used with hydrologic basin models.

  12. Data from theodolite measurements of creep rates on San Francisco Bay region faults, California, 1979-2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McFarland, Forrest S.; Lienkaemper, James J.; Caskey, S. John

    2009-01-01

    From 1979 until his retirement from the project in 2001, Jon Galehouse of San Francisco State University (SFSU) and many student research assistants measured creep (aseismic slip) rates on these faults. The creep measurement project, which was initiated by Galehouse, continued through the Geosciences Department at SFSU from 2001-2006 under the direction of Karen Grove and John Caskey (Grove and Caskey, 2005) and since 2006 under Caskey (2007). Forrest McFarland has managed most of the technical and logistical project operations, as well as data processing and compilation since 2001. Data from 2001-2007 are found in McFarland and others (2007). From 2009 onward, we have released the raw data annually using this report (OF2009-1119) as a permanent publication link, while publishing more detailed analyses of these data in the scientific literature, such as Lienkaemper and others (2014a). We maintain a project Web site (http://funnel.sfsu.edu/creep/) that includes the following information: project description, project personnel, creep characteristics and measurement, map of creep-measurement sites, creep-measurement site information, and links to data plots for each measurement site. Our most current, annually updated results are, therefore, accessible to the scientific community and to the general public. Information about the project can currently be requested by the public by an email link (fltcreep@sfsu.edu) found on our project Web site.

  13. Comparison of the accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in bivalves and sediments in San Francisco Bay, California

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, K.D.; Pendergast, J.; Means, J.C.; McMillin, D.J.; Gala, W.R.; Folwarkow, S.

    1994-12-31

    Accumulation of non-polar organic chemicals into the lipids of aquatic organisms and into the organic carbon of sediments are controlled by the same physical/chemical characteristic of a chemical, the octanol-water partition coefficient. Although theoretically the monitoring of non-polar organic chemicals in aquatic organisms and sediments could be redundant, environmental factors such as metabolism, biodegradation, historical sediment deposits, etc. can cause the chemical profiles of aquatic organisms and sediments to be quite different. A comparison of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) profile in sediments and in bivalves exposed to the overlying water for 90 days at several stations near refinery discharges in San Francisco Bay was performed. Concentrations of all classes of PAHs were enriched in the sediments relative to the bivalves even after normalizing for organic carbon and lipids. The PAH profile in the sediments contained a higher proportion of high MW PAHs and non-substituted PAHs than was observed in the bivalves. Given the low capacity of bivalves to metabolize PAHs, other factors, such as differential solubility and bioavailability, must be important to explain this variation in partitioning of PAH classes between sediments and tissues.

  14. "As Good As It Gets": Undocumented Latino Day Laborers Negotiating Discrimination in San Francisco and Berkeley, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Quesada, James; Arreola, Sonya; Kral, Alex; Khoury, Sahar; Organista, Kurt C; Worby, Paula

    2014-04-01

    Undocumented Latino day laborers in the United States are vulnerable to being arrested and expelled at any time. This social fact shapes their everyday lives in terms of actions taken and strategies deployed to mitigate being confronted, profiled, and possibly incarcerated and deported. While perceptions of threat and bouts of discrimination are routine among undocumented Latino day laborers, their specific nature vary according to multiple social factors and structural forces that differ significantly from locale to locale. The experience of discrimination is often tacitly negotiated through perceptions, decisions, and actions toward avoiding or moderating its ill effects. This essay examines urban undocumented Latino day laborers over a variety of sites in the greater San Francisco Bay Area, which, compared to many metropolitan areas in the U.S. is "as good as it gets" in terms of being socially tolerated and relatively safe from persecution. Nonetheless, tacit negotiations are necessary to withstand or overcome challenges presented by idiosyncratic and ever changing global, national/state, and local dynamics of discrimination. [undocumented Latino laborers, social exclusion, discrimination, tacit negotiation]. PMID:24910501

  15. 76 FR 14051 - Notice of Inventory Completion: San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice is here given in accordance with the Native American Graves Protection...

  16. An evaluation of the success of dredging as remediation at a DDT-contaminated site in San Francisco Bay, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Weston, Donald P; Jarman, Walter M; Cabana, Gilbert; Bacon, Corinne E; Jacobson, Lisa A

    2002-10-01

    Lauritzen Canal, a portion of San Francisco Bay near Richmond, California, USA, was heavily contaminated with dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and dieldrin as a result of releases from a pesticide-formulating firm. In 1996 and 1997, 82,000 m3 of contaminated sediment was removed from the canal by dredging. This study evaluated the success of the dredging based largely on body burdens of DDT and its metabolites (sigmaDDT) in resident biota, with some data on sediment- and water-contaminant levels and sediment toxicity testing. Sediment disturbance during dredging introduced a pulse of sigmaDDT into the Lauritzen Canal ecosystem, and body burdens of fish and invertebrates increased 2- to 76-fold, depending on the species. Approximately 1 1/2 years after remediation, 11 of 14 indicators showed contamination comparable with or worse than the contamination that existed prior to dredging. Monitoring of mussels up to four years postdredging suggests some modest improvement, although the sigmaDDT body burden of canal mussels remained far above the norm for San Francisco Bay. The elevated sigmaDDT body burdens in biota that persisted for years after remediation reflect recent exposure and are not merely a result of slow metabolic elimination of the sigmaDDT pulse associated with dredging. Sediment sigmaDDT concentrations were low immediately after dredging, but within months, the canal bottom became covered with a veneer of fine sediment as contaminated as that that had been removed. The source of this material has not been conclusively established, but we suspect it came from slumping and erosion from the flanks of the canal beneath docks and around pilings where dredging was not done. In retrospect, either capping in place or more thorough dredging may have been more successful in reducing pesticide exposure of the biota, although there were difficulties associated with both alternatives. PMID:12371501

  17. San Francisco and Bay Area, CA, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This cloud free color infrared view of San Francisco and Bay Area, CA (38.0N, 122.5W) is unusual because the city is normally concealed from view by clouds and fog. Gray tones represent urban areas and the red toned areas are vegetated. Within the city, parks easily stand out from the well-developed parts of the city as enclaves of color. The trace of the San Andreas fault shows as a straight valley running across the San Francisco peninsula.

  18. 33 CFR 165.1185 - Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Regulated Navigation Area; San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Carquinez Strait, Suisun Bay, Sacramento River, San Joaquin River, and connecting waters in California. 165.1185 Section 165.1185 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY...

  19. Dissolved Oxygen in Guadalupe Slough and Pond A3W, South San Francisco Bay, California, August and September 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shellenbarger, Gregory; Schoellhamer, David H.; Morgan, Tara L.; Takekawa, John Y.; Athearn, Nicole D.; Henderson, Kathleen D.

    2008-01-01

    Initial restoration of former salt evaporation ponds under the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project in San Francisco Bay included the changing of water-flow patterns and the monitoring of water quality of discharge waters from the ponds. Low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations became evident in discharge waters when the ponds first were opened in 2004. This was a concern, because of the potential for low-DO pond discharge to decrease the DO concentrations in the sloughs that receive water from the ponds. However, as of summer 2007, only limited point-measurements of DO concentrations had been made in the receiving sloughs adjacent to the discharge ponds. In this report, we describe two short studies aimed at understanding the natural variability of slough DO and the effect of pond discharge on the DO concentrations in the sloughs. Pond A3W (a discharge pond) and the adjacent Guadalupe Slough were instrumented in August and September 2007 to measure DO, temperature, conductivity, and pH. In addition, Mowry and Newark Sloughs were instrumented during the August study to document DO variability in nearby sloughs that were unaffected by pond discharge. The results showed that natural tidal variability in the slough appeared to dominate and control the slough DO concentrations. Water-quality parameters between Guadalupe Slough and Mowry and Newark Sloughs could not be directly compared because deployment locations were different distances from the bay. Pond-discharge water was identified in Guadalupe Slough using the deployed instruments, but, counter to the previous assumption, the pond discharge, at times, increased DO concentrations in the slough. The effects of altering the volume of pond discharge were overwhelmed by natural spring-neap tidal variability in the slough. This work represents a preliminary investigation by the U.S. Geological Survey of the effects of pond discharge on adjacent sloughs, and the results will be used in designing a comprehensive DO

  20. Contaminant profiles of two species of shorebirds foraging together at two neighboring sites in South San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hui, C.A.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Warnock, S.E.

    2001-01-01

    The San Francisco Bay estuary is used by over one million shorebirds during spring migration and is home to several hundred thousand during the winter. Most shorebird use occurs in the southern reach of the estuary (South Bay). The reduced water circulation and discharge from industrial sources in the South Bay are responsible for the highest levels of some trace elements in the estuary. Wintering shorebirds have been found to have strong site fidelity to areas as small as a few kilometers in the South Bay, which may increase their exposure to contaminants near local point sources. In addition, different shorebird species foraging at the same site have been shown to have different contaminant burdens. Thus, our objectives were to test whether contaminant burdens differed by species, or whether contaminant burdens differed in shorebirds collected at adjacent sites. We examined the contaminant profiles of two species of shorebirds, long-billed dowitchers (Limnodromus scolopaceus) and western sandpipers (Calidris mauri) that forage together at two sites, Hayward and Newark, separated by 8 km in the South Bay. We used multivariate analysis of variance tests to compare the composition of 14 elemental analytes in their liver tissues and estimated their molar ratios of Hg and Se. Composite samples were used for contaminant analyses because of the small body size of the shorebirds. Seven elemental analytes (Ag, Ba, Be, Cr, Ni, Pb, V) were below detection limits in a majority of the samples so statistical analyses were precluded. In the measurable analytes (As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Mn, Se, Zn), we found no significant intra-site differences of contaminant profiles for the two species. We pooled the samples to examine inter-site differences and found significant differences in contaminant profiles between shorebirds at the neighboring sites (P = 0.03). Shorebirds at Newark had higher (P 0.05).

  1. San Francisco and Bay Area, CA, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Although clouds obscure part of the city of San Francisco and the mouth of the Bay (37.5N, 122.0W), many cultural and natural features in the immediate vicinity are obvious. The Bay Bridge which was damaged in the 1989 earthquake, Candlestick Park, San Mateo and Dumbarton Bridges as well as the various colored settling ponds rimming the south end of the Bay, the San Andreas and Calaveras faults and many of the major highways can be seen.

  2. BACTERIOPLANKTON DYNAMICS IN NORTHERN SAN FRANCISCO BAY: ROLE OF PARTICLE ASSOCIATION AND SEASONAL FRESHWATER FLOW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bacterioplankton abundance and metabolic characteristics were observed in northern San Francisco Bay, California, during spring and summer 1996 at three sites: Central Bay, Suisun Bay, and the Sacramento River. These sites spanned a salinity gradient from marine to freshwater, an...

  3. Contaminant profiles of two species of shorebirds foraging together at two neighboring sites in South San Francisco Bay, California.

    PubMed

    Hui, C A; Takekawa, J Y; Warnock, S E

    2001-10-01

    The San Francisco Bay estuary is used by over one million shorebirds during spring migration and is home to several hundred thousand during the winter. Most shorebird use occurs in the southern reach of the estuary (South Bay). The reduced water circulation and discharge from industrial sources in the South Bay are responsible for the highest levels of some trace elements in the estuary. Wintering shorebirds have been found to have strong site fidelity to areas as small as a few kilometers in the South Bay, which may increase their exposure to contaminants near local point sources. In addition, different shorebird species foraging at the same site have been shown to have different contaminant burdens. Thus, our objectives were to test whether contaminant burdens differed by species, or whether contaminant burdens differed in shorebirds collected at adjacent sites. We examined the contaminant profiles of two species of shorebirds, long-billed dowitchers (Limnodromus scolopaceus) and western sandpipers (Calidris mauri) that forage together at two sites, Hayward and Newark, separated by 8 km in the South Bay. We used multivariate analysis of variance tests to compare the composition of 14 elemental analytes in their liver tissues and estimated their molar ratios of Hg and Se. Composite samples were used for contaminant analyses because of the small body size of the shorebirds. Seven elemental analytes (Ag, Ba, Be, Cr, Ni, Pb, V) were below detection limits in a majority of the samples so statistical analyses were precluded. In the measurable analytes (As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Mn, Se, Zn), we found no significant intra-site differences of contaminant profiles for the two species. We pooled the samples to examine inter-site differences and found significant differences in contaminant profiles between shorebirds at the neighboring sites (P = 0.03). Shorebirds at Newark had higher (P < 0.05) concentrations of As, Cd, and Se than those at Hayward. Dowitchers at Newark had

  4. Phytoplankton bloom dynamics in coastal ecosystems: A review with some general lessons from sustained investigation of San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cloern, James E.

    1996-01-01

    Phytoplankton blooms are prominent features of biological variability in shallow coastal ecosystems such as estuaries, lagoons, bays, and tidal rivers. Long-term observation and research in San Francisco Bay illustrates some patterns of phytoplankton spatial and temporal variability and the underlying mechanisms of this variability. Blooms are events of rapid production and accumulation of phytoplankton biomass that are usually responses to changing physical forcings originating in the coastal ocean (e.g., tides), the atmosphere (wind), or on the land surface (precipitation and river runoff). These physical forcings have different timescales of variability, so algal blooms can be short-term episodic events, recurrent seasonal phenomena, or rare events associated with exceptional climatic or hydrologic conditions. The biogeochemical role of phytoplankton primary production is to transform and incorporate reactive inorganic elements into organic forms, and these transformations are rapid and lead to measurable geochemical change during blooms. Examples include the depletion of inorganic nutrients (N, P, Si), supersaturation of oxygen and removal of carbon dioxide, shifts in the isotopic composition of reactive elements (C, N), production of climatically active trace gases (methyl bromide, dimethylsulfide), changes in the chemical form and toxicity of trace metals (As, Cd, Ni, Zn), changes in the biochemical composition and reactivity of the suspended particulate matter, and synthesis of organic matter required for the reproduction and growth of heterotrophs, including bacteria, zooplankton, and benthic consumer animals. Some classes of phytoplankton play special roles in the cycling of elements or synthesis of specific organic molecules, but we have only rudimentary understanding of the forces that select for and promote blooms of these species. Mounting evidence suggests that the natural cycles of bloom variability are being altered on a global scale by human

  5. Phytoplankton bloom dynamics in coastal ecosystems: A review with some general lessons from sustained investigation of San Francisco Bay, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloern, James E.

    1996-05-01

    Phytoplankton blooms are prominent features of biological variability in shallow coastal ecosystems such as estuaries, lagoons, bays, and tidal rivers. Long-term observation and research in San Francisco Bay illustrates some patterns of phytoplankton spatial and temporal variability and the underlying mechanisms of this variability. Blooms are events of rapid production and accumulation of phytoplankton biomass that are usually responses to changing physical forcings originating in the coastal ocean (e.g., tides), the atmosphere (wind), or on the land surface (precipitation and river runoff). These physical forcings have different timescales of variability, so algal blooms can be short-term episodic events, recurrent seasonal phenomena, or rare events associated with exceptional climatic or hydrologic conditions. The biogeochemical role of phytoplankton primary production is to transform and incorporate reactive inorganic elements into organic forms, and these transformations are rapid and lead to measurable geochemical change during blooms. Examples include the depletion of inorganic nutrients (N, P, Si), supersaturation of oxygen and removal of carbon dioxide, shifts in the isotopic composition of reactive elements (C, N), production of climatically active trace gases (methyl bromide, dimethylsulfide), changes in the chemical form and toxicity of trace metals (As, Cd, Ni, Zn), changes in the biochemical composition and reactivity of the suspended particulate matter, and synthesis of organic matter required for the reproduction and growth of heterotrophs, including bacteria, zooplankton, and benthic consumer animals. Some classes of phytoplankton play special roles in the cycling of elements or synthesis of specific organic molecules, but we have only rudimentary understanding of the forces that select for and promote blooms of these species. Mounting evidence suggests that the natural cycles of bloom variability are being altered on a global scale by human

  6. Freshwater Inflows to San Francisco Bay and Estuary, California From Ion Microprobe Analysis of Trace Elements in Estuarine Bivalve Shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takesue, R. K.; Bacon, C. R.; Brown, C. L.; Schwartz, C. L.; Wooden, J. L.

    2002-12-01

    In San Francisco Bay and Estuary, salinity and trace metal distribution are closely linked to freshwater inflow from the Sacramento-San Joaquin (S-SJ) Rivers. Because the magnitude and timing of precipitation and snow melt influence river flow, records of salinity and trace metal variations in SF Bay-Estuary may provide information about regional climate variability. Some trace elements are incorporated into growth-banded calcium carbonate bivalve shells in proportion to ambient water concentration, or with a dependence on environmental conditions such as temperature, salinity, or biological productivity. The work presented here will explore whether such geochemical tracers and proxy relationships exist in modern SF Bay and Estuary bivalve shells, with an ultimate goal of using these relationships to reconstruct past regional climatological and local environmental conditions. A fast-growing euryhaline clam Potamocorbula amurensis was chosen for modern calibration studies because its physiology and ecology are well characterized, including tissue trace metal concentrations. High resolution trace metal records in P. amurensis shells may complement ongoing monthly monitoring efforts by providing information about short-term (weekly) changes in estuarine trace metal distributions, or by providing information about distributions before monitoring began. P. amurensis shells were collected near the confluence of the S-SJ Rivers (0-12 psu) and in northern SF Bay (up to 26 psu) following flood (1995) and drought (1991) years. B, Mg, S, V, Cr, Mn, Sr, and Ba concentrations were measured in situ across growth bands in shell cross sections by secondary ionization mass spectrometry (Stanford-USGSSHRIMP-RG). [M]/Cashell profiles were compared to records of calculated Delta outflow (an estimate of net S-SJ River discharge), salinity, and temperature. S-SJ waters entering SF Bay and Estuary are naturally enriched in V. All V/Cashell profiles showed peaks corresponding to winter

  7. Estimating juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) abundance from beach seine data collected in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta and San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perry, Russell W.; Kirsch, Joseph E.; Hendrix, A. Noble

    2016-01-01

    Resource managers rely on abundance or density metrics derived from beach seine surveys to make vital decisions that affect fish population dynamics and assemblage structure. However, abundance and density metrics may be biased by imperfect capture and lack of geographic closure during sampling. Currently, there is considerable uncertainty about the capture efficiency of juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) by beach seines. Heterogeneity in capture can occur through unrealistic assumptions of closure and from variation in the probability of capture caused by environmental conditions. We evaluated the assumptions of closure and the influence of environmental conditions on capture efficiency and abundance estimates of Chinook salmon from beach seining within the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta and the San Francisco Bay. Beach seine capture efficiency was measured using a stratified random sampling design combined with open and closed replicate depletion sampling. A total of 56 samples were collected during the spring of 2014. To assess variability in capture probability and the absolute abundance of juvenile Chinook salmon, beach seine capture efficiency data were fitted to the paired depletion design using modified N-mixture models. These models allowed us to explicitly test the closure assumption and estimate environmental effects on the probability of capture. We determined that our updated method allowing for lack of closure between depletion samples drastically outperformed traditional data analysis that assumes closure among replicate samples. The best-fit model (lowest-valued Akaike Information Criterion model) included the probability of fish being available for capture (relaxed closure assumption), capture probability modeled as a function of water velocity and percent coverage of fine sediment, and abundance modeled as a function of sample area, temperature, and water velocity. Given that beach seining is a ubiquitous sampling technique for

  8. The San Francisco volcanic field, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Priest, S.S.; Duffield, W.A.; Malis-Clark, Karen; Hendley, J. W., II; Stauffer, P.H.

    2001-01-01

    Northern Arizona's San Francisco Volcanic Field, much of which lies within Coconino and Kaibab National Forests, is an area of young volcanoes along the southern margin of the Colorado Plateau. During its 6-million-year history, this field has produced more than 600 volcanoes. Their activity has created a topographically varied landscape with forests that extend from the Pi?on-Juniper up to the Bristlecone Pine life zones. The most prominent landmark is San Francisco Mountain, a stratovolcano that rises to 12,633 feet and serves as a scenic backdrop to the city of Flagstaff.

  9. Structure of the 1906 near-surface rupture zone of the San Andreas Fault, San Francisco Peninsula segment, near Woodside, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosa, C.M.; Catchings, R.D.; Rymer, M.J.; Grove, Karen; Goldman, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution seismic-reflection and refraction images of the 1906 surface rupture zone of the San Andreas Fault near Woodside, California reveal evidence for one or more additional near-surface (within about 3 meters [m] depth) fault strands within about 25 m of the 1906 surface rupture. The 1906 surface rupture above the groundwater table (vadose zone) has been observed in paleoseismic trenches that coincide with our seismic profile and is seismically characterized by a discrete zone of low P-wave velocities (Vp), low S-wave velocities (Vs), high Vp/Vs ratios, and high Poisson’s ratios. A second near-surface fault strand, located about 17 m to the southwest of the 1906 surface rupture, is inferred by similar seismic anomalies. Between these two near-surface fault strands and below 5 m depth, we observed a near-vertical fault strand characterized by a zone of high Vp, low Vs, high Vp/Vs ratios, and high Poisson’s ratios on refraction tomography images and near-vertical diffractions on seismic-reflection images. This prominent subsurface zone of seismic anomalies is laterally offset from the 1906 surface rupture by about 8 m and likely represents the active main (long-term) strand of the San Andreas Fault at 5 to 10 m depth. Geometries of the near-surface and subsurface (about 5 to 10 m depth) fault zone suggest that the 1906 surface rupture dips southwestward to join the main strand of the San Andreas Fault at about 5 to 10 m below the surface. The 1906 surface rupture forms a prominent groundwater barrier in the upper 3 to 5 m, but our interpreted secondary near-surface fault strand to the southwest forms a weaker barrier, suggesting that there has been less or less-recent near-surface slip on that strand. At about 6 m depth, the main strand of the San Andreas Fault consists of water-saturated blue clay (collected from a hand-augered borehole), which is similar to deeply weathered serpentinite observed within the main strand of the San Andreas Fault at

  10. Experiences and Perceptions of Medical Discrimination Among a Multiethnic Sample of Breast Cancer Patients in the Greater San Francisco Bay Area, California

    PubMed Central

    Nuru-Jeter, Amani; Morris, Pagan; Allen, Laura; Shema, Sarah J.; Winters, June K.; Gomez, Scarlett Lin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We conducted qualitative interviews with breast cancer survivors to identify themes related to institutional, personally mediated, and internalized discrimination in the medical setting. Methods. We conducted 7 focus groups and 23 one-on-one interviews with a multiethnic sample of breast cancer survivors randomly selected from a population-based registry covering the Greater San Francisco Bay Area, California. Results. Participants reported experiencing different forms of medical discrimination related to class, race, and language. Among African Americans, participants reported experiencing internalized discrimination and personal or group discrimination discrepancy—perceiving discrimination against them as a racial/ethnic group, yet not perceiving or discussing personal experiences of discrimination. Among Asian immigrants, participants reported experiencing institutional and personally mediated overt types of discrimination, including lack of access to quality and readily available translation services. Our results also indicated well-established coping mechanisms in response to discrimination experiences in both groups. Conclusions. Participants reported experiencing medical discrimination at all 3 levels, which may have deleterious health effects through the biopsychosocial stress pathway and through active coping mechanisms that could lead to delayed- or underutilization of the health care system to avoid discrimination. PMID:22420791

  11. Natural and Anthropogenic Factors Affecting Benthic Macroinvertebrate Communities in Streams Across an Urban Gradient in the San Francisco Bay Area, California, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cover, M. R.; Taberski, K. M.; Moore, S. M.; Resh, V. H.

    2005-05-01

    The development of biological criteria for streams requires an understanding of how both natural environmental factors and human disturbance affect biological communities. We used biological metrics, species traits, and multivariate ordinations to assess the relative importance of natural and anthropogenic factors on stream benthic macroinvertebrate communities in the San Francisco Bay Area, California. Upstream watershed land use was the dominant factor affecting macroinvertebrate assemblages. Urban sites exhibited uniformly low richness and functional diversity, and were dominated by four taxa: Chironomidae, Baetis sp., Simulium sp., and Oligochaeta. In contrast, the majority of sites draining rural residential land uses were compositionally similar to minimally disturbed conditions, while sites draining agricultural lands reflected an intermediate level of disturbance. Flow intermittency was the most important natural factor affecting the composition of benthic assemblages. Taxa richness was significantly lower in minimally disturbed intermittent streams (32) than perennial streams (46), as a result of the near absence of taxa with aquatic adult life stages and long life cycles, other than the hellgrammite Neohermes filicornis that survives for months in the moist streambed. Although flow intermittency is a critical factor influencing stream communities in mediterranean climates, urban land use has a much greater effect on benthic assemblages.

  12. Handbook of Techniques and Guides for the Study of the San Francisco Bay-Delta-Estuary Complex, Part 4. Key to the Coastal Marine Fishes of California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alameda County School Dept., Hayward, CA.

    Project MER (Marine Ecology Research) is aimed at improving environmental education in the San Francisco Bay Area schools. As part of meeting this goal, it is hoped that students and teachers can see the results of their efforts being put to practical use. This guide is the fourth of a series which was produced to help students and teachers gather…

  13. 76 FR 10329 - Foreign-Trade Zone 3-San Francisco, California; Application for Subzone; Valero Refining Company...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... Refining Company--California (Oil Refinery), Benicia, California An application has been submitted to the...-purpose subzone status for the oil refining facilities of Valero Refining Company--California (Valero... capacity) consist of 4 sites in Solano County: Site 1 (510 acres) main refinery complex, located at...

  14. San Francisco's New Zoo's Connections for Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Routman, Emily

    2001-01-01

    Provides information on a redevelopment project at the San Francisco Zoo known as the New Zoo. The explicit goal of the project is to inspire a sense of caring and appreciation for wildlife that is the foundation of a conservation ethic. (DDR)

  15. Simulations of the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, A; Petersson, A; Tkalcic, H

    2005-12-16

    Simulations of the Great 1906 San Francisco earthquake are being performed as part of the event's centenary. LLNL is participating in a large effort to study this event and possible consequences if the event were to happen today. This document is meant to describe our efforts to others participating in the project.

  16. Educational and Demographic Profile: San Francisco County

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This profile uniquely presents educational and socioeconomic information for San Francisco County, nearby counties, and the state. It highlights the relationship between various factors that affect the economic well-being of individuals and communities. This information provides a framework for enhanced communication and collaboration between the…

  17. Potamocorbula amurensis discovered in San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schemel, Laurence E.

    1989-01-01

    The small Asian clam, Potamocorbula amurensis, is now a major component of benthic communities in most areas of northern San Francisco Bay and some areas of South Bay. Because of its wide tolerance of salinity and other environmental variables and its high abundance in many areas, benthic ecologists believe this recent invasion may represent a major and permanent change in the bay system.

  18. The Third International San Francisco Book Fair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalmon, Winn; And Others

    Friends of Books and Comics presents its catalog of the Third International San Francisco Book Fair, a marketplace of alternative books, comics, and magazines. Nearly 200 alternative and small presses are listed alphabetically with address, telephone number, names of principal people involved, and a brief description of type and subject of…

  19. Evaluating Ambient Concentrations and Local Emissions of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) in the San Francisco Bay Area of California Using a Comprehensive Fixed-site and Mobile Monitoring Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guha, A.; Bower, J. P.; Martien, P. T.; Randall, S.; Young, A.; Hilken, H.; Stevenson, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Bay Area Air Quality Management District (hence the Air District) is the greater San Francisco Bay metropolitan region's chief air quality regulatory agency. Aligning itself with Executive Order S-3-05, the Air District has set a goal to reduce the region's GHG emissions by 80% below 1990 levels by the year 2050. The Air District's 10-point Climate Action Work Program lays out the agency's priorities, actions and coordination with regional stakeholders. The Program has three core objectives: (1) to develop a technical and monitoring program to document the region's GHG sources and related emissions, (2) to implement a policy and rule-based approach to control and regulate GHG emissions, and finally, (3) to utilize local governance, incentives and partnerships to encourage GHG emissions reductions.As part of the technical program, the Air District has set up a long term, ambient GHG monitoring network at four sites. The first site is located north and upwind of the urban core at Bodega Bay by the Pacific Coast. It mostly receives clean marine inflow and serves as the regional background site. The other three sites are strategically located at regional exit points for Bay Area plumes that presumably contain GHG enhancements from local sources. These stations are at San Martin, located south of the San Jose metropolitan area; at Patterson Pass at the cross section with California's Central Valley; and at Bethel Island at the mouth of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. At all sites, carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are being measured continuously, along with combustion tracer CO and other air pollutants. The GHG measurements are performed with high precision and fast laser instruments (Picarro Inc). In the longer term, the network will allow the Air District to monitor ambient concentrations of GHGs and thus evaluate the effectiveness of its policy, regulation and enforcement efforts. We present data from the sites in their first few months of operation and

  20. 78 FR 54487 - YP Western Directory LLC, San Francisco Division, Publishing Operations Group, YP Subsidiary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    ... Francisco, California. The notice was published in the Federal Register on February 25, 2013 (78 FR 12796... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration YP Western Directory LLC, San Francisco Division,...

  1. Cessation of Slip on the Pilarcitos Fault and Initiation of the San Francisco Peninsula Segment of the (Modern) San Andreas Fault, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaughlin, R. J.; Powell, C. L.; McDougall-Reid, K.; Jachens, R. C.

    2007-12-01

    The Pilarcitos Fault (PF) is widely regarded to be the long-term (3-19 Ma) trace of the San Andreas Fault on the San Francisco Peninsula. The active modern San Andreas Fault (MSAF) in this area, however, records less than 3 m.y. of displacement. Middle-Miocene and younger displacement is partitioned to a single San Andreas Fault where the PF and MSAF merge in the Santa Cruz Mountains south of Palo Alto and Monte Bello Ridge. Aside from such general constraints, evidence for the timing of initiation of the MSAF and for cessation of slip on the PF are poorly constrained. As a consequence, there is a lack of consensus on the long term slip rates for the PF as well as the MSAF. Two independent datasets indicate significantly different offsets along the MSAF since 3 Ma. In one dataset distinctive 3.3 Ma (Blancan) fluvial gravels of the Santa Clara Formation are offset 28-31 km from their clast source east of the MSAF near Loma Prieta, yielding a slip rate of 9-10 mm/yr since 3 Ma. In the other dataset, a linear magnetic anomaly associated with Mesozoic serpentinite and gabbro of the Coast Range Ophiolite is offset 22 km across the MSAF, yielding a slip rate since 3.3 Ma of 7 mm/yr. Both datasets assume cessation of slip on the PF by 3 Ma, but imply different amounts of offset for the MSAF. Both offset estimations also yield lower long term slip rates than the present geodetic rate of 13-19 mm/yr. A closer review of these data reveals stratigraphic relations that indicate long term slip rates of 14-21 mm/yr for the PF and MSAF, which are more in line with geodetic rates. These long-term rates result from recognition that the distinctive Santa Clara Formation strata west of the MSAF, that were deposited in a pull-apart wedge between the PF and MSAF, are also underlain by the 5.4-7.0 Ma marine Purisima Formation and by middle Miocene and older marine strata. Along the east side of the MSAF the northwestern most exposures of the Purisima Formation underlain by Miocene

  2. Building Code Compliance and Enforcement: The Experience of SanFrancisco's Residential Energy Conservation Ordinanace and California'sBuildign Standards for New Construction

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, E.

    1990-11-01

    As part of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's (LBL) technical assistance to the Sustainable City Project, compliance and enforcement activities related to local and state building codes for existing and new construction were evaluated in two case studies. The analysis of the City of San Francisco's Residential Energy Conservation Ordinance (RECO) showed that a limited, prescriptive energy conservation ordinance for existing residential construction can be enforced relatively easily with little administrative costs, and that compliance with such ordinances can be quite high. Compliance with the code was facilitated by extensive publicity, an informed public concerned with the cost of energy and knowledgeable about energy efficiency, the threat of punishment (Order of Abatement), the use of private inspectors, and training workshops for City and private inspectors. The analysis of California's Title 24 Standards for new residential and commercial construction showed that enforcement of this type of code for many climate zones is more complex and requires extensive administrative support for education and training of inspectors, architects, engineers, and builders. Under this code, prescriptive and performance approaches for compliance are permitted, resulting in the demand for alternative methods of enforcement: technical assistance, plan review, field inspection, and computer analysis. In contrast to existing construction, building design and new materials and construction practices are of critical importance in new construction, creating a need for extensive technical assistance and extensive interaction between enforcement personnel and the building community. Compliance problems associated with building design and installation did occur in both residential and nonresidential buildings. Because statewide codes are enforced by local officials, these problems may increase over time as energy standards change and become more complex and as other standards (eg, health and

  3. San Francisco and Bay Area, CA, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Although clouds obscure part of the city of San Francisco and the mouth of the Bay (37.5N, 122.0W), many cultural and natural features in the immediate vicinity are obvious. The Bay Bridge which was damaged in the 1989 earthquake, Candlestick Park, San Mateo and Dumbarton Bridges as well as the various colored settling ponds rimming the south end of the Bay, the San Andreas and Calaveras faults and many of the major highways can be seen. Color infrared photography is very useful for haze penetration and greater definition of the imagery as well as vegetation detection, depicted as shades of red.

  4. California: San Joaquin Valley

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Fog and Haze in California's San Joaquin Valley   ... is noted for its hazy overcasts and a low, thick ground fog known as the Tule. Owing to the effects of the atmosphere on reflected ... as the angle of view changes. An area of thick, white fog in the San Joaquin Valley is visible in all three of the images. However, ...

  5. High-resolution marine seismic reflection data from the San Francisco Bay area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childs, Jonathan R.; Hart, Patrick; Bruns, Terry R.; Marlow, Michael S.; Sliter, Ray

    2000-01-01

    Between 1993 and 1997, the U.S. Geological Survey acquired high-resolution, marine seismic-reflection profile data across submerged portions of known and inferred upper crustal fault zones throughout the greater San Francisco Bay area. Surveys were conducted oversouth San Francisco Bay in the vicinity of the San Bruno shoal (roughly between the San Francisco and Oakland airports), over the offshore extension of the San Andreas fault system west of the Golden Gate, over the Hayward fault to Rodgers Creek fault step-over in San Pablo Bay, and over the Kirby Hills fault where it crosses the western Sacramento Delta. Reconnaissance profiles were acquired elsewhere throughout the San Francisco and San Pablo Bays. These data were acquired by the U.S. Geological Survey, Western Coastal and Marine Geology Team, under the auspices of the Central California/San Francisco Bay Earthquake Hazards Project. Analysis and interpretation of some of these profiles has been published by Marlow and others (1996, 1999). Further analysis and interpretation of these data are available in a USGS. Professional Paper Crustal Structure of the Coastal and Marine San Francisco Bay Region, T. Parsons, editor, http://geopubs.wr.usgs.gov/prof-paper/pp1658/ [link added 2012 mfd].

  6. Combined use of remote sensing and continuous monitoring to analyse the variability of suspended-sediment concentrations in San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruhl, C.A.; Schoellhamer, D.H.; Stumpf, R.P.; Lindsay, C.L.

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of suspended-sediment concentration data in San Francisco Bay is complicated by spatial and temporal variability. In situ optical backscatterance sensors provide continuous suspended-sediment concentration data, but inaccessibility, vandalism, and cost limit the number of potential monitoring stations. Satellite imagery reveals the spatial distribution of surficial-suspended sediment concentrations in the Bay; however, temporal resolution is poor. Analysis of the in situ sensor data in conjunction with the satellite reflectance data shows the effects of physical processes on both the spatial and temporal distribution of suspended sediment in San Francisco Bay. Plumes can be created by large freshwater flows. Zones of high suspended-sediment concentrations in shallow subembayments are associated with wind-wave resuspension and the spring-neap cycle. Filaments of clear and turbid water are caused by different transport processes in deep channels, as opposed to adjacent shallow water.

  7. A temporal comparison of PBDEs, OH-PBDEs, PCBs, and OH-PCBs in the serum of second trimester pregnant women recruited from San Francisco General Hospital, California

    PubMed Central

    Zota, Ami R.; Linderholm, Linda; Park, June-Soo; Petreas, Myrto; Guo, Tan; Privalsky, Martin L.; Zoeller, R. Thomas; Woodruff, Tracey J.

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal exposures to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) can harm neurodevelopment in humans and animals. In 2003–2004, PentaBDE and OctaBDE were banned in California and phased-out of US production; resulting impacts on human exposures are unknown. We previously reported that median serum concentrations of PBDEs and their metabolites (OH-PBDEs) among second trimester pregnant women recruited from San Francisco General Hospital (2008–2009; n=25) were the highest among pregnant women worldwide. We recruited another cohort from the same clinic in 2011–2012 (n=36) and now compare serum concentrations of PBDEs, OH-PBDEs, polychlorinated biphenyl ethers (PCBs) (structurally similar compounds banned in 1979), and OH-PCBs between two demographically similar cohorts. Between 2008–2009 and 2011–2012, adjusted least square geometric mean (LSGM) concentrations of ΣPBDEs decreased 65% (95% CI: 18, 130) from 90.0 ng/g lipid (95% CI: 64.7,125.2) to 54.6 ng/g lipid (95% CI: 39.2, 76.2) (p=0.004); Σ OH-PBDEs decreased six-fold (p<0.0001); and BDE-47, -99, and -100 declined more than BDE-153. There was a modest, non-significant (p=0.13) decline in LSGM concentrations of ΣPCBs and minimal differences in ΣOH-PCBs between 2008–2009 and 2011–2012. PBDE exposures are likely declining due to regulatory action, but the relative stability in PCB exposures suggests PBDE exposures may eventually plateau and persist for decades. PMID:24066858

  8. Mercury concentrations in blood and feathers of prebreeding Forster's terns in relation to space use of San Francisco Bay, California, USA, habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, J.T.; Eagles-Smith, C. A.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Bluso, J.D.; Adelsbach, T.L.

    2008-01-01

    We examined mercury concentrations and space use of prebreeding Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri) in San Francisco Bay, California, USA, to assess factors influencing mercury levels in piscivorous birds. In 2005 and 2006, we collected blood and feathers from 122 Forster's terns and radio-marked and tracked 72 terns to determine locations of dietary mercury uptake. Capture site and capture date were the most important factors explaining variation in blood mercury concentrations (geometric mean ?? standard error: 1.09 ?? 0.89 ??g/g wet wt), followed by sex and year. Accordingly, radiotelemetry data revealed that Forster's terns generally remained near their site of capture and foraged in nearby salt ponds, managed and tidal marshes, and tidal flats. In contrast, capture site and capture date were not important factors explaining variation in feather mercury concentrations, probably because feathers were grown on their wintering grounds several months prior to our sampling. Instead, sex and year were the most important factors explaining mercury concentrations in breast feathers (9.57 ?? 8.23 ??g/g fresh wt), and sex was the most important factor for head feathers (6.94 ?? 7.04 ??g/g fresh wt). Overall, 13 and 22% of prebreeding Forster's terns were estimated to be at high risk for deleterious effects due to mercury concentrations in blood (>3.0 ??g/g wet wt) and feathers (>20.0 ??g/g fresh wt), respectively. Breeding terns are likely to be even more at risk because blood mercury concentrations more than tripled during the 45-d prebreeding time period. These data illustrate the importance of space use and tissue type in interpreting mercury concentrations in birds. ?? 2008 SETAC.

  9. Secular changes in the tidal constituents in San Francisco Bay originated by the California Gold Rush and major dam-building projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez, I.; Ortiz, M.

    2015-12-01

    Hourly sea-level records for the time period of 1901 to 2012 at Fort Point tidal station in San Francisco Bay are analyzed in an attempt to find the origin of the secular changes found in the tidal constituents. Complex demodulation implemented with a low pass filter window of 8760 hours was employed to extract the amplitude and phase of the principal tidal constituent M2 as a function of time. The 18.6 year nodal signal was removed by using the tide potential of the equilibrium tide. The results show significant trends up to 4 cm in amplitude as well as phase shifts of 17 minutes per century. Moreover, yearly amplitude variations of M2 show to be inversely correlated to river flow discharge. On the other hand, the results of a simplified two-layer numerical hydrodynamic model indicate that long-term tide variations are directly related to the morphological evolution of a sandbank located outside the bay surrounding its entrance, acting as a hydraulic control for the whole bay. According to historical results, the sandbank reached its shallowest depth during the California Gold Rush (1848-1884), when mining debris together with large amounts of sediment were deposited into the estuary. After the Central Valley Water Project was approved (1933), many dams were built decreasing significantly the sediment supply. With the passage of time, the gradual loss of sedimentation also diminished the sandbank, increasing its depth. This fact explains the observed secular long-term advance of the tidal phase, as well as the increasing trend of the M2 amplitude.

  10. Defining competencies for education in health care value: recommendations from the University of California, San Francisco Center for Healthcare Value Training Initiative.

    PubMed

    Moriates, Christopher; Dohan, Daniel; Spetz, Joanne; Sawaya, George F

    2015-04-01

    Leaders in medical education have increasingly called for the incorporation of cost awareness and health care value into health professions curricula. Emerging efforts have thus far focused on physicians, but foundational competencies need to be defined related to health care value that span all health professions and stages of training. The University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) Center for Healthcare Value launched an initiative in 2012 that engaged a group of educators from all four health professions schools at UCSF: Dentistry, Medicine, Nursing, and Pharmacy. This group created and agreed on a multidisciplinary set of comprehensive competencies related to health care value. The term "competency" was used to describe components within the larger domain of providing high-value care. The group then classified the competencies as beginner, proficient, or expert level through an iterative process and group consensus. The group articulated 21 competencies. The beginner competencies include basic principles of health policy, health care delivery, health costs, and insurance. Proficient competencies include real-world applications of concepts to clinical situations, primarily related to the care of individual patients. The expert competencies focus primarily on systems-level design, advocacy, mentorship, and policy. These competencies aim to identify a standard that may help inform the development of curricula across health professions training. These competencies could be translated into the learning objectives and evaluation methods of resources to teach health care value, and they should be considered in educational settings for health care professionals at all levels of training and across a variety of specialties. PMID:25354077

  11. Changes in production and respiration during a spring phytoplankton bloom in San Francisco Bay, California, USA: Implications for net ecosystem metabolism

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caffrey, J.M.; Cloern, J.E.; Grenz, C.

    1998-01-01

    We present results of an intensive sampling program designed to measure weekly changes in ecosystem respiration (oxygen consumption in the water column and sediments) around the 1996 spring bloom in South San Francisco Bay, California, USA. Measurements were made at a shallow site (2 m, where mean photic depth was 60% of the water column height) and a deep site (15 m, mean photic depth was only 20% of the water column). We also estimated phytoplankton primary production weekly at both sites to develop estimates of net oxygen flux as the sum of pelagic production (PP), pelagic respiration (PR) and benthic respiration (BR). Over the 14 wk period from February 5 to May 14, PP ranged from 2 to 210, PR from 9 to 289, and BR from 0.1 to 48 mmol O2 m-2 d-1, illustrating large variability of estuarine oxygen fluxes at the weekly time scale. Pelagic production exceeded total respiration at the shallow site, but not at the deep site, demonstrating that the shallow domains are net autotrophic but the deep domains are net heterotrophic, even during the period of the spring bloom. If we take into account the potential primary production by benthic microalgae, the estuary as a whole is net autotrophic during spring, net heterotrophic during the nonbloom seasons, and has a balanced net metabolism over a full annual period. The seasonal shift from net autotrophy to heterotrophy during the transition from spring to summer was accompanied by a large shift from dominance by pelagic respiration to dominance by benthic respiration. This suggests that changes in net ecosystem metabolism can reflect changes in the pathways of energy flow in shallow coastal ecosystems.

  12. Distributions and fate of chlorinated pesticides, biomarkers and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments along a contamination gradient from a point-source in San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pereira, W.E.; Hostettler, F.D.; Rapp, J.B.

    1996-01-01

    The distribution and fate of chlorinated pesticides, biomarkers, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surficial sediments along a contamination gradient in the Lauritzen Canal and Richmond Harbor in San Francisco Bay was investigated. Compounds were identified and quantified using gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry. Biomarkers and PAHs were derived primarily from weathered petroleum. DDT was reductively dechlorinated under anoxic conditions to DDD and several minor degradation products, DDMU, DDMS, and DDNU. Under aerobic conditions, DDT was dehydrochlorinated to DDE and DBP. Aerobic degradation of DDT was diminished or inhibited in zones of high concentration, and increased significantly in zones of lower concentration: Other chlorinated pesticides identified in sediment included dieldrin and chlordane isomers. Multivariate analysis of the distributions of the DDTs suggested that there are probably two sources of DDD. In addition, DDE and DDMU are probably formed by similar mechanisms, i.e. dehydrochlorination. A steep concentration gradient existed from the Canal to the Outer Richmond Harbor, but higher levels of DDD than those found in the remainder of the Bay indicated that these contaminants are transported on particulates and colloidal organic matter from this source into San Francisco Bay. Chlorinated pesticides and PAHs may pose a potential problem to biota in San Francisco Bay.

  13. ASTER Images San Francisco Bay Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    These images of the San Francisco Bay region were acquired on March 3, 2000 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. Each covers an area 60 kilometers (37 miles) wide and 75 kilometers (47 miles) long. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image the Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    Upper Left: The color infrared composite uses bands in the visible and reflected infrared. Vegetation is red, urban areas are gray; sediment in the bays shows up as lighter shades of blue. Thanks to the 15 meter (50-foot) spatial resolution, shadows of the towers along the Bay Bridge can be seen.

    Upper right: A composite of bands in the short wave infrared displays differences in soils and rocks in the mountainous areas. Even though these regions appear entirely vegetated in the visible, enough surface shows through openings in the vegetation to allow the ground to be imaged.

    Lower left: This composite of multispectral thermal bands shows differences in urban materials in varying colors. Separation of materials is due to differences in thermal emission properties, analogous to colors in the visible.

    Lower right: This is a color coded temperature image of water temperature, derived from the thermal bands. Warm waters are in white and yellow, colder waters are blue. Suisun Bay in the upper right is fed directly from the cold Sacramento River. As the water flows through San Pablo and San Francisco Bays on the way to the Pacific, the waters warm up.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is

  14. An overview of San Francisco Bay PORTS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, Ralph T.; McKinnie, David; English, Chad; Smith, Richard E.

    1998-01-01

    The Physical Oceanographic Real-Time System (PORTS) provides observations of tides, tidal currents, and meteorological conditions in real-time. The San Francisco Bay PORTS (SFPORTS) is a decision support system to facilitate safe and efficient maritime commerce. In addition to real-time observations, SFPORTS includes a nowcast numerical model forming a San Francisco Bay marine nowcast system. SFPORTS data and nowcast numerical model results are made available to users through the World Wide Web (WWW). A brief overview of SFPORTS is presented, from the data flow originated at instrument sensors to final results delivered to end users on the WWW. A user-friendly interface for SFPORTS has been designed and implemented. Appropriate field data analysis, nowcast procedures, design and generation of graphics for WWW display of field data and nowcast results are presented and discussed. Furthermore, SFPORTS is designed to support hazardous materials spill prevention and response, and to serve as resources to scientists studying the health of San Francisco Bay ecosystem. The success (or failure) of the SFPORTS to serve the intended user community is determined by the effectiveness of the user interface.

  15. The Hayward Fault in the East San Francisco Bay Region, California: A Regional Geophysical and Geological Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jachens, R. C.; Ponce, D. A.; Graymer, R. W.; Wentworth, C. M.; Hildenbrand, T. G.

    2003-12-01

    Regional gravity, magnetic, and geologic data, together with sparse seismic reflection and refraction data, and drill hole logs, provide a regional tectonic perspective and context of the Hayward fault. The fault is at least 85 km long and terminates at both ends at pull-apart basins. The southeastern terminus falls near the northeastern tip of the NW-SE Evergreen basin, which likely formed in the wake of a right step between the Silver Creek and Hayward Faults as a result of large right slip. The northwestern terminus lies along the southwestern edge of the deep basin that lies beneath eastern San Pablo Bay and extends, as the East Bay Trough, both southeast and northwest. Here, a structural manifestation of the Hayward Fault (the southwestern edge of the deep basin) steps right to about trace of the Tolay thrust Fault whereas seismicity and recent movement step farther right to the Rodgers Creek Fault. The deep basin under San Pablo Bay is three times wider than the right step from the Hayward fault to the Rodgers Creek fault, suggesting that if this basin is a strike-slip pull-apart basin, then faults farther east of the Rodgers Creek fault must have been involved in its formation. The local basin that formed during the past few million years in the wake of the Hayward-Rodgers Creek right step probably is no more than 500 m deep, according to a seismic reflection profile. A continuous magnetic anomaly probably reflecting a buried volcanic body lies between the Rodgers Creek Fault and the western deep basin margin north of San Pablo Bay, continues southward to truncate against the Hayward fault beneath most of San Pablo Bay. This body is not dismembered, precluding a simple strike-slip connection between the Rodgers Creek and Hayward Faults with more than about 10 km of offset (compared to the estimated roughly 100 km of total offset across the Hayward fault). The Hayward fault separates two distinctly different crustal blocks. The Bay block to the southwest

  16. 3D Image Tour of the Hayward Fault in the East Bay, San Francisco Bay Region, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoffer, P.

    2007-12-01

    A 3D image tour of the Hayward Fault begins at its northern land-based terminus at Point Pinole from where it continues northward under the waters of San Pablo Bay. From Point Pinole, the Hayward Fault extends southward for about 90 kilometers through the urbanized landscape of the East Bay region, passing through the cities of Richmond, Berkeley, Oakland, San Leandro, Hayward, Fremont, and other communities. At its southern end, the fault forms a series of oblique reverse faults, but at depth it connects with the Calaveras Fault as a through-going structure along the western foothills of the Diablo Range east of the greater San Jose area. This presentation focuses on access to the Hayward Fault in public places where features impacted by active fault creep can be viewed. Features include offset curbs, fractures in sidewalks, parking areas, buildings, and damage to other infrastructure in the active fault zone. Additional images highlight landscape features and historic landmarks along the fault, including those that were impacted by the 1868 Hayward earthquake, and those that were or were engineered both with and without consideration of the location of the fault. Earthquake data and geologic interpretations of the subsurface along the fault zone are also presented. This presentation, and an associated website, is for educational audiences with the intent of promoting public awareness and earthquake preparedness. This work is part of the ongoing outreach and public education efforts by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the 1868 Hayward Earthquake Alliance in anticipation of the 140th anniversary of the great earthquake. The use of 3D imagery enhances the educational value of the presentation and provides a unique perspective on the subject matter. Red-and-cyan 3D viewing glasses will be available at the presentation.

  17. Deep Borehole Instrumentation Along San Francisco Bay Bridges - 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchings, L.; Kasameyer, P.; Long, L.; McEvilly, T.; Clymer, R.; Urhhammer, R.; Baise, L.

    2001-05-01

    This is a progress report on the Bay Bridges downhole network. Between 2 and 8 instruments have been spaced along the Dumbarton, San Mateo, Bay, and San Rafael bridges in San Francisco Bay, California. The instruments will provide multiple use data that is important to geotechnical, structural engineering, and seismological studies. The holes are between 100 and 1000 ft deep and were drilled by Caltrans. There are twenty-one sensor packages at fifteen sites. The downhole instrument package contains a three component HS-1 seismometer and three orthogonal Wilcox 731 accelerometers, and is capable of recording a micro g from local M = 1.0 earthquakes to 0.5 g strong ground motion form large Bay Area earthquakes. This report list earthquakes and stations where recordings were obtained during the period February 29, 2000 to November 11, 2000. Also, preliminary results on noise analysis for up and down hole recordings at Yerba Buena Island is presented.

  18. Water quality in South San Francisco Bay, California: current condition and potential issues for the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project.

    PubMed

    Grenier, J Letitia; Davis, Jay A

    2010-01-01

    The SBSPRP is an extensive tidal wetland restoration project that is underway at the margin of South San Francisco Bay, California. The Project, which aims to restore former salt ponds to tidal marsh and manage other ponds for water bird support, is taking place in the context of a highly urbanized watershed and an Estuary already impacted by chemical contaminants. There is an intimate relationship between water quality in the watershed, the Bay, and the transitional wetland areas where the Project is located. The Project seeks to restore habitat for endangered and endemic species and to provide recreational opportunities for people. Therefore, water quality and bioaccumulation of contaminants in fish and wildlife is an important concern for the success of the Project. Mercury, PCBs, and PBDEs are the persistent contaminants of greatest concern in the region. All of these contaminants are present at elevated concentrations both in the abiotic environment and in wildlife. Dioxins, pyrethroids, PAHs, and selenium are also problematic. Organochlorine insecticides have historically impacted the Bay, and they remain above thresholds for concern in a small proportion of samples. Emerging contaminants, such as PFCs and non-PBDE flame retardants, are also an important water quality issue. Beyond chemical pollutants, other concerns for water quality in South San Francisco Bay exist, and include biological constituents, especially invasive species, and chemical attributes, such as dissolved oxygen and salinity. Future changes, both from within the Project and from the Bay and watershed, are likely to influence water quality in the region. Project actions to restore wetlands could worsen, improve, or not affect the already impaired water quality in South Bay. Accelerated erosion of buried sediment as a consequence of Project restoration actions is a potentially serious regional threat to South Bay water and sediment quality. Furthermore, the planned restoration of salt ponds

  19. 77 FR 15799 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: San Francisco State University, San... University, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes, has ] determined that the cultural item meets... affiliated with the cultural item may contact the San Francisco State University NAGPRA Program....

  20. Digital Tabulation of Geologic and Hydrologic Data from Water Wells in the Northern San Francisco Bay Region, Northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweetkind, D.S.; Taylor, E.M.

    2010-01-01

    Downhole lithologic information and aquifer pumping test data are reported from 464 wells from a broad area of the northern part of the Coast Ranges in California. These data were originally published in paper form as numerous tables within three USGS Water-Supply Papers describing geology and groundwater conditions in Napa and Sonoma Valleys, the Santa Rosa and Petaluma Valley areas, and in the Russian River Valley and areas in Sonoma and Mendocino Counties, Calif. The well data are compiled in this report in digital form suitable for use in a digital mapping environment. These data, although mostly from relatively shallow water wells, provide important subsurface information that displays the disposition and facies transition of lithologic units throughout this broad area. Well lithologic data themselves and simple three-dimensional interpolation of those data show distinct spatial patterns that are linked to subsurface stratigraphy and structure and can be used to aid in the assessment of the groundwater resources.

  1. Coastal processes study at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA: summary of data collection 2004-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Eshleman, Jodi; Erikson, Li H.; Hanes, Daniel M.

    2007-01-01

    Ocean Beach in San Francisco, California, contains a persistent erosional section in the shadow of the San Francisco ebb tidal delta and south of Sloat Boulevard that threatens valuable public infrastructure as well as the safe recreational use of the beach. Coastal managers have been discussing potential mediation measures for over a decade, with little scientific research available to aid in decision making. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) initiated the Ocean Beach Coastal Processes Study in April 2004 to provide the scientific knowledge necessary for coastal managers to make informed management decisions. This study integrates a wide range of field data collection and numerical modeling techniques to document nearshore sediment transport processes at the mouth of San Francisco Bay, with emphasis on how these processes relate to erosion at Ocean Beach. The Ocean Beach Coastal Processes Study is the first comprehensive study of coastal processes at the mouth of San Francisco Bay.

  2. Deep Borehole Instrumentation Along San Francisco Bay Bridges - 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchings, L.; Kasameyer, P.; Turpin, C.; Long, L.; Hollfelder, J.; McEvilly, T.; Clymer, R.; Uhrhammer, R.

    2000-03-01

    This is a progress report on the Bay Bridges downhole network. Between 2 and 8 instruments have been spaced along the Dumbarton, San Mateo, Bay, and San Rafael bridges in San Francisco Bay, California. The instruments will provide multiple use data that is important to geotechnical, structural engineering, and seismological studies. The holes are between 100 and 1000 ft deep and were drilled by Caltrans. There are twenty-one sensor packages at fifteen sites. The downhole instrument package contains a three component HS-1 seismometer and three orthogonal Wilcox 731 accelerometers, and is capable of recording a micro g from local M = 1.0 earthquakes to 0.5 g strong ground motion form large Bay Area earthquakes. Preliminary results on phasing across the Bay Bridge, up and down hole wave amplification at Yerba Buena Island, and sensor orientation analysis are presented. Events recorded and located during 1999 are presented. Also, a senior thesis on the deep structure of the San Francisco Bay beneath the Bay Bridge is presented as an addendum.

  3. Geologic Map and Map Database of the Oakland Metropolitan Area, Alameda, Contra Costa, and San Francisco Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graymer, R.W.

    2000-01-01

    Introduction This report contains a new geologic map at 1:50,000 scale, derived from a set of geologic map databases containing information at a resolution associated with 1:24,000 scale, and a new description of geologic map units and structural relationships in the mapped area. The map database represents the integration of previously published reports and new geologic mapping and field checking by the author (see Sources of Data index map on the map sheet or the Arc-Info coverage pi-so and the textfile pi-so.txt). The descriptive text (below) contains new ideas about the Hayward fault and other faults in the East Bay fault system, as well as new ideas about the geologic units and their relations. These new data are released in digital form in conjunction with the Federal Emergency Management Agency Project Impact in Oakland. The goal of Project Impact is to use geologic information in land-use and emergency services planning to reduce the losses occurring during earthquakes, landslides, and other hazardous geologic events. The USGS, California Division of Mines and Geology, FEMA, California Office of Emergency Services, and City of Oakland participated in the cooperative project. The geologic data in this report were provided in pre-release form to other Project Impact scientists, and served as one of the basic data layers for the analysis of hazard related to earthquake shaking, liquifaction, earthquake induced landsliding, and rainfall induced landsliding. The publication of these data provides an opportunity for regional planners, local, state, and federal agencies, teachers, consultants, and others outside Project Impact who are interested in geologic data to have the new data long before a traditional paper map could be published. Because the database contains information about both the bedrock and surficial deposits, it has practical applications in the study of groundwater and engineering of hillside materials, as well as the study of geologic hazards and

  4. Pedogenic calcite as evidence for an early Holocene dry period in the San Francisco Bay area, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borchardt, G.; Lienkaemper, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    Rainfall at the site of Union City, California, during early Holocene time appears to have been about half that of today, 470 mm/yr. We base this conclusion on detailed descriptions and particle-size analyses of 12 soil profiles and 1:20 scale logs of the fluvial stratigraphy in two 100-m-long, 5-m-deep excavations dug perpendicular to the axis of an alluvial fan along the Hayward fault. Subsidence and right-lateral movement along the fault allowed an offset stream to produce a nearly continuous alluvial record documented by 35 14C ages on detrital charcoal. Bk (calcitic) horizons in paleosols developed in the fan suggest that a relatively dry climatic period occurred from 10 to 7 ka (calendar-corrected ages). The pedogenic calcite exists primarily as vertically oriented filaments and fine, cavernous nodules formed at ped intersections. Soils and paleosols formed before 10 ka or since 7 ka did not have Bk horizons. Bk horizons that were buried suddenly at 7 ka were overlain by leached zones averaging 41 ?? 3 cm thick - about half the current depth of leaching.

  5. Distribution of seed plants with respect to tide levels and water salinity in the natural tidal marshes of the northern San Francisco Bay Estuary, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atwater, Brian F.; Hedel, Charles W.

    1976-01-01

    Shoaling of subtidal and intertidal mud flats has permitted tidal marshes to spread across large marginal areas of the San Francisco Bay estuary during the past several thousand years. By 1850 A.D. the tidal marshes of the estuary, including those of the Sacramento - San Joaquin Delta, covered an area nearly twice as large as the area of open water. Nearly 95 percent of these marshes have been diked or filled during the past 125 years. Species distributions along leveled transects at six tidal marshes indicate that elevation and water salinity are the principal ecological factors that-control the distribution of seed plants in the remaining natural tidal marshes of the northern San Francisco Bay estuary. Marsh surfaces situated near mean tide level are populated by robust monocotyledons (e.g., Spartina foliosa, Scirpus californicus), whereas surfaces situated near high-tide levels support dicotyledons and a few small monocotyledonous species (e.g., Salicornia virginica, Distichlis spicata). Marshes near the seaward end of the estuary are typically occupied by 10-15 salt-tolerant species (e.g., Spartina foliosa, Salicornia virginica), whereas marshes at the riverward end of the estuary are inhabited by as many as 30 species, most of which are known to tolerate moderate or small amounts of salt (e.g., Scirpus spp., Phragmites communis, Typha latifolia).

  6. English Articulation between the San Francisco Unified School District and the City College of San Francisco. Youth Data Archive Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurantz, Oded

    2012-01-01

    San Francisco's Bridge to Success (BtS) initiative brings together the City and County of San Francisco, the San Francisco Unified School District (SFUSD), the City College of San Francisco (CCSF), and key community organizations to promote postsecondary success for underrepresented students. Various working groups, each comprised of staff from…

  7. Contaminant levels in fish tissue from San Francisco Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Fairey, R.; Taberski, K.

    1995-12-31

    Edible fish species were collected from thirteen locations throughout San Francisco Bay, during the spring of 1994, for determination of contaminants levels in muscle tissue. Species collected included white croaker, surfperch, leopard and brown smoothhound sharks, striped bass, white sturgeon and halibut Sixty six composite tissue samples were analyzed for the presence of PAHs, PCBs, pesticides, trace elements and dioxin/furans. The US EPA approach to assessing chemical contaminant data for fish tissue consumption was used for identifying the primary chemicals of concern. Six chemicals or chemical groups were found to exceed screening levels established using the US EPA approach. PCBs (as total Aroclors) exceeded the screening level of 3 ppb in all sixty six tissue samples, with the highest concentrations (638 ppb) found near San Francisco`s industrial areas. Mercury was elevated (> 0.14 ppm) in forty of the sixty-six samples with the highest levels (1.26 ppm) occurring in shark muscle tissues. Concentrations of the organochlorine pesticides dieldrin, total chlordanes and total DDTs exceeded screening levels in a number of samples. Dioxin/furans (as TEQs) were elevated (above 0.15 ppt) in 16 of the 19 samples analyzed. Fish with high lipid content (croaker and surfperch) in their muscle tissue generally exhibited higher contaminant levels while fish with low lipid levels (halibut and shark) exhibited lower organic contaminant levels. Tissue samples taken from North Bay stations most often exhibited high levels of chemical contamination. The California Office of Health Hazard Assessment is currently evaluating the results of this study and has issued an interim Health Advisory concerning the human consumption of fish tissue from San Francisco Bay.

  8. On tide-induced Lagrangian residual current and residual transport: 2. Residual transport with application in south San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feng, Shizuo; Cheng, Ralph T.; Pangen, Xi

    1986-01-01

    of intertidal transport processes is illustrated by an analytical solution for an amphidromic system and by a numerical application in South San Francisco Bay, California. The present formulation reveals that the mechanism for long-term transport of solutes is mainly convection due to the Lagrangian residual current in the interior of a tidal estuary. This result also points out the weakness in the tidal dispersion formulation, and explains the large variability of the observed values for tidal dispersion coefficients. Further research on properties of the dispersion boundary layer is needed.

  9. 78 FR 57482 - Safety Zone; America's Cup Aerobatic Box, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... San Francisco, CA in support of 2013 America's Cup air shows. These safety zones are established to provide a clear area on the water for pilots to initiate maneuvers and also provide for the safety of... rule is effective as to persons with actual notice starting September 6, 2013. This rule is...

  10. 78 FR 34123 - Notice of Inventory Completion: San Francisco State University NAGPRA Program, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... from site CA-PLA-9 in Placer County, CA. This notice is published as part of the National Park Service... site CA-PLA-9 in Placer County, CA, by San Francisco State University personnel in conjunction with... point. The age of site CA-PLA-9 is unknown, but the site is located within the historically...

  11. 77 FR 70891 - Safety Zone; Bay Bridge Construction, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-28

    ...The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone in the navigable waters of the San Francisco Bay near Yerba Buena Island, CA in support of the Bay Bridge Construction Safety Zone from November 1, 2012 through July 31, 2013. This safety zone is being established to protect mariners transiting the area from the dangers associated with over-head construction operations. Unauthorized......

  12. Predicted liquefaction of East Bay fills during a repeat of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holzer, T.L.; Blair, J.L.; Noce, T.E.; Bennett, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Predicted conditional probabilities of surface manifestations of liquefaction during a repeat of the 1906 San Francisco (M7.8) earthquake range from 0.54 to 0.79 in the area underlain by the sandy artificial fills along the eastern shore of San Francisco Bay near Oakland, California. Despite widespread liquefaction in 1906 of sandy fills in San Francisco, most of the East Bay fills were emplaced after 1906 without soil improvement to increase their liquefaction resistance. They have yet to be shaken strongly. Probabilities are based on the liquefaction potential index computed from 82 CPT soundings using median (50th percentile) estimates of PGA based on a ground-motion prediction equation. Shaking estimates consider both distance from the San Andreas Fault and local site conditions. The high probabilities indicate extensive and damaging liquefaction will occur in East Bay fills during the next M ??? 7.8 earthquake on the northern San Andreas Fault. ?? 2006, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  13. 33 CFR 80.1142 - San Francisco Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false San Francisco Harbor, CA. 80.1142 Section 80.1142 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1142 San Francisco Harbor, CA. A straight...

  14. Basin structure beneath the Santa Rosa Plain, Northern California: Implications for damage caused by the 1969 Santa Rosa and 1906 San Francisco earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McPhee, D.K.; Langenheim, V.E.; Hartzell, S.; McLaughlin, R.J.; Aagaard, B.T.; Jachens, R.C.; McCabe, C.

    2007-01-01

    Regional gravity data in the northern San Francisco Bay region reflect a complex basin configuration beneath the Santa Rosa plain that likely contributed to the significant damage to the city of Santa Rosa caused by the 1969 M 5.6, 5.7 Santa Rosa earthquakes and the 1906 M 7.9 San Francisco earthquake. Inversion of these data indicates that the Santa Rosa plain is underlain by two sedimentary basins about 2 km deep separated by the Trenton Ridge, a shallow west-northwest-striking bedrock ridge west of Santa Rosa. The city of Santa Rosa is situated above the 2- km-wide protruding northeast corner of the southern basin where damage from both the 1969 and 1906 earthquakes was concentrated. Ground-motion simulations of the 1969 and 1906 earthquakes, two events with opposing azimuths, using the gravity- defined basin surface, show enhanced ground motions along the northeastern edge of this corner, suggesting that basin-edge effects contributed to the concentration of shaking damage in this area in the past and may also contribute to strong shaking during future earthquakes.

  15. Geohydrology, water quality, and water budgets of Golden Gate Park and the Lake Merced area in the western part of San Francisco, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, E.B.; Hamlin, S.N.; McCann, L.H.

    1990-01-01

    The groundwater resources in the western part of the San Francisco, groundwater budgets for Golden Gate Park and the Lake Merced area, and a surface-water budget for Lake Merced are described. A continuous groundwater basin underlies a 39-sq-mi coastal strip in the San Francisco Peninsula south of the city. Basin fill consists largely of sand and silt. An extensive subsurface clay layer is present near Lake Merced. Recharge is principally from rainfall and irrigation-return flow, with lesser amounts from leaking water and sewer pipes, which were identified in part by stable-isotope and major ion analyses. In Golden Gate Park, about 1, 070 acre-ft/yr of groundwater flows to the ocean. Water levels are not declining, and pumpage could be safely increased. However, nitrate concentrations in excess of Federal drinking-water standards in water from many wells may limit potential uses of groundwater. Groundwater in the Lake Merced area is in a state of overdraft, as indicated by long- term declines in the level of Lake Merced and by groundwater levels persistently below sea level in deep wells. Seawater intrusion has not been detected, however. A surface-water budget for Lake Merced indicates that the largest inflow is from shallow groundwater and the largest outflow is loss by evaporation. (USGS)

  16. Large-scale right-slip displacement on the East San Francisco Bay Region fault system, California: Implications for location of late Miocene to Pliocene Pacific plate boundary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLaughlin, R.J.; Sliter, W.V.; Sorg, D.H.; Russell, P.C.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.

    1996-01-01

    A belt of northwardly younging Neogene and Quaternary volcanic rocks and hydrothermal vein systems, together with a distinctive Cretaceous terrane of the Franciscan Complex (the Permanente terrane), exhibits about 160 to 170 km of cumulative dextral offset across faults of the East San Francisco Bay Region (ESFBR) fault system. The offset hydrothermal veins and volcanic rocks range in age from .01 Ma at the northwest end to about 17.6 Ma at the southeast end. In the fault block between the San Andreas and ESFBR fault systems, where volcanic rocks are scarce, hydrothermal vein system ages clearly indicate that the northward younging thermal overprint affected these rocks beginning about 18 Ma. The age progression of these volcanic rocks and hydrothermal vein systems is consistent with previously proposed models that relate northward propagation of the San Andreas transform to the opening of an asthenospheric window beneath the North American plate margin in the wake of subducting lithosphere. The similarity in the amount of offset of the Permanente terrane across the ESFBR fault system to that derived by restoring continuity in the northward younging age progression of volcanic rocks and hydrothermal veins suggests a model in which 80-110 km of offset are taken up 8 to 6 Ma on a fault aligned with the Bloomfield-Tolay-Franklin-Concord-Sunol-Calaveras faults. An additional 50-70 km of cumulative slip are taken up ??? 6 Ma by the Rogers Creek-Hayward and Concord-Franklin-Sunol-Calaveras faults. An alternative model in which the Permanente terrane is offset about 80 km by pre-Miocene faults does not adequately restore the distribution of 8-12 Ma volcanic rocks and hydrothermal veins to a single northwardly younging age trend. If 80-110 km of slip was taken up by the ESFBR fault system between 8 and 6 Ma, dextral slip rates were 40-55 mm/yr. Such high rates might occur if the ESFBR fault system rather than the San Andreas fault acted as the transform margin at this time

  17. Large scale simulations of the great 1906 San Francisco earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsson, S.; Petersson, A.; Rodgers, A.; Sjogreen, B.; McCandless, K.

    2006-12-01

    As part of a multi-institutional simulation effort, we present large scale computations of the ground motion during the great 1906 San Francisco earthquake using a new finite difference code called WPP. The material data base for northern California provided by USGS together with the rupture model by Song et al. is demonstrated to lead to a reasonable match with historical data. In our simulations, the computational domain covered 550 km by 250 km of northern California down to 40 km depth, so a 125 m grid size corresponds to about 2.2 Billion grid points. To accommodate these large grids, the simulations were run on 512-1024 processors on one of the supercomputers at Lawrence Livermore National Lab. A wavelet compression algorithm enabled storage of time-dependent volumetric data. Nevertheless, the first 45 seconds of the earthquake still generated 1.2 TByte of disk space and the 3-D post processing was done in parallel.

  18. 20. San FranciscoOakland Bay Bridge contract recipients, April 28, 1933, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge contract recipients, April 28, 1933, photographer unknown. Standing, left to right: Edward J. Schneider, Columbia Steel Corporation; C.C. Horton, Healy-Tibbitts Construction Company; Henry J. Kaiser, Bridge Builders, Inc.; Albert Huber, Clinton Construction Company; Allan McDonald, Transbay Construction Company; C.C. Carleton, Chief, Division of Contracts and Rights of Way, California Department of Public Works. Seated, left to right: Henry J. Brunnier, Consulting Engineer, Member of Consulting Board, San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge; Charles E. Andrew, Bridge Engineer, San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge; Earl Lee Kelly, Director, California Department of Public Works; Harrison S. Robinson, President, Financial ... - Salt River Bridge, Spanning Salt River at Dillon Road, Ferndale, Humboldt County, CA

  19. An investigation into the utilization of HCMM thermal data for the descrimination of volcanic and Eolian geological units. [Craters of the Moon volcanic field, Idaho; San Francisco volcanic field, Arizona; High Desert, California; and the Cascade Range, California and Oregon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, J. W., III (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Analysis of HCMM data shows that the resolution provided by the thermal data is inadequate to permit the identification of individual lava flows within the volcanic test sites. Thermal data of southern California reveals that dune complexes at Kelso and Algodomes are found to be too small to permit adequate investigation of their structure. As part of the study of the San Francisco volcanic field, marked variations in the thermal properties of the region between Flagstaff and the Utah State border were observed. Several well-defined units within the Grand Canyon and the Colorado Plateau were recognized and appear to be very suitable for analysis with HCMM, SEASAT and LANDSAT images. Although individual volcanic constructs within the Cascade Range are too small to permit detailed characterization with the thermal data, the regional volcano/tectonic setting offers a good opportunity for comparing the possible thermal distinction between this area and sedimentary fold belts such as those found in the eastern United States. Strong intra-regional variations in vegetation cover were also tentatively identified for the Oregon test site.

  20. 33 CFR 165.T11-534 - Safety zone; Bay Bridge construction, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety zone; Bay Bridge construction, San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, CA. 165.T11-534 Section 165.T11-534 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS...

  1. San Francisco Bay Sand Mining Resource Evaluation and Impact Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenical, S.; Tirindelli, M.; Sicular, D.; Gragg, J.; Huitt, C.

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents results of the evaluation of potential future sand resources within certain Central San Francisco Bay (Central Bay) sand mining lease areas, as well as the potential impacts of further mining these areas for a ten-year period. The study consisted of morphological analysis using field measurements and hydrodynamic modeling, and covered a wide spectrum of physical processes including tidal and river circulation, salinity, sediment transport, and morphology. The study was conducted within the framework of an Environmental Impact Report (EIR) prepared by the California State Lands Commission (CSLC) as part of the discretionary approval process for issuing new mining leases. The results of the morphological analysis indicate a measurable depletion of sand resources in the Central Bay lease areas during the period 1997-2008, and that for the purposes of the proposed ten-year mining lease renewal, sand mining resources in Central Bay are largely limited to material already in place. The morphological analysis results also indicate that the proposed additional ten years of sand mining in the Central Bay lease areas are not likely to cause a significant impact on sediment transport and budgets in areas outside the vicinity of the lease areas, such as the San Francisco Bar, Ocean Beach, etc. Numerical modeling results, including particle tracking exercises, do indicate a net seaward transport of sand, and that a linkage exists between the mining areas and offshore areas (San Francisco Bar, Ocean Beach, etc). However, the modeling results demonstrate that the linkage is weak, and that any measurable changes in hydrodynamics, salinity and sediment transport/morphology caused by the mining activities are likely to be confined to the vicinity of the mining areas.

  2. Microbial biogeography of San Francisco Bay sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. A.; Francis, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    The largest estuary on the west coast of North America, San Francisco Bay is an ecosystem of enormous biodiversity, and also enormous human impact. The benthos has experienced dredging, occupation by invasive species, and over a century of sediment input as a result of hydraulic mining. Although the Bay's great cultural and ecological importance has inspired numerous surveys of the benthic macrofauna, to date there has been almost no investigation of the microbial communities on the Bay floor. An understanding of those microbial communities would contribute significantly to our understanding of both the biogeochemical processes (which are driven by the microbiota) and the physical processes (which contribute to microbial distributions) in the Bay. Here, we present the first broad survey of bacterial and archaeal taxa in the sediments of the San Francisco Bay. We conducted 16S rRNA community sequencing of bacteria and archaea in sediment samples taken bimonthly for one year, from five sites spanning the salinity gradient between Suisun and Central Bay, in order to capture the effect of both spatial and temporal environmental variation on microbial diversity. From the same samples we also conducted deep sequencing of a nitrogen-cycling functional gene, nirS, allowing an assessment of evolutionary diversity at a much finer taxonomic scale within an important and widespread functional group of bacteria. We paired these sequencing projects with extensive geochemical metadata as well as information about macrofaunal distribution. Our data reveal a diversity of distinct biogeographical patterns among different taxa: clades ubiquitous across sites; clades that respond to measurable environmental drivers; and clades that show geographical site-specificity. These community datasets allow us to test the hypothesis that salinity is a major driver of both overall microbial community structure and community structure of the denitrifying bacteria specifically; and to assess

  3. Receptor model and emissions inventory source appontionments of nonmethane organic gases in California's San Joaquin valley and San Francisco bay area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, Eric M.; Watson, John G.; Chow, Judith C.; Magliano, Karen L.

    The chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model was applied to the nonmethane organic gas (NMOG) database acquired during the San Joaquin Valley Air Quality Study (SJVAQS)/Atmospheric Utility Signatures—Predictions and Experiment (AUSPEX) Regional Model Adaptation Project (SARMAP). During SARMAP, the major contributors to NMOG were vehicle exhaust, liquid gasoline, gasoline vapor, oil production, acetone and unidentified organic compounds. Oil production was the major contributor to NMOG in the southern SJV during the morning hours, ranging from about one-third to one-half of the total NMOG. Contributions of oil production were lower during the afternoon due to increased ventilation, and larger contributions from secondary organic compounds. In the afternoon, the combined fraction of acetone and unidentified or unexplained (difference between calculated and measured mass) NMOG, which is mostly of secondary origin, accounted for about half of the total NMOG at receptor sites. Only the Yosemite and Giant Forest sites showed significant contributions from biogenic emissions. The fact that CMB did not detect significant contributions from biogenic sources in samples collected from sites in the SJV where estimated biogenic emission rates exceed those of either Yosemite or Giant Forest, suggests that biogenic emissions are overestimated in the SARMAP inventory. Source contribution estimates for total motor vehicle emissions averaged 75 and 70% of the total measured NMOG in urban areas during the 0800-1000 and 1200-1400 sampling periods, respectively, compared to the average daily emission inventory contribution of 44%. These results support recent studies which indicate that motor vehicle emissions have been seriously underestimated.

  4. Arias intensity assessment of liquefaction test sites on the east side of San Francisco Bay affected by the Loma Prieta, California, earthquake of 17 October 1989

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kayen, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    Abstract. Uncompacted artificial-fill deposits on the east side of San Francisco Bay suffered severe levels of soil liquefaction during the Loma Prieta earthquake of 17 October 1989. Damaged areas included maritime-port facilities, office buildings, and shoreline transportation arteries, ranging from 65 to 85 km from the north end of the Loma Prieta rupture zone. Typical of all these sites, which represent occurrences of liquefaction-induced damage farthest from the rupture zone, are low cone penetration test and Standard Penetration Test resistances in zones of cohesionless silty and sandy hydraulic fill, and underlying soft cohesive Holocene and Pleistocene sediment that strongly amplified ground motions. Postearthquake investigations at five study sites using standard penetration tests and cone penetration tests provide a basis for evaluation of the Arias intensity-based methodology for assessment of liquefaction susceptibility. ?? 1997 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  5. Evaluation Methodologies for Information Management Systems; Building Digital Tobacco Industry Document Libraries at the University of California, San Francisco Library/Center for Knowledge Management; Experiments with the IFLA Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR); Coming to Term: Designing the Texas Email Repository Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Emile L.; Schmidt, Heidi; Butter, Karen; Rider, Cynthia; Hickey, Thomas B.; O'Neill, Edward T.; Toves, Jenny; Green, Marlan; Soy, Sue; Gunn, Stan; Galloway, Patricia

    2002-01-01

    Includes four articles that discuss evaluation methods for information management systems under the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency; building digital libraries at the University of California San Francisco's Tobacco Control Archives; IFLA's Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records; and designing the Texas email repository model…

  6. Continuous water-quality and suspended-sediment transport monitoring in the San Francisco Bay, California, water years 2011-13

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchanan, Paul A.; Downing-Kunz, Maureen A.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Shellenbarger, Gregory; Weidich, Kurt W.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) monitors water quality and suspended-sediment transport in the San Francisco Bay. The San Francisco Bay area is home to millions of people, and the bay teems with both resident and migratory wildlife, plants, and fish. Fresh water mixes with salt water in the bay, which is subject both to riverine and marine (tides, waves, influx of salt water) influences. To understand this environment, the USGS, along with its partners, has been monitoring the bay’s waters continuously since 1988. Several water-quality variables are of particular importance to State and Federal resource managers and are monitored at key locations throughout the bay. Salinity, which indicates the relative mixing of fresh and ocean waters in the bay, is derived from specific conductance measurements. Water temperature, along with salinity, affects the density of water, which causes gravity driven circulation patterns and stratification in the water column. Turbidity is measured using light-scattering from suspended solids in water, and is used as a surrogate for suspended-sediment concentration (SSC). Suspended sediment often carries adsorbed contaminants; attenuates sunlight in the water column; deposits on tidal marsh and intertidal mudflats, which can help sustain these habitats as sea level rises; and deposits in ports and shipping channels, which can necessitate dredging. Dissolved oxygen, which is essential to a healthy ecosystem, is a fundamental indicator of water quality, and its concentration is affected by water temperature, salinity, ecosystem metabolism, tidal currents, and wind. Tidal currents in the bay reverse four times a day, and wind direction and intensity typically change on a daily cycle: consequently, salinity, water temperature, suspendedsediment concentration, and dissolvedoxygen concentration vary spatially and temporally throughout the bay, and continuous measurements are needed to observe these changes. The purpose of this fact sheet

  7. Correlations between seismic wave velocities and physical properties of near-surface geologic materials in the southern San Francisco Bay region, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fumal, Thomas E.

    1978-01-01

    To identify geologic units with distinctly different seismic responses for the purposes of seismic zonation, compressional and shear wave velocities have been measured in boreholes at 59 sites in the San Francisco Bay region in a wide range of near-surface (0-30m) geologic materials. Several physical parameters, which can be readily determined in the field, were found to correlate with the shear wave velocities and were used to define seismically distinct groups. For the unconsolidated to semiconsolidated sediments, texture, standard penetration resistance and depth were used to define eight seismically distinct groups. For the bedrock materials, fracture spacing and hardness were used to differentiate ten distinct categories. The correlation obtained between shear wave velocity and the physical parameters were used to regroup the map units defined for the San Francisco Bay region into seismically distinct units. The map units for the younger unconsolidated sediments can be really differentiated seismically. In contrast, the older semiconsolidated sedimentary deposits and bedrock units, which have experienced significant variations in post-depositial changes, show wider and overlapping velocity ranges. The map units for the sedimentary deposits have been regrouped into eight seismically distinct geotechnical units. The bedrock map units have been broadly regrouped into five distinct categories. Compressional wave velocities were not found to be well correlated with the physical parameters dependent on the soil or rock structure. For materials above the water table, the wide velocity variations found for each geotechnical group can be attributed to differences in degree of saturation. The strong correlations observed between shear wave velocity and other readily determine physical properties suggest that geologic maps which incorporate these parameters are most useful for seismic zonation.

  8. 362. Delineator Unknown June 1933 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    362. Delineator Unknown June 1933 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; SAN FRANCISCO ANCHORAGE; EYE BAR ANCHOR CHAIN; CONTRACT NO. 3; SUP. DRAWING NO. 11-A - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  9. 359. Delineator Unknown April 1935 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    359. Delineator Unknown April 1935 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; BRIDGE RAILWAY SAN FRANCISCO LOOP; DETAILS OF VIADUCT; FINAL REPORT; DRG. NO. 92 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  10. Travel and Tourism Industry: Program Options for City College of San Francisco.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    City Coll. of San Francisco, CA.

    In an effort to determine the current occupational outlook and resulting implications for education and training, the City College of San Francisco (CCSF), in California, undertook a study of current trends in the travel and tourism industry. This report provides findings from the project, which involved consultation with local and national…

  11. A Principal's Story. Two-Year Effort To Turn around Edison Elementary School in San Francisco.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romines, Ken

    In this memoir, a principal recounts the story of his 2 years at Edison Elementary School in San Francisco (CA), a school that was called the worst school in California. The students had the worst standardized test scores in the district, and racial discord and playground violence were common. The school was facing the threat of reconstitution,…

  12. Preparing for Prison: Life in San Francisco's Inner-City Neighborhoods. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Harvey W.; And Others

    A study of inner-city youth in San Francisco (California) shows that behavior and street ideology once associated exclusively with gangs have now become the world view of a large segment of inner-city young people, especially males. Inner-city young people who aspire to material success do not see a realistic connection between public education…

  13. Project EXCEL: San Francisco Hilton and Towers, Stewarding Department. English Communication, Module 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Career Resources Development Center, Inc., San Francisco, CA.

    Project EXCEL is a federally-funded workplace literacy program involving hotel enterprises in the San Francisco (California) Bay area. Its focus is on identification and instruction of literacy skills essential to job success for limited-English-proficient (LEP) workers. Training is intended to enable employees to understand written work orders,…

  14. Discriminatory Employment of Asian Americans; Private Industry in the San Francisco-Oakland SMSA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabezas, Amado Y.; Yee, Harold T.

    The study reported on in this document investigates discriminatory employment victimizing Asian Americans in the private sector in the San Francisco, California, Bay Area. The analytical framework utilized is described in detail. Findings are presented in both statistical and discussion form, and are broken down by industry. Disparities in…

  15. The State of Latino Education in the San Francisco Bay Area: A Crisis in Student Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chacon, Mario

    A study examined educational attainment among Latino students in the six-county San Francisco Bay Area. California's Standardized Testing and Reporting (STAR) Program results for 1998-99 were used to assess student achievement in reading and mathematics for grades 4, 7, and 10. Data were also collected on enrollment, dropout rates, percentage of…

  16. City College of San Francisco Accountability Atlas: Annual Report of Institutional Effectiveness, Fall 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daoud, Annette

    The Accountability Atlas presents information about the students, programs, staff, and services of the City College of San Francisco (CCSF), California. Most of the information is for the 1993-94 academic year, with some longitudinal data provided. The atlas is divided into the following six chapters: student access; student success; student…

  17. Design for the Evaluation of the San Francisco Home Health Services. Emergency Family Care Services Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remy, Linda L.

    This is a design for the evaluation of emergency family care programs of the San Francisco, California Home Health Services administration. The design objectives are qiven as the promotion of the health and welfare of the family unit and the reduction of the number of out-of-home placements of children and subsequent crises. The objectives of the…

  18. The Science-Humanities Program (NEXA) at San Francisco State University: The "Two Cultures" Reconsidered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Michael S.

    1980-01-01

    The origin of the Science-Humanities Program (NEXA) at San Francisco State University, California, is described. The overall goal of NEXA was to provide a model for reconciliation between the two cultures, science and humanities (philosophy, literature, history, and the arts). The first objective was to establish a sense of collegiality and common…

  19. Working Together To Build Beacon Centers in San Francisco: Evaluation Findings from 1998-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen E.; Arbreton, Amy J. A.

    The Beacons Initiative aimed to transform eight public schools (five middle schools and three high schools) into youth and family centers in low-income neighborhoods in San Francisco, California. Using a coalition of local partners and funding from public agencies and foundations, the centers served 7,500 youth and adults between July 1, 1999, and…

  20. Kokes Awards for the 21st NAM Meeting (San Francisco, CA, 2009)

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, Alex

    2009-08-31

    The PI in this project Alexander Katz, UC Berkeley (askatz@berkeley.edu), in conjunction with the Kokes Awards subcommittee and conference organizing committee, used DOE grant DE-FG-02-08ER15993 to partially offset costs of attending the 21st North American Catalysis Society in San Francisco, California, for 30 graduate students from the United States

  1. Developing Early Warning Indicators for the San Francisco Unified School District. Youth Data Archive Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John W. Gardner Center for Youth and Their Communities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    San Francisco's Bridge to Success (BtS) initiative brings together the City and County of San Francisco, the San Francisco Unified School District (SFUSD), the City College of San Francisco (CCSF), and key community organizations to promote postsecondary success for underrepresented students. Partners agree that the first step in achieving this…

  2. 33 CFR 161.50 - Vessel Traffic Service San Francisco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the San Joaquin River, as far north as the port of Sacramento on the Sacramento River. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vessel Traffic Service San... Movement Reporting System Areas and Reporting Points § 161.50 Vessel Traffic Service San Francisco. The...

  3. 33 CFR 161.50 - Vessel Traffic Service San Francisco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the San Joaquin River, as far north as the port of Sacramento on the Sacramento River. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vessel Traffic Service San... Movement Reporting System Areas and Reporting Points § 161.50 Vessel Traffic Service San Francisco. The...

  4. 33 CFR 161.50 - Vessel Traffic Service San Francisco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the San Joaquin River, as far north as the port of Sacramento on the Sacramento River. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vessel Traffic Service San... Movement Reporting System Areas and Reporting Points § 161.50 Vessel Traffic Service San Francisco. The...

  5. 33 CFR 161.50 - Vessel Traffic Service San Francisco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the San Joaquin River, as far north as the port of Sacramento on the Sacramento River. ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vessel Traffic Service San... Movement Reporting System Areas and Reporting Points § 161.50 Vessel Traffic Service San Francisco. The...

  6. Preliminary Maps of (1) Pleistocene Alluvial Surface, (2) Depth to Historical High Ground Water, and (3) Thickness of Holocene Alluvium - and their use in Liquefaction Hazard Mapping, Santa Clara Valley and the East San Francisco Bay Plain, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clahan, K. B.; Mattison, M. E.; Rosinski, A. M.; Bott, J. D.; Knudsen, K. L.

    2002-12-01

    The California Geological Survey (CGS) has prepared a series of Seismic Hazard Zone Maps for a portion of the southern San Francisco Bay of Northern California. Twelve 7.5-minute quadrangles (1:24,000 scale) have been released identifying areas that may be susceptible to earthquake-induced liquefaction or landsliding. Cities and Counties use these maps to identify areas requiring site-specific investigations prior to permitting development. "Liquefaction Zones of Required Investigation" are the result of the three-dimensional integration of geotechnical and geological data. For areas where we've obtained sufficient geotechnical data, liquefaction zone boundaries are sometimes delineated by comparing the depth to denser material, primarily late Pleistocene alluvial fan deposits (Qpf), and the depth to ground water. Areas are excluded from the zones of required investigation where lower density, younger (Holocene) material is above historical high ground-water levels (i.e. unsaturated) and only Pleistocene material is saturated. We have contoured the elevation of the top of the Pleistocene alluvial surface using methods similar to those of Helley (1990), for portions of the twelve 7.5-minute quadrangles that cover much of the northern Santa Clara Valley and the East San Francisco Bay Plain. Approximately 1700 geotechnical borehole logs were collected, analyzed, entered into a geotechnical GIS database, and interpreted to identify the top of the Pleistocene alluvial surface and evaluate the susceptibility of deposits to liquefaction. Physical and geotechnical characteristics evaluated to identify the Pleistocene/Holocene transition include: color; mottling; grain size; gradation; penetration resistance; unit thickness; dry density; moisture content; Unified Soil Classification; presence of organic material or caliche; lateral continuity; etc. We have also compiled a historical-high ground-water map by plotting depths to first-encountered unconfined ground water. These

  7. Activism in Concrete: Student Union, San Francisco State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Progressive Architecture, 1978

    1978-01-01

    The San Francisco State University Student Union is a futurist design of two steel space-frame pyramids. Each contains a stairway leading to four partial floors that diminish in size as the pyramid tapers. (Author/MLF)

  8. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, National Park Service, San Francisco ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, National Park Service, San Francisco Re-photo: May 1940 - Miners' Union Hall, West side B Street, between Union & Sutton Streets, Virginia City, Storey County, NV

  9. Concentrations and loads of suspended sediment and trace element pollutants in a small semi-arid urban tributary, San Francisco Bay, California.

    PubMed

    McKee, Lester J; Gilbreath, Alicia N

    2015-08-01

    Water-quality policy documents throughout the world often identify urban stormwater as a large and controllable impact to sensitive ecosystems, yet there is often limited data to characterize concentrations and loads especially for rare and more difficult to quantify pollutants. In response, concentrations of suspended sediments and silver, mercury and selenium including speciation, and other trace elements were measured in dry and wet weather stormwater flow from a 100% urban watershed near San Francisco. Suspended sediment concentrations ranged between 1.4 and 2700 mg/L and varied with storm intensity. Turbidity was shown to correlate strongly with suspended sediments and most trace elements and was used as a surrogate with regression to estimate concentrations during unsampled periods and to compute loads. Mean suspended sediment yield was 31.5 t/km(2)/year. Total mercury ranged between 1.4 and 150 ng/L and was, on average, 92% particulate, 0.9% methylated, and 1.2% acid labile. Total mercury yield averaged 5.7 μg/m(2)/year. Total selenium ranged between non-detect and 2.9 μg/L and, on average, the total load (0.027 μg/m(2)/year) was 61% transported in dissolved phase. Selenate (Se(VI)) was the dominant species. Silver concentrations ranged between non-detect and 0.11 μg/L. Concentrations and loads of other trace elements were also highly variable and were generally similar to other urban systems with the exceptions of Ag and As (seldom reported) and Cr and Zn which exhibited concentrations and loads in the upper range of those reported elsewhere. Consistent with the semi-arid climatic setting, >95% of suspended sediment, 94% of total Hg, and 85-95 % of all other trace element loads were transported during storm flows with the exception of selenium which showed an inverse relationship between concentration and flow. Treatment of loads is made more challenging in arid climate settings due to low proportions of annual loads and greater dissolved phase during

  10. Benthic fluxes in San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hammond, Douglas E.; Fuller, C.; Harmon, D.; Hartman, Blayne; Korosec, M.; Miller, L.G.; Rea, R.; Warren, S.; Berelson, W.; Hager, S.W.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of benthic fluxes have been made on four occasions between February 1980 and February 1981 at a channel station and a shoal station in South San Francisco Bay, using in situ flux chambers. On each occasion replicate measurements of easily measured substances such as radon, oxygen, ammonia, and silica showed a variability (??1??) of 30% or more over distances of a few meters to tens of meters, presumably due to spatial heterogeneity in the benthic community. Fluxes of radon were greater at the shoal station than at the channel station because of greater macrofaunal irrigation at the former, but showed little seasonal variability at either station. At both stations fluxes of oxygen, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and silica were largest following the spring bloom. Fluxes measured during different seasons ranged over factors of 2-3, 3, 4-5, and 3-10 (respectively), due to variations in phytoplankton productivity and temperature. Fluxes of oxygen and carbon dioxide were greater at the shoal station than at the channel station because the net phytoplankton productivity is greater there and the organic matter produced must be rapidly incorporated in the sediment column. Fluxes of silica were greater at the shoal station, probably because of the greater irrigation rates there. N + N (nitrate + nitrite) fluxes were variable in magnitude and in sign. Phosphate fluxes were too small to measure accurately. Alkalinity fluxes were similar at the two stations and are attributed primarily to carbonate dissolution at the shoal station and to sulfate reduction at the channel station. The estimated average fluxes into South Bay, based on results from these two stations over the course of a year, are (in mmol m-2 d-1): O2 = -27 ?? 6; TCO2 = 23 ?? 6; Alkalinity = 9 ?? 2; N + N = -0.3 ?? 0.5; NH3 = 1.4 ?? 0.2; PO4 = 0.1 ?? 0.4; Si = 5.6 ?? 1.1. These fluxes are comparable in magnitude to those in other temperate estuaries with similar productivity, although the seasonal

  11. The Purisima Formation and related rocks (upper Miocene - Pliocene), greater San Francisco Bay area, central California; review of literature and USGS collection now housed at the Museum of Paleontology, University of California, Berkeley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, C.L., II

    1998-01-01

    Sedimentary rocks more than 1.6 kilometers thick are attributed to the upper Miocene to upper Pliocene Purisima Formation in the greater San Francisco Bay area. These rocks occur as scattered, discontinuous outcrops from Point Reyes National Seashore in the north to south of Santa Cruz. Lithologic divisions of the Formation appear to be of local extent and are of limited use in correlating over this broad area. The Purisima Formation occurs in several fault-bounded terranes which demonstrate different stratigraphic histories and may be found to represent more than a single depositional basin. The precise age and stratigraphic relationship of these scattered outcrops are unresolved and until they are put into a stratigraphic and paleogeographic context the tectonic significance of the Purisima Foramtion can only be surmised. This paper will attempt to resolve some of these problems. Mollusks and echinoderms are recorded from the literature and more than 70 USGS collections that have not previously been reported. With the exception of one locality, the faunas suggest deposition in normal marine conditions at water depths of less than 50 m and with water temperatures the same or slightly cooler than exist along the present coast of central California. The single exception is a fauna from outcrops between Seal Cove and Pillar Point, where both mollusks and foraminifers suggest water depths greater than 100 m. Three molluscan faunas, the La Honda, the Pillar Point, and the Santa Cruz, are recognized based on USGS collections and published literature for the Purisima Formation. These biostratigraphically distinct faunas aid in the correlation of the scattered Purisima Formation outcrops. The lowermost La Honda fauna suggests shallow-water depths and an age of late Miocene to early Pliocene. This age is at odds with a younger age determination from an ash bed in the lower Purisima Formation along the central San Mateo County coast. The Pillar Point fauna contains only a

  12. Regional Sampling of Mantle Peridotites in Serpentinite Blocks Collected from Serpentinite Bodies in the San Francisco Bay Area, California: Petrological Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, M.; Kirby, S. H.

    2015-12-01

    We have collected and investigated 278 ultramafic and related rock samples from 18 polygonal-block -and- sheared-matrix-type serpentinite bodies in the Coast Ranges in the San Francisco Bay Area. These sites include Ring Mountain in the north to Silver Creek near San Jose in the south, spanning nearly 100 km of Coast Range geology. These bodies show extensive variation in volume ratios of serpentinite blocks (some including peridotite minerals) to sheared matrix, in peridotite mineral modes, in the degrees of weathering, in the proportions of peridotite minerals versus alteration minerals, and in the degree of late-stage brittle deformation. However, we found remarkable coherence in the serpentinite alteration mineralogy and our samples bear a strong resemblance to those in the Redwood City serpentinite body studied recently by Uno and Kirby (GRL submitted). In particular, we see mineralogical and geochemical evidence for multiple stages of alteration of the original peridotite minerals that reflect partial peridotite alteration, likely in the mantle, and then a later reaction to lizardite + magnetite in the crust. These reactions are followed by localized late-stage partial alteration of serpentinite to silica minerals and magnesite by carbonated water. Our findings suggest that the mantle sources of this type of partially-serpentinized peridotite in this section of the Coast Ranges are remarkably similar and that the processes leading to later-stage alteration reactions have operated repeatedly over the area that we sampled. Internal deformation in these bodies during later stages of alteration probably occurred during ascent through the crust, as reflected by sheared lizardite skins on the serpentinite blocks that we collected. We put forward several working hypotheses that provide insights into the origins and geologic histories of these rocks.

  13. Sea-Floor Images and Data from Multibeam Surveys in San Francisco Bay, Southern California, Hawaii, the Gulf of Mexico, and Lake Tahoe, California-Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dartnell, Peter; Gardiner, James V.

    1999-01-01

    Accurate base maps are a prerequisite for any geologic study, regardless of the objectives. Land-based studies commonly utilize aerial photographs, USGS 7.5-minute quadrangle maps, and satellite images as base maps. Until now, studies that involve the ocean floor have been at a disadvantage due to an almost complete lack of accurate marine base maps. Many base maps of the sea floor have been constructed over the past century but with a wide range in navigational and depth accuracies. Only in the past few years has marine surveying technology advanced far enough to produce navigational accuracy of 1 meter and depth resolutions of 50 centimeters. The Pacific Seafloor Mapping Project of the U.S. Geological Survey's, Western Coastal and Marine Geology Program, Menlo Park, California, U.S.A., in cooperation with the Ocean Mapping Group, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, Canada, is using this new technology to systematically map the ocean floor and lakes. This type of marine surveying, called multibeam surveying, collects high-resolution bathymetric and backscatter data that can be used for various base maps, GIS coverages, and scientific visualization methods. This is an interactive CD-ROM that contains images, movies, and data of all the surveys the Pacific Seafloor Mapping Project has completed up to January 1999. The images and movies on this CD-ROM, such as shaded relief of the bathymetry, backscatter, oblique views, 3-D views, and QuickTime movies help the viewer to visualize the multibeam data. This CD-ROM also contains ARC/INFO export (.e00) files and full-resolution TIFF images of all the survey sites that can be downloaded and used in many GIS packages.

  14. Misinterpretation of lateral acoustic variations on high-resolution seismic reflection profiles as fault offsets of Holocene bay mud beneath the southern part of San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marlow, M. S.; Hart, P.E.; Carlson, P.R.; Childs, J. R.; Mann, D. M.; Anima, R.J.; Kayen, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    We collected high-resolution seismic reflection profiles in the southern part of San Francisco Bay in 1992 and 1993 to investigate possible Holocene faulting along postulated transbay bedrock fault zones. The initial analog records show apparent offsets of reflection packages along sharp vertical boundaries. These records were originally interpreted as showing a complex series of faults along closely spaced, sharp vertical boundaries in the upper 10 m (0.013 s two-way travel time) of Holocene bay mud. A subsequent survey in 1994 was run with a different seismic reflection system, which utilized a higher power source. This second system generated records with deeper penetration (max. 20 m, 0.026 s two-way travel time) and demonstrated that the reflections originally interpreted as fault offsets by faulting were actually laterally continuous reflection horizons. The pitfall in the original interpretations was caused by lateral variations in the amplitude brightness of reflection events, coupled with a long (greater than 15 ms) source signature of the low-power system. These effects combined to show apparent offsets of reflection packages along sharp vertical boundaries. These boundaries, as shown by the second system, in fact occur where the reflection amplitude diminishes abruptly on laterally continuous reflection events. This striking lateral variation in reflection amplitude is attributable to the localized presence of biogenic(?) gas.

  15. “As Good As It Gets”1: Undocumented Latino Day Laborers Negotiating Discrimination in San Francisco and Berkeley, California, USA

    PubMed Central

    Quesada, James; Arreola, Sonya; Kral, Alex; Khoury, Sahar; Organista, Kurt C.; Worby, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Undocumented Latino day laborers in the United States are vulnerable to being arrested and expelled at any time. This social fact shapes their everyday lives in terms of actions taken and strategies deployed to mitigate being confronted, profiled, and possibly incarcerated and deported. While perceptions of threat and bouts of discrimination are routine among undocumented Latino day laborers, their specific nature vary according to multiple social factors and structural forces that differ significantly from locale to locale. The experience of discrimination is often tacitly negotiated through perceptions, decisions, and actions toward avoiding or moderating its ill effects. This essay examines urban undocumented Latino day laborers over a variety of sites in the greater San Francisco Bay Area, which, compared to many metropolitan areas in the U.S. is “as good as it gets” in terms of being socially tolerated and relatively safe from persecution. Nonetheless, tacit negotiations are necessary to withstand or overcome challenges presented by idiosyncratic and ever changing global, national/state, and local dynamics of discrimination. [undocumented Latino laborers, social exclusion, discrimination, tacit negotiation] PMID:24910501

  16. Level 1 Water-Quality Inventory of Baseline Levels of Pesticides in Urban Creeks - Golden Gate National Recreation Area and the Presidio of San Francisco, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hladik, Michelle L.; Orlando, James L.

    2008-01-01

    To characterize baseline water-quality levels of pesticides in Golden Gate National Recreation Area and the Presidio of San Francisco, the U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed surface-water and bed-sediment samples at 10 creeks during February, April, and July 2006. Pesticide data were obtained using previously developed methods. Samples from sites in the Presidio were analyzed only for pyrethroid insecticides, whereas the remaining samples were analyzed for pyrethroids and additional current and historical-use pesticides. Pesticide concentrations were low in both the water (below 30 ng/L) and sediment (below 3 ng/g). The pyrethroid bifenthrin was detected in water samples from two sites at concentrations below 2 ng/L. Other compounds detected in water included the herbicides dacthal (DCPA) and prometryn, the insecticide fipronil, the insecticide degradates p,p'-DDE and fipronil sulfone, and the fungicides cyproconazole, myclobutanil and tetraconazole. The only pesticides detected in the sediment samples were p,p'-DDT and its degradates (p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDE). Pesticide information from the samples collected can provide a reference point for future sampling and can help National Park Service managers assess the water quality of the urban creeks.

  17. 365. J.W., Delineator February 1934 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    365. J.W., Delineator February 1934 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; SAN FRANCISCO ANCHORAGE; PIER NO. 1 - DETAILS; CONTRACT NO. 3; SUP. DRAWING NO. 22A - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  18. 358. E.S.T., Delineator April 1935 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    358. E.S.T., Delineator April 1935 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; SAN FRANCISCO SECTION AND APPROACHES; GIRDER AND FLOOR BEAM DETAILS; SPANS 5 TO 32; CONTRACT NO. 15 & 15A; SUP. DRAWING NO. 8A - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  19. 357. E.S.T., Delineator April 1935 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    357. E.S.T., Delineator April 1935 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; SAN FRANCISCO SECTION AND APPROACHES; GENERAL PLAN AND ELEVATION; CONTRACT NO. 15 AND 15A; SUP. DRAWINGS NO. 1-A - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  20. 363. A.C.S., Delineator March 1934 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    363. A.C.S., Delineator March 1934 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; CONTRACT NO. 6A; SUPERSTRUCTURE - WEST BAY CROSSING; SAN FRANCISCO ANCHORAGE; AMERICAN BRIDGE CO.; AMBRIDGE PLANT; ORDER NO. G4866; SHEET NO E3 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  1. 364. J.G.M., Delineator February 1934 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    364. J.G.M., Delineator February 1934 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; CONTRACT NO. 6; SUPERSTRUCTURE - WEST BAY CROSSING; SAN FRANCISCO ANCHORAGE CABLE BENT CASTING; AMERICAN BRIDGE CO.; AMBRIDGE PLANT; ORDER NO. G 4852 C; SHEET NO. 100 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  2. Constraints on the sedimentation history of San Francisco Bay from 14C and 10Be

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    VanGeen, A.; Valette-Silver, N. J.; Luoma, S.N.; Fuller, C.C.; Baskaran, M.; Tera, F.; Klein, J.

    1999-01-01

    Industrialization and urbanization around San Francisco Bay as well as mining and agriculture in the watersheds of the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers have profoundly modified sedimentation patterns throughout the estuary. We provide some constraints on the onset of these erosional disturbances with 10Be data for three sediment cores: two from Richardson Bay, a small embayment near the mouth of San Francisco Bay, and one from San Pablo Bay, mid-way between the river delta and the mouth. Comparison of pre-disturbance sediment accumulation determined from three 14C-dated mollusk shells in one Richardson Bay core with more recent conditions determined from the distribution of 210Pb and 234Th [Fuller, C.C., van Geen, A., Baskaran, M, Anima, R.J., 1999. Sediment chronology in San Francisco Bay, California, defined by 210Pb, 234Th, 239,240Pu.] shows that the accumulation rate increased by an order of magnitude at this particular site. All three cores from San Francisco Bay show subsurface maxima in 10Be concentrations ranging in magnitude from 170 to 520 x 106 atoms/g. The transient nature of the increased 10Be input suggests that deforestation and agricultural develop- ment caused basin-wide erosion of surface soils enriched in 10Be. probably before the turn of the century.

  3. Trans Women Doing Sex in San Francisco.

    PubMed

    Williams, Colin J; Weinberg, Martin S; Rosenberger, Joshua G

    2016-10-01

    This research investigates the sexuality of trans women (individuals who were assigned male status at birth who currently identify as women), by focusing on the "bodily techniques" (Crossley, 2006) they use in "doing" sexuality. The "doing sexuality" framework not only is modeled after the "doing gender" approach of West and Zimmerman (1987), but also utilizes the idea of "sexual embodiment" to emphasize the agency of trans women as they conceptualize and organize their sexuality in a socially recognized way. This is often difficult as they confront discrimination from medical and legal professionals as well as intimate partners who may find it difficult to adapt to the trans woman's atypical body and conception of gender. However, with a study group of 25 trans women from San Francisco, we found the study participants to be adept at overcoming such hurdles and developing techniques to "do" their sexuality. At the same time, we found trans women's agency constrained by the erotic habitus (Green, 2008) of the wider society. The interplay between innovation and cultural tradition provides an opportunity to fashion a more general model of "doing" sexuality. PMID:27091188

  4. Ancient blue oaks reveal human impact on San Francisco Bay salinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stahle, David W.; Therrell, Matthew D.; Cleaveland, Malcolm K.; Cayan, Daniel R.; Dettinger, Michael D.; Knowles, Noah

    2001-01-01

    San Francisco Bay is one of the most important estuaries on the west coast of the Americas. Its water quality is controlled primarily by streamflow from the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers. In fact, freshwater inflow from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta explains 86% of the salinity variability at the mouth of the San Francisco Bay estuary [Peterson et al., 1989]. The massive diversion of streamflow by the California State Water Project and the Central Valley Project, part of the largest manmade water control system on Earth [Reisner, 1988], has raised salinity in the estuary on daily, seasonal, and annual timescales [Nichols et al., 1986; Peterson et al., 1989].

  5. A simulation-based approach to forecasting the next great San Francisco earthquake.

    PubMed

    Rundle, J B; Rundle, P B; Donnellan, A; Turcotte, D L; Shcherbakov, R; Li, P; Malamud, B D; Grant, L B; Fox, G C; McLeod, D; Yakovlev, G; Parker, J; Klein, W; Tiampo, K F

    2005-10-25

    In 1906 the great San Francisco earthquake and fire destroyed much of the city. As we approach the 100-year anniversary of that event, a critical concern is the hazard posed by another such earthquake. In this article, we examine the assumptions presently used to compute the probability of occurrence of these earthquakes. We also present the results of a numerical simulation of interacting faults on the San Andreas system. Called Virtual California, this simulation can be used to compute the times, locations, and magnitudes of simulated earthquakes on the San Andreas fault in the vicinity of San Francisco. Of particular importance are results for the statistical distribution of recurrence times between great earthquakes, results that are difficult or impossible to obtain from a purely field-based approach. PMID:16219696

  6. A simulation-based approach to forecasting the next great San Francisco earthquake

    PubMed Central

    Rundle, J. B.; Rundle, P. B.; Donnellan, A.; Turcotte, D. L.; Shcherbakov, R.; Li, P.; Malamud, B. D.; Grant, L. B.; Fox, G. C.; McLeod, D.; Yakovlev, G.; Parker, J.; Klein, W.; Tiampo, K. F.

    2005-01-01

    In 1906 the great San Francisco earthquake and fire destroyed much of the city. As we approach the 100-year anniversary of that event, a critical concern is the hazard posed by another such earthquake. In this article, we examine the assumptions presently used to compute the probability of occurrence of these earthquakes. We also present the results of a numerical simulation of interacting faults on the San Andreas system. Called Virtual California, this simulation can be used to compute the times, locations, and magnitudes of simulated earthquakes on the San Andreas fault in the vicinity of San Francisco. Of particular importance are results for the statistical distribution of recurrence times between great earthquakes, results that are difficult or impossible to obtain from a purely field-based approach. PMID:16219696

  7. 1906 Letter to the San Francisco Health Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmachtenberg, Kristin

    2006-01-01

    On Wednesday, April 18, 1906, an earthquake, measuring 7.8 on the Richter magnitude scale and lasting 48 seconds, erupted along the San Andreas fault with a flash point originating in the San Francisco Bay area. The force of the earthquake tore apart buildings and roads, causing water and gas mains to twist and break. The resulting effects of the…

  8. Coastal Adaptation: The Case of Ocean Beach, San Francisco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, S.

    2012-12-01

    stimuli in coastal adaptation initiatives and resulted in the Ocean Beach Master Plan. Investigation into the planning processes involving multiple stakeholder engagement such as San Francisco (SF) Public Utilities Commission, California Coastal Commission, National Park Service, SF Department of Public Works, SF Recreation and Park Department, SF Planning Department, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers can shed light on trade-offs and synergies of different adaptation responses. The role of the coordinator - SF Planning and Urban Research Commission - as a mediator between different stakeholder interests and priorities, a realistic assessment of current hazard management practices specific to local contexts, and the necessity of combining hazard mitigation policies with coastal management and community management are the key findings of this research. They help inform policy formulation and decision-making in climate change adaptation, and provide a valuable case study that can be transferred to other locations.

  9. Life histories, salinity zones, and sublethal contributions of contaminants to pelagic fish declines illustrated with a case study of San Francisco Estuary, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, Marjorie L.; Fleishman, Erica; Brown, Larry R.; Lehman, Peggy W.; Werner, Inge; Scholz, Nathaniel; Michelmore, Carys; Loworn, James R.; Johnson, Michael L.; Schlenk, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Human effects on estuaries are often associated with major decreases in abundance of aquatic species. However, remediation priorities are difficult to identify when declines result from multiple stressors with interacting sublethal effects. The San Francisco Estuary offers a useful case study of the potential role of contaminants in declines of organisms because the waters of its delta chronically violate legal water quality standards; however, direct effects of contaminants on fish species are rarely observed. Lack of direct lethality in the field has prevented consensus that contaminants may be one of the major drivers of coincident but unexplained declines of fishes with differing life histories and habitats (anadromous, brackish, and freshwater). Our review of available evidence indicates that examining the effects of contaminants and other stressors on specific life stages in different seasons and salinity zones of the estuary is critical to identifying how several interacting stressors could contribute to a general syndrome of declines. Moreover, warming water temperatures of the magnitude projected by climate models increase metabolic rates of ectotherms, and can hasten elimination of some contaminants. However, for other pollutants, concurrent increases in respiratory rate or food intake result in higher doses per unit time without changes in the contaminant concentrations in the water. Food limitation and energetic costs of osmoregulating under altered salinities further limit the amount of energy available to fish; this energy must be redirected from growth and reproduction toward pollutant avoidance, enzymatic detoxification, or elimination. Because all of these processes require energy, bioenergetics methods are promising for evaluating effects of sublethal contaminants in the presence of other stressors, and for informing remediation. Predictive models that evaluate the direct and indirect effects of contaminants will be possible when data become

  10. Whole grains and risk of pancreatic cancer in a large population-based case-control study in the San Francisco Bay Area, California.

    PubMed

    Chan, June M; Wang, Furong; Holly, Elizabeth A

    2007-11-15

    Epidemiologic data suggest that consumption of whole-grain products may be inversely associated with risk of pancreatic cancer. Grain intake was examined in a population-based case-control study of pancreatic cancer in the San Francisco Bay Area (1995-1999). A 131-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire was administered to 532 cases and 1,701 controls. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were computed as estimates of relative risk. Persons who consumed > or =2 servings of whole grains daily had a lower risk of pancreatic cancer than persons who consumed <1 serving/day (odds ratio (OR) = 0.60, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.31, 1.2; trend-p = 0.04). Similar results were observed for brown rice (OR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.44, 1.2; trend-p = 0.01) and tortillas (OR = 0.56, 95% CI: 0.35, 0.89; trend-p = 0.02). Consumption of doughnuts (> or =2 servings/week vs. <1 serving/month) conferred increased risk (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.7; trend-p = 0.003). Consumption of cooked breakfast cereals (> or =2 servings/week vs. <1 serving/month) was positively associated with risk (for oatmeal/oat bran, OR = 1.3, 95% CI: 1.0, 1.7; for other cooked breakfast cereals, OR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.4, 3.3). Dietary fiber was inversely associated with risk (for highest quartile vs. lowest, OR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.47, 0.89; trend-p = 0.02). These data provide some support for the hypothesis that consuming more whole-grain or high-fiber foods may reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer. Refined grains were not associated with risk. PMID:17881383

  11. Box Model of a Series of Salt Ponds, as Applied to the Alviso Salt Pond Complex, South San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lionberger, Megan A.; Schoellhamer, David H.; Shellenbarger, Gregory; Orlando, James L.; Ganju, Neil K.

    2007-01-01

    This report documents the development and application of a box model to simulate water level, salinity, and temperature of the Alviso Salt Pond Complex in South San Francisco Bay. These ponds were purchased for restoration in 2003 and currently are managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to maintain existing wildlife habitat and prevent a build up of salt during the development of a long-term restoration plan. The model was developed for the purpose of aiding pond managers during the current interim management period to achieve these goals. A previously developed box model of a salt pond, SPOOM, which calculates daily pond volume and salinity, was reconfigured to simulate multiple connected ponds and a temperature subroutine was added. The updated model simulates rainfall, evaporation, water flowing between the ponds and the adjacent tidal slough network, and water flowing from one pond to the next by gravity and pumps. Theoretical and measured relations between discharge and corresponding differences in water level are used to simulate most flows between ponds and between ponds and sloughs. The principle of conservation of mass is used to calculate daily pond volume and salinity. The model configuration includes management actions specified in the Interim Stewardship Plan for the ponds. The temperature subroutine calculates hourly net heat transfer to or from a pond resulting in a rise or drop in pond temperature and daily average, minimum, and maximum pond temperatures are recorded. Simulated temperature was compared with hourly measured data from pond 3 of the Napa?Sonoma Salt Pond Complex and monthly measured data from pond A14 of the Alviso Salt-Pond Complex. Comparison showed good agreement of measured and simulated pond temperature on the daily and monthly time scales.

  12. Activated carbon amendment as a treatment for residual DDT in sediment from a superfund site in San Francisco Bay, Richmond, California, USA.

    PubMed

    Tomaszewski, Jeanne E; Werner, David; Luthy, Richard G

    2007-10-01

    Pesticide formulators formerly operating at Lauritzen Channel, a portion of San Francisco Bay near Richmond (CA, USA), caused contamination of sediment with dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT). The present study evaluated the distribution of residual DDT in channel sediment six years following extensive remedial dredging. High DDT concentrations (up to 252 mg/ kg) were found in Young Bay Mud sampled across the channel. Particle analyses showed most of the contamination is contained in the clay/silt sediment fraction, and desorption tests showed that availability is greater for DDT metabolites than parent DDT. The present study examined the feasibility of using activated carbon amendment to sequester DDT from sediment, including an evaluation of reactivated carbon as a less costly alternative to virgin activated carbons. Treatment success of activated carbon amendment to sediment collected from Lauritzen Channel was measured by reductions in aqueous equilibrium concentrations and uptake in semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs). Four different activated carbons were tested and, after one month of treatment with 3.2 weight % carbon, DDT aqueous equilibrium concentrations were reduced up to 83% and SPMD uptake was reduced up to 91%. Reactivated carbon was comparable with virgin carbons in all tests. Reduction in SPMD uptake of DDT by treatment with 3.2% reactivated carbon increased to 99% after 26 months of treatment. The effectiveness of activated carbon was dependent on the type, size, dose, and contact time. The results show the potential usefulness of activated carbon amendment as a follow-up remedial technology for management of residuals after dredging contaminated sediment. PMID:17867891

  13. 77 FR 15798 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ...The San Francisco State University, in consultation with the appropriate Indian tribes, has determined that the cultural items meet the definition of sacred objects and repatriation to the Indian tribes stated below may occur if no additional claimants come forward. Representatives of any Indian tribe that believes itself to be culturally affiliated with the cultural items may contact the San......

  14. Sex worker health: San Francisco style

    PubMed Central

    Cohan, D; Lutnick, A; Davidson, P; Cloniger, C; Herlyn, A; Breyer, J; Cobaugh, C; Wilson, D; Klausner, J

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To describe the characteristics of sex workers accessing care at a peer based clinic in San Francisco and to evaluate predictors of sexually transmitted infections (STI). Methods We conducted an observational study of sex workers at St James Infirmary. Individuals underwent an initial questionnaire, and we offered screening for STI at each clinic visit. We performed univariate, bivariate, and multivariable analyses to assess for predictors of STI in this population. Results We saw 783 sex workers identifying as female (53.6%), male (23.9%), male to female transgender (16.1%), and other (6.5%). 70% had never disclosed their sex work to a medical provider. Participants represented a wide range of ethnicities, educational backgrounds, and types of sex work. The most common substance used was tobacco (45.8%). Nearly 40% reported current illicit drug use. Over half reported domestic violence, and 36.0% reported sex work related violence. Those screened had gonorrhoea (12.4%), chlamydia (6.8%), syphilis (1.8%), or herpes simplex virus 2 (34.3%). Predictors of STI included African‐American race (odds ratio (OR) 3.3), male gender (OR 1.9), and sex work related violence (OR 1.9). In contrast, participants who had only ever engaged in collective sex work were less likely to have an STI (OR 0.4). Conclusions The majority of sex workers have never discussed their work with a medical provider. Domestic violence is extremely prevalent as is work related violence. Working with other sex workers appears to be protective of STIs. STI prevention interventions should target African‐American and male sex workers. Addressing violence in the workplace and encouraging sex workers to work collectively may be effective prevention strategies. PMID:16854996

  15. 75 FR 81854 - Safety Zone; New Year's Celebration for the City of San Francisco, Fireworks Display, San...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... Celebration for the City of San Francisco Fireworks Display. The temporary safety zone will extend 100 feet... will extend 1,000 feet from the nearest point of the barge during the fireworks display. This safety... feet from the San Francisco Ferry Building in San Francisco, CA. The fireworks display is...

  16. 76 FR 19519 - Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Downtown San Francisco Ferry Terminal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... Francisco Ferry Terminal Expansion Project in the City and County of San Francisco, CA AGENCY: Federal... Downtown San Francisco Ferry Terminal at the Port of San Francisco Ferry Building. The proposed project... document. Purpose and Need for the Project The purpose of the Downtown San Francisco Ferry...

  17. What is causing the phytoplankton increase in San Francisco Bay?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cloern, J.E.; Jassby, A.D.; Schraga, T.S.; Dallas, K.L.

    2006-01-01

    The largest living component of San Francisco Bay is the phytoplankton, a suspension of microscopic cells that convert sunlight energy into new living biomass through the same process of photosynthesis used by land plants. This primary production is the ultimate source of food for clams, zooplankton, crabs, sardines, halibut, sturgeon, diving ducks, pelicans, and harbor seals. From measurements made in 1980, we estimated that phytoplankton primary production in San Francisco Bay was about 200,000 tons of organic carbon per year (Jassby et al. 1993). This is equivalent to producing the biomass of 5500 adult humpback whales, or the calories to feed 1.8 million people. These numbers may seem large, but primary production in San Francisco Bay is low compared to many other nutrient-enriched estuaries.

  18. 76 FR 45421 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; China Basin, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... necessary to allow the public to cross the bridge to participate in the scheduled San Francisco Marathon, a..., 2011, to allow participants in the San Francisco Marathon to cross the bridge during the event....

  19. City College of San Francisco Enrollment Trends, Fall 1991-Fall 1994. Report 956-02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daoud, Annette M.

    A study was undertaken at the City College of San Francisco (CCSF), in California, to examine the decline in credit and noncredit enrollments from 1991-94 and determine possible reasons for the decline. Over the period, credit enrollment declined 32,406 in fall 1991 to 25,709 in fall 1994, while noncredit enrollment declined from 34,589 to 27,200.…

  20. Subsurface Structure of San Leandro From the San Francisco Bay to the Hayward Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, M. R.; Catching, R. D.; Rymer, M. J.; Gandhok, G.; Steedman, C. E.

    2003-12-01

    The city of San Leandro, California is located in the eastern San Francisco Bay area between the Bay and the East Bay hills (Diablo Mountains). The major known tectonic structures in the immediate San Leandro area are the Hayward fault to the east and the San Leandro basin, a deep sedimentary basin, beneath the western side of the city. To better understand the San Leandro basin, its subsurface fault structures, and the effect of these structures on ground water and earthquake hazards, the U.S. Geological Survey acquired an approximately 10-km-long, high-resolution, combined reflection and refraction seismic imaging profile across the city in June 2002. The seismic profile originated within the waters of the San Francisco Bay and ended at the Hayward fault. Seismic sources were generated by a combination of 400-grain, Betsy-Seisgun blanks in 0.3-m-deep holes and 0.25-to-0.5-kg, buried explosions in 1.5-m-deep holes. The combined spacing of seismic sources was 5 m. The seismic data were recorded on an array of four 60-channel Geometrics Strataview seismographs, with 40-Hz single-element, vertical sensors spaced at 5 m. P-wave velocities range from about 800 m/s at the surface to greater than 2000 m/s at about 100 m depth. Prominent lateral low-velocity areas are evident at several locations along the profile. Reflection images show that the low-velocity areas are largely related to zones of faulting. Near-surface faults are observed on the reflection images, including southwest-dipping faults at the edge of the bay and near-vertical faults within the Hayward fault zone, but the most prominent fault occurs approximately 1 km east of the bay, where it bounds the ~1-km-deep San Leandro basin. Because the near-surface faults are observed within a few meters of the surface and because epicenters of small-magnitude earthquakes correlate with these faults, it is likely that they are active and represent potential hazards. The reflection and velocity images show that some

  1. Developing Alternative Placement Criteria for English Courses at City College of San Francisco. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castrechini, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    Recognizing the need to improve postsecondary access and success for underrepresented populations, the San Francisco Unified School District (SFUSD), City College of San Francisco (CCSF), the City and County of San Francisco, and key community organizations formed the Bridge to Success initiative in 2009. The John W. Gardner Center for Youth and…

  2. 75 FR 65985 - Safety Zone: Epic Roasthouse Private Party Firework Display, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-27

    ... Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone in the navigable waters of San Francisco Bay 1,000 yards... place on November 5, 2010, on the navigable waters of San Francisco Bay, 1,000 yards off Epic Roasthouse...) Location. This temporary safety zone is established for the waters of San Francisco Bay 1,000 yards...

  3. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Collection of Society of California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Collection of Society of California Pioneers & Wells Fargo Bank Historical Museum, San Francisco F. Marryat, Watercolor 1850 - Sansome Street, Historic View, 1850, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  4. Simulation of climate change in San Francisco Bay Basins, California: Case studies in the Russian River Valley and Santa Cruz Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, Lorraine E.; Flint, Alan L.

    2012-01-01

    As a result of ongoing changes in climate, hydrologic and ecologic effects are being seen across the western United States. A regional study of how climate change affects water resources and habitats in the San Francisco Bay area relied on historical climate data and future projections of climate, which were downscaled to fine spatial scales for application to a regional water-balance model. Changes in climate, potential evapotranspiration, recharge, runoff, and climatic water deficit were modeled for the Bay Area. In addition, detailed studies in the Russian River Valley and Santa Cruz Mountains, which are on the northern and southern extremes of the Bay Area, respectively, were carried out in collaboration with local water agencies. Resource managers depend on science-based projections to inform planning exercises that result in competent adaptation to ongoing and future changes in water supply and environmental conditions. Results indicated large spatial variability in climate change and the hydrologic response across the region; although there is warming under all projections, potential change in precipitation by the end of the 21st century differed according to model. Hydrologic models predicted reduced early and late wet season runoff for the end of the century for both wetter and drier future climate projections, which could result in an extended dry season. In fact, summers are projected to be longer and drier in the future than in the past regardless of precipitation trends. While water supply could be subject to increased variability (that is, reduced reliability) due to greater variability in precipitation, water demand is likely to steadily increase because of increased evapotranspiration rates and climatic water deficit during the extended summers. Extended dry season conditions and the potential for drought, combined with unprecedented increases in precipitation, could serve as additional stressors on water quality and habitat. By focusing on the

  5. 2014 Female Athlete Triad Coalition Consensus Statement on Treatment and Return to Play of the Female Athlete Triad: 1st International Conference held in San Francisco, California, May 2012 and 2nd International Conference held in Indianapolis, Indiana, May 2013.

    PubMed

    De Souza, Mary Jane; Nattiv, Aurelia; Joy, Elizabeth; Misra, Madhusmita; Williams, Nancy I; Mallinson, Rebecca J; Gibbs, Jenna C; Olmsted, Marion; Goolsby, Marci; Matheson, Gordon

    2014-02-01

    The Female Athlete Triad is a medical condition often observed in physically active girls and women, and involves three components: (1) low energy availability with or without disordered eating, (2) menstrual dysfunction and (3) low bone mineral density. Female athletes often present with one or more of the three Triad components, and an early intervention is essential to prevent its progression to serious endpoints that include clinical eating disorders, amenorrhoea and osteoporosis. This consensus statement represents a set of recommendations developed following the 1st (San Francisco, California, USA) and 2nd (Indianapolis, Indiana, USA) International Symposia on the Female Athlete Triad. It is intended to provide clinical guidelines for physicians, athletic trainers and other healthcare providers for the screening, diagnosis and treatment of the Female Athlete Triad and to provide clear recommendations for return to play. The 2014 Female Athlete Triad Coalition Consensus Statement on Treatment and Return to Play of the Female Athlete Triad expert panel has proposed a risk stratification point system that takes into account magnitude of risk to assist the physician in decision-making regarding sport participation, clearance and return to play. Guidelines are offered for clearance categories, management by a multidisciplinary team and implementation of treatment contracts. This consensus paper has been endorsed by the Female Athlete Triad Coalition, an International Consortium of leading Triad researchers, physicians and other healthcare professionals, the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Medical Society for Sports Medicine. PMID:24463911

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in San Francisco Bay.

    PubMed

    Davis, J A; Hetzel, F; Oram, J J; McKee, L J

    2007-09-01

    San Francisco Bay is facing a legacy of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) spread widely across the land surface of the watershed, mixed deep into the sediment of the Bay, and contaminating the Bay food web to a degree that poses health risks to humans and wildlife. In response to this persistent problem, water quality managers are establishing a PCB total maximum daily load (TMDL) and implementation plan to accelerate the recovery of the Bay from decades of PCB contamination. This article provides a review of progress made over the past 15 years in managing PCBs and understanding their sources, pathways, fate, and effects in the Bay, and highlights remaining information needs that should be addressed in the next 10 years. The phaseout of PCBs during the 1970s and the 1979 federal ban on sale and production led to gradual declines from the 1970s to the present. However, 25 years after the ban, PCB concentrations in some Bay sport fish today are still more than ten times higher than the threshold of concern for human health. Without further management action it appears that the general recovery of the Bay from PCB contamination will take many more decades. PCB concentrations in sport fish were, along with mercury, a primary cause of a consumption advisory for the Bay and the consequent classification of the Bay as an impaired water body. Several sources of information indicate that PCB concentrations in the Bay may also be high enough to adversely affect wildlife, including rare and endangered species. The greater than 90% reduction in food web contamination needed to meet the targets for protection of human health would likely also generally eliminate risks to wildlife. PCB contamination in the Bay is primarily associated with industrial areas along the shoreline and in local watersheds. Strong spatial gradients in PCB concentrations persist decades after the release of these chemicals to Bay Area waterways. Through the TMDL process, attention is being more sharply

  7. The Health, Mobility & Safety Lab at San Francisco State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yee, Darlene; Melichar, Joseph F.

    The purpose of this research project at San Francisco State University was to develop and evaluate integrated assessment and intervention strategies to locate the "at risk" older driver and remediate deficits in knowledge or skills about driving and traffic safety. The identification of the "at risk" older driver should suggest appropriate, cost…

  8. VIEW OF PELTON WATER WHEEL COMPANY (SAN FRANCISCO) TURBINE: SPEED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF PELTON WATER WHEEL COMPANY (SAN FRANCISCO) TURBINE: SPEED 225 RPM, 17,500 HP. PHOTO BY JET LOWE, HAER, 1995. (Note: the dark hole in the concrete column to the left is from a tear in the negative.) - Elwha River Hydroelectric System, Glines Hydroelectric Dam & Plant, Port Angeles, Clallam County, WA

  9. Asian American Students: A Look at San Francisco State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okutsu, James K.

    The attitudes of American Asian students at San Francisco State University toward their education were studied. Responses were obtained from 585 students who were enrolled in Asian American Studies classes in spring 1986. Sixty percent of the sample were of Chinese ancestry, 20% were Filipino, and 20% were other Asian (including Japanese, Korean,…

  10. Relocated American Indians in the San Francisco Bay Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ablon, Joan

    1964-01-01

    American Indians who come to the San Francisco Bay Area choose to associate primarily with other Indians of their own or differing tribes in both informal and formal social interaction. Urbanization of Indians occurs on a large scale because of government relocation programs; however, the background in small rural folk communities creates a…

  11. San Francisco Bay Area Environmental Education Needs Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, Duane

    To identify environmental technician positions in the public and private sectors of the San Francisco Bay Area as well as to determine the skills and knowledge necessary for employment in the field, questionnaires were distributed to companies, agencies, individuals of the private sector in the area, and 33 institutions offering an Occupational…

  12. Solar for Your Present Home. San Francisco Bay Area Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnaby, Charles S.; And Others

    This publication provides information about present uses of solar energy for space, water, and swimming pool heating that are practical for the San Francisco Bay area. It attempts to provide interested persons with the information needed to make decisions regarding installations of solar heating systems. The point of view taken is that any…

  13. 33 CFR 161.50 - Vessel Traffic Service San Francisco.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vessel Traffic Service San Francisco. 161.50 Section 161.50 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY VESSEL TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT Vessel Traffic Service and Vessel Movement Reporting System Areas and...

  14. 374. Delineator Unknown June 1933 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    374. Delineator Unknown June 1933 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; YERBA BUENA CROSSING; EYE BAR CHAIN; CONTRACT NO. 5; SUP. DRAWING NO. 12A - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  15. 385. Delineator Unknown December 1932 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    385. Delineator Unknown December 1932 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; SUPERSTRUCTURE - WEST BAY CROSSING; ROCKER POSTS AND BEARING; CONTRACT NO. 6; DRAWINGS NO. 42 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  16. 390. Delineator Unknown October 1933 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    390. Delineator Unknown October 1933 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; SUPERSTRUCTURE - EAST BAY CROSSING; SPANS YBI TO El - E9 TO El ; TYPICAL CROSSSECTION; CONTRACT NO. 7; SUP. DRAWING NO. 82 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  17. 379. Delineator Unknown December 1932 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    379. Delineator Unknown December 1932 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; CABLES AND ATTACHMENTS - WEST BAY CROSSING; SPLAY CASTINGS; CONTRACT NO. 6A; DRAWING NO. 4 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  18. 375. Delineator Unknown June 1933 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    375. Delineator Unknown June 1933 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; YERBA BUENA CROSSING; ANCHORAGE TUNNELS; CONTRACT NO. 5; DRAWING NO. 10A - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  19. 380. Delineator Unknown December 1932 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    380. Delineator Unknown December 1932 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; CABLES & ATTACHMENTS WEST BAY CROSSING; CABLE BANDS; CONTRACT NO. 6A; DRAWING NO. 3 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  20. An Overview of Finance Services in the San Francisco Region: Some Possible Responses to a Changing Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Margaret

    As part of a review of the finance program at California's City College of San Francisco (CCSF), a project was undertaken to explore trends in the banking and finance industry to identify pre-service and in-service training needs and determine CCSF's role in meeting those needs. A review of trends found profound changes in the banking and finance…

  1. City College of San Francisco Credit ESL Course Completion. Institutional Development, Research and Planning Report 956-01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mery, Pamela M.

    The English as a Second Language (ESL) department is City College of San Francisco's (CCSF's) (California) largest department, offering both credit and non-credit classes and accounting for 3,993 credit students and 21,025 noncredit students in fall 1993. To gather data on Department success, a study was conducted to determine successful course…

  2. GC/MS ANALYSIS OF PCB CONGENERS IN BLOOD OF THE HARBOR SEAL PHOCA VITULINA FROM SAN FRANCISCO BAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Here we report a validated technique for quantifying up to 20 specific PCB congeners in 1-2 g samples of whole blood with a detection limit below 1 ng/g (ppb) wet weight. Specimens were analyzed from 14 harbor seals sampled in south San Francisco Bay, California during 1991-1992....

  3. 78 FR 1760 - Determination of Attainment for the San Francisco Bay Area Nonattainment Area for the 2006 Fine...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... the 2006 Fine Particle Standard; California; Determination Regarding Applicability of Clean Air Act... 2006 24-hour fine particle (PM 2.5 ) National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). This determination... Action On October 29, 2012 (77 FR 65521), EPA proposed to determine that the San Francisco Bay...

  4. California Child Care Workforce Study: Family Child Care Providers and Assistants in Alameda County, Kern County, Monterey County, San Benito County, San Francisco County, San Mateo County, Santa Cruz County, and Santa Clara County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitebook, Marcy; Almaraz, Mirella; Jo-Yung, Joon; Sakai, Laura; Boots, Shelley Waters; Voisin, Irene; Young, Marci; Burton, Alice; Duff, Brian; Laverty, Kassin; Bellm, Dan; Jay, E. Deborah; Krishnaswamy, Nandini; Kipnis, Fran

    An important first step toward more effectively addressing the complexities of child care as a service for families and as an employment setting for workers in California is to develop a detailed picture of the child care workforce. On this premise, a study examined licensed family child care provider demographics, professional preparation, length…

  5. Comparison of a few recording current meters in San Francisco Bay, CA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, R.T.

    1978-01-01

    A team of research scientists in the U.S. Geological Survey uses San Francisco Bay, California, as an outdoor laboratory to study complicated interactions of physical, chemical, and biological processes which take place in an estuarine environment. A current meter comparison study was conceived because of the need to select a suitable current meter to meet field requirements for current measurements in the Bay. The study took place in south San Francisco Bay, California, in the spring of 1977. An instrument tower which was designed to support instruments free from the conventional mooring line motions was constructed and emplaced in south San Francisco Bay. During a period of two months, four types of recording current meters have been used in the tests. The four types were: (1) Aanderaa, (2) tethered shroud-impeller, (3) drag-inclinometer, and (4) electromagnetic current meters. With the exception of the electromagnetic current meter, one of each type was mounted on the instrument tower, and one of each type was deployed on moorings near the instrument tower. In addition, a wind anemometer and a recording tide gauge were also installed on the tower. This paper discusses the characteristics of each instrument and the accuracy that each instrument can provide when used in an estuarine environment. We pay special attention to our experiences in the field operation with respect to handling of the instruments and to our experiences working up the raw data in the post-deployment data analysis.

  6. Plankton studies in San Francisco Bay, VIII, Chlorophyll distributions and hydrographic properties of South San Francisco Bay, 1983

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alpine, Andrea E.; Wienke, Sally M.; Cloern, James E.; Cole, Brian E.; Wong, Raymond L. J.

    1985-01-01

    This report summarizes the distribution of phytoplankton Momass and selected hydrographic properties measured in South San Francisco Bay during 1983- There were a total of 45 cruises over the year with the most frequent sampling occurring during the spring. Parameters measured were: chlorophyll a, phaeopigments, in-vivo fluorescence, turbidity, salinity, and temperature.

  7. Plankton studies in San Francisco Bay; IX, Chlorophyll distributions and hydrographic properties of South San Francisco Bay, 1984-86

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alpine, Andrea A.; Wienke, Sally M.; Cloern, James E.; Cole, Brian E.

    1988-01-01

    This report summarizes the distribution of phytoplankton biomass and selected hydrographic properties in South San Francisco Bay during 1984- 1986. There were a total of 67 cruises during the three-year period with the most frequent sampling occurring during the spring. Parameters measured were chlorophyll a, phaeopigments, in-vivo fluorescence, turbidity, salinity, and temperature.

  8. Applications of 3D hydrodynamic and particle tracking models in the San Francisco bay-delta estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, P.E.; Donovan, J.M.; Wong, H.F.N.

    2005-01-01

    Three applications of three-dimensional hydrodynamic and particle-tracking models are currently underway by the United States Geological Survey in the San Francisco Bay-Delta Estuary. The first application is to the San Francisco Bay and a portion of the coastal ocean. The second application is to an important, gated control channel called the Delta Cross Channel, located within the northern portion of the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta. The third application is to a reach of the San Joaquin River near Stockton, California where a significant dissolved oxygen problem exists due, in part, to conditions associated with the deep-water ship channel for the Port of Stockton, California. This paper briefly discusses the hydrodynamic and particle tracking models being used and the three applications. Copyright ASCE 2005.

  9. Long-term trends in metals, PCBs, and pesticides in mussels from San Francisco Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, M.D.; Tjeerdema, R.S.; Taberski, K.; Thompson, B.; Hoenicke, R.

    1995-12-31

    Many contaminant programs have been established to study the geographical distributions and long-term trends of potential pollutants, but unfortunately, many have been short-lived because of economic cutbacks, providing limited information on long-term trends. The California State Mussel Watch program in conjunction with the San Francisco Estuary Institute (in the last 2 years) have provided continues funding for the past 15 years to mussel watch studies in San Francisco Bay. Long-term trends have been identified that describe declines in many organics and metals during the last 15 years. There are also some metals and organics that show no specific trends. The declines indicate that the banning or restriction of usage of some of these contaminants has resulted in substantial decreases of these substances in the environment.

  10. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of San Gregorio, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Dartnell, Peter; Greene, H. Gary; Watt, Janet T.; Golden, Nadine E.; Endris, Charles A.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Bretz, Carrie K.; Manson, Michael W.; Sliter, Ray W.; Ross, Stephanie L.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Chin, John L.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California's State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology. The Offshore of San Gregorio map area is located in northern California, on the Pacific coast of the San Francisco Peninsula about 50 kilometers south of the Golden Gate. The map area lies offshore of the Santa Cruz Mountains, part of the northwest-trending Coast Ranges that run roughly parallel to the San Andreas Fault Zone. The Santa Cruz Mountains lie between the San Andreas Fault Zone and the San Gregorio Fault system. The nearest significant onshore cultural centers in the map area are San Gregorio and Pescadero, both unincorporated communities with populations well under 1,000. Both communities are situated inland of state beaches that share their names. No harbor facilities are within the Offshore of San Gregorio map area. The hilly coastal area is virtually undeveloped grazing land for sheep and cattle. The coastal geomorphology is controlled by late Pleistocene and Holocene slip in the San Gregorio Fault system. A westward bend in the San Andreas Fault Zone, southeast of the map area, coupled with right-lateral movement along the San Gregorio Fault system have caused regional folding and uplift. The coastal area consists of high coastal bluffs and vertical sea cliffs. Coastal promontories in

  11. Abundance, Health and Status of Sand Crabs at Ocean Beach, San Francisco: Comparisons From two Summers, 2003 and 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad-Saydah, A.; MacCormack, D.; Velarde, M.; Masters, D.; Walton, M.

    2004-12-01

    Interns from the California Academy of Sciences in San Francisco monitored Pacific mole crabs, Emerita analoga, commonly known as sand crabs, at Ocean Beach, San Francisco for the second consecutive summer. Comparisons from two data sets revealed trends in crab abundance, size and location. Changes in abundance and location may have been related to water temperature and predation. Dissections of random crabs from all gender classes allowed inspection of parasitism on the crabs. The dissections revealed increased numbers of parasites in larger crabs (especially females with eggs) and in crabs collected later in the summer season. Crab parasitism may be connected to population changes of species predating the sand crabs.

  12. 33 CFR 3.55-20 - Sector San Francisco: San Francisco Bay Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sector San Francisco: San Francisco Bay Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone. 3.55-20 Section 3.55-20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL COAST GUARD AREAS, DISTRICTS, SECTORS, MARINE INSPECTION ZONES, AND CAPTAIN...

  13. Plankton studies in San Francisco Bay; II, Phytoplankton abundance and species composition, July 1977-December 1979

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wong, Raymond L. J.; Cloern, James E.

    1981-01-01

    Data are presented on the phytoplankton species composition and abundance in San Francisco Bay from July 1977 through December 1979. Phytoplankton identification and enumerations were made at selected stations. Sample collections were made at selected stations in the main channel of the Bay from Rio Vista on the Sacramento River to Calaveras Point in South San Francisco Bay, and at shoal stations in the central portion of South San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, and Suisun Bay. Also reported, from October 1978 through December 1979, are the calculated phytoplankton carbon and percent nondiatom carbon, and the species list. This study is one component of an ongoing interdisciplinary study of San Francisco Bay. (USGS)

  14. 388. D.E.M., Delineator December 1932 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    388. D.E.M., Delineator December 1932 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; SUPERSTRUCTURE - WEST BAY CROSSING; SUSPENDED STRUCTURE; SIDE SPAN TRUSSES AT ANCHORAGES; CONTRACT NO. 6; DRAWING NO. 40 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  15. 367. J.W.G., Delineator August 1933 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    367. J.W.G., Delineator August 1933 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; SUPERSTRUCTURE - WEST BAY CROSSING; PIER NO. 5; GENERAL PLAN & ELEVATION; CONTRACT NO. 2; SUP. DRAWING NO. 10A - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  16. 392. J.R.L., Delineator August 1933 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    392. J.R.L., Delineator August 1933 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; SUPERSTRUCTURE - EAST BAY CROSSING; PIER El; ANCHORAGE STEEL WORK; CONTRACT NO. 7; SUP. DRAWING NO. 72A - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  17. 371. A.J.M. and D.L.S., Delineators April 1934. STATE OF CALIFORNIA; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    371. A.J.M. and D.L.S., Delineators April 1934. STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; SUPERSTRUCTURE - WEST BAY CROSSING; PIER NO. 4; VERTICAL SECTIONS; CONTRACT NO. 2; SUP. DRAWING NO. 17A - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  18. 376. A.J.M. and D.L.S., Delineators February 1934 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    376. A.J.M. and D.L.S., Delineators February 1934 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; YERBA BUENA CROSSING; CROSS-SECTIONS OF CABLE ANCHORAGE; CONTRACT NO. 5; SUP. DRAWING NO. 4A - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  19. 387. D.E.M., Delineator December 1932 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    387. D.E.M., Delineator December 1932 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; SUPERSTRUCTURE - WEST BAY CROSSING; TOWERS 2, 3, 5 & 6; BRACING DETAILS - LOWER DECK; CONTRACT NO. 6; DRAWING NO. 27 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  20. 378. A.C.S., Delineator March 1933 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    378. A.C.S., Delineator March 1933 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; CONTRACT NO. 6A; SUPERSTRUCTURE - WEST BAY CROSSING; YERBA BUENA ANCHORAGE & CABLE BENT. AMERICAN BRIDGE CO.; AMBRIDGE PLANT; ORDER NO. G 4866; SHEET NO. E4 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  1. 370. F.A.N., Delineator Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    370. F.A.N., Delineator Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; WEST BAY CROSSING; PIER W-4; PLANS AND ELEVATIONS; DRG. NO. 17 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  2. 382. J.R.L., Delineator Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    382. J.R.L., Delineator Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; WEST BAY CROSSING; TOWERS; GENERAL ELEVATIONS & SECTIONS; DRG. NO. 28 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  3. 368. J.R.L., Delineator Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    368. J.R.L., Delineator Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; TYPICAL CAISSON DETAILS; PIER W-3, W-4, W-5 & W-6; DRG. NO. 21 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  4. Child-Care Aid and Quality for California Families: Focusing on San Francisco and Santa Clara Counties. PACE Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Bruce; Chang, Yueh-Wen; Suzuki, Sawako; Kagan, Sharon Lynn

    Against the backdrop of evolving welfare policies in California following the approval of federal welfare reforms in 1996, the Growing Up in Poverty Project is examining how single mothers and their children fare as they move from cash aid to jobs, the types and quality of child care arrangements selected, and if mothers' access to child care…

  5. Testimony Presented at an Open Hearing of the National Commission on Excellence in Teacher Education (San Francisco, California, October 22-23, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1984

    Testimony at this hearing included presentations on (or entitled): (1) implications of teacher training for Hispanic Americans (M. Susana Navarro); (2) "My Vision of the Teaching Profession" (Henrietta Schwartz); (3) "Preparing California School Leaders: An Analysis of Supply, Demand, and Training" (William Gerritz, Julia Koppich, James W.…

  6. Abrupt along-strike change in tectonic style: San Andreas fault zone, San Francisco Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zoback, M.L.; Jachens, R.C.; Olson, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    Seismicity and high-resolution aeromagnetic data are used to define an abrupt change from compressional to extensional tectonism within a 10- to 15-km-wide zone along the San Andreas fault on the San Francisco Peninsula and offshore from the Golden Gate. This 100-km-long section of the San Andreas fault includes the hypocenter of the Mw = 7.8 1906 San Francisco earthquake as well as the highest level of persistent microseismicity along that ???470-km-long rupture. We define two distinct zones of deformation along this stretch of the fault using well-constrained relocations of all post-1969 earthquakes based a joint one-dimensional velocity/hypocenter inversion and a redetermination of focal mechanisms. The southern zone is characterized by thrust- and reverse-faulting focal mechanisms with NE trending P axes that indicate "fault-normal" compression in 7- to 10-km-wide zones of deformation on both sides of the San Andreas fault. A 1- to 2-km-wide vertical zone beneath the surface trace of the San Andreas is characterized by its almost complete lack of seismicity. The compressional deformation is consistent with the young, high topography of the Santa Cruz Mountains/Coast Ranges as the San Andreas fault makes a broad restraining left bend (???10??) through the southernmost peninsula. A zone of seismic quiescence ???15 km long separates this compressional zone to the south from a zone of combined normal-faulting and strike-slip-faulting focal mechanisms (including a ML = 5.3 earthquake in 1957) on the northernmost peninsula and offshore on the Golden Gate platform. Both linear pseudo-gravity gradients, calculated from the aeromagnetic data, and seismic reflection data indicate that the San Andreas fault makes an abrupt ???3-km right step less than 5 km offshore in this northern zone. A similar right-stepping (dilatational) geometry is also observed for the subparallel San Gregorio fault offshore. Persistent seismicity and extensional tectonism occur within the San

  7. Aggregate Settling Velocities in San Francisco Estuary Margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, R. M.; Stacey, M. T.; Variano, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    One way that humans impact aquatic ecosystems is by adding nutrients and contaminants, which can propagate up the food web and cause blooms and die-offs, respectively. Often, these chemicals are attached to fine sediments, and thus where sediments go, so do these anthropogenic influences. Vertical motion of sediments is important for sinking and burial, and also for indirect effects on horizontal transport. The dynamics of sinking sediment (often in aggregates) are complex, thus we need field data to test and validate existing models. San Francisco Bay is well studied and is often used as a test case for new measurement and model techniques (Barnard et al. 2013). Settling velocities for aggregates vary between 4*10-5 to 1.6*10-2 m/s along the estuary backbone (Manning and Schoellhamer 2013). Model results from South San Francisco Bay shoals suggest two populations of settling particles, one fast (ws of 9 to 5.8*10-4 m/s) and one slow (ws of < 1*10-7 to 1.4*10-5 m/s) (Brand et al. 2015). While the open waters of San Francisco Bay and other estuaries are well studied and modeled, sediment and contaminants often originate from the margin regions, and the margins remain poorly characterized. We conducted a 24 hour field experiment in a channel slough of South San Francisco Bay, and measured settling velocity, turbulence and flow, and suspended sediment concentration. At this margin location, we found average settling velocities of 4-5*10-5 m/s, and saw settling velocities decrease with decreasing suspended sediment concentration. These results are consistent with, though at the low end of, those seen along the estuary center, and they suggest that the two population model that has been successful along the shoals may also apply in the margins.

  8. Ice, quakes, and a wobble shake San Francisco

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, R.A.

    1995-01-06

    The fall meeting of the American Geophysical Union (AGU) in San Francisco last month was bumped to the Moscone Center while the Civic Auditorium, its venue in past years, was being reinforced against earthquakes. And that may have been fitting, given the meeting`s focus on sudden events in Earth history; the first moments of fault rupture, repeated outbursts of icebergs during the last ice age, and a shift in the seasons in the middle of this century.

  9. The earthquake educational institute at San Francisco State University

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, R.; Pestrong, R.; Strongin, H.

    1980-01-01

    The Earthquake Educational Institute was established in 1978 at San Francisco State University under a grant from the U.S National Science Foundation. The goal of the Institute is to develop earthquake-related curricula for use in elementary and secondary schools in the hope that, by educating students about earthquakes, they will be better prepared for the disruptions associated with a major quake. To date, about 140 elementary and secondary school teachers and administrators have enrolled in the program. 

  10. Coastal monitoring of the May 2005 dredge disposal offshore of Ocean Beach, San Francisco, Calif.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Hanes, Daniel M.

    2006-01-01

    Ocean Beach, California, contains an erosion hot spot in the shadow of the San Francisco ebb tidal delta south of Sloat Boulevard that threatens valuable public infrastructure as well as the safe recreational use of the beach. In an effort to reduce the erosion at this location and avoid hazardous navigation conditions at the current disposal site (SF-8), a new plan for the management of sediment dredged annually from the main shipping channel at the mouth of Francisco Bay was implemented in May 2005 by the United States Army Corps of Engineers, San Francisco District (COE). The objective for COE was to perform a test dredge disposal of ~230,000 m3 (300,000 yd3) of sand just offshore of the erosion hot spot, in depths between approximately 9 and 14 m. This disposal site was chosen because it is in a location where the strong tidal currents associated with the mouth of San Francisco Bay and waves can potentially feed sediment toward the littoral zone in the reach of the beach that is experiencing critical erosion. The onshore migration of sediment from the target disposal location might feed the primary longshore bar or the nearshore zone, and provide a buffer to erosion that peaks during winter months when large waves impact the region. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with the Sea Floor Mapping Lab (SFML) of California State University, Monterey Bay, monitored the initial bathymetric evolution of the test dredge disposal site and the adjacent coastal region from May 2005 to November 2005. This paper reports on this monitoring effort and assesses the short-term coastal response.

  11. Microbial diversity in restored wetlands of San Francisco Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Theroux, Susanna; Hartman, Wyatt; He, Shaomei; Tringe, Susannah

    2013-12-09

    Wetland ecosystems may serve as either a source or a sink for atmospheric carbon and greenhouse gases. This delicate carbon balance is influenced by the activity of belowground microbial communities that return carbon dioxide and methane to the atmosphere. Wetland restoration efforts in the San Francisco Bay-Delta region may help to reverse land subsidence and possibly increase carbon storage in soils. However, the effects of wetland restoration on microbial communities, which mediate soil metabolic activity and carbon cycling, are poorly studied. In an effort to better understand the underlying factors which shape the balance of carbon flux in wetland soils, we targeted the microbial communities in a suite of restored and historic wetlands in the San Francisco Bay-Delta region. Using DNA and RNA sequencing, coupled with greenhouse gas monitoring, we profiled the diversity and metabolic potential of the wetland soil microbial communities along biogeochemical and wetland age gradients. Our results show relationships among geochemical gradients, availability of electron acceptors, and microbial community composition. Our study provides the first genomic glimpse into microbial populations in natural and restored wetlands of the San Francisco Bay-Delta region and provides a valuable benchmark for future studies.

  12. The phytoplankton component of seston in San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wienke, S.M.; Cloern, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Phytoplankton biomass (as carbon) was estimated from chlorophyll a concentrations (Chla) and a mean value for the ratio of phytoplankton carbon to chlorophyll a in San Francisco Bay. The ratio was determined as the slope of a Model II regression of POC' against (Chla), where POC' is total particulate organic carbon minus sediment-associated non-phytoplankton carbon. Samples from 30 fixed sites in the channel and lateral shoals of San Francisco Bay were collected once or twice a month from April to November 1980, and at irregular intervals in South Bay during 1984 and 1985. For all data the calculated mean value of phytoplankton C:Chla was 51 (95% confidence interval = 47-54). No significant differences were found in the C:Chla ratio between shallow and deep sites (where light availability differs) or between northern and southern San Francisco Bay (where phytoplankton community composition differs). Using the mean C:Chla ratio of 51, we calculated that phytoplankton biomass constitutes about one third of seston carbon under most circumstances, but this fraction ranges from about 95% during phytoplankton blooms to less than 20% during spring periods of low phytoplankton biomass and high suspended sediment concentration. ?? 1987.

  13. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Courtesy of California Historical Society ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Courtesy of California Historical Society San Francisco, California Photo: ca. 1885 MIRROR PANELED BALLROOM - Ralston Hall, Ralston Avenue, Belmont, San Mateo County, CA

  14. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Courtesy of California Historical Society ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Courtesy of California Historical Society San Francisco, California Photo: ca. 1875 MIRROR PANELED BALLROOM - Ralston Hall, Ralston Avenue, Belmont, San Mateo County, CA

  15. How useful is landslide hazard information? Lessons learned in the San Francisco Bay region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howell, David G.; Brabb, Earl E.; Ramsey, David W.

    2000-01-01

    Landslides, worldwide and in the United States, are arguably the most costly natural hazard. Substantial landslide information is available, but much of it remains underutilized, as a disconnect exists among geologists, decision makers, and the public. The lack of a national landslide insurance policy exacerbates this situation and promotes litigation as the principal recourse for recouping landslide-damage losses. The U.S. Geological Survey's landslide investigation in the San Francisco Bay region of California provides a context for making suggestions on how Earth science information could be used more effectively.

  16. How useful is landslide hazard information? Lessons learned in the San Francisco Bay region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howell, D.G.; Brabb, E.E.; Ramsey, D.W.

    1999-01-01

    Landslides, worldwide and in the United States, are arguably the most costly natural hazard. Substantial landslide information is available, but much of it remains underutilized, as a disconnect exists among geologists, decision makers, and the public. The lack of a national landslide insurance policy exacerbates this situation and promotes litigation as the principal recourse for recouping landslide-damage losses. The U.S. Geological Survey's landslide investigation in the San Francisco Bay region of California provides a context for making suggestions on how Earth science information could be used more effectively.

  17. Perspective View with Landsat Overlay, San Francisco Bay Area, Calif.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The defining landmarks of San Francisco, its bay and the San Andreas Fault are clearly seen in this computer-generated perspective viewed from the south. Running from the bottom of the scene diagonally up to the left, the trough of the San Andreas Fault is occupied by Crystal Springs Reservoir and San Andreas Lake. Interstate 280 winds along the side of the fault. San Francisco International Airport is the angular feature projecting into the bay just below San Bruno Mountain, the elongated ridge cutting across the peninsula. The hills of San Francisco can be seen beyond San Bruno Mountain and beyond the city, the Golden Gate.

    This 3-D perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) and an enhanced color Landsat 5satellite image. Topographic expression is exaggerated two times.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and will substantially help in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D

  18. Reconstructing the natural hydrology of the San Francisco Bay-Delta watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, P.; Hutton, P. H.; Howes, D. J.; Draper, A. J.; Sears, L.

    2015-04-01

    The San Francisco Estuary, composed of San Francisco Bay and the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, is the largest estuary along the Pacific coast of the United States. The tributary watersheds of California's Central Valley are the principal sources of freshwater flow into the San Francisco Bay-Delta estuary. The Delta serves as one of the principal hubs of California's water system, which delivers 45% of the water used statewide to 25 million residents and 16 000 km2 of farmland. The development of California, from small-scale human settlements that co-existed with an environment rich in native vegetation to the eighth largest economy in the world was facilitated by reconfiguring the state's water resources to serve new uses: agriculture, industry, and a burgeoning population. The redistribution of water from native vegetation to other uses was accompanied by significant declines in native aquatic species that rely on the San Francisco Bay-Delta system. These declines have been attributed to a variety of causes, including reduction in the amount of freshwater reaching the San Francisco Bay-Delta watershed (Delta outflow); decreased sediment loads; increased nutrient loads; changes in nutrient stoichiometry; contaminants; introduced species; habitat degradation and loss; and shifts in the ocean-atmosphere system, among others. Among these stressors, only the volume of Delta outflow has been regulated in an effort to address the decline in aquatic species. As native species evolved under natural landscape conditions, prior to European settlement in the mid-18th century, we evaluated the impact of landscape changes on the amount of Delta outflow. We reconstructed the natural landscape and used water balances to estimate the long-term annual average Delta outflow that would have occurred under natural landscape conditions if the climate from 1922 to 2009 were to repeat. These outflows are referred to as "natural" Delta outflows and are the first reported estimate of

  19. Sequential Extraction of Mercury from Sediments in San Francisco Bay Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerin, E.; Conaway, C. H.; Flegal, A.

    2002-12-01

    Mercury is found as both a natural component of weathering and as an industrial contaminant in sediments in central California. Although the mercury in most of California's coastal rivers is primarily derived from natural weathering processes, the bulk mercury in San Francisco Bay is derived from historic mining. In the northern reach of the estuary, this contamination is largely from elemental mercury used in gold mining in the Sierra Nevada and California Coast Ranges; whereas in the southern reach of the estuary the contamination is from weathering of mercury sulfide deposits and mining wastes in the nearby New Almaden mercury mining district. This disparity in sources is consistent with the results of our investigation of phase distributions of mercury in sediments using a sequential extraction method proposed by Bloom and Katon (2000). The extractions show that in the northern reach about 90% of the mercury was strongly complexed or elemental mercury, but only about 60% was strongly complexed in the southern reach. Moreover, almost all (greater than 90%) of the mercury at the New Almaden mine site was in the refractory sulfide fraction (cinnabar), but only 15% of the mercury was in that fraction downstream in the southern reach, showing the effects of chemical weathering and physical processes on mercury speciation in this system. Bloom, N. and Katon, J., 2000. Application of Selective Extraction to the Determination of Mercury Speciation in Mine Tailings and Adjacent Soils, Assessing and Managing Mercury from Historic and Current Mining Activities, San Francisco, CA.

  20. Deep bore hole instrumentation along San Francisco Bay Bridges

    SciTech Connect

    Bakun, W.; Bowman, J.; Clymer, R.; Foxall, W.; Hipley, P.; Hollfelder, J.; Hutchings, L.; Jarpe, S.; Kasameyer, P.; McEvilly, T.; Mualchin, L.; Palmer, M.

    1998-10-01

    The Bay Bridges down hole network consists of sensors in bore holes that are drilled 100 ft. into bedrock around and in the San Francisco Bay. Between 2 and 8 instruments have been spaced along the Dumbarton, San Mateo, Bay, and San Rafael bridges. The instruments will provide multiple use data that is important to geotechnical, structural engineering, and seismological studies. The holes are between 100 and 1000 ft deep and were drilled by Caltrans. There are twenty- one sensor packages at fifteen sites. Extensive financial support is being contributed by Caltrans, UCB, LBL, LLNL-LDRD, U.C. Campus/Laboratory Collaboration (CLC) program, and USGS. The down hole instrument package contains a three component HS-1 seismometer and three orthogonal Wilcox 73 1 accelerometers, and is capable of recording a micro g from local M = 1.0 earthquakes to 0.5 g strong ground motion form large Bay Area earthquakes.

  1. 33 CFR 3.55-20 - Sector San Francisco: San Francisco Bay Marine Inspection Zone and Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of Sweetwater County; Utah, except for Washington, Kane, San Juan, and Garfield Counties; Nevada... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sector San Francisco: San..., MARINE INSPECTION ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Eleventh Coast Guard District § 3.55-20 Sector...

  2. Geomorphic and Structural Analysis of the Verona-Williams-Pleasanton fault zone and implications for seismic hazard, eastern San Francisco Bay Area, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawyer, T. L.; Unruh, J. R.; Hoirup, D. F.; Barry, G.; Pearce, J. T.

    2012-12-01

    Folds and thrust faults adjacent to and beneath the Livermore Valley have accommodated Quaternary crustal shortening between major dextral faults of the eastern San Andreas fault system. The Verona and Williams faults are NE-dipping thrust or reverse faults that have uplifted the Pliocene-Pleistocene Livermore gravels along the western and southern margins of the valley. The Williams fault extends ~13 km northwest from the Mt. Lewis seismic trend to the sinistral Las Positas fault, which forms the southern margin of the valley. A 3-km left step along the Las Positas fault separates the surface traces of the Verona and Williams faults. The Verona fault extends ~8 km northwest from the stepover to southwestern Livermore Valley. It is possible that the Las Positas fault extends to the base of the seismogenic crust and separates the Verona and Williams faults into two kinematically independent structures. Alternatively, the Verona and Williams faults may merge downdip into a common thrust fault plane, with the Las Positas fault confined to the hanging wall as a tear fault. The Verona and Williams faults exhibit geomorphic evidence for late Quaternary fault rupture propagating to or very near the ground surface. The Williams fault tightly folds and overturns the Livermore gravels, and appears to form scarps that impound late Quaternary alluvium and cross Holocene landslide deposits. Many Holocene(?) alluvial fans exhibit distinct convex longitudinal profiles across the fault trace suggesting active folding above the Verona fault. The geomorphic position of a stream-terrace remnant suggests that >7 m of tectonic uplift is possible across the Verona fault during the late Quaternary. Surficial geologic mapping and geomorphic analysis of the ancestral Arroyo Valle drainage system reveals numerous paleochannels that generally decrease in elevation (age) to the northwest, and provide useful isochronous markers delineating a subtle tectonic uplift in western Livermore Valley

  3. SAN RAFAEL PRIMITIVE AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gower, H.D.

    1984-01-01

    No mineral-resource potential was identified during studies of the San Rafael Primitive Area, located at the southern end of the Coast Ranges of California. No petroleum has been produced from the area and there is little promise for the occurrence of energy resources. Limestone occurs in the area but also is found in abundance outside the area. Inasmuch as sampling and analytical techniques have improved significantly since this study was completed a restudy of the area using new methodology is possibly warranted.

  4. Anthropogenic influence on recent bathymetric change in west-central San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Kvitek, Rikk G.

    2010-01-01

    Two multibeam sonar surveys of west-central San Francisco Bay, California, were conducted in 1997 and 2008. Bathymetric change analysis between the two surveys indicates a loss of 14.1 million cubic meters (-3.1 cm/yr-1) of sediment during this time period, representing an approximately three-fold acceleration of the rate that was observed from prior depth change analysis from 1947 to 1979 for all of Central Bay, using more spatially coarse National Ocean Service (NOS) soundings. The portions of the overlapping survey areas between 1997 and 2008 designated as aggregate mining lease sites lost sediment at five times the rate of the remainder of west-central San Francisco Bay. Despite covering only 28% of the analysis area, volume change within leasing areas accounted for 9.2 million cubic meters of sediment loss, while the rest of the area lost 4.9 million cubic meters of sediment. The uncertainty of this recent analysis is more tightly constrained due to more stringent controls on vertical and horizontal position via tightly coupled, inertially aided differential Global Positioning Systems (GPS) solutions for survey vessel trajectory that virtually eliminate inaccuracies from traditional tide modeling and vessel motion artifacts. Further, quantification of systematic depth measurement error can now be calculated through comparison of static surfaces (e.g., bedrock) between surveys using seafloor habitat maps based on acoustic backscatter measurements and ground-truthing with grab samples and underwater video. Sediment loss in the entire San Francisco Bay Coastal System during the last half-century,as estimated from a series of bathymetric change studies, is 240 million cubic meters, and most of this is believed to be coarse sediment (i.e., sand and gravel) from Central Bay and the San Francisco Bar, which is likely to limit the sand supply to adjacent, open-coast beaches. This hypothesis is supported by a calibrated numerical model in a related study that indicates

  5. A review of benthic faunal surveys in San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, Frederic H.

    1973-01-01

    During the past 60 years, considerable effort has been expended in studies of the relations of the biotic community and physicochemical characteristics of San Francisco Bay water. In very recent years these studies have emphasized the relations between the 'state of health' of bottom-living invertebrates (the benthos) and the levels of pollutants in the bay. Benthic organisms, generally sessile, are unable to escape deleterious environmental changes, and they reflect these changes in alterations of normal species composition of assemblages and species abundance. Data that expands understanding of these relations in urbanized areas such as San Francisco Bay are critical. Because of the implications of such data in control of water quality, the U.S. Geological Survey undertook a review of the results and major conclusions of San Francisco Bay benthic surveys. The size and species composition of faunal assemblages are largely controlled by the salinity of the water, the texture of the bottom sediments, and locally by wastes discharged into the bay. Efforts to describe the structure and function of benthic communities of the bay and to quantify the effects of waste discharge on them have been hampered by inconsistent and often faulty sampling methodology and species identification. Studies made show a lack of information on the normal life processes of the organisms concerned. The diversity index (a mathematical expression of the number of kinds of organisms present at a location), commonly used to describe the 'health' of the benthic community, has been employed without regard for the need for standardizing methodology and species identifications or for understanding natural biological processes that affect such mathematical indices. There are few reliable quantitative data on the distribution of benthic organisms in San Francisco Bay with which future assessments of the 'health' of the benthic community might be compared. Methods for study of the benthos must be

  6. Swash zone characteristics at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erikson, L.H.; Hanes, D.M.; Barnard, P.L.; Gibbs, A.E.

    2007-01-01

    Runup data collected during the summer of 2005 at Ocean Beach, San Francisco, CA are analyzed and considered to be typical summer swash characteristics at this site. Analysis shows that the beach was dissipative with Iribarren numbers between 0.05 and 0.4 and that infragravity energy dominated. Foreshore slopes were mild between 0.01 and 0.05 with swash periods on the order of a minute. Predicted runup heights obtained with six previously developed analytical runup formulae were compared to measured extreme runup statistics. Formulations dependent on offshore wave height, foreshore slope and deep water wavelength gave reasonable results.

  7. Syringe Disposal Among Injection Drug Users in San Francisco

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Alexis N.; Carpenter, Lisa; Geckeler, Dara; Colfax, Grant; Kral, Alex H.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the prevalence of improperly discarded syringes and to examine syringe disposal practices of injection drug users (IDUs) in San Francisco, we visually inspected 1000 random city blocks and conducted a survey of 602 IDUs. We found 20 syringes on the streets we inspected. IDUs reported disposing of 13% of syringes improperly. In multivariate analysis, obtaining syringes from syringe exchange programs was found to be protective against improper disposal, and injecting in public places was predictive of improper disposal. Few syringes posed a public health threat. PMID:20466956

  8. A week of SRI 2003 in San Francisco

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Art

    2003-09-29

    The Eighth International Conference on Synchrotron Radiation (SRI 2003) ended its August 25-28 run at the Yerba Buena Center for the Arts in San Francisco with almost as many in attendance as at the beginning. The steady attendance was surely a tribute to the quality of the program and the excitement it generated among the more than 700 registrants who gathered for four days of plenary talks, parallel sessions, and posters, as well as facility tours of the ALS and SSRL on August 29.

  9. Selenium and heavy metals in San Francisco Bay diving ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Lowe, R.W.; Kelly, P.R.; Harvey, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    We analyzed for selenium (Se) and heavy metals in greater scaups (Aythya marila) and surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata) collected from southern San Francisco Bay in March and April 1982. There were no differences (P > 0.05) between species for liver concentrations of silver (Ag), mercury (Hg), or lead (Pb). Copper (Cu) (P 0.05) between the 2 species. The geometric mean cadmium (Cd) concentration in scoter kidneys (24.6 ppm, dry wt) was higher than in scaups (15.5 ppm) (0.1 > P > 0.05). Liver concentrations of Hg and Se were correlated (P < 0.01). The toxicological significance of some elements in these species is not known. However, Se levels in scoters (34.4 ppm, dry wt) were similar to those in livers of dabbling ducks (Anas spp.) in the nearby San Joaquin Valley where reproduction was impaired severely.

  10. 33 CFR 167.405 - Off San Francisco: Main ship channel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Off San Francisco: Main ship channel. 167.405 Section 167.405 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.405 Off San Francisco: Main ship...

  11. 33 CFR 167.405 - Off San Francisco: Main ship channel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Off San Francisco: Main ship channel. 167.405 Section 167.405 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.405 Off San Francisco: Main ship...

  12. 33 CFR 167.405 - Off San Francisco: Main ship channel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Off San Francisco: Main ship channel. 167.405 Section 167.405 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.405 Off San Francisco: Main ship...

  13. 33 CFR 167.405 - Off San Francisco: Main ship channel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Off San Francisco: Main ship channel. 167.405 Section 167.405 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Separation Schemes and Precautionary Areas Pacific West Coast § 167.405 Off San Francisco: Main ship...

  14. SITE MANAGEMENT AND MONITORING PLAN IMPLEMENTATION MANUAL - SAN FRANCISCO DEEP OCEAN DISPOSAL SITE (SF-DODS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA published in 1994 a Final Rule formally designating the San Francisco Deep Ocean Disposal Site (SF-DODS) for the disposal of suitable dredged material removed from the San Francisco Bay region and other nearby harbors or dredging sites. This Final Rule contained an extensive ...

  15. 76 FR 65120 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Islais Creek, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... of the Third Street Drawbridge across Islais Creek, mile 0.4, at San Francisco, CA. The deviation is..., mile 0.4, over Islais Creek, at San Francisco, CA. The drawbridge navigation span provides a vertical clearance of 4 feet above Mean High Water in the closed-to-navigation position. As required by 33 CFR...

  16. 77 FR 1407 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Islais Creek, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-10

    ... of the Third Street Drawbridge across Islais Creek, mile 0.4, at San Francisco, CA. The deviation is..., mile 0.4, over Islais Creek, at San Francisco, CA. The drawbridge navigation span provides a vertical clearance of 4 feet above Mean High Water in the closed-to-navigation position. As required by 33 CFR...

  17. 77 FR 4501 - Special Local Regulation and Safety Zone; America's Cup Sailing Events, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ...The Coast Guard proposes to adopt a temporary special local regulation and temporary safety zone for those portions of the ``America's Cup World Series,'' the ``Louis Vuitton Cup'' challenger selection series, and the ``America's Cup Finals Match'' sailing regattas that may be conducted in the waters of San Francisco Bay adjacent to the City of San Francisco waterfront in the vicinity of the......

  18. After-School Pursuits: An Examination of Outcomes in the San Francisco Beacon Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen E.; Arbreton, Amy J.A.

    2004-01-01

    The San Francisco Beacon Initiative (SFBI) has been in effect in the San Francisco Unified School District since 1996. A collaboration of public and private funders, SFBI operates comprehensive after-school programs in six middle schools, one elementary school and one high school. Public/Private Ventures' (P/PV's) evaluation found that SFBI…

  19. Near field receiving water monitoring of trace metals in clams (macoma balthica) and sediments near the Palo Alto Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay, California: 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moon, Edward; Luoma, Samuel N.; Cain, Daniel J.; Hornberger, Michelle I.; David, Carlos Primo C.

    2004-01-01

    Trace element concentrations were analyzed on samples of fine-grained sediments and clams (Macoma balthica) collected from a mudflat one kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay. This report serves as a continuation of the Near Field Receiving Water Monitoring Study, which was started in 1994. The data for 2003, herein, are interpreted within that context. Metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue samples have been within the range of values produced by seasonal variability; however, copper and zinc, display continued decreases over the last decade. In 2003, copper in sediment was observed to drop below the ERL (Effects Range-Low) concentration for the third consecutive year and zinc concentrations never exceeded the ERL. Yearly average concentrations of copper, zinc and silver in Macoma balthica for 2003 are some of the lowest recorded since monitoring began in 1975. Mercury and selenium concentrations in sediments and clams at Palo Alto were similar to concentrations observed elsewhere in the San Francisco Bay.

  20. Near field receiving water monitoring of trace metals in clams (Macoma balthica) and sediments near the Palo Alto water quality control plant in south San Francisco Bay, California : 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moon, Edward; David, Carlos Primo C.; Luoma, Samuel N.; Cain, Daniel J.; Hornberger, Michelle I.; Lavigne, Irene R.

    2003-01-01

    This report presents trace element concentrations analyzed on samples of fine-grained sediments and clams (Macoma balthica) collected from a mudflat one kilometer south of the discharge of the Palo Alto Regional Water Quality Control Plant in South San Francisco Bay. This report serves as a continuation of the Near Field Receiving Water Monitoring Study, which was started in 1994. The data for 2002, herein, are interpreted within that context. Metal concentrations in both sediments and clam tissue samples have been within the range of values produced by seasonal variability. However, copper and zinc, display continued decreases. Copper in sediment was observed to drop below the ERL (Effects Range-Low) concentration for the third consecutive year and zinc concentrations never exceeded the ERL. Yearly average concentrations of copper, zinc and silver in Macoma balthica for 2002 are some of the lowest recorded since monitoring began in 1975. Mercury and selenium concentrations in sediments and clams at Palo Alto were similar concentrations observed elsewhere in the San Francisco Bay.